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Sample records for activity regulates skeletal

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta : regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, David Kitz

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) δ is a nuclear transcription factor which has been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. In addition to the postural and locomotive functions of skeletal muscle, this organ has a major impact role on whole body metabolism. Reduced insulin sensitivity is a characteristic feature in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physical exercise/muscle contraction alters the metabolic properties of skel...

  2. How is AMPK activity regulated in skeletal muscles during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Rose, Adam John

    2008-01-01

    discuss the influence of reactive oxygen species produced within the muscle as well as muscle glycogen and TAK1 in regulating AMPK during exercise. Currently, during intensive contraction, activation of alpha2-AMPK seems mainly to rely on AMP accumulating from ATP-hydrolysis whereas calcium signaling may...

  3. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase in regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Dziewulska; Paweł Dobrzyń; Agnieszka Dobrzyń

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a conserved, ubiquitously expressed eukaryotic enzyme that is activated in response to increasing AMP level. Regulation of AMPK activity in skeletal muscle is coordinated by contraction and phosphorylation by upstream kinases and a growing number of hormones and cytokines. Once activated, AMPK turns on catabolic, ATP-generating pathways, and turns off ATP-consuming metabolic processes such as biosynthesis and proliferation. Activation of AMPK promotes gl...

  4. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase expression in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandauer, Josef; Vienberg, Sara Gry; Andersen, Marianne Agerholm;

    2013-01-01

    -activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases sirtuin activity by elevating NAD levels. As NAM directly inhibits sirtuins, increased Nampt activation or expression could be a metabolic stress response. Evidence suggests that AMPK regulates Nampt mRNA content, but whether repeated AMPK activation is necessary for...... increasing Nampt protein levels is unknown. To this end, we assessed whether exercise training- or 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR)-mediated increases in skeletal muscle Nampt abundance are AMPK dependant. One-legged knee-extensor exercise training in humans increased Nampt protein...

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase in contraction regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism: necessary and/or sufficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, the contraction-activated heterotrimeric 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein is proposed to regulate the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes by increasing substrate uptake and turnover in addition to regulating the transcription of proteins involved...

  6. Foxj3 transcriptionally activates Mef2c and regulates adult skeletal muscle fiber type identity

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Matthew S.; Shi, Xiaozhong; Voelker, Kevin A.; Grange, Robert W.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Robert E Hammer; Garry, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate skeletal muscle differentiation, fiber type diversity and muscle regeneration are incompletely defined. Forkhead transcription factors are critical regulators of cellular fate determination, proliferation, and differentiation. We identified a forkhead/winged helix transcription factor, Foxj3, which was expressed in embryonic and adult skeletal muscle. To define the functional role of Foxj3, we examined Foxj3 mutant mice. Foxj3 mutant mice are viable but have signi...

  7. AMP-activated protein kinase-regulated activation of the PGC-1alpha promoter in skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Irrcher

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which PGC-1alpha gene expression is controlled in skeletal muscle remains largely undefined. Thus, we sought to investigate the transcriptional regulation of PGC-1alpha using AICAR, an activator of AMPK, that is known to increase PGC-1alpha expression. A 2.2 kb fragment of the human PGC-1alpha promoter was cloned and sequence analysis revealed that this TATA-less sequence houses putative consensus sites including a GC-box, a CRE, several IRSs, a SRE, binding sites for GATA, MEF2, p 53, NF-kappaB, and EBox binding proteins. AMPK activation for 24 hours increased PGC-1alpha promoter activity with concomitant increases in mRNA expression. The effect of AICAR on transcriptional activation was mediated by an overlapping GATA/EBox binding site at -495 within the PGC-1alpha promoter based on gel shift analyses that revealed increases in GATA/EBox DNA binding. Mutation of the EBox within the GATA/EBox binding site in the promoter reduced basal promoter activity and completely abolished the AICAR effect. Supershift analyses identified USF-1 as a DNA binding transcription factor potentially involved in regulating PGC-1alpha promoter activity, which was confirmed in vivo by ChIP. Overexpression of either GATA-4 or USF-1 alone increased the p851 PGC-1alpha promoter activity by 1.7- and 2.0-fold respectively, while co-expression of GATA-4 and USF-1 led to an additive increase in PGC-1alpha promoter activity. The USF-1-mediated increase in PGC-1alpha promoter activation led to similar increases at the mRNA level. Our data identify a novel AMPK-mediated regulatory pathway that regulates PGC-1alpha gene expression. This could represent a potential therapeutic target to control PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle.

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL REGULATION OF PROTEIN KINASE B ACTIVATION IS ISOFORM SPECIFIC IN SKELETAL MUSCLE OF NEONATAL PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The postprandial activation of the insulin signaling pathway that leads to translation initiation is enhanced in skeletal muscle of the neonate and decreases with development in parallel with the developmental decline in muscle protein synthesis. Our previous study showed that the activity of protei...

  9. Regulation of skeletal muscle cell plasticity by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Handschin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise triggers a pleiotropic response in skeletal muscle, which results in a profound remodeling of this tissue. Physical activity-dependent muscle fiber plasticity is regulated by a number of distinct signaling pathways. Even though most of these pathways are activated by different stimuli and in a temporally and spatially separated manner during exercise, many of the major signal transduction events converge on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-...

  10. Nutritional regulation and role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in fatty acid catabolism in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Dorte; Luquet, Serge; Nogueira, Véronique;

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors primarily involved in lipid homeostasis. PPARdelta displays strong expression in tissues with high lipid metabolism, such as adipose, intestine and muscle. Its role in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. After a 24-h...... of genes involved in lipid metabolism and increment of fatty acid oxidation. Overexpression of PPARdelta enhanced these cellular responses, whereas expression of the dominant-negative mutant exerts opposite effects. These data strongly support a role for PPARdelta in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation...... in skeletal muscle and in adaptive response of this tissue to lipid catabolism....

  11. Glycogen content regulates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-∂ (PPAR-∂ activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Philp

    Full Text Available Performing exercise in a glycogen depleted state increases skeletal muscle lipid utilization and the transcription of genes regulating mitochondrial β-oxidation. Potential candidates for glycogen-mediated metabolic adaptation are the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and the transcription factor/nuclear receptor PPAR-∂. It was therefore the aim of the present study to examine whether acute exercise with or without glycogen manipulation affects PGC-1α and PPAR-∂ function in rodent skeletal muscle. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups (n = 4: control [CON]; normal glycogen control [NG-C]; normal glycogen exercise [NG-E]; low glycogen control [LG-C]; and low glycogen exercise [LG-E]. Gastrocnemius (GTN muscles were collected immediately following exercise and analyzed for glycogen content, PPAR-∂ activity via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays, AMPK α1/α2 kinase activity, and the localization of AMPK and PGC-1α. Exercise reduced muscle glycogen by 47 and 75% relative to CON in the NG-E and LG-E groups, respectively. Exercise that started with low glycogen (LG-E finished with higher AMPK-α2 activity (147%, p<0.05, nuclear AMPK-α2 and PGC-1α, but no difference in AMPK-α1 activity compared to CON. In addition, PPAR-∂ binding to the CPT1 promoter was significantly increased only in the LG-E group. Finally, cell reporter studies in contracting C2C12 myotubes indicated that PPAR-∂ activity following contraction is sensitive to glucose availability, providing mechanistic insight into the association between PPAR-∂ and glycogen content/substrate availability. The present study is the first to examine PPAR-∂ activity in skeletal muscle in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Our data would suggest that a factor associated with muscle contraction and/or glycogen depletion activates PPAR-∂ and initiates AMPK translocation in skeletal

  12. Phospholipase D regulates the size of skeletal muscle cells through the activation of mTOR signaling.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Rami; De Larichaudy, Joffrey; Chanon, Stéphanie; Euthine, Vanessa; Durand, Christine; Naro, Fabio; Bertolino, Philippe; Vidal, Hubert; Lefai, Etienne; Némoz, Georges

    2013-01-01

    International audience mTOR is a major actor of skeletal muscle mass regulation in situations of atrophy or hypertrophy. It is established that Phospholipase D (PLD) activates mTOR signaling, through the binding of its product phosphatidic acid (PA) to mTOR protein. An influence of PLD on muscle cell size could thus be suspected. We explored the consequences of altered expression and activity of PLD isoforms in differentiated L6 myotubes. Inhibition or down-regulation of the PLD1 isoform m...

  13. Role of active contraction and tropomodulins in regulating actin filament length and sarcomere structure in developing zebrafish skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise eMazelet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst it is recognised that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1ts25 which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors in the muscle and pharmacological immobilisation of embryos with a reversible anaesthetic (Tricaine, allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anaesthetised fish and recovery of movement (reversal of anaesthetic treatment. The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17-24 hours post fertilisation, hpf on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localisation of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 &4 (Tmod in fish aged from 17hpf until 42hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post fertilisation (dpf. Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralysed fish by 42hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organisation is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localisation of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  14. MRF4 negatively regulates adult skeletal muscle growth by repressing MEF2 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Irene; Ciciliot, Stefano; Dyar, Kenneth A.; Abraham, Reimar; Murgia, Marta; Agatea, Lisa; Akimoto, Takayuki; Bicciato, Silvio; Forcato, Mattia; Pierre, Philippe; Uhlenhaut, N. Henriette; Rigby, Peter W. J.; Carvajal, Jaime J.; Blaauw, Bert; Calabria, Elisa; Schiaffino, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The myogenic regulatory factor MRF4 is highly expressed in adult skeletal muscle but its function is unknown. Here we show that Mrf4 knockdown in adult muscle induces hypertrophy and prevents denervation-induced atrophy. This effect is accompanied by increased protein synthesis and widespread activation of muscle-specific genes, many of which are targets of MEF2 transcription factors. MEF2-dependent genes represent the top-ranking gene set enriched after Mrf4 RNAi and a MEF2 reporter is inhibited by co-transfected MRF4 and activated by Mrf4 RNAi. The Mrf4 RNAi-dependent increase in fibre size is prevented by dominant negative MEF2, while constitutively active MEF2 is able to induce myofibre hypertrophy. The nuclear localization of the MEF2 corepressor HDAC4 is impaired by Mrf4 knockdown, suggesting that MRF4 acts by stabilizing a repressor complex that controls MEF2 activity. These findings open new perspectives in the search for therapeutic targets to prevent muscle wasting, in particular sarcopenia and cachexia. PMID:27484840

  15. MRF4 negatively regulates adult skeletal muscle growth by repressing MEF2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Irene; Ciciliot, Stefano; Dyar, Kenneth A; Abraham, Reimar; Murgia, Marta; Agatea, Lisa; Akimoto, Takayuki; Bicciato, Silvio; Forcato, Mattia; Pierre, Philippe; Uhlenhaut, N Henriette; Rigby, Peter W J; Carvajal, Jaime J; Blaauw, Bert; Calabria, Elisa; Schiaffino, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The myogenic regulatory factor MRF4 is highly expressed in adult skeletal muscle but its function is unknown. Here we show that Mrf4 knockdown in adult muscle induces hypertrophy and prevents denervation-induced atrophy. This effect is accompanied by increased protein synthesis and widespread activation of muscle-specific genes, many of which are targets of MEF2 transcription factors. MEF2-dependent genes represent the top-ranking gene set enriched after Mrf4 RNAi and a MEF2 reporter is inhibited by co-transfected MRF4 and activated by Mrf4 RNAi. The Mrf4 RNAi-dependent increase in fibre size is prevented by dominant negative MEF2, while constitutively active MEF2 is able to induce myofibre hypertrophy. The nuclear localization of the MEF2 corepressor HDAC4 is impaired by Mrf4 knockdown, suggesting that MRF4 acts by stabilizing a repressor complex that controls MEF2 activity. These findings open new perspectives in the search for therapeutic targets to prevent muscle wasting, in particular sarcopenia and cachexia. PMID:27484840

  16. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Michael A.; Kimball, Amy L.; McHenry, Colleen L.; Suneja, Manish; Yen, Chu-Ling; Sharma, Arpit; Shields, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat) and mechanical stress (vibration) on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction), passive mechanical stress (vibration), or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair. Methods: Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus) to analyze mRNA gene expression. Results: We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold), PGC-1α (5.46 fold), and ABRA (5.98 fold); and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold). Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05); while vibration induced FOXK2 (2.36 fold change; p < 0.05). Vibration similarly caused a down regulation of MSTN (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05), but to a lesser extent than active muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p < 0.05) while heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold) and ANKRD1 genes (0.51 fold; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings support a distinct gene regulation in response to heat stress, vibration, and muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative

  17. Na,K-ATPase regulation in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkmajer, Sergej; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle contains one of the largest and the most dynamic pools of Na,K-ATPase (NKA) in the body. Under resting conditions, NKA in skeletal muscle operates at only a fraction of maximal pumping capacity, but it can be markedly activated when demands for ion transport increase, such as during exercise or following food intake. Given the size, capacity, and dynamic range of the NKA pool in skeletal muscle, its tight regulation is essential to maintain whole body homeostasis as well as muscle function. To reconcile functional needs of systemic homeostasis with those of skeletal muscle, NKA is regulated in a coordinated manner by extrinsic stimuli, such as hormones and nerve-derived factors, as well as by local stimuli arising in skeletal muscle fibers, such as contractions and muscle energy status. These stimuli regulate NKA acutely by controlling its enzymatic activity and/or its distribution between the plasma membrane and the intracellular storage compartment. They also regulate NKA chronically by controlling NKA gene expression, thus determining total NKA content in skeletal muscle and its maximal pumping capacity. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms that underlie regulation of NKA in skeletal muscle by major extrinsic and local stimuli. Special emphasis is given to stimuli and mechanisms linking regulation of NKA and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, such as insulin and the energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase. Finally, the recently uncovered roles for glutathionylation, nitric oxide, and extracellular K(+) in the regulation of NKA in skeletal muscle are highlighted. PMID:27166285

  18. Regulation of pH in human skeletal muscle: adaptations to physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C

    2008-01-01

    resonance technique to exercise experiments including blood sampling and muscle biopsies. The present review characterizes the cellular buffering system as well as the most important membrane transport systems involved (Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na-bicarbonate co-transport and lactate/H(+) co......-transport) and describes the contribution of each transport system in pH regulation at rest and during muscle activity. It is reported that the mechanisms involved in pH regulation can undergo adaptational changes in association with physical activity and that these changes are of functional importance....

  19. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) decarboxylates pyruvate into acetyl-CoA and links glycolysis with the Krebs cycle. Because PDH is the only step where carbohydrate-derived substrate can enter the mitochondria and become completely oxidized, PDH activity can potentially determine if glycogen / glucose...... is oxidized completely, or whether pyruvate is converted to lactate. Activity of PDH in the active form (PDHa) is overall determined by the degree of PDH-E1? phosphorylation, where PDH-E1? dephosphorylation activates PDH, while PDH-E1? phosphorylation inactivates PDH. The PDH-E1? phosphorylation state...... in mouse skeletal muscle at rest and in response to fasting and during recovery from exercise. The studies indicate that the content of PDH-E1? in human muscle follows the metabolic profile of the muscle, rather than the myosin heavy chain fiber distribution of the muscle. The larger lactate accumulation...

  20. Mining frequent patterns for AMP-activated protein kinase regulation on skeletal muscle

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    Chen Yi-Ping

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has emerged as a significant signaling intermediary that regulates metabolisms in response to energy demand and supply. An investigation into the degree of activation and deactivation of AMPK subunits under exercise can provide valuable data for understanding AMPK. In particular, the effect of AMPK on muscle cellular energy status makes this protein a promising pharmacological target for disease treatment. As more AMPK regulation data are accumulated, data mining techniques can play an important role in identifying frequent patterns in the data. Association rule mining, which is commonly used in market basket analysis, can be applied to AMPK regulation. Results This paper proposes a framework that can identify the potential correlation, either between the state of isoforms of α, β and γ subunits of AMPK, or between stimulus factors and the state of isoforms. Our approach is to apply item constraints in the closed interpretation to the itemset generation so that a threshold is specified in terms of the amount of results, rather than a fixed threshold value for all itemsets of all sizes. The derived rules from experiments are roughly analyzed. It is found that most of the extracted association rules have biological meaning and some of them were previously unknown. They indicate direction for further research. Conclusion Our findings indicate that AMPK has a great impact on most metabolic actions that are related to energy demand and supply. Those actions are adjusted via its subunit isoforms under specific physical training. Thus, there are strong co-relationships between AMPK subunit isoforms and exercises. Furthermore, the subunit isoforms are correlated with each other in some cases. The methods developed here could be used when predicting these essential relationships and enable an understanding of the functions and metabolic pathways regarding AMPK.

  1. Phospholipase D regulates the size of skeletal muscle cells through the activation of mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Rami; De Larichaudy, Joffrey; Chanon, Stéphanie; Euthine, Vanessa; Durand, Christine; Naro, Fabio; Bertolino, Philippe; Vidal, Hubert; Lefai, Etienne; Némoz, Georges

    2013-01-01

    mTOR is a major actor of skeletal muscle mass regulation in situations of atrophy or hypertrophy. It is established that Phospholipase D (PLD) activates mTOR signaling, through the binding of its product phosphatidic acid (PA) to mTOR protein. An influence of PLD on muscle cell size could thus be suspected. We explored the consequences of altered expression and activity of PLD isoforms in differentiated L6 myotubes. Inhibition or down-regulation of the PLD1 isoform markedly decreased myotube size and muscle specific protein content. Conversely, PLD1 overexpression induced muscle cell hypertrophy, both in vitro in myotubes and in vivo in mouse gastrocnemius. In the presence of atrophy-promoting dexamethasone, PLD1 overexpression or addition of exogenous PA protected myotubes against atrophy. Similarly, exogenous PA protected myotubes against TNFα-induced atrophy. Moreover, the modulation of PLD expression or activity in myotubes showed that PLD1 negatively regulates the expression of factors involved in muscle protein degradation, such as the E3-ubiquitin ligases Murf1 and Atrogin-1, and the Foxo3 transcription factor. Inhibition of mTOR by PP242 abolished the positive effects of PLD1 on myotubes, whereas modulating PLD influenced the phosphorylation of both S6K1 and Akt, which are respectively substrates of mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes. These observations suggest that PLD1 acts through the activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 to induce positive trophic effects on muscle cells. This pathway may offer interesting therapeutic potentialities in the treatment of muscle wasting. PMID:23915343

  2. Phospholipase D regulates the size of skeletal muscle cells through the activation of mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Rami; De Larichaudy, Joffrey; Chanon, Stéphanie; Euthine, Vanessa; Durand, Christine; Naro, Fabio; Bertolino, Philippe; Vidal, Hubert; Lefai, Etienne; Némoz, Georges

    2013-08-02

    mTOR is a major actor of skeletal muscle mass regulation in situations of atrophy or hypertrophy. It is established that Phospholipase D (PLD) activates mTOR signaling, through the binding of its product phosphatidic acid (PA) to mTOR protein. An influence of PLD on muscle cell size could thus be suspected. We explored the consequences of altered expression and activity of PLD isoforms in differentiated L6 myotubes. Inhibition or down-regulation of the PLD1 isoform markedly decreased myotube size and muscle specific protein content. Conversely, PLD1 overexpression induced muscle cell hypertrophy, both in vitro in myotubes and in vivo in mouse gastrocnemius. In the presence of atrophy-promoting dexamethasone, PLD1 overexpression or addition of exogenous PA protected myotubes against atrophy. Similarly, exogenous PA protected myotubes against TNFα-induced atrophy. Moreover, the modulation of PLD expression or activity in myotubes showed that PLD1 negatively regulates the expression of factors involved in muscle protein degradation, such as the E3-ubiquitin ligases Murf1 and Atrogin-1, and the Foxo3 transcription factor. Inhibition of mTOR by PP242 abolished the positive effects of PLD1 on myotubes, whereas modulating PLD influenced the phosphorylation of both S6K1 and Akt, which are respectively substrates of mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes. These observations suggest that PLD1 acts through the activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 to induce positive trophic effects on muscle cells. This pathway may offer interesting therapeutic potentialities in the treatment of muscle wasting.

  3. Regulation of PDH, GS and insulin signalling in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    The aims of the present thesis were to investigate 1) The impact of physical inactivity on insulinstimulated Akt, TBC1D4 and GS regulation in human skeletal muscle, 2) The impact of exercise training on glucose-mediated regulation of PDH and GS in skeletal muscle in elderly men, 3) The impact...... of inflammation on resting and exercise-induced PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle and 4) The effect of IL-6 on PDH regulation in mouse skeletal muscle. Study I demonstrated that bed rest–induced insulin resistance was associated with reduced insulinstimulated GS activity and Akt signaling as well...... glucose to the level seen when exercise was performed before bed rest. Study II demonstrated that exercise training-improved glucose regulation in elderly healthy subjects was associated with increased HKII, GLUT4, Akt2, PDK2, GS and PDH-E1α protein content. Moreover, exercise training resulted...

  4. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo J Magnoni; Yoryia Vraskou; Palstra, Arjan P.; Planas, Josep V.

    2012-01-01

    AMPK, a master metabolic switch, mediates the observed increase of glucose uptake in locomotory muscle of mammals during exercise. AMPK is activated by changes in the intracellular AMP∶ATP ratio when ATP consumption is stimulated by contractile activity but also by AICAR and metformin, compounds that increase glucose transport in mammalian muscle cells. However, the possible role of AMPK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has not been investigated in other vertebrates,...

  5. NFATc1 Controls Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type and Is a Negative Regulator of MyoD Activity

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    Melissa L. Ehlers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle comprises a heterogeneous population of fibers with important physiological differences. Fast fibers are glycolytic and fatigue rapidly. Slow fibers utilize oxidative metabolism and are fatigue resistant. Muscle diseases such as sarcopenia and atrophy selectively affect fast fibers, but the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber type-specific gene expression remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the transcription factor NFATc1 controls fiber type composition and is required for fast-to-slow fiber type switching in response to exercise in vivo. Moreover, MyoD is a crucial transcriptional effector of the fast fiber phenotype, and we show that NFATc1 inhibits MyoD-dependent fast fiber gene promoters by physically interacting with the N-terminal activation domain of MyoD and blocking recruitment of the essential transcriptional coactivator p300. These studies establish a molecular mechanism for fiber type switching through direct inhibition of MyoD to control the opposing roles of MyoD and NFATc1 in fast versus slow fiber phenotypes.

  6. The cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuloaga, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Fuentes, E.N.; Molina, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Víctor Lamas 1290, PO Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: jvaldes@unab.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Víctor Lamas 1290, PO Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •IGF-1 induces the activation of CREB via IGF-1R/PI3K/PLC signaling pathway. •Calcium dependent signaling pathways regulate myostatin gene expression. •IGF-1 regulates myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription in skeletal myoblast. -- Abstract: Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP{sub 3}/calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA–CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation.

  7. Adrenergic regulation of HSL serine phosphorylation and activity in human skeletal muscle during the onset of exercise.

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    Talanian, Jason L; Tunstall, Rebecca J; Watt, Matthew J; Duong, Mylinh; Perry, Christopher G R; Steinberg, Gregory R; Kemp, Bruce E; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2006-10-01

    Skeletal muscle hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity is increased by contractions and increases in blood epinephrine (EPI) concentrations and cyclic AMP activation of the adrenergic pathway during prolonged exercise. To determine the importance of hormonal stimulation of HSL activity during the onset of moderate- and high-intensity exercise, nine men [age 24.3 +/- 1.2 yr, 80.8 +/- 5.0 kg, peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) 43.9 +/- 3.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)] cycled for 1 min at approximately 65% VO2 peak, rested for 60 min, and cycled at approximately 90% VO2 peak for 1 min. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken pre- and postexercise, and arterial blood was sampled throughout exercise. Arterial EPI increased (P HSL activity increased (P HSL Ser660 phosphorylation (approximately 55% increase) and ERK1/2 phosphorylation ( approximately 33% increase) were augmented following exercise at both intensities, whereas HSL Ser563 and Ser565 phosphorylation were not different from rest. The results indicate that increases in arterial EPI concentration during the onset of moderate- and high-intensity exercise increase cyclic AMP content, which results in the phosphorylation of HSL Ser660. This adrenergic stimulation contributes to the increase in HSL activity that occurs in human skeletal muscle in the first minute of exercise at 65% and 90% VO2 peak.

  8. Identification of a novel phosphorylation site on TBC1D4 regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Taylor, Eric B.; Witczak, Carol A.;

    2010-01-01

    . The majority of known phosphorylation sites on TBC1D4 lie within the Akt consensus motif and are phosphorylated by insulin stimulation. However, the 5 AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other kinases may also phosphorylate TBC1D4, and therefore we hypothesized the presence of additional phosphorylation......TBC1D4 (also known as AS160) regulates GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscle. Its mode of action involves phosphorylation of Serine (S)/Threonine (T) residues by upstream kinases resulting in inactivation of Rab-GAP activity leading to GLUT4 mobilization...... that S711 would be recognized by AMPK. Using a phospho-specific antibody against S711, we found that AICAR and contraction increased S711 phosphorylation in mouse skeletal muscle and this increase was abolished in muscle-specific AMPKalpha2 kinase dead transgenic mice. Exercise in human vastus lateralis...

  9. Regulation of oxidative enzyme activity and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 in human skeletal muscle: influence of gender and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Schjerling, P.; Vistisen, Bodil;

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gender-related differences in the responses of oxidative enzymes and eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) to exercise. METHODS: The influence of exercise (90 min, 60%VO(2peak)) on citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity and mRNA content......, together with eEF2 expression and phosphorylation at rest, were assessed in skeletal muscle of untrained (UT) and endurance trained (ET) females and males. RESULTS: Citrate synthase and HAD mRNA were higher in females than in males (27% and 48%, respectively, P activity did...... not differ between females and males (NS). In females only, CS activity was enhanced (P activity was 56% higher in ET than in UT volunteers (P activity were not influenced...

  10. [Use of properties and regulation peculiarities of enzymes of glycogenolysis in fish skeletal muscle depending on peculiarities of motor activity of species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrenikova, T P; Nesterov, V P

    2008-01-01

    Levels of activity, properties, and peculiarities of activation of glycogen phosphorylase (GP; EC 2.4.1.1) and glycogen phosphorylase kinase (GPK; EC 2.7.1.38) were studied in the white skeletal muscle of fish differing in motor behavior. No differences in the GP and GPK activity levels were revealed in laskir Diplodus annularis (L.), horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, salmon Salmo trutta morphario, scorpena Scorpaena porcus, Scophtalnus maeoticus, and carp Cyprinus carpio; however, properties of the isolated enzymes and peculiarities of formation of their activated forms during swimming in a hydrodynamic tube are determined by functional peculiarities of the muscle tissue and are associated with the motor activity character of the species. In fish capable for the spurt type of swimming (scorpena, salmon) the more rapid ion regulation plays the predominant role. In other species, the glycogenolysis hormonal regulation leading to a change of the GPK activity index has been found.

  11. Regulation of Metabolic Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth

    Regulation of glucose metabolism, despite intense research through decades, is still not clear. Skeletal muscle is highly important for maintaining glucose homeostasis. Regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism is influenced by protein signaling and changes in the activity of metabolic...... enzymes. Skeletal muscle consists of thousands of muscle fibers. These fibers can roughly be classified into type I and type II muscle fibers. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the effect of insulin and exercise on human muscle fiber type specific metabolic signaling. The importance of...... biopsies, single muscle fibers were dissected. Muscle fiber type determination was performed and fibers were pooled in groups of type I and II muscle fibers. Muscle fiber pools were investigated for regulation of signaling molecules and enzymes, involved in glucose metabolism. Irrespective of the group of...

  12. Skeletal Muscle Autophagy: A New Metabolic Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Neel, Brian A.; Lin, Yuxi; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy classically functions as a physiological process to degrade cytoplasmic components, protein aggregates, and/or organelles, as a mechanism for nutrient breakdown, and as a regulator of cellular architecture. Proper autophagic flux is vital for both functional skeletal muscle, which controls support and movement of the skeleton, and muscle metabolism. The role of autophagy as a metabolic regulator in muscle has been previously studied; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms that...

  13. Peripheral endocannabinoids regulate skeletal muscle development and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiao Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As a principal tissue responsible for insulin-mediated glucose uptake, skeletal muscle is important for whole-body health. The role of peripheral endocannabinoids as regulators of skeletal muscle metabolism has recently gained a lot of interest, as endocannabinoid system disorders could cause peripheral insulin resistance. We investigated the role of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle development and maintenance. Cultures of C2C12 cells, primary satellite cells and mouse skeletal muscle single fibers were used as model systems for our studies. We found an increase in cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 mRNA and endocannabinoid synthetic enzyme mRNA skeletal muscle cells during differentiation. We also found that activation of CB1 inhibited myoblast differentiation, expanded the number of satellite cells, and stimulated the fast-muscle oxidative phenotype. Our findings contribute to understanding of the role of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle metabolism and muscle oxygen consumption, and also help to explain the effects of the peripheral endocannabinoid system on whole-body energy balance.

  14. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kirsten F; McGee, Sean L

    2016-07-01

    Normal skeletal muscle metabolism is essential for whole body metabolic homoeostasis and disruptions in muscle metabolism are associated with a number of chronic diseases. Transcriptional control of metabolic enzyme expression is a major regulatory mechanism for muscle metabolic processes. Substantial evidence is emerging that highlights the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in this process. This review will examine the importance of epigenetics in the regulation of muscle metabolism, with a particular emphasis on DNA methylation and histone acetylation as epigenetic control points. The emerging cross-talk between metabolism and epigenetics in the context of health and disease will also be examined. The concept of inheritance of skeletal muscle metabolic phenotypes will be discussed, in addition to emerging epigenetic therapies that could be used to alter muscle metabolism in chronic disease states. PMID:27215678

  15. Cardiovascular regulation by skeletal muscle reflexes in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Megan N.; Mizuno, Masaki; Mitchell, Jere H.; Smith, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate and blood pressure are elevated at the onset and throughout the duration of dynamic or static exercise. These neurally mediated cardiovascular adjustments to physical activity are regulated, in part, by a peripheral reflex originating in contracting skeletal muscle termed the exercise pressor reflex. Mechanically sensitive and metabolically sensitive receptors activating the exercise pressor reflex are located on the unencapsulated nerve terminals of group III and group IV afferent...

  16. Peroxisomes in Different Skeletal Cell Types during Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification and Their Regulation during Osteoblast Differentiation by Distinct Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Qian

    Full Text Available Ossification defects leading to craniofacial dysmorphism or rhizomelia are typical phenotypes in patients and corresponding knockout mouse models with distinct peroxisomal disorders. Despite these obvious skeletal pathologies, to date no careful analysis exists on the distribution and function of peroxisomes in skeletal tissues and their alterations during ossification. Therefore, we analyzed the peroxisomal compartment in different cell types of mouse cartilage and bone as well as in primary cultures of calvarial osteoblasts. The peroxisome number and metabolism strongly increased in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification from the reserve to the hypertrophic zone, whereas in bone, metabolically active osteoblasts contained a higher numerical abundance of this organelle than osteocytes. The high abundance of peroxisomes in these skeletal cell types is reflected by high levels of Pex11β gene expression. During culture, calvarial pre-osteoblasts differentiated into secretory osteoblasts accompanied by peroxisome proliferation and increased levels of peroxisomal genes and proteins. Since many peroxisomal genes contain a PPAR-responsive element, we analyzed the gene expression of PPARɑ/ß/ɣ in calvarial osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells, revealing higher levels for PPARß than for PPARɑ and PPARɣ. Treatment with different PPAR agonists and antagonists not only changed the peroxisomal compartment and associated gene expression, but also induced complex alterations of the gene expression patterns of the other PPAR family members. Studies in M3CT3-E1 cells showed that the PPARß agonist GW0742 activated the PPRE-mediated luciferase expression and up-regulated peroxisomal gene transcription (Pex11, Pex13, Pex14, Acox1 and Cat, whereas the PPARß antagonist GSK0660 led to repression of the PPRE and a decrease of the corresponding mRNA levels. In the same way, treatment of calvarial osteoblasts with GW0742 increased in peroxisome number and

  17. Role of AMPK in skeletal muscle metabolic regulation and adaptation in relation to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    during exercise as well as in adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. The first part of this review is focused on different mechanisms regulating AMPK activity during muscle work such as alterations in nucleotide concentrations, availability of energy substrates and upstream AMPK kinases. We...... in relation to adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training.......The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism and gene expression. AMPK is activated both in response to in vivo exercise and ex vivo contraction. AMPK is therefore believed to be an important signalling molecule in regulating muscle metabolism...

  18. Effects of IL-6 on pyruvate dehydrogenase regulation in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet; Brandt, Nina;

    2014-01-01

    reported to increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and AMPK suggested to regulate PDHa activity. Together, this suggests that IL-6 may be involved in regulating PDH. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single injection of IL-6 on PDH regulation in skeletal muscle...... to the IL-6-mediated PDH regulation in the fasted state....

  19. Exercise-induced AMPK activity in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Mortensen, Brynjulf; Pehmøller, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The energy/fuel sensor 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is viewed as a master regulator of cellular energy balance due to its many roles in glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. In this review we focus on the regulation of AMPK activity in skeletal muscle and its involvement in glucose me...... metabolism, including glucose transport and glycogen synthesis. In addition, we discuss the plausible interplay between AMPK and insulin signaling regulating these processes....

  20. Exercise-induced regulation of phospholemman (FXYD1) in rat skeletal muscle: implications for Na+/K+-ATPase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M K; Kristensen, M; Juel, C

    2008-01-01

    of phospholemman (PLM, FXYD1) protein in rat skeletal muscle and exercise-induced changes in V(max) and K(m) for Na(+) of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. METHODS: Two membrane fractionation methods and immunoprecipitation were used. Results: Both fractionation methods revealed a 200-350% increase in PLM in the sarcolemma...... after 30 min of treadmill running, while the phosphorylation of Ser-68 of PLM appeared to be unchanged. Exercise did not change V(max) or K(m) for Na(+) of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in muscle homogenate, but induced a 67% increase in V(max) in the sarcolemmal giant vesicle preparation; K(m) for Na......(+) remained constant. The main part of the increase in V(max) is related to a 36-53% increase in the level of alpha-subunits; the remainder may be related to increased PLM content. Similar results were obtained with another membrane purification method. In resting muscle, 29% and 32% of alpha(1)- and alpha(2...

  1. Calcium regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, N I; Ainscow, E K; Brand, M D

    2000-02-24

    Activation of oxidative phosphorylation by physiological levels of calcium in mitochondria from rat skeletal muscle was analysed using top-down elasticity and regulation analysis. Oxidative phosphorylation was conceptually divided into three subsystems (substrate oxidation, proton leak and phosphorylation) connected by the membrane potential or the protonmotive force. Calcium directly activated the phosphorylation subsystem and (with sub-saturating 2-oxoglutarate) the substrate oxidation subsystem but had no effect on the proton leak kinetics. The response of mitochondria respiring on 2-oxoglutarate at two physiological concentrations of free calcium was quantified using control and regulation analysis. The partial integrated response coefficients showed that direct stimulation of substrate oxidation contributed 86% of the effect of calcium on state 3 oxygen consumption, and direct activation of the phosphorylation reactions caused 37% of the increase in phosphorylation flux. Calcium directly activated phosphorylation more strongly than substrate oxidation (78% compared to 45%) to achieve homeostasis of mitochondrial membrane potential during large increases in flux.

  2. Regulation of skeletal muscle sucrose, non-fermenting 1/AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinase (SNARK) by metabolic stress and diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Rune, A.; Osler, M. E.; Fritz, T.; Zierath, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Sucrose, non-fermenting 1/AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinase (SNARK) is involved in cellular stress responses linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes. We determined the role of SNARK in response to metabolic stress and insulin action on glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Methods Vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from normal glucose tolerant (n = 35) and type 2 diabetic (n = 31) men and women for SNARK expression studies. Primary myotu...

  3. Regulation of skeletal muscle capillary growth in exercise and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Tara L; Nwadozi, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Capillaries, which are the smallest and most abundant type of blood vessel, form the primary site of gas, nutrient, and waste transfer between the vascular and tissue compartments. Skeletal muscle exhibits the capacity to generate new capillaries (angiogenesis) as an adaptation to exercise training, thus ensuring that the heightened metabolic demand of the active muscle is matched by an improved capacity for distribution of gases, nutrients, and waste products. This review summarizes the current understanding of the regulation of skeletal muscle capillary growth. The multi-step process of angiogenesis is coordinated through the integration of a diverse array of signals associated with hypoxic, metabolic, hemodynamic, and mechanical stresses within the active muscle. The contributions of metabolic and mechanical factors to the modulation of key pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules are discussed within the context of responses to a single aerobic exercise bout and short-term and long-term training. Finally, the paradoxical lack of angiogenesis in peripheral artery disease and diabetes and the implications for disease progression and muscle health are discussed. Future studies that emphasize an integrated analysis of the mechanisms that control skeletal muscle capillary growth will enable development of targeted exercise programs that effectively promote angiogenesis in healthy individuals and in patient populations.

  4. AMPK-independent pathways regulate skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzamko, Nicolas; Schertzer, Jonathan D.; Ryall, James G.;

    2008-01-01

    with rates of fatty acid oxidation. To address this issue we have investigated the requirement for skeletal muscle AMPK in controlling aminoimidazole-4-carboxymide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and contraction-stimulated fatty acid oxidation utilizing transgenic mice expressing a muscle-specific kinase...... beta (IKKbeta) and protein kinase D (PKD) may phosphorylate ACC2 at Ser-221 but during in vitro phosphorylation assays only AMPK phosphorylated ACC2. These data demonstrate that AMPK is not essential for the regulation of fatty acid oxidation by AICAR or muscle contraction.......The activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation/inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) is believed to be the principal pathway regulating fatty acid oxidation. However, during exercise AMPK activity and ACC Ser-221 phosphorylation does not always correlate...

  5. Regulation of gene expression in vertebrate skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvajal, Jaime J., E-mail: jaime.carvajal@icr.ac.uk; Rigby, Peter W.J., E-mail: peter.rigby@icr.ac.uk

    2010-11-01

    During embryonic development the integration of numerous synergistic signalling pathways turns a single cell into a multicellular organism with specialized cell types and highly structured, organized tissues. To achieve this, cells must grow, proliferate, differentiate and die according to their spatiotemporal position. Unravelling the mechanisms by which a cell adopts the correct fate in response to its local environment remains one of the fundamental goals of biological research. In vertebrates skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by the activation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in response to signals that are interpreted by their associated regulatory elements in different precursor cells during development. The MRFs trigger a cascade of transcription factors and downstream structural genes, ultimately resulting in the generation of one of the fundamental histotypes. In this review we discuss the regulation of the different MRFs in relation to their position in the myogenic cascade, the changes in the general transcriptional machinery during muscle differentiation and the emerging importance of miRNA regulation in skeletal myogenesis.

  6. The STARS signaling pathway: a key regulator of skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon, Séverine; Wallace, Marita A; Russell, Aaron P

    2014-09-01

    During the last decade, the striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS), a muscle-specific protein, has been proposed to play an increasingly important role in skeletal muscle growth, metabolism, regeneration and stress adaptation. STARS influences actin dynamics and, as a consequence, regulates the myocardin-related transcription factor A/serum response factor (MRTF-A/SRF) transcriptional program, a well-known pathway controlling skeletal muscle development and function. Muscle-specific stress conditions, such as exercise, positively regulates, while disuse and degenerative muscle diseases are associated with a downregulation of STARS and its downstream partners, suggesting a pivotal role for STARS in skeletal muscle health. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the known role and regulation of STARS and the members of its signaling pathway, RhoA, MRTF-A and SRF, in skeletal muscle.

  7. Arginylation of Myosin Heavy Chain Regulates Skeletal Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle S. Cornachione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein arginylation is a posttranslational modification with an emerging global role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. To test the role of arginylation in the skeletal muscle, we generated a mouse model with Ate1 deletion driven by the skeletal muscle-specific creatine kinase (Ckmm promoter. Ckmm-Ate1 mice were viable and outwardly normal; however, their skeletal muscle strength was significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Mass spectrometry of isolated skeletal myofibrils showed a limited set of proteins, including myosin heavy chain, arginylated on specific sites. Atomic force microscopy measurements of contractile strength in individual myofibrils and isolated myosin filaments from these mice showed a significant reduction of contractile forces, which, in the case of myosin filaments, could be fully rescued by rearginylation with purified Ate1. Our results demonstrate that arginylation regulates force production in muscle and exerts a direct effect on muscle strength through arginylation of myosin.

  8. Contraction-induced Interleukin-6 Gene Transcription in Skeletal Muscle Is Regulated by c-Jun Terminal Kinase/Activator Protein-1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, Martin; Chan, M. H. Stanley; Pal, Martin; Matthews, Vance B.; Prelovsek, Oja; Lunke, Sebastian; El-Osta, Assam; Broenneke, Hella; Alber, Jens; Brüning, Jens C.; Wunderlich, F. Thomas; Lancaster, Graeme I.; Febbraio, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise increases the expression of the prototypical myokine IL-6, but the precise mechanism by which this occurs has yet to be identified. To mimic exercise conditions, C2C12 myotubes were mechanically stimulated via electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). We compared the responses of EPS with the pharmacological Ca2+ carrier calcimycin (A23187) because contraction induces marked increases in cytosolic Ca2+ levels or the classical IκB kinase/NFκB inflammatory response elicited by H2O2. We demonstrate that, unlike H2O2-stimulated increases in IL-6 mRNA, neither calcimycin- nor EPS-induced IL-6 mRNA expression is under the transcriptional control of NFκB. Rather, we show that EPS increased the phosphorylation of JNK and the reporter activity of the downstream transcription factor AP-1. Furthermore, JNK inhibition abolished the EPS-induced increase in IL-6 mRNA and protein expression. Finally, we observed an exercise-induced increase in both JNK phosphorylation and IL-6 mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of mice after 30 min of treadmill running. Importantly, exercise did not increase IL-6 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle-specific JNK-deficient mice. These data identify a novel contraction-mediated transcriptional regulatory pathway for IL-6 in skeletal muscle. PMID:22351769

  9. Regulation of Skeletal Muscle by microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs highly conserved across species. miRNAs regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing to complementary sequences mainly in the 3'-untranslated region of their target mRNAs to induce mRNA cleavage and translational repression. Thousands of miRNAs have been identified in human and their function has been linked to the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes. The skeletal muscle is the largest human organ responsible for locomotion, posture, and body metabolism. Several conditions such as aging, immobilization, exercise, and diet are associated with alterations in skeletal muscle structure and function. The genetic and molecular pathways that regulate muscle development, function, and regeneration as well as muscular disease have been well established in past decades. In recent years, numerous studies have underlined the importance of miRNAs in the control of skeletal muscle development and function, through its effects on several biological pathways critical for skeletal muscle homeostasis. Furthermore, it has become clear that alteration of the expression of many miRNAs or genetic mutations of miRNA genes is associated with changes on myogenesis and on progression of several skeletal muscle diseases. The present review provides an overview of the current studies and recent progress in elucidating the complex role exerted by miRNAs on skeletal muscle physiology and pathology. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1279-1294, 2016. PMID:27347893

  10. Insulin stimulation regulates AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylation sites in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelbeek, R J W; Chambers, M A; Tantiwong, P;

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are typically insulin resistant, exhibiting impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Animal and cell culture experiments have shown that site-specific phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 and TBC1D1 is critical for GLUT4 tr...... translocation facilitating glucose uptake, but their regulation in human skeletal muscle is not well understood....

  11. Skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility : The roles of AMP-activated protein kinase and calcineurin

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Yun Chau

    2007-01-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers differ considerably in their metabolic and physiological properties. The metabolic properties of skeletal muscle display a high degree of flexibility which adapts to various physiological demands by shifting energy substrate metabolism. Studies were conducted to evaluate the roles of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcineurin in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Fasting elicited a coordinated expression of genes involved in lipid ...

  12. Molecular regulation of osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzaniti, Angela; Baron, Roland

    2006-06-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors that are primarily responsible for the degradation of mineralized bone during bone development, homeostasis and repair. In various skeletal disorders such as osteoporosis, hypercalcemia of malignancy, tumor metastases and Paget's disease, bone resorption by osteoclasts exceeds bone formation by osteoblasts leading to decreased bone mass, skeletal fragility and bone fracture. The overall rate of osteoclastic bone resorption is regulated either at the level of differentiation of osteoclasts from their monocytic/macrophage precursor pool or through the regulation of key functional proteins whose specific activities in the mature osteoclast control its attachment, migration and resorption. Thus, reducing osteoclast numbers and/or decreasing the bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts are two common therapeutic approaches for the treatment of hyper-resorptive skeletal diseases. In this review, several of the key functional players involved in the regulation of osteoclast activity will be discussed. PMID:16951988

  13. Dexamethasone regulates glutamine synthetase expression in rat skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Stephen R.; Konagaya, Masaaki; Konagaya, Yoko; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of glutamine synthetase by glucocorticoids in rat skeletal muscles was studied. Administration of dexamethasone strikingly enhanced glutamine synthetase activity in plantaris and soleus muscles. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked to a significant extent by orally administered RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves dramatically increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. The induction of glutamine synthetase was selective in that glutaminase activity of soleus and plantaris muscles was not increased by dexamethasone. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment resulted in only a small increase in glutamine synthetase activity in the heart. Accordingly, there was only a slight change in glutamine synthetase mRNA level in this tissue. Thus, glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase gene expression in rat muscles at the transcriptional level via interaction with intracellular glutamine production by muscle and to mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy.

  14. Regulation of the skeletal muscle blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Saltin, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    In humans, skeletal muscle blood flow is regulated by an interaction between several locally formed vasodilators including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. In plasma, ATP is a potent vasodilator that stimulates the formation of NO and prostaglandins and very importantly can offset local...... sympathetic vasoconstriction. ATP is released into plasma from erythrocytes and endothelial cells and the plasma concentration increases in both the feeding artery and the vein draining the contracting skeletal muscle. Adenosine also stimulates the formation of NO and prostaglandins, but the plasma adenosine...... concentration does not increase during exercise. In the skeletal muscle interstitium, there is a marked increase in the concentration of ATP and adenosine and this increase is tightly coupled to the increase in blood flow. The sources of interstitial ATP and adenosine are thought to be skeletal muscle cells...

  15. PPARδ regulates satellite cell proliferation and skeletal muscle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angione Alison R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are a class of nuclear receptors that play important roles in development and energy metabolism. Whereas PPARδ has been shown to regulate mitochondrial biosynthesis and slow-muscle fiber types, its function in skeletal muscle progenitors (satellite cells is unknown. Since constitutive mutation of Pparδ leads to embryonic lethality, we sought to address this question by conditional knockout (cKO of Pparδ using Myf5-Cre/Pparδflox/flox alleles to ablate PPARδ in myogenic progenitor cells. Although Pparδ-cKO mice were born normally and initially displayed no difference in body weight, muscle size or muscle composition, they later developed metabolic syndrome, which manifested as increased body weight and reduced response to glucose challenge at age nine months. Pparδ-cKO mice had 40% fewer satellite cells than their wild-type littermates, and these satellite cells exhibited reduced growth kinetics and proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, regeneration of Pparδ-cKO muscles was impaired after cardiotoxin-induced injury. Gene expression analysis showed reduced expression of the Forkhead box class O transcription factor 1 (FoxO1 gene in Pparδ-cKO muscles under both quiescent and regenerating conditions, suggesting that PPARδ acts through FoxO1 in regulating muscle progenitor cells. These results support a function of PPARδ in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and they establish a novel role of PPARδ in muscle progenitor cells and postnatal muscle regeneration.

  16. Skeletal muscle deiodinase type 2 regulation during illness in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kwakkel; H.C. van Beeren; M.T. Ackermans; M. Platvoet-ter Schiphorst; E. Fliers; W.M. Wiersinga; A. Boelen

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown that skeletal muscle deiodinase type 2 (D2) mRNA (listed as Dio2 in MGI Database) is up-regulated in an animal model of acute illness. However, human Studies on the expression Of muscle D2 during illness report conflicting data. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of skel

  17. Regulation of HSL serine phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Matthew J; Holmes, Anna G; Pinnamaneni, Srijan K; Garnham, Andrew P; Steinberg, Gregory R; Kemp, Bruce E; Febbraio, Mark A

    2006-03-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is important for the degradation of triacylglycerol in adipose and muscle tissue, but the tissue-specific regulation of this enzyme is not fully understood. We investigated the effects of adrenergic stimulation and AMPK activation in vitro and in circumstances where AMPK activity and catecholamines are physiologically elevated in humans in vivo (during physical exercise) on HSL activity and phosphorylation at Ser(563) and Ser(660), the PKA regulatory sites, and Ser(565), the AMPK regulatory site. In human experiments, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose and venous blood samples were obtained before, at 15 and 90 min during, and 120 min after exercise. Skeletal muscle HSL activity was increased by approximately 80% at 15 min compared with rest and returned to resting rates at the cessation of and 120 min after exercise. Consistent with changes in plasma epinephrine, skeletal muscle HSL Ser(563) and Ser(660) phosphorylation were increased by 27% at 15 min (P HSL Ser(565) phosphorylation and AMPK signaling were increased at 90 min during, and after, exercise. Phosphorylation of adipose tissue HSL paralleled changes in skeletal muscle in vivo, except HSL Ser(660) was elevated 80% in adipose compared with 35% in skeletal muscle during exercise. Studies in L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed important tissue differences in the regulation of HSL. AMPK inhibited epinephrine-induced HSL activity in L6 myotubes and was associated with reduced HSL Ser(660) but not Ser(563) phosphorylation. HSL activity was reduced in L6 myotubes expressing constitutively active AMPK, confirming the inhibitory effects of AMPK on HSL activity. Conversely, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, AMPK activation after epinephrine stimulation did not prevent HSL activity or glycerol release, which coincided with maintenance of HSL Ser(660) phosphorylation. Taken together, these data indicate that HSL activity is maintained in the face of AMPK activation as a result of

  18. Dexamethasone up-regulates skeletal muscle maximal Na+,K+ pump activity by muscle group specific mechanisms in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Goodmann, Craig; McKenna, Michael J.;

    2005-01-01

    Dexamethasone, a widely clinically used glucocorticoid, increases human skeletal muscle Na+,K+ pump content, but the effects on maximal Na+,K+ pump activity and subunit specific mRNA are unknown. Ten healthy male subjects ingested dexamethasone for 5 days and the effects on Na+,K+ pump content......, maximal activity and subunit specific mRNA level (a1, a2, ß1, ß2, ß3) in deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle were investigated. Before treatment, maximal Na+,K+ pump activity, as well as a1, a2, ß1 and ß2 mRNA levels were higher (P < 0.05) in vastus lateralis than in deltoid. Dexamethasone treatment...... increased Na+,K+ pump maximal activity in vastus lateralis and deltoid by 14 ± 7% (P < 0.05) and 18 ± 6% (P < 0.05) as well as Na+,K+ pump content by 18 ± 9% (P < 0.001) and 24 ± 8% (P < 0.01), respectively. Treatment with dexamethasone resulted in a higher a1, a2, ß1 and ß2 mRNA expression in the deltoid...

  19. Lack of Skeletal Muscle IL-6 Affects Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Activity at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiksen, Anders; Schwartz, Camilla Lindgren; Bertholdt, Lærke; Joensen, Ella; Knudsen, Jakob G.; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate utilization. IL-6 is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise in a duration dependent manner and has been reported to increase whole body fatty acid oxidation, muscle glucose uptake and decrease PDHa activity in skeletal muscle of fed mice. The aim of the present study was to examine whether muscle IL-6 contributes to exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) completed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 10, 60 or 120 min, with rested mice of each genotype serving as basal controls. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was overall higher (Putilization during prolonged exercise via effects on PDH. PMID:27327080

  20. Skeletal muscle as a regulator of the longevity protein, Klotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G Avin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Klotho is a powerful longevity protein that has been linked to the prevention of muscle atrophy, osteopenia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar anti-aging effects have also been ascribed to exercise and physical activity. While an association between muscle function and klotho expression has been previously suggested from longitudinal cohort studies, a direct relationship between circulating klotho and skeletal muscle has not been investigated. In this paper, we present a review of the literature and preliminary evidence that, together, suggests klotho expression may be modulated by skeletal muscle activity. Our pilot clinical findings performed in young and aged individuals suggest that circulating klotho levels are upregulated in response to an acute exercise bout, but that the response may be dependent on fitness level. A similar upregulation of circulating klotho is also observed in response to an acute exercise in young and old mice, suggesting this may be a good model for mechanistically probing the role of physical activity on klotho expression. Finally, we highlight overlapping signaling pathways that are modulated by both klotho and skeletal muscle and propose potential mechanisms for cross-talk between the two. It is hoped that this review will stimulate further consideration of the relationship between skeletal muscle activity and klotho expression, potentially leading to important insights into the well-documented systemic anti-aging effects of exercise.

  1. Regulation of skeletal muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, M; Richter, Erik

    1988-01-01

    Muscle-glycogen breakdown during exercise is influenced by both local and systemic factors. Contractions per se increase glycogenolysis via a calcium-induced, transient increase in the activity of phosphorylase a, and probably also via increased concentrations of Pi. In fast-twitch muscle...... in contracting muscle by increasing the phosphorylase a activity via increased cyclic AMP production. The availability of blood-borne substrates may also influence muscle glycogenolysis and, therefore, exercise performance....

  2. Up-regulation of lipolysis genes and increased production of AMP-activated protein kinase protein in the skeletal muscle of rats after resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jae-Heung; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Suk, Min-Hwa; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of lipogenesis- and lipolysis-related genes and proteins in skeletal muscles after 12 weeks of resistance training. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into control (resting) and resistance training groups. A tower-climbing exercise, in which rats climbed to the top of their cage with a weight applied to their tails, used for resistance training. After 12 weeks, rats from the resistance training group had lower body weights (411.66±14.71 g vs. 478.33±24.63 g in the control), there was no significant difference between the two groups in the concentrations of total cholesterol, and high or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, the concentration of triglyceride was lower in resistance-trained rats (59.83±14.05 μg/mL vs 93.33±33.89 μg/mL in the control). The mRNA expression levels of the lipogenesis-related genes sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase were not significantly different between the resistance-trained and control rats; however, mRNA expression of the lipolysis-related carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 and malonyl-CoA decarboxylase increased significantly with resistance training. AMP-activated protein kinase protein levels also significantly increased in resistance training group compared with in the control group. These results suggested that resistance exercise training contributing to reduced weight gain may be in part be due to increase the lipolysis metabolism and energy expenditure in response to resistance training. PMID:27419110

  3. Skeletal muscle as a regulator of the longevity protein, Klotho

    OpenAIRE

    KeithGAvin; PaulMCoen; DonnaStolz; JohnJDubé; FabrisiaAmbrosio

    2014-01-01

    Klotho is a powerful longevity protein that has been linked to the prevention of muscle atrophy, osteopenia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar anti-aging effects have also been ascribed to exercise and physical activity. While an association between muscle function and Klotho expression has been previously suggested from longitudinal cohort studies, a direct relationship between circulating Klotho and skeletal muscle has not been investigated. In this paper, we present a review of the liter...

  4. Regulation of mTOR by mechanically induced signaling events in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Troy Alan; Sukhija, Kunal Balu; Chien, Shu

    2006-07-01

    Mechanical stimuli play a major role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, and the maintenance of muscle mass contributes significantly to disease prevention and the quality of life. Although a link between mechanical stimuli and the regulation of muscle mass has been recognized for decades, the mechanisms involved in converting mechanical information into the molecular events that control this process have not been defined. Nevertheless, significant advancements are being made in this field, and it has recently been established that signaling through a rapamycin-sensitive pathway is necessary for mechanically induced growth of skeletal muscle. Since rapamycin is a highly specific inhibitor of a protein kinase called the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), many investigators have concluded that mTOR signaling is necessary for the mechanically induced growth of skeletal muscle. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge regarding how mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signaling, discussed the newly discovered role of phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in this pathway, and considered the potential roles of PLD and PA in the mechanical regulation of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:16855395

  5. Regulation of mTOR by mechanically induced signaling events in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Troy Alan; Sukhija, Kunal Balu; Chien, Shu

    2006-07-01

    Mechanical stimuli play a major role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, and the maintenance of muscle mass contributes significantly to disease prevention and the quality of life. Although a link between mechanical stimuli and the regulation of muscle mass has been recognized for decades, the mechanisms involved in converting mechanical information into the molecular events that control this process have not been defined. Nevertheless, significant advancements are being made in this field, and it has recently been established that signaling through a rapamycin-sensitive pathway is necessary for mechanically induced growth of skeletal muscle. Since rapamycin is a highly specific inhibitor of a protein kinase called the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), many investigators have concluded that mTOR signaling is necessary for the mechanically induced growth of skeletal muscle. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge regarding how mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signaling, discussed the newly discovered role of phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in this pathway, and considered the potential roles of PLD and PA in the mechanical regulation of skeletal muscle mass.

  6. Rac1- a novel regulator of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke; Møller, Lisbeth L V; Kleinert, Maximilian;

    2014-01-01

    Muscle contraction stimulates muscle glucose uptake by facilitating translocation of the glucose transporter 4 from intracellular locations to the cell surface, which allows for diffusion of glucose into the myofibers. However, the intracellular mechanisms regulating this process are not well....../contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, since muscle-specific Rac1 knockout mice display reduced ex vivo contraction- and in vivo exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The molecular mechanisms by which Rac1 regulate glucose uptake is presently unknown. However, recent studies link Rac1...... to the actin cytoskeleton, the small GTPase RalA, and/or free radical production, which have previously been shown to be regulators of glucose uptake in muscle. We propose a model in which Rac1 is activated by contraction- and exercise-induced stretch signals and that Rac1 in conjunction with other signaling...

  7. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Kleinert, Maximilian;

    2016-01-01

    Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one...... increase the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in muscle. Moreover, AMPK activation during exercise may not be sufficient to regulate autophagy in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 likely mediates the autophagy-inhibiting effect of insulin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights...

  8. Effects of alpha-AMPK knockout on exercise-induced gene activation in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Viollet, Benoit;

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating the acute, exercise-induced activation of metabolic genes in skeletal muscle, which were dissected from whole-body a2- and a1-AMPK knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at rest, after treadmi...

