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Sample records for activity predict variation

  1. Prediction of Solar Activity from Solar Background Magnetic Field Variations in Cycles 21-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Simon J.; Zharkov, Sergei I.; Zharkova, Valentina V.

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive spectral analysis of both the solar background magnetic field (SBMF) in cycles 21-23 and the sunspot magnetic field in cycle 23 reported in our recent paper showed the presence of two principal components (PCs) of SBMF having opposite polarity, e.g., originating in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Over a duration of one solar cycle, both waves are found to travel with an increasing phase shift toward the northern hemisphere in odd cycles 21 and 23 and to the southern hemisphere in even cycle 22. These waves were linked to solar dynamo waves assumed to form in different layers of the solar interior. In this paper, for the first time, the PCs of SBMF in cycles 21-23 are analyzed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles, allowing us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the SBMF presented by PCs and to extrapolate these PCs to cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 very closely fit (with an accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations in this cycle. This approach also predicts a strong reduction of the SBMF in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted PCs (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The variations of the modulus summary of the two PCs in SBMF reveals a remarkable resemblance to the average number of sunspots in cycles 21-24 and to predictions of reduced sunspot numbers compared to cycle 24: 80% in cycle 25 and 40% in cycle 26.

  2. Prediction of solar activity from solar background magnetic field variations in cycles 21-23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Simon J. [School of Engineering, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP (United Kingdom); Zharkov, Sergei I. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, Kingston upon Tyne, HU6 7RS (United Kingdom); Zharkova, Valentina V., E-mail: s.j.shepherd@brad.ac.uk, E-mail: s.zharkov@hull.ac.uk, E-mail: valentina.zharkova@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics and Information Systems, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive spectral analysis of both the solar background magnetic field (SBMF) in cycles 21-23 and the sunspot magnetic field in cycle 23 reported in our recent paper showed the presence of two principal components (PCs) of SBMF having opposite polarity, e.g., originating in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Over a duration of one solar cycle, both waves are found to travel with an increasing phase shift toward the northern hemisphere in odd cycles 21 and 23 and to the southern hemisphere in even cycle 22. These waves were linked to solar dynamo waves assumed to form in different layers of the solar interior. In this paper, for the first time, the PCs of SBMF in cycles 21-23 are analyzed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles, allowing us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the SBMF presented by PCs and to extrapolate these PCs to cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 very closely fit (with an accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations in this cycle. This approach also predicts a strong reduction of the SBMF in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted PCs (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The variations of the modulus summary of the two PCs in SBMF reveals a remarkable resemblance to the average number of sunspots in cycles 21-24 and to predictions of reduced sunspot numbers compared to cycle 24: 80% in cycle 25 and 40% in cycle 26.

  3. Two principal components of solar magnetic field variations and prediction of solar activity on multi-millennium timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Popova, Helen; Zharkov, Sergei; Shepherd, Simon

    2016-07-01

    We present principal components analysis (PCA) of temporal magnetic field variations over the solar cycles 21-24 and their classification with symbolic regression analysis using Hamiltonian method. PCA reveals 4 pairs of magnetic waves with a significant variance and the two principal components with the highest eigen values covering about 40% of this variance. The PC waves are found to have close frequencies while travelling from the opposite hemispheres with an increasing phase shift. Extrapolation of these PCs through their summary curve backward for 5000 years reveals a repeated number of ~350-400 year grand cycles superimposed on 22 year-cycles with the features showing a remarkable resemblance to sunspot activity reported in the past including Maunder, Dalton and Wolf minima, as well as the modern, medieval and roman warmth periods. The summary curve calculated forward for the next millennium predicts further three grand cycles with the closest grand minimum (Maunder minimum) occurring in the forthcoming cycles 25-27 when the two magnetic field waves approach the phase shift of 11 years. We also note a super-grand cycle of about 2000 years which reveal the 5 repeated grand cycles of 350 years with the similar patterns. We discuss a role of other 3 pairs of magnetic waves in shaping the solar activity and compare our predicted curve with the previous predictions of the solar activity on a long timescale based on the terrestrial proxies. These grand cycle variations are probed by Parker's two layer dynamo model with meridional circulation revealing two dynamo waves generated with close frequencies. Their interaction leads to beating effects responsible for the grand cycles (300-350 years) and super-grand cycles of 2000 years superimposed on standard 22 year cycles. This approach opens a new era in investigation and prediction of solar activity on long-term timescales.

  4. Genetic variation in the proximal promoter of ABC and SLC superfamilies: liver and kidney specific expression and promoter activity predict variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Hesselson

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters play crucial roles in the cellular uptake and efflux of an array of small molecules including nutrients, environmental toxins, and many clinically used drugs. We hypothesized that common genetic variation in the proximal promoter regions of transporter genes contribute to observed variation in drug response. A total of 579 polymorphisms were identified in the proximal promoters (-250 to +50 bp and flanking 5' sequence of 107 transporters in the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC and Solute Carrier (SLC superfamilies in 272 DNA samples from ethnically diverse populations. Many transporter promoters contained multiple common polymorphisms. Using a sliding window analysis, we observed that, on average, nucleotide diversity (pi was lowest at approximately 300 bp upstream of the transcription start site, suggesting that this region may harbor important functional elements. The proximal promoters of transporters that were highly expressed in the liver had greater nucleotide diversity than those that were highly expressed in the kidney consistent with greater negative selective pressure on the promoters of kidney transporters. Twenty-one promoters were evaluated for activity using reporter assays. Greater nucleotide diversity was observed in promoters with strong activity compared to promoters with weak activity, suggesting that weak promoters are under more negative selective pressure than promoters with high activity. Collectively, these results suggest that the proximal promoter region of membrane transporters is rich in variation and that variants in these regions may play a role in interindividual variation in drug disposition and response.

  5. Prediction of interannual climate variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been known for some time that the behavior of the short-term fluctuations of the earth's atmosphere resembles that of a chaotic non-linear dynamical system, and that the day-to-day weather cannot be predicted beyond a few weeks. However, it has also been found that the interactions of the atmosphere with the underlying oceans and the land surfaces can produce fluctuations whose time scales are much longer than the limits of deterministic prediction of weather. It is, therefore, natural to ask whether it is possible that the seasonal and longer time averages of climate fluctuations can be predicted with sufficient skill to be beneficial for social and economic applications, even though the details of day-to-day weather cannot be predicted beyond a few weeks. The main objective of the workshop was to address this question by assessing the current state of knowledge on predictability of seasonal and interannual climate variability and to investigate various possibilities for its prediction. (orig./KW)

  6. Long-term variations in the north-south asymmetry of solar activity and solar cycle prediction, III: prediction for the amplitude of solar cycle 25

    CERN Document Server

    Javaraiah, J

    2014-01-01

    The combined Greenwich and Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) sunspot group data during 1874-2013 are analyzed and studied the relatively long-term variations in the annual sums of the areas of sunspot groups in 0-10 deg, 10-20 deg, and 20-30 deg latitude intervals of the Sun's northern and southern hemispheres. The variations in the corresponding north-south differences are also studied. Long periodicities in these parameters are determined from the fast Fourier transform (FFT), maximum entropy method (MEM), and Morlet wavelet analysis. It is found that in the difference between the sums of the areas of the sunspot groups in 0-10 deg latitude intervals of northern and southern hemispheres, there exist ~9-year periodicity during the high activity period 1940-1980 and ~12-year periodicity during the low activity period 1890-1939. It is also found that there exists a high correlation (85% from 128 data points) between the sum of the areas of the sunspot groups in 0-10 deg latitude interval of the southern h...

  7. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Pers, Tune;

    2015-01-01

    traits in a linear regression. We show in this proof-of-concept study for facial trait prediction from genome-wide SNP data that some facial characteristics can be modeled by genetic information: facial width, eyebrow width, distance between eyes, and features involving mouth shape are predicted with...