  9. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) regulates skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signaling via altered mitochondrial oxidation and reactive oxygen species production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Enxuan; Emanuelli, Brice; Hirschey, Matthew D;

    2011-01-01

    mice exhibit decreased oxygen consumption and develop oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, leading to JNK activation and impaired insulin signaling. This effect is mimicked by knockdown of Sirt3 in cultured myoblasts, which exhibit reduced mitochondrial oxidation, increased reactive oxygen species......, activation of JNK, increased serine and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and decreased insulin signaling. Thus, Sirt3 plays an important role in diabetes through regulation of mitochondrial oxidation, reactive oxygen species production, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.......Sirt3 is a member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases that is localized in mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial function. Sirt3 expression in skeletal muscle is decreased in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and regulated by feeding, fasting, and caloric restriction. Sirt3 knockout...

  10. Tetracycline-inducible system for regulation of skeletal muscle-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Mischala A.; Bales, Mark A.; Fought, Amber N.; Rosburg, Kristopher C.; Munger, Stephanie J.; Antin, Parker B.

    2003-01-01

    Tightly regulated control of over-expression is often necessary to study one aspect or time point of gene function and, in transgenesis, may help to avoid lethal effects and complications caused by ubiquitous over-expression. We have utilized the benefits of an optimized tet-on system and a modified muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter to generate a skeletal muscle-specific, doxycycline (Dox) controlled over-expression system in transgenic mice. A DNA construct was generated in which the codon optimized reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) was placed under control of a skeletal muscle-specific version of the mouse MCK promoter. Transgenic mice containing this construct expressed rtTA almost exclusively in skeletal muscles. These mice were crossed to a second transgenic line containing a bi-directional promoter centered on a tet responder element driving both a luciferase reporter gene and a tagged gene of interest; in this case the calpain inhibitor calpastatin. Compound hemizygous mice showed high level, Dox dependent muscle-specific luciferase activity often exceeding 10,000-fold over non-muscle tissues of the same mouse. Western and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated similar Dox dependent muscle-specific induction of the tagged calpastatin protein. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the tet-on system to provide a tightly regulated over-expression system in adult skeletal muscle. The MCKrtTA transgenic lines can be combined with other transgenic responder lines for skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of any target gene of interest.

  11. Oral glucose ingestion attenuates exercise-induced activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard;

    2006-01-01

    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to be a 'metabolic master switch' regulating various aspects of muscle glucose and fat metabolism. In isolated rat skeletal muscle, glucose suppresses the activity of AMPK and in human muscle glycogen loading decreases exercise-induced AMPK...

  12. Skeletal Muscle AMP-activated Protein Kinase Is Essential for the Metabolic Response to Exercise in Vivo*

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Young, Robert S; Griffee, Susan R.; Lynes, Sara E.; Bracy, Deanna P.; Julio E Ayala; McGuinness, Owen P.; Wasserman, David H.

    2009-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been postulated as a super-metabolic regulator, thought to exert numerous effects on skeletal muscle function, metabolism, and enzymatic signaling. Despite these assertions, little is known regarding the direct role(s) of AMPK in vivo, and results obtained in vitro or in situ are conflicting. Using a chronically catheterized mouse model (carotid artery and jugular vein), we show that AMPK regulates skeletal muscle metabolism in vivo at several levels, w...

  13. Rac1 is a novel regulator of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylow, Lykke; Jensen, Thomas E; Kleinert, Maximilian; Mouatt, Joshua R; Maarbjerg, Stine J; Jeppesen, Jacob; Prats, Clara; Chiu, Tim T; Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Klip, Amira; Schjerling, Peter; Richter, Erik A

    2013-04-01

    In skeletal muscle, the actin cytoskeleton-regulating GTPase, Rac1, is necessary for insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation. Muscle contraction increases glucose transport and represents an alternative signaling pathway to insulin. Whether Rac1 is activated by muscle contraction and regulates contraction-induced glucose uptake is unknown. Therefore, we studied the effects of in vivo exercise and ex vivo muscle contractions on Rac1 signaling and its regulatory role in glucose uptake in mice and humans. Muscle Rac1-GTP binding was increased after exercise in mice (~60-100%) and humans (~40%), and this activation was AMP-activated protein kinase independent. Rac1 inhibition reduced contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse muscle by 55% in soleus and by 20-58% in extensor digitorum longus (EDL; P contraction-stimulated increment in glucose uptake was decreased by 27% (P = 0.1) and 40% (P muscles, respectively, of muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout mice. Furthermore, depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton decreased contraction-stimulated glucose uptake by 100% and 62% (P muscles, respectively. These are the first data to show that Rac1 is activated during muscle contraction in murine and human skeletal muscle and suggest that Rac1 and possibly the actin cytoskeleton are novel regulators of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake.

  14. Myogenin Regulates Exercise Capacity and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in the Adult Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Jesse M.; Eric Meadows; Marta Fiorotto; Klein, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Although skeletal muscle metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, little is known about how it is regulated at the transcriptional level. The myogenic transcription factor myogenin is required for skeletal muscle development during embryonic and fetal life, but myogenin's role in adult skeletal muscle is unclear. We sought to determine myogenin's function in adult muscle metabolism. A Myog conditional allele and Cre-ER transgene were used to delete Myog in adult mice. Mice were ana...

  15. Neural control of glutamine synthetase activity in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, B; Konagaya, M; Konagaya, Y; Thomas, J W; Banner, C; Mill, J; Max, S R

    1990-05-01

    The mechanism of glutamine synthetase induction in rat skeletal muscle after denervation or limb immobilization was investigated. Adult male rats were subjected to midthigh section of the sciatic nerve. At 1, 2, and 5 h and 1, 2, and 7 days after denervation, rats were killed and denervated, and contralateral control soleus and plantaris muscles were excised, weighted, homogenized, and assayed for glutamine synthetase. Glutamine synthetase activity increased approximately twofold 1 h after denervation in both muscles. By 7 days postdenervation enzyme activity had increased to three times the control level in plantaris muscle and to four times the control level in soleus muscle. Increased enzyme activity after nerve section was associated with increased maximum velocity with no change in apparent Michaelis constant. Immunotitration with an antiglutamine synthetase antibody suggested that denervation caused an increase in the number of glutamine synthetase molecules in muscle. However, Northern-blot analysis revealed no increase in the steady-state level of glutamine synthetase mRNA after denervation. A mixing experiment failed to yield evidence for the presence of a soluble factor involved in regulating the activity of glutamine synthetase in denervated muscle. A combination of denervation and dexamethasone injections resulted in additive increases in glutamine synthetase. Thus the mechanism underlying increased glutamine synthetase after denervation appears to be posttranscriptional and is distinct from that of the glucocorticoid-mediated glutamine synthetase induction previously described by us. PMID:1970709

  16. Akt2 influences glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle through regulation of NH2-terminal (sites 2+2a) phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Richter, Erik;

    2013-01-01

    was positively associated with pAkt-T308 (P=0.01) and Akt2 activity (P=0.04), but not pAkt-S473 or IRS-1-PI3K activity. Furthermore, pAkt-T308 and Akt2 activity were negatively associated with NH(2)-terminal GS phosphorylation (P=0.001 for both), which in turn was negatively associated with insulin-stimulated GS...

  17. LXRß is the dominant LXR subtype in skeletal muscle regulating lipogenesis and cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessvik, N.P.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Baltzersen, M.A.; Kersten, A.H.; Xu, X.; Andersen, H.E.; Rustan, A.C.; Thoresen, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important regulators of cholesterol, lipid, and glucose metabolism and have been extensively studied in liver, macrophages, and adipose tissue. However, their role in skeletal muscle is poorly studied and the functional role of each of the LXR and LXRß subtypes in skelet

  18. Vascular Function and Regulation of Blood Flow in Resting and Contracting Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin

    The precise matching of blood flow, oxygen delivery and metabolism is essential as it ensures that any increase in muscle work is precisely matched by increases in oxygen delivery. Therefore, understanding the control mechanisms of skeletal muscle blood flow regulation is of great biological...... that no single compound can explain exercise hyperemia and indicates that any condition associated with reduced oxygen delivery needs to be investigated independently. Physical activity can attenuate or even counteract the effects of essential hypertension and aging on vascular function and exercise hyperemia....

  19. Sympathetic Activation Induces Skeletal Fgf23 Expression in a Circadian Rhythm-dependent Manner*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masanobu; Kinoshita, Saori; Shimba, Shigeki; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock network is well known to link food intake and metabolic outputs. Phosphorus is a pivotal nutritional factor involved in energy and skeletal metabolisms and possesses a circadian profile in the circulation; however, the precise mechanisms whereby phosphate metabolism is regulated by the circadian clock network remain largely unknown. Because sympathetic tone, which displays a circadian profile, is activated by food intake, we tested the hypothesis that phosphate metabolism was regulated by the circadian clock network through the modification of food intake-associated sympathetic activation. Skeletal Fgf23 expression showed higher expression during the dark phase (DP) associated with elevated circulating FGF23 levels and enhanced phosphate excretion in the urine. The peaks in skeletal Fgf23 expression and urine epinephrine levels, a marker for sympathetic tone, shifted from DP to the light phase (LP) when mice were fed during LP. Interestingly, β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (ISO), induced skeletal Fgf23 expression when administered at ZT12, but this was not observed in Bmal1-deficient mice. In vitro reporter assays revealed that ISO trans-activated Fgf23 promoter through a cAMP responsive element in osteoblastic UMR-106 cells. The mechanism of circadian regulation of Fgf23 induction by ISO in vivo was partly explained by the suppressive effect of Cryptochrome1 (Cry1) on ISO signaling. These results indicate that the regulation of skeletal Fgf23 expression by sympathetic activity is dependent on the circadian clock system and may shed light on new regulatory networks of FGF23 that could be important for understanding the physiology of phosphate metabolism. PMID:24302726

  20. Ca2+-Dependent Regulations and Signaling in Skeletal Muscle: From Electro-Mechanical Coupling to Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gehlert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca2+ plays a pivotal role in almost all cellular processes and ensures the functionality of an organism. In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca2+ is critically involved in the innervation of skeletal muscle fibers that results in the exertion of an action potential along the muscle fiber membrane, the prerequisite for skeletal muscle contraction. Furthermore and among others, Ca2+ regulates also intracellular processes, such as myosin-actin cross bridging, protein synthesis, protein degradation and fiber type shifting by the control of Ca2+-sensitive proteases and transcription factors, as well as mitochondrial adaptations, plasticity and respiration. These data highlight the overwhelming significance of Ca2+ ions for the integrity of skeletal muscle tissue. In this review, we address the major functions of Ca2+ ions in adult muscle but also highlight recent findings of critical Ca2+-dependent mechanisms essential for skeletal muscle-regulation and maintenance.

  1. Regulation of skeletal muscle lipolysis and oxidative metabolism by the co-lipase CGI-58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Pierre-Marie; Loubière, Camille; Coonen, Maarten; Louche, Katie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Bourlier, Virginie; Mairal, Aline; Rustan, Arild C; Smith, Steven R; Langin, Dominique; Moro, Cedric

    2012-05-01

    We investigated here the specific role of CGI-58 in the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. We first examined CGI-58 protein expression in various muscle types in mice, and next modulated CGI-58 expression during overexpression and knockdown studies in human primary myotubes and evaluated the consequences on oxidative metabolism. We observed a preferential expression of CGI-58 in oxidative muscles in mice consistent with triacylglycerol hydrolase activity. We next showed by pulse-chase that CGI-58 overexpression increased by more than 2-fold the rate of triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis, as well as TAG-derived fatty acid (FA) release and oxidation. Oppositely, CGI-58 silencing reduced TAG hydrolysis and TAG-derived FA release and oxidation (-77%, P < 0.001), whereas it increased glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Interestingly, modulations of CGI-58 expression and FA release are reflected by changes in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 gene expression. This regulation involves the activation of the peroxisome proliferator activating receptor-δ (PPARδ) by lipolysis products. Altogether, these data reveal that CGI-58 plays a limiting role in the control of oxidative metabolism by modulating FA availability and the expression of PPARδ-target genes, and highlight an important metabolic function of CGI-58 in skeletal muscle. PMID:22383684

  2. Regulation of skeletal muscle lipolysis and oxidative metabolism by the co-lipase CGI-58[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Pierre-Marie; Loubière, Camille; Coonen, Maarten; Louche, Katie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Bourlier, Virginie; Mairal, Aline; Rustan, Arild C.; Smith, Steven R.; Langin, Dominique; Moro, Cedric

    2012-01-01

    We investigated here the specific role of CGI-58 in the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. We first examined CGI-58 protein expression in various muscle types in mice, and next modulated CGI-58 expression during overexpression and knockdown studies in human primary myotubes and evaluated the consequences on oxidative metabolism. We observed a preferential expression of CGI-58 in oxidative muscles in mice consistent with triacylglycerol hydrolase activity. We next showed by pulse-chase that CGI-58 overexpression increased by more than 2-fold the rate of triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis, as well as TAG-derived fatty acid (FA) release and oxidation. Oppositely, CGI-58 silencing reduced TAG hydrolysis and TAG-derived FA release and oxidation (−77%, P < 0.001), whereas it increased glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Interestingly, modulations of CGI-58 expression and FA release are reflected by changes in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 gene expression. This regulation involves the activation of the peroxisome proliferator activating receptor-δ (PPARδ) by lipolysis products. Altogether, these data reveal that CGI-58 plays a limiting role in the control of oxidative metabolism by modulating FA availability and the expression of PPARδ-target genes, and highlight an important metabolic function of CGI-58 in skeletal muscle. PMID:22383684

  3. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Stuart A

    2009-11-01

    Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We aimed to determine the mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and indentify how 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity.

  4. Regulation of exercise-induced fiber type transformation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zhen; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Akhtar, Yasir N.; Lira, Vitor A.

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exhibits superb plasticity in response to changes in functional demands. Chronic increases of skeletal muscle contractile activity, such as endurance exercise, lead to a variety of physiological and biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle, including mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and fiber type transformation. These adaptive changes are the basis for the improvement of physical performance and other health benefits. This review focuses on recent findings in genetic...

  5. Highly active gauze-supported skeletal nickel catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Fow, Kam Loon; Ganapathi, Murugan; Stassen, Ivo; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen; De Vos, Dirk E.

    2013-01-01

    Gauze-supported skeletal nickel catalysts were prepared by electrodeposition of Ni–Zn alloys from an acetamide–DMSO2–NiCl2–ZnCl2 quaternary melt, followed by chemical or electrochemical leaching of zinc from the alloys. The activity and selectivity of the structured RANEY® nickel surpass those of commercial RANEY® nickel in the hydrogenation of acetophenone.

  6. Dissociation between skeletal muscle inhibitor-{kappa}B kinase/nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway activity and insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    Context: Several studies suggest a link between increased activity of the inflammatory inhibitor-kappaB kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB (IKK/NF-kappaB) pathway in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance. Objective: We aimed to study the regulation of skeletal muscle IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity as ...

  7. Noncoding RNAs in the regulation of skeletal muscle biology in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionescu-Bankston, Adriana; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal muscle is composed of multinucleated myofibers that arise from the fusion of myoblasts during development. Skeletal muscle is essential for various body functions such as maintaining posture, locomotion, breathing, and metabolism. Skeletal muscle undergoes remarkable adaptations in response to environmental stimuli leading to atrophy or hypertrophy. Moreover, degeneration of skeletal muscle is a common feature in a number of muscular disorders including muscular dystrophy. Emerging evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), are critical for skeletal muscle physiology. Several miRNAs and lncRNAs have now been found to control skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Noncoding RNAs also play an important role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in adults. Furthermore, aberrant expression of miRNAs and lncRNAs has been observed in several muscular disorders. In this article, we discuss the mechanisms of action of miRNAs and lncRNAs in skeletal muscle formation, growth, regeneration, and disease. We further highlight potential therapeutic strategies for utilizing noncoding RNAs to improve skeletal muscle function. PMID:27377406

  8. Impaired glycogen synthase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    expression analysis and proteomics have pointed to abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cellular stress in muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects, and recent work suggests that impaired mitochondrial activity is another early defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This review...... will discuss the latest advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes with focus on possible links between impaired glycogen synthase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction....

  9. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) expression and regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, J; Ploug, T; Ihlemann, J;

    1998-01-01

    Because the enzymatic regulation of muscle triglyceride metabolism is poorly understood we explored the character and activation of neutral lipase in muscle. Western blotting of isolated rat muscle fibers demonstrated expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). In incubated soleus muscle...... epinephrine increased neutral lipase activity by beta-adrenergic mechanisms involving cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The increase was paralleled by an increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity and could be abolished by antiserum against HSL. Electrical stimulation caused a transient increase...... studies have shown that HSL is present in skeletal muscle cells and is stimulated in parallel with glycogen phosphorylase by both epinephrine and contractions. HSL adapts differently to training in muscle compared with adipose tissue....

  10. Skeletal muscle afferent regulation of bioassayable growth hormone in the rat pituitary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselink, K. L.; Grindeland, R. E.; Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Bigbee, A. J.; Grossman, E. J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1998-01-01

    There are forms of growth hormone (GH) in the plasma and pituitary of the rat and in the plasma of humans that are undetected by presently available immunoassays (iGH) but can be measured by bioassay (bGH). Although the regulation of iGH release is well documented, the mechanism(s) of bGH release is unclear. On the basis of changes in bGH and iGH secretion in rats that had been exposed to microgravity conditions, we hypothesized that neural afferents play a role in regulating the release of these hormones. To examine whether bGH secretion can be modulated by afferent input from skeletal muscle, the proximal or distal ends of severed hindlimb fast muscle nerves were stimulated ( approximately 2 times threshold) in anesthetized rats. Plasma bGH increased approximately 250%, and pituitary bGH decreased approximately 60% after proximal nerve trunk stimulation. The bGH response was independent of muscle mass or whether the muscles were flexors or extensors. Distal nerve stimulation had little or no effect on plasma or pituitary bGH. Plasma iGH concentrations were unchanged after proximal nerve stimulation. Although there may be multiple regulatory mechanisms of bGH, the present results demonstrate that the activation of low-threshold afferents from fast skeletal muscles can play a regulatory role in the release of bGH, but not iGH, from the pituitary in anesthetized rats.

  11. New roles for Smad signaling and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Craig A.; Hornberger, Troy A.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is essential for normal bodily function and the loss of skeletal muscle (i.e. muscle atrophy/wasting) can have a major impact on mobility, whole-body metabolism, disease resistance, and quality of life. Thus, there is a clear need for the development of therapies that can prevent the loss, or increase, of skeletal muscle mass. However, in order to develop such therapies, we will first have to develop a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate muscle mas...

  12. New roles for Smad signaling and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Craig A; Hornberger, Troy A

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is essential for normal bodily function and the loss of skeletal muscle (i.e. muscle atrophy/wasting) can have a major impact on mobility, whole-body metabolism, disease resistance, and quality of life. Thus, there is a clear need for the development of therapies that can prevent the loss, or increase, of skeletal muscle mass. However, in order to develop such therapies, we will first have to develop a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate muscle mass. Fortunately, our knowledge is rapidly advancing, and in this review, we will summarize recent studies that have expanded our understanding of the roles that Smad signaling and the synthesis of phosphatidic acid play in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:24765525

  13. New roles for Smad signaling and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Craig A; Hornberger, Troy A

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is essential for normal bodily function and the loss of skeletal muscle (i.e. muscle atrophy/wasting) can have a major impact on mobility, whole-body metabolism, disease resistance, and quality of life. Thus, there is a clear need for the development of therapies that can prevent the loss, or increase, of skeletal muscle mass. However, in order to develop such therapies, we will first have to develop a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate muscle mass. Fortunately, our knowledge is rapidly advancing, and in this review, we will summarize recent studies that have expanded our understanding of the roles that Smad signaling and the synthesis of phosphatidic acid play in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass.

  14. Activity Dependent Signal Transduction in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Susan L.

    1999-01-01

    The overall goals of this project are: 1) to define the initial signal transduction events whereby the removal of gravitational load from antigravity muscles, such as the soleus, triggers muscle atrophy, and 2) to develop countermeasures to prevent this from happening. Our rationale for this approach is that, if countermeasures can be developed to regulate these early events, we could avoid having to deal with the multiple cascades of events that occur downstream from the initial event. One of our major findings is that hind limb suspension causes an early and sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca (2+)](sub i)). In most cells the consequences of changes in ([Ca (2+)](sub i))depend on the amplitude, frequency and duration of the Ca(2+) signal and on other factors in the intracellular environment. We propose that muscle remodeling in microgravity represents a change in the balance among several CA(2+) regulated signal transduction pathways, in particular those involving the transcription factors NFAT and NFkB and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD. Other Ca(2+) sensitive pathways involving PKC, ras, rac, and CaM kinase II may also contribute to muscle remodeling.

  15. Insights into the molecular mechanism of glucose metabolism regulation under stress in chicken skeletal muscle tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wuyi; Zhao, Jingpeng

    2014-01-01

    As substantial progress has been achieved in modern poultry production with large-scale and intensive feeding and farming in recent years, stress becomes a vital factor affecting chicken growth, development, and production yield, especially the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle mass. The review was aimed to outline and understand the stress-related genetic regulatory mechanism, which significantly affects glucose metabolism regulation in chicken skeletal muscle tissues. Progress in curr...

  16. Activity of calcium activated protease in skeletal muscles and its changes in atrophy and stretch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S.; Nagainis, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The reduction of protein content in skeletal muscle undergoing disuse-induced atrophy is correlated with accelerated rates of protein degradation and reduced rates of protein synthesis (Goldspink, 1977). It is not known in what manner myofibers are partially disassembled during disuse atrophy to fibers of smaller diameter; nor is it known which proteases are responsible for this morphological change in contractile protein mass. Dayton and colleagues (1975) have suggested that the Ca(2+)-activated protease (CaP) may initiate myofibril degradation. The discovery of a form of CaP that is activatable by nano-molar concentrations of Ca(2+) indicates that CaP activity may be regulated by physiological concentrations of Ca(2+) (Mellgren, 1980). The enhancement of proteolysis by the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187, reported by Etlinger (1979), is consistent with a significant role for CaP in protein degradation. It was of interest, therefore, to measure the levels of CaP activity and the CaP inhibitor in extracts obtained from skeletal muscles of rat and chicken limbs undergoing disuse atrophy or stretch hypertrophy, respectively.

  17. Protein kinase C {alpha} activity is important for contraction-induced FXYD1 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Rose, Adam John; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt;

    2011-01-01

    Exercise induced phosphorylation of FXYD1 is a potential important regulator of Na(+), K(+) pump activity. It was investigated if skeletal muscle contractions induce phosphorylation of FXYD1 and if Protein Kinase C a (PKCa) activity is a prerequisite for this possible mechanism. In part 1, human...

  18. Vasodilator interactions in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Jensen, Lasse Gliemann;

    2012-01-01

    During exercise, oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle is elevated to meet the increased oxygen demand. The increase in blood flow to skeletal muscle is achieved by vasodilators formed locally in the muscle tissue, either on the intraluminal or the extraluminal side of the blood vessels. A number...... vasodilators are both stimulated by several compounds, eg. adenosine, ATP, acetylcholine, bradykinin, and are affected by mechanically induced signals, such as shear stress. NO and prostacyclin have also been shown to interact in a redundant manner where one system can take over when formation of the other...... that this remaining hyperemia may be explained by cAMP and cGMP independent smooth muscle relaxation, such as effects of endothelial derived hyperpolarization factors (EDHFs) or through metabolic modulation of sympathetic effects. The nature and role of EDHF as well as potential novel mechanisms in muscle blood flow...

  19. Unraveling the complexities of SIRT1-mediated mitochondrial regulation in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Philp, Andrew; Schenk, Simon

    2013-01-01

    SIRT1 is a purported central regulator of skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. Herein we discuss our recent work utilizing conditional mouse models, which highlight the complexities of SIRT1 biology in vivo, and question its role in regulating mitochondrial function and mitochondrial adaptions to endurance exercise. Further, we discuss the possible contribution of proposed SIRT1 substrates to muscle mitochondrial biogenesis.

  20. Role of adenosine in regulating the heterogeneity of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Nesterov, Sergey V; Kemppainen, Jukka;

    2007-01-01

    Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that adenosine plays a role in the regulation of exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle. We tested whether adenosine also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow (BF) distribution and heterogeneity among and within quadriceps femoris (QF...

  1. Rev-erb-α modulates skeletal muscle oxidative capacity by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldt, Estelle; Sebti, Yasmine; Solt, Laura A.; Duhem, Christian; Lancel, Steve; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Hesselink, Matthijs K.C.; Paquet, Charlotte; Delhaye, Stéphane; Shin, Youseung; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Schaart, Gert; Lefebvre, Philippe; Nevière, Rémi; Burris, Thomas P.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Staels, Bart; Duez, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear receptor Rev-erb-α modulates hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, adipogenesis and the inflammatory response in macrophages. We show here that Rev-erb-α is highly expressed in oxidative skeletal muscle and plays a role in mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function, in gain- and loss-of function studies. Rev-erb-α-deficiency in skeletal muscle leads to reduced mitochondrial content and oxidative function, resulting in compromised exercise capacity. This phenotype was recapitulated in isolated fibers and in muscle cells upon Rev-erbα knock-down, while Rev-erb-α over-expression increased the number of mitochondria with improved respiratory capacity. Rev-erb-α-deficiency resulted in deactivation of the Stk11–Ampk–Sirt1–Ppargc1-α signaling pathway, whereas autophagy was up-regulated, resulting in both impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and increased clearance. Muscle over-expression or pharmacological activation of Rev-erb-α increased respiration and exercise capacity. This study identifies Rev-erb-α as a pharmacological target which improves muscle oxidative function by modulating gene networks controlling mitochondrial number and function. PMID:23852339

  2. MicroRNAs in skeletal muscle and their regulation with exercise, ageing and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn eZacharewicz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle makes up approximately 40% of the total body mass, providing structural support and enabling the body to maintain posture, to control motor movements and to store energy. It therefore plays a vital role in whole body metabolism. Skeletal muscle displays remarkable plasticity and is able to alter its size, structure and function in response to various stimuli; an essential quality for healthy living across the lifespan. Exercise is an important stimulator of extracellular and intracellular stress signals that promote positive adaptations in skeletal muscle. These adaptations are controlled by changes in gene transcription and protein translation, with many of these molecules identified as potential therapeutic targets to pharmacologically improve muscle quality in patient groups too ill to exercise. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are recently identified regulators of numerous gene networks and pathways and mainly exert their effect by binding to their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs, resulting in mRNA degradation or preventing protein translation. The role of exercise as a regulatory stimulus of skeletal muscle miRNAs is now starting to be investigated. This review highlights our current understanding of the regulation of skeletal muscle miRNAs with exercise and disease as well as how they may control skeletal muscle health.

  3. Interleukin-18 activates skeletal muscle AMPK and reduces weight gain and insulin resistance in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Birgitte Lindegaard; Matthews, Vance B; Brandt, Claus;

    2013-01-01

    of AMPK in skeletal muscle. IL-18R(-/-) mice display increased weight gain, and ectopic lipid deposition, inflammation and reduced AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle. Treating myotubes or skeletal muscle strips with IL-18 activated AMPK and increased fat oxidation. Moreover, in vivo electroporation of IL...

  4. Emerging role for regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Bradley S; Steiner, Jennifer L; Williamson, David L; Lang, Charles H; Kimball, Scot R

    2016-07-01

    Since its discovery, the protein regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) has been implicated in the cellular response to various stressors. Most notably, its role as a repressor of signaling through the central metabolic regulator, the mechanistic target of rapamycin in complex 1 (mTORC1) has gained considerable attention. Not surprisingly, changes in REDD1 mRNA and protein have been observed in skeletal muscle under various physiological conditions (e.g., nutrient consumption and resistance exercise) and pathological conditions (e.g., sepsis, alcoholism, diabetes, obesity) suggesting a role for REDD1 in regulating mTORC1-dependent skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Our understanding of the causative role of REDD1 in skeletal muscle metabolism is increasing mostly due to the availability of genetically modified mice in which the REDD1 gene is disrupted. Results from such studies provide support for an important role for REDD1 in the regulation of mTORC1 as well as reveal unexplored functions of this protein in relation to other aspects of skeletal muscle metabolism. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive review of the role of REDD1 (and its paralog REDD2) in skeletal muscle during both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27189933

  5. Exercise-induced regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in the skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Bergdahl, Andreas; Schjerling, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    is maintained in the skeletal muscle of patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Subjects [12 T2DM, 9 healthy control subjects (CON)] underwent 8 weeks of physical training. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured at baseline, during and after 8 weeks of training. Protein was measured pre- and post......-training. At baseline, there were no effects of diabetes on MMP or TIMP mRNA or protein. mRNA and protein response to training was similar in both groups, except active MMP-2 protein was elevated post training in T2DM only. Our results indicate that exercise-induced stimulation of MMPs is preserved in skeletal muscle......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) play a critical role during vascular remodelling, in both health and disease. Impaired MMP regulation is associated with many diabetes-related complications. This study examined whether exercise-induced regulation of MMPs...

  6. Fgf regulates dedifferentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Kish, Phillip E; Kahana, Alon

    2016-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) regulate critical biological processes such as embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. In zebrafish, Fgf signaling plays an important role in the regeneration of the spinal cord, liver, heart, fin, and photoreceptors, although its exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. Utilizing an adult zebrafish extraocular muscle (EOM) regeneration model, we demonstrate that blocking Fgf receptor function using either a chemical inhibitor (SU5402) or a dominant-negative transgenic construct (dnFGFR1a:EGFP) impairs muscle regeneration. Adult zebrafish EOMs regenerate through a myocyte dedifferentiation process, which involves a muscle-to-mesenchyme transition and cell cycle reentry by differentiated myocytes. Blocking Fgf signaling reduced cell proliferation and active caspase 3 levels in the regenerating muscle with no detectable levels of apoptosis, supporting the hypothesis that Fgf signaling is involved in the early steps of dedifferentiation. Fgf signaling in regenerating myocytes involves the MAPK/ERK pathway: inhibition of MEK activity with U0126 mimicked the phenotype of the Fgf receptor inhibition on both muscle regeneration and cell proliferation, and activated ERK (p-ERK) was detected in injured muscles by immunofluorescence and western blot. Interestingly, following injury, ERK2 expression is specifically induced and activated by phosphorylation, suggesting a key role in muscle regeneration. We conclude that the critical early steps of myocyte dedifferentiation in EOM regeneration are dependent on Fgf signaling. PMID:27267062

  7. Defining the role of mesenchymal stromal cells on the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in skeletal muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies indicate that mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation improves healing of injured and diseased skeletal muscle, although the mechanisms of benefit are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether MSCs and/or their trophic factors were able to regulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity in different cells of the muscle tissue. MSCs in co-culture with C2C12 cells or their conditioned medium (MSC-CM) up-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and function in the myoblastic cells; these effects were concomitant with the down-regulation of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and -2 and with increased cell motility. In the single muscle fiber experiments, MSC-CM administration increased MMP-2/9 expression in Pax-7+ satellite cells and stimulated their mobilization, differentiation and fusion. The anti-fibrotic properties of MSC-CM involved also the regulation of MMPs by skeletal fibroblasts and the inhibition of their differentiation into myofibroblasts. The treatment with SB-3CT, a potent MMP inhibitor, prevented in these cells, the decrease of α-smooth actin and type-I collagen expression induced by MSC-CM, suggesting that MSC-CM could attenuate the fibrogenic response through mechanisms mediated by MMPs. Our results indicate that growth factors and cytokines released by these cells may modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle repair/regeneration. - Highlights: • MSC-CM contains paracrine factors that up-regulate MMP expression and function in different skeletal muscle cells. • MSC-CM promotes myoblast and satellite cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. • MSC-CM negatively interferes with fibroblast-myoblast transition in primary skeletal fibroblasts. • Paracrine factors from MSCs modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle regeneration

  8. Defining the role of mesenchymal stromal cells on the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in skeletal muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Nosi, Daniele; Tani, Alessia; Chellini, Flaminia [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy); Mazzanti, Benedetta [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Haematology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy); Quercioli, Franco [CNR-National Institute of Optics (INO), Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Arcetri-Florence (Italy); Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy); Formigli, Lucia, E-mail: formigli@unifi.it [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation improves healing of injured and diseased skeletal muscle, although the mechanisms of benefit are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether MSCs and/or their trophic factors were able to regulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity in different cells of the muscle tissue. MSCs in co-culture with C2C12 cells or their conditioned medium (MSC-CM) up-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and function in the myoblastic cells; these effects were concomitant with the down-regulation of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and -2 and with increased cell motility. In the single muscle fiber experiments, MSC-CM administration increased MMP-2/9 expression in Pax-7{sup +} satellite cells and stimulated their mobilization, differentiation and fusion. The anti-fibrotic properties of MSC-CM involved also the regulation of MMPs by skeletal fibroblasts and the inhibition of their differentiation into myofibroblasts. The treatment with SB-3CT, a potent MMP inhibitor, prevented in these cells, the decrease of α-smooth actin and type-I collagen expression induced by MSC-CM, suggesting that MSC-CM could attenuate the fibrogenic response through mechanisms mediated by MMPs. Our results indicate that growth factors and cytokines released by these cells may modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle repair/regeneration. - Highlights: • MSC-CM contains paracrine factors that up-regulate MMP expression and function in different skeletal muscle cells. • MSC-CM promotes myoblast and satellite cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. • MSC-CM negatively interferes with fibroblast-myoblast transition in primary skeletal fibroblasts. • Paracrine factors from MSCs modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle regeneration.

  9. Osthole enhances glucose uptake through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Hwa; Lin, Ren-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chien; Lin, Hsiu-Ming; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2011-12-28

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor that regulates cellular metabolism. Activation of AMPK in skeletal muscles, the liver, and adipose tissues results in a favorable metabolic milieu for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes, i.e., decreased levels of circulating glucose, plasma lipids, and ectopic fat accumulation and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Osthole was extracted from a Chinese herbal medicine, and we found that it had glucose lowering activity in our previous study. However, the detailed glucose lowering mechanisms of osthole are still unclear. In this study, we used skeletal muscle cells to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms of osthole's glucose lowering activity. A Western blot analysis revealed that osthole significantly induced phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Next, we found that osthole significantly increased the level of translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to plasma membranes and glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. Osthole-induced glucose uptake was reversed by treatment with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, suggesting that osthole-induced glucose uptake was mediated in an AMPK-dependent manner. The increase in the AMP:ATP ratio was involved in osthole's activation of AMPK. Finally, we found that osthole counteracted hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These results suggest that the increase in the AMP:ATP ratio by osthole triggered activation of the AMPK signaling pathway and led to increases in plasma membrane GLUT4 content and glucose uptake level. Therefore, osthole might have potential as an antidiabetic agent for treating diabetes. PMID:22098542

  10. Down-regulation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in response to myostatin overexpression in skeletal muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Amirouche, Adel; Durieux, Anne-Cécile; Banzet, Sébastien; Koulmann, Nathalie; Bonnefoy, Régis; Mouret, Catherine; Bigard, Xavier; Peinnequin, André; Freyssenet, Damien

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin, a member of the TGF-beta family, has been identified as a master regulator of embryonic myogenesis and early postnatal skeletal muscle growth. However, cumulative evidence also suggests that alterations in skeletal muscle mass are associated with dysregulation in myostatin expression and that myostatin may contribute to muscle mass loss in adulthood. Two major branches of the Akt pathway are relevant for the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin ...

  11. Implementation of skeletal muscle model with advanced activation control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocková H.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes main principles of an advanced skeletal muscle model. The proposed mathematical model is suitable for a 3D muscle representation. It respects the microstructure of the muscle which is represented by three basic components: active fibers, passive fibers and a matrix. For purposes of presented work the existing material models suitable for the matrix and passive fibers are used and a new active fiber model is proposed. The active fiber model is based on the sliding cross-bridge theory of contraction. This theory is often used in modeling of skeletal and cardiac muscle contractions. In this work, a certain simplification of the cross-bridge distribution function is proposed, so that the 3D computer implementation becomes feasible. The new active fiber model is implemented into our research finite element code. A simple 3D muscle bundle-like model is created and the implemented composite model (involving the matrix, passive and active fibers is used to perform the isometric, concentric and excentric muscle contraction simulations.

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of Acute Endurance Exercise-Induced Translational Regulation in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Sako, Hiroaki; Yada, Koichi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Exercise dynamically changes skeletal muscle protein synthesis to respond and adapt to the external and internal stimuli. Many studies have focused on overall protein synthesis to understand how exercise regulates the muscular adaptation. However, despite the probability that each gene transcript may have its own unique translational characteristics and would be differentially regulated at translational level, little attention has been paid to how exercise affects translational regulation of ...

  13. Skeletal muscle sarcolemma in malignant hyperthermia: evidence for a defect in calcium regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, J R; Ross, J A; Hyslop, R J; Gallant, E M; Louis, C F

    1987-03-12

    Sarcolemmal properties implicated in the skeletal muscle disorder, malignant hyperthermia (MH), were examined using sarcolemma-membrane vesicles isolated from normal and MH-susceptible (MHS) porcine skeletal muscle. MHS and normal sarcolemma did not differ in the distribution of the major proteins, cholesterol or phospholipid content, vesicle size and sidedness, (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity, ouabain binding, or adenylate cyclase activity (total and isoproterenol sensitivity). The regulation of the initial rates of MHS and normal sarcolemmal ATP-dependent calcium transport (calcium uptake after 1 min) by Ca2+ (K1/2 = 0.64-0.81 microM), calmodulin, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase were similar. However, when sarcolemmal calcium content was measured at either 2 or 20 min after the initiation of active calcium transport, a significant difference between MHS and normal sarcolemmal calcium uptake became apparent, with MHS sarcolemma accumulating approximately 25% less calcium than normal sarcolemma. Calcium transport by MHS and normal sarcolemma, at 2 or 20 min, had a similar calmodulin dependence (C1/2 = 150 nM), and was stimulated to a similar extent by cAMP-dependent protein kinase or calmodulin. Halothane inhibited MHS and normal sarcolemmal active calcium uptake in a similar fashion (half-maximal inhibition at 10 mM halothane), while dantrolene (30 microM) and nitrendipine (1 microM) had little effect on either MHS or normal sarcolemmal calcium transport. After 20 min of ATP-supported calcium uptake, 2 mM EGTA plus 10 microM sodium orthovanadate were added to initiate sarcolemmal calcium efflux. Following an initial rapid phase of calcium release, an extended slow phase of calcium efflux (k = 0.012 min-1) was similar for both MHS and normal sarcolemma vesicles. We conclude that although a number of sarcolemmal properties, including passive calcium permeability, are normal in MH, a small but significant defect in MHS sarcolemmal ATP-dependent calcium transport may

  14. Cytoskeleton, L-type Ca2+ and stretch activated channels in injured skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The extra-sarcomeric cytoskeleton (actin microfilaments and anchoring proteins is involved in maintaining the sarco-membrane stiffness and integrity and in turn the mechanical stability and function of the intra- and sub-sarcoplasmic proteins. Accordingly, it regulates Ca2+ entry through the L-type Ca2+ channels and the mechano-sensitivity of the stretch activated channels (SACs. Moreover, being intra-sarcomeric cytoskeleton bound to costameric proteins and other proteins of the sarcoplasma by intermediate filaments, as desmin, it integrates the properties of the sarcolemma with the skeletal muscle fibres contraction. The aim of this research was to compare the cytoskeleton, SACs and the ECC alterations in two different types of injured skeletal muscle fibres: by muscle denervation and mechanical overload (eccentric contraction. Experiments on denervation were made in isolated Soleus muscle of male Wistar rats; forced eccentric-contraction (EC injury was achieved in Extensor Digitorum Longus muscles of Swiss mice. The method employed conventional intracellular recording with microelectrodes inserted in a single fibre of an isolated skeletal muscle bundle. The state of cytoskeleton was evaluated by recording SAC currents and by evaluating the resting membrane potential (RMP value determined in current-clamp mode. The results demonstrated that in both injured skeletal muscle conditions the functionality of L-type Ca2+ current, ICa, was affected. In parallel, muscle fibres showed an increase of the resting membrane permeability and of the SAC current. These issues, together with a more depolarized RMP are an index of altered cytoskeleton. In conclusion, we found a symilar alteration of ICa, SAC and cytoskeleton in both injured skeletal muscle conditions.

  15. Regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and muscle mass by SIRT3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligen Lin

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that the expression of mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 is high in the slow oxidative muscle and that the expression of muscle SIRT3 level is increased by dietary restriction or exercise training. To explore the function of SIRT3 in skeletal muscle, we report here the establishment of a transgenic mouse model with muscle-specific expression of the murine SIRT3 short isoform (SIRT3M3. Calorimetry study revealed that the transgenic mice had increased energy expenditure and lower respiratory exchange rate (RER, indicating a shift towards lipid oxidation for fuel usage, compared to control mice. The transgenic mice exhibited better exercise performance on treadmills, running 45% further than control animals. Moreover, the transgenic mice displayed higher proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibers, with increased muscle AMPK activation and PPARδ expression, both of which are known regulators promoting type I muscle fiber specification. Surprisingly, transgenic expression of SIRT3M3 reduced muscle mass up to 30%, likely through an up-regulation of FOXO1 transcription factor and its downstream atrophy gene MuRF-1. In summary, these results suggest that SIRT3 regulates the formation of oxidative muscle fiber, improves muscle metabolic function, and reduces muscle mass, changes that mimic the effects of caloric restriction.

  16. Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta localization in skeletal muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with syntrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H

    2003-11-01

    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis. PMID:14551255

  17. Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta localization in skeletal muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with syntrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H

    2003-11-01

    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis.

  18. Adiponectin Increases Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis by Suppressing Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase-1

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Liping; Kinney, Brice; Yoo, Hyung sun; Lee, Bonggi; Schaack, Jerome; Shao, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms through which adiponectin induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial contents, expression, and activation status of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) were compared between skeletal muscle samples from adiponectin gene knockout, adiponectin-reconstituted, and control mice. Adenovi...

  19. Differential regulation of oxytocin receptor in various adipose tissue depots and skeletal muscle types in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosechova, L; Krskova, K; Olszanecki, R; Zorad, S

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional peptide oxytocin currently undergoes intensive research due to its proposed anti-obesity properties. Until now, little is known about regulation of oxytocin receptor in metabolically active tissues in obesity. The aim of the present study was to measure expression of oxytocin receptor upon obese phenotype with respect to the variety among adipose tissue and skeletal muscles with distinct anatomical localisation. Total homogenates were prepared from epididymal, retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissues as well as quadriceps and soleus muscle from lean and obese Zucker rats. Oxytocin receptor protein was determined by immunoblot. Interestingly, elevated oxytocin receptor was observed in epididymal adipose tissue of obese rats in contrast to its downregulation in subcutaneous and no change in retroperitoneal fat. In lean animals, oxytocin receptor protein was expressed at similar levels in all adipose depots. This uniformity was not observed in the case of skeletal muscle in which fibre type composition seems to be determinant of oxytocin receptor expression. Quadriceps muscle with the predominance of glycolytic fibres exhibits higher oxytocin receptor expression than almost exclusively oxidative soleus muscle. Oxytocin receptor protein levels were decreased in both skeletal muscles analysed upon obese phenotype. The present work demonstrates that even under identical endocrine circumstances, oxytocin receptor is differentially regulated in adipose tissue of obese rats depending on fat depot localisation. These results also imply which tissues may be preferentially targeted by oxytocin treatment in metabolic disease.

  20. Conservation of Skeletal Regulators in the Fish Model Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Renn, J.; Koester, R.; Goerlich, R.; Schartl, M.; Winkler, C.

    Small aquarium fish species, like the well known zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the related Medaka (Oryzias latipes) represent vertebrate models that offer many advantages to study biomineralization in vivo. These fish produce large numbers of completely transparent embryos, thus allowing real-time analysis of skeletal development in living specimens. Using the calcium-binding fluorochrome Calcein and confocal laser scanning microscopy in Medaka, we followed the formation of calcified bone from day 6 of embryonic development until day 20 post hatching. To establish fish as models for human bone disease, we furthermore isolated 11 genes in medaka, the orthologs of which are known to be important regulators of osteoblast, osteoclast and chondrocyte formation in human. We show that these genes are highly conserved between fish and mammals in both sequence and expression pattern. This includes osteonectin, the major non-collagenous component of the mammalian bone matrix. Medaka osteonectin is expressed in osteoblasts and chondrocytes, e.g. in the developing vertebrae. For functional characterization of all these skeletal factors, they are ectopically expressed after gene transfer into fish embryos and their effect on bone formation is analyzed by Calcein staining in developing fish in vivo. Alternatively, the activity of these factors can be blocked by antisense oligonucleotide mediated gene knock-down. In addition, the Medaka offers the unique opportunity to study biomineralization processes in fish in vitro by using embryonic stem (ES) cells. In an approach to study calcification events at the cellular level, candidate genes will be ectopically expressed in these ES cells, thereby driving differentiation of stem cells into the osteoblast lineage. Acknowledgement: This work is supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (50 WB 0152) and the European Space Agency (AO-LS-99-MAP-LSS-003).

  1. The bone morphogenetic protein axis is a positive regulator of skeletal muscle mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin L.; Qian, Hongwei; Liu, Yingying; Bernardo, Bianca C.; Beyer, Claudia; Watt, Kevin I.; Thomson, Rachel E.; Connor, Timothy; Turner, Bradley J.; McMullen, Julie R.; Larsson, Lars; McGee, Sean L.; Harrison, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the canonical transforming growth factor β signaling pathway represses skeletal muscle growth and promotes muscle wasting, a role in muscle for the parallel bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway has not been defined. We report, for the first time, that the BMP pathway is a positive regulator of muscle mass. Increasing the expression of BMP7 or the activity of BMP receptors in muscles induced hypertrophy that was dependent on Smad1/5-mediated activation of mTOR signaling. In agreement, we observed that BMP signaling is augmented in models of muscle growth. Importantly, stimulation of BMP signaling is essential for conservation of muscle mass after disruption of the neuromuscular junction. Inhibiting the phosphorylation of Smad1/5 exacerbated denervation-induced muscle atrophy via an HDAC4-myogenin–dependent process, whereas increased BMP–Smad1/5 activity protected muscles from denervation-induced wasting. Our studies highlight a novel role for the BMP signaling pathway in promoting muscle growth and inhibiting muscle wasting, which may have significant implications for the development of therapeutics for neuromuscular disorders. PMID:24145169

  2. Regulation of exercise-induced lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordy, Andreas Børsting; Kiens, Bente

    2014-01-01

    Exercise increases the utilization of lipids in muscle. The sources of lipids are long-chain fatty acids taken up from the plasma and fatty acids released from stores of intramuscular triacylglycerol by the action of intramuscular lipases. In the present review, we focus on the role of fatty acid...... binding proteins, particularly fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), in the exercise- and contraction-induced increase in uptake of long-chain fatty acids in muscle. The FAT/CD36 translocates from intracellular depots to the surface membrane upon initiation of exercise...... triglyceride lipase in regulation of muscle lipolysis. Although the molecular regulation of the lipases in muscle is not understood, it is speculated that intramuscular lipolysis may be regulated in part by the availability of the plasma concentration of long-chain fatty acids....

  3. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity and skeletal muscle metabolism in the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Flynn

    Full Text Available Although skeletal muscle metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, little is known about how it is regulated at the transcriptional level. The myogenic transcription factor myogenin is required for skeletal muscle development during embryonic and fetal life, but myogenin's role in adult skeletal muscle is unclear. We sought to determine myogenin's function in adult muscle metabolism. A Myog conditional allele and Cre-ER transgene were used to delete Myog in adult mice. Mice were analyzed for exercise capacity by involuntary treadmill running. To assess oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, we performed indirect calorimetry, monitored blood glucose and lactate levels, and performed histochemical analyses on muscle fibers. Surprisingly, we found that Myog-deleted mice performed significantly better than controls in high- and low-intensity treadmill running. This enhanced exercise capacity was due to more efficient oxidative metabolism during low- and high-intensity exercise and more efficient glycolytic metabolism during high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, Myog-deleted mice had an enhanced response to long-term voluntary exercise training on running wheels. We identified several candidate genes whose expression was altered in exercise-stressed muscle of mice lacking myogenin. The results suggest that myogenin plays a critical role as a high-level transcriptional regulator to control the energy balance between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in adult skeletal muscle.

  4. Purinergic effects on Na,K-ATPase activity differ in rat and human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    P2Y receptor activation may link the effect of purines to increased maximal in vitro activity of the Na,K-ATPase in rat muscle. The hypothesis that a similar mechanism is present in human skeletal muscle was investigated with membranes from rat and human skeletal muscle....

  5. SIRT1 activation by pterostilbene attenuates the skeletal muscle oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yedong; Di, Shouyin; Fan, Chongxi; Cai, Liping; Gao, Chao; Jiang, Peng; Hu, Wei; Ma, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Dong, Yushu; Li, Tian; Wu, Guiling; Lv, Jianjun; Yang, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is harmful to skeletal muscles and causes mitochondrial oxidative stress. Pterostilbene (PTE), an analogue of resveratrol, has organic protective effects against oxidative stress. However, no studies have investigated whether PTE can protect against IR-related skeletal muscular injury. In this study, we sought to evaluate the protective effect of PTE against IR-related skeletal muscle injury and to determine the mechanisms in this process. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with PTE for a week and then underwent limb IR surgery. The IR injury induced segmental necrosis and apoptosis, myofilament disintegration, thicker interstitial spaces, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in the muscular tissue was inhibited, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde concentration and myeloperoxidase activity were up-regulated, and superoxide dismutase was down-regulated after IR. However, these effects were significantly inhibited by PTE in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism underlying IR injury is attributed to the down-regulation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1)-FOXO1/p53 pathway and the increase of the Bax/Bcl2 ratio, Cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1, Cleaved Caspase 3, which can be reversed with PTE. Furthermore, EX527, an SIRT1 inhibitor, counteracted the protective effects of PTE on IR-related muscle injury. In conclusion, PTE has protective properties against IR injury of the skeletal muscles. The mechanism of this protective effect depends on the activation of the SIRT1-FOXO1/p53 signaling pathway and the decrease of the apoptotic ratio in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:27270300

  6. Conditional Activation of Akt in Adult Skeletal Muscle Induces Rapid Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ka-Man V.; Gonzalez, Michael; Poueymirou, William T.; Kline, William O.; Na, Erqian; Zlotchenko, Elizabeth; Stitt, Trevor N.; Economides, Aris N.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Glass, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a severe morbidity caused by a variety of conditions, including cachexia, cancer, AIDS, prolonged bedrest, and diabetes. One strategy in the treatment of atrophy is to induce the pathways normally leading to skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The pathways that are sufficient to induce hypertrophy in skeletal muscle have been the subject of some controversy. We describe here the use of a novel method to produce a transgenic mouse in which a constitutively active form of Ak...

  7. Factors regulating fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Alsted, Thomas Junker; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    sensitivity. Consequently, enhanced fat oxidation might be beneficial in counteracting lipid accumulation. Exercise is the most effective way to increase fat oxidation, because it increases metabolic rate. Lipid metabolism can also be altered by dietary manipulations. Thus, a fat rich diet leads to increased...... potential for fat oxidation by increasing the content of several of the proteins in the fat oxidative pathway. The regulation of both exercise and diet induced lipid oxidation will be discussed in this review....

  8. Effects of exercise training on regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse;

    2015-01-01

    dehydrogenase (PDH)-E1α, PDK2 protein, and glycogen content in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, in response to glucose, GS activity was increased and the dephosphorylation of GS site 2 + 2a and 3a was enhanced after the training intervention. The glucose-mediated insulin stimulation of TBC1D4 Thr(642...

  9. Identification of microRNAs linked to regulators of muscle protein synthesis and regeneration in young and old skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Zacharewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the course of ageing there is a natural and progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass. The onset and progression of age-related muscle wasting is associated with an attenuated activation of Akt-mTOR signalling and muscle protein synthesis in response to anabolic stimuli such as resistance exercise. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are novel and important post-transcriptional regulators of numerous cellular processes. The role of miRNAs in the regulation of muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise is poorly understood. This study investigated the changes in skeletal muscle miRNA expression following an acute bout of resistance exercise in young and old subjects with a focus on the miRNA species predicted to target Akt-mTOR signalling. RESULTS: Ten young (24.2±0.9 years and 10 old (66.6±1.1 years males completed an acute resistance exercise bout known to maximise muscle protein synthesis, with muscle biopsies collected before and 2 hours after exercise. We screened the expression of 754 miRNAs in the muscle biopsies and found 26 miRNAs to be regulated with age, exercise or a combination of both factors. Nine of these miRNAs are highly predicted to regulate targets within the Akt-mTOR signalling pathway and 5 miRNAs have validated binding sites within the 3' UTRs of several members of the Akt-mTOR signalling pathway. The miR-99/100 family of miRNAs notably emerged as potentially important regulators of skeletal muscle mass in young and old subjects. CONCLUSION: This study has identified several miRNAs that were regulated with age or with a single bout of resistance exercise. Some of these miRNAs were predicted to influence Akt-mTOR signalling, and therefore potentially skeletal muscle mass. These miRNAs should be considered as candidate targets for in vivo modulation.

  10. Kruppel-like factor 15 regulates skeletal muscle lipid flux and exercise adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Saptarsi M; Jeyaraj, Darwin; Anand, Priti; Zhu, Han; Lu, Yuan; Prosdocimo, Domenick A; Eapen, Betty; Kawanami, Daiji; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Brotto, Leticia; Fujioka, Hisashi; Kerner, Janos; Rosca, Mariana G; McGuinness, Owen P; Snow, Rod J; Russell, Aaron P; Gerber, Anthony N; Bai, Xiaodong; Yan, Zhen; Nosek, Thomas M; Brotto, Marco; Hoppel, Charles L; Jain, Mukesh K

    2012-04-24

    The ability of skeletal muscle to enhance lipid utilization during exercise is a form of metabolic plasticity essential for survival. Conversely, metabolic inflexibility in muscle can cause organ dysfunction and disease. Although the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is an important regulator of glucose and amino acid metabolism, its endogenous role in lipid homeostasis and muscle physiology is unknown. Here we demonstrate that KLF15 is essential for skeletal muscle lipid utilization and physiologic performance. KLF15 directly regulates a broad transcriptional program spanning all major segments of the lipid-flux pathway in muscle. Consequently, Klf15-deficient mice have abnormal lipid and energy flux, excessive reliance on carbohydrate fuels, exaggerated muscle fatigue, and impaired endurance exercise capacity. Elucidation of this heretofore unrecognized role for KLF15 now implicates this factor as a central component of the transcriptional circuitry that coordinates physiologic flux of all three basic cellular nutrients: glucose, amino acids, and lipids. PMID:22493257

  11. Aging affects the transcriptional regulation of human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Suetta

    Full Text Available Important insights concerning the molecular basis of skeletal muscle disuse-atrophy and aging related muscle loss have been obtained in cell culture and animal models, but these regulatory signaling pathways have not previously been studied in aging human muscle. In the present study, muscle atrophy was induced by immobilization in healthy old and young individuals to study the time-course and transcriptional factors underlying human skeletal muscle atrophy. The results reveal that irrespectively of age, mRNA expression levels of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 increased in the very initial phase (2-4 days of human disuse-muscle atrophy along with a marked reduction in PGC-1α and PGC-1β (1-4 days and a ~10% decrease in myofiber size (4 days. Further, an age-specific decrease in Akt and S6 phosphorylation was observed in young muscle within the first days (1-4 days of immobilization. In contrast, Akt phosphorylation was unchanged in old muscle after 2 days and increased after 4 days of immobilization. Further, an age-specific down-regulation of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 expression levels was observed following 2 weeks of immobilization, along with a slowing atrophy response in aged skeletal muscle. Neither the immediate loss of muscle mass, nor the subsequent age-differentiated signaling responses could be explained by changes in inflammatory mediators, apoptosis markers or autophagy indicators. Collectively, these findings indicate that the time-course and regulation of human skeletal muscle atrophy is age dependent, leading to an attenuated loss in aging skeletal muscle when exposed to longer periods of immobility-induced disuse.

  12. Regulation of Nutrient Metabolism in Equine Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Suagee, Jessica Kanekakenre

    2010-01-01

    Glucose and lipid metabolism are dysregulated in obese horses. Altered glucose metabolism is evidenced by the development of insulin resistance and increased fasting plasma insulin concentrations (hyperinsulinemia) while altered lipid metabolism is evidenced by increased plasma lipid concentrations. Obesity in horses also increases the risk of the painful hoof disease, laminitis. Three experiments were performed to investigate the regulation of nutrient metabolism in skeletal muscle and adip...

  13. Nur77 coordinately regulates expression of genes linked to glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Lily C.; Zhang, Zidong; Pei, Liming; Saito, Tsugumichi; Tontonoz, Peter; Pilch, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    Innervation is important for normal metabolism in skeletal muscle, including insulin-sensitive glucose uptake. However, the transcription factors that transduce signals from the neuromuscular junction to the nucleus and affect changes in metabolic gene expression are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is a regulator of gene expression linked to glucose utilization in muscle. In vivo, Nur77 is preferentially expressed in glycolytic compared to oxidativ...

  14. Diacylglycerol Kinase-ζ Localization in Skeletal Muscle Is Regulated by Phosphorylation and Interaction with Syntrophins

    OpenAIRE

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B.; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K.; Gee, Stephen H.

    2003-01-01

    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-ζ (DGK-ζ), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-ζ form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-ζ MARCKS domain. DGK-ζ mutants that do not ...