  8. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Pers, Tune;

    2015-01-01

    Research into the importance of the human genome in the context of facial appearance is receiving increasing attention and has led to the detection of several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of importance. In this work we attempt a holistic approach predicting facial characteristics from g...

  9. Dynamo theory prediction of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamo theory technique to predict decadal time scale solar activity variations is introduced. The technique was developed following puzzling correlations involved with geomagnetic precursors of solar activity. Based upon this, a dynamo theory method was developed to predict solar activity. The method was used successfully in solar cycle 21 by Schatten, Scherrer, Svalgaard, and Wilcox, after testing with 8 prior solar cycles. Schatten and Sofia used the technique to predict an exceptionally large cycle, peaking early (in 1990) with a sunspot value near 170, likely the second largest on record. Sunspot numbers are increasing, suggesting that: (1) a large cycle is developing, and (2) that the cycle may even surpass the largest cycle (19). A Sporer Butterfly method shows that the cycle can now be expected to peak in the latter half of 1989, consistent with an amplitude comparable to the value predicted near the last solar minimum.

  10. Predicting Individual Variation in Language From Infant Speech Perception Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda; Junge, Caroline; Soderstrom, Melanie; Hagoort, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing reports that individual variation in behavioral and neurophysiological measures of infant speech processing predicts later language outcomes, and specifically concurrent or subsequent vocabulary size. If such findings are held up under scrutiny, they could both illuminate theore

  11. Predicting individual variation in language from infant speech perception measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Christia; A. Seidl; C. Junge; M. Soderstrom; P. Hagoort

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing reports that individual variation in behavioral and neurophysiological measures of infant speech processing predicts later language outcomes, and specifically concurrent or subsequent vocabulary size. If such findings are held up under scrutiny, they could both illuminate theore

  12. Predicting global variation in infectious disease severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Moestrup; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    2016-01-01

    and leptospirosis and assessed these for association with a range of population characteristics, such as crude birth and death rates, median age of the population, mean body mass index, proportion living in urban areas and tuberculosis vaccine coverage. We then tested this predictive model on Danish his- torical...... demographic and population data. Results: Birth rates were the best predictor for mumps and malaria CFR. For tuberculosis CFR death rates were the best predictor and for leptospirosis population density was a significant predictor. Conclusions and implications: CFR predictors differed among diseases according...

  13. Genotypic richness predicts phenotypic variation in an endangered clonal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Suzanna M; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Poore, Alistair G B; Bain, Keryn F; Vergés, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Declines in genetic diversity within a species can affect the stability and functioning of populations. The conservation of genetic diversity is thus a priority, especially for threatened or endangered species. The importance of genetic variation, however, is dependent on the degree to which it translates into phenotypic variation for traits that affect individual performance and ecological processes. This is especially important for predominantly clonal species, as no single clone is likely to maximise all aspects of performance. Here we show that intraspecific genotypic diversity as measured using microsatellites is a strong predictor of phenotypic variation in morphological traits and shoot productivity of the threatened, predominantly clonal seagrass Posidonia australis, on the east coast of Australia. Biomass and surface area variation was most strongly predicted by genotypic richness, while variation in leaf chemistry (phenolics and nitrogen) was unrelated to genotypic richness. Genotypic richness did not predict tissue loss to herbivores or epiphyte load, however we did find that increased herbivore damage was positively correlated with allelic richness. Although there was no clear relationship between higher primary productivity and genotypic richness, variation in shoot productivity within a meadow was significantly greater in more genotypically diverse meadows. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by environmental conditions varied among different genotypes, and there was generally no variation in phenotypic traits among genotypes present in the same meadows. Our results show that genotypic richness as measured through the use of presumably neutral DNA markers does covary with phenotypic variation in functionally relevant traits such as leaf morphology and shoot productivity. The remarkably long lifespan of individual Posidonia plants suggests that plasticity within genotypes has played an important role in the longevity of the species

  14. Predicting individual variation in language from infant speech perception measures

    OpenAIRE

    Cristia, A.; Seidl, A; Junge, C.; Soderstrom, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing reports that individual variation in behavioral and neurophysiological measures of infant speech processing predicts later language outcomes, and specifically concurrent or subsequent vocabulary size. If such findings are held up under scrutiny, they could both illuminate theoretical models of language development and contribute to the prediction of communicative disorders. A qualitative, systematic review of this emergent literature illustrated the variety of approaches ...

  15. The cortical eye proprioceptive signal modulates neural activity in higher-order visual cortex as predicted by the variation in visual sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Siebner, Hartwig R; Paulson, Olaf B;

    2012-01-01

    target when the right eye was rotated leftwards as compared with when it was rotated rightwards. This effect was larger after S1(EYE)-rTMS than after rTMS of a control area in the motor cortex. The neural response to retinally identical stimuli in this area could be predicted from the changes in visual......Whereas the links between eye movements and the shifts in visual attention are well established, less is known about how eye position affects the prioritization of visual space. It was recently observed that visual sensitivity varies with the direction of gaze and the level of excitability...... detectability observed previously, but not from the location of the visual targets relative to the body. These results strongly argue for a modulatory connection from the eye proprioceptive area in the somatosensory cortex to the higher-order visual cortex. This connection may contribute to flexibly allocate...

  16. A simple physical model predicts small exon length variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common splice variations are small exon length variations caused by the use of alternative donor or acceptor splice sites that are in very close proximity on the pre-mRNA. Among these, three-nucleotide variations at so-called NAGNAG tandem acceptor sites have recently attracted considerable attention, and it has been suggested that these variations are regulated and serve to fine-tune protein forms by the addition or removal of a single amino acid. In this paper we first show that in-frame exon length variations are generally overrepresented and that this overrepresentation can be quantitatively explained by the effect of nonsense-mediated decay. Our analysis allows us to estimate that about 50% of frame-shifted coding transcripts are targeted by nonsense-mediated decay. Second, we show that a simple physical model that assumes that the splicing machinery stochastically binds to nearby splice sites in proportion to the affinities of the sites correctly predicts the relative abundances of different small length variations at both boundaries. Finally, using the same simple physical model, we show that for NAGNAG sites, the difference in affinities of the neighboring sites for the splicing machinery accurately predicts whether splicing will occur only at the first site, splicing will occur only at the second site, or three-nucleotide splice variants are likely to occur. Our analysis thus suggests that small exon length variations are the result of stochastic binding of the spliceosome at neighboring splice sites. Small exon length variations occur when there are nearby alternative splice sites that have similar affinity for the splicing machinery.

  17. Prediction of geomagnetic secular variation using data assimilation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. An important part of geopotential research is to develop models of the time-varying geomagnetic field, not only for scientific use but for practical purposes. The IGRF is the most commonly used model of the field; a very important aspect of this model is the secular variation (SV) model, from which predictions of the field are calculated up to 5 years after the initial epoch. This predictive model is currently calculated from observations alone. Here we propose a new approach, assimilating geomagnetic observations to geodynamo models for SV prediction. Assimilation of measurements and numerical models has been widely used in atmospheric and oceanic studies to better estimate the true dynamical states and to predict more accurately the changes of the observables in future. Similar approaches could be very useful for geomagnetic field modeling, in particular prediction of geomagnetic secular variation (SV) on decadal time scales. We have developed a geomagnetic data assimilation system (MoSSTDAS) to combine geomagnetic field model output for the past 7000 years and our numerical core dynamics model to better constrain the (numerical) core state, and to predict geomagnetic field and secular variations up to 20 years. Our forecast is very accurate. For 5-year forecast, the correlation between the field morphologies at the core-mantle boundary is greater than 99.5% over the 20th century, while the correlation between SVs is larger than 95%. To examine the broad applicability, we are modifying the assimilation process to best emulate the standard practice (e.g. IGRF) in the geomagnetic community, and to benchmark our results with those documented and published in the past.