  15. Expression of angiogenic regulators and skeletal muscle capillarity in selectively bred high aerobic capacity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Gerald N; Meek, Thomas H; Garland, Theodore; Olfert, I Mark

    2011-11-01

    Selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running in untrained mice has resulted in a 'mini muscle' (MM) phenotype, which has increased skeletal muscle capillarity compared with muscles from non-selected control lines. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) are essential mediators of skeletal muscle angiogenesis; thus, we hypothesized that untrained MM mice with elevated muscle capillarity would have higher basal VEGF expression and lower basal TSP-1 expression, and potentially an exaggerated VEGF response to acute exercise. We examined skeletal muscle morphology and skeletal muscle protein expression of VEGF and TSP-1 in male mice from two (untrained) mouse lines selectively bred for high exercise capacity (MM and Non-MM), as well as one non-selected control mouse line (normal aerobic capacity). In the MM mice, gastrocnemius (GA) and plantaris (PLT) muscle capillarity (i.e. capillary-to-fibre ratio and capillary density) were greater compared with control mice (P capillarity in PLT was greater than in control mice (P capillarity among groups. In the GA, MM mice had 58% greater basal VEGF (P capillarity is associated with altered balance between positive and negative angiogenic regulators (i.e. VEGF versus TSP-1, respectively). Based on the greater capillarity and significant VEGF response to exercise in MM mice, these data suggest that VEGF expression may, at least in part, be genetically determined.

  16. Rev-erb beta regulates the Srebp-1c promoter and mRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Sathiya N.; Lau, Patrick; Crowther, Lisa M. [The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Cleasby, Mark E. [Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent' s Hospital, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW 2010 (Australia); Millard, Susan; Leong, Gary M. [The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Cooney, Gregory J. [Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent' s Hospital, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW 2010 (Australia); Muscat, George E.O., E-mail: g.muscat@imb.uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2009-10-30

    The nuclear hormone receptor, Rev-erb beta operates as a transcriptional silencer. We previously demonstrated that exogenous expression of Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E in skeletal muscle cells increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. We validated these in vitro observations by injection of an expression vector driving Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E expression into mouse tibialis muscle that resulted in increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. Paradoxically, Rev-erb{beta} siRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells repressed Srebp-1c expression, and indicated that Rev-erb{beta} expression was necessary for Srebp-1c expression. ChIP analysis demonstrated that Rev-erb{beta} was recruited to the Srebp-1c promoter. Moreover, Rev-erb{beta} trans-activated the Srebp-1c promoter, in contrast, Rev-erb{beta} efficiently repressed the Rev-erb{alpha} promoter, a previously characterized target gene. Finally, treatment with the Rev-erb agonist (hemin) (i) increased the trans-activation of the Srebp-1c promoter by Rev-erb{beta}; and (ii) increased Rev-erb{beta} and Srebp-1c mRNA expression. These data suggest that Rev-erb{beta} has the potential to activate gene expression, and is a positive regulator of Srebp-1c, a regulator of lipogenesis.

  17. Skeletal muscle interleukin-6 regulates metabolic factors in iWAT during HFD and exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet; Bertholdt, Lærke; Joensen, Ella;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of skeletal muscle (SkM) interleukin (IL)-6 in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism. METHODS: Muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) and IL-6(loxP/loxP) (Floxed) mice were subjected to standard rodent diet (Chow), high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD in...... combination with exercise training (HFD ExTr) for 16 weeks. RESULTS: Total fat mass increased (P < 0.05) in both genotypes with HFD. However, HFD IL-6 MKO mice had lower (P < 0.05) inguinal adipose tissue (iWAT) mass than HFD Floxed mice. Accordingly, iWAT glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein content, 5'AMP...... activated protein kinase (AMPK)(Thr172) phosphorylation, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA content were lower (P < 0.05) in IL-6 MKO than Floxed mice on Chow. In addition, iWAT AMPK(Thr172) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)(Ser565) phosphorylation as well as perilipin protein content was higher (P < 0...

  18. Physical activity-induced remodeling of vasculature in skeletal muscle: role in treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M Harold

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes and discusses adaptations of skeletal muscle vasculature induced by physical activity and applies this understanding to benefits of exercise in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Arteriolar trees of skeletal muscle are heterogeneous. Exercise training increases capillary exchange and blood flow capacities. The distribution of vascular adaptation to different types of exercise training are influenced by muscle fiber type composition and fiber recruitment patterns that produce different modes of exercise. Thus training-induced adaptations in vascular structure and vascular control in skeletal muscle are not homogeneously distributed throughout skeletal muscle or along the arteriolar tree within a muscle. Results summarized indicate that similar principles apply to vascular adaptation in skeletal muscle in T2D. It is concluded that exercise training-induced changes in vascular gene expression differ along the arteriolar tree and by skeletal muscle fiber type composition. Results suggest that it is unlikely that hemodynamic forces are the only exercise-induced signals mediating the regulation of vascular gene expression. In patients with T2D, exercise training is perhaps the most effective treatment of the many related symptoms. Training-induced changes in the vasculature and in insulin signaling in the muscle fibers and vasculature augment glucose and insulin delivery as well as glucose uptake. If these adaptations occur in a sufficient amount of muscle mass, exposure to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia will decrease along with the risk of microvascular complications throughout the body. It is postulated that exercise sessions in programs of sufficient duration, that engage as much skeletal muscle mass as possible, and that recruit as many muscle fibers within each muscle as possible will produce the greatest benefit. The added benefit of combined resistance and aerobic training programs and of high-intensity exercise

  19. Post-exercise impact of ingested whey protein hydrolysate on gene expression profiles in rat skeletal muscle: activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsushi; Ishijima, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Fumika; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Nakai, Yuji; Abe, Keiko; Kawahata, Keiko; Ikegami, Shuji

    2014-06-28

    We have previously shown that whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) causes a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than does a mixture of amino acids that is identical in amino acid composition. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of WPH on gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a 2 h swimming exercise were administered either a carbohydrate-amino acid diet or a carbohydrate-WPH diet immediately after exercise. At 1 h after exercise, epitrochlearis muscle mRNA was sampled and subjected to DNA microarray analysis. We found that ingestion of WPH altered 189 genes after considering the false discovery rate. Among the up-regulated genes, eight Gene Ontology (GO) terms were enriched, which included key elements such as Cd24, Ccl2, Ccl7 and Cxcl1 involved in muscle repair after exercise. In contrast, nine GO terms were enriched in gene sets that were down-regulated by the ingestion of WPH, and these GO terms fell into two clusters, 'regulation of ATPase activity' and 'immune response'. Furthermore, we found that WPH activated two upstream proteins, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which might act as key factors for regulating gene expression. These results suggest that ingestion of WPH, compared with ingestion of a mixture of amino acids with an identical amino acid composition, induces greater changes in the post-exercise gene expression profile via activation of the proteins ERK1/2 and HIF-1α. PMID:24598469

  20. Higher skeletal muscle alpha2AMPK activation and lower energy charge and fat oxidation in men than in women during submaximal exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Thiele, Maja; Hillig, Thore;

    2006-01-01

    5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor activated by perturbed cellular energy status such as during muscle contraction. Activated AMPK is thought to regulate several key metabolic pathways. We used sex comparison to investigate whether AMPK signalling in skeletal muscle regulat...... fat oxidation during exercise....

  1. Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2) and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Layman, Donald K; Anthony, Tracy G.; Garlick, Peter J.; Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu) and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements ...

  2. Skeletal muscle plasticity: cellular and molecular responses to altered physical activity paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Haddad, Fadia

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine our current understanding of the chain of events known to be involved in the adaptive process whereby specific genes and their protein products undergo altered expression; specifically, skeletal muscle adaptation in response to altered loading states will be discussed, with a special focus on the regulation of the contractile protein, myosin heavy chain gene expression. This protein, which is both an important structural and regulatory protein comprising the contractile apparatus, can be expressed as different isoforms, thereby having an impact on the functional diversity of the muscle. Because the regulation of the myosin gene family is under the control of a complex set of processes including, but not limited to, activity, hormonal, and metabolic factors, this protein will serve as a cellular "marker" for studies of muscle plasticity in response to various mechanical perturbations in which the quantity and type of myosin isoform, along with other important cellular proteins, are altered in expression.

  3. Increased skeletal muscle glucose uptake by rosemary extract through AMPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Madina; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Stamatatos, Theocharis C; Alexandropoulos, Dimitris I; Tsiani, Evangelia

    2015-04-01

    Stimulation of the energy sensor AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) has been viewed as a targeted approach to increase glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and control blood glucose homeostasis. Rosemary extract (RE) has been reported to activate AMPK in hepatocytes and reduce blood glucose levels in vivo but its effects on skeletal muscle are not known. In the present study, we examined the effects of RE and the mechanism of regulation of glucose uptake in muscle cells. RE stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Maximum stimulation was seen with 5 μg/mL of RE for 4 h (184% ± 5.07% of control, p < 0.001), a response comparable to maximum insulin (207% ± 5.26%, p < 0.001) and metformin (216% ± 8.77%, p < 0.001) stimulation. RE did not affect insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt phosphorylation but significantly increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation. Furthermore, the RE-stimulated glucose uptake was significantly reduced by the AMPK inhibitor compound C, but remained unchanged by the PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin. RE did not affect GLUT4 or GLUT1 glucose transporter translocation in contrast with a significant translocation of both transporters seen with insulin or metformin treatment. Our study is the first to show a direct effect of RE on muscle cell glucose uptake by a mechanism that involves AMPK activation. PMID:25794239

  4. Effect of vanadate on glucose transporter (GLUT4) intrinsic activity in skeletal muscle plasma membrane giant vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Youn, J; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    vanadate (NaVO3) on glucose transporter (GLUT4) intrinsic activity (V(max) = intrinsic activity x [GLUT4 protein]) was studied in muscle plasma membrane giant vesicles. Giant vesicles (average diameter 7.6 microns) were produced by collagenase treatment of rat skeletal muscle. The vesicles were incubated......) 55% and 60%, respectively, compared with control. The plasma membrane GLUT4 protein content was not changed in response to vanadate. It is concluded that vanadate decreased glucose transport per GLUT4 (intrinsic activity). This finding suggests that regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle......Maximally effective concentrations of vanadate (a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) increase glucose transport in muscle less than maximal insulin stimulation. This might be due to vanadate-induced decreased intrinsic activity of GLUT4 accompanying GLUT4 translocation. Thus, the effect of...

  5. Muscle specific microRNAs are regulated by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Scheele, Camilla; Yfanti, Christina;

    2010-01-01

    of all four myomiRs (P training expression levels 14 days after ceasing the training programme. Components of major pathways involved in endurance adaptation such as MAPK and TGF-ß were predicted to be targeted by the myomiRs examined. Tested......, but their role in regulating human skeletal muscle adaptation remains unknown.......Muscle specific miRNAs, myomiRs, have been shown to control muscle development in vitro and are differentially expressed at rest in diabetic skeletal muscle. Therefore, we investigated the expression of these myomiRs, including miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-206 in muscle biopsies from vastus...

  6. Genetically Determined Insulin Resistance is Characterized by Down-Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas M; Skov, Vibe; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    mitochondrial dysfunction is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance remains to be clarified. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was down-regulated in skeletal muscle of patients with genetically determined insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle biopsies......Transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and high-risk individuals have demonstrated a co-ordinated down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) genes, suggesting a link between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, whether.......02), and complex V (ATP5B; p=0.005). Our data demonstrate that genetically determined insulin resistance is associated with a co-ordinated down-regulation of OxPhos components both at the transcriptional and translational level. These findings suggest that an impaired biological response to insulin in skeletal...

  7. Human telomerase activity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtyla, Aneta; Gladych, Marta; Rubis, Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase has been recognized as a relevant factor distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells. Thus, it has become a very promising target for anticancer therapy. The cell proliferative potential can be limited by replication end problem, due to telomeres shortening, which is overcome in cancer cells by telomerase activity or by alternative telomeres lengthening (ALT) mechanism. However, this multisubunit enzymatic complex can be regulated at various levels, including expression control b...

  8. Diabetes-Related Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARP/Ankrd23 Modifies Glucose Homeostasis by Modulating AMPK Activity in Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Shimoda

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is the major site for glucose disposal, the impairment of which closely associates with the glucose intolerance in diabetic patients. Diabetes-related ankyrin repeat protein (DARP/Ankrd23 is a member of muscle ankyrin repeat proteins, whose expression is enhanced in the skeletal muscle under diabetic conditions; however, its role in energy metabolism remains poorly understood. Here we report a novel role of DARP in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through modulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. DARP is highly preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle, and its expression was substantially upregulated during myotube differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Interestingly, DARP-/- mice demonstrated better glucose tolerance despite similar body weight, while their insulin sensitivity did not differ from that in wildtype mice. We found that phosphorylation of AMPK, which mediates insulin-independent glucose uptake, in skeletal muscle was significantly enhanced in DARP-/- mice compared to that in wildtype mice. Gene silencing of DARP in C2C12 myotubes enhanced AMPK phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of DARP in C2C12 myoblasts reduced it. Moreover, DARP-silencing increased glucose uptake and oxidation in myotubes, which was abrogated by the treatment with AICAR, an AMPK activator. Of note, improved glucose tolerance in DARP-/- mice was abolished when mice were treated with AICAR. Mechanistically, gene silencing of DARP enhanced protein expression of LKB1 that is a major upstream kinase for AMPK in myotubes in vitro and the skeletal muscle in vivo. Together with the altered expression under diabetic conditions, our data strongly suggest that DARP plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions, and thus DARP is a new therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Bioelectrochemical control mechanism with variable——frequency regulation for skeletal muscle contraction——Biomechanics of skeletal muscle based on the working mechanism of myosin motors (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN YueHong; CHEN Xing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a bioelectrochemical model for the activation of action potentials on sarcolemma and variation of Ca2+ concentration in sarcomeres of skeletal muscle fibers.The control mechanism of muscle contraction generated by collective motion of molecular motors is elucidated from the perspective of variable-frequency regulation,and action potential with variable frequency is proposed as the control signal to directly regulate Ca2+ concentration and indirectly control isomctric tension.Furthermore,the transfer function between stimulation frequency and Ca2+ concentration is deduced,and the frequency domain properties of muscle contraction are analyzed.Moreover the conception of "electro-muscular time constant" is defined to denote the minimum delay time from electric stimulation to muscle contraction.Finally,the experimental research aiming at the relation between tension and stimulation frequency of action potential is implemented to verify the proposed variable-frequency control mechanism,whose effectiveness is proved by good consistence between experimental and theoretical results.

  10. Centrifugation of Cultured Osteoblasts And Macrophages as a Model To Study How Gravity Regulates The Function of Skeletal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth K.; Searby, Nancy D.; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.; Sutijono, Darrell; Yu, Joon-Ho; Malouvier, Alexander; Doty, Steven B.; Morey-Holton, Emily; Weinstein, Steven L.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical loading helps define the architecture of weight-bearing bone via the tightly regulated process of skeletal turnover. Turnover occurs by the concerted activity of osteoblasts, responsible for bone formation. and osteoclasts, responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclasts are specialized megakaryon macrophages, which differentiate from monocytes in response to resorption stimuli, such as reduced weight-bearing. Habitation in space dramatically alters musculoskeletal loading, which modulates both cell function and bone structure. Our long-term objective is to define the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate skeletal adaptations to altered gravity environments. Our experimental approach is to apply hypergravity loads by centrifugation to rodents and cultured cells. As a first step, we examined the influence of centrifugation on the structure of cancellous bone in rats to test the ability of hypergravity to change skeletal architecture. Since cancellous bone undergoes rapid turnover we expected the most dramatic structural changes to occur in the shape of trabeculae of weight-bearing, cancellous bone. To define the cellular responses to hypergravity loads, we exposed cultured osteoblasts and macrophages to centrifugation. The intraosseous and intramedullary pressures within long bones in vivo reportedly range from 12-40 mm Hg, which would correspond to 18-59 gravity (g) in our cultures. We assumed that hydrostatic pressure from the medium above the cell layer is at least one major component of the mechanical load generated by centrifuging cultured cells. and therefore we exposed the cells to 10-50g. In osteoblasts, we examined the structure of their actin and microtubule networks, production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cell survival. Analysis of the shape of the cytoskeletal networks provides evidence for the ability of centrifugation to affect cell structure, while the production of PGE2 serves as a convenient marker for mechanical stimulation. We

  11. Mouse Skeletal Muscle Fiber-Type-Specific Macroautophagy and Muscle Wasting Are Regulated by a Fyn/STAT3/Vps34 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijiro Yamada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy induced by aging (sarcopenia, inactivity, and prolonged fasting states (starvation is predominantly restricted to glycolytic type II muscle fibers and typical spares oxidative type I fibers. However, the mechanisms accounting for muscle fiber-type specificity of atrophy have remained enigmatic. In the current study, although the Fyn tyrosine kinase activated the mTORC1 signaling complex, it also induced marked atrophy of glycolytic fibers with relatively less effect on oxidative muscle fibers. This was due to inhibition of macroautophagy via an mTORC1-independent but STAT3-dependent reduction in Vps34 protein levels and decreased Vps34/p150/Beclin1/Atg14 complex 1. Physiologically, in the fed state endogenous Fyn kinase activity was increased in glycolytic but not oxidative skeletal muscle. In parallel, Y705-STAT3 phosphorylation increased with decreased Vps34 protein levels. Moreover, fed/starved regulation of Y705-STAT3 phosphorylation and Vps34 protein levels was prevented in skeletal muscle of Fyn null mice. These data demonstrate a Fyn/STAT3/Vps34 pathway that is responsible for fiber-type-specific regulation of macroautophagy and skeletal muscle atrophy.

  12. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    pharmacological effect of elevating serotonin levels in anxiety regulation. Recent animal and human functional magnetic resonance studies have pointed to a specific involvement of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A serotonin receptor in the PFC feedback regulatory projection onto the amygdala. This receptor...... of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings...... of a regulatory effect of the PFC on the emotional control of our actions....

  13. Exercise stimulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human skeletal muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Aronson, D; Violan, M A; Dufresne, S D; Zangen, D; FIELDING, R.A.; Goodyear, L J

    1997-01-01

    Physical exercise can cause marked alterations in the structure and function of human skeletal muscle. However, little is known about the specific signaling molecules and pathways that enable exercise to modulate cellular processes in skeletal muscle. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a major signaling system by which cells transduce extracellular signals into intracellular responses. We tested the hypothesis that a single bout of exercise activates the MAPK signaling pat...

  14. Growth hormone promotes skeletal muscle cell fusion independent of insulin-like growth factor 1 up-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Ohanna, Mickaël; Kedzia, Cécile; Menon, Ram K.; Kopchick, John J.; Kelly, Paul A; Pende, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) participates in the postnatal regulation of skeletal muscle growth, although the mechanism of action is unclear. Here we show that the mass of skeletal muscles lacking GH receptors is reduced because of a decrease in myofiber size with normal myofiber number. GH signaling controls the size of the differentiated myotubes in a cell-autonomous manner while having no effect on size, proliferation, and differentiation of the myoblast precursor cells. The GH hypertrophic action ...

  15. Yap1 Regulates Multiple Steps of Chondrocyte Differentiation during Skeletal Development and Bone Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Deng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hippo signaling controls organ size and tissue regeneration in many organs, but its roles in chondrocyte differentiation and bone repair remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that Yap1, an effector of Hippo pathway inhibits skeletal development, postnatal growth, and bone repair. We show that Yap1 regulates chondrocyte differentiation at multiple steps in which it promotes early chondrocyte proliferation but inhibits subsequent chondrocyte maturation both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we find that Yap1 requires Teads binding for direct regulation of Sox6 expression to promote chondrocyte proliferation. In contrast, Yap1 inhibits chondrocyte maturation by suppression of Col10a1 expression through interaction with Runx2. In addition, Yap1 also governs the initiation of fracture repair by inhibition of cartilaginous callus tissue formation. Taken together, our work provides insights into the mechanism by which Yap1 regulates endochondral ossification, which may help the development of therapeutic treatment for bone regeneration.

  16. Catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2015-07-01

    It is intriguing how multiple molecular motors can perform coordinated and synchronous functions, which is essential in various cellular processes. Recent studies on skeletal muscle might have shed light on this issue, where rather precise motor force regulation was partly attributed to the specific stochastic features of a single attached myosin motor. Though attached motors can randomly detach from actin filaments either through an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis cycle or through "catch-slip bond" breaking, their respective contribution in motor force regulation has not been clarified. Here, through simulating a mechanical model of sarcomere with a coupled Monte Carlo method and finite element method, we find that the stochastic features of an ATP hydrolysis cycle can be sufficient while those of catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation.

  17. Localization and Regulation of the N Terminal Splice Variant of PGC-1α in Adult Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiansheng Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α regulates expression of genes for metabolism and muscle fiber type. Recently, a novel splice variant of PGC-1α (NT-PGC-1α, amino acids 1–270 was cloned and found to be expressed in muscle. Here we use Flag-tagged NT-PGC-1α to examine the subcellular localization and regulation of NT-PGC-1α in skeletal muscle fibers. Flag-NT-PGC-1α is located predominantly in the myoplasm. Nuclear NT-PGC-1α can be increased by activation of protein kinase A. Activation of p38 MAPK by muscle activity or of AMPK had no effect on the subcellular distribution of NT-PGC-1α. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated export only caused relatively slow nuclear accumulation of NT-PGC-1α, indicating that nuclear export of NT-PGC-1α may be mediated by both CRM1-dependent and -independent pathways. Together these results suggest that the regulation of NT-PGC-1α in muscle fibers may be very different from that of the full-length PGC-1α, which is exclusively nuclear.

  18. The relationship between human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase activity and muscle aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Lorenzo K; LeBlanc, Paul J; Inglis, J Greig; Bradley, Nicolette S; Choptiany, Jon; Heigenhauser, George J F; Peters, Sandra J

    2011-08-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for regulating the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for use in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. PDH is regulated through phosphorylation and inactivation by PDH kinase (PDK) and dephosphorylation and activation by PDH phosphatase (PDP). The effect of endurance training on PDK in humans has been investigated; however, to date no study has examined the effect of endurance training on PDP in humans. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine differences in PDP activity and PDP1 protein content in human skeletal muscle across a range of muscle aerobic capacities. This association is important as higher PDP activity and protein content will allow for increased activation of PDH, and carbohydrate oxidation. The main findings of this study were that 1) PDP activity (r(2) = 0.399, P = 0.001) and PDP1 protein expression (r(2) = 0.153, P = 0.039) were positively correlated with citrate synthase (CS) activity as a marker for muscle aerobic capacity; 2) E1α (r(2) = 0.310, P = 0.002) and PDK2 protein (r(2) = 0.229, P =0.012) are positively correlated with muscle CS activity; and 3) although it is the most abundant isoform, PDP1 protein content only explained ∼ 18% of the variance in PDP activity (r(2) = 0.184, P = 0.033). In addition, PDP1 in combination with E1α explained ∼ 38% of the variance in PDP activity (r(2) = 0.383, P = 0.005), suggesting that there may be alternative regulatory mechanisms of this enzyme other than protein content. These data suggest that with higher muscle aerobic capacity (CS activity) there is a greater capacity for carbohydrate oxidation (E1α), in concert with higher potential for PDH activation (PDP activity). PMID:21596918

  19. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob G; Nedergaard, Anders; Reitelseder, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors invol...... involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with healthy controls....

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liong, Stella; Lappas, Martha

    2016-04-15

    Sterile inflammation and infection are key mediators of inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies have shown endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to induce inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, however is paucity of studies investigating the effects of ER stress in skeletal muscle on inflammation and insulin resistance associated with GDM. ER stress proteins IRE1α, GRP78 and XBP-1s were upregulated in skeletal muscle of obese pregnant women, whereas IRE1α was increased in GDM women. Suppression of ER stress, using ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) or siRNA knockdown of IRE1α and GRP78, significantly downregulated LPS-, poly(I:C)- or IL-1β-induced production of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and MCP-1. Furthermore, LPS-, poly(I:C)- or TNF-α-induced insulin resistance was improved following suppression of ER stress, by increasing insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IR-β, IRS-1, GLUT-4 expression and glucose uptake. In summary, our inducible obesity and GDM-like models suggests that the development of GDM may be involved in activating ER stress-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle. PMID:26902174

  1. Ageing in relation to skeletal muscle dysfunction: redox homoeostasis to regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljanek-Whysall, Katarzyna; Iwanejko, Lesley A; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Pekovic-Vaughan, Vanja; McDonagh, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Ageing is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality and function-sarcopenia, associated with reduced independence and quality of life in older generations. A better understanding of the mechanisms, both genetic and epigenetic, underlying this process would help develop therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow down or reverse muscle wasting associated with ageing. Currently, exercise is the only known effective intervention to delay the progression of sarcopenia. The cellular responses that occur in muscle fibres following exercise provide valuable clues to the molecular mechanisms regulating muscle homoeostasis and potentially the progression of sarcopenia. Redox signalling, as a result of endogenous generation of ROS/RNS in response to muscle contractions, has been identified as a crucial regulator for the adaptive responses to exercise, highlighting the redox environment as a potentially core therapeutic approach to maintain muscle homoeostasis during ageing. Further novel and attractive candidates include the manipulation of microRNA expression. MicroRNAs are potent gene regulators involved in the control of healthy and disease-associated biological processes and their therapeutic potential has been researched in the context of various disorders, including ageing-associated muscle wasting. Finally, we discuss the impact of the circadian clock on the regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle and whether disruption of the peripheral muscle clock affects sarcopenia and altered responses to exercise. Interventions that include modifying altered redox signalling with age and incorporating genetic mechanisms such as circadian- and microRNA-based gene regulation, may offer potential effective treatments against age-associated sarcopenia. PMID:27215643

  2. Regulation of dihydropyridine receptor gene expression in mouse skeletal muscles by stretch and disuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzyukevich, Tatiana L; Heiny, Judith A

    2004-11-01

    This study examined dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) gene expression in mouse skeletal muscles during physiological adaptations to disuse. Disuse was produced by three in vivo models-denervation, tenotomy, and immobilization-and DHPR alpha1s mRNA was measured by quantitative Northern blot. After 14-day simultaneous denervation of the soleus (Sol), tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and gastrocnemius (Gastr) muscles by sciatic nerve section, DHPR mRNA increased preferentially in the Sol and TA (+1.6-fold), whereas it increased in the EDL (+1.6-fold) and TA (+1.8-fold) after selective denervation of these muscles by peroneal nerve section. It declined in all muscles (-1.3- to -2.6-fold) after 14-day tenotomy, which preserves nerve input but removes mechanical tension. Atrophy was comparable in denervated and tenotomized muscles. These results suggest that factor(s) in addition to inactivity per se, muscle phenotype, or associated atrophy can regulate DHPR gene expression. To test the contribution of passive tension to this regulation, we subjected the same muscles to disuse by limb immobilization in a maximally dorsiflexed position. DHPR alpha1s mRNA increased in the stretched muscles (Sol, +2.3-fold; Gastr, +1.5-fold) and decreased in the shortened muscles (TA, -1.4-fold; EDL, -1.3-fold). The effect of stretch was confirmed in vitro. DHPR protein did not change significantly after 4-day immobilization, suggesting that additional levels of regulation may exist. These results demonstrate that DHPR alpha1s gene expression is regulated as an integral part of the adaptive response of skeletal muscles to disuse in both slow- and fast-twitch muscles and identify passive tension as an important signal for its regulation in vivo. PMID:15294855

  3. The role of skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown for regulation of insulin sensitivity by exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen eJensen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen is the storage form of carbohydrates in mammals. In humans the majority of glycogen is stored in skeletal muscles (~500 g and the liver (~100 g. Food is supplied in larger meals, but the blood glucose concentration has to be kept within narrow limits to survive and stay healthy. Therefore, the body has to cope with periods of excess carbohydrates and periods without supplementation. Healthy persons remove blood glucose rapidly when glucose is in excess, but insulin-stimulated glucose disposal is reduced in insulin resistant and type 2 diabetic subjects. During a hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamp, 70-90 % of glucose disposal will be stored as muscle glycogen in healthy subjects. The glycogen stores in skeletal muscles are limited because an efficient feedback-mediated inhibition of glycogen synthase prevents accumulation. De novo lipid synthesis can contribute to glucose disposal when glycogen stores are filled. Exercise physiologists normally consider glycogen’s main function as energy substrate. Glycogen is the main energy substrate during exercise intensity above 70 % of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and fatigue develops when the glycogen stores are depleted in the active muscles. After exercise, the rate of glycogen synthesis is increased to replete glycogen stores, and blood glucose is the substrate. Indeed insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is elevated after exercise, which, from an evolutional point of view, will favour glycogen repletion and preparation for new fight or flight events. In the modern society, the reduced glycogen stores in skeletal muscles after exercise allows carbohydrates to be stored as muscle glycogen and prevents that glucose is channelled to de novo lipid synthesis, which over time will causes ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. The reduction of skeletal muscle glycogen after exercise allows a healthy storage of carbohydrates after meals and prevents development of type

  4. Blockades of mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcineurin both change fibre-type markers in skeletal muscle culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higginson, James; Wackerhage, Henning; Woods, Niall;

    2002-01-01

    Activation of either the calcineurin or the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway increases the percentage of slow fibres in vivo suggesting that both pathways can regulate fibre phenotypes in skeletal muscle. We investigated the effect of calcineurin blockade with cyclosporin...... increases in the activities of both lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase above control values were also seen following cyclosporin A treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that calcineurin upregulates slow-fibre genes and suppresses fast-fibre genes. Similarly, the ERK1/2 pathway upregulates...... slow-fibre MHC and suppresses fast-fibre MHC isoforms. However, the effect on enzyme activities is not fibre-type specific. The effect of U0126 on the percentage of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form suggests that the ERK1/2 pathway may also be involved in regulation of the phosphorylation state...

  5. An ethanol extract of Artemisia iwayomogi activates PPARδ leading to activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Young Cho

    Full Text Available Although Artemisia iwayomogi (AI has been shown to improve the lipid metabolism, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, a 95% ethanol extract of AI (95EEAI was identified as a potent ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ using ligand binding analysis and cell-based reporter assay. In cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells, treatment of 95EEAI increased expression of two important PPARδ-regulated genes, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4, and several genes acting in lipid efflux and energy expenditure. Furthermore, 95EEAI stimulated fatty acid oxidation in a PPARδ-dependent manner. High-fat diet-induced obese mice model further indicated that administration of 95EEAI attenuated diet-induced obesity through the activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that a 95% ethanol extract of AI may have a role as a new functional food material for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperlipidermia and obesity.

  6. Evaluation of skeletal muscle satellite cell activity in rodent models depicting muscle hypertrophy and atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Sidique, Idris L.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cells are muscle-specific progenitor cells involved in the routine maintenance of skeletal muscle homeostasis, growth and regeneration. They are activated by various stimuli (myotrauma, growth factors etc), undergo rounds of proliferation as skeletal muscle myoblasts, to differentiate and fuse with each other to generate new myotubes or onto existing myofibres to augment growth or repair damaged fibres. Satellite cells contribute to hypertrophy by facilitating nuclear addition, whic...

  7. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob G Jespersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β and forkhead box O (FoxO pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU patients compared with healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ICU patients were systemically inflamed, moderately hyperglycemic, received insulin therapy, and showed a tendency to lower plasma branched chain amino acids compared with controls. Using Western blotting we measured Akt, GSK3β, mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6k, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, and muscle ring finger protein 1 (MuRF1; and by RT-PCR we determined mRNA expression of, among others, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, FoxO 1, 3 and 4, atrogin1, MuRF1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and myostatin. Unexpectedly, in critically ill ICU patients Akt-mTOR-S6k signaling was substantially higher compared with controls. FoxO1 mRNA was higher in patients, whereas FoxO3, atrogin1 and myostatin mRNAs and MuRF1 protein were lower compared with controls. A moderate correlation (r2=0.36, p<0.05 between insulin infusion dose and phosphorylated Akt was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present for the first time muscle protein turnover signaling in critically ill ICU patients, and we show signaling pathway activity towards a stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and a somewhat inhibited proteolysis.

  8. Regulation of protein degradation pathways by amino acids and insulin in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agus Suryawan; Teresa ADavis

    2014-01-01

    Background:The rapid gain in lean mass in neonates requires greater rates of protein synthesis than degradation. We previously delineated the molecular mechanisms by which insulin and amino acids, especially leucine, modulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis and how this changes with development. In the current study, we identified mechanisms involved in protein degradation regulation. In experiment 1, 6-and 26-d-old pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic, 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-hyperaminoacidemic, and 3) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps for 2 h. In experiment 2, 5-d-old pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic-euleucinemic, 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-hypoaminoacidemic-hyperleucinemic, and 3) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic-hyperleucinemic clamps for 24 h. We determined in muscle indices of ubiquitin-proteasome, i.e., atrogin-1 (MAFbx) and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1) and autophagy-lysosome systems, i.e., unc51-like kinase 1 (UKL1), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp-2). For comparison, we measured ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) activation, components of translation initiation. Results:Abundance of atrogin-1, but not MuRF1, was greater in 26-than 6-d-old pigs and was not affected by insulin, amino acids, or leucine. Abundance of ULK1 and LC3 was higher in younger pigs and not affected by treatment. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio was reduced and ULK1 phosphorylation increased by insulin, amino acids, and leucine. These responses were more profound in younger pigs. Abundance of Lamp-2 was not affected by treatment or development. Abundance of eIF4E, but not rpS6, was higher in 6-than 26-d-old-pigs but unaffected by treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E was not affected by treatment, however, insulin, amino acids, and leucine stimulated rpS6 phosphorylation, and the

  9. Post-meal responses of elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to leucine and carbohydrate supplements for regulating protein synthesis duration and energy homeostasis in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J; Garlick, Peter J; Anthony, Tracy G; Layman, Donald K

    2012-11-13

    Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu) and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0) or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270), 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80), 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6), 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0), or water (Sham control). Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0), but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to reduced

  10. Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2 and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K. Layman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2. This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0 or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270, 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80, 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6, 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0, or water (Sham control. Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0, but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to

  11. Calcium induced regulation of skeletal troponin--computational insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Z Genchev

    Full Text Available The interaction between calcium and the regulatory site(s of striated muscle regulatory protein troponin switches on and off muscle contraction. In skeletal troponin binding of calcium to sites I and II of the TnC subunit results in a set of structural changes in the troponin complex, displaces tropomyosin along the actin filament and allows myosin-actin interaction to produce mechanical force. In this study, we used molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the calcium dependent dynamics of the fast skeletal troponin molecule and its TnC subunit in the calcium saturated and depleted states. We focused on the N-lobe and on describing the atomic level events that take place subsequent to removal of the calcium ion from the regulatory sites I and II. A main structural event - a closure of the A/B helix hydrophobic pocket results from the integrated effect of the following conformational changes: the breakage of H-bond interactions between the backbone nitrogen atoms of the residues at positions 2, 9 and sidechain oxygen atoms of the residue at position 12 (N(2-OE(12/N(9-OE(12 in sites I and II; expansion of sites I and II and increased site II N-terminal end-segment flexibility; strengthening of the β-sheet scaffold; and the subsequent re-packing of the N-lobe hydrophobic residues. Additionally, the calcium release allows the N-lobe to rotate relative to the rest of the Tn molecule. Based on the findings presented herein we propose a novel model of skeletal thin filament regulation.

  12. Activation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle is dependent on exercise intensity and AMPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalm, Céline; Jamart, Cécile; Benoit, Nicolas; Naslain, Damien; Prémont, Christophe; Prévet, Jérémy; Van Thienen, Ruud; Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-08-01

    In humans, nutrient deprivation and extreme endurance exercise both activate autophagy. We hypothesized that cumulating fasting and cycling exercise would potentiate activation of autophagy in skeletal muscle. Well-trained athletes were divided into control (n = 8), low-intensity (LI, n = 8), and high-intensity (HI, n = 7) exercise groups and submitted to fed and fasting sessions. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before, at the end, and 1 h after a 2 h LI or HI bout of exercise. Phosphorylation of ULK1(Ser317) was higher after exercise (P diet. PMID:25957282

  13. Activated protein C attenuates acute ischaemia reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, J P

    2012-02-03

    Activated protein C (APC) is an endogenous anti-coagulant with anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of activated protein C in the setting of skeletal muscle ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI). IRI was induced in rats by applying rubber bands above the levels of the greater trochanters bilaterally for a period of 2h followed by 12h reperfusion. Treatment groups received either equal volumes of normal saline or activated protein C prior to tourniquet release. Following 12h reperfusion, muscle function was assessed electrophysiologically by electrical field stimulation. The animals were then sacrificed and skeletal muscle harvested for evaluation. Activated protein C significantly attenuated skeletal muscle reperfusion injury as shown by reduced myeloperoxidase content, wet to dry ratio and electrical properties of skeletal muscle. Further in vitro work was carried out on neutrophils isolated from healthy volunteers to determine the direct effect of APC on neutrophil function. The effects of APC on TNF-alpha stimulated neutrophils were examined by measuring CD18 expression as well as reactive oxygen species generation. The in vitro work demonstrated a reduction in CD18 expression and reactive oxygen species generation. We conclude that activated protein C may have a protective role in the setting of skeletal muscle ischaemia reperfusion injury and that this is in part mediated by a direct inhibitory effect on neutrophil activation.

  14. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1a gene in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2003-01-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1a (PGC-1a) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell...

  15. The Conformation of Myosin Heads in Relaxed Skeletal Muscle: Implications for Myosin-Based Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Luca; Huang, Zhe; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-08-18

    In isolated thick filaments from many types of muscle, the two head domains of each myosin molecule are folded back against the filament backbone in a conformation called the interacting heads motif (IHM) in which actin interaction is inhibited. This conformation is present in resting skeletal muscle, but it is not known how exit from the IHM state is achieved during muscle activation. Here, we investigated this by measuring the in situ conformation of the light chain domain of the myosin heads in relaxed demembranated fibers from rabbit psoas muscle using fluorescence polarization from bifunctional rhodamine probes at four sites on the C-terminal lobe of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The order parameter 〈P2〉 describing probe orientation with respect to the filament axis had a roughly sigmoidal dependence on temperature in relaxing conditions, with a half-maximal change at ∼19°C. Either lattice compression by 5% dextran T500 or addition of 25 μM blebbistatin decreased the transition temperature to ∼14°C. Maximum entropy analysis revealed three preferred orientations of the myosin RLC region at 25°C and above, two with its long axis roughly parallel to the filament axis and one roughly perpendicular. The parallel orientations are similar to those of the so-called blocked and free heads in the IHM and are stabilized by either lattice compression or blebbistatin. In relaxed skeletal muscle at near-physiological temperature and myofilament lattice spacing, the majority of the myosin heads have their light chain domains in IHM-like conformations, with a minority in a distinct conformation with their RLC regions roughly perpendicular to the filament axis. None of these three orientation populations were present during active contraction. These results are consistent with a regulatory transition of the thick filament in skeletal muscle associated with a conformational equilibrium of the myosin heads. PMID:26287630

  16. Distinct growth hormone receptor signaling modes regulate skeletal muscle development and insulin sensitivity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mavalli, Mahendra D.; DiGirolamo, Douglas J.; Fan, Yong; Riddle, Ryan C.; Campbell, Kenneth S.; van Groen, Thomas; Frank, Stuart J.; Sperling, Mark A.; Esser, Karyn A; Bamman, Marcas M; Clemens, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle development, nutrient uptake, and nutrient utilization is largely coordinated by growth hormone (GH) and its downstream effectors, in particular, IGF-1. However, it is not clear which effects of GH on skeletal muscle are direct and which are secondary to GH-induced IGF-1 expression. Thus, we generated mice lacking either GH receptor (GHR) or IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) specifically in skeletal muscle. Both exhibited impaired skeletal muscle development characterized by reductions ...

  17. Dchs1–Fat4 regulation of polarized cell behaviours during skeletal morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yaopan; Kuta, Anna; Crespo-Enriquez, Ivan; Whiting, Danielle; Martin, Tina; Mulvaney, Joanna; Irvine, Kenneth D.; Francis-West, Philippa

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal shape varies widely across species as adaptation to specialized modes of feeding and locomotion, but how skeletal shape is established is unknown. An example of extreme diversity in the shape of a skeletal structure can be seen in the sternum, which varies considerably across species. Here we show that the Dchs1-Fat4 planar cell polarity pathway controls cell orientation in the early skeletal condensation to define the shape and relative dimensions of the mouse sternum. These changes...

  18. The Role of Lumbar Sympathetic Nerves in Regulation of Blood Flow to Skeletal Muscle during Anaphylactic Hypotension in Anesthetized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song

    Full Text Available During hypovolemic shock, skeletal muscle blood flow could be redistributed to vital organs via vasoconstriction in part evoked by activation of the innervating sympathetic nerve activity. However, it is not well known whether this mechanism operates during anaphylactic shock. We determined the femoral artery blood flow (FBF and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA mainly regulating the hindquater muscle blood flow during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the following groups (n = 7/group: (1 non-sensitized, (2 anaphylaxis, (3 anaphylaxis-lumbar sympathectomy (LS and (4 anaphylaxis-sinoaortic denervation (SAD groups. Anaphylaxis was induced by an intravenous injection of the ovalbumin antigen to the sensitized rats. The systemic arterial pressure (SAP, heart rate (HR, central venous pressure (CVP, FBF and LSNA were continuously measured. In the anaphylaxis group, LSNA and HR increased, while SAP and FBF decreased after antigen injection. In the anaphylaxis-SAD group, LSNA did not significantly change during the early phase, but the responses of SAP and FBF were similar to those in the anaphylaxis group. In the anaphylaxis-LS group, both FBF and SAP decreased similarly to the anaphylaxis group during anaphylactic hypotension. These results indicated that LSNA increased via baroreceptor reflex, but this sympathoexcitation or LS did not affect antigen-induced decreases in FBF or SAP. Lumbar sympathetic nerves are not involved in regulation of the blood flow to the hindlimb or systemic blood pressure during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

  19. Sex differences in hormone-sensitive lipase expression, activity, and phosphorylation in skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Donsmark, Morten; Thiele, Maja;

    2006-01-01

    Women have been shown to use more intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) during exercise than men. To investigate whether this could be due to sex-specific regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and to use sex comparison as a model to gain further insight into HSL regulation, nine women...... and eight men performed bicycle exercise (90 min, 60% Vo(2peak)), and skeletal muscle HSL expression, phosphorylation, and activity were determined. Supporting previous findings, basal IMTG content (P ... significantly (r = 0.72, P = 0.001). Muscle HSL mRNA (80%, P = 0.11) and protein content (50%, P HSL total activity increased during exercise (47%, P HSL specific activity (HSL activity per HSL protein content...

  20. Regulator of insulin receptor affinity in rat skeletal muscle sarcolemmal vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity purification of detergent solubilized insulin receptors (IR) from rat skeletal muscle sarcolemmal vesicles resulted in an apparent increase in total insulin binding activity of greater than 5-fold, suggesting that an inhibitory component had been removed. This was verified when the flow-through fraction from the WGA column was dialyzed and added back to the partially purified receptor. The addition of a 100-fold dilution of the inhibitor preparation caused a 50% reduction in binding to trace amounts of 125I-insulin. Scatchard analysis revealed that the effect of the inhibitor was to decrease the affinity of the muscle IR. The inhibitor appeared to be tissue specific, inasmuch as the I50's for WGA-purified IR from rat fat and liver were 10 times the I50 for muscle IR. The I50 for insulin binding to intact IM-9 cells was 30 times the value for muscle IR. The inhibitor eluted in the void volume of Sephadex G-50 columns. Its activity was not destroyed by heating at 900C for 10 minutes, or by prolonged incubation with trypsin or dithiothreitol. The inhibitor described here may have a role in modulating insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle

  1. Regulation of human skeletal muscle perfusion and its heterogeneity during exercise in moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka H; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo;

    2010-01-01

    Although many effects of both acute and chronic hypoxia on the circulation are well characterized, the distribution and regulation of blood flow (BF) heterogeneity in skeletal muscle during systemic hypoxia is not well understood in humans. We measured muscle BF within the thigh muscles of nine...... of aminophylline. Systemic hypoxia reduced oxygen extraction of the limb but increased muscle BF, and this flow increment was confined solely to the exercising quadriceps femoris muscle. Exercising muscle BF heterogeneity was reduced from rest (P = 0.055) but was not affected by hypoxia. Adenosine receptor......, the results show that increased BF during one-leg exercise in moderate hypoxia is confined only to the contracting muscles, and the working muscle hyperemia appears not to be directly mediated by adenosine. Increased flow heterogeneity in noncontracting muscles likely reflects sympathetic nervous constraints...

  2. Skeletal myofiber VEGF regulates contraction-induced perfusion and exercise capacity but not muscle capillarity in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Amy E; Goldberg, Daniel; Delavar, Hamid; Trisko, Breanna M; Tang, Kechun; Hogan, Michael C; Wagner, Peter D; Breen, Ellen C

    2016-07-01

    A single bout of exhaustive exercise signals expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the exercising muscle. Previous studies have reported that mice with life-long deletion of skeletal myofiber VEGF have fewer capillaries and a severe reduction in endurance exercise. However, in adult mice, VEGF gene deletion conditionally targeted to skeletal myofibers limits exercise capacity without evidence of capillary regression. To explain this, we hypothesized that adult skeletal myofiber VEGF acutely regulates skeletal muscle perfusion during muscle contraction. A tamoxifen-inducible skeletal myofiber-specific VEGF gene deletion mouse (skmVEGF-/-) was used to reduce skeletal muscle VEGF protein by 90% in adult mice. Three weeks after inducing deletion of the skeletal myofiber VEGF gene, skmVEGF-/- mice exhibited diminished maximum running speed (-10%, P < 0.05) and endurance capacity (-47%; P < 0.05), which did not persist after 8 wk. In skmVEGF-/- mice, gastrocnemius complex time to fatigue measured in situ was 71% lower than control mice. Contraction-induced perfusion measured by optical imaging during a period of electrically stimulated muscle contraction was 85% lower in skmVEGF-/- than control mice. No evidence of capillary rarefication was detected in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) up to 8 wk after tamoxifen-induced VEGF ablation, and contractility and fatigue resistance of the soleus measured ex vivo were also unchanged. The force-frequency of the EDL showed a small right shift, but fatigue resistance did not differ between EDL from control and skmVEGF-/- mice. These data suggest myofiber VEGF is required for regulating perfusion during periods of contraction and may in this manner affect endurance capacity. PMID:27225953

  3. Exercise, skeletal muscle and inflammation: ARE-binding proteins as key regulators in inflammatory and adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiter, Thomas; Hoene, Miriam; Prenzler, Frauke; Mooren, Frank C; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Weigert, Cora; Nieß, Andreas M; Munz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The role of inflammation in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise is complex and has hardly been elucidated so far. While the acute inflammatory response to exercise seems to promote skeletal muscle training adaptation and regeneration, persistent, low-grade inflammation, as seen in a multitude of chronic diseases, is obviously detrimental. The regulation of cytokine production in skeletal muscle cells has been relatively well studied, yet little is known about the compensatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms that resolve inflammation and restore tissue homeostasis. One important strategy to ensure sequential, timely and controlled resolution of inflammation relies on the regulated stability of mRNAs encoding pro-inflammatory mediators. Many key transcripts in early immune responses are characterized by the presence of AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3'-untranslated regions of their mRNAs, allowing efficient fine-tuning of gene expression patterns at the post-transcriptional level. AREs exert their function by recruiting particular RNA-binding proteins, resulting, in most cases, in de-stabilization of the target transcripts. The best-characterized ARE-binding proteins are HuR, CUGBP1, KSRP, AUF1, and the three ZFP36 proteins, especially TTP/ZFP36. Here, we give a general introduction into the role of inflammation in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise. Subsequently, we focus on potential roles of ARE-binding proteins in skeletal muscle tissue in general and specifically exercise-induced skeletal muscle remodeling. Finally, we present novel data suggesting a specific function of TTP/ZFP36 in exercise-induced skeletal muscle plasticity.

  4. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  5. Identification of an enzymatic activity that hydrolyzes protein-bound ADP-ribose in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y C; Soman, G; Graves, D J

    1986-09-30

    An enzymatic activity present in high-speed supernatant fluids of rat skeletal muscle was found that catalyzes the release of ADP-ribose from ADP-ribosylated-modified lysozyme. The nature of the product was proved by chromatographic studies and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The enzyme activity is stimulated by Mg2+, dithioerythritol, and flouride. These results and those published earlier (Soman, G., Mickelson, J.R., Louis, C.F., and Graves, D.J. (1984) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 120, 973-980) show that ADP-ribosylation is a reversible process in skeletal muscle.

  6. Does regulation of skeletal muscle function involve circulating microRNAs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eAoi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Recently, growing evidence has shown that miRNAs are taken in by intracellular exosomes, secreted into circulation, and taken up by other cells. Circulating levels of several miRNAs are changed in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases; therefore, they are suggested to regulate functions of the recipient cells by modulating protein expression. Circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs may also modulate skeletal muscle function in physiological and pathological conditions. It has been suggested that acute and chronic exercise transiently or adaptively changes the level of c-miRNAs, thus posttranscriptionally regulating proteins associated with energy metabolism, myogenesis, and angiogenesis. Circulating levels of several miRNAs that are enriched in muscle are altered in muscle disorders and may be involved in their development and progression. In addition, such c-miRNAs may be useful as biomarkers to determine various interactions between tissues and also to reflect athletic performance, physical fatigue, incidence risk, and development of diseases.

  7. A post-transcriptional mechanism regulates calpastatin expression in bovine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, G S; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Gardner, G E; McGilchrist, P; Robinson, D L; Wang, Y H; Pethick, D W; Greenwood, P L

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the calpain 1 (CAPN1), calpain 3 (CAPN3) and calpastatin (CAST) genes, which have been shown to be associated with shear force and tenderness differences in the skeletal muscle of cattle, contribute to phenotypic variation in muscle tenderness by modulating the transcriptional activity of their respective gene. The mRNA expression of the calpain and CAST genes was assessed in the longissimus lumborum muscle (LLM) of cattle from two herds located in distinct production zones on the east (New South Wales, NSW) and west (Western Australia, WA) of Australia. The cattle in the herds were mainly Brahman cattle (Bos indicus) with smaller populations of Angus cattle (Bos taurus). There were 191 steers in the WA herd and 107 steers and 106 heifers in the NSW herd. These herds were established by choosing cattle from the diverse population which had different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes at the CAPN1, CAPN3 and CAST loci. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), the transcriptional activities of the CAPN1 and the CAST genes, but not the CAPN3 gene, were found to differ between favorable, positively associated with tenderness, and unfavorable, negatively associated with tenderness, allelic variants of these genes. These findings suggest that the muscle shear force and consumer taste panel differences in tenderness explained by the CAPN1 and CAST gene markers are a consequence of alterations in their mRNA levels, which may ultimately influence the protein activity of these genes, thereby altering the rate and(or) the extent of postmortem proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Of particular importance were the significantly lower type II and type III CAST 5' splice variant mRNA levels that were detected in the LLM muscle of Brahman and Angus cattle with 2 favourable alleles of the CAST:c.2832A > G polymorphism. Moreover, a reduction in

  8. Patterns of global gene expression in rat skeletal muscle during unloading and low-intensity ambulatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, Lionel; Akunuri, Nagabhavani; Zhao, Po; Hoffman, Eric P.; Hamilton, Deborah G.; Hamilton, Marc T.

    2003-01-01

    Physical inactivity and unloading lead to diverse skeletal muscle alterations. Our goal was to identify the genes in skeletal muscle whose expression is most sensitive to periods of unloading/reduced physical activity and that may be involved in triggering initial responses before phenotypic changes are evident. The ability of short periods of physical activity/loading as an effective countermeasure against changes in gene expression mediated by inactivity was also tested. Affymetrix microarrays were used to compare mRNA levels in the soleus muscle under three experimental treatments (n = 20-29 rats each): 12-h hindlimb unloading (HU), 12-h HU followed by 4 h of intermittent low-intensity ambulatory and postural activity (4-h reloading), and control (with ambulatory and postural activity). Using a combination of criteria, we identified a small set of genes (approximately 1% of 8,738 genes on the array or 4% of significant expressed genes) with the most reproducible and largest responses to altered activity. Analysis revealed a coordinated regulation of transcription for a large number of key signaling proteins and transcription factors involved in protein synthesis/degradation and energy metabolism. Most (21 of 25) of the gene expression changes that were downregulated during HU returned at least to control levels during the reloading. In surprising contrast, 27 of 38 of the genes upregulated during HU remained significantly above control, but most showed trends toward reversal. This introduces a new concept that, in general, genes that are upregulated during unloading/inactivity will be more resistant to periodic reloading than those genes that are downregulated. This study reveals genes that are the most sensitive to loading/activity in rat skeletal muscle and indicates new targets that may initiate muscle alterations during inactivity.

  9. Skeletal muscle adiposity is associated with physical activity, exercise capacity and fibre shift in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, Matthew; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Vitoriano, Simone; Natanek, Samantha A; Tanner, Rebecca J; Hart, Nicholas; Kemp, Paul R; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Quadriceps muscle phenotype varies widely between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cannot be determined without muscle biopsy. We hypothesised that measures of skeletal muscle adiposity could provide noninvasive biomarkers of muscle quality in this population. In 101 patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were calculated using computed tomography images and standard tissue attenuation ranges: fat -190- -30 HU; skeletal muscle -29-150 HU. Mean±sd percentage intramuscular fat was higher in the patient group (6.7±3.5% versus 4.3±1.2%, p = 0.03). Both percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were associated with physical activity level, exercise capacity and type I fibre proportion, independent of age, mid-thigh cross-sectional area and quadriceps strength. Combined with transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide, these variables could identify >80% of patients with fibre type shift with >65% specificity (area under the curve 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.95). Skeletal muscle adiposity assessed by computed tomography reflects multiple aspects of COPD related muscle dysfunction and may help to identify patients for trials of interventions targeted at specific muscle phenotypes.

  10. Regulation of human skeletal stem cells differentiation by Dlk1/Pref-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Jensen, Charlotte H; Gutierrez, Gloria;

    2004-01-01

    Dlk-1/Pref-1 was identified as a novel regulator of human skeletal stem cell differentiation. Dlk1/Pref-1 is expressed in bone and cultured osteoblasts, and its constitutive overexpression led to inhibition of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation of human marrow stromal cells. INTRODUCTION......: Molecular control of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes is not known. In this study, we examined the role of delta-like 1/preadipocyte factor-1 (Dlk1/Pref-1) in regulating the differentiation of hMSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As a model for hMSCs, we have...... was used to confirm the in vitro effect of Dlk/Pref-1 on bone formation. RESULTS: Dlk1/Pref-1 was found to be expressed in fetal and adult bone, hMSCs, and some osteoblastic cell lines. A retroviral vector containing the human Dlk1/Pref-1 cDNA was used to create a cell line (hMSC-dlk1) expressing high...

  11. Combined in vivo and in silico investigations of activation of glycolysis in contracting skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, J. P. J.; Groenendaal, W.; Wessels, B.; Wiseman, R. W.; Hilbers, P. A. J.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J. J.; Jeneson, J. A. L.; van Riel, N. A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Schmitz JP, Groenendaal W, Wessels B, Wiseman RW, Hilbers PA, Nicolay K, Prompers JJ, Jeneson JA, van Riel NA. Combined in vivo and in silico investigations of activation of glycolysis in contracting skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 304: C180-C193, 2013. First published October 31, 2012; d

  12. Differentially activated macrophages orchestrate myogenic precursor cell fate during human skeletal muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saclier, Marielle; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda; Mackey, Abigail;

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages (MPs) exert either beneficial or deleterious effects on tissue repair, depending on their activation/polarization state. They are crucial for adult skeletal muscle repair, notably by acting on myogenic precursor cells. However, these interactions have not been fully characterized. Here...

  13. Lipin-1 regulates autophagy clearance and intersects with statin drug effects in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peixiang; Verity, M Anthony; Reue, Karen

    2014-08-01

    LPIN1 encodes lipin-1, a phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerol. Homozygous LPIN1 gene mutations cause severe rhabdomyolysis, and heterozygous LPIN1 missense mutations may promote statin-induced myopathy. We demonstrate that lipin-1-related myopathy in the mouse is associated with a blockade in autophagic flux and accumulation of aberrant mitochondria. Lipin-1 PAP activity is required for maturation of autolysosomes, through its activation of the protein kinase D (PKD)-Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling cascade. Statin treatment also reduces PKD activation and autophagic flux, which are compounded by diminished mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) abundance in lipin-1-haploinsufficent and -deficient muscle. Lipin-1 restoration in skeletal muscle prevents myonecrosis and statin toxicity in vivo, and activated PKD rescues autophagic flux in lipin-1-deficient cells. Our findings identify lipin-1 PAP activity as a component of the macroautophagy pathway and define the basis for lipin-1-related myopathies. PMID:24930972

  14. Lipin-1 regulates autophagy clearance and intersects with statin drug effects in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peixiang; Verity, M Anthony; Reue, Karen

    2014-08-01

    LPIN1 encodes lipin-1, a phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerol. Homozygous LPIN1 gene mutations cause severe rhabdomyolysis, and heterozygous LPIN1 missense mutations may promote statin-induced myopathy. We demonstrate that lipin-1-related myopathy in the mouse is associated with a blockade in autophagic flux and accumulation of aberrant mitochondria. Lipin-1 PAP activity is required for maturation of autolysosomes, through its activation of the protein kinase D (PKD)-Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling cascade. Statin treatment also reduces PKD activation and autophagic flux, which are compounded by diminished mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) abundance in lipin-1-haploinsufficent and -deficient muscle. Lipin-1 restoration in skeletal muscle prevents myonecrosis and statin toxicity in vivo, and activated PKD rescues autophagic flux in lipin-1-deficient cells. Our findings identify lipin-1 PAP activity as a component of the macroautophagy pathway and define the basis for lipin-1-related myopathies.

  15. ORM Promotes Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Accumulation via CCR5-Activated AMPK Pathway in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen; Wan, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yang; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Su, Ding-Feng; Lei, Hong; Liu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    We found previously that acute phase protein orosomucoid reacts to fatigue and activates C-C chemokine receptor type 5 to increase muscle glycogen storage and enhance muscle endurance (Lei et al., 2016). To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase, a critical fuel sensor in skeletal muscle, in C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mediated orosomucoid action. It was found orosomucoid increased skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase activation in a time- and dose- dependent manner, which was largely prevented by pharmacological blocking or knockout of C-C chemokine receptor type 5. Administration of orosomucoid also significantly increased the de-phosphorylation and activity of muscle glycogen synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis. The effect was largely absent in mice deficient in C-C chemokine receptor type 5−/− or AMP-activated protein kinase α2−/−, the predominant isoform in skeletal muscle. Moreover, deletion of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 abolished the effect of orosomucoid on fatigue and muscle glycogen. These findings indicate that orosomucoid may promote glycogen storage and enhance muscle function through C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mdiated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which in turn activates glycogen synthase and increases muscle glycogen. PMID:27679573

  16. miRNA in the regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation to acute endurance exercise in C57Bl/6J male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Safdar

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNA species involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. In vitro studies have identified a small number of skeletal muscle-specific miRNAs which play a crucial role in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. In skeletal muscle, an acute bout of endurance exercise results in the up-regulation of transcriptional networks that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, and skeletal muscle remodelling. The purpose of this study was to assess the expressional profile of targeted miRNA species following an acute bout of endurance exercise and to determine relationships with previously established endurance exercise responsive transcriptional networks. C57Bl/6J wild-type male mice (N = 7/group were randomly assigned to either sedentary or forced-endurance exercise (treadmill run @ 15 m/min for 90 min group. The endurance exercise group was sacrificed three hours following a single bout of exercise. The expression of miR- 181, 1, 133, 23, and 107, all of which have been predicted to regulate transcription factors and co-activators involved in the adaptive response to exercise, was measured in quadriceps femoris muscle. Endurance exercise significantly increased the expression of miR-181, miR-1, and miR-107 by 37%, 40%, and 56%, respectively, and reduced miR-23 expression by 84% (Pregulator of PGC-1alpha was consistent with increased expression of PGC-1alpha mRNA and protein along with several downstream targets of PGC-1alpha including ALAS, CS, and cytochrome c mRNA. PDK4 protein content remains unaltered despite an increase in its putative negative regulator, miR-107, and PDK4 mRNA expression. mRNA expression of miRNA processing machinery (Drosha, Dicer, and DGCR8 remained unchanged. We conclude that miRNA-mediated post

  17. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes: Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. Exercise improves whole body metabolic health in people with type 2 diabetes, and adaptations to skeletal muscle are essential for this improvement. An acute bout of exercise increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake, while chronic exercise training improves mitochondrial…

  18. Myofibril ATPase activity of cardiac and skeletal muscle of exhaustively exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, A N; Turcotte, R; Rossiter, M; Secord, D; Maybank, P E

    1984-01-01

    The activation characteristics of Mg-ATP and Ca2+ on cardiac and skeletal muscle myofibril ATPase activity were studied in rats following a run to exhaustion. In addition, the effect of varying ionic strength was determined on skeletal muscle from exhausted animals. The exhausted group (E) ran at a speed of 25 m min-1 with an 8% incline. Myofibril ATPase activities for control (C) and E were determined with 1, 3 and 5 mM Mg-ATP and 1 and 10 microM Ca2+ at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C. For control skeletal muscle, at 1 and 10 microM Ca2+, there was an increase in ATPase activity from 1 to 5 mM Mg-ATP (P less than 0.05). For E animals the myofibril ATPase activities at 10 microM Ca2+ and all Mg-ATP concentrations were similar to C (P greater than 0.05). At 1.0 microM Ca2+ and all Mg-ATP concentrations were similar to C (P greater than 0.05). At 1.0 microM Ca2+ the activities at 3 and 5 mM Mg-ATP were greater for the E animals (P less than 0.05). Increasing KCl concentrations resulted in greater inhibition for E animals. With cardiac muscle, the myofibril ATPase activities at 1.0 microM free Ca2+ were lower for E at all Mg-ATP levels (P less than 0.05). In contrast, at 10 microM Ca2+, the E group exhibited an elevated myofibril ATPase activity. The results indicate that Mg-ATP and Ca2+ activation of cardiac and skeletal muscle myofibril ATPase is altered with exhaustive exercise. PMID:6230276

  19. Role of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase subunits in skeletal muscle mammalian target of rapamycin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul S.; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Long, Yun Chau;

    2008-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy-sensing protein in skeletal muscle. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediates translation initiation and protein synthesis through ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). AMPK...... activation reduces muscle protein synthesis by down-regulating mTOR signaling, whereas insulin mediates mTOR signaling via Akt activation. We hypothesized that AMPK-mediated inhibitory effects on mTOR signaling depend on catalytic alpha2 and regulatory gamma3 subunits. Extensor digitorum longus muscle from...... AMPK alpha2 knockout (KO), AMPK gamma3 KO, and respective wild-type (WT) littermates (C57BL/6) were incubated in the presence of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribonucleoside (AICAR), insulin, or AICAR plus insulin. Phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt, and mTOR-associated signaling proteins were...

  20. Regulation and function of FTO mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Louise G; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    and adipose tissue, and their influence on in vivo glucose and fat metabolism. Research Design and Methods. The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in two twin cohorts: 1) 298 elderly twins aged 62-83 years with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to type 2 diabetes and 2) 196 young (25-32 years......Objective. Common variants in FTO (the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene) associate with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The regulation and biological function of FTO mRNA expression in target tissue is unknown. We investigated the genetic and non-genetic regulation of FTO mRNA in skeletal muscle......) and elderly (58-66 years) non-diabetic twins examined by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. FTO mRNA expression was determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue (n=226) and skeletal muscle biopsies (n=158). Results. Heritability of FTO expression in both tissues was low, and FTO...

  1. Skeletal muscle reflex-mediated changes in sympathetic nerve activity are abnormal in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, Masaki; Murphy, Megan N.; Mitchell, Jere H.; Smith, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    In hypertension, the blood pressure response to exercise is exaggerated. We demonstrated previously that this heightened pressor response to physical activity is mediated by an overactive skeletal muscle exercise pressor reflex (EPR), with important contributions from its metaboreflex and mechanoreflex components. However, the mechanisms driving the abnormal blood pressure response to EPR activation are largely unknown. Recent evidence in humans suggests that the muscle metaboreflex partially...

  2. Na,K-ATPase activity in mouse muscle is regulated by AMPK and PGC-1a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Maria S; Kristensen, Michael; Pilegaard, Henriette;

    2011-01-01

    Na,K-ATPase activity, which is crucial for skeletal muscle function, undergoes acute and long-term regulation in response to muscle activity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that AMP kinase (AMPK) and the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1a are underlying factors in long...

  3. Role of AMPKα in Skeletal Muscle Glycometabolism Regulation and Adaptation in relation to Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 protein always involve disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism. Objective. To determine whether the change of blood glucose in the early stage of septic rat is associated with the alteration of AMPKα protein expression and GLUT4 protein translocation expression. Methods. Animal models of sepsis were induced by tail vein injection of LPS in Wistar rats. The dynamic values of blood glucose within 2 hours after injection of LPS were observed. AMPKα protein and GLUT4 protein translocation in different tissues (such as soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus were assessed by western blot. Results. Blood glucose levels appeared to rise at 0.5 h after injection of LPS, arrived the peak value at 1 h, then fell at 1.5 h and 2 h Animals in LPS group experienced the increase of phos-AMPKα protein and GLUT4 protein translocation expression in soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus. Conclusion. The dynamic change of blood glucose, represented in a form of initiative increase and subsequent decrease in the early stage of sepsis, may be related to glycometabolism disorder in the skeletal muscle, coming down to enhancement of GLUT4 translocation expression promoted by activation of AMPKα.

  4. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Adaptations Alter the Activity of Adipose Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zeve

    Full Text Available Exercise decreases adiposity and improves metabolic health; however, the physiological and molecular underpinnings of these phenomena remain unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of endurance training on adipose progenitor lineage commitment. Using mice with genetically labeled adipose progenitors, we show that these cells react to exercise by decreasing their proliferation and differentiation potential. Analyses of mouse models that mimic the skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise indicate that muscle, in a non-autonomous manner, regulates adipose progenitor homeostasis, highlighting a role for muscle-derived secreted factors. These findings support a humoral link between skeletal muscle and adipose progenitors and indicate that manipulation of adipose stem cell function may help address obesity and diabetes.

  5. Assessment of satellite cell number and activity status in human skeletal muscle biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail L; Kjær, Michael; Charifi, Nadia;

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to validate the assessment of myonuclear and satellite cell number in biopsies from human skeletal muscle. We found that 25 type I and 25 type II fibers are sufficient to estimate the mean number of myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the assessment of satellite cells...... improved when more fibers were included. Second, we report that small differences in counting satellite cells using CD56 and Pax7 antibodies can be attributed to the different staining profiles. Third, we provide support for the use of Ki67 in evaluating the proportion of active satellite cells. We...... observed very few (up to 1.3%) active satellite cells in healthy adult skeletal muscle at rest, but they increased significantly (up to 7-fold) following muscle activity. This study provides valuable tools to assess the behavior of satellite cells, both in pathological conditions and in response...

  6. Gene expression profiling of porcine skeletal muscle in the early recovery phase following acute physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeanette; Conley, Lene; Hedegaard, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    Acute physical activity elicits changes in gene expression in skeletal muscles to promote metabolic changes and to repair exercise-induced muscle injuries. In the present time-course study, pigs were submitted to an acute bout of treadmill running until near exhaustion to determine the impact...... detected an upregulation of genes that are associated with muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, including MUSTN1, ASB5 and CSRP3, possibly reflecting activation, differentiation and fusion of satellite cells to facilitate repair of muscle damage. In addition, exercise increased expression...... of adenosine-to-inosine edited mRNAs in the ribonucleoprotein bodies called paraspeckles. These findings expand the complexity of pathways affected by acute contractile activity of skeletal muscle, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular processes that occur in muscle tissue in the recovery...

  7. Acid phosphatase and protease activities in immobilized rat skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Troup, J. P.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hind-limb immobilization on selected Iysosomal enzyme activities was studied in rat hing-limb muscles composed primarily of type 1. 2A, or 2B fibers. Following immobilization, acid protease and acid phosphatase both exhibited signifcant increases in their activity per unit weight in all three fiber types. Acid phosphatase activity increased at day 14 of immobilization in the three muscles and returned to control levels by day 21. Acid protease activity also changed biphasically, displaying a higher and earlier rise than acid phosphatase. The pattern of change in acid protease, but not acid phosphatase, closely parallels observed muscle wasting. The present data therefore demonstrate enhanced proteolytic capacity of all three fiber types early during muscular atrophy. In addition, the data suggest a dependence of basal hydrolytic and proteolytic activities and their adaptive response to immobilization on muscle fiber composition.

  8. MicroRNAs in skeletal muscle and their regulation with exercise, ageing, and disease

    OpenAIRE

    AaronPaulRussell

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle makes up approximately 40% of the total body mass, providing structural support and enabling the body to maintain posture, to control motor movements and to store energy. It therefore plays a vital role in whole body metabolism. Skeletal muscle displays remarkable plasticity and is able to alter its size, structure and function in response to various stimuli; an essential quality for healthy living across the lifespan. Exercise is an important stimulator of extracellular and i...

  9. Interleukin-6 receptor expression in contracting human skeletal muscle: regulating role of IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Pernille; Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Charlotte;

    2005-01-01

    and rest (n=6+5), or recombinant human IL-6 infusion (rhIL-6) or saline infusion (n=6+6). We further obtained skeletal muscle samples from IL-6 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type C57/BL-6 mice in response to a 1-h bout of exercise. In exercising human skeletal muscle, IL-6 receptor mRNA increased...

  10. Nutritional and contractile regulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Micah J.; Dreyer, Hans C.; Fry, Christopher S.; Glynn, Erin L.; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we discuss current findings in the human skeletal muscle literature describing the acute influence of nutrients (leucine-enriched essential amino acids in particular) and resistance exercise on muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. We show that essential amino acids and an acute bout of resistance exercise independently stimulate human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. It also appears that ingestion of essential amino acids fo...

  11. Stac3 is a novel regulator of skeletal muscle development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M Reinholt

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that mediate skeletal muscle development or function. We began the study by searching the gene expression databases for genes that have no known functions but are preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle. This search led to the identification of the Src homology three (SH3 domain and cysteine rich (C1 domain 3 (Stac3 gene. We experimentally confirmed that Stac3 mRNA was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. We determined if Stac3 plays a role in skeletal muscle development or function by generating Stac3 knockout mice. All Stac3 homozygous mutant mice were found dead at birth, were never seen move, and had a curved body and dropping forelimbs. These mice had marked abnormalities in skeletal muscles throughout the body, including central location of myonuclei, decreased number but increased cross-sectional area of myofibers, decreased number and size of myofibrils, disarrayed myofibrils, and streaming Z-lines. These phenotypes demonstrate that the Stac3 gene plays a critical role in skeletal muscle development and function in mice.

  12. Insulin resistance is associated with reduced fasting and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase phosphatase activity in human skeletal muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Kida, Y; Esposito-Del Puente, A; Bogardus, C; Mott, D M

    1990-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle correlates with insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate (M) and is reduced in insulin-resistant subjects. We have previously reported reduced insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity associated with reduced fasting glycogen synthase phosphatase activity in skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant Pima Indians. In this study we investigated the time course for insulin stimulation of glycogen synthase and synthase phosphatas...

  13. Mitochondrial dynamics, quality control and miRNA regulation in skeletal muscle: implications for obesity and related metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlmans, Dennis; Houzelle, Alexandre; Schrauwen, Patrick; Hoeks, Joris

    2016-06-01

    The western dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle largely contributes to the growing epidemic of obesity. Mitochondria are at the front line of cellular energy homoeostasis and are implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. In recent years, novel aspects in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, such as mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial protein quality control and post-transcriptional regulation of genes coding for mitochondrial proteins, have emerged. In this review, we discuss the recent findings concerning the dysregulation of these processes in skeletal muscle in obesogenic conditions. PMID:27129097

  14. Deficiency of LKB1 in skeletal muscle prevents AMPK activation and glucose uptake during contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Kei; McCarthy, Afshan; Smith, Darrin; Green, Kevin A.; Grahame Hardie, D.; Ashworth, Alan; Dario R. Alessi

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the LKB1 tumour suppressor protein kinase is the major ‘upstream' activator of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We have used mice in which LKB1 is expressed at only ∼10% of the normal levels in muscle and most other tissues, or that lack LKB1 entirely in skeletal muscle. Muscle expressing only 10% of the normal level of LKB1 had significantly reduced phosphorylation and activation of AMPKα2. In LKB1-lacking muscle, the basal activity of the A...

  15. Redox regulation of E3 ubiquitin ligases and their role in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Ferrando, Beatriz; Derbre, Frederic; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Sabater-Pastor, Frederic; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Vina, Jose

    2014-10-01

    Muscle atrophy is linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during hindlimb-unloading due, at least in part, to the activation of xanthine oxidase (XO). The major aim of our study was to determine the mechanism by which ROS cause muscle atrophy and its possible prevention by allopurinol, a well-known inhibitor of XO widely used in clinical practice, and indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. We studied the activation of p38 MAP Kinase and NF-?B pathways, and the expression of two E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in proteolysis, the Muscle atrophy F-Box (MAFb) and Muscle RING Finger-1 (MuRF-1). Male Wistar rats (3 mold) conditioned by 14 days of hindlimb unloading (n=18), with or without the treatment, were compared with freely ambulating controls (n=18). After the experimental intervention, soleus muscles were removed, weighted and analyzed to determine oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters. We found that hindlimb unloading induced a significant increase in XO activity in plasma (39%, p=0.001) and in the protein expression of CuZnSOD and Catalase in skeletal muscle. Inhibitionof XO partially prevented protein carbonylation, both in plasma and in soleus muscle, in the unloaded animals. The most relevant new fact reported is that allopurinol prevents soleus muscle atrophy by ~20% after hindlimb unloading. Combining allopurinol and indomethacin we found a further prevention in the atrophy process. This is mediated by the inhibition of the p38 MAPK-MAFbx and NF-?B -MuRF-1 pathways. Our data point out the potential benefit of allopurinol and indomethacin administration for bedridden, astronauts, sarcopenic and cachexic patients. PMID:26461377

  16. Role of AMPK in regulation of LC3 lipidation as a marker of autophagy in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Frøsig, Christian; Jeppesen, Jacob Fuglsbjerg;

    2016-01-01

    During induction of the autophagosomal degradation process, LC3-I is lipidated to LC3-II and associates to the cargo isolation membrane allowing for autophagosome formation. Lipidation of LC3 results in an increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and this ratio is an often used marker for autophagy in various...... tissues, including skeletal muscle. From cell studies AMPK has been proposed to be necessary and sufficient for LC3 lipidation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of AMPK in regulation of LC3 lipidation as a marker of autophagy in skeletal muscle. We observed an increase in the LC3.......01) in plasma insulin concentration, a subsequent decrease in muscle mTORC1 signaling and increased (pautophagy-promoting proteins, FoxO3a and ULK1. Furthermore, a higher (p

  17. Skeletal Benefits of Pre-Menarcheal Gymnastics Are Retained After Activity Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerpella, Tamara A.; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.; Gero, Nicole M.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical loading during childhood and adolescence may yield skeletal benefits that persist beyond activity cessation and menarche. At 1 year pre- and 2 years post-menarche, non-dominant forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and projected area (area) were compared in gymnasts (n=9), ex-gymnasts (n=8) and non-gymnasts (n=13). At both observations, gymnasts and ex-gymnasts had higher forearm aBMD, BMC and area than non-gymnasts. gymnasts had higher post-menarcheal means than ex-gymnasts for all three parameters. Childhood mechanical loading yields skeletal advantages that persist at least 24 months after loading cessation and menarche. Continued post-menarcheal loading yields additional benefit. PMID:20332537

  18. Sphingomyelinase promotes oxidant production and skeletal muscle contractile dysfunction through activation of NADPH oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Loehr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of sphingomyelinase (SMase have been detected in a variety of diseases. SMase has been shown to increase muscle derived oxidants and decrease skeletal muscle force; however, the sub-cellular site of oxidant production has not been elucidated. Using redox sensitive biosensors targeted to the mitochondria and NADPH oxidase (Nox2, we demonstrate that SMase increased Nox2-dependent ROS and had no effect on mitochondrial ROS. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown of Nox2 activity prevented SMase induced ROS production and provided protection against decreased force production. In contrast, genetic overexpression of superoxide dismutase within the mitochondria did not prevent increased ROS production and offered no protection against decreased muscle function in response to SMase. Our study shows that SMase induced ROS production occurs in specific sub-cellular regions of skeletal muscle; however, the increased ROS does not completely account for the decrease in muscle function.

  19. Altering the redox state of skeletal muscle by glutathione depletion increases the exercise-activation of PGC-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Natalie A; Matsumoto, Aya; Peake, Jonathan M; Marsh, Susan A; Peternelj, Tina-Tinkara; Briskey, David; Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S; Wadley, Glenn D

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, cell signaling, and antioxidant enzymes by depleting skeletal muscle glutathione with diethyl maleate (DEM) which resulted in a demonstrable increase in oxidative stress during exercise. Animals were divided into six groups: (1) sedentary control rats; (2) sedentary rats + DEM; (3) exercise control rats euthanized immediately after exercise; (4) exercise rats + DEM; (5) exercise control rats euthanized 4 h after exercise; and (6) exercise rats + DEM euthanized 4 h after exercise. Exercising animals ran on the treadmill at a 10% gradient at 20 m/min for the first 30 min. The speed was then increased every 10 min by 1.6 m/min until exhaustion. There was a reduction in total glutathione in the skeletal muscle of DEM treated animals compared to the control animals (P exercise (P Exercising animals given DEM showed a significantly greater increase in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA compared to the control animals that were exercised (P exercise, PGC-1α gene expression was augmented. These findings further highlight the important role of exercise induced oxidative stress in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25538148

  20. Skeletal Adaptation to Daily Activity: A Biochemical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal daily activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative daily loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of daily cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded daily by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.

  1. Endurance capacity, not body size, determines physical activity levels: role of skeletal muscle PEPCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen M Novak

    Full Text Available Some people remain lean despite pressure to gain weight. Lean people tend to have high daily activity levels, but the source of this increased activity is unknown. We found that leanness cannot be accounted for by increased weight-corrected food intake in two different types of lean rats. As previously reported in lean people, we found that lean rats had higher daily activity levels; lean rats also expended more energy. These lean rats were developed through artificial selection for high aerobic endurance capacity. To test whether our findings extended to a human population, we measured endurance capacity using a VO(2max treadmill test and daily activity in a group of non-exercising individuals. Similar to lean rats selectively bred for endurance capacity, our study revealed that people with higher VO(2max also spent more time active throughout the day. Hence, endurance capacity may be the trait that underlies both physical activity levels and leanness. We identified one potential mechanism for the lean, active phenotype in rats, namely high levels of skeletal muscle PEPCK. Therefore, the lean phenotype is characterized by high endurance capacity and high activity and may stem from altered skeletal muscle energetics.

  2. Constitutive activation of IKK2/NF-κB impairs osteogenesis and skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnkar, Gaurav; Zhang, Kaihua; Mbalaviele, Gabriel; Long, Fanxin; Abu-Amer, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Pathologic conditions impair bone homeostasis. The transcription factor NF-κB regulates bone homeostasis and is central to bone pathologies. Whereas contribution of NF-κB to heightened osteoclast activity is well-documented, the mechanisms underlying NF-κB impact on chondrocytes and osteoblasts are scarce. In this study, we examined the effect of constitutively active IKK2 (IKK2ca) on chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. We show that retroviral IKK2ca but not GFP, IKK2WT, or the inactive IKK2 forms IKK2KM and IKK2SSAA, strongly suppressed osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, in vitro. In order to explore the effect of constitutive NF-κB activation on bone formation in vivo, we activated this pathway in a conditional fashion. Specifically, we crossed the R26StopIKK2ca mice with mice carrying the Col2-cre in order to express IKK2ca in osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Both chondrocytes and osteoblasts derived from Col2Cre/IKK2ca expressed IKK2ca. Mice were born alive yet died shortly thereafter. Histologically, newborn Col2Cre+/RosaIKK2ca heterozygotes (Cre+IKK2ca_w/f (het)) and homozygotes (Cre+IKK2ca_f/f (KI)) showed smaller skeleton, deformed vertebrate and reduced or missing digit ossification. The width of neural arches, as well as ossification in vertebral bodies of Cre+IKK2ca_w/f and Cre+IKK2ca_f/f, was reduced or diminished. H&E staining of proximal tibia from new born pups revealed that Cre+IKK2ca_f/f displayed disorganized hypertrophic zones within the smaller epiphysis. Micro-CT analysis indicated that 4-wk old Cre+IKK2ca_w/f has abnormal trabecular bone in proximal tibia compared to WT littermates. Mechanistically, ex-vivo experiments showed that expression of differentiation markers in calvarial osteoblasts derived from newborn IKK2ca knock-in mice was diminished compared to WT-derived cells. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that the hypertrophic chondrocyte marker type-X collagen, the pre-hypertrophic chondrocyte markers Indian hedgehog

  3. Constitutive activation of IKK2/NF-κB impairs osteogenesis and skeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Swarnkar

    Full Text Available Pathologic conditions impair bone homeostasis. The transcription factor NF-κB regulates bone homeostasis and is central to bone pathologies. Whereas contribution of NF-κB to heightened osteoclast activity is well-documented, the mechanisms underlying NF-κB impact on chondrocytes and osteoblasts are scarce. In this study, we examined the effect of constitutively active IKK2 (IKK2ca on chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. We show that retroviral IKK2ca but not GFP, IKK2WT, or the inactive IKK2 forms IKK2KM and IKK2SSAA, strongly suppressed osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, in vitro. In order to explore the effect of constitutive NF-κB activation on bone formation in vivo, we activated this pathway in a conditional fashion. Specifically, we crossed the R26StopIKK2ca mice with mice carrying the Col2-cre in order to express IKK2ca in osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Both chondrocytes and osteoblasts derived from Col2Cre/IKK2ca expressed IKK2ca. Mice were born alive yet died shortly thereafter. Histologically, newborn Col2Cre+/RosaIKK2ca heterozygotes (Cre+IKK2ca_w/f (het and homozygotes (Cre+IKK2ca_f/f (KI showed smaller skeleton, deformed vertebrate and reduced or missing digit ossification. The width of neural arches, as well as ossification in vertebral bodies of Cre+IKK2ca_w/f and Cre+IKK2ca_f/f, was reduced or diminished. H&E staining of proximal tibia from new born pups revealed that Cre+IKK2ca_f/f displayed disorganized hypertrophic zones within the smaller epiphysis. Micro-CT analysis indicated that 4-wk old Cre+IKK2ca_w/f has abnormal trabecular bone in proximal tibia compared to WT littermates. Mechanistically, ex-vivo experiments showed that expression of differentiation markers in calvarial osteoblasts derived from newborn IKK2ca knock-in mice was diminished compared to WT-derived cells. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that the hypertrophic chondrocyte marker type-X collagen, the pre-hypertrophic chondrocyte markers

  4. Metabolic and mitogenic transduction cascades in skeletal muscle : Implications for exercise effects on glucose metabolism and gene regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Mei

    2003-01-01

    Level of physical activity is linked to improved glucose homeostasis. The molecular signaling mechanisms by which insulin and exercise/muscle contractions lead to increased glucose transport and metabolism and gene expression have not been completely elucidated. The overall aim of this thesis was to identify novel regulatory mechanisms governing exercisesensitive signaling pathways to glucose metabolism and gene transcription in skeletal muscle. Components of the insulin (IR...

  5. Regulation of protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle : separate and combined effects of exercise and amino acids

    OpenAIRE

    Apró, William

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue which has the ability to adapt to various forms of external stimuli such as diverse modes of contractile activity. Thus, performance of endurance exercise over several of weeks results in increased oxidative capacity. In contrast, prolonged performance of resistance exercise ultimately results in increased muscle mass. These adaptations are brought about by transient alterations in gene expression and mRNA translation which result...

  6. Purinergic effects on Na,K-ATPase activity differ in rat and human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Juel

    Full Text Available P2Y receptor activation may link the effect of purines to increased maximal in vitro activity of the Na,K-ATPase in rat muscle. The hypothesis that a similar mechanism is present in human skeletal muscle was investigated with membranes from rat and human skeletal muscle.Membranes purified from rat and human muscles were used in the Na,K-ATPase assay. Incubation with ADP, the stable ADP analogue MeS-ADP and UDP increased the Na+ dependent Na,K-ATPase activity in rat muscle membranes, whereas similar treatments of human muscle membranes lowered the Na,K-ATPase activity. UTP incubation resulted in unchanged Na,K-ATPase activity in humans, but pre-incubation with the antagonist suramin resulted in inhibition with UTP, suggesting that P2Y receptors are involved. The Na,K-ATPase in membranes from both rat and human could be stimulated by protein kinase A and C activation. Thus, protein kinase A and C activation can increase Na,K-ATPase activity in human muscle but not via P2Y receptor stimulation.The inhibitory effects of most purines (with the exception of UTP in human muscle membranes are probably due to mass law inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. This inhibition could be blurred in rat due to receptor mediated activation of the Na,K-ATPase. The different effects could be related to a high density of ADP sensitive P2Y1 and P2Y13 receptors in rat, whereas the UTP sensitive P2Y11 could be more abundant in human. Alternatively, rat could possesses a mechanism for protein-protein interaction between P2Y receptors and the Na,K-ATPase, and this mechanism could be absent in human skeletal muscle (perhaps with the exception of the UTP sensitive P2Y11 receptor.Rat muscle is not a reliable model for purinergic effects on Na,K-ATPase in human skeletal muscle.

  7. Skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity increases during either hypertrophy or running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, M.; Waxham, M. N.; Hamilton, M. T.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Spikes in free Ca(2+) initiate contractions in skeletal muscle cells, but whether and how they might signal to transcription factors in skeletal muscles of living animals is unknown. Since previous studies in non-muscle cells have shown that serum response factor (SRF) protein, a transcription factor, is phosphorylated rapidly by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase after rises in intracellular Ca(2+), we measured enzymatic activity that phosphorylates SRF (designated SRF kinase activity). Homogenates from 7-day-hypertrophied anterior latissimus dorsi muscles of roosters had more Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase activity than their respective control muscles. However, no differences were noted in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity between control and trained muscles. To determine whether the Ca(2+)-independent and Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent forms of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) might contribute to some of the SRF kinase activity, autocamtide-3, a synthetic substrate that is specific for CaMKII, was employed. While the Ca(2+)-independent form of CaMKII was increased, like the Ca(2+)-independent form of SRF kinase, no alteration in CaMKII occurred at 7 days of stretch overload. These observations suggest that some of SRF phosphorylation by skeletal muscle extracts could be due to CaMKII. To determine whether this adaptation was specific to the exercise type (i.e., hypertrophy), similar measurements were made in the white vastus lateralis muscle of rats that had completed 2 wk of voluntary running. Although Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase was increased, no alteration occurred in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity. Thus any role of Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase signaling has downstream modulators specific to the exercise phenotype.

  8. Regulation of the nuclear hormone receptor nur77 in muscle: Influence of exercise-activated pathways in vitro and obesity in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanzleiter, Timo; Wilks, Donna; Preston, Elaine; Ye, Jiming; Frangioudakis, Georgia; Cooney, Gregory James

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Regular physical exercise is well known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. However, the transcription factors regulating these adaptive changes are not well characterised. Recently the nuclear orphan receptor nur77 was shown to be induced by exercise and linked to regulation of metabolic gene expression in skeletal muscle. In this study we investigated the regulation of nur77 in muscle by different exercise activated pathways. Nur77 expression was ...

  9. Constitutively activated NLRP3 inflammasome causes inflammation and abnormal skeletal development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Bonar

    Full Text Available The NLRP3 inflammasome complex is responsible for maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. Mutations in NLRP3 are responsible for the cryopyrinopathies, a spectrum of conditions including neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID. While excessive production of IL-1β and systemic inflammation are common to all cryopyrinopathy disorders, skeletal abnormalities, prominently in the knees, and low bone mass are unique features of patients with NOMID. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying skeletal abnormalities in NOMID, we generated knock-in mice globally expressing the D301N NLRP3 mutation (ortholog of D303N in human NLRP3. NOMID mice exhibit neutrophilia in blood and many tissues, including knee joints, and high levels of serum inflammatory mediators. They also exhibit growth retardation and severe postnatal osteopenia stemming at least in part from abnormally accelerated bone resorption, attended by increased osteoclastogenesis. Histologic analysis of knee joints revealed abnormal growth plates, with loss of chondrocytes and growth arrest in the central region of the epiphyses. Most strikingly, a tissue "spike" was observed in the mid-region of the growth plate in the long bones of all NOMID mice that may be the precursor to more severe deformations analogous to those observed in NOMID patients. These findings provide direct evidence linking a NOMID-associated NLRP3-activating mutation to abnormalities of postnatal skeletal growth and bone remodeling.

  10. Constitutive activation of CaMKKα signaling is sufficient but not necessary for mTORC1 activation and growth in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferey, Jeremie L A; Brault, Jeffrey J; Smith, Cheryl A S; Witczak, Carol A

    2014-10-15

    Skeletal muscle loading/overload stimulates the Ca²⁺-activated, serine/threonine kinase Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-α (CaMKKα); yet to date, no studies have examined whether CaMKKα regulates muscle growth. The purpose of this study was to determine if constitutive activation of CaMKKα signaling could stimulate muscle growth and if so whether CaMKKα is essential for this process. CaMKKα signaling was selectively activated in mouse muscle via expression of a constitutively active form of CaMKKα using in vivo electroporation. After 2 wk, constitutively active CaMKKα expression increased muscle weight (~10%) and protein content (~10%), demonstrating that activation of CaMKKα signaling can stimulate muscle growth. To determine if active CaMKKα expression stimulated muscle growth via increased mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and protein synthesis, [³H]phenylalanine incorporation into proteins was assessed with or without the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Constitutively active CaMKKα increased protein synthesis ~60%, and this increase was prevented by rapamycin, demonstrating a critical role for mTORC1 in this process. To determine if CaMKKα is essential for growth, muscles from CaMKKα knockout mice were stimulated to hypertrophy via unilateral ablation of synergist muscles (overload). Surprisingly, compared with wild-type mice, muscles from CaMKKα knockout mice exhibited greater growth (~15%) and phosphorylation of the mTORC1 substrate 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (Thr³⁸⁹; ~50%), demonstrating that CaMKKα is not essential for overload-induced mTORC1 activation or muscle growth. Collectively, these results demonstrate that activation of CaMKKα signaling is sufficient but not necessary for activation of mTORC1 signaling and growth in mouse skeletal muscle.

  11. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS, it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects. Methods Using a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i an inactive control trial (CON, ii exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF, and iii after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL. Results The intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70–120 nm (large particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43–55 nm (medium particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29–43 nm was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state. Conclusions These findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in

  12. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Michael

    2012-06-06

    AbstractBackgroundMany of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects.MethodsUsing a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i) an inactive control trial (CON), ii) exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF), and iii) after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL).ResultsThe intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG) determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70–120 nm (large) particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43–55 nm (medium) particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29–43 nm) was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state.ConclusionsThese findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in LPL activity.

  13. Troponin T3 regulates nuclear localization of the calcium channel Cavβ1a subunit in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β1a subunit (Cavβ1a) plays an important role in excitation–contraction coupling (ECC), a process in the myoplasm that leads to muscle-force generation. Recently, we discovered that the Cavβ1a subunit travels to the nucleus of skeletal muscle cells where it helps to regulate gene transcription. To determine how it travels to the nucleus, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening of the mouse fast skeletal muscle cDNA library and identified an interaction with troponin T3 (TnT3), which we subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo and in cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Interacting domains were mapped to the leucine zipper domain in TnT3 COOH-terminus (160–244 aa) and Cavβ1a NH2-terminus (1–99 aa), respectively. The double fluorescence assay in C2C12 cells co-expressing TnT3/DsRed and Cavβ1a/YFP shows that TnT3 facilitates Cavβ1a nuclear recruitment, suggesting that the two proteins play a heretofore unknown role during early muscle differentiation in addition to their classical role in ECC regulation. - Highlights: • Previously, we demonstrated that Cavβ1a is a gene transcription regulator. • Here, we show that TnT3 interacts with Cavβ1a. • We mapped TnT3 and Cavβ1a interaction domain. • TnT3 facilitates Cavβ1a nuclear enrichment. • The two proteins play a heretofore unknown role during early muscle differentiation

  14. The kinin B1 receptor regulates muscle-specific E3 ligases expression and is involved in skeletal muscle mass control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreiras-E-Silva, Lucas T; Reis, Rosana I; Santos, Geisa A; Pires-Oliveira, Marcelo; Pesquero, João B; Gomes, Marcelo D; Godinho, Rosely O; Costa-Neto, Claudio M

    2014-08-01

    Regulation of muscle mass depends on the balance between synthesis and degradation of proteins, which is under the control of different signalling pathways regulated by hormonal, neural and nutritional stimuli. Such stimuli are altered in several pathologies, including COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), diabetes, AIDS and cancer (cachexia), as well as in some conditions such as immobilization and aging (sarcopenia), leading to muscle atrophy, which represents a significant contribution to patient morbidity. The KKS (kallikrein-kinin system) is composed of the enzymes kallikreins, which generate active peptides called kinins that activate two G-protein-coupled receptors, namely B1 and B2, which are expressed in a variety of tissues. The local modulation of the KKS may account for its participation in different diseases, such as those of the cardiovascular, renal and central nervous systems, cancer and many inflammatory processes, including pain. Owing to such pleiotropic actions of the KKS by local modulatory events and the probable fine-tuning of associated signalling cascades involved in skeletal muscle catabolic disorders [for example, NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt pathways], we hypothesized that KKS might contribute to the modulation of intracellular responses in atrophying skeletal muscle. Our results show that kinin B1 receptor activation induced a decrease in the diameter of C2C12 myotubes, activation of NF-κB, a decrease in Akt phosphorylation levels, and an increase in the mRNA levels of the ubiquitin E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 (muscle RING-finger protein-1). In vivo, we observed an increase in kinin B1 receptor mRNA levels in an androgen-sensitive model of muscle atrophy. In the same model, inhibition of the kinin B1 receptor with a selective antagonist resulted in an impairment of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression and IκB (inhibitor of NF-κB) phosphorylation. Moreover, knockout of the kinin B1

  15. Skeletal muscle IL‐6 and regulation of liver metabolism during high‐fat diet and exercise training

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Jakob G.; Joensen, Ella; Bertholdt, Lærke; Jessen, Henrik; van Hauen, Line; Hidalgo, Juan; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Interleukin (IL)‐6 is released from skeletal muscle (SkM) during exercise and has been shown to affect hepatic metabolism. It is, however, unknown whether SkM IL‐6 is involved in the regulation of exercise training‐induced counteraction of changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver in response to high‐fat diet (HFD) feeding. Male SkM‐specific IL‐6 KO (MKO) and Floxed mice were subjected to Chow diet, HFD or HFD combined with exercise training (HFD ExTr) for 16 weeks. H...

  16. Malonyl-CoA and carnitine in regulation of fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Halberg, Nils; Hillig, Thore;

    2005-01-01

    -CHO) or 2) a low-carbohydrate diet (L-CHO) before exercise to alter muscle glycogen content as well as to induce, respectively, low and high rates of fat oxidation. Leg fat oxidation was 122% higher during exercise in L-CHO than in H-CHO (P ...Intracellular mechanisms regulating fat oxidation were investigated in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Eight young, healthy, moderately trained men performed bicycle exercise (60 min, 65% peak O2 consumption) on two occasions, where they ingested either 1) a high-carbohydrate diet (H...

  17. Fifteen days of 3,200 m simulated hypoxia marginally regulates markers for protein synthesis and degradation in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Hulst, Gommaar; Ferri, Alessandra; Naslain, Damien; Bertrand, Luc; Horman, Sandrine; Francaux, Marc; Bishop, David J; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia leads to muscle atrophy. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not well defined in vivo. We sought to determine how chronic hypoxia regulates molecular markers of protein synthesis and degradation in human skeletal muscle and whether these regulations were related to the regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. Eight young male subjects lived in a normobaric hypoxic hotel (FiO2 14.1%, 3,200 m) for 15 days in well-controlled conditions for nutrition and physical activity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained in the musculus vastus lateralis before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) hypoxic exposure. Intramuscular hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) protein expression decreased (−49%, P=0.03), whereas hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α) remained unaffected from PRE to POST hypoxic exposure. Also, downstream HIF-1α target genes VEGF-A (−66%, P=0.006) and BNIP3 (−24%, P=0.002) were downregulated, and a tendency was measured for neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally Nedd4 (−47%, P=0.07), suggesting lowered HIF-1α transcriptional activity after 15 days of exposure to environmental hypoxia. No difference was found on microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 type II/I (LC3b-II/I) ratio, and P62 protein expression tended to increase (+45%, P=0.07) compared to PRE exposure levels, suggesting that autophagy was not modulated after chronic hypoxia. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway was not altered as Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, S6 kinase 1, and 4E-binding protein 1 phosphorylation did not change between PRE and POST. Finally, myofiber cross-sectional area was unchanged between PRE and POST. In summary, our data indicate that moderate chronic hypoxia differentially regulates HIF-1α and HIF-2α, marginally affects markers of protein degradation, and does not modify markers of protein synthesis or myofiber cross-sectional area in human skeletal muscle.

  18. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 is required for normal osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation during skeletal growth and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, S R; Pagel, C N; Ghasem-Zadeh, A; Zebaze, R M D; Pike, R N; Sims, N A; Mackie, E J

    2012-03-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) is a G-protein coupled receptor expressed by osteoblasts and monocytes. PAR(2) is activated by a number of proteinases including coagulation factors and proteinases released by inflammatory cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of PAR(2) in skeletal growth and repair using wild type (WT) and PAR(2) knockout (KO) mice. Micro computed tomography and histomorphometry were used to examine the structure of tibias isolated from uninjured mice at 50 and 90 days of age, and from 98-day-old mice in a bone repair model in which a hole had been drilled through the tibias. Bone marrow was cultured and investigated for the presence of osteoblast precursors (alkaline phosphatase-positive fibroblastic colonies), and osteoclasts were counted in cultures treated with M-CSF and RANKL. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine which proteinases that activate PAR(2) are expressed in bone marrow. Regulation of PAR(2) expression in primary calvarial osteoblasts from WT mice was investigated by quantitative PCR. Cortical and trabecular bone volumes were significantly greater in the tibias of PAR(2) KO mice than in those of WT mice at 50 days of age. In trabecular bone, osteoclast surface, osteoblast surface and osteoid volume were significantly lower in KO than in WT mice. Bone marrow cultures from KO mice showed significantly fewer alkaline phosphatase-positive colony-forming units and osteoclasts compared to cultures from WT mice. Significantly less new bone and significantly fewer osteoclasts were observed in the drill sites of PAR(2) KO mice compared to WT mice 7 days post-surgery. A number of activators of PAR(2), including matriptase and kallikrein 4, were found to be expressed by normal bone marrow. Parathyroid hormone, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3), or interleukin-6 in combination with its soluble receptor down-regulated PAR(2) mRNA expression, and fibroblast growth factor-2 or thrombin stimulated PAR(2

  19. Distinct amino acid-sensing mTOR pathways regulate skeletal myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Chen, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in response to amino acid availability controls many cellular and developmental processes. mTOR is a master regulator of myogenic differentiation, but the pathways mediating amino acid signals in this process are not known. Here we examine the Rag GTPases and the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34, two mediators of amino acid signals upstream of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in cell growth regulation, for their potential involvement in myogenesis. We find that, although both Rag and Vps34 mediate amino acid activation of mTORC1 in C2C12 myoblasts, they have opposing functions in myogenic differentiation. Knockdown of RagA/B enhances, whereas overexpression of active RagB/C mutants impairs, differentiation, and this inhibitory function of Rag is mediated by mTORC1 suppression of the IRS1-PI3K-Akt pathway. On the other hand, Vps34 is required for myogenic differentiation. Amino acids activate a Vps34-phospholipase D1 (PLD1) pathway that controls the production of insulin-like growth factor II, an autocrine inducer of differentiation, through the Igf2 muscle enhancer. The product of PLD, phosphatidic acid, activates the enhancer in a rapamycin-sensitive but mTOR kinase-independent manner. Our results uncover amino acid-sensing mechanisms controlling the homeostasis of myogenesis and underline the versatility and context dependence of mTOR signaling.

  20. mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengpeng [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Liang, Xinrong; Shan, Tizhong [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jiang, Qinyang [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Deng, Changyan [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zheng, Rong, E-mail: zhengrong@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kuang, Shihuan, E-mail: skuang@purdue.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-17

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive deletion of Mtor gene results in embryonic lethality, the function of mTOR in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be determined. In this study, we established a satellite cell specific Mtor conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model by crossing Pax7{sup CreER} and Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury was severely compromised in the absence of Mtor, indicated by increased number of necrotic myofibers infiltrated by Evans blue dye, and reduced number and size of regenerated myofibers in the Mtor cKO mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. To dissect the cellular mechanism, we analyzed satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts grown on single myofibers or adhered to culture plates. The Mtor cKO myoblasts exhibited defective proliferation and differentiation kinetics when compared to myoblasts derived from WT littermates. At the mRNA and protein levels, the Mtor cKO myoblasts expressed lower levels of key myogenic determinant genes Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Myog than did the WT myoblasts. These results suggest that mTOR is essential for satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration through controlling the expression of myogenic genes. - Highlights: • Pax7{sup CreER} was used to delete Mtor gene in satellite cells. • Satellite cell specific deletion of Mtor impairs muscle regeneration. • mTOR is necessary for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. • Deletion of Mtor leads to reduced expression of key myogenic genes.

  1. mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive deletion of Mtor gene results in embryonic lethality, the function of mTOR in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be determined. In this study, we established a satellite cell specific Mtor conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model by crossing Pax7CreER and Mtorflox/flox mice. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury was severely compromised in the absence of Mtor, indicated by increased number of necrotic myofibers infiltrated by Evans blue dye, and reduced number and size of regenerated myofibers in the Mtor cKO mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. To dissect the cellular mechanism, we analyzed satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts grown on single myofibers or adhered to culture plates. The Mtor cKO myoblasts exhibited defective proliferation and differentiation kinetics when compared to myoblasts derived from WT littermates. At the mRNA and protein levels, the Mtor cKO myoblasts expressed lower levels of key myogenic determinant genes Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Myog than did the WT myoblasts. These results suggest that mTOR is essential for satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration through controlling the expression of myogenic genes. - Highlights: • Pax7CreER was used to delete Mtor gene in satellite cells. • Satellite cell specific deletion of Mtor impairs muscle regeneration. • mTOR is necessary for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. • Deletion of Mtor leads to reduced expression of key myogenic genes

  2. Cardiolipin linoleic acid content and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity are associated in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Saint, Caitlin; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an inner-mitochondrial membrane phospholipid that is important for optimal mitochondrial function. Specifically, CL and CL linoleic (18:2ω6) content are known to be positively associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. However, this association has not been examined in skeletal muscle. In this study, rats were fed high-fat diets with a naturally occurring gradient in linoleic acid (coconut oil [CO], 5.8%; flaxseed oil [FO], 13.2%; safflower oil [SO], 75.1%) in an attempt to alter both mitochondrial CL fatty acyl composition and COX activity in rat mixed hind-limb muscle. In general, mitochondrial membrane lipid composition was fairly resistant to dietary treatments as only modest changes in fatty acyl composition were detected in CL and other major mitochondrial phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). As a result of this resistance, CL 18:2ω6 content was not different between the dietary groups. Consistent with the lack of changes in CL 18:2ω6 content, mitochondrial COX activity was also not different between the dietary groups. However, correlational analysis using data obtained from rats across the dietary groups showed a significant relationship (p = 0.009, R(2) = 0.21). Specifically, our results suggest that CL 18:2ω6 content may positively influence mitochondrial COX activity thereby making this lipid molecule a potential factor related to mitochondrial health and function in skeletal muscle.

  3. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α is dispensable for chronic overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and metabolic remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Schindler, Joaquín; Summermatter, Serge; Santos, Gesa; Zorzato, Francesco; Handschin, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass loss and dysfunction have been linked to many diseases. Conversely, resistance exercise, mainly by activating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and exerts several therapeutic effects. Moreover, mTORC1, along with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), regulates skeletal muscle metabolism. However, it is unclear whether PGC-1α is required for skeletal muscle adaptations after overload. Here...

  4. Aging affects the transcriptional regulation of human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte Arneboe; Frandsen, Ulrik; Jensen, Line;

    2012-01-01

    Important insights concerning the molecular basis of skeletal muscle disuse-atrophy and aging related muscle loss have been obtained in cell culture and animal models, but these regulatory signaling pathways have not previously been studied in aging human muscle. In the present study, muscle...... atrophy was induced by immobilization in healthy old and young individuals to study the time-course and transcriptional factors underlying human skeletal muscle atrophy. The results reveal that irrespectively of age, mRNA expression levels of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 increased in the very initial phase (2......-4 days) of human disuse-muscle atrophy along with a marked reduction in PGC-1a and PGC-1ß (1-4 days) and a ~10% decrease in myofiber size (4 days). Further, an age-specific decrease in Akt and S6 phosphorylation was observed in young muscle within the first days (1-4 days) of immobilization. In contrast...

  5. Maged1, a new regulator of skeletal myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achouri Younes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In normal adult skeletal muscle, cell turnover is very slow. However, after an acute lesion or in chronic pathological conditions, such as primary myopathies, muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, are induced to proliferate, then withdraw definitively from the cell cycle and fuse to reconstitute functional myofibers. Results We show that Maged1 is expressed at very low levels in normal adult muscle but is strongly induced after injury, during the early phase of myoblast differentiation. By comparing in vitro differentiation of myoblasts derived from wild-type or Maged1 knockout mice, we observed that Maged1 deficiency results in reduced levels of p21CIP1/WAF1, defective cell cycle exit and impaired myotube maturation. In vivo, this defect results in delayed regeneration of injured muscle. Conclusions These data demonstrate for the first time that Maged1 is an important factor required for proper skeletal myoblast differentiation and muscle healing.

  6. Chronic AMP-activated protein kinase activation and a high-fat diet have an additive effect on mitochondria in rat skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Fillmore, Natasha; Jacobs, Daniel L.; Mills, David B.; Winder, William W.; Hancock, Chad R.

    2010-01-01

    Factors that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle include AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), calcium, and circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). Chronic treatment with either 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR), a chemical activator of AMPK, or increasing circulating FFAs with a high-fat diet increases mitochondria in rat skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of chronic chemical activation of AMPK and high-fat feeding ...

  7. Increased fat deposition in injured skeletal muscle is regulated by sex-specific hormones

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Matthew J.; Sarwar, Zaheer U.; Cardenas, Damon P.; Porter, Laurel; Salinas, Anna S.; Michalek, Joel E.; McManus, Linda M.; Shireman, Paula K

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in skeletal muscle regeneration are controversial; comparisons of regenerative events between sexes have not been rigorously defined in severe injury models. We comprehensively quantified inflammation and muscle regeneration between sexes and manipulated sex-specific hormones to determine effects on regeneration. Cardiotoxin injury was induced in intact, castrated and ovariectomized female and male mice; ovariectomized mice were replaced with low- or high-dose 17-β estradiol (...

  8. Identification of Small Molecules Which Induce Skeletal Muscle Differentiation in Embryonic Stem Cells via Activation of the Wnt and Inhibition of Smad2/3 and Sonic Hedgehog Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunwoo; Haller, Corinne; Manneville, Carole; Doll, Thierry; Fruh, Isabelle; Keller, Caroline Gubser; Richards, Shola M; Ibig-Rehm, Yvonne; Patoor, Maude; Goette, Marjo; Bouchez, Laure C; Mueller, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    The multilineage differentiation capacity of mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells offers a testing platform for small molecules that mediate mammalian lineage determination and cellular specialization. Here we report the identification of two small molecules which drives mouse 129 ES cell differentiation to skeletal muscle with high efficiency without any genetic modification. Mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) were used to screen a library of 1,000 small molecules to identify compounds capable of inducing high levels of Pax3 mRNA. Stimulation of EBs with SMIs (skeletal muscle inducer, SMI1 and SMI2) from the screen resulted in a high percentage of intensively twitching skeletal muscle fibers 3 weeks after induction. Gene expression profiling studies that were carried out for mode of actions analysis showed that SMIs activated genes regulated by the Wnt pathway and inhibited expression of Smad2/3 and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) target genes. A combination of three small molecules known to modulate these three pathways acted similarly to the SMIs found here, driving ES cells from 129 as well as Balb/c and C57Bl/6 to skeletal muscle. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the SMI drives ES cells to skeletal muscle via concerted activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of Smad2/3 signaling and Shh pathways. This provides important developmental biological information about skeletal muscle differentiation from embryonic stem cells and may lead to the development of new therapeutics for muscle disease. PMID:26577380

  9. Increase of lipoprotein-lipase activity in skeletal muscle during heavy exercise. Relation to epinephrine excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithell, H; Cedermark, M; Fröberg, J; Tesch, P; Karlsson, J

    1981-11-01

    As part of the training programme for Swedish elite soldiers, a 10 day march is carried out with a heavy pack under active-service conditions. Six soldiers volunteered to take part in an investigation on the energy consumption with special regard to the lipid metabolism at different levels of physical effort. The degree of physical work was evaluated by continuous heart-rate recording and analysis of the excretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the urine. Fasting values of triglycerides and free fatty acids in blood plasma were determined and muscle biopsies (taken in the morning and in the afternoon) were analysed for lipoprotein-lipase (LPL) activity. After an overnight fast the free fatty acids were increased only in the mornings following days of heavy physical work. The plasma triglyceride concentrations were lowest in a morning proceeded by 3 days of heavy work. The muscle LPL activity in the morning was highest after a day of heavy work and lowest after days of rest. During days of heavy work this activity increased and was higher in the afternoon than in the morning. Muscle LPL activity in the afternoon was closely related to urinary excretion of epinephrine. The data indicate that LPL activity is elevated in the working skeletal muscle increasing the access of fatty acids. The degree of elevation is related to the degree of effort as described by the urinary excretion of morning. Muscle LPL activity in the afternoon was closely related to urinary excretion of epinephrine. The data indicate that LPL activity is elevated in the working skeletal muscle increasing the access of fatty acids. The degree of elevation is related to the degree of effort as described by the urinary excretion of morning. Muscle LPL activity in the afternoon was closely related to urinary excretion of epinephrine. The data indicate that LPL activity is elevated in the working skeletal muscle increasing the access of fatty acids. The degree of elevation is related to the degree

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor expression is reduced in skeletal muscle in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remels, A.H.; Schrauwen, P.; Broekhuizen, R.; Willems, J.; Kersten, A.H.; Gosker, H.R.; Schols, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multiorgan systemic disease. The systemic features are skeletal muscle weakness and cachexia, the latter being associated with systemic inflammation. The exact mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD remain obscure. Recent evidence

  11. Distinct amino acid-sensing mTOR pathways regulate skeletal myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Chen, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in response to amino acid availability controls many cellular and developmental processes. mTOR is a master regulator of myogenic differentiation, but the pathways mediating amino acid signals in this process are not known. Here we examine the Rag GTPases and the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34, two mediators of amino acid signals upstream of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in cell growth regulation, for their potential involvement in myogenesis. We find that, although both Rag and Vps34 mediate amino acid activation of mTORC1 in C2C12 myoblasts, they have opposing functions in myogenic differentiation. Knockdown of RagA/B enhances, whereas overexpression of active RagB/C mutants impairs, differentiation, and this inhibitory function of Rag is mediated by mTORC1 suppression of the IRS1-PI3K-Akt pathway. On the other hand, Vps34 is required for myogenic differentiation. Amino acids activate a Vps34-phospholipase D1 (PLD1) pathway that controls the production of insulin-like growth factor II, an autocrine inducer of differentiation, through the Igf2 muscle enhancer. The product of PLD, phosphatidic acid, activates the enhancer in a rapamycin-sensitive but mTOR kinase-independent manner. Our results uncover amino acid-sensing mechanisms controlling the homeostasis of myogenesis and underline the versatility and context dependence of mTOR signaling. PMID:24068326

  12. The RabGAP TBC1D1 plays a central role in exercise-regulated glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöckli, Jacqueline; Meoli, Christopher C; Hoffman, Nolan J;

    2015-01-01

    Insulin and exercise stimulate glucose uptake into skeletal muscle via different pathways. Both stimuli converge on the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface. Two Rab guanosine triphosphatases-activating proteins (GAPs) have been implicated...... in this process: AS160 for insulin stimulation and its homolog, TBC1D1, are suggested to regulate exercise-mediated glucose uptake into muscle. TBC1D1 has also been implicated in obesity in humans and mice. We investigated the role of TBC1D1 in glucose metabolism by generating TBC1D1(-/-) mice and...... analyzing body weight, insulin action, and exercise. TBC1D1(-/-) mice showed normal glucose and insulin tolerance, with no difference in body weight compared with wild-type littermates. GLUT4 protein levels were reduced by ∼40% in white TBC1D1(-/-) muscle, and TBC1D1(-/-) mice showed impaired exercise...

  13. STAT3 activation in skeletal muscle links muscle wasting and the acute phase response in cancer cachexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonetto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the presence of the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA are synthesized by hepatocytes in response to IL-6 as part of the innate immune response. To gain insight into the relationships among these observations, we studied mice with moderate and severe Colon-26 (C26-carcinoma cachexia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Moderate and severe C26 cachexia was associated with high serum IL-6 and IL-6 family cytokines and highly similar patterns of skeletal muscle gene expression. The top canonical pathways up-regulated in both were the complement/coagulation cascade, proteasome, MAPK signaling, and the IL-6 and STAT3 pathways. Cachexia was associated with increased muscle pY705-STAT3 and increased STAT3 localization in myonuclei. STAT3 target genes, including SOCS3 mRNA and acute phase response proteins, were highly induced in cachectic muscle. IL-6 treatment and STAT3 activation both also induced fibrinogen in cultured C2C12 myotubes. Quantitation of muscle versus liver fibrinogen and SAA protein levels indicates that muscle contributes a large fraction of serum acute phase proteins in cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the STAT3 transcriptome is a major mechanism for wasting in cancer. Through IL-6/STAT3 activation, skeletal muscle is induced to synthesize acute phase proteins, thus establishing a molecular link between the observations of high IL-6, increased acute phase response proteins and muscle wasting in cancer. These results suggest a mechanism by which STAT3 might causally influence muscle wasting by altering the profile of genes expressed and

  14. IL-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity through a PPARδ-Dependent-PPARα-Independent Mechanism in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mediators of metabolic processes, to increase energy expenditure, have become a focus for therapies of obesity. The discovery of cytokines secreted from the skeletal muscle (SKM), termed “myokines,” has garnered attention due to their positive effects on metabolic processes. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine that has numerous positive metabolic effects and is linked to the PPAR family of mitochondrial regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the importance of PPARα and/or PPARδ as targets of IL-15 signaling. C2C12 SKM cells were differentiated for 6 days and treated every other day with IL-15 (100 ng/mL), a PPARα inhibitor (GW-6471), a PPARδ inhibitor (GSK-3787), or both IL-15 and the inhibitors. IL-15 increased mitochondrial activity and induced PPARα, PPARδ, PGC1α, PGC1β, UCP2, and Nrf1 expression. There was no effect of inhibiting PPARα, in combination with IL-15, on the aforementioned mRNA levels except for PGC1β and Nrf1. However, with PPARδ inhibition, IL-15 failed to induce the expression levels of PGC1α, PGC1β, UCP2, and Nrf1. Further, inhibition of PPARδ abolished IL-15 induced increases in citrate synthase activity, ATP production, and overall mitochondrial activity. IL-15 had no effects on mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data indicates that PPARδ activity is required for the beneficial metabolic effects of IL-15 signaling in SKM.

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor is regulated by microRNA-133 during skeletal myogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Bo Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF signaling pathway has long been established as playing critical roles in skeletal muscle development. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, a large family of small RNAs, named microRNAs (miRNAs, has been identified as key regulators for many developmental processes. Because miRNAs participate in the regulation of various signaling pathways, we hypothesized that miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of IGF signaling in skeletal myogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we determined that the cell-surface receptor IGF-1R is directly regulated by a muscle-specific miRNA, microRNA-133 (miR-133. A conserved and functional binding site for miR-133 was identified in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR of IGF-1R. During differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, IGF-1R protein, but not messenger RNA (mRNA expression, was gradually reduced, concurrent with the upregulation of miR-133. Overexpression of miR-133 in C2C12 cells significantly suppressed IGF-1R expression at the posttranscriptional level. We also demonstrated that both overexpression of miR-133 and knockdown of IGF-1R downregulated the phosphorylation of Akt, the central mediator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, upregulation of miR-133 during C2C12 differentiation was significantly accelerated by the addition of IGF-1. Mechanistically, we found that the expression of myogenin, a myogenic transcription factor reported to transactivate miR-133, was increased by IGF-1 stimulation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results elucidate a negative feedback circuit in which IGF-1-stimulated miR-133 in turn represses IGF-1R expression to modulate the IGF-1R signaling pathway during skeletal myogenesis. These findings also suggest that miR-133 may be a potential therapeutic target in muscle diseases.