  18. Seasonal variation in leisure time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitenbroek, D G

    1993-06-01

    In this paper seasonal variation in leisure time physical activity for exercise is studied and quantified with regard to several popular exercise activities and taking the respondents gender, occupational status, and age into consideration. The analysis concerns data collected by telephone in Scotland between January 1989 and March 1992. Data from 7,202 male and 9,284 female respondents is used in the analysis; cosinor analysis using GLIM is applied. Considerable seasonal variation was found affecting both outdoor and indoor activities. During the peak phase in July, 32% of the respondents reported exercising for at least 20 min three or more times during the previous week, in the winter period this decreased to 23%. Older respondents were found to exercise more later in the year and also showed seasonal variation to a larger extent than younger respondents. This is particularly so for those respondents who exercise at a relatively high frequency. PMID:8321115

  19. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating using predictive computational...

  20. Genetic variation in retinal vascular patterning predicts variation in pial collateral extent and stroke severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Pranay; Zhang, Hua; Chen, De; Faber, James E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a native collateral circulation in tissues lessens injury in occlusive vascular diseases. However, differences in genetic background cause wide variation in collateral number and diameter in mice, resulting in large variation in protection. Indirect estimates of collateral perfusion suggest that wide variation also exists in humans. Unfortunately, methods used to obtain these estimates are invasive and not widely available. We sought to determine whether differences in genetic background in mice result in variation in branch patterning of the retinal arterial circulation, and whether these differences predict strain-dependent differences in pial collateral extent and severity of ischemic stroke. Retinal patterning metrics, collateral extent, and infarct volume were obtained for 10 strains known to differ widely in collateral extent. Multivariate regression was conducted, and model performance was assessed using K-fold cross-validation. Twenty-one metrics varied with strain (pcollateral number and diameter across seven regression models, with the best model closely predicting (pcollaterals, K-fold R2=0.83-0.98), diameter (±1.2-1.9 μm, R2=0.73-0.88), and infarct volume (±5.1 mm3, R2=0.85-0.87). An analogous set of the most predictive metrics, obtained for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) tree in a subset of the above strains, also predicted (pcollateral number (±3.3 collaterals, K-fold R2=0.78) and diameter (±1.6 μm, R2=0.86). Thus, differences in arterial branch patterning in the retina and the MCA trees are specified by genetic background and predict variation in collateral extent and stroke severity. If also true in human, and since genetic variation in cerebral collaterals extends to other tissues at least in mice, a similar "retinal predictor index" could serve as a non- or minimally invasive biomarker for collateral extent in brain and other tissues. This could aid prediction of severity of tissue injury in the event of an occlusive event

  1. VARIATIONS OF SOLAR ROTATION AND SUNSPOT ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous wavelet transformation is used to study the temporal variations of the rotational cycle length of daily sunspot numbers from 1849 January 1 to 2010 February 28, from a global point of view. The rotational cycle length of the Sun is found to have a secular trend, which statistically shows a linear decrease by about 0.47 days during the time interval considered. The empirical mode decomposition analysis of the temporal variations of the rotational cycle length shows an acceleration trend for the surface rotation rate from cycles 11 to 19, but a deceleration trend from the beginning of cycle 20 onward. We cannot determine whether the rotation rate around the maximum times of the Schwable cycles should be faster or slower than that around the minimum times, implying no Schwable cycle in the long-term variations of rotation. The results obtained are compared to those from the literature. It is inferred that the variation of the rotational cycle length may be related to the variation of sunspot activity in the long run.

  2. Predicting individual variation in language from infant speech perception measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda; Junge, Caroline; Soderstrom, Melanie; Hagoort, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing reports that individual variation in behavioral and neurophysiological measures of infant speech processing predicts later language outcomes, and specifically concurrent or subsequent vocabulary size. If such findings are held up under scrutiny, they could both illuminate theoretical models of language development and contribute to the prediction of communicative disorders. A qualitative, systematic review of this emergent literature illustrated the variety of approaches that have been used and highlighted some conceptual problems regarding the measurements. A quantitative analysis of the same data established that the bivariate relation was significant, with correlations of similar strength to those found for well-established nonlinguistic predictors of language. Further exploration of infant speech perception predictors, particularly from a methodological perspective, is recommended. PMID:24320112

  3. Short communication: Genetic variation in estrus activity traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, P; Chagunda, M G G

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variation in estrus traits derived from hourly measurements by electronic activity tags was studied in an experimental herd of Holstein (n = 211), Jersey (n = 126), and Red Dane (n = 178) cows. Both virgin heifers (n = 132) and lactating cows in the first 4 parities (n = 895 cow parities......) were used, giving a total of 3,284 high-activity episodes indicating estrus. The first estrus after calving was predicted to occur on average, at 39, 44, and 45 d in milk for Red Danes, Holsteins, and Jerseys, respectively. Genetic variance was detected for the trait days to first high activity...

  4. Long-term variations of solar activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram we analyzed two sunspot series: the one over the past 11000 years at the 10-year interval based upon the survey data of 14C concentration in tree-rings, reconstructed by Solanki et al.; and the sunspot number over the past 7000 years, derived from geomagnetic variations by Usoskin et al. We found the periods and quasi-periods in solar activity, such as about 225, 352, 441, 522 and 561 a, and near 1000 and 2000 a. An approach of wavelet transform was applied to check the two sunspot time series, with emphasis on investigating time-varying characteristics in the long-term fluctuations of solar activity. The results show that the lengths and amplitudes of the periods have changed with time, and large variations have taken place during some periods.

  5. Predicting Variations in Math Performancein Four Countries Using TIMSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koretz

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Although international comparisons of average student performance are a staple of U.S. educational debate, little attention has been paid to cross-national differences in the variability of performance. It is often assumed that the performance of U.S. students is unusually variable or that the distribution of U.S. scores is left-skewed – that is, that it has an unusually long ‘tail' of low-scoring students – but data from international studies are rarely brought to bear on these questions. This study used data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS to compare the variability of performance in the U.S., Australia, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Korea, and Japan; investigate how this performance variation is distributed within and between classrooms; and explore how well background variables predict performance at both levels. TIMSS shows that the U.S. is not anomalous in terms of the amount, distribution, or prediction of performance variation. Nonetheless, some striking differences appear between countries that are potentially important for both research and policy. In the U.S., Germany, Hong Kong, and Australia, between 42 and 47 percent of score variance was between classrooms. At the other extreme, Japan and Korea both had less than 10 percent of score variance between classrooms. Two-level models (student and classroom were used to explore the prediction of performance by social background variables in four of these countries (the U.S., Hong Kong, France, and Korea. The final models included only a few variables; TIMSS lacked some important background variables, such as income, and other variables were dropped either because of problems revealed by exploratory data analysis or because of a lack of significance in the models. In all four countries, these sparse models predicted most of the between-classroom score variance (from 59 to 94 percent but very little of the within-classroom variance. Korea was the only

  6. ATHENS SEASONAL VARIATION OF GROUND RESISTANCE PREDICTION USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbazhagan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective in ground resistance is to attain the most minimal ground safety esteem conceivable that bodes well monetarily and physically. An application of artificial neural networks (ANN to presage and relegation has been growing rapidly due to sundry unique characteristics of ANN models. A decent forecast is able to capture the dubiousness associated with those ground resistance. A portion of the key instabilities are soil composition, moisture content, temperature, ground electrodes and spacing of the electrodes. Propelled by this need, this paper endeavors to develop a generalized regression neural network (GRNN to predict the ground resistance. The GRNN has a single design parameter and expeditious learning and efficacious modeling for nonlinear time series. The precision of the forecast is applied to the Athens seasonal variation of ground resistance that shows the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  7. Rare copy number deletions predict individual variation in intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A Yeo

    Full Text Available Phenotypic variation in human intellectual functioning shows substantial heritability, as demonstrated by a long history of behavior genetic studies. Many recent molecular genetic studies have attempted to uncover specific genetic variations responsible for this heritability, but identified effects capture little variance and have proven difficult to replicate. The present study, motivated an interest in "mutation load" emerging from evolutionary perspectives, examined the importance of the number of rare (or infrequent copy number variations (CNVs, and the total number of base pairs included in such deletions, for psychometric intelligence. Genetic data was collected using the Illumina 1MDuoBeadChip Array from a sample of 202 adult individuals with alcohol dependence, and a subset of these (N = 77 had been administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. After removing CNV outliers, the impact of rare genetic deletions on psychometric intelligence was investigated in 74 individuals. The total length of the rare deletions significantly and negatively predicted intelligence (r = -.30, p = .01. As prior studies have indicated greater heritability in individuals with relatively higher parental socioeconomic status (SES, we also examined the impact of ethnicity (Anglo/White vs. Other, as a proxy measure of SES; these groups did not differ on any genetic variable. This categorical variable significantly moderated the effect of length of deletions on intelligence, with larger effects being noted in the Anglo/White group. Overall, these results suggest that rare deletions (between 5% and 1% population frequency or less adversely affect intellectual functioning, and that pleotropic effects might partly account for the association of intelligence with health and mental health status. Significant limitations of this research, including issues of generalizability and CNV measurement, are discussed.