  16. Nitric oxide and Na,K-ATPase activity in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Aim: It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO) stimulates the Na,K-ATPase in cardiac myocytes. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether NO increases Na,K-ATPase activity in skeletal muscle and, if that is the case, to identify the underlying mechanism. Method: The study used......, but had no effect in oxidative muscles. Spermine NONOate increased the maximal Na,K-ATPase activity by 58% (P oxidative muscle. The stimulatory effect of NONOate was not related to one specific Na,K-ATPase α-isoform. Incubation with c......GMP (1 mm) increased the maximal Na,K-ATPase activity in homogenates from glycolytic muscle by 16% (P oxidative muscle. cGMP had no effect on phospholemman phosphorylation at serine 68. Spermine NONOate had no effect in muscle membranes in which the ATPase...

  17. Autophagic signaling and proteolytic enzyme activity in cardiac and skeletal muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats following chronic aerobic exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott M McMillan

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a cardiovascular disease associated with deleterious effects in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Autophagy is a degradative process essential to muscle health. Acute exercise can alter autophagic signaling. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the effects of chronic endurance exercise on autophagy in skeletal and cardiac muscle of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR were assigned to a sedentary condition or 6 weeks of treadmill running. White gastrocnemius (WG of hypertensive rats had higher (p<0.05 caspase-3 and proteasome activity, as well as elevated calpain activity. In addition, skeletal muscle of hypertensive animals had elevated (p<0.05 ATG7 and LC3I protein, LAMP2 mRNA, and cathepsin activity, indicative of enhanced autophagic signaling. Interestingly, chronic exercise training increased (p<0.05 Beclin-1, LC3, and p62 mRNA as well as proteasome activity, but reduced (p<0.05 Beclin-1 and ATG7 protein, as well as decreased (p<0.05 caspase-3, calpain, and cathepsin activity. Left ventricle (LV of hypertensive rats had reduced (p<0.05 AMPKα and LC3II protein, as well as elevated (p<0.05 p-AKT, p-p70S6K, LC3I and p62 protein, which collectively suggest reduced autophagic signaling. Exercise training had little effect on autophagy-related signaling factors in LV; however, exercise training increased (p<0.05 proteasome activity but reduced (p<0.05 caspase-3 and calpain activity. Our results suggest that autophagic signaling is altered in skeletal and cardiac muscle of hypertensive animals. Regular aerobic exercise can effectively alter the proteolytic environment in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, as well as influence several autophagy-related factors in skeletal muscle of normotensive and hypertensive rats.

  18. Role of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase in interleukin-6 release from isolated mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glund, Stephan; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Long, Yun Chau;

    2009-01-01

    IL-6 is released from skeletal muscle during exercise and has consequently been implicated to mediate beneficial effects on whole-body metabolism. Using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), a pharmacological activator of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), we tested...... the hypothesis that AMPK modulates IL-6 release from isolated muscle. Skeletal muscle from AMPKalpha2 kinase-dead transgenic, AMPKalpha1 knockout (KO) and AMPKgamma3 KO mice and respective wild-type littermates was incubated in vitro, in the absence or presence of 2 mmol/liter AICAR. Skeletal muscle...... from wild-type mice was also incubated with the AMPK activator A-769662. Incubation of mouse glycolytic extensor digitorum longus and oxidative soleus muscle for 2 h was associated with profound IL-6 mRNA production and protein release, which was suppressed by AICAR (P < 0.001). Basal IL-6 release from...

  19. C-Mpl Is Expressed on Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts and Is Important in Regulating Skeletal Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijome, Tomas E; Baughman, Jenna T; Hooker, R Adam; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Ciovacco, Wendy A; Balamohan, Sanjeev M; Srinivasan, Trishya L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Eleniste, Pierre P; Horowitz, Mark C; Srour, Edward F; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Fuchs, Robyn K; Kacena, Melissa A

    2016-04-01

    C-Mpl is the receptor for thrombopoietin (TPO), the main megakaryocyte (MK) growth factor, and c-Mpl is believed to be expressed on cells of the hematopoietic lineage. As MKs have been shown to enhance bone formation, it may be expected that mice in which c-Mpl was globally knocked out (c-Mpl(-/-) mice) would have decreased bone mass because they have fewer MKs. Instead, c-Mpl(-/-) mice have a higher bone mass than WT controls. Using c-Mpl(-/-) mice we investigated the basis for this discrepancy and discovered that c-Mpl is expressed on both osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs), an unexpected finding that prompted us to examine further how c-Mpl regulates bone. Static and dynamic bone histomorphometry parameters suggest that c-Mpl deficiency results in a net gain in bone volume with increases in OBs and OCs. In vitro, a higher percentage of c-Mpl(-/-) OBs were in active phases of the cell cycle, leading to an increased number of OBs. No difference in OB differentiation was observed in vitro as examined by real-time PCR and functional assays. In co-culture systems, which allow for the interaction between OBs and OC progenitors, c-Mpl(-/-) OBs enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Two of the major signaling pathways by which OBs regulate osteoclastogenesis, MCSF/OPG/RANKL and EphrinB2-EphB2/B4, were unaffected in c-Mpl(-/-) OBs. These data provide new findings for the role of MKs and c-Mpl expression in bone and may provide insight into the homeostatic regulation of bone mass as well as bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:26375403

  20. Proteinase activity regulation by glycosaminoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tersariol I.L.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports concerning the biological role and the mechanisms of interaction between proteinases and carbohydrates other than those involved in clotting. It has been shown that the interplay of enzymes and glycosaminoglycans is able to modulate the activity of different proteases and also to affect their structures. From the large number of proteases belonging to the well-known protease families and also the variety of carbohydrates described as widely distributed, only few events have been analyzed more deeply. The term "family" is used to describe a group of proteases in which every member shows an evolutionary relationship to at least one other protease. This relationship may be evident throughout the entire sequence, or at least in that part of the sequence responsible for catalytic activity. The majority of proteases belong to the serine, cysteine, aspartic or metalloprotease families. By considering the existing limited proteolysis process, in addition to the initial idea that the proteinases participate only in digestive processes, it is possible to conclude that the function of the enzymes is strictly limited to the cleavage of intended substrates since the destruction of functional proteins would result in normal tissue damage. In addition, the location as well as the eventual regulation of protease activity promoted by glycosaminoglycans can play an essential role in the development of several physiopathological conditions.

  1. Rac1 governs exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through regulation of GLUT4 translocation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke; Nielsen, Ida Marie Laurent; Kleinert, Maximilian;

    2016-01-01

    Exercise increase skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood. Despite extensive efforts, the signaling mechanisms vital for glucose uptake during exercise are not yet fully understood but the GTPase Rac1 is a candi......KO muscle. Our findings implicate Rac1 as a regulatory element critical for controlling glucose uptake during exercise via regulation of GLUT4 translocation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Exercise increase skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood. Despite extensive efforts, the signaling mechanisms vital for glucose uptake during exercise are not yet fully understood but the GTPase Rac1 is a...... candidate molecule. This study investigated the role of Rac1 in muscle glucose uptake and substrate utilization during treadmill exercise in mice in vivo. Exercise-induced uptake of radiolabelled 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) at 65% max running capacity was blocked in soleus and decreased by 80 and 60% in...

  2. Valproic acid attenuates skeletal muscle wasting by inhibiting C/EBPβ-regulated atrogin1 expression in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rulin; Zhang, Santao; Hu, Wenjun; Lu, Xing; Lou, Ning; Yang, Zhende; Chen, Shaoyong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Yang, Hongmei

    2016-07-01

    Muscle wasting is the hallmark of cancer cachexia and is associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has important biological effects in the treatment of muscular dystrophy. To verify whether VPA could ameliorate muscle wasting induced by cancer cachexia, we explored the role of VPA in two cancer cachectic mouse models [induced by colon-26 (C26) adenocarcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)] and atrophied C2C12 myotubes [induced by C26 cell conditioned medium (CCM) or LLC cell conditioned medium (LCM)]. Our data demonstrated that treatment with VPA increased the mass and cross-sectional area of skeletal muscles in tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, treatment with VPA also increased the diameter of myotubes cultured in conditioned medium. The skeletal muscles in cachectic mice or atrophied myotubes treated with VPA exhibited reduced levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ), resulting in atrogin1 downregulation and the eventual alleviation of muscle wasting and myotube atrophy. Moreover, atrogin1 promoter activity in myotubes was stimulated by CCM via activating the C/EBPβ-responsive cis-element and subsequently inhibited by VPA. In contrast to the effect of VPA on the levels of C/EBPβ, the levels of inactivating forkhead box O3 (FoxO3a) were unaffected. In summary, VPA attenuated muscle wasting and myotube atrophy and reduced C/EBPβ binding to atrogin1 promoter locus in the myotubes. Our discoveries indicate that HDAC inhibition by VPA might be a promising new approach for the preservation of skeletal muscle in cancer cachexia. PMID:27122162

  3. Exercise-induced increase in maximal in vitro Na-K-ATPase activity in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Bangsbo, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the maximal in vitro Na,K-ATPase activity in human skeletal muscle is changed with exercise and whether it was altered by acute hypoxia. Needle biopsies from 14 subjects were obtained from vastus lateralis before and after 4 min of intense muscle activity. I...

  4. Exercise improves import of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase into the mitochondrial matrix of skeletal muscle and enhances the relative activity

    OpenAIRE

    Radak, Zsolt; Atalay, Mustafa; Jakus, Judit; Boldogh, István; Davies, Kelvin; Goto, Sataro

    2008-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to modify the level/activity of the DNA damage repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in skeletal muscle. We have studied the impact of regular physical training (8 weeks of swimming) and detraining (8 weeks of rest after an 8-week training session) on the activity of OGG1 in the nucleus and mitochondria as well as its targeting to the mitochondrial matrix in skeletal muscle. Neither exercise training nor detraining altered the overall levels of reactive spe...

  5. Peptide YY regulates bone remodeling in mice: a link between gut and skeletal biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris P L Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal peptides are increasingly being linked to processes controlling the maintenance of bone mass. Peptide YY (PYY, a gut-derived satiety peptide of the neuropeptide Y family, is upregulated in some states that also display low bone mass. Importantly, PYY has high affinity for Y-receptors, particularly Y1R and Y2R, which are known to regulate bone mass. Anorexic conditions and bariatric surgery for obesity influence circulating levels of PYY and have a negative impact on bone mass, but the precise mechanism behind this is unclear. We thus examined whether alterations in PYY expression affect bone mass. METHODS: Bone microstructure and cellular activity were analyzed in germline PYY knockout and conditional adult-onset PYY over-expressing mice at lumbar and femoral sites using histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography. RESULTS: PYY displayed a negative relationship with osteoblast activity. Male and female PYY knockout mice showed enhanced osteoblast activity, with greater cancellous bone mass. Conversely, PYY over-expression lowered osteoblast activity in vivo, via a direct Y1 receptor mediated mechanism involving MAPK stimulation evident in vitro. In contrast to PYY knockout mice, PYY over expression also altered bone resorption, as indicated by greater osteoclast surface, despite the lack of Y-receptor expression in osteoclastic cells. While evident in both sexes, cellular changes were generally more pronounced in females. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that the gut peptide PYY is critical for the control of bone remodeling. This regulatory axis from the intestine to bone has the potential to contribute to the marked bone loss observed in situations of extreme weight loss and higher circulating PYY levels, such as anorexia and bariatric obesity surgery, and may be important in the maintenance of bone mass in the general population.

  6. A limited role for PI(3,4,5P3 regulation in controlling skeletal muscle mass in response to resistance exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Lee Hamilton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since activation of the PI3K/(protein kinase B; PKB/akt pathway has been shown to alter muscle mass and growth, the aim of this study was to determine whether resistance exercise increased insulin like growth factor (IGF I/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K signalling and whether altering PI(3,4,5P(3 metabolism genetically would increase load induced muscle growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Acute and chronic resistance exercise in wild type and muscle specific PTEN knockout mice were used to address the role of PI(3,4,5P(3 regulation in the development of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Acute resistance exercise did not increase either IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation or IRS1/2 associated p85. Since insulin/IGF signalling to PI3K was unchanged, we next sought to determine whether inactivation of PTEN played a role in load-induced muscle growth. Muscle specific knockout of PTEN resulted in small but significant increases in heart (PTEN(+/+ = 5.00+/-0.02 mg/g, PTEN(-/- = 5.50+/-0.09 mg/g, and TA (PTEN(+/+ = 1.74+/-0.04 mg/g, PTEN(-/- = 1.89 +/-0.03 muscle mass, while the GTN, SOL, EDL and PLN remain unchanged. Following ablation, hypertrophy of the PLN, SOL or EDL muscles was similar between PTEN(-/- and PTEN(+/+ animals. Even though there were some changes in overload-induced PKB and S6K1 phosphorylation, 1 hr following acute resistance exercise there was no difference in the phosphorylation state of S6K1 Thr389 between genotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that physiological loading does not lead to the enhanced activation of the PI3K/PKB/mTORC1 axis and that neither PI3K activation nor PTEN, and by extension PI(3,4,5P(3 levels, play a significant role in adult skeletal muscle growth.

  7. Up-regulation of avian uncoupling protein in cold-acclimated and hyperthyroid ducklings prevents reactive oxygen species production by skeletal muscle mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servais Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although identified in several bird species, the biological role of the avian homolog of mammalian uncoupling proteins (avUCP remains extensively debated. In the present study, the functional properties of isolated mitochondria were examined in physiological or pharmacological situations that induce large changes in avUCP expression in duckling skeletal muscle. Results The abundance of avUCP mRNA, as detected by RT-PCR in gastrocnemius muscle but not in the liver, was markedly increased by cold acclimation (CA or pharmacological hyperthyroidism but was down-regulated by hypothyroidism. Activators of UCPs, such as superoxide with low doses of fatty acids, stimulated a GDP-sensitive proton conductance across the inner membrane of muscle mitochondria from CA or hyperthyroid ducklings. The stimulation was much weaker in controls and not observed in hypothyroid ducklings or in any liver mitochondrial preparations. The production of endogenous mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS was much lower in muscle mitochondria from CA and hyperthyroid ducklings than in the control or hypothyroid groups. The addition of GDP markedly increased the mitochondrial ROS production of CA or hyperthyroid birds up to, or above, the level of control or hypothyroid ducklings. Differences in ROS production among groups could not be attributed to changes in antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase. Conclusion This work provides the first functional in vitro evidence that avian UCP regulates mitochondrial ROS production in situations of enhanced metabolic activity.

  8. IL-6 regulation on skeletal muscle mitochondrial remodeling during cancer cachexia in the ApcMin/+ mouse

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    White James P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle protein turnover regulation during cancer cachexia is being rapidly defined, and skeletal muscle mitochondria function appears coupled to processes regulating muscle wasting. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and the expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics are disrupted in severely cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. It has not been determined if these changes occur at the onset of cachexia and are necessary for the progression of muscle wasting. Exercise and anti-cytokine therapies have proven effective in preventing cachexia development in tumor bearing mice, while their effect on mitochondrial content, biogenesis and dynamics is not well understood. The purposes of this study were to 1 determine IL-6 regulation on mitochondrial remodeling/dysfunction during the progression of cancer cachexia and 2 to determine if exercise training can attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction and the induction of proteolytic pathways during IL-6 induced cancer cachexia. Methods ApcMin/+ mice were examined during the progression of cachexia, after systemic interleukin (IL-6r antibody treatment, or after IL-6 over-expression with or without exercise. Direct effects of IL-6 on mitochondrial remodeling were examined in cultured C2C12 myoblasts. Results Mitochondrial content was not reduced during the initial development of cachexia, while muscle PGC-1α and fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2 protein expression was repressed. With progressive weight loss mitochondrial content decreased, PGC-1α and fusion proteins were further suppressed, and fission protein (FIS1 was induced. IL-6 receptor antibody administration after the onset of cachexia improved mitochondrial content, PGC-1α, Mfn1/Mfn2 and FIS1 protein expression. IL-6 over-expression in pre-cachectic mice accelerated body weight loss and muscle wasting, without reducing mitochondrial content, while PGC-1α and Mfn1/Mfn2 protein expression was suppressed and FIS1 protein expression

  9. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity. : AMPK in skeletal musclemetabolic adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Treebak, Jonas,; Pehmøller, Christian; Sanz, Nieves; Sakakibara, Iori; Saint-Amand, Emmanuelle; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Maire, Pascal; Marette, André; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Ferry, Arnaud; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen,

    2014-01-01

    : AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle exercise capacity, mitochondrial function, and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Exercise performance was significantly reduced in the mdKO mice, with a reduction in maximal force production an...

  10. Epigenetic Library Screen Identifies Abexinostat as Novel Regulator of Adipocytic and Osteoblastic Differentiation of Human Skeletal (Mesenchymal) Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali; Hamam; Alfayez;

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic mechanisms promoting lineage-specific commitment of human skeletal (mesenchymal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs) into adipocytes or osteoblasts are still not fully understood. Herein, we performed an epigenetic library functional screen and identified several novel compounds, including...... abexinostat, which promoted adipocytic and osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs. Using gene expression microarrays, chromatin immunoprecipitation for H3K9Ac combined with high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq), and bioinformatics, we identified several key genes involved in regulating stem cell...... or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs). These data provide new insight into the understanding of the relationship between the epigenetic effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors, transcription factors, and differentiation pathways controlling adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs. Manipulating...

  11. Skeletal Muscle and Liver Lipidomics and the Regulation of FAT/CD36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordy, Andreas Børsting

    that the current worldwide obesity epidemic has resulted in the increased prevalence of “metabolic disease clusters”, including type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia. Excessive plasma lipids can result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites at ectopic sites including skeletal muscle and liver......; amongst these is fatty acid transport across the plasma membrane. Data suggest that the transmembrane transport of fatty acid into cells involves a protein mediated transport, involving the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36. Herein we show that FAT/CD36 is important for fatty acid uptake and oxidation......Increased caloric intake and physical inactivity can lead to the development of insulin resistance and puts a large burden on the Western society. Often increased caloric intake is associated with elevated plasma fatty acid concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity and it is now recognized...

  12. The Physiological Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Supply and Oxidation During Moderate-Intensity Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Energy substrates that are important to the working muscle at moderate intensities are the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) taken up from the circulation and NEFAs originating from lipolysis of the intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTAG). Moreover, NEFA from lipolysis via lipoprotein lipase (LPL......) in the muscle of the very-low-density lipoproteins and in the (semi) post-prandial state chylomicrons may also contribute. In this review, the NEFA fluxes and oxidation by skeletal muscle during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise are described in terms of the integration of physiological systems. Steps...... demand of the exercising muscle is the main driving force for all physiological regulatory processes. It elicits functional hyperemia, increasing the recruitment of capillaries and muscle blood flow resulting in increased NEFA delivery and accessibility to NEFA transporters and LPL. It also releases...

  13. Skeletal Muscle Regulates Metabolism via Interorgan Crosstalk: Roles in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argilés, Josep M; Campos, Nefertiti; Lopez-Pedrosa, José M; Rueda, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscle is recognized as vital to physical movement, posture, and breathing. In a less known but critically important role, muscle influences energy and protein metabolism throughout the body. Muscle is a primary site for glucose uptake and storage, and it is also a reservoir of amino acids stored as protein. Amino acids are released when supplies are needed elsewhere in the body. These conditions occur with acute and chronic diseases, which decrease dietary intake while increasing metabolic needs. Such metabolic shifts lead to the muscle loss associated with sarcopenia and cachexia, resulting in a variety of adverse health and economic consequences. With loss of skeletal muscle, protein and energy availability is lowered throughout the body. Muscle loss is associated with delayed recovery from illness, slowed wound healing, reduced resting metabolic rate, physical disability, poorer quality of life, and higher health care costs. These adverse effects can be combatted with exercise and nutrition. Studies suggest dietary protein and leucine or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) can improve muscle function, in turn improving functional performance. Considerable evidence shows that use of high-protein oral nutritional supplements (ONS) can help maintain and rebuild muscle mass and strength. We review muscle structure, function, and role in energy and protein balance. We discuss how disease- and age-related malnutrition hamper muscle accretion, ultimately causing whole-body deterioration. Finally, we describe how specialized nutrition and exercise can restore muscle mass, strength, and function, and ultimately reverse the negative health and economic outcomes associated with muscle loss. PMID:27324808

  14. Effects of type 1 diabetes, sprint training and sex on skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, A R; Ruell, P A; Hunter, S K; McKenna, M J; Thom, J M; Chisholm, D J; Flack, J R

    2014-02-01

    Calcium cycling is integral to muscle performance during the rapid muscle contraction and relaxation of high-intensity exercise. Ca(2+) handling is altered by diabetes mellitus, but has not previously been investigated in human skeletal muscle. We investigated effects of high-intensity exercise and sprint training on skeletal muscle Ca(2+) regulation among men and women with type 1 diabetes (T1D, n = 8, 3F, 5M) and matched non-diabetic controls (CON, n = 8, 3F, 5M). Secondarily, we examined sex differences in Ca(2+) regulation. Subjects undertook 7 weeks of three times-weekly cycle sprint training. Before and after training, performance was measured, and blood and muscle were sampled at rest and after high-intensity exercise. In T1D, higher Ca(2+)-ATPase activity (+28%) and Ca(2+) uptake (+21%) than in CON were evident across both times and days (P women across both times and days. Intense exercise did not alter Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in T1D or CON. However, sex differences were evident: Ca(2+)-ATPase was reduced with exercise among men but increased among women across both days (time × sex interaction, P Sprint training reduced Ca(2+)-ATPase (-8%, P Sprint training reduced Ca(2+)-ATPase in T1D and CON. Sex differences in Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were evident and may be linked with fibre type proportion differences.

  15. The Impact of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes Mellitus on Cyclic Nucleotide Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Amino Acid Metabolism in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Garber, Alan J.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of diabetes on cyclic nucleotide-associated mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle protein and amino acid metabolism was assessed using epitrochlaris preparations from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. 1 nM epinephrine inhibited alanine and glutamine release from control preparations, but no inhibition was observed from diabetic preparations with

  16. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Janine; Ackermann, Anica; Salfelder, Anika; Vogel-Höpker, Astrid; Layer, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate limb presents an excellent model to analyze a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Here, we first analyzed the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by IHC and of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by ISH in developing embryonic chicken limbs (stages HH17-37). AChE outlined formation of bones, being strongest at their distal tips, and later also marked areas of cell death. At onset, AChE and ChAT were elevated in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively. Thereby ChAT was expressed shortly after AChE, thus strongly supporting a leading role of AChE in limb formation. Then, we conducted loss-of-function studies via unilateral implantation of beads into chicken limb anlagen, which were soaked in cholinergic components. After varying periods, the formation of cartilage matrix and of mineralizing bones was followed by Alcian blue (AB) and Alizarin red (AR) stainings, respectively. Both acetylcholine (ACh)- and ChAT-soaked beads accelerated bone formation in ovo. Notably, inhibition of AChE by BW284c51, or by the monoclonal antibody MAB304 delayed cartilage formation. Since bead inhibition of BChE was mostly ineffective, an ACh-independent action during BW284c51 and MAB304 inhibition was indicated, which possibly could be due to an enzymatic side activity of AChE. In conclusion, skeletogenesis in chick is regulated by an ACh-dependent cholinergic system, but to some extent also by an ACh-independent aspect of the AChE protein. PMID:27574787

  17. [Effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia and exhaustive exercise on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Qing-Yuan; Shan, Fa-Bo; Guan, Li-Bin; Cai, Ming-Chun

    2012-04-25

    The present study was aimed to explore the changes of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) level in skeletal muscle after exposure to acute hypobaric hypoxia and exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sea level and high altitude groups. The rats in high altitude group were submitted to simulated 5 000 m of high altitude in a hypobaric chamber for 24 h, and sea level group was maintained at normal conditions. All the rats were subjected to exhaustive swimming exercise. The exhaustion time was recorded. Before and after the exercise, blood lactate and glycogen content in skeletal muscle were determined; AMPK and pAMPK levels in skeletal muscle were detected by Western blot. The results showed that the exhaustion time was significantly decreased after exposure to high altitude. At the moment of exhaustion, high altitude group had lower blood lactate concentration and higher surplus glycogen content in gastrocnemius compared with sea level group. Exhaustive exercise significantly increased the pAMPK/AMPK ratio in rat skeletal muscles from both sea level and high altitude groups. However, high altitude group showed lower pAMPK/AMPK ratio after exhaustion compared to sea level group. These results suggest that, after exposure to acute hypobaric hypoxia, the decrement in exercise capacity may not be due to running out of glycogen, accumulation of lactate or disturbance in energy status in skeletal muscle. PMID:22513470

  18. Skeletal muscle IL-6 and regulation of liver metabolism during high-fat diet and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Jakob G; Joensen, Ella; Bertholdt, Lærke; Jessen, Henrik; van Hauen, Line; Hidalgo, Juan; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is released from skeletal muscle (SkM) during exercise and has been shown to affect hepatic metabolism. It is, however, unknown whether SkM IL-6 is involved in the regulation of exercise training-induced counteraction of changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver in response to high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Male SkM-specific IL-6 KO (MKO) and Floxed mice were subjected to Chow diet, HFD or HFD combined with exercise training (HFD ExTr) for 16 weeks. Hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) protein content decreased with both HFD and HFD ExTr in Floxed mice, but increased in IL-6 MKO mice on HFD In addition, the intrahepatic glucose concentration was in IL-6 MKO mice higher in HFD than chow. Within HFD ExTr mice, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) 36 kDa protein content was higher in IL-6 MKO than Floxed mice. Hepatic pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) 4 and PDK2 protein content was in Floxed mice lower in HFD ExTr than Chow. In addition, hepatic ACC1-phosphorylation was higher and ACC1 protein lower in HFD Together this suggests that SkM IL-6 regulates hepatic glucose metabolism, but does not seem to be of major importance for the regulation of oxidative capacity or lipogenesis in liver during HFD or HFD combined with exercise training. PMID:27185906

  19. Platelets actively sequester angiogenesis regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Lakka Klement, Giannoula; Yip, Tai-Tung; Cassiola, Flavia; Kikuchi, Lena; Cervi, David; Podust, Vladimir; Italiano, Joseph E.; Wheatley, Erin; Abou-Slaybi, Abdo; Bender, Elise; Almog, Nava; Kieran, Mark W.; Folkman, Judah

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials with antiangiogenic agents have not been able to validate plasma or serum levels of angiogenesis regulators as reliable markers of cancer presence or therapeutic response. We recently reported that platelets contain numerous proteins that regulate angiogenesis. We now show that accumulation of angiogenesis regulators in platelets of animals bearing malignant tumors exceeds significantly their concentration in plasma or serum, as well as their levels in platelets from non–tumor...

  20. The Functional Role of Calcineurin in Hypertrophy, Regeneration, and Disorders of Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Kunihiro Sakuma; Akihiko Yamaguchi

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle uses calcium as a second messenger to respond and adapt to environmental stimuli. Elevations in intracellular calcium levels activate calcineurin, a serine/threonine phosphatase, resulting in the expression of a set of genes involved in the maintenance, growth, and remodeling of skeletal muscle. In this review, we discuss the effects of calcineurin activity on hypertrophy, regeneration, and disorders of skeletal muscle. Calcineurin is a potent regulator of muscle remodeling, e...

  1. Depleted skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA, hyperlactatemia, and decreased oxidative capacity in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B;

    2005-01-01

    hyperlactatemia is associated with depletion of skeletal muscle (sm)-mtDNA and decreased oxidative capacity in HIV-infected patients on NRTI based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and whether HIV infection itself is associated with sm-mtDNA depletion. Sm-mtDNA was determined in 42 HIV...... in part could be mediated through an enhanced pro-inflammatory response....

  2. PGC-1{alpha} increases PDH content but does not change acute PDH regulation in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Adser, Helle; Jakobsen, Anne Hviid;

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to test if the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma coactivator (PGC)1alpha regulates the content of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)-E1alpha and influences PDH activity through regulation of PDK4 expression and subsequently PDH phosphorylation...

  3. Regulation of MAP Kinase–Directed Mitogenic and Protein Kinase B–Mediated Signaling by Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lipina, Christopher; Stretton, Clare; Hastings, Simon; Hundal, Jonathan S.; Mackie, Ken; Irving, Andrew J.; Harinder S Hundal

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The endogenous cannabinoid (or endocannabinoid) system (ECS) is part of a central neuromodulatory system thought to play a key role in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy balance. However, increasing evidence suggests that modulation of the ECS may also act to regulate peripheral mechanisms involved in these processes, including lipogenesis in adipose tissue and liver, insulin release from pancreatic β-cells, and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. It was recently shown t...

  4. A benzimidazole derivative small molecule 991 enhances AMPK activity and glucose uptake induced by AICAR or contraction in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bultot, Laurent; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Lai, Yu-Chiang;

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays diverse roles and coordinates complex metabolic pathways for maintenance of energy homeostasis. This could be explained by the fact that AMPK exists as multiple heterotrimer complexes comprising a catalytic α subunit (α1, α2) and regulatory β (β1, β2) and...... treatments. The study demonstrates a utility of dual activator approach to achieve a greater activation of AMPK and downstream physiological responses in various cell types including skeletal muscle....

  5. Effects of energy deficit, dietary protein, and feeding on intracellular regulators of skeletal muscle proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, John W; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, James P; Cao, Jay J; Murphy, Nancy E; Sauter, Edward R; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2013-12-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) response to varied dietary protein intake, energy deficit (ED), and consumption of a mixed meal. A randomized, controlled trial of 39 adults consuming protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance [RDA]), 1.6 (2×-RDA), or 2.4 (3×-RDA) g · kg(-1) · d(-1) for 31 d. A 10-d weight maintenance (WM) period was followed by 21 d of 40% ED. Ubiquitin (Ub)-mediated proteolysis and associated gene expression were assessed in the postabsorptive (fasted) and postprandial (fed; 480 kcal, 20 g protein) states after WM and ED by using muscle biopsies, fluorescence-based assays, immunoblot analysis, and real-time qRT-PCR. In the assessment of UPS responses to varied protein intakes, ED, and feeding, the RDA, WM, and fasted measures served as appropriate controls. ED resulted in the up-regulation of UPS-associated gene expression, as mRNA expression of the atrogenes muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and atrogin-1 were 1.2- and 1.3-fold higher (P<0.05) for ED than for WM. However, mixed-meal consumption attenuated UPS-mediated proteolysis, independent of energy status or dietary protein, as the activities of the 26S proteasome subunits β1, β2, and β5 were lower (P<0.05) for fed than for fasted. Muscle protein ubiquitylation was also 45% lower (P<0.05) for fed than for fasted, regardless of dietary protein and energy manipulations. Independent of habitual protein intake and despite increased MuRF1 and atrogin-1 mRNA expression during ED, consuming a protein-containing mixed meal attenuates Ub-mediated proteolysis.

  6. Effect of static magnetic field and/or cadmium in the antioxidant enzymes activity in rat heart and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Salem; Garrel, Catherine; Favier, Alain; Ben Rhouma, Khémais; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2009-12-01

    Currently, environmental and industrial pollution along with increase and causes multiple stress conditions, the combined exposure to magnetic field and other toxic agents is recognised as an important research area, with a view to better protecting human health against their probable unfavourable effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of co-exposure to static magnetic field (SMF) and cadmium (Cd) on the antioxidant enzymes activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. The exposure of rats to SMF (128 mT, 1 h/day during 30 consecutive days) decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) in heart muscle. Sub-chronic exposure to SMF increased the MDA concentration in rat cardiac muscle. Cd treatment (CdCl2, 40 mg/l, per os) during 4 weeks decreased the activities of catalase (CAT) in skeletal muscle and the CuZn-SOD in the heart. Moreover, Cd administration increased MDA concentration in the both structures. The combined effect of SMF (128 mT, 1 h/day during 30 consecutive days) and Cd (40 mg/l, per os) disrupt the antioxidant enzymes activity in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, we noted a huge increase in MDA concentration in the heart and skeletal muscle compared to control group. Thus it is possible that the SMF- and/or Cd-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes activity in muscle tissues might, like the enhanced lipid peroxidation, importantly contribute to oxidative damage. The combined effect of SMF and Cd altered significantly the antioxidant enzymatic capacity and induced lipid peroxidation in both skeletal and cardiac muscle.

  7. Roles of sedentary aging and lifelong physical activity in exchange of glutathione across exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Cabo, Helena; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari-Carmen; Viña, Jose; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules with regulatory functions, and in young and adult organisms, the formation of ROS is increased during skeletal muscle contractions. However, ROS can be deleterious to cells when not sufficiently counterbalanced by the antioxidant system. Aging is associated with accumulation of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Given the pro-oxidant effect of skeletal muscle contractions, this effect of age could be a result of excessive ROS formation. We evaluated the effect of acute exercise on changes in blood redox state across the leg of young (23 ± 1 years) and older (66 ± 2 years) sedentary humans by measuring the whole blood concentration of the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms of the antioxidant glutathione. To assess the role of physical activity, lifelong physically active older subjects (62 ± 2 years) were included. Exercise increased the venous concentration of GSSG in an intensity-dependent manner in young sedentary subjects, suggesting an exercise-induced increase in ROS formation. In contrast, venous GSSG levels remained unaltered during exercise in the older sedentary and active groups despite a higher skeletal muscle expression of the superoxide-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase. Arterial concentration of GSH and expression of antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle of older active subjects were increased. The potential impairment in exercise-induced ROS formation may be an important mechanism underlying skeletal muscle and vascular dysfunction with sedentary aging. Lifelong physical activity upregulates antioxidant systems, which may be one of the mechanisms underlying the lack of exercise-induced increase in GSSG.

  8. Coptidis Rhizoma Water Extract Stimulates 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Rat Skeletal Muscle%Coptidis Rhizoma Water Extract Stimulates5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ma; Tatsuro Egawa; Rieko Oshima; Eriko Kurogi; Hiroko Tanabe; Satoshi Tsuda; Tatsuya Hayashi

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Coptidis Rhizoma (CR), the dried rhizomes of Asian herbs (including Coptis chinensis French), has been used to treat diabetes mellitus for thousands of years. We explored the possibility that CR acts directly on skeletal muscle, the major organ responsible for glucose homeostasis, and activates 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a signaling intermediary leading to metabolic enhancement of skeletal muscle. METHODS: Isolated rat epitrochlearis and soleus muscles were incubated in a buffer containing a CR water extract (CE), and activation of AMPK and related events were examined. RESULTS: In response to CE treatment, phosphorylation of Thr172 at the catalytic α subunit of AMPK, an essential step for full kinase activation, increased in both muscles. Phosphorylation of Ser79 of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), an endogenous substrate of AMPK, increased concotnitantly. Analysis of isoform-specific AMPK activity revealed that CE activated both the α1 and α2 isoforms of the catalytic subunit. Importantly, the maximal effect of CE on AMPK phosphorylation was significantly greater than that of berberine (BBR), indicating that the action of CE is not totally ascribed to BBR. CONCLUSION: We propose that CE is an acute activator of AMPK in both fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles.

  9. Cell adhesion geometry regulates non-random DNA segregation and asymmetric cell fates in mouse skeletal muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Théry, Manuel; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-05-22

    Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-random DNA segregation. To mimic the asymmetric divisions seen in the mouse skeletal stem cell niche, we used micropatterns coated with extracellular matrix in asymmetric and symmetric motifs. We show that the frequency of non-random DNA segregation and transcription factor asymmetry correlates with the shape of the motif and that these events can be uncoupled. Furthermore, regulation of DNA segregation by cell adhesion occurs within a defined time interval. Thus, cell adhesion cues have a major impact on determining both DNA segregation patterns and cell fates. PMID:24836002

  10. Cell Adhesion Geometry Regulates Non-Random DNA Segregation and Asymmetric Cell Fates in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham Yennek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-random DNA segregation. To mimic the asymmetric divisions seen in the mouse skeletal stem cell niche, we used micropatterns coated with extracellular matrix in asymmetric and symmetric motifs. We show that the frequency of non-random DNA segregation and transcription factor asymmetry correlates with the shape of the motif and that these events can be uncoupled. Furthermore, regulation of DNA segregation by cell adhesion occurs within a defined time interval. Thus, cell adhesion cues have a major impact on determining both DNA segregation patterns and cell fates.

  11. Glucocorticoids activate the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in skeletal muscle during fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, S. S.; Goldberg, A. L.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential for the increase in protein breakdown in skeletal muscle normally seen during fasting. To determine which proteolytic pathway(s) are activated upon fasting, leg muscles from fed and fasted normal rats were incubated under conditions that block or activate different proteolytic systems. After food deprivation (1 day), the nonlysosomal ATP-dependent process increased by 250%, as shown in experiments involving depletion of muscle ATP. Also, the maximal capacity of the lysosomal process increased 60-100%, but no changes occurred in the Ca(2+)-dependent or the residual energy-independent proteolytic processes. In muscles from fasted normal and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats, the protein breakdown sensitive to inhibitors of the lysosomal or Ca(2+)-dependent pathways did not differ. However, the ATP-dependent process was 30% slower in muscles from fasted ADX rats. Administering dexamethasone to these animals or incubating their muscles with dexamethasone reversed this defect. During fasting, when the ATP-dependent process rises, muscles show a two- to threefold increase in levels of ubiquitin (Ub) mRNA. However, muscles of ADX animals failed to show this response. Injecting dexamethasone into the fasted ADX animals increased muscle Ub mRNA within 6 h. Thus glucocorticoids activate the ATP-Ub-dependent proteolytic pathway in fasting apparently by enhancing the expression of components of this system such as Ub.

  12. Roles of sedentary aging and lifelong physical activity on exchange of glutathione across exercising human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Cabo, Helena;

    2014-01-01

    the leg of young (23±1 years) and older (66±2 years) sedentary humans by measuring the whole blood concentration of the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) form of the antioxidant glutathione. To assess the role of physical activity, lifelong physically active older subjects (62±2 years) were included....... Exercise increased the venous concentration of GSSG in an intensity-dependent manner in young sedentary subjects, suggesting an exercise-induced increase in ROS formation. In contrast, venous GSSG levels remained unaltered during exercise in the older sedentary and active groups despite a higher skeletal...... muscle expression of the superoxide generating enzyme NADPH oxidase. Arterial concentration of GSH and expression of antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle of older active subjects was found to be increased. The potential impairment in exercise-induced ROS formation may be an important mechanism...

  13. Pharmacological Inhibition of Protein Kinase G1 Enhances Bone Formation by Human Skeletal Stem Cells Through Activation of RhoA-Akt Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Siersbaek, Majken S; Chen, Li;

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel approaches to enhance bone regeneration is needed for efficient treatment of bone defects. Protein kinases play a key role in regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways, and pharmacological targeting of protein kinases has led to development of novel treatments...... for several malignant and nonmalignant conditions. We screened a library of kinase inhibitors to identify small molecules that enhance bone formation by human skeletal (stromal or mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC). We identified H-8 (known to inhibit protein kinases A, C, and G) as a potent enhancer of ex vivo...... functional screening of known H-8 targets, we demonstrated that inhibition of protein kinase G1 (PRKG1) and consequent activation of RhoA-Akt signaling is the main mechanism through which H-8 enhances osteogenesis. Our studies revealed PRKG1 as a novel negative regulator of OB differentiation and suggest...

  14. Cellular trafficking determines the exon skipping activity of Pip6a-PMO in mdx skeletal and cardiac muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lehto, Taavi; Castillo Alvarez, Alejandra; Gauck, Sarah; Gait, Michael J.; Coursindel, Thibault; Matthew J A Wood; Lebleu, Bernard; Boisguerin, Prisca

    2013-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptide-mediated delivery of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) has shown great promise for exon-skipping therapy of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Pip6a-PMO, a recently developed conjugate, is particularly efficient in a murine DMD model, although mechanisms responsible for its increased biological activity have not been studied. Here, we evaluate the cellular trafficking and the biological activity of Pip6a-PMO in skeletal muscle cells and primary cardiomyoc...

  15. Factors Associated with the Serum Myostatin Level in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis: Potential Effects of Skeletal Muscle Mass and Vitamin D Receptor Activator Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hisako; Tokumoto, Masanori; Ueki, Kenji; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Kitazono, Takanari

    2016-07-01

    Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, which regulates synthesis and degradation of skeletal muscle proteins and is associated with the development of sarcopenia. It is up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of chronic kidney disease patients and is considered to be involved in the development of uremic sarcopenia. However, serum myostatin levels have rarely been determined, and the relationship between serum myostatin levels with clinical and metabolic factors remains unknown. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between serum myostatin level and clinical factors in 69 outpatients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Serum myostatin level was determined by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Univariable and multivariable analysis were conducted to determine factors associated with serum myostatin levels. The factors included age, sex, diabetes mellitus, dialysis history, body mass index, residual kidney function, peritoneal dialysate volume, serum biochemistries, and the use of vitamin D receptor activators (VDRAs). Mean serum myostatin level was 7.59 ± 3.37 ng/mL. There was no association between serum myostatin level and residual kidney function. Serum myostatin levels were significantly and positively associated with lean body mass measured by the creatinine kinetic method and negatively associated with the use of VDRAs after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Our study indicated that serum myostatin levels are associated with skeletal muscle mass and are lower in patients treated with VDRAs. Further studies are necessary to determine the significance of measuring serum myostatin level in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. PMID:26895008

  16. Distinct amino acid–sensing mTOR pathways regulate skeletal myogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Chen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in response to amino acid availability controls many cellular and developmental processes. mTOR is a master regulator of myogenic differentiation, but the pathways mediating amino acid signals in this process are not known. Here we examine the Rag GTPases and the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34, two mediators of amino acid signals upstream of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in cell growth regulation, for their potential invol...

  17. Autocrine and/or paracrine insulin-like growth factor-I activity in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory R.

    2002-01-01

    Similar to bone, skeletal muscle responds and adapts to changes in loading state via mechanisms that appear to be intrinsic to the muscle. One of the mechanisms modulating skeletal muscle adaptation it thought to involve the autocrine and/or paracrine production of insulinlike growth factor-I. This brief review outlines components of the insulinlike growth factor-I system as it relates to skeletal muscle and provides the rationale for the theory that insulinlike growth factor-I is involved with muscle adaptation.

  18. Fiber type conversion by PGC-1α activates lysosomal and autophagosomal biogenesis in both unaffected and Pompe skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Takikita

    Full Text Available PGC-1α is a transcriptional co-activator that plays a central role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Our interest in this protein was driven by its ability to promote muscle remodeling. Conversion from fast glycolytic to slow oxidative fibers seemed a promising therapeutic approach in Pompe disease, a severe myopathy caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA which is responsible for the degradation of glycogen. The recently approved enzyme replacement therapy (ERT has only a partial effect in skeletal muscle. In our Pompe mouse model (KO, the poor muscle response is seen in fast but not in slow muscle and is associated with massive accumulation of autophagic debris and ineffective autophagy. In an attempt to turn the therapy-resistant fibers into fibers amenable to therapy, we made transgenic KO mice expressing PGC-1α in muscle (tgKO. The successful switch from fast to slow fibers prevented the formation of autophagic buildup in the converted fibers, but PGC-1α failed to improve the clearance of glycogen by ERT. This outcome is likely explained by an unexpected dramatic increase in muscle glycogen load to levels much closer to those observed in patients, in particular infants, with the disease. We have also found a remarkable rise in the number of lysosomes and autophagosomes in the tgKO compared to the KO. These data point to the role of PGC-1α in muscle glucose metabolism and its possible role as a master regulator for organelle biogenesis - not only for mitochondria but also for lysosomes and autophagosomes. These findings may have implications for therapy of lysosomal diseases and other disorders with altered autophagy.

  19. A truncated Wnt7a retains full biological activity in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Maltzahn, Julia; Zinoviev, Radoslav; Chang, Natasha C.; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Rudnicki, Michael A.

    2013-11-01

    Wnt signaling has essential roles during embryonic development and tissue homoeostasis. Wnt proteins are post-translationally modified and the attachment of a palmitate moiety at two conserved residues is believed to be a prerequisite for the secretion and function of Wnt proteins. Here we demonstrate that a mammalian Wnt protein can be fully functional without palmitoylation. We generate a truncated Wnt7a variant, consisting of the C-terminal 137 amino acids lacking the conserved palmitoylation sites and show that it retains full biological activity in skeletal muscle. This includes binding to and signaling through its receptor Fzd7 to stimulate symmetric expansion of satellite stem cells by activating the planar-cell polarity pathway and inducing myofibre hypertrophy by signaling through the AKT/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, this truncated Wnt7a shows enhanced secretion and dispersion compared with the full-length protein. Together, these findings open important new avenues for the development of Wnt7a as a treatment for muscle-wasting diseases and have broad implications for the therapeutic use of Wnts as biologics.

  20. REGULATION OF CARDIAC AND SKELETAL MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS BY INDIVIDUAL BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS IN NEONATAL PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal muscle grows at a very rapid rate in the neonatal pig, due in part to an enhanced sensitivity of protein synthesis to the postprandial rise in amino acids. An increase in leucine alone stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonatal pig; however, the effect of isoleucine and...

  1. Effects of ethanol on voltage-sensitive Na-channels in cultured skeletal muscle: Up-regulation as a result of chronic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of acute and chronic treatment with ethanol were studied on the number and activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na-channels in cultured rat skeletal muscle. The number of channels was determined by measurements of specific binding of [3H] saxitoxin (STX) in whole cell preparations. Measurements were also made of the frequency and rate of rise of spontaneously occurring action potentials, which are the physiologic expression of Na-channel density. Acute ethanol (37.5-150 mM), while causing depolarization of membrane potential and blockade of electrical activity, was without effect on specific STX binding. Neither methanol, acetaldehyde nor ethylene glycol had significant effects on these properties when given acutely in the same concentrations as ethanol. Chronic ethanol caused dose-related increases in STX binding and action potential properties with maximal levels being attained after 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 150 mM. On removal of ethanol from the culture medium all properties returned to control levels after 48 hr. Both increased external K+ and tetrodotoxin, which up-regulate Na-channels by reducing cytosolic Ca++, potentiated the ethanol-induced increase in Na-channel density. The increase in STX binding was not associated with changes in affinity of the binding sites for the ligand but was completely prevented by treatment with cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The results demonstrate that ethanol interacts with the cell membrane to induce synthesis of STX-binding sites

  2. Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Resists Denervation-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Activating PGC-1α and Integrating Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ting Kuo

    Full Text Available Denervation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy results from the loss of electric stimulation and leads to protein degradation, which is critically regulated by the well-confirmed transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α. No adequate treatments of muscle wasting are available. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, a naturally occurring antioxidant component with multiple functions including mitochondrial modulation, demonstrates the ability to protect against muscle dysfunction. However, it remains unclear whether PQQ enhances PGC-1α activation and resists skeletal muscle atrophy in mice subjected to a denervation operation. This work investigates the expression of PGC-1α and mitochondrial function in the skeletal muscle of denervated mice administered PQQ. The C57BL6/J mouse was subjected to a hindlimb sciatic axotomy. A PQQ-containing ALZET® osmotic pump (equivalent to 4.5 mg/day/kg b.w. was implanted subcutaneously into the right lower abdomen of the mouse. In the time course study, the mouse was sacrificed and the gastrocnemius muscle was prepared for further myopathological staining, energy metabolism analysis, western blotting, and real-time quantitative PCR studies. We observed that PQQ administration abolished the denervation-induced decrease in muscle mass and reduced mitochondrial activities, as evidenced by the reduced fiber size and the decreased expression of cytochrome c oxidase and NADH-tetrazolium reductase. Bioenergetic analysis demonstrated that PQQ reprogrammed the denervation-induced increase in the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR and led to an increase in the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, a measurement of the glycolytic metabolism. The protein levels of PGC-1α and the electron transport chain (ETC complexes were also increased by treatment with PQQ. Furthermore, PQQ administration highly enhanced the expression of oxidative fibers and maintained the type II glycolytic

  3. Skeletal muscle wasting and renewal: a pivotal role of myokine IL-6

    OpenAIRE

    Belizário, José E.; Fontes-Oliveira, Cibely C; Borges, Janaina Padua; Kashiabara, Janete Akemi; Vannier, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal tissue is composed of heterogeneous population of cells that constantly self-renew by means of a controlled process of activation and proliferation of tissue-resident stem cells named satellite cells. Many growth factors, cytokines and myokines produced by skeletal muscle cells play critical roles in local regulation of the inflammatory process and skeletal muscle regeneration during different pathological conditions. IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine released in large amount duri...

  4. Sarcopenia and cachexia: the adaptations of negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuma, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the biology of muscle, and how anabolic and catabolic stimuli interact to control muscle mass and function, have led to new interest in the pharmacological treatment of muscle wasting. Loss of muscle occurs as a consequence of several chronic diseases (cachexia) as well as normal aging (sarcopenia). Although many negative regulators [Atrogin-1, muscle ring finger-1, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), myostatin, etc.] have been proposed to enhance protein de...

  5. A PGC-1α isoform induced by resistance training regulates skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruas, Jorge L.; White, James P.; Rao, Rajesh R.; Kleiner, Sandra; Brannan, Kevin T.; Harrison, Brooke C.; Greene, Nicholas P.; Wu, Jun; Estall, Jennifer L.; Irving, Brian A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Rasbach, Kyle A.; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Yan, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator induced by exercise that gives muscle many of the best known adaptations to endurance-type exercise, but has no effects on muscle strength or hypertrophy. We have identified a novel form of PGC-1α (PGC-1α4) that results from alternative promoter usage and splicing of the primary transcript. PGC-1α4 is highly expressed in exercised muscle but does not regulate most known PGC-1α targets such as the mitochondrial OXPHOS genes. Rather, it specifically induc...

  6. Mass spectrometric analysis and mutagenesis predict involvement of multiple cysteines in redox regulation of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor ion channel complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V Petrotchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evgeniy V Petrotchenko1,2,4, Naohiro Yamaguchi1,3,4, Daniel A Pasek1, Christoph H Borchers1,2, Gerhard Meissner11Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2University of Victoria, Genome BC Proteomics Centre, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada; 3Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA 4Contributed equally to the workAbstract: The tetrameric skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor ion channel complex (RyR1 contains a large number of free cysteines that are potential targets for redox-active molecules. Here, we report the mass spectrometric analysis of free thiols in RyR1 using the lipophilic, thiol-specific probe monobromobimane (MBB. In the presence of reduced glutathione, MBB labeled 14 cysteines per RyR1 subunit in tryptic peptides in five of five experiments. Forty-six additional MBB-labeled cysteines per RyR1 subunit were detected with lower frequency in tryptic peptides, bringing the total number of MBB-labeled cysteines to 60 per RyR1 subunit. A combination of fluorescence detection and mass spectrometry of RyR1, labeled in the presence of reduced and oxidized glutathione, identified two redox-sensitive cysteines (C1040 and C1303. Regulation of RyR activity by reduced and oxidized glutathione was investigated in skeletal muscle mutant RyR1s in which 18 cysteines were substituted with serine or alanine, using a [3H]ryanodine ligand binding assay. Three single-site RyR1 mutants (C1781S, C2436S, and C2606S and two multisite mutants with five and seven substituted cysteines exhibited a reduced redox response compared with wild-type RyR1. The results suggest that multiple cysteines determine the redox state and activity of RyR1.Keywords: mass spectrometry, mutagenesis, ryanodine receptor, redox modification of cysteines

  7. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population is Up-Regulated in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells Treated with Forskolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, K. Y.; Young, R. B.; Vaughn, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is promoted by in vivo administration of beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) agonists. These compounds presumably exert their physiological action through the betaAR, and alterations in the population of betaAR could potentially change the ability of the cell to respond to the betaAR agonists. Since the intracellular chemical signal generated by the betaAR is cyclic AMP (cAMP), experiments were initiated in primary chicken muscle cell cultures to determine if artificial elevation of intracellular cAMP by treatment with forskolin would alter the population of functional betaAR expressed on the surface of muscle cells. Chicken skeletal muscle cells after 7 days in culture were employed for the experiments because muscle cells have attained a steady state with respect to muscle protein metabolism at this stage. Cells were treated with 0-10 microM forskolin for a total of three days. At the end of the 1, 2, and 3 day treatment intervals, the concentration of cAMP and the betaAR population were measured. Receptor population was measured in intact muscle cell cultures as the difference between total binding of [H-3]CGP-12177 and non-specific binding of [H-3]CGP-12177 in the presence of 1 microM propranolol. Intracellular cAMP concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The concentration of cAMP in forskolin-treated cells increased up to 10-fold in a dose dependent manner. Increasing concentrations of forskolin also led to an increase in betaAR population, with a maximum increase of approximately 50% at 10 microM. This increase in PAR population was apparent after only 1 day of treatment, and the pattern of increase was maintained for all 3 days of the treatment period. Thus, increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP leads to up-regulation of betaAR population. The effect of forskolin on the quantity and apparent synthesis rate of the heavy chain of myosin (mhc) were also investigated. A maximum increase of 50% in the quantity of mhc

  8. 5'AMP activated protein kinase expression in human skeletal muscle: effects of strength training and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Frøsig, Christian;

    2005-01-01

    Strength training enhances insulin sensitivity and represents an alternative to endurance training for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may mediate adaptations in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training; however, little is known about...... adaptations within the AMPK system itself. We investigated the effect of strength training and T2DM on the isoform expression and the heterotrimeric composition of the AMPK in human skeletal muscle. Ten patients with T2DM and seven healthy subjects strength trained (T) one leg for 6 weeks, while the other leg...... remained untrained (UT). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period. Basal AMPK activity and protein/mRNA expression of both catalytic (alpha1 and alpha2) and regulatory (beta1, beta2, gamma1, gamma2a, gamma2b and gamma3) AMPK isoforms were independent of T2DM, whereas the protein...

  9. [Dynamics of cardiac and skeletal muscle lactate dehydrogenase activity following a single exposure to an alternating magnetic field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udintsev, N A; Kanskaia, N V; Shchepetil'nikova, A I; Ordina, O M; Pichurina, R A

    1976-06-01

    A rise in LDH activity and a change of the enzyme distribution in the cytostructures of the heart and skeletal muscles of albino rats was revealed during the first 48 hours after a single twenty-four-hour action of an A. C. magnetic field (200 e, 50 cps). A displacement of the enzyma ratio in the direction of M-type was noted. Complete normalization occurred in the 3rd or 4th week only.

  10. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi;

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle ...

  11. Expression and insulin-regulated distribution of caveolin in skeletal muscle. Caveolin does not colocalize with GLUT4 in intracellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, P; Mora, S; Sevilla, L; Kaliman, P; Tomàs, E; Gumà, A; Testar, X; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A

    1996-04-01

    Caveolin is believed to play an important role in sorting processes, vesicular trafficking, transmembrane signaling, and molecular transport across membranes. In this study we have evaluated the expression and distribution of caveolin in skeletal muscle and its interaction with GLUT4 glucose carriers. Caveolin was expressed to substantial levels in muscle and its expression was regulated in muscle; aging and high fat diet enhanced caveolin expression in skeletal muscle and inversely, myogenesis down-regulated caveolin in L6E9 cells. Under fasting conditions, most of caveolin was found in intracellular membranes and the caveolin present in the cell surface was found in both sarcolemma and T-tubules. Insulin administration led to a redistribution of caveolin from intracellular high density membrane fractions to intracellular lighter density fractions and to the cell surface; this pattern of insulin-induced redistribution was different to what was shown by GLUT4. These results suggests that caveolin is a component of an insulin-regulated machinery of vesicular transport in muscle. Quantitative immunoisolation of GLUT4 vesicles obtained from different intracellular GLUT4 populations revealed the absence of caveolin which substantiates the lack of colocalization of intracellular GLUT4 and caveolin. This indicates that caveolin is not involved in intracellular GLUT4 trafficking in skeletal muscle. PMID:8626501

  12. The role of diacylglycerol kinase ζ and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jae-Sung; Lincoln, Hannah C; Kim, Chan-Ran; Frey, John W; Goodman, Craig A; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Hornberger, Troy A

    2014-01-17

    The activation of mTOR signaling is essential for mechanically induced changes in skeletal muscle mass, and previous studies have suggested that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling through a phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent increase in the concentration of phosphatidic acid (PA). Consistent with this conclusion, we obtained evidence which further suggests that mechanical stimuli utilize PA as a direct upstream activator of mTOR signaling. Unexpectedly though, we found that the activation of PLD is not necessary for the mechanically induced increases in PA or mTOR signaling. Motivated by this observation, we performed experiments that were aimed at identifying the enzyme(s) that promotes the increase in PA. These experiments revealed that mechanical stimulation increases the concentration of diacylglycerol (DAG) and the activity of DAG kinases (DGKs) in membranous structures. Furthermore, using knock-out mice, we determined that the ζ isoform of DGK (DGKζ) is necessary for the mechanically induced increase in PA. We also determined that DGKζ significantly contributes to the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling, and this is likely driven by an enhanced binding of PA to mTOR. Last, we found that the overexpression of DGKζ is sufficient to induce muscle fiber hypertrophy through an mTOR-dependent mechanism, and this event requires DGKζ kinase activity (i.e. the synthesis of PA). Combined, these results indicate that DGKζ, but not PLD, plays an important role in mechanically induced increases in PA and mTOR signaling. Furthermore, this study suggests that DGKζ could be a fundamental component of the mechanism(s) through which mechanical stimuli regulate skeletal muscle mass. PMID:24302719

  13. The role of diacylglycerol kinase ζ and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jae-Sung; Lincoln, Hannah C; Kim, Chan-Ran; Frey, John W; Goodman, Craig A; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Hornberger, Troy A

    2014-01-17

    The activation of mTOR signaling is essential for mechanically induced changes in skeletal muscle mass, and previous studies have suggested that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling through a phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent increase in the concentration of phosphatidic acid (PA). Consistent with this conclusion, we obtained evidence which further suggests that mechanical stimuli utilize PA as a direct upstream activator of mTOR signaling. Unexpectedly though, we found that the activation of PLD is not necessary for the mechanically induced increases in PA or mTOR signaling. Motivated by this observation, we performed experiments that were aimed at identifying the enzyme(s) that promotes the increase in PA. These experiments revealed that mechanical stimulation increases the concentration of diacylglycerol (DAG) and the activity of DAG kinases (DGKs) in membranous structures. Furthermore, using knock-out mice, we determined that the ζ isoform of DGK (DGKζ) is necessary for the mechanically induced increase in PA. We also determined that DGKζ significantly contributes to the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling, and this is likely driven by an enhanced binding of PA to mTOR. Last, we found that the overexpression of DGKζ is sufficient to induce muscle fiber hypertrophy through an mTOR-dependent mechanism, and this event requires DGKζ kinase activity (i.e. the synthesis of PA). Combined, these results indicate that DGKζ, but not PLD, plays an important role in mechanically induced increases in PA and mTOR signaling. Furthermore, this study suggests that DGKζ could be a fundamental component of the mechanism(s) through which mechanical stimuli regulate skeletal muscle mass.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is produced by skeletal muscle cells in response to contraction and enhances fat oxidation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, V B; Åström, Maj-Brit; Chan, M H S;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is produced in skeletal muscle, but its functional significance is unknown. We aimed to determine the signalling processes and metabolic actions of BDNF. METHODS: We first examined whether exercise induced BDNF expression in humans. Next, C2......C12 skeletal muscle cells were electrically stimulated to mimic contraction. L6 myotubes and isolated rat extensor digitorum longus muscles were treated with BDNF and phosphorylation of the proteins AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Thr(172)) and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACCbeta) (Ser......(79)) were analysed, as was fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Finally, we electroporated a Bdnf vector into the tibialis cranialis muscle of mice. RESULTS: BDNF mRNA and protein expression were increased in human skeletal muscle after exercise, but muscle-derived BDNF appeared not to be released...

  15. AMPK Control of Fat Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, David M.; Winder, William W.

    2009-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as a key regulator of skeletal muscle fat metabolism. Because abnormalities in skeletal muscle metabolism contribute to a variety of clinical diseases and disorders, understanding AMPK’s role in the muscle is important. It was originally shown to stimulate fatty acid oxidation decades ago, and since then much research has been accomplished describing this role. In this brief review we summarize much of this data, particularly in relation to chan...

  16. Regulation and role of hormone-sensitive lipase in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia;

    2004-01-01

    -sensitive lipase (HSL). This enzyme is known to be rate limiting for intracellular TG hydrolysis in adipose tissue. The presence of HSL has been demonstrated in all muscle fibre types by Western blotting of muscle fibres isolated by collagenase treatment or after freeze-drying. The content of HSL varies between...... fibre types, being higher in oxidative fibres than in glycolytic fibres. When analysed under conditions optimal for HSL, neutral lipase activity in muscle can be stimulated by adrenaline as well as by contractions. These increases are abolished by the presence of anti-HSL antibody during analysis....... Moreover, immunoprecipitation with affinity-purified anti-HSL antibody causes similar reductions in muscle HSL protein concentration and in measured neutral lipase responses to contractions. The immunoreactive HSL in muscle is stimulated by adrenaline via beta-adrenergic activation of c...

  17. Lipin-1 Regulates Autophagy Clearance and Intersects with Statin Drug Effects in Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peixiang; Verity, M. Anthony; Reue, Karen

    2014-01-01

    LPIN1 encodes lipin-1, a phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerol. Homozygous LPIN1 gene mutations cause severe rhabdomyolysis, and heterozygous LPIN1 missense mutations may promote statin-induced myopathy. We demonstrate that lipin-1–related myopathy in the mouse is associated with a blockade in autophagic flux and accumulation of aberrant mitochondria. Lipin-1 PAP activity is required for maturation of autoly...

  18. Role of AMPKα in Skeletal Muscle Glycometabolism Regulation and Adaptation in relation to Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Zheng; Mi Xu; Qiang Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein always involve disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism. Objective. To determine whether the change of blood glucose in the early stage of septic rat is associated with the alteration of AMPKα protein expression and GLUT4 protein translocation expression. Methods. Animal models of sepsis were induced by tail vein injection of LPS in Wistar rats. The dynamic values of blood glucose with...

  19. The effect of acute and long-term physical activity on extracellular matrix and serglycin in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth, Marit; Norheim, Frode; Meen, Astri Jeanette; Pourteymour, Shirin; Lee, Sindre; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Birkeland, Kåre I; Martinov, Vladimir Nikolkaev; Langleite, Torgrim Mikal; Eckardt, Kristin; Drevon, Christian A.; Kolset, Svein Olav

    2015-01-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM), including regulation of proteoglycans in skeletal muscle can be important for physiological adaptation to exercise. To investigate the effects of acute and long-term exercise on the expression of ECM-related genes and proteoglycans in particular, 26 middle-aged, sedentary men underwent a 12 weeks supervised endurance and strength training intervention and two acute, 45 min bicycle tests (70% VO2max), one at baseline and one after 12 weeks of training....

  20. Regulation of p21ras activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowy, D R; Zhang, K; DeClue, J E;

    1992-01-01

    The ras genes encode GTP/GDP-binding proteins that participate in mediating mitogenic signals from membrane tyrosine kinases to downstream targets. The activity of p21ras is determined by the concentration of GTP-p21ras, which is tightly regulated by a complex array of positive and negative control...... mechanisms. GAP and NF1 can negatively regulate p21ras activity by stimulating hydrolysis of GTP bound to p21ras. Other cellular factors can positively regulate p21ras by stimulating GDP/GTP exchange....

  1. [Molecular mechanisms regulating the activity of macrophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoprienko, L V

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews modern concepts of the most common types of macrophage activation: classical, alternative, and type II. Molecular mechanisms of induction and regulation of these three types of activation are discussed. Any population of macrophages was shown to change its properties depending on its microenvironment and concrete biological situation (the "functional plasticity of macrophages"). Many intermediate states of macrophages were described along with the most pronounced and well-known activation types (classical activation, alternative activation, and type II activation). These intermediate states are characterized by a variety of combinations of their biological properties, including elements of the three afore mentioned types of activation. Macrophage activity is regulated by a complex network of interrelated cascade mechanisms.

  2. Vasodilatory mechanisms in contracting skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifford, Philip S.; Hellsten, Ylva

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscle blood flow is closely coupled to metabolic demand, and its regulation is believed to be mainly the result of the interplay of neural vasoconstrictor activity and locally derived vasoactive substances. Muscle blood flow is increased within the first second after a single contraction...... and stabilizes within 30 s during dynamic exercise under normal conditions. Vasodilator substances may be released from contracting skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, or red blood cells. The importance of specific vasodilators is likely to vary over the time course of flow, from the initial rapid rise...

  3. Activating HSP72 in Rodent Skeletal Muscle Increases Mitochondrial Number and Oxidative Capacity and Decreases Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henstridge, Darren C.; Bruce, Clinton R.; Drew, Brian G.; Tory, Kálmán; Kolonics, Attila; Estevez, Emma; Chung, Jason; Watson, Nadine; Gardner, Timothy; Lee-Young, Robert S.; Connor, Timothy; Watt, Matthew J.; Carpenter, Kevin; Hargreaves, Mark; McGee, Sean L.; Hevener, Andrea L.; Febbraio, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Induction of heat shock protein (HSP)72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that HSP72 plays a pivotal role in increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and oxidative metabolism. Mice overexpressing HSP72 in skeletal muscle (HSP72Tg) and control wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet (HFD). Despite a similar energy intake when HSP72Tg mice were compared with WT mice, the HFD increased body weight, intramuscular lipid accumulation (triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol but not ceramide), and severe glucose intolerance in WT mice alone. Whole-body VO2, fatty acid oxidation, and endurance running capacity were markedly increased in HSP72Tg mice. Moreover, HSP72Tg mice exhibited an increase in mitochondrial number. In addition, the HSP72 coinducer BGP-15, currently in human clinical trials for type 2 diabetes, also increased mitochondrial number and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Together, these data identify a novel role for activation of HSP72 in skeletal muscle. Thus, the increased oxidative metabolism associated with activation of HSP72 has potential clinical implications not only for type 2 diabetes but also for other disorders where mitochondrial function is compromised. PMID:24430435

  4. Role of physiological ClC-1 Cl- ion channel regulation for the excitability and function of working skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Riisager, Anders; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo;

    2016-01-01

    gene. However, given that ClC-1 must be drastically inhibited (∼80%) before myotonia develops, more recent studies have explored whether acute and more subtle ClC-1 regulation contributes to controlling the excitability of working muscle. Methods were developed to measure ClC-1 function with subsecond...... ions. This inhibition is important for preserving excitability of working muscle in the face of activity-induced elevation of extracellular K+ and accumulating inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. Furthermore, during prolonged activity, a marked ClC-1 activation can develop that compromises...... muscle excitability. Data from ClC-1 expression systems suggest that this ClC-1 activation may arise from loss of regulation by adenosine nucleotides and/or oxidation. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of the physiological factors that control ClC-1 function in active muscle....

  5. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    , these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...... regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active...

  6. Glucose ingestion blunts hormone-sensitive lipase activity in contracting human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Matthew J; Krustrup, Peter; Secher, Niels H; Saltin, Bengt; Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    To examine the effect of attenuated epinephrine and elevated insulin on intramuscular hormone sensitivity lipase activity (HSLa) during exercise, seven men performed 120 min of semirecumbent cycling (60% peak pulmonary oxygen uptake) on two occasions while ingesting either 250 ml of a 6.4% carbohydrate (GLU) or sweet placebo (CON) beverage at the onset of, and at 15 min intervals throughout, exercise. Muscle biopsies obtained before and immediately after exercise were analyzed for HSLa. Blood samples were simultaneously obtained from a brachial artery and a femoral vein before and during exercise, and leg blood flow was measured by thermodilution in the femoral vein. Net leg glycerol and lactate release and net leg glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) uptake were calculated from these measures. Insulin and epinephrine were also measured in arterial blood before and throughout exercise. During GLU, insulin was elevated (120 min: CON, 11.4 +/- 2.4, GLU, 35.3 +/- 6.9 pM, P HSLa relative to CON (120 min: CON, 1.71 +/- 0.18, GLU, 1.27 +/- 0.16 mmol.min-1.kg dry mass-1). There were no differences in leg lactate or glycerol release when trials were compared, but leg FFA uptake was lower (120 min: CON, 0.29 +/- 0.06, GLU, 0.82 +/- 0.09 mmol/min) and leg glucose uptake higher (120 min: CON, 3.16 +/- 0.59, GLU, 1.37 +/- 0.37 mmol/min) in GLU compared with CON. These results demonstrate that circulating insulin and epinephrine play a role in HSLa in contracting skeletal muscle. PMID:14506077

  7. The transcription coactivator ASC-1 is a regulator of skeletal myogenesis, and its deficiency causes a novel form of congenital muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davignon, Laurianne; Chauveau, Claire; Julien, Cédric; Dill, Corinne; Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Cabet, Eva; Buendia, Brigitte; Lilienbaum, Alain; Rendu, John; Minot, Marie Christine; Guichet, Agnès; Allamand, Valérie; Vadrot, Nathalie; Fauré, Julien; Odent, Sylvie; Lazaro, Leïla; Leroy, Jean Paul; Marcorelles, Pascale; Dubourg, Odile; Ferreiro, Ana

    2016-04-15

    Despite recent progress in the genetic characterization of congenital muscle diseases, the genes responsible for a significant proportion of cases remain unknown. We analysed two branches of a large consanguineous family in which four patients presented with a severe new phenotype, clinically marked by neonatal-onset muscle weakness predominantly involving axial muscles, life-threatening respiratory failure, skin abnormalities and joint hyperlaxity without contractures. Muscle biopsies showed the unreported association of multi-minicores, caps and dystrophic lesions. Genome-wide linkage analysis followed by gene and exome sequencing in patients identified a homozygous nonsense mutation inTRIP4encoding Activating Signal Cointegrator-1 (ASC-1), a poorly characterized transcription coactivator never associated with muscle or with human inherited disease. This mutation resulted inTRIP4mRNA decay to around 10% of control levels and absence of detectable protein in patient cells. ASC-1 levels were higher in axial than in limb muscles in mouse, and increased during differentiation in C2C12 myogenic cells. Depletion of ASC-1 in cultured muscle cells from a patient and inTrip4knocked-down C2C12 led to a significant reduction in myotube diameterex vivoandin vitro, without changes in fusion index or markers of initial myogenic differentiation. This work reports the firstTRIP4mutation and defines a novel form of congenital muscle disease, expanding their histological, clinical and molecular spectrum. We establish the importance of ASC-1 in human skeletal muscle, identify transcriptional co-regulation as novel pathophysiological pathway, define ASC-1 as a regulator of late myogenic differentiation and suggest defects in myotube growth as a novel myopathic mechanism. PMID:27008887

  8. The role of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, T A; Chu, W K; Mak, Y W; Hsiung, J W; Huang, S A; Chien, S

    2006-03-21

    Signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been reported to be necessary for mechanical load-induced growth of skeletal muscle. The mechanisms involved in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling are not known, but several studies indicate that a unique [phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)- and nutrient-independent] mechanism is involved. In this study, we have demonstrated that a regulatory pathway for mTOR signaling that involves phospholipase D (PLD) and the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a critical role in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling. First, an elevation in PA concentration was sufficient for the activation of mTOR signaling. Second, the isozymes of PLD (PLD1 and PLD2) are localized to the z-band in skeletal muscle (a critical site of mechanical force transmission). Third, mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle with intermittent passive stretch ex vivo induced PLD activation, PA accumulation, and mTOR signaling. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of PLD blocked the mechanically induced increase in PA and the activation of mTOR signaling. Combined, these results indicate that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signaling through a PLD-dependent increase in PA. Furthermore, we showed that mTOR signaling was partially resistant to rapamycin in muscles subjected to mechanical stimulation. Because rapamycin and PA compete for binding to the FRB domain on mTOR, these results suggest that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signaling through an enhanced binding of PA to the FRB domain on mTOR. PMID:16537399

  9. The role of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, T A; Chu, W K; Mak, Y W; Hsiung, J W; Huang, S A; Chien, S

    2006-03-21

    Signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been reported to be necessary for mechanical load-induced growth of skeletal muscle. The mechanisms involved in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling are not known, but several studies indicate that a unique [phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)- and nutrient-independent] mechanism is involved. In this study, we have demonstrated that a regulatory pathway for mTOR signaling that involves phospholipase D (PLD) and the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a critical role in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling. First, an elevation in PA concentration was sufficient for the activation of mTOR signaling. Second, the isozymes of PLD (PLD1 and PLD2) are localized to the z-band in skeletal muscle (a critical site of mechanical force transmission). Third, mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle with intermittent passive stretch ex vivo induced PLD activation, PA accumulation, and mTOR signaling. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of PLD blocked the mechanically induced increase in PA and the activation of mTOR signaling. Combined, these results indicate that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signaling through a PLD-dependent increase in PA. Furthermore, we showed that mTOR signaling was partially resistant to rapamycin in muscles subjected to mechanical stimulation. Because rapamycin and PA compete for binding to the FRB domain on mTOR, these results suggest that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signaling through an enhanced binding of PA to the FRB domain on mTOR.

  10. A Molecular Brake in the Kinase Hinge Region Regulates the Activity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen,H.; Ma, J.; Li, W.; Eliseenkova, A.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; Miller, W.; Mohammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) cause cancer and skeletal disorders. Comparison of the crystal structures of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated wild-type FGFR2 kinase domains with those of seven unphosphorylated pathogenic mutants reveals an autoinhibitory 'molecular brake' mediated by a triad of residues in the kinase hinge region of all FGFRs. Structural analysis shows that many other RTKs, including PDGFRs, VEGFRs, KIT, CSF1R, FLT3, TEK, and TIE, are also subject to regulation by this brake. Pathogenic mutations activate FGFRs and other RTKs by disengaging the brake either directly or indirectly.

  11. Exercise-Induced VEGF Transcriptional Activation in Brain, Lung and Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Kechun; Xia, Feng Cheng; Wagner, Peter D.; Breen, Ellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle VEGF expression is upregulated by exercise. Whether this VEGF response is regulated by transcription and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms is unknown. Hypoxia may be responsible: myocyte PO2 falls greatly during exercise and VEGF is a hypoxia-responsive gene. Whether exercise induces VEGF expression in other organs important to acute physical activity is also unknown. To address these questions, we created a VEGF/Luciferase reporter mouse and measured VEGF transcription, mRNA and prot...

  12. The measurement of reversible redox dependent post-translational modifications and their regulation of mitochondrial and skeletal muscle function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Philip A.; Duan, Jicheng; Qian, Weijun; Marcinek, David J.

    2015-11-25

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a common feature of skeletal myopathies across multiple conditions; however, the mechanism by which it contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction remains controversial. Oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA has received the most attention, yet an important role for reversible redox post-translational modifications (PTMs) in pathophysiology is emerging. The possibility that these PTMs can exert dynamic control of muscle function implicates them as a mechanism contributing to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic disease. Herein, we discuss the significance of thiol-based redox dependent modifications to mitochondrial, myofibrillar and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling proteins with an emphasis on how these changes could alter skeletal muscle performance under chronically stressed conditions. A major barrier to a better mechanistic understanding of the role of reversible redox PTMs in muscle function is the technical challenges associated with accurately measuring the changes of site-specific redox PTMs. Here we will critically review current approaches with an emphasis on sample preparation artifacts, quantitation, and specificity. Despite these challenges, the ability to accurately quantify reversible redox PTMs is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic diseases.

  13. Influence of a protein hydrolysate from green algae on the activity of some ATPase systems in frog skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, R; Georgieva, B; Naumova, P; Mileva, K; Radicheva, N

    1999-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of a protein hydrolysate from green algae cultured in the Bulgarian region of Rupy, on the enzyme activity of frog skeletal muscle. The activity of pure Mg(2+)-ATPase, Mg2+,Ca(2+)-ATPase, NaHCO3-stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase and the latter in the presence of the inhibitors NaSCN and NaN3 in mitochondrial (B-3) and membrane (B-12) fractions were determined before and after treatment with the protein hydrolysate from green algae (30 and 300 micrograms/ml). The differences between ATPase activity of mitochondrial and membrane fractions were described and it was established that in the B-3 fraction, the activity of the NaHCO3-stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-dependent Mg(2+)-ATPase were accelerated by increasing concentrations of the algae protein hydrolysate. Irrespective of the different (equal or inverse) dose-dependent effects, the protein hydrolysate stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase and that inhibited by NaSCN an NaN3 bicarbonate-stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. In most of the probes, the protein hydrolysate produced some increase in enzyme activity of NaHCO3-stimulated Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-dependent Mg(2+)-ATPase in B-12 fractions. The observed properties of the algae protein hydrolysate suggest that it is capable of stimulating enzyme processes in addition to having some antitoxic effect in skeletal muscle. PMID:10420389

  14. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α is dispensable for chronic overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and metabolic remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Schindler, Joaquín; Summermatter, Serge; Santos, Gesa; Zorzato, Francesco; Handschin, Christoph

    2013-12-10

    Skeletal muscle mass loss and dysfunction have been linked to many diseases. Conversely, resistance exercise, mainly by activating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and exerts several therapeutic effects. Moreover, mTORC1, along with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), regulates skeletal muscle metabolism. However, it is unclear whether PGC-1α is required for skeletal muscle adaptations after overload. Here we show that although chronic overload of skeletal muscle via synergist ablation (SA) strongly induces hypertrophy and a switch toward a slow-contractile phenotype, these effects were independent of PGC-1α. In fact, SA down-regulated PGC-1α expression and led to a repression of energy metabolism. Interestingly, however, PGC-1α deletion preserved peak force after SA. Taken together, our data suggest that PGC-1α is not involved in skeletal muscle remodeling induced by SA.

  15. Lifelong Physical Activity Prevents Aging-Associated Insulin Resistance in Human Skeletal Muscle Myotubes via Increased Glucose Transporter Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunprajun, Tipwadee; Henriksen, Tora Ida; Scheele, Camilla;

    2013-01-01

    derived from human skeletal muscle satellite cells. Satellite cells were obtained from young (22 yrs) normally active or middle-aged (56.6 yrs) individuals who were either lifelong sedentary or lifelong active. Both middle-aged sedentary and middle-aged active myotubes had increased p21 and myosin heavy...... chain protein expression. Interestingly MHCIIa was increased only in myotubes from middle-aged active individuals. Middle-aged sedentary cells had intact insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation however, the same cell showed ablated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma...... membrane. On the other hand, middle-aged active cells retained both insulin-stimulated increases in glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. Middle-aged active cells also had significantly higher mRNA expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 compared to middle-aged sedentary cells...

  16. A micromethod for assay of lipoprotein lipase activity in needle biopsy samples of human adipose tissue and skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and simple procedure for assay of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in small amounts of human adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is described and validated. The enzyme is eluted from tissues with heparin and the activity is determined from the eluate by measuring the release of [14C]oleic acid from a gum arabic stabilized emulsion of glycerol-tri[14C]oleate in a Tris-buffer medium containing albumin and pooled normal human serum. Reproducible results are obtained with amounts of tissue ranging from 2 to 25 mg. The Ksub(m) values of the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle LPL for the triolein substrate were 0.74 +- 0.06 and 0.77 +- 0.05 mmol/l, respectively. The standard radioactive triolein emulsion was hydrolyzed by adipose tissue LPL at a rate closely similar to rat VLDL-triglyceride labeled in vivo with [1-14C]palmitic acid, suggesting that the experimental substrate behaved in a similar manner to the natural substrate. The LPL activity was much higher in adipose tissue than in muscle. In adipose tissue the LPL activity was 2-4 times higher in women than in men whereas no sex difference was present in the LPL activity of muscle. (Auth.)

  17. Long-term wheel running changes on sensorimotor activity and skeletal muscle in male and female mice of accelerated senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Lalanza, Jaume F; Alvarez-López, María Jesús; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Griñan-Ferré, Christian; Pallàs, Merce; Kaliman, Perla; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is considered a useful non-transgenic model for studying aspects of aging. Using SAM resistant 1 (SAMR1) as controls, the long-term effects of wheel running on skeletal muscle adaptations and behavioral traits were evaluated in senescent (P8) and resistant (R1) male and female mice. Long-term wheel running (WR) led to increases in locomotor activity, benefits in sensorimotor function, and changes in body weight in a gender-dependent manner. WR increased body weight and baseline levels of locomotor activity in female mice and improved balance and strength in male mice, compared to sedentary-control mice. WR resulted in key metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, associated with an increased activity of the sirtuin 1-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-PGC-1 alpha axis and changes in vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4), and Cluster of Differentiation 36 (Cd36) gene expression. Overall, our data indicate that activity, balance, and strength decrease with age and that long-term WR may significantly improve the motor function in a mouse model of senescence in a gender-dependent manner. PMID:25129573

  18. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives: differential regulation of insulin signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Palsgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays covering the entire human genome. These arrays have not previously been used for this type of study. We show for the first time that genes involved in insulin signaling are significantly upregulated in first degree relatives and significantly downregulated in people with type 2 diabetes. On the individual gene level, 11 genes showed altered expression levels in first degree relatives compared to controls, among others KIF1B and GDF8 (myostatin. LDHB was found to have a decreased expression in both groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that increased expression of insulin signaling molecules in first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes, work in concert with increased levels of insulin as a compensatory mechanism, counter-acting otherwise reduced insulin signaling activity, protecting these individuals from severe insulin resistance. This compensation is lost in people with type 2 diabetes where expression of insulin signaling molecules is reduced.

  19. DMH1 increases glucose metabolism through activating Akt in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xie

    Full Text Available DMH1(4-[6-(4-Isopropoxyphenylpyrazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl] quinoline is a compound C analogue with the structural modifications at the 3- and 6-positions in pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine backbone. Compound C was reported to inhibit both AMPK and Akt. Our preliminary work found that DMH1 activated Akt. Since Akt was involved in glucose metabolism, we aimed to identify the effects of DMH1 on glucose metabolism in L6 rat muscle cells and the potential mechanism. Results showed that DMH1 increased lactic acid release and glucose consumption in L6 rat muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner. DMH1 activated Akt in L6 cells. Akt inhibitor inhibited DMH1-induced Akt activation and DMH1-induced increases of glucose uptake and consumption. DMH1 had no cytotoxicity in L6 cells, but inhibited mitochondrial function and reduced ATP production. DMH1 showed no effect on AMPK, but in the presence of Akt inhibitor, DMH1 significantly activated AMPK. Compound C inhibited DMH1-induced Akt activation in L6 cells. Compound C inhibited DMH1-induced increase of glucose uptake, consumption and lactic acid release in L6 cells. DMH1 inhibited PP2A activity, and PP2A activator forskolin reversed DMH1-induced Akt activation. We concluded that DMH1 increased glucose metabolism through activating Akt and DMH1 activated Akt through inhibiting PP2A activity in L6 rat muscle cells. In view of the analogue structure of DMH1 and compound C and the contrasting effects of DMH1 and compound C on Akt, the present study provides a novel leading chemical structure targeting Akt with potential use for regulating glucose metabolism.

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  1. Activation and localization of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in the skeletal muscle of the muscular dystrophy dog (CXMDJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeda Shin'ichi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are key regulatory molecules in the formation, remodeling and degradation of all extracellular matrix (ECM components in both physiological and pathological processes in various tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of gelatinase MMP family members, MMP-2 and MMP-9, in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle. Towards this aim, we made use of the canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan (CXMDJ model, a suitable animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Methods We used surgically biopsied tibialis cranialis muscles of normal male dogs (n = 3 and CXMDJ dogs (n = 3 at 4, 5 and 6 months of age. Muscle sections were analyzed by conventional morphological methods and in situ zymography to identify the localization of MMP-2 and MMP-9. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was examined by gelatin zymography and the levels of the respective mRNAs in addition to those of regulatory molecules, including MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and RECK, were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results In CXMDJ skeletal muscle, multiple foci of both degenerating and regenerating muscle fibers were associated with gelatinolytic MMP activity derived from MMP-2 and/or MMP-9. In CXMDJ muscle, MMP-9 immunoreactivity localized to degenerated fibers with inflammatory cells. Weak and disconnected immunoreactivity of basal lamina components was seen in MMP-9-immunoreactive necrotic fibers of CXMDJ muscle. Gelatinolytic MMP activity observed in the endomysium of groups of regenerating fibers in CXMDJ did not co-localize with MMP-9 immunoreactivity, suggesting that it was due to the presence of MMP-2. We observed increased activities of pro MMP-2, MMP-2 and pro MMP-9, and levels of the mRNAs encoding MMP-2, MMP-9 and the regulatory molecules, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and RECK in the skeletal muscle of CXMDJ dogs compared to the levels observed in normal controls. Conclusion MMP-2 and MMP-9 are likely involved in the

  2. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Adaptations Alter the Activity of Adipose Progenitor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Zeve; Millay, Douglas P.; Jin Seo; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise decreases adiposity and improves metabolic health; however, the physiological and molecular underpinnings of these phenomena remain unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of endurance training on adipose progenitor lineage commitment. Using mice with genetically labeled adipose progenitors, we show that these cells react to exercise by decreasing their proliferation and differentiation potential. Analyses of mouse models that mimic the skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise indicat...

  3. Molecular regulation of telomerase activity in aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Craig Nicholls; He Li; Jian-Qiu Wang; Jun-Ping Liu

    2011-01-01

    The process of aging is mitigated by the maintenance and repair of chromosome ends (telomeres),resulting in extended lifespan.This review examines the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions and regulation of the enzyme telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT),which functions as the primary mechanism of telomere maintenance and regulates cellular life expectancy.Underpinning increased cell proliferation,telomerase is also a key factor in facilitating cancer cell immortalization.The review focuses on aspects of hormonal regulations of telomerase,and the intraceilular pathways that converge to regulate telomerase activity with an emphasis on molecular interactions at protein and gene levels.In addition,the basic structure and function of two key telomerase enzyme components-the catalytic subunit TERT and the template RNA (TERC) are discussed briefly.

  4. Skeletal muscle stem cells express anti-apoptotic ErbB receptors during activation from quiescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To be effective for tissue repair, satellite cells (the stem cells of adult muscle) must survive the initial activation from quiescence. Using an in vitro model of satellite cell activation, we show that erbB1, erbB2 and erbB3, members of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase family, appear on satellite cells within 6 h of activation. We show that signalling via erbB2 provides an anti-apoptotic survival mechanism for satellite cells during the first 24 h, as they progress to a proliferative state. Inhibition of erbB2 signalling with AG825 reduced satellite cell numbers, concomitant with elevated caspase-8 activation and TUNEL labelling of apoptotic satellite cells. In serum-free conditions, satellite cell apoptosis could be largely prevented by a mixture of erbB1, erbB3 and erbB4 ligand growth factors, but not by neuregulin alone (erbB3/erbB4 ligand). Furthermore, using inhibitors specific to discrete intracellular signalling pathways, we identify MEK as a pro-apoptotic mediator, and the erbB-regulated factor STAT3 as an anti-apoptotic mediator during satellite cell activation. These results implicate erbB2 signalling in the preservation of a full compliment of satellite cells as they activate in the context of a damaged muscle

  5. Long-term wheel running changes on sensorimotor activity and skeletal muscle in male and female mice of accelerated senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Jaume F Lalanza; Alvarez-López, María Jesús; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Griñan-Ferré, Christian; Pallàs, Merce; Kaliman, Perla; Rosa M. Escorihuela

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is considered a useful non-transgenic model for studying aspects of aging. Using SAM resistant 1 (SAMR1) as controls, the long-term effects of wheel running on skeletal muscle adaptations and behavioral traits were evaluated in senescent (P8) and resistant (R1) male and female mice. Long-term wheel running (WR) led to increases in locomotor activity, benefits in sensorimotor function, and changes in body weight in a gender-dependent manner. WR ...

  6. The role of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Hornberger, T.A.; Chu, W. K.; Mak, Y. W.; Hsiung, J. W.; Huang, S. A.; Chien, S

    2006-01-01

    Signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been reported to be necessary for mechanical load-induced growth of skeletal muscle. The mechanisms involved in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling are not known, but several studies indicate that a unique [phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)- and nutrient-independent] mechanism is involved. In this study, we have demonstrated that a regulatory pathway for mTOR signaling that involves phospholipase D (PLD) and the lipid second...

  7. Physical inactivity amplifies the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to the lipid-induced downregulation of lipoprotein lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Theodore W; Hamilton, Marc T

    2006-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a risk factor for lipoprotein disorders and the metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity has a powerful effect on suppressing lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in skeletal muscle, the rate-limiting enzyme for hydrolysis of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. We tested the ability of several compounds to prevent the decrease in LPL. The present study minimized standing and ordinary light nonexercise movements in rats to compare the effects of inactivity and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) on LPL activity. The key new insight was that the typically quick decrease in LPL activity of oxidative muscle caused by physical inactivity was prevented by nicotinic acid (NA), whereas inhibitors of TNF-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and NF-kappaB had no such effect. NA was administered at a dose known to acutely impede the appearance of plasma TG from the liver and free fatty acids from adipose tissue, and it was effective at intentionally lowering plasma lipid concentrations to the same level in active and inactive groups. As measured from heparin-releasable LPL activity, LPL in the microvasculature of the most oxidative muscles was approximately 90% lower in the inactive group compared with controls, and this suppression was completely blocked by NA. In contrast to inactivity, NA did not raise muscle LPL in ambulatory controls, whereas a large exogenous fat delivery did decrease LPL activity. In vitro control studies revealed that NA did not have a direct effect on skeletal muscle LPL activity. In conclusion, physical inactivity amplifies the ability of plasma lipids to suppress muscle LPL activity. The light ambulatory contractions responsible for NEAT are sufficient for mitigating these deleterious effects. PMID:16195388

  8. Low condylectomy as the sole treatment for active condylar hyperplasia: facial, occlusal and skeletal changes. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, R; Pintor, F; Pérez, J; Pantoja, R; Berner, D

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the changes in facial, occlusal, and skeletal relationships in patients with active unilateral condylar hyperplasia whose sole treatment was a low condylectomy. A retrospective observational descriptive study was conducted. All patients had undergone a low condylectomy as the sole or initial surgical treatment. The size of the condylar segment removed was decided by matching the affected side with the healthy side, leaving them both like the healthy one. The length of the ramus was measured using panoramic X-ray (distance from the highest part of the condyle to the mandibular angle). Facial, occlusal, and skeletal changes were evaluated using clinical, photographic, and radiological records before and after surgery. Condylectomy as the sole treatment for patients with active condylar hyperplasia allowed improvements to the alterations produced by this pathology, such as chin deviation, tilted lip commissure plane, tilted occlusal plane, angle of facial convexity, unevenness of the mandibular angles, and length of the mandibular ramus. The occlusal relationship also improved with orthodontic and elastic therapy. To conclude, low condylectomy as a sole and aetiological treatment for patients with active condylar hyperplasia allowed improvements to alterations produced by this pathology. PMID:25468628

  9. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  10. Effects of activator and high-pull headgear combination therapy: skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue profile changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marşan, Gülnaz

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue profile changes with activator and high-pull headgear combination therapy in patients with Class II malocclusions caused by maxillary prognathism and mandibular retrognathism. The subjects, all in the mixed dentition, were selected from a single centre and were divided into two groups: 28 patients were treated with an incisor double capping activator and a high-pull headgear combination appliance (13 girls, 15 boys mean chronological age 11.7 +/- 1.2 years, skeletal age 12.1 +/- 1.4 years) and an untreated group of 28 subjects (14 girls, 14 boys mean chronological mean age 11.9 +/- 1.1 years, skeletal age 12.3 +/- 1.3 years). The skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue profile changes that occurred were compared on lateral cephalograms taken before treatment (T0) and after 1.1 +/- 0.3 years when the combination appliance was removed (T1). In the control group, the radiographs were obtained at the start (T0) and after an observation period 1.2 +/- 0.4 years (T1). Statistical analysis was undertaken with Wilcoxon's ranked-sum test for intra-group comparisons and differences between groups with t-test and Bonferroni's test at a level of significance of P high-pull headgear combination treatment in these growing patients resulted in a correction of the skeletal Class II relationship (ANB -3.4 degrees), a restriction of maxillary growth (SNA -2.0 degrees, OLp-A -2.3 mm), an advancement of the mandibular structures (SNB +2.6 degrees, FH-NPg +2.3 degrees, OLp-B +2.7 mm, OLp-Pg +2.2 mm), an increase in lower face height (ANS-Me +3.9 mm), a correction of the overjet (-5.4 mm), an improvement in overbite (-2.2 mm), uprighting of the maxillary incisors (U1-FH -5.3 degrees, OLp-U1 -2.5 mm), protrusion of the mandibular incisors (IMPA +2.0 degrees, OLp-L1 +2.7 mm), and a correction of the dental Class II malocclusion (OLp-L6 +3.5 mm). The soft tissue profile changes were a correction of facial

  11. PGC-1α-Mediated Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in the Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yukino Hatazawa; Miki Tadaishi; Yuta Nagaike; Akihito Morita; Yoshihiro Ogawa; Osamu Ezaki; Takako Takai-Igarashi; Yasuyuki Kitaura; Yoshiharu Shimomura; Yasutomi Kamei; Shinji Miura

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a coactivator of various nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, which is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, thermogenesis, and other biological processes that control phenotypic characteristics of various organ systems including skeletal muscle. PGC-1α in skeletal muscle is considered to be involved in contractile protein function, mitochondrial function, metabolic regulation, intracellula...

  12. Commission of energy regulation. 2004 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commission of energy regulation (CRE) is an independent administrative authority in charge of the control of the operation of gas and electricity markets. This document is the fifth activity report of CRE and covers the July 1, 2003 - June 30, 2004 period, which corresponds to the era of opening of energy markets as a consequence of the enforcement of the June 26, 2003 European directive. In the framework of the stakes made by energy markets liberalization, this document presents the situation of the gas and electricity markets during this period (European framework, regulation of both markets, public utility mission..) and describes CRE's means for the monitoring of these markets. (J.S.)

  13. Activation of AMPKα2 is not crucial for mitochondrial uncoupling-induced metabolic effects but required to maintain skeletal muscle integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ost

    Full Text Available Transgenic (UCP1-TG mice with ectopic expression of UCP1 in skeletal muscle (SM show a phenotype of increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance and increase substrate metabolism in SM. To investigate the potential role of skeletal muscle AMPKα2 activation in the metabolic phenotype of UCP1-TG mice we generated double transgenic (DTG mice, by crossing of UCP1-TG mice with DN-AMPKα2 mice overexpressing a dominant negative α2 subunit of AMPK in SM which resulted in an impaired AMPKα2 activity by 90±9% in SM of DTG mice. Biometric analysis of young male mice showed decreased body weight, lean and fat mass for both UCP1-TG and DTG compared to WT and DN-AMPKα2 mice. Energy intake and weight-specific total energy expenditure were increased, both in UCP1-TG and DTG mice. Moreover, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation were not altered in DTG compared to UCP1-TG. Also uncoupling induced induction and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 from SM was preserved in DTG mice. However, voluntary physical cage activity as well as ad libitum running wheel access during night uncovered a severe activity intolerance of DTG mice. Histological analysis showed a progressive degenerative morphology in SM of DTG mice which was not observed in SM of UCP1-TG mice. Moreover, ATP-depletion related cellular stress response via heat shock protein 70 was highly induced, whereas capillarization regulator VEGF was suppressed in DTG muscle. In addition, AMPKα2-mediated induction of mitophagy regulator ULK1 was suppressed in DTG mice, as well as mitochondrial respiratory capacity and content. In conclusion, we demonstrate that AMPKα2 is dispensable for SM mitochondrial uncoupling induced metabolic effects on whole body energy balance, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. But strikingly, activation of AMPKα2 seems crucial for maintaining SM function, integrity and the ability to compensate chronic metabolic stress

  14. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process. PMID:22171534

  15. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process.

  16. YAP-mediated mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eFischer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is not only translating chemical energy into mechanical work, it is also a highly adaptive and regenerative tissue whose architecture and functionality is determined by its mechanical and physical environment. Processing intra- and extracellular mechanical signaling cues contributes to the regulation of cell growth, survival, migration and differentiation. Yes-associated Protein (YAP, a transcriptional coactivator downstream of the Hippo pathway and its paralogue, the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ, were recently found to play a key role in mechanotransduction in various tissues including skeletal muscle. Furthermore, YAP/TAZ modulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration and abnormal YAP activity has been reported in muscular dystrophy and rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of mechanosensing and -signaling in striated muscle. We highlight the role of YAP signaling and discuss the different routes and hypotheses of its regulation in the context of mechanotransduction.

  17. An Extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. Inhibits Ubiquitin-Proteasome Activity and Preserves Skeletal Muscle Mass in a Murine Model of Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Kirk-Ballard; Wang, Zhong Q.; Priyanka Acharya; Zhang, Xian H.; Yongmei Yu; Gail Kilroy; David Ribnicky; Cefalu, William T.; Z Elizabeth Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Impaired insulin signaling is a key feature of type 2 diabetes and is associated with increased ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent protein degradation in skeletal muscle. An extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (termed PMI5011) improves insulin action by increasing insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. We sought to determine if the effect of PMI5011 on insulin signaling extends to regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. C2C12 myotubes and the KK-A(y) murine model of type 2 diabetes were use...

  18. Effect of PDE5 inhibition on the modulation of sympathetic α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle of young and older recreationally active humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann; Egelund, Jon;

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an altered regulation of blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle; however, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of cGMP-binding phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) increased blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle of older but not young...... human subjects. Here we examined whether this effect of PDE5 inhibition was related to an improved ability to blunt α-adrenergic vasoconstriction (functional sympatholysis) and/or improved efficacy of local vasodilator pathways. A group of young (23±1 years) and a group of older (72±1 years) male...

  19. Cardiac troponin testing in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and systemic sclerosis-spectrum disorders: biomarkers to distinguish between primary cardiac involvement and low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael; Lilleker, James B; Herrick, Ariane L; Chinoy, Hector

    2015-05-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, an under-recognised manifestation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc)-spectrum disorders, is associated with significant mortality. Within these two conditions, traditional skeletal muscle enzyme testing may not effectively distinguish between skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement, especially in patients with subclinical cardiac disease. Accurate biomarkers are thus required to screen for cardiac disease, to better inform both therapeutic decision-making and treatment response. The widespread uptake of cardiac troponin testing has revolutionised the management of acute coronary syndromes. While cardiac troponin I (cTnI) appears specific to the myocardium, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is also expressed by skeletal muscle, including regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There is increasing interest about the role of cardiac troponins as a putative biomarker of primary cardiac involvement in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders. Herewith we discuss subclinical cardiac disease in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders, the respective roles of cTnI and cTnT testing, and the re-expression of cTnT within regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There remains wide variation in access to cardiac troponin testing nationally and internationally. We propose two pragmatic clinical pathways using cardiac troponins, preferably measuring concomitant cTnT followed by confirmatory (cardiac) cTnI to screen patients for subclinical cardiac disease and/or low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity, and also an agenda for future research.

  20. Increased Stiffness in Aged Skeletal Muscle Impairs Muscle Progenitor Cell Proliferative Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Lacraz

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle aging is associated with a decreased regenerative potential due to the loss of function of endogenous stem cells or myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs. Aged skeletal muscle is characterized by the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM, which in turn influences the biomechanical properties of myofibers by increasing their stiffness. Since the stiffness of the MPC microenvironment directly impacts MPC function, we hypothesized that the increase in muscle stiffness that occurs with aging impairs the behavior of MPCs, ultimately leading to a decrease in regenerative potential.We showed that freshly isolated individual myofibers from aged mouse muscles contain fewer MPCs overall than myofibers from adult muscles, with fewer quiescent MPCs and more proliferative and differentiating MPCs. We observed alterations in cultured MPC behavior in aged animals, where the proliferation and differentiation of MPCs were lower and higher, respectively. These alterations were not linked to the intrinsic properties of aged myofibers, as shown by the similar values for the cumulative population-doubling values and fusion indexes. However, atomic force microscopy (AFM indentation experiments revealed a nearly 4-fold increase in the stiffness of the MPC microenvironment. We further showed that the increase in stiffness is associated with alterations to muscle ECM, including the accumulation of collagen, which was correlated with higher hydroxyproline and advanced glycation end-product content. Lastly, we recapitulated the impaired MPC behavior observed in aging using a hydrogel substrate that mimics the stiffness of myofibers.These findings provide novel evidence that the low regenerative potential of aged skeletal muscle is independent of intrinsic MPC properties but is related to the increase in the stiffness of the MPC microenvironment.

  1. Lung injury-dependent oxidative status and chymotrypsin-like activity of skeletal muscles in hamsters with experimental emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonon Jair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral skeletal muscle is altered in patients suffering from emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Oxidative stress have been demonstrated to participate on skeletal muscle loss of several states, including disuse atrophy, mechanical ventilation, and chronic diseases. No evidences have demonstrated the occurance in a severity manner. Methods We evaluated body weight, muscle loss, oxidative stress, and chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of emphysemic hamsters. The experimental animals had 2 different severities of lung damage from experimental emphysema induced by 20 mg/mL (E20 and 40 mg/mL (E40 papain. Results The severity of emphysema increased significantly in E20 (60.52 ± 2.8, p Conclusions Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that muscle atrophy observed in this model of emphysema is mediated by increased muscle chymotrypsin-like activity, with possible involvement of oxidative stress in a severity-dependent manner.

  2. Muscle-specific microRNAs in skeletal muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Martin; Novak, Jan; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Proper muscle function constitutes a precondition for good heath and an active lifestyle during an individual's lifespan and any deviations from normal skeletal muscle development and its functions may lead to numerous health conditions including e.g. myopathies and increased mortality. It is thus not surprising that there is an increasing need for understanding skeletal muscle developmental processes and the associated molecular pathways, especially as such information could find further uses in therapy. The understanding of complex skeletal muscle developmental networks was broadened with the discovery of microRNA (miRNA) molecules. MicroRNAs are evolutionary conserved small non-coding RNAs capable of negatively regulating gene expression on a post-transcriptional level by means of miRNA-mRNA interaction. Several miRNAs expressed exclusively in muscle have been labeled myomiRs. MyomiRs represent an integral part of skeletal muscle development, i.e. playing a significant role during skeletal muscle proliferation, differentiation and regeneration. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of current knowledge regarding the involvement of myomiRs in the individual phases of myogenesis and other aspects of skeletal muscle biology, along with an up-to-date list of myomiR target genes and their functions in skeletal muscle and miRNA-related therapeutic approaches and future prospects. PMID:26708096

  3. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  4. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  5. Effects of acetylcholinesterase gene silencing on its activity in cultured human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mis, Katarina; Mars, Tomaz; Golicnik, Marko; Jevsek, Marko; Grubic, Zoran

    2006-01-01

    In spite of several reports demonstrating that acetylcholinesterase (AChE [EC 3.1.1.7]) expression is importantly regulated at the level of its mRNA, we still know little about the relationship between AChE mRNA level and the level of mature, catalytically active enzyme in the cell. Better insight into this relationship is, however, essential for our understanding of the molecular pathways underlying AChE synthesis in living cells. We have approached this problem previously (Grubic et al., 1995; Brank et al., 1998; Mis et al., 2003; Jevsek et al., 2004); however, recently introduced small interfering RNA (siRNA) methodology, which allows blockade of gene expression at the mRNA level, opens new possibilities in approaching the AChE mRNA-AChE activity relationship. With this technique one can eliminate AChE mRNA in the cell, specifically and at selected times, and follow the effects of such treatment at the mature enzyme level. In this study we followed AChE activity in siRNA-treated cultured human myoblasts. Our aim was to find out how the temporal profile of the AChE mRNA decrease is reflected at the level of AChE activity under normal conditions and after inhibition of preexisting AChE by diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP).AChE activity was determined at selected time intervals after siRNA treatment in both myoblast homogenates and in culture medium to follow the effects of siRNA treatment at the level of intracellular AChE synthesis and at the level of AChE secreted from the cell.

  6. LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 inhibits skeletal muscle differentiation in part via transcriptional activation of Msx1 and Msx2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, Yusaku; Tanaka, Kiyoko; Kitajima, Kenji; Tanegashima, Kosuke; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Hara, Takahiko

    2015-02-15

    LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 is known to be an important regulator of neuronal development, homeostasis of hair follicle stem cells, and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells; however, its function in skeletal muscle development is poorly understood. In this study, we found that overexpression of Lhx2 completely inhibits the myotube-forming capacity of C2C12 cells and primary myoblasts. The muscle dedifferentiation factors Msx1 and Msx2 were strongly induced by the Lhx2 overexpression. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Lhx2 in the developing limb buds of mouse embryos resulted in a reduction in Msx1 and Msx2 mRNA levels, suggesting that they are downstream target genes of Lhx2. We found two Lhx2 consensus-binding sites in the -2097 to -1189 genomic region of Msx1 and two additional sites in the -536 to +73 genomic region of Msx2. These sequences were shown by luciferase reporter assay to be essential for Lhx2-mediated transcriptional activation. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Lhx2 is present in chromatin DNA complexes bound to the enhancer regions of the Msx1 and Msx2 genes. These data demonstrate that Msx1 and Msx2 are direct transcriptional targets of Lhx2. In addition, overexpression of Lhx2 significantly enhanced the mRNA levels of bone morphogenetic protein 4 and transforming growth factor beta family genes. We propose that Lhx2 is involved in the early stage of skeletal muscle development by inducing multiple differentiation inhibitory factors.

  7. Does skeletal muscle have an 'epi'-memory? The role of epigenetics in nutritional programming, metabolic disease, aging and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Adam P; Stewart, Claire E; Seaborne, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal muscle mass, quality and adaptability are fundamental in promoting muscle performance, maintaining metabolic function and supporting longevity and healthspan. Skeletal muscle is programmable and can 'remember' early-life metabolic stimuli affecting its function in adult life. In this review, the authors pose the question as to whether skeletal muscle has an 'epi'-memory? Following an initial encounter with an environmental stimulus, we discuss the underlying molecular and epigenetic mechanisms enabling skeletal muscle to adapt, should it re-encounter the stimulus in later life. We also define skeletal muscle memory and outline the scientific literature contributing to this field. Furthermore, we review the evidence for early-life nutrient stress and low birth weight in animals and human cohort studies, respectively, and discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms culminating in skeletal muscle dysfunction, metabolic disease and loss of skeletal muscle mass across the lifespan. We also summarize and discuss studies that isolate muscle stem cells from different environmental niches in vivo (physically active, diabetic, cachectic, aged) and how they reportedly remember this environment once isolated in vitro. Finally, we will outline the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle memory and review the epigenetic regulation of exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptation, highlighting exercise interventions as suitable models to investigate skeletal muscle memory in humans. We believe that understanding the 'epi'-memory of skeletal muscle will enable the next generation of targeted therapies to promote muscle growth and reduce muscle loss to enable healthy aging.

  8. Does skeletal muscle have an 'epi'-memory? The role of epigenetics in nutritional programming, metabolic disease, aging and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Adam P; Stewart, Claire E; Seaborne, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal muscle mass, quality and adaptability are fundamental in promoting muscle performance, maintaining metabolic function and supporting longevity and healthspan. Skeletal muscle is programmable and can 'remember' early-life metabolic stimuli affecting its function in adult life. In this review, the authors pose the question as to whether skeletal muscle has an 'epi'-memory? Following an initial encounter with an environmental stimulus, we discuss the underlying molecular and epigenetic mechanisms enabling skeletal muscle to adapt, should it re-encounter the stimulus in later life. We also define skeletal muscle memory and outline the scientific literature contributing to this field. Furthermore, we review the evidence for early-life nutrient stress and low birth weight in animals and human cohort studies, respectively, and discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms culminating in skeletal muscle dysfunction, metabolic disease and loss of skeletal muscle mass across the lifespan. We also summarize and discuss studies that isolate muscle stem cells from different environmental niches in vivo (physically active, diabetic, cachectic, aged) and how they reportedly remember this environment once isolated in vitro. Finally, we will outline the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle memory and review the epigenetic regulation of exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptation, highlighting exercise interventions as suitable models to investigate skeletal muscle memory in humans. We believe that understanding the 'epi'-memory of skeletal muscle will enable the next generation of targeted therapies to promote muscle growth and reduce muscle loss to enable healthy aging. PMID:27102569

  9. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate CAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of CAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of CAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of CAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of CAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  10. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  11. Direct optical activation of skeletal muscle fibres efficiently controls muscle contraction and attenuates denervation atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magown, Philippe; Shettar, Basavaraj; Zhang, Ying; Rafuse, Victor F

    2015-10-13

    Neural prostheses can restore meaningful function to paralysed muscles by electrically stimulating innervating motor axons, but fail when muscles are completely denervated, as seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or after a peripheral nerve or spinal cord injury. Here we show that channelrhodopsin-2 is expressed within the sarcolemma and T-tubules of skeletal muscle fibres in transgenic mice. This expression pattern allows for optical control of muscle contraction with comparable forces to nerve stimulation. Force can be controlled by varying light pulse intensity, duration or frequency. Light-stimulated muscle fibres depolarize proportionally to light intensity and duration. Denervated triceps surae muscles transcutaneously stimulated optically on a daily basis for 10 days show a significant attenuation in atrophy resulting in significantly greater contractile forces compared with chronically denervated muscles. Together, this study shows that channelrhodopsin-2/H134R can be used to restore function to permanently denervated muscles and reduce pathophysiological changes associated with denervation pathologies.

  12. Ack1: activation and regulation by allostery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan S Gajiwala

    Full Text Available The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Ack1 belongs to a unique multi-domain protein kinase family, Ack. Ack is the only family of SH3 domain containing kinases to have an SH3 domain following the kinase domain; others have their SH3 domains preceding the kinase domain. Previous reports have suggested that Ack1 does not require phosphorylation for activation and the enzyme activity of the isolated kinase domain is low relative to other kinases. It has been shown to dimerize in the cellular environment, which augments its enzyme activity. The molecular mechanism of activation, however, remains unknown. Here we present structural and biochemical data on Ack1 kinase domain, and kinase domain+SH3 domain that suggest that Ack1 in its monomeric state is autoinhibited, like EGFR and CDK. The activation of the kinase domain may require N-lobe mediated symmetric dimerization, which may be facilitated by the N-terminal SAM domain. Results presented here show that SH3 domain, unlike in Src family tyrosine kinases, does not directly control the activation state of the enzyme. Instead we speculate that the SH3 domain may play a regulatory role by facilitating binding of the MIG6 homologous region to the kinase domain. We postulate that features of Ack1 activation and regulation parallel those of receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR with some interesting differences.

  13. Regulation of pokemon 1 activity by sumoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee-Eun; Lee, Min-Nyung; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Yu, Mi-Young; Hur, Man-Wook

    2007-01-01

    Pokemon 1 is a proto-oncogenic transcriptional regulator that contains a POZ domain at the N-terminus and four Kruppel-like zinc fingers at the C-terminus. Pokemon 1 plays an important role in adipogenesis, osteogenesis, oncogenesis, and transcription of NF-kB responsive genes. Recent reports have shown that biological activities of transcription factors are regulated by sumolylation. We investigated whether Pokemon 1 is post-translationally modified by sumoylation and whether the modification affects Pokemon 1's transcriptional properties. We found that Pokemon 1 is sumoylated in vitro and in vivo. Upon careful analysis of the amino acid sequence of Pokemon 1, we found ten potential sumoylation sites located at lysines 61, 354, 371, 379, 383, 396, 486, 487, 536 and 539. We mutated each of these amino acids into arginine and tested whether the mutation could affect the transcriptional properties of Pokemon 1 on the Pokemon 1 responsive genes, such as ADH5/FDH and pG5-FRE-Luc. Wild-type Pokemon 1 potently represses transcription of ADH5/FDH. Most of the mutants, however, were weaker transcription repressors and repressed transcription 1.3-3.3 fold less effective. Although potential sumoylation sites were located close to the DNA binding domain or the nuclear localization sequence, the mutations did not alter nuclear localization or DNA binding activity. In addition, on the pG5-FRE-Luc test promoter construct, ectopic SUMO-1 repressed transcription in the presence of Pokemon 1. The sumoylation target lysine residue at amino acid 61, which is located in the middle of the POZ-domain, is important because K61R mutation resulted in a much weaker molecular interaction with corepressors. Our data suggest that Pokemon 1's activity as a transcription factor may involve sumoylation, and that sumoylation might be important in the regulation of transcription by Pokemon 1. PMID:17595526

  14. Identification of miR-2400 gene as a novel regulator in skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation by targeting MYOG gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei Wei [The Laboratory of Cell and Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); College of Life Sciences and Agriculture & Forestry, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang 161006 (China); Tong, Hui Li; Sun, Xiao Feng; Hu, Qian; Yang, Yu; Li, Shu Feng [The Laboratory of Cell and Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Yan, Yun Qin, E-mail: yanyunqin@sohu.com [The Laboratory of Cell and Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Li, Guang Peng [The Key Laboratory of Mammal Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2015-08-07

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in skeletal muscle development as well as in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous study in our laboratory showed that the expression level of miR-2400, a novel and unique miRNA from bovine, had significantly changed in skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) during differentiation, however, the function and expression pattern for miR-2400 in MDSCs has not been fully understood. In this report, we firstly identified that the expression levels of miR-2400 were down-regulated during MDSCs differentiation by stem-loop RT-PCR. Over-expression and inhibition studies demonstrated that miR-2400 promoted MDSCs proliferation by EdU (5-ethynyl-2′ deoxyuridine) incorporation assay and immunofluorescence staining of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-2400 directly targeted the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of myogenin (MYOG) mRNA. These data suggested that miR-2400 could promote MDSCs proliferation through targeting MYOG. Furthermore, we found that miR-2400, which was located within the eighth intron of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) gene, was down-regulated in MDSCs in a direct correlation with the WHSC1L1 transcript by Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi). In addition, these observations not only provided supporting evidence for the codependent expression of intronic miRNAs and their host genes in vitro, but also gave insight into the role of miR-2400 in MDSCs proliferation. - Highlights: • miR-2400 is a novel and unique miRNA from bovine. • miR-2400 could promote skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation. • miR-2400 directly targeted the 3′ untranslated regions of MYOG mRNA. • miR-2400 could be coexpressed together with its host gene WHSC1L1.

  15. Identification of miR-2400 gene as a novel regulator in skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation by targeting MYOG gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in skeletal muscle development as well as in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous study in our laboratory showed that the expression level of miR-2400, a novel and unique miRNA from bovine, had significantly changed in skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) during differentiation, however, the function and expression pattern for miR-2400 in MDSCs has not been fully understood. In this report, we firstly identified that the expression levels of miR-2400 were down-regulated during MDSCs differentiation by stem-loop RT-PCR. Over-expression and inhibition studies demonstrated that miR-2400 promoted MDSCs proliferation by EdU (5-ethynyl-2′ deoxyuridine) incorporation assay and immunofluorescence staining of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-2400 directly targeted the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of myogenin (MYOG) mRNA. These data suggested that miR-2400 could promote MDSCs proliferation through targeting MYOG. Furthermore, we found that miR-2400, which was located within the eighth intron of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) gene, was down-regulated in MDSCs in a direct correlation with the WHSC1L1 transcript by Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi). In addition, these observations not only provided supporting evidence for the codependent expression of intronic miRNAs and their host genes in vitro, but also gave insight into the role of miR-2400 in MDSCs proliferation. - Highlights: • miR-2400 is a novel and unique miRNA from bovine. • miR-2400 could promote skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation. • miR-2400 directly targeted the 3′ untranslated regions of MYOG mRNA. • miR-2400 could be coexpressed together with its host gene WHSC1L1

  16. Troponin T3 regulates nuclear localization of the calcium channel Ca{sub v}β{sub 1a} subunit in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tan; Taylor, Jackson; Jiang, Yang [Department of Internal Medicine-Gerontology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Pereyra, Andrea S. [Department of Histology, National University of La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min [Department of Internal Medicine-Gerontology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Hereñú, Claudia [Department of Histology, National University of La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Delbono, Osvaldo, E-mail: odelbono@wakehealth.edu [Department of Internal Medicine-Gerontology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Neuroscience Program, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca{sub v}) β{sub 1a} subunit (Ca{sub v}β{sub 1a}) plays an important role in excitation–contraction coupling (ECC), a process in the myoplasm that leads to muscle-force generation. Recently, we discovered that the Ca{sub v}β{sub 1a} subunit travels to the nucleus of skeletal muscle cells where it helps to regulate gene transcription. To determine how it travels to the nucleus, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening of the mouse fast skeletal muscle cDNA library and identified an interaction with troponin T3 (TnT3), which we subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo and in cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Interacting domains were mapped to the leucine zipper domain in TnT3 COOH-terminus (160–244 aa) and Ca{sub v}β{sub 1a} NH{sub 2}-terminus (1–99 aa), respectively. The double fluorescence assay in C2C12 cells co-expressing TnT3/DsRed and Ca{sub v}β{sub 1a}/YFP shows that TnT3 facilitates Ca{sub v}β{sub 1a} nuclear recruitment, suggesting that the two proteins play a heretofore unknown role during early muscle differentiation in addition to their classical role in ECC regulation. - Highlights: • Previously, we demonstrated that Ca{sub v}β{sub 1a} is a gene transcription regulator. • Here, we show that TnT3 interacts with Ca{sub v}β{sub 1a}. • We mapped TnT3 and Ca{sub v}β{sub 1a} interaction domain. • TnT3 facilitates Ca{sub v}β{sub 1a} nuclear enrichment. • The two proteins play a heretofore unknown role during early muscle differentiation.