  8. Predictable patterns in planetary transit timing variations and transit duration variations due to exomoons

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René; Placek, Ben; Angerhausen, Daniel; Agol, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present new ways to identify single and multiple moons around extrasolar planets using planetary transit timing variations (TTVs) and transit duration variations (TDVs). For planets with one moon, measurements from successive transits exhibit a hitherto undescribed pattern in the TTV-TDV diagram, originating from the stroboscopic sampling of the planet's orbit around the planet-moon barycenter. This pattern is fully determined and analytically predictable after three consecutive transits. The more measurements become available, the more the TTV-TDV diagram approaches an ellipse. For planets with multiple moons in orbital mean motion resonance (MMR), like the Galilean moons, the pattern is much more complex and addressed numerically in this report. Exomoons in MMR can also form closed, predictable TTV-TDV figures if the drift of the moons' pericenters is sufficiently slow. We find that MMR exomoons produce loops in the TTV-TDV diagram and that the number of these loops is equal to the order of the MMR, or t...

  9. Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for geomagnetic field variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern geomagnetic field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the internal geomagnetic field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the internal geomagnetic weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals. To date, geomagnetic excursions have been identified by virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any geomagnetic time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals

  10. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  11. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Erin W; Tahmasebi, Amir; French, Leon; Kovacevic, Natasa; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Juergen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Nichols, Thomas; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcela; Smolka, Michal N; Ströhle, Andreas; Toro, Roberto; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-08-01

    Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML), we related this global genetic variance to that in the brain response to facial expressions, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a community-based sample of adolescents (n = 1,620). Brain response to facial expressions was measured in 25 regions constituting a face network, as defined previously. In 9 out of these 25 regions, common genetic variance explained a significant proportion of phenotypic variance (40-50%) in their response to ambiguous facial expressions; this was not the case for angry facial expressions. Across the network, the strength of the genotype-phenotype relationship varied as a function of the inter-individual variability in the number of functional connections possessed by a given region (R(2) = 0.38, p<0.001). Furthermore, this variability showed an inverted U relationship with both the number of observed connections (R2 = 0.48, p<0.001) and the magnitude of brain response (R(2) = 0.32, p<0.001). Thus, a significant proportion of the brain response to facial expressions is predicted by common genetic variance in a subset of regions constituting the face network. These regions show the highest inter-individual variability in the number of connections with other network nodes, suggesting that the genetic model captures variations across the adolescent brains in co-opting these regions into the face network.

  12. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin W Dickie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML, we related this global genetic variance to that in the brain response to facial expressions, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in a community-based sample of adolescents (n = 1,620. Brain response to facial expressions was measured in 25 regions constituting a face network, as defined previously. In 9 out of these 25 regions, common genetic variance explained a significant proportion of phenotypic variance (40-50% in their response to ambiguous facial expressions; this was not the case for angry facial expressions. Across the network, the strength of the genotype-phenotype relationship varied as a function of the inter-individual variability in the number of functional connections possessed by a given region (R(2 = 0.38, p<0.001. Furthermore, this variability showed an inverted U relationship with both the number of observed connections (R2 = 0.48, p<0.001 and the magnitude of brain response (R(2 = 0.32, p<0.001. Thus, a significant proportion of the brain response to facial expressions is predicted by common genetic variance in a subset of regions constituting the face network. These regions show the highest inter-individual variability in the number of connections with other network nodes, suggesting that the genetic model captures variations across the adolescent brains in co-opting these regions into the face network.

  13. Rare Copy Number Deletions Predict Individual Variation in Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Ronald A.; Gangestad, Steven W.; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kent E. Hutchison

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in human intellectual functioning shows substantial heritability, as demonstrated by a long history of behavior genetic studies. Many recent molecular genetic studies have attempted to uncover specific genetic variations responsible for this heritability, but identified effects capture little variance and have proven difficult to replicate. The present study, motivated an interest in “mutation load” emerging from evolutionary perspectives, examined the importance of the n...

  14. Activity Prediction: A Twitter-based Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Weerkamp, W.; Rijke, de, M.

    2012-01-01

    Social media platforms allow users to share their messages with everyone else. In microblogs, e.g., Twitter, people mostly report on what they did, they talk about current activities, and mention things they plan to do in the near future. In this paper, we propose the task of activity prediction, that is, trying to establish a set of activities that are likely to become popular at a later time. We perform a small-scale initial experiment, in which we try to predict popular activities for the ...

  15. K Variations and Anisotropy: Microstructure Effect and Numerical Predictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭东; 李华清

    2003-01-01

    Computer experiments were performed on simulated polycrystalline material samples that possess locally anisotropic microstructures to investigate stress intensity factor ( K ) variations and anisotropy along fronts of microcracks of different sizes. The anisotropic K , arising from inhomogeneous stresses in broken grains, was determined for planar microcracks by using a weight function-based numerical technique. It has been found that the grain-orientation-geometry-induced local anisotropy produces large variations in K along front of microcracks, when the crack size is of the order of few grain diameters. Synergetic effect of grain orientation and geometry of broken grains control K variations and evolution along the microcrack front. The K variations may diminish at large crack sizes, signifying a shift of K calculation to bulk stress dependence from local stress dependence. Local grain geometry and texture may lead to K anisotropy, producing unusually higher/lower K at a segment of the crack front. Either K variation or anisotropy cannot be ignored when assessing a microcrack.

  16. Genetic variation in retinal vascular patterning predicts variation in pial collateral extent and stroke severity

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar, Pranay; Zhang, Hua; Chen, De; Faber, James E.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a native collateral circulation in tissues lessens injury in occlusive vascular diseases. However, differences in genetic background cause wide variation in collateral number and diameter in mice, resulting in large variation in protection. Indirect estimates of collateral perfusion suggest wide variation also exists in humans. Unfortunately, methods used to obtain these estimates are invasive and not widely available. We sought to determine if differences in genetic backgroun...

  17. Common polygenic variation enhances risk prediction for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escott-Price, Valentina; Sims, Rebecca; Bannister, Christian; Harold, Denise; Vronskaya, Maria; Majounie, Elisa; Badarinarayan, Nandini; Morgan, Kevin; Passmore, Peter; Holmes, Clive; Powell, John; Brayne, Carol; Gill, Michael; Mead, Simon; Goate, Alison; Cruchaga, Carlos; Lambert, Jean-Charles; van Duijn, Cornelia; Maier, Wolfgang; Ramirez, Alfredo; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Hardy, John; Seshadri, Sudha; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Amouyel, Philippe; Williams, Julie

    2015-12-01

    The identification of subjects at high risk for Alzheimer's disease is important for prognosis and early intervention. We investigated the polygenic architecture of Alzheimer's disease and the accuracy of Alzheimer's disease prediction models, including and excluding the polygenic component in the model. This study used genotype data from the powerful dataset comprising 17 008 cases and 37 154 controls obtained from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). Polygenic score analysis tested whether the alleles identified to associate with disease in one sample set were significantly enriched in the cases relative to the controls in an independent sample. The disease prediction accuracy was investigated in a subset of the IGAP data, a sample of 3049 cases and 1554 controls (for whom APOE genotype data were available) by means of sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and positive and negative predictive values. We observed significant evidence for a polygenic component enriched in Alzheimer's disease (P = 4.9 × 10(-26)). This enrichment remained significant after APOE and other genome-wide associated regions were excluded (P = 3.4 × 10(-19)). The best prediction accuracy AUC = 78.2% (95% confidence interval 77-80%) was achieved by a logistic regression model with APOE, the polygenic score, sex and age as predictors. In conclusion, Alzheimer's disease has a significant polygenic component, which has predictive utility for Alzheimer's disease risk and could be a valuable research tool complementing experimental designs, including preventative clinical trials, stem cell selection and high/low risk clinical studies. In modelling a range of sample disease prevalences, we found that polygenic scores almost doubles case prediction from chance with increased prediction at polygenic extremes. PMID:26490334

  18. Predictive Models of Recombination Rate Variation across the Drosophila melanogaster Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Andrew B.; Corchado, Johnny Cruz; Comeron, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    In all eukaryotic species examined, meiotic recombination, and crossovers in particular, occur non‐randomly along chromosomes. The cause for this non-random distribution remains poorly understood but some specific DNA sequence motifs have been shown to be enriched near crossover hotspots in a number of species. We present analyses using machine learning algorithms to investigate whether DNA motif distribution across the genome can be used to predict crossover variation in Drosophila melanogaster, a species without hotspots. Our study exposes a combinatorial non-linear influence of motif presence able to account for a significant fraction of the genome-wide variation in crossover rates at all genomic scales investigated, from 20% at 5-kb to almost 70% at 2,500-kb scale. The models are particularly predictive for regions with the highest and lowest crossover rates and remain highly informative after removing sub-telomeric and -centromeric regions known to have strongly reduced crossover rates. Transcriptional activity during early meiosis and differences in motif use between autosomes and the X chromosome add to the predictive power of the models. Moreover, we show that population-specific differences in crossover rates can be partly explained by differences in motif presence. Our results suggest that crossover distribution in Drosophila is influenced by both meiosis-specific chromatin dynamics and very local constitutive open chromatin associated with DNA motifs that prevent nucleosome stabilization. These findings provide new information on the genetic factors influencing variation in recombination rates and a baseline to study epigenetic mechanisms responsible for plastic recombination as response to different biotic and abiotic conditions and stresses. PMID:27492232

  19. Evolutionary rate variation and RNA secondary structure prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, B.; Andersen, E.S.; Damgaard, C.;

    2004-01-01

    . In addition we obtained an alignment of the 5' HIV-1 region that is more consistent with the structure than that currently in the database. We added randomized noise to the original values of the rates to investigate the stability of predictions to rate matrix deviations. We find that changes within a fairly...

  20. Parameter variations in prediction skill optimization at ECMWF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollinaho, P.; Bechtold, P.; Leutbecher, M.; Laine, M.; Solonen, A.; Haario, H.; Järvinen, H.

    2013-11-01

    Algorithmic numerical weather prediction (NWP) skill optimization has been tested using the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We report the results of initial experimentation using importance sampling based on model parameter estimation methodology targeted for ensemble prediction systems, called the ensemble prediction and parameter estimation system (EPPES). The same methodology was earlier proven to be a viable concept in low-order ordinary differential equation systems, and in large-scale atmospheric general circulation models (ECHAM5). Here we show that prediction skill optimization is possible even in the context of a system that is (i) of very high dimensionality, and (ii) carefully tuned to very high skill. We concentrate on four closure parameters related to the parameterizations of sub-grid scale physical processes of convection and formation of convective precipitation. We launch standard ensembles of medium-range predictions such that each member uses different values of the four parameters, and make sequential statistical inferences about the parameter values. Our target criterion is the squared forecast error of the 500 hPa geopotential height at day three and day ten. The EPPES methodology is able to converge towards closure parameter values that optimize the target criterion. Therefore, we conclude that estimation and cost function-based tuning of low-dimensional static model parameters is possible despite the very high dimensional state space, as well as the presence of stochastic noise due to initial state and physical tendency perturbations. The remaining question before EPPES can be considered as a generally applicable tool in model development is the correct formulation of the target criterion. The one used here is, in our view, very selective. Considering the multi-faceted question of improving forecast model performance, a more general target criterion should be developed

  1. Prediction of fine-tuned promoter activity from DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwo, Geoffrey; Rider, Andrew; Tan, Asako; Pinapati, Richard; Emrich, Scott; Chawla, Nitesh; Ferdig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative prediction of transcriptional activity of genes using promoter sequence is fundamental to the engineering of biological systems for industrial purposes and understanding the natural variation in gene expression. To catalyze the development of new algorithms for this purpose, the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) organized a community challenge seeking predictive models of promoter activity given normalized promoter activity data for 90 ribosomal protein promoters driving expression of a fluorescent reporter gene. By developing an unbiased modeling approach that performs an iterative search for predictive DNA sequence features using the frequencies of various k-mers, inferred DNA mechanical properties and spatial positions of promoter sequences, we achieved the best performer status in this challenge. The specific predictive features used in the model included the frequency of the nucleotide G, the length of polymeric tracts of T and TA, the frequencies of 6 distinct trinucleotides and 12 tetranucleotides, and the predicted protein deformability of the DNA sequence. Our method accurately predicted the activity of 20 natural variants of ribosomal protein promoters (Spearman correlation r = 0.73) as compared to 33 laboratory-mutated variants of the promoters (r = 0.57) in a test set that was hidden from participants. Notably, our model differed substantially from the rest in 2 main ways: i) it did not explicitly utilize transcription factor binding information implying that subtle DNA sequence features are highly associated with gene expression, and ii) it was entirely based on features extracted exclusively from the 100 bp region upstream from the translational start site demonstrating that this region encodes much of the overall promoter activity. The findings from this study have important implications for the engineering of predictable gene expression systems and the evolution of gene expression in naturally occurring

  2. Real-time rapid prediction of variations of Earth's rotational rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG QiJie; LIAO DeOhun; ZHOU YongHong

    2008-01-01

    Real-time rapid prediction of variations of the Earth's rotational rate is of great scientific and practical importance. However, due to the complicated time-variable characteristics of variations of the Earth's rotational rate (i.e., length of day, LOD), it is usually difficult to obtain satisfactory predictions by con-ventional linear time series analysis methods. This study employs the nonlinear artificial neural net-works (ANN) to predict the LOD variations. The topology of the ANN model is determined by minimizing the root mean square errors (RMSE) of the predictions. Considering the close relationships between the LOD variations and the atmospheric circulation movement, the operational prediction series of axial atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) is incorporated into the ANN model as an additional input in the real-time rapid prediction of LOD variations with 1 -5 days ahead. The results show that the LOD pre-diction is significantly improved after introducing the operational prediction series of AAM into the ANN model.