  17. 运动诱导骨骼肌线粒体生成中沉默信息调节因子1的作用**☆%Silent information regulator factor-1 regulates exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国华

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Silent information regulator factor-1 is an energy metabolism regulator newly received attention in sports science, which playing roles in skeletal exercise-induced muscle mitochondrial biogenesis with other regulatory factors. OBJECTIVE: To review the effect and mechanism of silent information regulator factor-1 on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in exercise. METHODS:The PubMed database and Highwire database were retrieved with computer for the articles on exercise, silent information regulator factor-1 and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis from January 2000 to January 2013 with the key words of“SIRT1, AMPK, PGC-1α, mitochondrial biogenesis, skeletal muscle, exercise”in English. After primary search, the articles about the association between silent information regulator factor-1 and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in exercise were selected. Articles on repeated experiment were excluded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Total y 165 relevant articles were selected, and articles on repetitive research were excluded, so finaly 62 articles were included. As a NAD+-depended deacetylase, silent information regulator factor-1 induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis by up-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator after activated during exercise. The molecular mechanism involved adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α. In recent years, the effect of silent information regulator factor-1 on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis was doubt, the researchers though that silent information regulator factor-1 was not required for exercise-induced muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. Silent information regulator factor-1 plays an important role in exercise-induced muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. But protein and activity detection methods are different in experimental results.%  背景:沉默信息调节因子1是新近受到体育科学领域关注的能量代谢调节

  18. Impaired insulin activation and dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome is reversed by pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Nicoline Resen;

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The molecular mechanisms underlying reduced insulin-mediated glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle of patients with PCOS have not been established. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We...... investigated protein content, activity, and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (GS) and its major upstream inhibitor, GS kinase (GSK)-3 in skeletal muscle biopsies from 24 PCOS patients (before treatment) and 14 matched control subjects and 10 PCOS patients after 16 wk treatment with pioglitazone. All were...... metabolically characterized by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps and indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: Reduced insulin-mediated glucose disposal (P PCOS patients (P

  19. Regulation of Aicda expression and AID activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Hong; Casali, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is expressed in a B cell differentiation stage-specific fashion and is essential for immunoglobulin (Ig) gene class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). CSR and SHM play a central role in the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. AID displays a mutagenic activity by catalyzing targeted deamination of deoxycytidine (dC) residues in DNA resulting in dU:dG mismatches, which are processed into point-mutations in SHM or double-strand breaks (DSBs) in CSR. Although AID specifically targets the Ig gene loci (IgH, Igκ and Igλ), it can also home into a wide array of non-Ig genes in B-and non-B-cell backgrounds. Aberrant expression of AID is associated with multiple diseases such as allergy, inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. In autoimmune systemic lupus erythematosus, dysregulated AID expression underpins increased CSR, SHM and autoantibody production. As a potent mutator, AID is under stringent transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation. AID is also regulated in its targeting and enzymatic function. In resting naïve or memory B cells, AID transcripts and protein are undetectable. These, however, are readily and significantly up-regulated in B cells induced to undergo CSR and/or SHM. Transcription factors, such as HoxC4 and NF-κB, which are up-regulated in a B cell lineage-and/or differentiation stage-specific manner, regulate the induction of AID. HoxC4 induces AID expression by directly binding to the AID gene promoter through an evolutionarily conserved 5'-ATTT-3' motif. HoxC4 is induced by the same stimuli that induce AID and CSR. It is further up-regulated by estrogen through three estrogen responsive elements in its promoter region. The targeting of AID to switch (S) regions is mediated by 14-3-3 adaptor proteins, which specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats that are exist at high frequency in S region cores. Like HoxC4, 14-3-3 adaptors are induced

  20. Regulation of Aicda expression and AID activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Hong; Casali, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is expressed in a B cell differentiation stage-specific fashion and is essential for immunoglobulin (Ig) gene class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). CSR and SHM play a central role in the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. AID displays a mutagenic activity by catalyzing targeted deamination of deoxycytidine (dC) residues in DNA resulting in dU:dG mismatches, which are processed into point-mutations in SHM or double-strand breaks (DSBs) in CSR. Although AID specifically targets the Ig gene loci (IgH, Igκ and Igλ), it can also home into a wide array of non-Ig genes in B-and non-B-cell backgrounds. Aberrant expression of AID is associated with multiple diseases such as allergy, inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. In autoimmune systemic lupus erythematosus, dysregulated AID expression underpins increased CSR, SHM and autoantibody production. As a potent mutator, AID is under stringent transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation. AID is also regulated in its targeting and enzymatic function. In resting naïve or memory B cells, AID transcripts and protein are undetectable. These, however, are readily and significantly up-regulated in B cells induced to undergo CSR and/or SHM. Transcription factors, such as HoxC4 and NF-κB, which are up-regulated in a B cell lineage-and/or differentiation stage-specific manner, regulate the induction of AID. HoxC4 induces AID expression by directly binding to the AID gene promoter through an evolutionarily conserved 5'-ATTT-3' motif. HoxC4 is induced by the same stimuli that induce AID and CSR. It is further up-regulated by estrogen through three estrogen responsive elements in its promoter region. The targeting of AID to switch (S) regions is mediated by 14-3-3 adaptor proteins, which specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats that are exist at high frequency in S region cores. Like HoxC4, 14-3-3 adaptors are induced

  1. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation regulates in vitro bone formation and bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Kola, B; Bataveljic, A; Arnett, T R; Viollet, B; Saxon, L; Korbonits, M; Chenu, C

    2010-08-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of energy homeostasis, has a central role in mediating the appetite-modulating and metabolic effects of many hormones and antidiabetic drugs metformin and glitazones. The objective of this study was to determine if AMPK can be activated in osteoblasts by known AMPK modulators and if AMPK activity is involved in osteoblast function in vitro and regulation of bone mass in vivo. ROS 17/2.8 rat osteoblast-like cells were cultured in the presence of AMPK activators (AICAR and metformin), AMPK inhibitor (compound C), the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin and the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol. AMPK activity was measured in cell lysates by a functional kinase assay and AMPK protein phosphorylation was studied by Western Blotting using an antibody recognizing AMPK Thr-172 residue. We demonstrated that treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with AICAR and metformin stimulates Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK and dose-dependently increases its activity. In contrast, treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with compound C inhibited AMPK phosphorylation. Ghrelin and propranolol dose-dependently increased AMPK phosphorylation and activity. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were not affected by metformin treatment while AICAR significantly inhibited ROS 17/2.8 cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity at high concentrations. To study the effect of AMPK activation on bone formation in vitro, primary osteoblasts obtained from rat calvaria were cultured for 14-17days in the presence of AICAR, metformin and compound C. Formation of 'trabecular-shaped' bone nodules was evaluated following alizarin red staining. We demonstrated that both AICAR and metformin dose-dependently increase trabecular bone nodule formation, while compound C inhibits bone formation. When primary osteoblasts were co-treated with AICAR and compound C, compound C suppressed the stimulatory effect of AICAR on bone nodule formation

  2. DNA Methylation in Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Specification, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhianna C. Laker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An unresolved and critically important question in skeletal muscle biology is how muscle stem cells initiate and regulate the genetic program during muscle development. Epigenetic dynamics are essential for cellular development and organogenesis in early life and it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic remodeling may also be responsible for the cellular adaptations that occur in later life. DNA methylation of cytosine bases within CpG dinucleotide pairs is an important epigenetic modification that reduces gene expression when located within a promoter or enhancer region. Recent advances in the field suggest that epigenetic regulation is essential for skeletal muscle stem cell identity and subsequent cell development. This review summarizes what is currently known about how skeletal muscle stem cells regulate the myogenic program through DNA methylation, discusses a novel role for metabolism in this process, and addresses DNA methylation dynamics in adult skeletal muscle in response to physical activity.

  3. Phosphorylation regulates coilin activity and RNA association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna J. Broome

    2013-02-01

    The Cajal body (CB is a domain of concentrated components found within the nucleus of cells in an array of species that is functionally important for the biogenesis of telomerase and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. The CB is a dynamic structure whose number and size change during the cell cycle and is associated with other nuclear structures and gene loci. Coilin, also known as the marker protein for the CB, is a phosphoprotein widely accepted for its role in maintaining CB integrity. Recent studies have been done to further elucidate functional activities of coilin apart from its structural role in the CB in an attempt to explore the rationale for coilin expression in cells that have few CBs or lack them altogether. Here we show that the RNA association profile of coilin changes in mitosis with respect to that during interphase. We provide evidence of transcriptional and/or processing dysregulation of several CB-related RNA transcripts as a result of ectopic expression of both wild-type and phosphomutant coilin proteins. We also show apparent changes in transcription and/or processing of these transcripts upon coilin knockdown in both transformed and primary cell lines. Additionally, we provide evidence of specific coilin RNase activity regulation, on both U2 and hTR transcripts, by phosphorylation of a single residue, serine 489. Collectively, these results point to additional functions for coilin that are regulated by phosphorylation.

  4. Skeletal muscle secreted factors prevent glucocorticoid-induced osteocyte apoptosis through activation of β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähn, K; Lara-Castillo, N; Brotto, L; Mo, C L; Johnson, M L; Brotto, M; Bonewald, L F

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that the sole effect of muscle on bone is through mechanical loading. However, as the two tissues are intimately associated, we hypothesized that muscle myokines may have positive effects on bone. We found that factors produced by muscle will protect osteocytes from undergoing cell death induced by dexamethasone (dex), a glucocorticoid known to induce osteocyte apoptosis thereby compromising their capacity to regulate bone remodeling. Both the trypan blue exclusion assay for cell death and nuclear fragmentation assay for apoptosis were used. MLO-Y4 osteocytes, primary osteocytes, and MC3T3 osteoblastic cells were protected against dex-induced apoptosis by C2C12 myotube conditioned media (MT-CM) or by CM from ex vivo electrically stimulated, intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL) or soleus muscle derived from 4 month-old mice. C2C12 MT-CM, but not undifferentiated myoblast CM prevented dex-induced cell apoptosis and was potent down to 0.1 % CM. The CM from EDL muscle electrically stimulated tetanically at 80 Hz was more potent (10 fold) in prevention of dex-induced osteocyte death than CM from soleus muscle stimulated at the same frequency or CM from EDL stimulated at 1 Hz. This suggests that electrical stimulation increases production of factors that preserve osteocyte viability and that type II fibers are greater producers than type I fibers. The muscle factor(s) appears to protect osteocytes from cell death through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, as MT-CM induces β-catenin nuclear translocation and β-catenin siRNA abrogated the positive effects of MT-CM on dex-induced apoptosis. We conclude that muscle cells naturally secrete factor(s) that preserve osteocyte viability. PMID:22972510

  5. Skeletal muscle secreted factors prevent glucocorticoid-induced osteocyte apoptosis through activation of β-catenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jähn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is a widely held belief that the sole effect of muscle on bone is through mechanical loading. However, as the two tissues are intimately associated, we hypothesized that muscle myokines may have positive effects on bone. We found that factors produced by muscle will protect osteocytes from undergoing cell death induced by dexamethasone (dex, a glucocorticoid known to induce osteocyte apoptosis thereby compromising their capacity to regulate bone remodeling. Both the trypan blue exclusion assay for cell death and nuclear fragmentation assay for apoptosis were used. MLO-Y4 osteocytes, primary osteocytes, and MC3T3 osteoblastic cells were protected against dex-induced apoptosis by C2C12 myotube conditioned media (MT-CM or by CM from ex vivo electrically stimulated, intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL or soleus muscle derived from 4 month-old mice. C2C12 MT-CM, but not undifferentiated myoblast CM prevented dex-induced cell apoptosis and was potent down to 0.1 % CM. The CM from EDL muscle electrically stimulated tetanically at 80 Hz was more potent (10 fold in prevention of dex-induced osteocyte death than CM from soleus muscle stimulated at the same frequency or CM from EDL stimulated at 1 Hz. This suggests that electrical stimulation increases production of factors that preserve osteocyte viability and that type II fibers are greater producers than type I fibers. The muscle factor(s appears to protect osteocytes from cell death through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, as MT-CM induces β-catenin nuclear translocation and β-catenin siRNA abrogated the positive effects of MT-CM on dex-induced apoptosis. We conclude that muscle cells naturally secrete factor(s that preserve osteocyte viability.

  6. The regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover during the progression of cancer cachexia in the Apc(Min/+ mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P White

    Full Text Available Muscle wasting that occurs with cancer cachexia is caused by an imbalance in the rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. The Apc(Min/+ mouse is a model of colorectal cancer that develops cachexia that is dependent on circulating IL-6. However, the IL-6 regulation of muscle protein turnover during the initiation and progression of cachexia in the Apc(Min/+ mouse is not known. Cachexia progression was studied in Apc(Min/+ mice that were either weight stable (WS or had initial (≤5%, intermediate (6-19%, or extreme (≥20% body weight loss. The initiation of cachexia reduced %MPS 19% and a further ∼50% with additional weight loss. Muscle IGF-1 mRNA expression and mTOR targets were suppressed with the progression of body weight loss, while muscle AMPK phosphorylation (Thr 172, AMPK activity, and raptor phosphorylation (Ser 792 were not increased with the initiation of weight loss, but were induced as cachexia progressed. ATP dependent protein degradation increased during the initiation and progression of cachexia. However, ATP independent protein degradation was not increased until cachexia had progressed beyond the initial phase. IL-6 receptor antibody administration prevented body weight loss and suppressed muscle protein degradation, without any effect on muscle %MPS or IGF-1 associated signaling. In summary, the %MPS reduction during the initiation of cachexia is associated with IGF-1/mTOR signaling repression, while muscle AMPK activation and activation of ATP independent protein degradation occur later in the progression of cachexia. IL-6 receptor antibody treatment blocked cachexia progression through the suppression of muscle protein degradation, while not rescuing the suppression of muscle protein synthesis. Attenuation of IL-6 signaling was effective in blocking the progression of cachexia, but not sufficient to reverse the process.

  7. Genome-wide mapping of Sox6 binding sites in skeletal muscle reveals both direct and indirect regulation of muscle terminal differentiation by Sox6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Chung-Il

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox6 is a multi-faceted transcription factor involved in the terminal differentiation of many different cell types in vertebrates. It has been suggested that in mice as well as in zebrafish Sox6 plays a role in the terminal differentiation of skeletal muscle by suppressing transcription of slow fiber specific genes. In order to understand how Sox6 coordinately regulates the transcription of multiple fiber type specific genes during muscle development, we have performed ChIP-seq analyses to identify Sox6 target genes in mouse fetal myotubes and generated muscle-specific Sox6 knockout (KO mice to determine the Sox6 null muscle phenotype in adult mice. Results We have identified 1,066 Sox6 binding sites using mouse fetal myotubes. The Sox6 binding sites were found to be associated with slow fiber-specific, cardiac, and embryonic isoform genes that are expressed in the sarcomere as well as transcription factor genes known to play roles in muscle development. The concurrently performed RNA polymerase II (Pol II ChIP-seq analysis revealed that 84% of the Sox6 peak-associated genes exhibited little to no binding of Pol II, suggesting that the majority of the Sox6 target genes are transcriptionally inactive. These results indicate that Sox6 directly regulates terminal differentiation of muscle by affecting the expression of sarcomere protein genes as well as indirectly through influencing the expression of transcription factors relevant to muscle development. Gene expression profiling of Sox6 KO skeletal and cardiac muscle revealed a significant increase in the expression of the genes associated with Sox6 binding. In the absence of the Sox6 gene, there was dramatic upregulation of slow fiber-specific, cardiac, and embryonic isoform gene expression in Sox6 KO skeletal muscle and fetal isoform gene expression in Sox6 KO cardiac muscle, thus confirming the role Sox6 plays as a transcriptional suppressor in muscle development

  8. Lifelong Physical Activity Prevents Aging-Associated Insulin Resistance in Human Skeletal Muscle Myotubes via Increased Glucose Transporter Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipwadee Bunprajun

    Full Text Available Both aging and physical inactivity are associated with increased development of insulin resistance whereas physical activity has been shown to promote increased insulin sensitivity. Here we investigated the effects of physical activity level on aging-associated insulin resistance in myotubes derived from human skeletal muscle satellite cells. Satellite cells were obtained from young (22 yrs normally active or middle-aged (56.6 yrs individuals who were either lifelong sedentary or lifelong active. Both middle-aged sedentary and middle-aged active myotubes had increased p21 and myosin heavy chain protein expression. Interestingly MHCIIa was increased only in myotubes from middle-aged active individuals. Middle-aged sedentary cells had intact insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation however, the same cell showed ablated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. On the other hand, middle-aged active cells retained both insulin-stimulated increases in glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. Middle-aged active cells also had significantly higher mRNA expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 compared to middle-aged sedentary cells, and significantly higher GLUT4 protein. It is likely that physical activity induces a number of stable adaptations, including increased GLUT4 expression that are retained in cells ex vivo and protect, or delay the onset of middle-aged-associated insulin resistance. Additionally, a sedentary lifestyle has an impact on the metabolism of human myotubes during aging and may contribute to aging-associated insulin resistance through impaired GLUT4 localization.

  9. Satellite cell activation in stretched skeletal muscle and the role of nitric oxide and hepatocyte growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Liu, Xiaosong; Pulido, Antonio; Morales, Mark; Sakata, Tomowa; Dial, Sharon; Hattori, Akihito; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide; Allen, Ronald E

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, we examined the roles of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and nitric oxide (NO) in the activation of satellite cells in passively stretched rat skeletal muscle. A hindlimb suspension model was developed in which the vastus, adductor, and gracilis muscles were subjected to stretch for 1 h. Satellite cells were activated by stretch determined on the basis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in vivo. Extracts from stretched muscles stimulated BrdU incorporation in freshly isolated control rat satellite cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Extracts from stretched muscles contained the active form of HGF, and the satellite cell-activating activity could be neutralized by incubation with anti-HGF antibody. The involvement of NO was investigated by administering nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or the inactive enantiomer N(G)-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester HCl (D-NAME) before stretch treatment. In vivo activation of satellite cells in stretched muscle was not inhibited by D-NAME but was inhibited by L-NAME. The activity of stretched muscle extract was abolished by L-NAME treatment but could be restored by the addition of HGF, indicating that the extract was not inhibitory. Finally, NO synthase activity in stretched and unstretched muscles was assayed in muscle extracts immediately after 2-h stretch treatment and was found to be elevated in stretched muscle but not in stretched muscle from L-NAME-treated rats. The results of these experiments demonstrate that stretching muscle liberates HGF in a NO-dependent manner, which can activate satellite cells.

  10. When phosphorylated at Thr148, the β2-subunit of AMP-activated kinase does not associate with glycogen in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyang; Frankenberg, Noni T; Lamb, Graham D; Gooley, Paul R; Stapleton, David I; Murphy, Robyn M

    2016-07-01

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric complex that functions as an intracellular fuel sensor that affects metabolism, is activated in skeletal muscle in response to exercise and utilization of stored energy. The diffusibility properties of α- and β-AMPK were examined in isolated skeletal muscle fiber segments dissected from rat fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus and oxidative soleus muscles from which the surface membranes were removed by mechanical dissection. After the muscle segments were washed for 1 and 10 min, ∼60% and 75%, respectively, of the total AMPK pools were found in the diffusible fraction. After in vitro stimulation of the muscle, which resulted in an ∼80% decline in maximal force, 20% of the diffusible pool became bound in the fiber. This bound pool was not associated with glycogen, as determined by addition of a wash step containing amylase. Stimulation of extensor digitorum longus muscles resulted in 28% glycogen utilization and a 40% increase in phosphorylation of the downstream AMPK target acetyl carboxylase-CoA. This, however, had no effect on the proportion of total β2-AMPK that was phosphorylated in whole muscle homogenates measured by immunoprecipitation. These findings suggest that, in rat skeletal muscle, β2-AMPK is not associated with glycogen and that activation of AMPK by muscle contraction does not dephosphorylate β2-AMPK. These findings question the physiological relevance of the carbohydrate-binding function of β2-AMPK in skeletal muscle. PMID:27099349

  11. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  12. Endoglin regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerkic, Mirjana; Rivas-Elena, Juan V; Santibanez, Juan F; Prieto, Marta; Rodríguez-Barbero, Alicia; Perez-Barriocanal, Fernando; Pericacho, Miguel; Arévalo, Miguel; Vary, Calvin P H; Letarte, Michelle; Bernabeu, Carmelo; López-Novoa, Jose M

    2006-08-01

    The endoglin heterozygous (Eng(+/-)) mouse, which serves as a model of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), was shown to express reduced levels of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) with impaired activity. Because of intricate changes in vasomotor function in the Eng(+/-) mice and the potential interactions between the NO- and prostaglandin-producing pathways, we assessed the expression and function of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms. A specific upregulation of COX-2 in the vascular endothelium and increased urinary excretion of prostaglandin E(2) were observed in the Eng(+/-) mice. Specific COX-2 inhibition with parecoxib transiently increased arterial pressure in Eng(+/-) but not in Eng(+/+) mice. Transfection of endoglin in L6E9 myoblasts, shown previously to stimulate eNOS expression, led to downregulation of COX-2 with no change in COX-1. In addition, COX-2 promoter activity and protein levels were inversely correlated with endoglin levels, in doxycyclin-inducible endothelial cells. Chronic NO synthesis inhibition with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester induced a marked increase in COX-2 only in the normal Eng(+/+) mice. N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester also increased COX-2 expression and promoter activity in doxycyclin-inducible endoglin expressing endothelial cells, but not in control cells. The level of COX-2 expression following transforming growth factor-beta1 treatment was less in endoglin than in mock transfected L6E9 myoblasts and was higher in human endothelial cells silenced for endoglin expression. Our results indicate that endoglin is involved in the regulation of COX-2 activity. Furthermore, reduced endoglin levels and associated impaired NO production may be responsible, at least in part, for augmented COX-2 expression and activity in the Eng(+/-) mice. PMID:16840721

  13. Structural Basis for Plexin Activation and Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Youxin; Janssen, Bert J C; Malinauskas, Tomas; Vangoor, Vamshidhar R; Coles, Charlotte H; Kaufmann, Rainer; Ni, Tao; Gilbert, Robert J C; Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Jones, E Yvonne

    2016-08-01

    Class A plexins (PlxnAs) act as semaphorin receptors and control diverse aspects of nervous system development and plasticity, ranging from axon guidance and neuron migration to synaptic organization. PlxnA signaling requires cytoplasmic domain dimerization, but extracellular regulation and activation mechanisms remain unclear. Here we present crystal structures of PlxnA (PlxnA1, PlxnA2, and PlxnA4) full ectodomains. Domains 1-9 form a ring-like conformation from which the C-terminal domain 10 points away. All our PlxnA ectodomain structures show autoinhibitory, intermolecular "head-to-stalk" (domain 1 to domain 4-5) interactions, which are confirmed by biophysical assays, live cell fluorescence microscopy, and cell-based and neuronal growth cone collapse assays. This work reveals a 2-fold role of the PlxnA ectodomains: imposing a pre-signaling autoinhibitory separation for the cytoplasmic domains via intermolecular head-to-stalk interactions and supporting dimerization-based PlxnA activation upon ligand binding. More generally, our data identify a novel molecular mechanism for preventing premature activation of axon guidance receptors. PMID:27397516

  14. Signaling of the p21-activated kinase (PAK1) coordinates insulin-stimulated actin remodeling and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Chiu, Tim T; Ramalingam, Latha; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S; Klip, Amira; Thurmond, Debbie C

    2014-11-15

    Skeletal muscle accounts for ∼ 80% of postprandial glucose clearance, and skeletal muscle glucose clearance is crucial for maintaining insulin sensitivity and euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated glucose clearance/uptake entails recruitment of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane (PM) in a process that requires cortical F-actin remodeling; this process is dysregulated in Type 2 Diabetes. Recent studies have implicated PAK1 as a required element in GLUT4 recruitment in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo, although its underlying mechanism of action and requirement in glucose uptake remains undetermined. Toward this, we have employed the PAK1 inhibitor, IPA3, in studies using L6-GLUT4-myc muscle cells. IPA3 fully ablated insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the PM, corroborating the observation of ablated insulin-stimulated GLUT4 accumulation in the PM of skeletal muscle from PAK1(-/-) knockout mice. IPA3-treatment also abolished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into skeletal myotubes. Mechanistically, live-cell imaging of myoblasts expressing the F-actin biosensor LifeAct-GFP treated with IPA3 showed blunting of the normal insulin-induced cortical actin remodeling. This blunting was underpinned by a loss of normal insulin-stimulated cofilin dephosphorylation in IPA3-treated myoblasts. These findings expand upon the existing model of actin remodeling in glucose uptake, by placing insulin-stimulated PAK1 signaling as a required upstream step to facilitate actin remodeling and subsequent cofilin dephosphorylation. Active, dephosphorylated cofilin then provides the G-actin substrate for continued F-actin remodeling to facilitate GLUT4 vesicle translocation for glucose uptake into the skeletal muscle cell.

  15. Exercise, PGC-1α and metabolic adaptation in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zhen

    2009-01-01

    Endurance exercise promotes skeletal muscle adaptation, and exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (Pgc-1α) gene expression may play a pivotal role in the adaptive processes. Recent applications of mouse genetic models and in vivo imaging in exercise studies started to delineate the signaling-transcription pathways that are involved in the regulation of the Pgc-1α gene. These studies revealed the importance of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/...

  16. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid;

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  17. Prmt7 Deficiency Causes Reduced Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Metabolism and Age-Related Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Ju; Lee, Hye-Jin; Vuong, Tuan Anh; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Choi, Dahee; Koo, Sung-Hoi; Cho, Sung Chun; Cho, Hana; Kang, Jong-Sun

    2016-07-01

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle function is critical for metabolic health and the disruption of which exacerbates many chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Skeletal muscle responds to exercise or metabolic demands by a fiber-type switch regulated by signaling-transcription networks that remains to be fully defined. Here, we report that protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (Prmt7) is a key regulator for skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. Prmt7 is expressed at the highest levels in skeletal muscle and decreased in skeletal muscles with age or obesity. Prmt7(-/-) muscles exhibit decreased oxidative metabolism with decreased expression of genes involved in muscle oxidative metabolism, including PGC-1α. Consistently, Prmt7(-/-) mice exhibited significantly reduced endurance exercise capacities. Furthermore, Prmt7(-/-) mice exhibit decreased energy expenditure, which might contribute to the exacerbated age-related obesity of Prmt7(-/-) mice. Similarly to Prmt7(-/-) muscles, Prmt7 depletion in myoblasts also reduces PGC-1α expression and PGC-1α-promoter driven reporter activities. Prmt7 regulates PGC-1α expression through interaction with and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), which in turn activates ATF2, an upstream transcriptional activator for PGC-1α. Taken together, Prmt7 is a novel regulator for muscle oxidative metabolism via activation of p38MAPK/ATF2/PGC-1α. PMID:27207521

  18. Interaction of vitamin E and exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Kang; Huang, Hui-Yu; Tseng, Hung-Fu; Hsuuw, Yan-Der; Tso, Tim K

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that free radicals are increased during intensive exercise. We hypothesized that vitamin E (vit E) deficiency, which will increase oxidative stress, would augment the training-induced adaptation of antioxidant enzymes. This study investigated the interaction effect of vit E and exercise training on oxidative stress markers and activities of antioxidant enzymes in red quadriceps and white gastrocnemius of rats in a 2x2 design. Thirty-two male rats were divided into trained vit E-adequate, trained vit E-deficient, untrained vit E-adequate, and untrained vit E-deficient groups. The two trained groups swam 6 h/day, 6 days/week for 8 weeks. The two vit E-deficient groups consumed vit E-free diet for 8 weeks. Vitamin E-training interaction effect was significant on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in both muscles. The trained vit E-deficient group showed the highest TBARS and GPX activity and the lowest SOD activity in both muscles. A significant vit E effect on glutathione reductase and catalase was present in both muscles. Glutathione reductase and catalase activities were significantly lower in the two vit E-adequate groups combined than in the two vit E-deficient groups combined in both muscles. This study shows that vit E status and exercise training have interactive effect on oxidative stress and GPX and SOD activities in rat skeletal muscles. Vitamin E deprivation augmented the exercise-induced elevation in GPX activity while inhibiting exercise-induced SOD activity, possibly through elevated oxidative stress. PMID:16644199

  19. Natural compounds regulate energy metabolism by the modulating the activity of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity causes excess fat accumulation in various tissues, most notoriously in the adipose tissue, along with other insulin-responsive organs such as skeletal muscle and the liver, which predisposes an individual to the development of metabolic abnormalities. The molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities have not been completely elucidated; however, in recent years, the search for therapies to prevent the development of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders has increased. It is known that several nuclear receptors, when activated by specific ligands, regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at the transcriptional level. The expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes is directly regulated by the activity of various nuclear receptors via their interaction with specific response elements in promoters of those genes. Many natural compounds act as ligands of nuclear receptors and regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by regulating the activities of these nuclear receptors. In this review, we describe our current knowledge of obesity, the role of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors in energy metabolism, and several examples of food factors that act as agonists or antagonists of nuclear receptors, which may be useful for the management of obesity and the accompanying energy metabolism abnormalities.

  20. Altered expression and insulin-induced trafficking of Na+-K+-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galuska, Dana; Kotova, Olga; Barres, Romain;

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase plays a central role in the clearance of K(+) from the extracellular fluid, therefore maintaining blood [K(+)]. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in peripheral tissue is impaired in insulin resistant states. We determined effects of high-fat diet (HFD) and exercise...... function precede the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Disturbances in skeletal muscle Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase regulation, particularly the alpha(2)-subunit, may contribute to impaired ion homeostasis in insulin-resistant states such as obesity and type 2 diabetes....

  1. FOXO1 activates glutamine synthetase gene in mouse skeletal muscles through a region downstream of 3'-UTR: possible contribution to ammonia detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Yasutomi; Hattori, Maki; Hatazawa, Yukino; Kasahara, Tomomi; Kanou, Masanobu; Kanai, Sayaka; Yuan, Xunmei; Suganami, Takayoshi; Lamers, Wouter H; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-15

    Skeletal muscle is a reservoir of energy in the form of protein, which is degraded under catabolic conditions, resulting in the formation of amino acids and ammonia as a byproduct. The expression of FOXO1, a forkhead-type transcription factor, increases during starvation and exercise. In agreement, transgenic FOXO1-Tg mice that overexpress FOXO1 in skeletal muscle exhibit muscle atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the role of FOXO1 in amino acid metabolism. The mRNA and protein expressions of glutamine synthetase (GS) were increased in skeletal muscle of FOXO1-Tg mice. Fasting induced FOXO1 and GS expression in wild-type mice but hardly increased GS expression in muscle-specific FOXO1 knockout (FOXO1-KO) mice. Activation of FOXO1 also increased GS mRNA and protein expression in C2C12 myoblasts. Using a transient transfection reporter assay, we observed that FOXO1 activated the GS reporter construct. Mutation of a putative FOXO1-binding consensus sequence in the downstream genomic region of GS decreased basal and FOXO1-dependent reporter activity significantly. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that FOXO1 was recruited to the 3' region of GS in C2C12 myoblasts. These results suggest that FOXO1 directly upregulates GS expression. GS is considered to mediate ammonia clearance in skeletal muscle. In agreement, an intravenous ammonia challenge increased blood ammonia concentrations to a twofold higher level in FOXO1-KO than in wild-type mice, demonstrating that the capacity for ammonia disposal correlated inversely with the expression of GS in muscle. These data indicate that FOXO1 plays a role in amino acid metabolism during protein degradation in skeletal muscle. PMID:25074987

  2. FOXO1 activates glutamine synthetase gene in mouse skeletal muscles through a region downstream of 3'-UTR: possible contribution to ammonia detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Yasutomi; Hattori, Maki; Hatazawa, Yukino; Kasahara, Tomomi; Kanou, Masanobu; Kanai, Sayaka; Yuan, Xunmei; Suganami, Takayoshi; Lamers, Wouter H; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-15

    Skeletal muscle is a reservoir of energy in the form of protein, which is degraded under catabolic conditions, resulting in the formation of amino acids and ammonia as a byproduct. The expression of FOXO1, a forkhead-type transcription factor, increases during starvation and exercise. In agreement, transgenic FOXO1-Tg mice that overexpress FOXO1 in skeletal muscle exhibit muscle atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the role of FOXO1 in amino acid metabolism. The mRNA and protein expressions of glutamine synthetase (GS) were increased in skeletal muscle of FOXO1-Tg mice. Fasting induced FOXO1 and GS expression in wild-type mice but hardly increased GS expression in muscle-specific FOXO1 knockout (FOXO1-KO) mice. Activation of FOXO1 also increased GS mRNA and protein expression in C2C12 myoblasts. Using a transient transfection reporter assay, we observed that FOXO1 activated the GS reporter construct. Mutation of a putative FOXO1-binding consensus sequence in the downstream genomic region of GS decreased basal and FOXO1-dependent reporter activity significantly. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that FOXO1 was recruited to the 3' region of GS in C2C12 myoblasts. These results suggest that FOXO1 directly upregulates GS expression. GS is considered to mediate ammonia clearance in skeletal muscle. In agreement, an intravenous ammonia challenge increased blood ammonia concentrations to a twofold higher level in FOXO1-KO than in wild-type mice, demonstrating that the capacity for ammonia disposal correlated inversely with the expression of GS in muscle. These data indicate that FOXO1 plays a role in amino acid metabolism during protein degradation in skeletal muscle.

  3. Global phosphoproteomic analysis of human skeletal muscle reveals a network of exercise-regulated kinases and AMPK substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffman, Nolan J; Parker, Benjamin L; Chaudhuri, Rima;

    2015-01-01

    importance of AMPK in exercise-regulated metabolism, we performed a targeted in vitro AMPK screen and employed machine learning to predict exercise-regulated AMPK substrates. We validated eight predicted AMPK substrates, including AKAP1, using targeted phosphoproteomics. Functional characterization revealed...

  4. Activation of ATP/UTP-selective receptors increases blood flow and blunts sympathetic vasoconstriction in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yegutkin, G.G.; Gonzalez-Alonso, J.; Rosenmeier, Jaya Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    and sympatholytic effects of exogenous ATP in the skeletal muscle vasculature are largely mediated via ATP itself rather than its dephosphorylated metabolites, most likely via binding to endothelial ATP/UTP-selective P2Y(2) receptors. These data are consistent with a role of ATP in skeletal muscle hyperaemia......Sympathetic vasoconstriction is blunted in the vascular beds of contracting skeletal muscle in humans, presumably due to the action of vasoactive metabolites (functional sympatholysis). Recently, we demonstrated that infusion of ATP into the arterial circulation of the resting human leg increases...

  5. The acute effect of neuromuscular activation in resistance exercise on human skeletal muscle with the interpolated twitch technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Yeon; Yoon, Wan-Young

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to perform a quantitative assessment of neuromechanical adaptation in skeletal muscles and to propose the scientific underpinnings of the acute effects induced by resistance exercise. [Subjects] The subjects in this study were 11 healthy adult men in their 20s who had no orthopedic history at the time of the study. To examine any signs of resistance exercise-induced changes in the ankle plantar flexor, the subjects were directed to perform a standing barbell calf raise routine. [Methods] Subjects were to carry a load equal to their weights and to perform five sets of ten repetitions. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, resting twitch torque, muscle inhibition, root mean square of muscular activation, contraction time, and half relaxation time were analyzed by synchronizing a dynamometer, an electrical stimulator, and an electromyography system. [Results] The maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque appeared to decline, but the change was not statistically significant. The decline of resting twitch torque, on the other hand, was found to be statistically significant. Muscle inhibition and root mean square of muscular activation were both reduced, but both changes were not statistically significant. Lastly, contraction time and half relaxation time both statistically decreased significantly after resistance exercise. [Conclusion] These results indicate that the acute effects of resistance exercise have a greater impact on the peripheral mechanical system itself, rather than on neurological factors, in terms of the generation of muscle force. PMID:26504316

  6. Identification of a novel transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β6 gene in fish: regulation in skeletal muscle by nutritional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakowlew Sonia B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family constitutes of dimeric proteins that regulate the growth, differentiation and metabolism of many cell types, including that of skeletal muscle in mammals. The potential role of TGF-βs in fish muscle growth is not known. Results Here we report the molecular characterization, developmental and tissue expression and regulation by nutritional state of a novel TGF-β gene from a marine fish, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. S. aurata TGF-β6 is encoded by seven exons 361, 164, 133, 111, 181, 154, and 156 bp in length and is translated into a 420-amino acid peptide. The exons are separated by six introns: >643, 415, 93, 1250, 425 and >287 bp in length. Although the gene organization is most similar to mouse and chicken TGF-β2, the deduced amino acid sequence represents a novel TGF-β that is unique to fish that we have named TGF-β6. The molecule has conserved putative functional residues, including a cleavage motif (RXXR and nine cysteine residues that are characteristic of TGF-β. Semi-quantitative analysis of TGF-β6 expression revealed differential expression in various tissues of adult fish with high levels in skin and muscle, very low levels in liver, and moderate levels in other tissues including brain, eye and pituitary. TGF-β6 is expressed in larvae on day of hatching and increases as development progresses. A fasting period of five days of juvenile fish resulted in increased levels of TGF-β6 expression in white skeletal muscle compared to that in fed fish, which was slightly attenuated by one injection of growth hormone. Conclusion Our findings provide valuable insights about genomic information and nutritional regulation of TGF-β6 which will aid the further investigation of the S. aurata TGF-β6 gene in association with muscle growth. The finding of a novel TGF-β6 molecule, unique to fish, will contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the TGF

  7. SKELETAL MUSCLE SECRETED FACTORS PREVENT GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED OSTEOCYTE APOPTOSIS THROUGH ACTIVATION OF B-CATENIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jähn, K; Lara-Castillo, N; Brotto, L.; Mo, C. L.; Johnson, M.L.; Brotto, M.; Bonewald, L. F.

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that the sole effect of muscle on bone is through mechanical loading. However, as the two tissues are intimately associated, we hypothesized that muscle myokines may have positive effects on bone. We found that factors produced by muscle will protect osteocytes from undergoing cell death induced by dexamethasone (dex), a glucocorticoid known to induce osteocyte apoptosis thereby compromising their capacity to regulate bone remodeling. Both the trypan blue exclusion ...

  8. Skeletal muscle secreted factors prevent glucocorticoid-induced osteocyte apoptosis through activation of β-catenin

    OpenAIRE

    Jähn, K; Lara-Castillo, N; Brotto, L.; CL Mo; ML Johnson; Brotto, M.; LF Bonewald

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that the sole effect of muscle on bone is through mechanical loading. However, as the two tissues are intimately associated, we hypothesized that muscle myokines may have positive effects on bone. We found that factors produced by muscle will protect osteocytes from undergoing cell death induced by dexamethasone (dex), a glucocorticoid known to induce osteocyte apoptosis thereby compromising their capacity to regulate bone remodeling. Both the trypan blue exclusion ...

  9. NO-DEPENDENT SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN UNLOADED SKELETAL MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Stivovich Shenkman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the current review is the nitric oxide (NO-mediated signaling mechanism in unloaded skeletal. Review of the published data describing muscles during physical activity and inactivity demonstrates that NO is an essential trigger of signaling processes, which leads to structural and metabolic changes of the muscle fibers. The experiments with modulation of NO-synthase (NOS activity during muscle unloading demonstrate the ability of an activated enzyme to stabilize degradation processes and prevent development of muscle atrophy. Various forms of muscle mechanical activity, i.e plantar afferent stimulation, resistive exercise and passive chronic stretch increase the content of neural NOS (nNOS and thus may facilitate an increase in NO production. Recent studies demonstrate that NO-synthase participates in the regulation of protein and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle by fine-tuning and stabilizing complex signaling systems which regulate protein synthesis and degradation in the fibers of inactive muscle.

  10. Consecutive bouts of diverse contractile activity alter acute responses in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coffey, Vernon G; Pilegaard, Henriette; Garnham, Andrew P;

    2009-01-01

    -activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha mRNA did not reveal an order effect. We conclude that acute responses to diverse bouts of contractile activity are modified by the exercise order. Moreover, undertaking divergent exercise in close proximity influences the acute molecular profile and likely exacerbates...

  11. Nutrient and energy sensing in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Atul S.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient overload and physical inactivity often leads to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Acute over-nutrition can induce insulin resistance, while physical exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Like every living cell, skeletal muscle senses nutrient and energy signals and to adjust metabolic flux. This thesis focuses on some of the key nutrient and energy sensing (exercise/contraction-induced) pathways in skeletal muscle that regulate metabol...

  12. Substrate stiffness and oxygen as regulators of stem cell differentiation during skeletal tissue regeneration: a mechanobiological model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Paul Burke

    Full Text Available Extrinsic mechanical signals have been implicated as key regulators of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation. It has been possible to test different hypotheses for mechano-regulated MSC differentiation by attempting to simulate regenerative events such as bone fracture repair, where repeatable spatial and temporal patterns of tissue differentiation occur. More recently, in vitro studies have identified other environmental cues such as substrate stiffness and oxygen tension as key regulators of MSC differentiation; however it remains unclear if and how such cues determine stem cell fate in vivo. As part of this study, a computational model was developed to test the hypothesis that substrate stiffness and oxygen tension regulate stem cell differentiation during fracture healing. Rather than assuming mechanical signals act directly on stem cells to determine their differentiation pathway, it is postulated that they act indirectly to regulate angiogenesis and hence partially determine the local oxygen environment within a regenerating tissue. Chondrogenesis of MSCs was hypothesized to occur in low oxygen regions, while in well vascularised regions of the regenerating tissue a soft local substrate was hypothesised to facilitate adipogenesis while a stiff substrate facilitated osteogenesis. Predictions from the model were compared to both experimental data and to predictions of a well established computational mechanobiological model where tissue differentiation is assumed to be regulated directly by the local mechanical environment. The model predicted all the major events of fracture repair, including cartilaginous bridging, endosteal and periosteal bony bridging and bone remodelling. It therefore provides support for the hypothesis that substrate stiffness and oxygen play a key role in regulating MSC fate during regenerative events such as fracture healing.

  13. 76 FR 12364 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Bonded Warehouse Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Bonded Warehouse... Bonded Warehouse Regulations. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction... concerning the following information collection: Title: Bonded Warehouse Regulations. OMB Number:...

  14. Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT): key regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and skeletal muscle adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourajjaj, M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, heart failure is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrial countries. Sustained cardiac hypertrophy, which is defined as an increase in heart size resulting from an increase in cardiomyocyte

  15. Behavioral and locomotor measurements using an open field activity monitoring system for skeletal muscle diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Kathleen S; Quinn, James L; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body systems as well when used with additional outcome measures. In addition, measures such as total distance traveled mirror the 6 min walk test, a clinical trial outcome measure. However, open field activity monitoring is also associated with significant challenges: Open field activity measurements vary according to animal strain, age, sex, and circadian rhythm. In addition, room temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, and even odor can affect assessment outcomes. Overall, this manuscript provides a well-tested and standardized open field activity SOP for preclinical trials in animal models of neuromuscular diseases. We provide a discussion of important considerations, typical results, data analysis, and detail the strengths and weaknesses of open field testing. In addition, we provide recommendations for optimal study design when using open field activity in a preclinical trial. PMID:25286313

  16. Dental and skeletal contributions to occlusal correction in patients treated with the high-pull headgear-activator combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerström, L O; Nielsen, I L; Lee, R; Isaacson, R J

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dental and skeletal changes in patients treated with the high-pull headgear-activator combination. A group of 40 consecutively treated subjects with a Class II molar relationship and a minimum of 5 mm overjet was used for this study. The results showed that Class II correction often was achieved by distal repositioning of the maxillary teeth (mean, 0.07 mm) and mesial repositioning of the mandibular teeth (mean, 3.3 mm) with a wide range of variation. Correlation of maxillary molar repositioning with total interarch occlusal change showed a positive relationship; however, a weak correlation suggested that other variables were contributing factors, in addition to distal upper molar positioning. The change in mandibular molar position compared with the movement of pogonion strongly suggests that forward growth of the mandible is important to the correction of the Class II malocclusion. When total molar repositioning in the upper jaw was correlated with total molar repositioning in the lower jaw, a strong inverse correlation was found, indicating that upper molar movement parallels lower molar movement.

  17. Block by ruthenium red of the ryanodine-activated calcium release channel of skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The effects of ruthenium red and the related compounds tetraamine palladium (4APd) and tetraamine platinum (4APt) were studied on the ryanodine activated Ca2+ release channel reconstituted in planar bilayers with the immunoaffinity purified ryanodine receptor. Ruthenium red, applied at submicromolar concentrations to the myoplasmic side (cis), induced an all-or-none flickery block of the ryanodine activated channel. The blocking effect was strongly voltage dependent, as large positive potenti...

  18. Recovery of skeletal muscle mass after extensive injury: positive effects of increased contractile activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard-Bulteau, Hélène; Serrurier, Bernard; Crassous, Brigitte; Banzet, Sébastien; Peinnequin, André; Bigard, Xavier; Koulmann, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that increasing physical activity by running exercise could favor the recovery of muscle mass after extensive injury and to determine the main molecular mechanisms involved. Left soleus muscles of female Wistar rats were degenerated by notexin injection before animals were assigned to either a sedentary group or an exercised group. Both regenerating and contralateral intact muscles from active and sedentary rats were removed 5, 7, 14, 21, ...

  19. PGC-1α improves glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle in an activity-dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Summermatter, Serge; Shui, Guanghou; Maag, Daniela; Santos, Gesa; Wenk, Markus R.; Handschin, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are a major burden for public health systems globally. Regular exercise improves metabolic health. Pharmacological targeting of exercise mediators might facilitate physical activity or amplify the effects of exercise. The peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) largely mediates musculoskeletal adaptations to exercise, including lipid refueling, and thus constitutes such a putative target. Paradoxically, forced expression of PGC-1α in muscle pro...

  20. Syringaresinol induces mitochondrial biogenesis through activation of PPARβ pathway in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Trung Thanh; Lee, Chan-Kyu; Park, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang-Jun; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2016-08-15

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) plays a crucial role in cellular energy metabolism that directly impacts mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that syringaresinol, a pharmacological lignan extracted from Panax ginseng berry, moderately binds to and activates PPARβ with KD and EC50 values of 27.62±15.76μM and 18.11±4.77μM, respectively. Subsequently, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α together with PPARβ transcriptional targets, mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and uncoupling protein 2, was also enhanced in terms of both mRNA and protein levels. The activation of these proteins induced mitochondrial biogenesis by enrichment of mitochondrial replication and density within C2C12 myotubes. Importantly, knockdown of PPARβ reduced the syringaresinol-induced protein expression followed by the significant reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that syringaresinol induces mitochondrial biogenesis by activating PPARβ pathway. PMID:27450788

  1. Reduced plasma FFA availability increases net triacylglycerol degradation, but not GPAT or HSL activity, in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Matthew J; Holmes, Anna G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Mesa, Jose L; Kemp, Bruce E; Febbraio, Mark A

    2004-07-01

    Intramuscular triacylglycerols (IMTG) are proposed to be an important metabolic substrate for contracting muscle, although this remains controversial. To test the hypothesis that reduced plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability would increase IMTG degradation during exercise, seven active men cycled for 180 min at 60% peak pulmonary O(2) uptake either without (CON) or with (NA) prior ingestion of nicotinic acid to suppress adipose tissue lipolysis. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsy samples were obtained before and at 90 and 180 min of exercise. NA ingestion decreased (P HSL) activity (CON: 13.9 +/- 2.5, NA: 9.1 +/- 3.0 nmol.min(-1).mg protein(-1)). NA ingestion resulted in decreased whole body fat oxidation and increased carbohydrate oxidation. Despite the decreased whole body fat oxidation, net IMTG degradation was greater in NA compared with CON (net change: CON, 2.3 +/- 0.8; NA, 6.3 +/- 1.2 mmol/kg dry mass). The increased IMTG degradation did not appear to be due to reduced fatty acid esterification, because glycerol 3-phosphate activity was not different between trials and was unaffected by exercise (rest: 0.21 +/- 0.07; 180 min: 0.17 +/- 0.04 nmol.min(-1).mg protein(-1)). HSL activity was not increased from resting rates during exercise in either trial despite elevated plasma epinephrine, decreased plasma insulin, and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)alpha1 activity was not affected by exercise or NA, whereas AMPKalpha2 activity was increased (P < 0.05) from rest during exercise in NA and was greater (P < 0.05) than in CON at 180 min. These data suggest that plasma FFA availability is an important mediator of net IMTG degradation, and in the absence of plasma FFA, IMTG degradation cannot maintain total fat oxidation. These changes in IMTG degradation appear to disassociate, however, from the activity of the key enzymes responsible for synthesis and degradation of this substrate.

  2. Role of calmodulin (δ-subunit) in activation of phosphorylase kinase from rabbit skeletal muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the inactivated and activated forms of phospholyase kinase was compared. The enzyme was activated by incubation in an alkaline medium (pH 8.5), phosphorylation of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and limited proteolysis. Hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose and electrophoresis in a polyacrylamide gel density gradient were employed for a comparison of these forms of the enzyme. Activation of the enzyme was accompanied by the separation of a low-molecular-weight component (M/sub r/ about 17,000). The low-molecular-weight protein was obtained in a homogeneous state by chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose. It was established that its properties are similar to those of calmodulin. The presence of calmodulin in preparations of phosphorylase kinase was judged by the activation of the calmodulin-dependent form of phosphodiesterase. The boiled and subtilisin-treated kinase activates phosphodiesterase in much the same way as bovine brain calmodulin. The results obtained suggest that the δ-subunit is a protein inhibitor of the enzyme

  3. Role of NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species in regulation of bone turnover and the skeletal toxicity of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies with genetically modified mice and dietary antioxidants have suggested an important role for superoxide derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide in regulation of normal bone turnover during development and also in the r...

  4. Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Apple, F. S.; Sjödin, B.

    1996-01-01

    for activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Activities of several muscle metabolic enzymes were determined to assess the effectiveness of the training. After the first 6-wk training period, no change in GPX, GR, or SOD......The effect of intermittent sprint cycle training on the level of muscle antioxidant enzyme protection was investigated. Resting muscle biopsies, obtained before and after 6 wk of training and 3, 24, and 72 h after the final session of an additional 1 wk of more frequent training, were analyzed...... (P activity of phosphofructokinase and creatine kinase, implying an enhanced anaerobic capacity in the trained muscle. The present study demonstrates that intermittent sprint cycle training that induces an enhanced capacity for anaerobic energy generation also improves...

  5. Phospholemman is not required for the acute stimulation of Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase α₂-activity during skeletal muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Palanikumar; Radzyukevich, Tatiana L; Hakim Javadi, Hesamedin; Stiner, Cory A; Landero Figueroa, Julio A; Lingrel, Jerry B; Heiny, Judith A

    2015-12-15

    The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α2-isoform in skeletal muscle is rapidly stimulated during muscle use and plays a critical role in fatigue resistance. The acute mechanisms that stimulate α2-activity are not completely known. This study examines whether phosphorylation of phospholemman (PLM/FXYD1), a regulatory subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, plays a role in the acute stimulation of α2 in working muscles. Mice lacking PLM (PLM KO) have a normal content of the α2-subunit and show normal exercise capacity, in contrast to the greatly reduced exercise capacity of mice that lack α2 in the skeletal muscles. Nerve-evoked contractions in vivo did not induce a change in total PLM or PLM phosphorylated at Ser63 or Ser68, in either WT or PLM KO. Isolated muscles of PLM KO mice maintain contraction and resist fatigue as well as wild type (WT). Rb(+) transport by the α2-Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase is stimulated to the same extent in contracting WT and contracting PLM KO muscles. Phosphorylation of sarcolemmal membranes prepared from WT but not PLM KO skeletal muscles stimulates the activity of both α1 and α2 in a PLM-dependent manner. The stimulation occurs by an increase in Na(+) affinity without significant change in Vmax and is more effective for α1 than α2. These results demonstrate that phosphorylation of PLM is capable of stimulating the activity of both isozymes in skeletal muscle; however, contractile activity alone is not sufficient to induce PLM phosphorylation. Importantly, acute stimulation of α2, sufficient to support exercise and oppose fatigue, does not require PLM or its phosphorylation.

  6. The effect of altered temperature on Ca2(+)-sensitive force in permeabilized myocardium and skeletal muscle. Evidence for force dependence of thin filament activation

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The effect of changes in temperature on the calcium sensitivity of tension development was examined in permeabilized cellular preparations of rat ventricle and rabbit psoas muscle. Maximum force and Ca2+ sensitivity of force development increased with temperature in both muscle types. Cardiac muscle was more sensitive to changes in temperature than skeletal muscle in the range 10-15 degrees C. It was postulated that the level of thin filament activation may be decreased by cooling. To investi...

  7. Altered Regulation of Contraction-Induced Akt/mTOR/p70S6k Pathway Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of the Obese Zucker Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaiah Katta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased muscle loading results in the phosphorylation of the 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k, and this event is strongly correlated with the degree of muscle adaptation following resistance exercise. Whether insulin resistance or the comorbidities associated with this disorder may affect the ability of skeletal muscle to activate p70S6k signaling following an exercise stimulus remains unclear. Here, we compare the contraction-induced activation of p70S6k signaling in the plantaris muscles of lean and insulin resistant obese Zucker rats following a single bout of increased contractile loading. Compared to lean animals, the basal phosphorylation of p70S6k (Thr389; 37.2% and Thr421/Ser424; 101.4%, Akt (Thr308; 25.1%, and mTOR (Ser2448; 63.0% was higher in obese animals. Contraction increased the phosphorylation of p70S6k (Thr389, Akt (Ser473, and mTOR (Ser2448 in both models however the magnitude and kinetics of activation differed between models. These results suggest that contraction-induced activation of p70S6k signaling is altered in the muscle of the insulin resistant obese Zucker rat.

  8. Role of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F. P.

    2008-01-01

    5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is recognized as an important intracellular energy sensor, shutting down energy-consuming processes and turning on energy-generating processes. Discovery of target proteins of AMPK has dramatically increased in the past 10 years. Historically, AMPK was first...

  9. Instantaneous quantification of skeletal muscle activation, power production, and fatigue during cycle ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, A C; Cannon, D T; Cao, R; Porszasz, J; Casaburi, R; Knorst, M M; Rossiter, H B

    2015-03-01

    A rapid switch from hyperbolic to isokinetic cycling allows the velocity-specific decline in maximal power to be measured, i.e., fatigue. We reasoned that, should the baseline relationship between isokinetic power (Piso) and electromyography (EMG) be reproducible, then contributions to fatigue may be isolated from 1) the decline in muscle activation (muscle activation fatigue); and 2) the decline in Piso at a given activation (muscle fatigue). We hypothesized that the EMG-Piso relationship is linear, velocity dependent, and reliable for instantaneous fatigue assessment at intolerance during and following whole body exercise. Healthy participants (n = 13) completed short (5 s) variable-effort isokinetic bouts at 50, 70, and 100 rpm to characterize baseline EMG-Piso. Repeated ramp incremental exercise tests were terminated with maximal isokinetic cycling (5 s) at 70 rpm. Individual baseline EMG-Piso relationships were linear (r(2) = 0.95 ± 0.04) and velocity dependent (analysis of covariance). Piso at intolerance (two legs, 335 ± 88 W) was ∼45% less than baseline [630 ± 156 W, confidence interval of the difference (CIDifference) 211, 380 W, P power was reduced (P power is linear, velocity dependent, and reproducible. Deviation from this relationship at the limit of tolerance can quantify the "activation" and "muscle" related components of fatigue during cycling.

  10. Active tension changes in frog skeletal muscle during and after mechanical extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atteveldt, H. van; Crowe, Alan

    1980-01-01

    Isolated frog sartorious muscle at 4°C has been used to study the phenomenon whereby tetanically stimulated muscle, subjected to a mechanical extension, yields an active tension which is greater than that obtained during an isometric contraction in which the muscle is stretched prior to stimulation.