  3. Intra- and Inter-Fractional Variation Prediction of Lung Tumors Using Fuzzy Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seonyeong; Lee, Suk Jin; Weiss, Elisabeth; Motai, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Tumor movements should be accurately predicted to improve delivery accuracy and reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to healthy tissue during radiotherapy. The tumor movements pertaining to respiration are divided into intra-fractional variation occurring in a single treatment session and inter-fractional variation arising between different sessions. Most studies of patients' respiration movements deal with intra-fractional variation. Previous studies on inter-fractional variation are hardly mathematized and cannot predict movements well due to inconstant variation. Moreover, the computation time of the prediction should be reduced. To overcome these limitations, we propose a new predictor for intra- and inter-fractional data variation, called intra- and inter-fraction fuzzy deep learning (IIFDL), where FDL, equipped with breathing clustering, predicts the movement accurately and decreases the computation time. Through the experimental results, we validated that the IIFDL improved root-mean-square error (RMSE) by 29.98% and prediction overshoot by 70.93%, compared with existing methods. The results also showed that the IIFDL enhanced the average RMSE and overshoot by 59.73% and 83.27%, respectively. In addition, the average computation time of IIFDL was 1.54 ms for both intra- and inter-fractional variation, which was much smaller than the existing methods. Therefore, the proposed IIFDL might achieve real-time estimation as well as better tracking techniques in radiotherapy. PMID:27170914

  4. Individual variation in avian reproductive physiology does not reliably predict variation in laying date

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Sonja V.; Dawson, Alistair; Sharp, Peter J.; Caro, Samuel P.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2012-01-01

    Most animals reproduce seasonally. They time their reproduction in response to environmental cues, like increasing photoperiod and temperature, which are predictive for the time of high food availability. Although individuals of a population use the same cues, they vary in their onset of reproductio

  5. Application of Method of Variation to Analyze and Predict Human Induced Modifications of Water Resource Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessu, S. B.; Melesse, A. M.; Mahadev, B.; McClain, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water resource systems have often used gravitational surface and subsurface flows because of their practicality in hydrological modeling and prediction. Activities such as inter/intra-basin water transfer, the use of small pumps and the construction of micro-ponds challenge the tradition of natural rivers as water resource management unit. On the contrary, precipitation is barely affected by topography and plot harvesting in wet regions can be more manageable than diverting from rivers. Therefore, it is indicative to attend to systems where precipitation drives the dynamics while the internal mechanics constitutes spectrum of human activity and decision in a network of plots. The trade-in volume and path of harvested precipitation depends on water balance, energy balance and the kinematics of supply and demand. Method of variation can be used to understand and predict the implication of local excess precipitation harvest and exchange on the natural water system. A system model was developed using the variational form of Euler-Bernoulli’s equation for the Kenyan Mara River basin. Satellite derived digital elevation models, precipitation estimates, and surface properties such as fractional impervious surface area, are used to estimate the available water resource. Four management conditions are imposed in the model: gravitational flow, open water extraction and high water use investment at upstream and downstream respectively. According to the model, the first management maintains the basin status quo while the open source management could induce externality. The high water market at the upstream in the third management offers more than 50% of the basin-wide total revenue to the upper third section of the basin thus may promote more harvesting. The open source and upstream exploitation suggest potential drop of water availability to downstream. The model exposed the latent potential of economic gradient to reconfigure the flow network along the direction where the

  6. CERAPP: Collaborative estrogen receptor activity prediction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER......). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. oBjectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project......) and demonstrate the efficacy of using predictive computational models trained on high-throughput screening data to evaluate thousands of chemicals for ER-related activity and prioritize them for further testing. Methods: CERAPP combined multiple models developed in collaboration with 17 groups in the United...

  7. CREATING THE KULTUK POLYGON FOR EARTHQUAKE PREDICTION: VARIATIONS OF (234U/238U AND 87SR/86SR IN GROUNDWATER FROM ACTIVE FAULTS AT THE WESTERN SHORE OF LAKE BAIKAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Rasskazov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Determinations of (234U/238U in groundwater samples are used for monitoring current deformations in active faults (parentheses denote activity ratio units. The cyclic equilibrium of activity ratio 234U/238U≈≈(234U/238U≈γ≈1 corresponds to the atomic ratio ≈5.47×10–5. This parameter may vary due to higher contents of 234U nuclide in groundwater as a result of rock deformation. This effect discovered by P.I. Chalov and V.V. Cherdyntsev was described in [Cherdyntsev, 1969, 1973; Chalov, 1975; Chalov et al., 1990; Faure, 1989]. In 1970s and 1980s, only quite laborious methods were available for measuring uranium isotopic ratios. Today it is possible to determine concentrations and isotopic ration of uranium by express analytical techniques using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP‐MS [Halicz et al., 2000; Shen et al., 2002; Cizdziel et al., 2005; Chebykin et al., 2007]. Sets of samples canbe efficiently analysed by ICP‐MS, and regularly collected uranium isotope values can be systematized at a new quality level for the purposes of earthquake prediction. In this study of (234U/238U in groundwater at the Kultuk polygon, we selected stations of the highest sensitivity, which can ensure proper monitoring of the tectonic activity of the Obruchev and Main Sayan faults. These two faults that limit the Sharyzhalgai block of the crystalline basement of the Siberian craton in the south are conjugated in the territory of the Kultuk polygon (Fig 1. Forty sets of samples taken from 27 June 2012 to 28 January 2014 were analysed, and data on 170 samples are discussed in this paper.Methods. Isotope compositions of uranium and strontium were determined by methods described in [Chebykin et al., 2007; Pin et al., 1992] with modifications. Analyses of uranium by ISP‐MS technique were performed using an Agilent 7500ce quadrapole mass spectrometer of the Ultramicroanalysis Collective Use Centre; analyses of

  8. Ionospheric Variations in the Region of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Crest: Comparison Between Observations and IRI-2012 Model Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, E. O.; Bolaji, S.; Adewale, A. O.; Akala, A. O.; Oladipo, O. A.; Olugbon, B.; Olawepo, O. A.; Adeniyi, J. O.; Adimula, I.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this work is to study the variations of the F2-layer critical frequency (foF2) in the region of equatorial ionization anomaly crest and check the accuracy of International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model predictions using ionosonde measurements from a number of stations in this region. We have used data, based on availability, corresponding to different seasonal and solar activity periods from each station considered to carry out our investigations. Details of the statistical analysis using percentage deviation (PD), upper and lower inter-quartile range (IQR) and relative deviation module mean (RDMM) for the evaluation of the IRI model performance are presented. The results show that, generally, the IRI model predictions have agreement with the observed values in terms of the pattern of variations but there are number of cases where IRI model overestimates and underestimates the observed values. Results from this study will be of help to improving prediction ability of the IRI models.

  9. On the level of skill in predicting maximum sunspot number - A comparative study of single variate and bivariate precursor techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The level of skill in predicting the size of the sunspot cycle is investigated for the two types of precursor techniques, single variate and bivariate fits, both applied to cycle 22. The present level of growth in solar activity is compared to the mean level of growth (cycles 10-21) and to the predictions based on the precursor techniques. It is shown that, for cycle 22, both single variate methods (based on geomagnetic data) and bivariate methods suggest a maximum amplitude smaller than that observed for cycle 19, and possibly for cycle 21. Compared to the mean cycle, cycle 22 is presently behaving as if it were a +2.6 sigma cycle (maximum amplitude of about 225), which means that either it will be the first cycle not to be reliably predicted by the combined precursor techniques or its deviation relative to the mean cycle will substantially decrease over the next 18 months.

  10. Platelet serotonin transporter function predicts default-mode network activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scharinger

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence.A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activity and platelet Vmax.The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity.This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation.

  11. Prediction control of active power filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉娜; 罗安

    2003-01-01

    A prediction method to obtain harmonic reference for active power filter is presented. It is a new use ofthe adaptive predictive filter based on FIR. The delay inherent in digital controller is successfully compensated by u-sing the proposed method, and the computing load is not very large compared with the conventional method. Moreo-ver, no additional hardware is needed. Its DSP-based realization is also presented, which is characterized by time-va-riant rate sampling, quasi synchronous sampling, and synchronous operation among the line frequency, PWM gener-ating and sampling in A/D unit. Synchronous operation releases the limitation on PWM modulation ratio and guar-antees that the electrical noises resulting from the switching operation of IGBTs do not interfere with the sampledcurrent. The simulation and experimental results verify the satisfactory performance of the proposed method.

  12. CREATING THE KULTUK POLYGON FOR EARTHQUAKE PREDICTION: VARIATIONS OF (234U/238U) AND 87SR/86SR IN GROUNDWATER FROM ACTIVE FAULTS AT THE WESTERN SHORE OF LAKE BAIKAL

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Rasskazov; E. P. Chebykin; A. M. Ilyasova; E. N. Vodneva; I. S. Chuvashova; Bornyakov, S. A.; A. K. Seminsky; S. V. Snopkov; V. V. Chechel'nitsky; N. A. Gileva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Determinations of (234U/238U) in groundwater samples are used for monitoring current deformations in active faults (parentheses denote activity ratio units). The cyclic equilibrium of activity ratio 234U/238U≈≈(234U/238U)≈γ≈1 corresponds to the atomic ratio ≈5.47×10–5. This parameter may vary due to higher contents of 234U nuclide in groundwater as a result of rock deformation. This effect discovered by P.I. Chalov and V.V. Cherdyntsev was described in [Cherdyntsev, 1969, 1973; ...

  13. Temporal patterns of saccadic eye movements predict individual variation in alternation rate during binocular rivalry

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Sarah; Gareze, Lynn; Findlay, John M; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Interindividual variation has been shown in the rates at which subjects alternate in perception during viewing of binocular rivalry and other ambiguous figures. A similar pattern of interindividual variation is evident in the rate of eye movements. The aim of this study was to determine whether individual differences in the rate of binocular rivalry predict individual differences in the rate of eye movements. First, participants reported changes in perception during contour rivalry. We found ...

  14. Prediction of Navigation Satellite Clock Bias Considering Clock's Stochastic Variation Behavior with Robust Least Square Collocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yupu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to better express the characteristic of satellite clock bias (SCB and further improve its prediction precision, a new SCB prediction model is proposed, which can take the physical feature, cyclic variation and stochastic variation behaviors of the space-borne atomic clock into consideration by using a robust least square collocation (LSC method. The proposed model firstly uses a quadratic polynomial model with periodic terms to fit and abstract the trend term and cyclic terms of SCB. Then for the residual stochastic variation part and possible gross errors hidden in SCB data, the model employs a robust LSC method to process them. The covariance function of the LSC is determined by selecting an empirical function and combining SCB prediction tests. Using the final precise IGS SCB products to conduct prediction tests, the results show that the proposed model can get better prediction performance. Specifically, the results' prediction accuracy can enhance 0.457 ns and 0.948 ns respectively, and the corresponding prediction stability can improve 0.445 ns and 1.233 ns, compared with the results of quadratic polynomial model and grey model. In addition, the results also show that the proposed covariance function corresponding to the new model is reasonable.

  15. Variation in GYS1 interacts with exercise and gender to predict cardiovascular mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Fredriksson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The muscle glycogen synthase gene (GYS1 has been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D, the metabolic syndrome (MetS, male myocardial infarction and a defective increase in muscle glycogen synthase protein in response to exercise. We addressed the questions whether polymorphism in GYS1 can predict cardiovascular (CV mortality in a high-risk population, if this risk is influenced by gender or physical activity, and if the association is independent of genetic variation in nearby apolipoprotein E gene (APOE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Polymorphisms in GYS1 (XbaIC>T and APOE (-219G>T, epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4 were genotyped in 4,654 subjects participating in the Botnia T2D-family study and followed for a median of eight years. Mortality analyses were performed using Cox proportional-hazards regression. During the follow-up period, 749 individuals died, 409 due to CV causes. In males the GYS1 XbaI T-allele (hazard ratio (HR 1.9 [1.2-2.9], T2D (2.5 [1.7-3.8], earlier CV events (1.7 [1.2-2.5], physical inactivity (1.9 [1.2-2.9] and smoking (1.5 [1.0-2.3] predicted CV mortality. The GYS1 XbaI T-allele predicted CV mortality particularly in physically active males (HR 1.7 [1.3-2.0]. Association of GYS1 with CV mortality was independent of APOE (219TT/epsilon4, which by its own exerted an effect on CV mortality risk in females (2.9 [1.9-4.4]. Other independent predictors of CV mortality in females were fasting plasma glucose (1.2 [1.1-1.2], high body mass index (BMI (1.0 [1.0-1.1], hypertension (1.9 [1.2-3.1], earlier CV events (1.9 [1.3-2.8] and physical inactivity (1.9 [1.2-2.8]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Polymorphisms in GYS1 and APOE predict CV mortality in T2D families in a gender-specific fashion and independently of each other. Physical exercise seems to unmask the effect associated with the GYS1 polymorphism, rendering carriers of the variant allele less susceptible to the protective effect of exercise on the risk of CV death

  16. Seasonal variations in daily rhythms of activity in athletic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolucci, C; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Piccione, G

    2008-07-01

    Circadian rhythms reflect extensive programming of biological activity that meets and exploits the challenges and opportunities offered by the periodic nature of the environment. In the present investigation, we recorded the total activity of athletic horses kept at four different times of the year (vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumn equinox and winter solstice), to evaluate the presence of seasonal variations of daily activity rhythms. Athletic Thoroughbred horses were kept in individual boxes with paddock. Digitally integrated measure of total activity of each mare was continuously recorded by actigraphy-based data loggers. Horse total activities were not evenly distributed over the day, but they were mainly diurnal during the year. Daily activity rhythms showed clear seasonal variations, with the highest daily amount of activity during the vernal equinox and the lowest during the winter solstice. Interestingly, the amount of activity during either photophase or scotophase changed significantly throughout the year. Circadian analysis of horse activities showed that the acrophase, the estimated time at which the peak of the rhythm occurs, did not change during the year, it always occurred in the middle of the photoperiod. Analysing the time structure of long-term and continuously measured activity and feeding could be a useful method to critically evaluate athletic horse management systems in which spontaneous locomotor activity and feeding are severely limited. Circadian rhythms are present in several elements of sensory motor and psychomotor functions and these would be taken into consideration to plan the training schedules and competitions in athletic horses. PMID:22443706

  17. T2 map signal variation predicts symptomatic osteoarthritis progression: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Haoti; Miller, David J. [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Electrical Engineering, University Park, PA (United States); Urish, Kenneth L. [Magee Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, The Bone and Joint Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this work is to use quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify patients at risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) progression. We hypothesized that classification of signal variation on T2 maps might predict symptomatic OA progression. Patients were selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a prospective cohort. Two groups were identified: a symptomatic OA progression group and a control group. At baseline, both groups were asymptomatic (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis [WOMAC] pain score total <10) with no radiographic evidence of OA (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] score ≤ 1). The OA progression group (n = 103) had a change in total WOMAC score greater than 10 by the 3-year follow-up. The control group (n = 79) remained asymptomatic, with a change in total WOMAC score less than 10 at the 3-year follow-up. A classifier was designed to predict OA progression in an independent population based on T2 map cartilage signal variation. The classifier was designed using a nearest neighbor classification based on a Gaussian Mixture Model log-likelihood fit of T2 map cartilage voxel intensities. The use of T2 map signal variation to predict symptomatic OA progression in asymptomatic individuals achieved a specificity of 89.3 %, a sensitivity of 77.2 %, and an overall accuracy rate of 84.2 %. T2 map signal variation can predict symptomatic knee OA progression in asymptomatic individuals, serving as a possible early OA imaging biomarker. (orig.)

  18. Predictive Distribution of the Dirichlet Mixture Model by the Local Variational Inference Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zhanyu; Leijon, Arne; Tan, Zheng-Hua;

    2014-01-01

    predictive likelihood of the new upcoming data, especially when the amount of training data is small. The Bayesian estimation of a Dirichlet mixture model (DMM) is, in general, not analytically tractable. In our previous work, we have proposed a global variational inference-based method for approximately...