  11. Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, ameliorates obesity-induced metabolic disorders via activation of adiponectin signaling followed by enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle in obese-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Teraminami, Aki; Lee, Joo-Young; Ohyama, Kana; Funakoshi, Kozue; Kim, Young-Il; Hirai, Shizuka; Uemura, Taku; Yu, Rina; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2012-07-01

    Tiliroside contained in several dietary plants, such as rose hips, strawberry and raspberry, is a glycosidic flavonoid and possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and hepatoprotective activities. Recently, it has been reported that the administration of tiliroside significantly inhibited body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in normal mice. In this study, we evaluated the effects of tiliroside on obesity-induced metabolic disorders in obese-diabetic KK-A(y) mice. In KK-A(y) mice, the administration of tiliroside (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 21 days failed to suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation. Although tiliroside did not affect oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio was significantly decreased in mice treated with tiliroside. In the analysis of metabolic characteristics, it was shown that plasma insulin, free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were decreased, and plasma adiponectin levels were increased in mice administered tiliroside. The messenger RNA expression levels of hepatic adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-1 and AdipoR2 and skeletal muscular AdipoR1 were up-regulated by tiliroside treatment. Furthermore, it was indicated that tiliroside treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase in both the liver and skeletal muscle and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the liver. Finally, tiliroside inhibited obesity-induced hepatic and muscular triglyceride accumulation. These findings suggest that tiliroside enhances fatty acid oxidation via the enhancement adiponectin signaling associated with the activation of both AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and ameliorates obesity-induced metabolic disorders, such as hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, although it does not suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in obese-diabetic model mice.

  12. Presence and seeding activity of pathological prion protein (PrP(TSE in skeletal muscles of white-tailed deer infected with chronic wasting disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L Daus

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE, or prion disease, occurring in cervids such as white tailed-deer (WTD, mule deer or elk in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report for the first time a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrP(TSE and of PrP(TSE-associated seeding activity, the static and dynamic biochemical markers for biological prion infectivity, respectively, in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids, i. e. WTD for which no clinical signs of CWD had been recognized. The presence of PrP(TSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrP(TSE was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA. Semi-quantitative Western blotting indicated that the concentration of PrP(TSE in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was approximately 2000-10,000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrP(TSE was located in muscle-associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. The presence and seeding activity of PrP(TSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.

  13. Genetic and metabolic effects on skeletal muscle AMPK in young and older twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Poulsen, Pernille; Wegner, Lise;

    2009-01-01

    The protein complex AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is believed to play an important role in the regulation of skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism. Defects in the AMPK system might therefore be an important factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to identify genetic and...... environmental mechanisms involved in the regulation of AMPK expression and activity and to examine the association between AMPK protein levels and activity on one hand, and glucose and fat metabolism on the other hand. We investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from 100 young and 82 older mono- and dizygotic non...... influence. AMPK gamma3 protein expression and activity were negatively related to whole-body glucose uptake through the non-oxidative metabolic pathway, and positively related to phosphorylation of glycogen synthase. In conclusion, our results suggest that skeletal muscle AMPK expression is under minor...

  14. Adapted physical exercise enhances activation and differentiation potential of satellite cells in the skeletal muscle of old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age. PMID:26739770

  15. Activation and Regulation of Cellular Eicosanoid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Brock

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation for the wide variety of physiological responses that are regulated by lipid messengers. One particular group of lipid messengers, the eicosanoids, plays a central role in regulating immune and inflammatory responses in a receptor-mediated fashion. These mediators are related in that they are all derived from one polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid. However, the various eicosanoids are synthesized by a wide variety of cell types by distinct enzymatic pathways, and have diverse roles in immunity and inflammation. In this review, the major pathways involved in the synthesis of eicosanoids, as well as key points of regulation, are presented.

  16. Region-specific variation in the properties of skeletal adipocytes reveals regulated and constitutive marrow adipose tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Erica L. Scheller; Doucette, Casey R.; Learman, Brian S.; Cawthorn, William P; Khandaker, Shaima; Schell, Benjamin; Wu, Brent; Ding, Shi-Ying; Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Khoury, Basma; Jepsen, Karl J.; Pilch, Paul F.; Klibanski, Anne; ROSEN, CLIFFORD J

    2015-01-01

    Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) accumulates in diverse clinical conditions but remains poorly understood. Here we show region-specific variation in MAT adipocyte development, regulation, size, lipid composition, gene expression, and genetic determinants. Early MAT formation in mice is conserved, while later development is strain dependent. Proximal, but not distal, MAT is lost with 21-day cold exposure. Rat MAT adipocytes from distal sites have an increased proportion of monounsaturated fatty aci...

  17. Cell Adhesion Geometry Regulates Non-Random DNA Segregation and Asymmetric Cell Fates in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Siham Yennek; Mithila Burute; Manuel Théry; Shahragim Tajbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-rand...

  18. Cell Adhesion Geometry Regulates Non-Random DNA Segregation and Asymmetric Cell Fates in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Théry, Manuel; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole posi...

  19. Cell adhesion geometry regulates non-random DNA segregation and asymmetric cell fates in mouse skeletal muscle stem cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Théry, Manuel; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole posi...

  20. Cell adhesion geometry regulates non-random DNA segregation and asymmetric cell fates in mouse skeletal muscle stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Thery, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-rand...

  1. Circadian rhythms, the molecular clock, and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefta, Mellani; Wolff, Gretchen; Esser, Karyn A

    2011-01-01

    Almost all organisms ranging from single cell bacteria to humans exhibit a variety of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical rhythms. In mammals, circadian rhythms control the timing of many physiological processes over a 24-h period, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, feeding, and hormone production. This body of research has led to defined characteristics of circadian rhythms based on period length, phase, and amplitude. Underlying circadian behaviors is a molecular clock mechanism found in most, if not all, cell types including skeletal muscle. The mammalian molecular clock is a complex of multiple oscillating networks that are regulated through transcriptional mechanisms, timed protein turnover, and input from small molecules. At this time, very little is known about circadian aspects of skeletal muscle function/metabolism but some progress has been made on understanding the molecular clock in skeletal muscle. The goal of this chapter is to provide the basic terminology and concepts of circadian rhythms with a more detailed review of the current state of knowledge of the molecular clock, with reference to what is known in skeletal muscle. Research has demonstrated that the molecular clock is active in skeletal muscles and that the muscle-specific transcription factor, MyoD, is a direct target of the molecular clock. Skeletal muscle of clock-compromised mice, Bmal1(-/-) and Clock(Δ19) mice, are weak and exhibit significant disruptions in expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. We suggest that the interaction between the molecular clock, MyoD, and metabolic factors, such as PGC-1, provide a potential system of feedback loops that may be critical for both maintenance and adaptation of skeletal muscle.

  2. AMP kinase expression and activity in human skeletal muscle: effects of immobilization, retraining, and creatine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eijnde, Bert O.; Derave, Wim; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen;

    2005-01-01

    The effects of leg immobilization and retraining in combination with oral creatine intake on muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein expression and phosphorylation status were investigated. A double-blind trial was performed in young healthy volunteers (n = 22). A cast immobilized the...... right leg for 2 wk, whereafter the knee-extensor muscles of that leg were retrained for 6 wk. Half of the subjects received creatine monohydrate throughout the study (Cr; from 15 g down to 2.5 g daily), and the others ingested placebo (P; maltodextrin). Before and after immobilization and retraining...... immobilization-induced muscle inactivity for 2 wk does not alter AMPK a1-, a2-, and ß2-subunit expression or a-AMPK phosphorylation status. Furthermore, the present observations indicate that AMPK probably is not implicated in the previously reported beneficial effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscle...

  3. Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, Luis A.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Vargas, Anibal A.; Urrutia, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a “gap junction hemichannel-like” structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1−/− mice do not show an evident phenotype. Innervated adult fast and slow skeletal myofibers show Panx1 reactivity in close proximity to dihydropyridine receptors in the sarcolemma of T-tubules. These Panx1 channels are activated by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. Panx1 channels play a relevant role in potentiation of muscle contraction because they allow release of ATP and uptake of glucose, two molecules required for this response. In support of this notion, the absence of Panx1 abrogates the potentiation of muscle contraction elicited by repetitive electrical stimulation, which is reversed by exogenously applied ATP. Phosphorylation of Panx1 Thr and Ser residues might be involved in Panx1 channel activation since it is enhanced during potentiation of muscle contraction. Under denervation, Panx1 levels are upregulated and this partially explains the reduction in electrochemical gradient, however its absence does not prevent denervation-induced atrophy but prevents the higher oxidative state. Panx1 also forms functional channels at the cell surface of myotubes and their functional state has been associated with intracellular Ca2+ signals and regulation of myotube plasticity evoked by electrical stimulation. We proposed that Panx1 channels participate as ATP channels and help to keep a normal oxidative state in skeletal muscles. PMID:24782784

  4. TBP/TFIID-dependent activation of MyoD target genes in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecova, Barbora; Dall'Agnese, Alessandra; Madaro, Luca; Gatto, Sole; Coutinho Toto, Paula; Albini, Sonia; Ryan, Tammy; Tora, Làszlò; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Change in the identity of the components of the transcription pre-initiation complex is proposed to control cell type-specific gene expression. Replacement of the canonical TFIID-TBP complex with TRF3/TBP2 was reported to be required for activation of muscle-gene expression. The lack of a developmental phenotype in TBP2 null mice prompted further analysis to determine whether TBP2 deficiency can compromise adult myogenesis. We show here that TBP2 null mice have an intact regeneration potential upon injury and that TBP2 is not expressed in established C2C12 muscle cell or in primary mouse MuSCs. While TFIID subunits and TBP are downregulated during myoblast differentiation, reduced amounts of these proteins form a complex that is detectable on promoters of muscle genes and is essential for their expression. This evidence demonstrates that TBP2 does not replace TBP during muscle differentiation, as previously proposed, with limiting amounts of TFIID-TBP being required to promote muscle-specific gene expression. PMID:26880551

  5. TBP/TFIID-dependent activation of MyoD target genes in skeletal muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecova, Barbora; Dall'Agnese, Alessandra; Madaro, Luca; Gatto, Sole; Coutinho Toto, Paula; Albini, Sonia; Ryan, Tammy; Tora, Làszlò; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Change in the identity of the components of the transcription pre-initiation complex is proposed to control cell type-specific gene expression. Replacement of the canonical TFIID-TBP complex with TRF3/TBP2 was reported to be required for activation of muscle-gene expression. The lack of a developmental phenotype in TBP2 null mice prompted further analysis to determine whether TBP2 deficiency can compromise adult myogenesis. We show here that TBP2 null mice have an intact regeneration potential upon injury and that TBP2 is not expressed in established C2C12 muscle cell or in primary mouse MuSCs. While TFIID subunits and TBP are downregulated during myoblast differentiation, reduced amounts of these proteins form a complex that is detectable on promoters of muscle genes and is essential for their expression. This evidence demonstrates that TBP2 does not replace TBP during muscle differentiation, as previously proposed, with limiting amounts of TFIID-TBP being required to promote muscle-specific gene expression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12534.001 PMID:26880551

  6. THE EUROPEAN MODEL OF STATE REGULATION OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    О. Davydova

    2013-01-01

    In the article the existing model of state regulation of the development of tourism. Expediency of the European model of state regulation of tourism development in Ukraine. It is noted that the European model of state regulation of tourism activities based on the coordination of marketing activities and the development of cooperation between the public and private sectors. The basic forms of public-private partnerships and the advantages of using cluster model of development of tourism, namel...

  7. Mechanisms of a human skeletal myotonia produced by mutation in the C-terminus of NaV1.4: is Ca2+ regulation defective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subrata; DiSilvestre, Deborah A; Dong, Peihong; Tomaselli, Gordon F

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of voltage gated sodium channels cause a spectrum of inherited diseases of cellular excitability, yet to date only one mutation in the CT of the human skeletal muscle voltage gated sodium channel (hNaV1.4F1705I) has been linked to cold aggravated myotonia. The functional effects of altered regulation of hNaV1.4F1705I are incompletely understood. The location of the hNaV1.4F1705I in the CT prompted us to examine the role of Ca(2+) and calmodulin (CaM) regulation in the manifestations of myotonia. To study Na channel related mechanisms of myotonia we exploited the differences in rat and human NaV1.4 channel regulation by Ca(2+) and CaM. hNaV1.4F1705I inactivation gating is Ca(2+)-sensitive compared to wild type hNaV1.4 which is Ca(2+) insensitive and the mutant channel exhibits a depolarizing shift of the V1/2 of inactivation with CaM over expression. In contrast the same mutation in the rNaV1.4 channel background (rNaV1.4F1698I) eliminates Ca(2+) sensitivity of gating without affecting the CaM over expression induced hyperpolarizing shift in steady-state inactivation. The differences in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of gating between wild type and mutant human and rat NaV1.4 channels are in part mediated by a divergence in the amino acid sequence in the EF hand like (EFL) region of the CT. Thus the composition of the EFL region contributes to the species differences in Ca(2+)/CaM regulation of the mutant channels that produce myotonia. The myotonia mutation F1705I slows INa decay in a Ca(2+)-sensitive fashion. The combination of the altered voltage dependence and kinetics of INa decay contribute to the myotonic phenotype and may involve the Ca(2+)-sensing apparatus in the CT of NaV1.4. PMID:24324661

  8. Mechanisms of a human skeletal myotonia produced by mutation in the C-terminus of NaV1.4: is Ca2+ regulation defective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Biswas

    Full Text Available Mutations in the cytoplasmic tail (CT of voltage gated sodium channels cause a spectrum of inherited diseases of cellular excitability, yet to date only one mutation in the CT of the human skeletal muscle voltage gated sodium channel (hNaV1.4F1705I has been linked to cold aggravated myotonia. The functional effects of altered regulation of hNaV1.4F1705I are incompletely understood. The location of the hNaV1.4F1705I in the CT prompted us to examine the role of Ca(2+ and calmodulin (CaM regulation in the manifestations of myotonia. To study Na channel related mechanisms of myotonia we exploited the differences in rat and human NaV1.4 channel regulation by Ca(2+ and CaM. hNaV1.4F1705I inactivation gating is Ca(2+-sensitive compared to wild type hNaV1.4 which is Ca(2+ insensitive and the mutant channel exhibits a depolarizing shift of the V1/2 of inactivation with CaM over expression. In contrast the same mutation in the rNaV1.4 channel background (rNaV1.4F1698I eliminates Ca(2+ sensitivity of gating without affecting the CaM over expression induced hyperpolarizing shift in steady-state inactivation. The differences in the Ca(2+ sensitivity of gating between wild type and mutant human and rat NaV1.4 channels are in part mediated by a divergence in the amino acid sequence in the EF hand like (EFL region of the CT. Thus the composition of the EFL region contributes to the species differences in Ca(2+/CaM regulation of the mutant channels that produce myotonia. The myotonia mutation F1705I slows INa decay in a Ca(2+-sensitive fashion. The combination of the altered voltage dependence and kinetics of INa decay contribute to the myotonic phenotype and may involve the Ca(2+-sensing apparatus in the CT of NaV1.4.

  9. Na,K-ATPase activity in mouse muscle is regulated by AMPK and PGC-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Maria S; Kristensen, Michael; Pilegaard, Henriette; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Juel, Carsten

    2011-07-01

    Na,K-ATPase activity, which is crucial for skeletal muscle function, undergoes acute and long-term regulation in response to muscle activity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that AMP kinase (AMPK) and the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α are underlying factors in long-term regulation of Na,K-ATPase isoform (α,β and PLM) abundance and Na(+) affinity. Repeated treatment of mice with the AMPK activator AICAR decreased total PLM protein content but increased PLM phosphorylation, whereas the number of α- and β-subunits remained unchanged. The K(m) for Na(+) stimulation of Na,K-ATPase was reduced (higher affinity) after AICAR treatment. PLM abundance was increased in AMPK kinase-dead mice compared with control mice, but PLM phosphorylation and Na,K-ATPase Na(+) affinity remained unchanged. Na,K-ATPase activity and subunit distribution were also measured in mice with different degrees of PGC-1α expression. Protein abundances of α1 and α2 were reduced in PGC-1α +/- and -/- mice, and the β(1)/β(2) ratio was increased with PGC-1α overexpression (TG mice). PLM protein abundance was decreased in TG mice, but phosphorylation status was unchanged. Na,K-ATPase V (max) was decreased in PCG-1α TG and KO mice. Experimentally in vitro induced phosphorylation of PLM increased Na,K-ATPase Na(+) affinity, confirming that PLM phosphorylation is important for Na,K-ATPase function. In conclusion, both AMPK and PGC-1α regulate PLM abundance, AMPK regulates PLM phosphorylation and PGC-1α expression influences Na,K-ATPase α(1) and α(2) content and β(1)/β(2) isoform ratio. Phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase subunit PLM is an important regulatory mechanism.

  10. 50 CFR 404.7 - Regulated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel engine cooling water, weather deck runoff, and vessel engine exhaust; (f) Discharging or... effluent, cooling water, and engine exhaust; (g) Touching coral, living or dead; (h) Possessing fishing... Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. Exercise-induced histone modifications in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Sean L; Fairlie, Erin; Garnham, Andrew P; Hargreaves, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise confer many of the health benefits of physical activity and occur partly through alterations in skeletal muscle gene expression. The exact mechanisms mediating altered skeletal muscle gene expression in response to exercise are unknown. However, in recent years, chromatin remodelling through epigenetic histone modifications has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism controlling gene expression in general. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise on global histone modifications that mediate chromatin remodelling and transcriptional activation in human skeletal muscle in response to exercise. In addition, we sought to examine the signalling mechanisms regulating these processes. Following 60 min of cycling, global histone 3 acetylation at lysine 9 and 14, a modification associated with transcriptional initiation, was unchanged from basal levels, but was increased at lysine 36, a site associated with transcriptional elongation. We examined the regulation of the class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), which are enzymes that suppress histone acetylation and have been implicated in the adaptations to exercise. While we found no evidence of proteasomal degradation of the class IIa HDACs, we found that HDAC4 and 5 were exported from the nucleus during exercise, thereby removing their transcriptional repressive function. We also observed activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the calcium–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in response to exercise, which are two kinases that induce phosphorylation-dependent class IIa HDAC nuclear export. These data delineate a signalling pathway that might mediate skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise. PMID:19884317

  12. Channels Active in the Excitability of Nerves and Skeletal Muscles across the Neuromuscular Junction: Basic Function and Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    Ion channels are essential for the basic physiological function of excitable cells such as nerve, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Mutations in genes that encode ion channels have been identified to cause various diseases and disorders known as channelopathies. An understanding of how individual ion channels are involved in the…

  13. Exercise-induced changes in expression and activity of proteins involved in insulin signal transduction in skeletal muscle: Differential effects on insulin-receptor substrates 1 and 2

    OpenAIRE

    Chibalin, Alexander V; Yu, Mei; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Song, Xiao Mei; Galuska, Dana; Krook, Anna; Wallberg-Henriksson, Harriet; Juleen R. Zierath

    2000-01-01

    Level of physical activity is linked to improved glucose homeostasis. We determined whether exercise alters the expression and/or activity of proteins involved in insulin-signal transduction in skeletal muscle. Wistar rats swam 6 h per day for 1 or 5 days. Epitrochlearis muscles were excised 16 h after the last exercise bout, and were incubated with or without insulin (120 nM). Insulin-stimulated glucose transport increased 30% and 50% after 1 and 5 days of exercise, respectively. Glycogen co...

  14. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance associated with cholesterol-induced activation of macrophages is prevented by high density lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Carey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that high density lipoprotein (HDL may modulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms including pancreatic insulin secretion as well as insulin-independent glucose uptake into muscle. We hypothesized that HDL may also increase skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity via cholesterol removal and anti-inflammatory actions in macrophages associated with excess adiposity and ectopic lipid deposition. METHODS: Human primary and THP-1 macrophages were treated with vehicle (PBS or acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL with or without HDL for 18 hours. Treatments were then removed, and macrophages were incubated with fresh media for 4 hours. This conditioned media was then applied to primary human skeletal myotubes derived from vastus lateralis biopsies taken from patients with type 2 diabetes to examine insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. RESULTS: Conditioned media from acLDL-treated primary and THP-1 macrophages reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes compared with vehicle (primary macrophages, 168±21% of basal uptake to 104±19%; THP-1 macrophages, 142±8% of basal uptake to 108±6%; P<0.05. This was restored by co-treatment of macrophages with HDL. While acLDL increased total intracellular cholesterol content, phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages, none were altered by co-incubation with HDL. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in human skeletal myotubes exposed to conditioned media was unaltered by either treatment condition. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes by conditioned media from macrophages pre-incubated with acLDL was restored by co-treatment with HDL. However, these actions were not linked to modulation of common pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators or insulin signaling via Akt.

  15. Activated Integrin-Linked Kinase Negatively Regulates Muscle Cell Enhancement Factor 2C in C2C12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study reported that muscle cell enhancement factor 2C (MEF2C was fully activated after inhibition of the phosphorylation activity of integrin-linked kinase (ILK in the skeletal muscle cells of goats. It enhanced the binding of promoter or enhancer of transcription factor related to proliferation of muscle cells and then regulated the expression of these genes. In the present investigation, we explored whether ILK activation depended on PI3K to regulate the phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of MEF2C during C2C12 cell proliferation. We inhibited PI3K activity in C2C12 with LY294002 and then found that ILK phosphorylation levels and MEF2C phosphorylation were decreased and that MCK mRNA expression was suppressed significantly. After inhibiting ILK phosphorylation activity with Cpd22 and ILK-shRNA, we found MEF2C phosphorylation activity and MCK mRNA expression were increased extremely significantly. In the presence of Cpd22, PI3K activity inhibition increased MEF2C phosphorylation and MCK mRNA expression indistinctively. We conclude that ILK negatively and independently of PI3K regulated MEF2C phosphorylation activity and MCK mRNA expression in C2C12 cells. The results provide new ideas for the study of classical signaling pathway of PI3K-ILK-related proteins and transcription factors.

  16. Aging, Physical Activity, and Energy Intake Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Walleghen, Emily Lynn

    2006-01-01

    More than seventy percent of Americans over the age of sixty are classified as overweight or obese, and the future incidence of these conditions is expected to rise. Although it is unclear why older adults are predisposed to weight gain, decreased total energy expenditure may contribute to positive energy balance. It is also possible that age-related impairments in energy intake regulation result in the inability to appropriately adjust food intake to meet energy requirements with advancing a...

  17. Deep Proteomics of Mouse Skeletal Muscle Enables Quantitation of Protein Isoforms, Metabolic Pathways, and Transcription Factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Atul S.; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T.; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms. PMID:25616865

  18. M19 modulates skeletal muscle differentiation and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells through modulation of respiratory chain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Cambier

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction due to nuclear or mitochondrial DNA alterations contributes to multiple diseases such as metabolic myopathies, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes and cancer. Nevertheless, to date, only half of the estimated 1,500 mitochondrial proteins has been identified, and the function of most of these proteins remains to be determined. Here, we characterize the function of M19, a novel mitochondrial nucleoid protein, in muscle and pancreatic β-cells. We have identified a 13-long amino acid sequence located at the N-terminus of M19 that targets the protein to mitochondria. Furthermore, using RNA interference and over-expression strategies, we demonstrate that M19 modulates mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP production, and could therefore regulate the respiratory chain activity. In an effort to determine whether M19 could play a role in the regulation of various cell activities, we show that this nucleoid protein, probably through its modulation of mitochondrial ATP production, acts on late muscle differentiation in myogenic C2C12 cells, and plays a permissive role on insulin secretion under basal glucose conditions in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells. Our results are therefore establishing a functional link between a mitochondrial nucleoid protein and the modulation of respiratory chain activities leading to the regulation of major cellular processes such as myogenesis and insulin secretion.

  19. Experimental Studies of the Molecular Pathways Regulated by Exercise and Resveratrol in Heart, Skeletal Muscle and the Vasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon W. Dolinsky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise contributes to healthy aging and the prevention of chronic disease. Recent research has focused on the development of molecules, such as resveratrol, that activate similar metabolic and stress response pathways as exercise training. In this review, we describe the effects of exercise training and resveratrol on some of the organs and tissues that act in concert to transport oxygen throughout the body. In particular, we focus on animal studies that investigate the molecular signaling pathways induced by these interventions. We also compare and contrast the effects of exercise and resveratrol in diseased states.

  20. The Effects of Lactate on Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Willkomm, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise and physical activity are cornerstones in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and age-related sarcopenia. The associated health benefits arise from a number of tissues but due to its high plasticity skeletal muscle plays a pivotal role. The resident stem cells of skeletal muscle tissue, so called Satellite cells (SCs), contribute significantly to skeletal muscle adaptation and hence, maintenance of heal...

  1. Active Power Regulation based on Droop for AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Coelho, Ernane A. A.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two different control strategies are proposed to address the active power regulation issue in AC microgrids. The principle of power regulation in the droop controller is firstly introduced. Frequency scheduling and droop gain scheduling on top of droop control is proposed to succes......In this paper, two different control strategies are proposed to address the active power regulation issue in AC microgrids. The principle of power regulation in the droop controller is firstly introduced. Frequency scheduling and droop gain scheduling on top of droop control is proposed...

  2. Functional Overload Enhances Satellite Cell Properties in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Fujimaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. Skeletal-muscle-derived stem cells, termed satellite cells, play essential roles in postnatal growth, maintenance, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Although it is well known that the number of satellite cells increases following physical exercise, functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that functional overload, which is widely used to model resistance exercise, causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and converts satellite cells from quiescent state to activated state. Our analysis showed that functional overload induces the expression of MyoD in satellite cells and enhances the proliferative capacity and differentiation potential of these cells. The changes in satellite cell properties coincided with the inactivation of Notch signaling and the activation of Wnt signaling and likely involve modulation by transcription factors of the Sox family. These results indicate the effects of resistance exercise on the regulation of satellite cells and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of satellite cell activation following physical exercise.

  3. Functional Overload Enhances Satellite Cell Properties in Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Shin; Machida, Masanao; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Asashima, Makoto; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. Skeletal-muscle-derived stem cells, termed satellite cells, play essential roles in postnatal growth, maintenance, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Although it is well known that the number of satellite cells increases following physical exercise, functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that functional overload, which is widely used to model resistance exercise, causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and converts satellite cells from quiescent state to activated state. Our analysis showed that functional overload induces the expression of MyoD in satellite cells and enhances the proliferative capacity and differentiation potential of these cells. The changes in satellite cell properties coincided with the inactivation of Notch signaling and the activation of Wnt signaling and likely involve modulation by transcription factors of the Sox family. These results indicate the effects of resistance exercise on the regulation of satellite cells and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of satellite cell activation following physical exercise. PMID:26779264

  4. Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression following clenbuterol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Lauren M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists (BA induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, yet specific mechanisms that lead to this effect are not well understood. The objective of this research was to identify novel genes and physiological pathways that potentially facilitate BA induced skeletal muscle growth. The Affymetrix platform was utilized to identify gene expression changes in mouse skeletal muscle 24 hours and 10 days after administration of the BA clenbuterol. Results Administration of clenbuterol stimulated anabolic activity, as indicated by decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN; P P Conclusion Global evaluation of gene expression after administration of clenbuterol identified changes in gene expression and overrepresented functional categories of genes that may regulate BA-induced muscle hypertrophy. Changes in mRNA abundance of multiple genes associated with myogenic differentiation may indicate an important effect of BA on proliferation, differentiation, and/or recruitment of satellite cells into muscle fibers to promote muscle hypertrophy. Increased mRNA abundance of genes involved in the initiation of translation suggests that increased levels of protein synthesis often associated with BA administration may result from a general up-regulation of translational initiators. Additionally, numerous other genes and physiological pathways were identified that will be important targets for further investigations of the hypertrophic effect of BA on skeletal muscle.

  5. Modern aspects of tax regulation of investment activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Podakov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the tax regulation of investment activity in modern conditions. Scientists studied different views about the impact of tax regulations on the investment activity in the country. The author determines that the tax regulation of investment activity involves the use of state mechanisms taxation of certain measures to improve investment conditions. The subject is the state tax regulations, and the object is the investment activity of individual and institutional investors of any form of ownership including organizational and legal forms. Such regulation is performed by using complex special tools. The possible methods of tax stimulation of investment processes are described. The article deals with the current results of tax reform in Ukraine and predicts its possible consequences for agricultural producers. The rating positions of Ukraine according to international organizations are showed. The systematic analysis has been carried out and the impact of differential tax rates, tax exemption for a specified period, reducing the tax base, elimination of double taxation on investment activity in certain areas have been researched. The special instruments of investment activity tax regulation are considered. The options for improving investment activity by introducing effective tax regulation are determined.

  6. Activity Dependent Regulation of Inhibitory Circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition controls information flow through a neural circuit by modulating synaptic integration, restricting action potentials, and coordinating the activity of ensembles of neurons. These functions are mediated by a diverse array of inhibitory neuron subtypes that synapse on defined domains of a postsynaptic neuron. Activity-dependent transcription controls inhibitory synapse number and function, but how this transcription program affects the inhibitory inputs that form on di...

  7. Commission for energy regulation - 2012 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the organisation, role and missions of the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), and of its relationship with other institutional actors, this report describes and comments the action of the CRE in the fields of dialogue and transparency. It presents and comments key figures regarding the electricity and gas retail markets. It reports and comments the European reaction to the cold peak of February 2012 (historical peak for consumption and prices, inquiry on the causes of these price peaks, need of a European market). The next part addresses the relationship between electricity grids and territories (solidarity between electricity grids as the basis of the Europe of energy, evolution of French grids to face new needs and to take regional and local dimensions into account). Another part addresses gas infrastructures which are considered as the cornerstone of a good operation for the French market and for the integration of the European energy market (gas world market in 2012, definition of a target model for the gas market by European regulators, evolution of the French market in compliance with the European target model, new tariffs for the use of natural gas transport networks). The report then addresses the development of renewable energies: actions of CRE (bidding, opinion of tariffs), influence of renewable energy development on electricity prices on gross markets, needed evolution of electricity grids. A last part addresses the issues of energy cost, demand management, and struggle against energy poverty

  8. Enhanced insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue following gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth; Bojsen-Moller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    12 months post-surgery. Adipose tissue from glucose tolerant subjects was the most responsive to RYGB compared to type 2 diabetic patients, whereas changes in skeletal muscle were largely similar in these two groups. In conclusion, an improved molecular insulin sensitive phenotype of skeletal muscle......Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of RYGB on expression and regulation of proteins involved in regulation of peripheral glucose metabolism. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies from glucose...... and glycogen synthase activity were enhanced 12 months post-surgery. In adipose tissue, protein expression of GLUT4, Akt2, TBC1D4 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), phosphorylated levels of AMP-activated protein kinase and ACC as well as insulin-induced changes in phosphorylation of Akt and TBC1D4 were enhanced...

  9. Skeletal muscle transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α mediates mitochondrial, but not metabolic, changes during calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Lydia W S; Lee, Jaewon; Souza, Amanda; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Bullock, Kevin; Rowe, Glenn C; Procaccio, Vincent; Clish, Clary B; Arany, Zoltan; Haigis, Marcia C

    2012-02-21

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary intervention that extends lifespan and healthspan in a variety of organisms. CR improves mitochondrial energy production, fuel oxidation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in skeletal muscle and other tissues, and these processes are thought to be critical to the benefits of CR. PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates mitochondrial function and is induced by CR. Consequently, many of the mitochondrial and metabolic benefits of CR are attributed to increased PGC-1α activity. To test this model, we examined the metabolic and mitochondrial response to CR in mice lacking skeletal muscle PGC-1α (MKO). Surprisingly, MKO mice demonstrated a normal improvement in glucose homeostasis in response to CR, indicating that skeletal muscle PGC-1α is dispensable for the whole-body benefits of CR. In contrast, gene expression profiling and electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that PGC-1α is required for the full CR-induced increases in mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. These results demonstrate that PGC-1α is a major regulator of the mitochondrial response to CR in skeletal muscle, but surprisingly show that neither PGC-1α nor mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle are required for the whole-body metabolic benefits of CR.

  10. Dietary methanol regulates human gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V Shindyapina

    Full Text Available Methanol (MeOH is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA, which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling.

  11. Changes in skeletal tumor activity on {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in patients receiving {sup 223}radium radionuclide therapy for metastatic prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Kyle S. [Oncology Research Dept. and Hamamatsu/Queen' s PET Imaging Center, The Queen' s Medical Center, Honolulu (United States); Kang, Yu; Kwee, Sandi A. [Dept. of Medical Physics, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Radium-223 dichloride is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical shown to prolong survival in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic skeletal metastases. This report describes in two patients the acute changes in bone metastatic activity detected by F-18 choline PET/CT imaging midway during treatment with radium-223 dichloride. In addition to visual and standardized uptake value analysis, changes in the whole-body tumor burden were quantified by measuring the difference in net metabolically active tumor volume (MATV) and total lesion activity (TLA) between pre- and mid-treatment PET scans. After the third dose of radium-223 dichloride, near-total disappearance of abnormal skeletal activity was observed in one case (net MATV change from 260.7 to 0.8 cc; net TLA change from 510.7 to 2.1), while a heterogeneous tumor response was observed in the other (net MATV change from 272.2 to 241.3 cc; net TLA change from 987.1 to 779.4). Corresponding normalization and persistent elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase levels were observed in these cases, respectively. Further research is needed to determine the predictive value of serial F-18 choline PET/CT imaging in patients receiving radium-223 dichloride for CRPC.

  12. Altering the redox state of skeletal muscle by glutathione depletion increases the exercise‐activation of PGC‐1α

    OpenAIRE

    Strobel, Natalie A.; Matsumoto, Aya; Peake, Jonathan M.; Marsh, Susan A.; Peternelj, Tina‐Tinkara; Briskey, David; Fassett, Robert G.; Coombes, Jeff S.; Wadley, Glenn D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationship between markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, cell signaling, and antioxidant enzymes by depleting skeletal muscle glutathione with diethyl maleate (DEM) which resulted in a demonstrable increase in oxidative stress during exercise. Animals were divided into six groups: (1) sedentary control rats; (2) sedentary rats + DEM; (3) exercise control rats euthanized immediately after exercise; (4) exercise rats + DEM; (5) exercise control rats euthanized 4 h ...

  13. STAT3 Activation in Skeletal Muscle Links Muscle Wasting and the Acute Phase Response in Cancer Cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Bonetto; Tufan Aydogdu; Noelia Kunzevitzky; Guttridge, Denis C.; Sawsan Khuri; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Teresa A Zimmers

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the presence of the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA) are synthesized by hepatocytes in response to IL-6 as part of the i...

  14. Physical Activity and Self-Regulation Strategy Use in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, James; Moran, Aidan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the degree to which the use of selected theoretically derived self-regulation strategies (eg, goal setting) could predict adolescents' self-reported leisure-time physical activity behavior. Method: Two hundred thirty-three (M age = 15.88) high school students completed measures assessing their self-regulation strategy use and…

  15. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase activity and subunit expression in exercise-trained human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Nis; Mustard, Kirsty J.W.; Graham, Drew A.;

    2002-01-01

    (3)) AMPK subunits and exercise-induced AMPK activity are influenced by exercise training status, muscle biopsies were obtained from seven endurance exercise-trained and seven sedentary young healthy men. The alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-AMPK mRNA contents in trained subjects were both 117 +/- 2......), beta(2), gamma(1), gamma(2), gamma(3)) were similar in trained and sedentary subjects. At the end of 20 min of cycle exercise at 80% of peak O(2) uptake, the increase in phosphorylation of alpha-AMPK (Thr(172)) was blunted in the trained group (138 +/- 38% above rest) compared with the sedentary group...

  16. Gene expression analyses implicate an alternative splicing program in regulating contractile gene expression and serum response factor activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twishasri Dasgupta

    Full Text Available Members of the CUG-BP, Elav-like family (CELF regulate alternative splicing in the heart. In MHC-CELFΔ transgenic mice, CELF splicing activity is inhibited postnatally in heart muscle via expression of a nuclear dominant negative CELF protein under an α-myosin heavy chain promoter. MHC-CELFΔ mice develop dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by alternative splicing defects, enlarged hearts, and severe contractile dysfunction. In this study, gene expression profiles in the hearts of wild type, high- and low-expressing lines of MHC-CELFΔ mice were compared using microarrays. Gene ontology and pathway analyses identified contraction and calcium signaling as the most affected processes. Network analysis revealed that the serum response factor (SRF network is highly affected. Downstream targets of SRF were up-regulated in MHC-CELFΔ mice compared to the wild type, suggesting an increase in SRF activity. Although SRF levels remained unchanged, known inhibitors of SRF activity were down-regulated. Conversely, we found that these inhibitors are up-regulated and downstream SRF targets are down-regulated in the hearts of MCKCUG-BP1 mice, which mildly over-express CELF1 in heart and skeletal muscle. This suggests that changes in SRF activity are a consequence of changes in CELF-mediated regulation rather than a secondary result of compensatory pathways in heart failure. In MHC-CELFΔ males, where the phenotype is only partially penetrant, both alternative splicing changes and down-regulation of inhibitors of SRF correlate with the development of cardiomyopathy. Together, these results strongly support a role for CELF-mediated alternative splicing in the regulation of contractile gene expression, achieved in part through modulating the activity of SRF, a key cardiac transcription factor.

  17. Skeletal muscle lipid accumulation in type 2 diabetes may involve the liver X receptor pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kase, Eili T; Wensaas, Andreas J; Aas, Vigdis;

    2005-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important regulators of cholesterol and lipid metabolism and are also involved in glucose metabolism. However, the functional role of LXRs in human skeletal muscle is at present unknown. This study demonstrates that chronic ligand activation of LXRs by a synthetic LXR...

  18. Hyperglycaemia normalises insulin action on glucose metabolism but not the impaired activation of AKT and glycogen synthase in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, B F; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Vienberg, Sara Gry;

    2012-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 2 diabetes, reduced insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, primarily glycogen synthesis, is associated with defective insulin activation of glycogen synthase (GS) in skeletal muscle. Hyperglycaemia may compensate for these defects, but to what extent it involves improved...... insulin signalling to glycogen synthesis remains to be clarified. METHODS: Whole-body glucose metabolism was studied in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 10 lean and 10 obese non-diabetic controls by means of indirect calorimetry and tracers during a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. The diabetic...

  19. Systems analysis of biological networks in skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucas R; Meyer, Gretchen; Lieber, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function depends on the efficient coordination among subcellular systems. These systems are composed of proteins encoded by a subset of genes, all of which are tightly regulated. In the cases where regulation is altered because of disease or injury, dysfunction occurs. To enable objective analysis of muscle gene expression profiles, we have defined nine biological networks whose coordination is critical to muscle function. We begin by describing the expression of proteins necessary for optimal neuromuscular junction function that results in the muscle cell action potential. That action potential is transmitted to proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling enabling Ca(2+) release. Ca(2+) then activates contractile proteins supporting actin and myosin cross-bridge cycling. Force generated by cross-bridges is transmitted via cytoskeletal proteins through the sarcolemma and out to critical proteins that support the muscle extracellular matrix. Muscle contraction is fueled through many proteins that regulate energy metabolism. Inflammation is a common response to injury that can result in alteration of many pathways within muscle. Muscle also has multiple pathways that regulate size through atrophy or hypertrophy. Finally, the isoforms associated with fast muscle fibers and their corresponding isoforms in slow muscle fibers are delineated. These nine networks represent important biological systems that affect skeletal muscle function. Combining high-throughput systems analysis with advanced networking software will allow researchers to use these networks to objectively study skeletal muscle systems. PMID:23188744

  20. Gender differences in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism - molecular mechanisms and insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eLundsgaard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly apparent that substrate metabolism is subject to gender specific regulation, and the aim of this review is to outline the available evidence of molecular gender differences in glucose and lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle. Female sex has been suggested to have a favorable effect on glucose homeostasis, and the available evidence from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies is summarized to delineate whether there is a gender difference in whole body insulin sensitivity and in particular insulin-stimulated glucose uptake of skeletal muscle. Whether an eventual higher insulin sensitivity of female skeletal muscle can be related to gender specific regulation of molecular metabolism will be topic for discussion. Gender differences in muscle fiber type distribution and substrate availability to and in skeletal muscle are highly relevant for substrate metabolism in men and women. In particular, the molecular machinery for glucose and fatty acid oxidative and storage capacities in skeletal muscle and its implications for substrate utilization during metabolic situations of daily living are discussed, emphasizing their relevance for substrate choice in the fed and fasted state, and during periods of physical activity and recovery. Together, handling of carbohydrate and lipids and regulation of their utilization in skeletal muscle have implications for whole body glucose homeostasis in men and women. 17-β estradiol is the most important female sex hormone, and the identification of estradiol receptors in skeletal muscle has opened for a role in regulation of substrate metabolism. Also, higher levels of circulating adipokines as adiponectin and leptin in women and their implications for muscle metabolism will be considered.

  1. Regulation of nuclear activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review was initiated by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency for its series of analytical studies on nuclear legislation. It looks at the historic background and general overview of the use and handling of nuclear energy; the governmental framework controlling nuclear activities; and the agencies involved in its research and industrial applications. The regulatory power and structure of the Atomic Energy Control Board are highlighted

  2. Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Activity During Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, M J

    2008-01-01

    Activities of drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) are known to change throughout the course of physical and sexual maturation with the greatest variability noted during infancy and adolescence. The mechanisms responsible for developmental regulation of DME are currently unknown. However, the hormonal changes of puberty/adolescence provide a theoretical framework for understanding biochemical regulation of DME activity during growth and maturation. Important information regarding potential influen...

  3. Angiopoietin-1 enhances skeletal muscle regeneration in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofarrahi, Mahroo; McClung, Joseph M.; Kontos, Christopher D.; Davis, Elaine C.; Tappuni, Bassman; Moroz, Nicolay; Pickett, Amy E.; Huck, Laurent; Harel, Sharon; Danialou, Gawiyou

    2015-01-01

    Activation of muscle progenitor cell myogenesis and endothelial cell angiogenesis is critical for the recovery of skeletal muscle from injury. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), a ligand of Tie-2 receptors, enhances angiogenesis and skeletal muscle satellite cell survival; however, its role in skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is unknown. We assessed the effects of Ang-1 on fiber regeneration, myogenesis, and angiogenesis in injured skeletal muscle (tibialis anterior, TA) in mice. We also assessed endogenous Ang-1 levels and localization in intact and injured TA muscles. TA fiber injury was triggered by cardiotoxin injection. Endogenous Ang-1 mRNA levels immediately decreased in response to cardiotoxin then increased during the 2 wk. Ang-1 protein was expressed in satellite cells, both in noninjured and recovering TA muscles. Positive Ang-1 staining was present in blood vessels but not in nerve fibers. Four days after the initiation of injury, injection of adenoviral Ang-1 into injured muscles resulted in significant increases in in situ TA muscle contractility, muscle fiber regeneration, and capillary density. In cultured human skeletal myoblasts, recombinant Ang-1 protein increased survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation into myotubes. The latter effect was associated with significant upregulation of the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and Myogenin and certain genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We conclude that Ang-1 strongly enhances skeletal muscle regeneration in response to fiber injury and that this effect is mediated through induction of the myogenesis program in muscle progenitor cells and the angiogenesis program in endothelial cells. PMID:25608750

  4. Expression of somatostatin receptor genes and acetylcholine receptor development in rat skeletal muscle during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, M; Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    1998-05-01

    Our laboratory reported previously that somatostatin (SST) is transiently expressed in rat motoneurons during the first 14 days after birth. We investigated the possibility that the SST receptor (SSTR) is expressed in skeletal muscle. We found that two of the five subtypes of SSTR (SSTR3 and SSTR4) are expressed in skeletal muscle with a time course that correlates with the transient expression of SST in motoneurons. In addition, SSTR2A is expressed from birth to adulthood in skeletal muscle. Both SSTR2A and SSTR4 are also expressed in L6 cells, a skeletal muscle cell line. Somatostatin acting through its receptors has been shown to stimulate tyrosine phosphatase activity in a number of different tissues. We found that several proteins (50, 65, 90, 140, 180 and 200 kDa) exhibited a reduced degree of tyrosine phosphorylation following SST treatment. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase activity with sodium orthovanadate increased expression of the nicotinic acetyl-choline receptor (nAChR) epsilon subunit mRNA by three fold. Somatostatin reversed the elevated epsilon mRNA following orthovanadate treatment. These findings show that SSTR is expressed in skeletal muscle and that SST acting via the SSTR regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and expression of the epsilon subunit of the AChR in the rat skeletal muscle. PMID:9852305

  5. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Guoping [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu, Dongxu [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Liu, Jing [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Gao, Hui [Department of Orthodontics, Tianjin Stomatological Hospital, Tianjin 300041 (China); Yuan, Xiao, E-mail: yuanxiaoqd@163.com [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Shen, Gang, E-mail: ganshen2007@163.com [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2010-01-01

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. It is likely that stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, depletion of p38{alpha} using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-{kappa}B activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The {alpha} isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B following stimulation with cyclic stretch.

  6. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-κB transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-κB in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-κB activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of IκB-α, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB to the nucleus. It is likely that stretch-induced NF-κB activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB. Moreover, depletion of p38α using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-κB activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The α isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-κB following stimulation with cyclic stretch.

  7. A Small Group Activity About Bacterial Regulation And Complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Merkel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As teachers, we well understand the need for activities that help develop critical-thinking skills in microbiology. In our experience, one concept that students have difficulty understanding is transcriptional regulation of bacterial genes. To help with this, we developed and evaluated a paper-based activity to help students understand and apply the concepts of bacterial transcriptional regulation. While we don't identify it as such, we use a complementation experiment to assess student understanding of how regulation changes when new DNA is introduced. In Part 1 of this activity, students complete an open book, take-home assignment that asks them to define common terminology related to regulation, and draw the regulatory components of different scenarios involving positive and negative regulation. In Part 2, students work in small groups of 3-4 to depict the regulatory components for a different scenario. They are asked to explain the results of a complementation experiment based on this scenario. They then predict the results of a slightly different experiment. Students who completed the Regulation Activity did significantly better on post-test questions related to regulation, compared to pre-test questions.

  8. Kinase active Misshapen regulates Notch signaling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhinava K; Sachan, Nalani; Mutsuddi, Mousumi; Mukherjee, Ashim

    2015-11-15

    Notch signaling pathway represents a principal cellular communication system that plays a pivotal role during development of metazoans. Drosophila misshapen (msn) encodes a protein kinase, which is related to the budding yeast Ste20p (sterile 20 protein) kinase. In a genetic screen, using candidate gene approach to identify novel kinases involved in Notch signaling, we identified msn as a novel regulator of Notch signaling. Data presented here suggest that overexpression of kinase active form of Msn exhibits phenotypes similar to Notch loss-of-function condition and msn genetically interacts with components of Notch signaling pathway. Kinase active form of Msn associates with Notch receptor and regulate its signaling activity. We further show that kinase active Misshapen leads to accumulation of membrane-tethered form of Notch. Moreover, activated Msn also depletes Armadillo and DE-Cadherin from adherens junctions. Thus, this study provides a yet unknown mode of regulation of Notch signaling by Misshapen. PMID:26431585

  9. Critical role of intracellular RyR1 calcium release channels in skeletal muscle function and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Omar Hernández-Ochoa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel, also known as ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1, is the largest ion channel protein known and is crucial for effective skeletal muscle contractile activation. RyR1 function is controlled by Cav1.1, a voltage gated Ca2+ channel that works mainly as a voltage sensor for RyR1 activity during skeletal muscle contraction and is also fine-tuned by Ca2+, several intracellular compounds (e.g., ATP, and modulatory proteins (e.g., calmodulin. Dominant and recessive mutations in RyR1, as well as acquired channel alterations, are the underlying cause of various skeletal muscle diseases. The aim of this mini review is to summarize several current aspects of RyR1 function, structure, regulation, and to describe the most common diseases caused by hereditary or acquired RyR1 malfunction.

  10. Piecing together the puzzle of perilipin proteins and skeletal muscle lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Peters, Sandra J

    2015-07-01

    The regulation of skeletal muscle lipolysis and fat oxidation is a complex process involving multiple proteins and enzymes. Emerging work indicates that skeletal muscle PLIN proteins likely play a role in the hydrolysis of triglycerides stored in lipid droplets and the passage of fatty acids to the mitochondria for oxidation. In adipocytes, PLIN1 regulates lipolysis by interacting with comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), an activator of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Upon lipolytic stimulation, PLIN1 is phosphorylated, releasing CGI-58 to activate ATGL and initiate triglyceride breakdown. The absence of PLIN1 in skeletal muscle leads us to believe that other PLIN family members undertake this role. The focus of this review is on the PLIN family proteins expressed in skeletal muscle: PLIN2, PLIN3, and PLIN5. To date, most studies involving these PLIN proteins have used nonmuscle tissues and cell cultures to determine their potential roles. Results from work in these models support a role for PLIN proteins in sequestering lipases during basal conditions and in potentially working together for lipase translocation and activity during lipolysis. In skeletal muscle, PLIN2 tends to mirror the lipid content and may play a role in lipid droplet growth and stability through lipase interactions on the lipid droplet surface, whereas the skeletal muscle roles of both PLIN3 and PLIN5 seem to be more complex because they are found not only on the lipid droplet, but also at the mitochondria. Clearly, further work is needed to fully understand the intricate mechanisms by which PLIN proteins contribute to skeletal muscle lipid metabolism. PMID:25971423

  11. PGC-1α-mediated branched-chain amino acid metabolism in the skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukino Hatazawa

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α is a coactivator of various nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, which is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, thermogenesis, and other biological processes that control phenotypic characteristics of various organ systems including skeletal muscle. PGC-1α in skeletal muscle is considered to be involved in contractile protein function, mitochondrial function, metabolic regulation, intracellular signaling, and transcriptional responses. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA metabolism mainly occurs in skeletal muscle mitochondria, and enzymes related to BCAA metabolism are increased by exercise. Using murine skeletal muscle overexpressing PGC-1α and cultured cells, we investigated whether PGC-1α stimulates BCAA metabolism by increasing the expression of enzymes involved in BCAA metabolism. Transgenic mice overexpressing PGC-1α specifically in the skeletal muscle had increased the expression of branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT 2, branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH, which catabolize BCAA. The expression of BCKDH kinase (BCKDK, which phosphorylates BCKDH and suppresses its enzymatic activity, was unchanged. The amount of BCAA in the skeletal muscle was significantly decreased in the transgenic mice compared with that in the wild-type mice. The amount of glutamic acid, a metabolite of BCAA catabolism, was increased in the transgenic mice, suggesting the activation of muscle BCAA metabolism by PGC-1α. In C2C12 cells, the overexpression of PGC-1α significantly increased the expression of BCAT2 and BCKDH but not BCKDK. Thus, PGC-1α in the skeletal muscle is considered to significantly contribute to BCAA metabolism.

  12. Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) Extract and its Active Constituents (Crocin and Safranal) on Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad Hadi Modaghegh; Zahra Saffari

    2009-01-01

    Saffron and its constituents have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney or brain tissues. In this study, the effects of saffron ethanolic extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, were evaluated in skeletal muscle during I/R injury. Hind limb ischemia was induced using clamping the common femoral artery and vein. After 2 h ischemia, the clamp of the femoral vessels of animals was taken off and the animal underwent 1h reperfusion. Muscle injuries were eval...

  13. Elevation of serum insulin concentration during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies leads to similar activation of insulin receptor kinase in skeletal muscle of subjects with and without NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, H H; Vestergaard, H; Kotzke, G;

    1995-01-01

    The role of skeletal muscle insulin receptor kinase in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was investigated. Muscle biopsies from 13 patients with NIDDM and 10 control subjects at fasting serum insulin concentrations and approximately 1,000 pmol/l steady-state serum...... insulin during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were immediately frozen. The biopsies were then solubilized, and the receptors were immobilized to anti-insulin receptor antibody-coated microwells. Receptor kinase and binding activities were consecutively measured in these wells. The increase in serum...... insulin concentration (73 +/- 14 to 1,004 +/- 83 and 45 +/- 7 to 1,07 +/- 77 pmol/l in the NIDDM and control groups, respectively) had similar effects on receptor kinase activity in both study groups (12 +/- 1 to 42 +/- 5 and 12 +/- 2 to 47 +/- 5 amol P.fmol binding activity-1. min-1 in the NIDDM...

  14. Regulation of Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) by Estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauklin, Siim

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) by the hormone estrogen has important implications for understanding adaptive immune responses as well as the involvement of AID in autoimmune diseases and tumorigenesis. This chapter describes the general laboratory techniques for analyzing AID expression and activity induced by estrogen, focusing on the isolation and preparation of cells for hormone treatment and the subsequent analysis of AID responsiveness to estrogen at the RNA level and for determining the regulation of AID activity via estrogen by analyzing Ig switch circle transcripts and mutations in switch region loci.

  15. Absence of canonical active chromatin marks in developmentally regulated genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Romero, Marina; Corominas, Montserrat; Guigó, Roderic

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of active and repressive histone modifications is assumed to play a key role in the regulation of gene expression. In contrast to this generally accepted view, we show that transcription of genes temporally regulated during fly and worm development occurs in the absence of canonically active histone modifications. Conversely, strong chromatin marking is related to transcriptional and post-transcriptional stability, an association that we also observe in mammals. Our results support a model in which chromatin marking is associated to stable production of RNA, while unmarked chromatin would permit rapid gene activation and de-activation during development. In this case, regulation by transcription factors would play a comparatively more important regulatory role. PMID:26280901

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Jeromson; Gallagher, Iain J.; Stuart D. R. Galloway; D. Lee Hamilton

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscl...

  17. Astragalus Polysaccharide Suppresses Skeletal Muscle Myostatin Expression in Diabetes: Involvement of ROS-ERK and NF-κB Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The antidiabetes drug astragalus polysaccharide (APS is capable of increasing insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and improving whole-body glucose homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that skeletal muscle secreted growth factor myostatin plays an important role in regulating insulin signaling and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that regulation of skeletal muscle myostatin expression may be involved in the improvement of insulin sensitivity by APS. Methods. APS was administered to 13-week-old diabetic KKAy and nondiabetic C57BL/6J mice for 8 weeks. Complementary studies examined APS effects on the saturated acid palmitate-induced insulin resistance and myostatin expression in C2C12 cells. Results. APS treatment ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance and decreased the elevation of myostatin expression and malondialdehyde production in skeletal muscle of noninsulin-dependent diabetic KKAy mice. In C2C12 cells in vitro, saturated acid palmitate-induced impaired glucose uptake, overproduction of ROS, activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK, and NF-κB were partially restored by APS treatment. The protective effects of APS were mimicked by ERK and NF-κB inhibitors, respectively. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates elevated myostatin expression in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic KKAy mice and in cultured C2C12 cells exposed to palmitate. APS is capable of improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing myostatin expression in skeletal muscle through downregulating ROS-ERK-NF-κB pathway.

  18. Amelioration of apoptotic events in the skeletal muscle of intra-nigrally rotenone-infused Parkinsonian rats by Morinda citrifolia--up-regulation of Bcl-2 and blockage of cytochrome c release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Kishore Kumar S; Paul, Liya; Sathyamoorthy, Yogesh Kanna; Srinivasan, Ashokkumar; Chakrapani, Lakshmi Narasimhan; Singh, Abhilasha; Ravi, Divya Bhavani; Krishnan, Thulasi Raman; Velusamy, Prema; Kaliappan, Kathiravan; Radhakrishnan, Rameshkumar; Periandavan, Kalaiselvi

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder with the cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, which lead to abnormal movements and lack of activity, which in turn cause muscular damage. Even though studies have been carried out to elucidate the causative factors that lead to muscular damage in Parkinson's disease, apoptotic events that occur in the skeletal muscle and a therapeutical approach to culminate the muscular damage have not been extensively studied. Thus, this study evaluates the impact of rotenone-induced SNPc lesions on skeletal muscle apoptosis and the efficacy of an ethyl acetate extract of Morinda citrifolia in safeguarding the myocytes. Biochemical assays along with apoptotic markers studied by immunoblot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in the current study revealed that the supplementation of Morinda citrifolia significantly reverted alterations in both biochemical and histological parameters in rotenone-infused PD rats. Treatment with Morinda citrifolia also reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 and blocked the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria induced by rotenone. In addition, it augmented the expression of Bcl2 both transcriptionally and translationally. Thus, this preliminary study paves a way to show that the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities of Morinda citrifolia can be exploited to alleviate skeletal muscle damage induced by Parkinsonism.

  19. Developmental regulation of aromatase activity in the rat hypothalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lephart, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The brain of all mammalian species studied thus far contain an enzymatic activity (aromatase) that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The activity is highest during prenatal development and contributes to the establishment of sex differences which determine adult gonadotropin secretion patterns and reproductive behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation represent a systematic effort to elucidate the mechanism(s) that control the initiation of and contribute to maintaining rat hypothalamic aromatase activity during pre- and postnatal development. Aromatase enzyme activity was measured by the {sup 3}H{sub 2}O release assay or by traditional estrogen product isolation. Brain aromatase mRNA was detected by hybridization to a cDNA encoding rat aromatase cytochrome P-450. In both males and females the time of puberty was associated with a decline in hypothalamic aromatase activity. This decline may represent a factor underlying the peri-pubertal decrease in the sensitivity to gonadal steroid feedback that accompanies completion of puberty. The results also indicate that androgens regulate brain aromatase levels during both the prepubertal and peri-pubertal stages of sexual development and that this regulation is transiently lost in young adults. Utilizing a hypothalamic organotypic culture system, aromatase activity in vitro was maintained for as long as two days. The results of studies of a variety of hormonal and metabolic regulators suggest that prenatal aromatase activity is regulated by factor(s) that function independently from the classical cyclic AMP and protein kinase C trans-membrane signaling pathways.

  20. Post-translational regulation of Oct4 transcriptional activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Saxe

    Full Text Available Oct4 is a key component of the molecular circuitry which regulates embryonic stem cell proliferation and differentiation. It is essential for maintenance of undifferentiated, pluripotent cell populations, and accomplishes these tasks by binding DNA in multiple heterodimer and homodimer configurations. Very little is known about how formation of these complexes is regulated, or the mechanisms through which Oct4 proteins respond to complex extracellular stimuli which regulate pluripotency. Here, we provide evidence for a phosphorylation-based mechanism which regulates specific Oct4 homodimer conformations. Point mutations of a putative phosphorylation site can specifically abrogate transcriptional activity of a specific homodimer assembly, with little effect on other configurations. Moreover, we performed bioinformatic predictions to identify a subset of Oct4 target genes which may be regulated by this specific assembly, and show that altering Oct4 protein levels affects transcription of Oct4 target genes which are regulated by this assembly but not others. Finally, we identified several signaling pathways which may mediate this phosphorylation and act in combination to regulate Oct4 transcriptional activity and protein stability. These results provide a mechanism for rapid and reversible alteration of Oct4 transactivation potential in response to extracellular signals.