  19. Noninvasively derived stroke volume variation by finger volume clamping can reliably predict fluid responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Jaap Jan; Poterman, Marieke; Struys, Michel; Scheeren, Thomas; Kalmar, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Goal of Study:  Dynamic preload variables derived from the arterial pressure waveform have been shown to accurately predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. One of these variables, stroke volume variation (SVV), can also be obtained noninvasively by the finger

  20. Predicting Risk Sensitivity in Humans and Lower Animals: Risk as Variance or Coefficient of Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.; Shafir, Sharoni; Blais, Ann-Renee

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the statistical determinants of risk preference. In a meta-analysis of animal risk preference (foraging birds and insects), the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of risk per unit of return, predicts choices far better than outcome variance, the risk measure of normative models. In a meta-analysis of human risk…

  1. Genomic Copy Number Variations in the Genomes of Leukocytes Predict Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan P Yu

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of prostate cancer clinical courses remains elusive. In this study, we performed whole genome copy number analysis on leukocytes of 273 prostate cancer patients using Affymetrix SNP6.0 chip. Copy number variations (CNV were found across all chromosomes of the human genome. An average of 152 CNV fragments per genome was identified in the leukocytes from prostate cancer patients. The size distributions of CNV in the genome of leukocytes were highly correlative with prostate cancer aggressiveness. A prostate cancer outcome prediction model was developed based on large size ratio of CNV from the leukocyte genomes. This prediction model generated an average prediction rate of 75.2%, with sensitivity of 77.3% and specificity of 69.0% for prostate cancer recurrence. When combined with Nomogram and the status of fusion transcripts, the average prediction rate was improved to 82.5% with sensitivity of 84.8% and specificity of 78.2%. In addition, the leukocyte prediction model was 62.6% accurate in predicting short prostate specific antigen doubling time. When combined with Gleason's grade, Nomogram and the status of fusion transcripts, the prediction model generated a correct prediction rate of 77.5% with 73.7% sensitivity and 80.1% specificity. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that CNVs in leukocyte genomes are predictive of clinical outcomes of a human malignancy.

  2. Genetic and nongenetic sources of variation in phospholipid transfer protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvik, Gail P; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Wolfbauer, Gertrud; McKinstry, Laura; Vaze, Aditya; Brunzell, John; Motulsky, Arno G; Nickerson, Deborah A; Heagerty, Patrick J; Wijsman, Ellen M; Albers, John J

    2010-05-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) belongs to the lipid transfer/lipopolysaccharide-binding protein gene family. Expression of PLTP has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. We evaluated the effects of PLTP region tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the prediction of both carotid artery disease (CAAD) and PLTP activity. CAAD effects were evaluated in 442 Caucasian male subjects with severe CAAD and 497 vascular disease-free controls. SNP prediction of PLTP transfer activity was evaluated in both a subsample of 87 subjects enriched for an allele of interest and in a confirmation sample of 210 Caucasian males and females. Hemoglobin A1c or insulin level predicted 11-14% of age- and sex-adjusted PLTP activity. PLTP SNPs that predicted approximately 11-30% of adjusted PLTP activity variance were identified in the two cohorts. For rs6065904, the allele that was associated with CAAD was also associated with elevated PLTP activity in both cohorts. SNPs associated with PLTP activity also predicted variation in LDL-cholesterol and LDL-B level only in the replication cohort. These results demonstrate that PLTP activity is strongly influenced by PLTP region polymorphisms and metabolic factors.

  3. Neutron flux variations near the Earth’s crust. A possible tectonic activity detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Kuzhevskij

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work contains some results of observations of neutron flux variations near the Earth’s surface. The Earth’s crust is determined to be a significant source of thermal and slow neutrons, originated from the interaction between the nuclei of the elements of the Earth’s crust and the atmosphere and α-particles, produced by decay of radioactive gases (Radon, Thoron and Actinon. In turn, variations of radioactive gases exhalation is connected with geodynamical processes in the Earth’s crust, including tectonic activity. This determined relation between the processes in the Earth’s crust and neutrons’ flux allow to use variations of thermal and slow neutrons’ flux in order to observe increasing tectonic activity and to develop methods for short-term prediction of natural hazards.

  4. Diurnal changes of earthquake activity and geomagnetic Sq-variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duma

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistic analyses demonstrate that the probability of earthquake occurrence in many earthquake regions strongly depends on the time of day, that is on Local Time (e.g. Conrad, 1909, 1932; Shimshoni, 1971; Duma, 1997; Duma and Vilardo, 1998. This also applies to strong earthquake activity. Moreover, recent observations reveal an involvement of the regular diurnal variations of the Earth’s magnetic field, commonly known as Sq-variations, in this geodynamic process of changing earthquake activity with the time of day (Duma, 1996, 1999. In the article it is attempted to quantify the forces which result from the interaction between the induced Sq-variation currents in the Earth’s lithosphere and the regional Earth’s magnetic field, in order to assess the influence on the tectonic stress field and on seismic activity. A reliable model is obtained, which indicates a high energy involved in this process. The effect of Sq-induction is compared with the results of the large scale electromagnetic experiment "Khibiny" (Velikhov, 1989, where a giant artificial current loop was activated in the Barents Sea.

  5. Response of global lightning activity to air temperature variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ming; TAO Shanchang; ZHU Baoyou; L(U) Weitao; TAN Yongbo

    2005-01-01

    It is an issue of great attention but yet not very clear whether lightning activities increase or decrease on a warmer world. Reeve et al. presented that lightning activities in global land and the Northern Hemisphere land have positive response to the increase of wet bulb temperature at 1000hPa. Is this positive response restricted only to wet bulb temperature or in land? What is the response of global lightning activities (in both land and ocean) to the global surface air temperature variation like? This paper, based on the 5-year or 8-year OTD/LIS satellite-based lightning detecting data and the NCEP reanalysis data, makes a reanalysis of the response of the global and regional lightning activities to temperature variations. The results show that on the interannual time scale the global total flash rate has positive response to the variation in global surface air temperature, with the sensitivity of 17±7% K-1. Also, the seasonal mean flash rate of continents all over the world and that of continents in the Northern Hemisphere have sensitive positive response to increase of global surface air temperature and wet bulb temperature, with the sensitivity of about 13±5% K-1, a bit lower than estimation of 40% K-1 in Reeve et al. However, the Southern Hemisphere and other areas like the tropics show no significant correlation.

  6. Intrapulpal temperature variation during bleaching with various activation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Masae de Araujo Michida

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intrapulpal temperature variation after bleaching treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide using different sources of activation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four human teeth were sectioned in the mesiodistal direction providing 48 specimens, and were divided into 4 groups (n=12: (G1 Control - Bleaching gel without light activation, (G2 Bleaching gel + halogen light, (G3 Bleaching gel + LED, (G4 Bleaching gel + Nd:YAG Laser. The temperatures were recorded using a digital thermometer at 4 time points: before bleaching gel application, 1 min after bleaching gel application, during activation of the bleaching gel, and after the bleaching agent turned from a dark-red into a clear gel. Data were analyzed statistically by the Dunnet's test, ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05. RESULTS: The mean intrapulpal temperature values (ºC in the groups were: G1: 0.617 ± 0.41; G2: 1.800 ± 0.68; G3: 0.975 ± 0.51; and G4: 4.325 ± 1.09. The mean maximum temperature variation (MTV values were: 1.5ºC (G1, 2.9ºC (G2, 1.7ºC (G3 and 6.9ºC (G4. When comparing the experimental groups to the control group, G3 was not statistically different from G1 (p>0.05, but G2 and G4 presented significantly higher (p<0.05 intrapulpal temperatures and MTV. The three experimental groups differed significantly (p<0.05 from each other. CONCLUSIONS: The Nd:YAG laser was the activation method that presented the highest values of intrapulpal temperature variation when compared with LED and halogen light. The group activated by LED light presented the lowest values of temperature variation, which were similar to that of the control group.

  7. Isomorph theory prediction for the dielectric loss variation along an isochrone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Wence; Tofteskov, Jon; Dyre, J. C.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper derives a prediction for the variation of the amplitude of the dielectric loss from isomorph theory, and presents an experimental test of the prediction performed by measuring the dielectric relaxation behavior of the van der Waals liquid 5-phenyl-4-ether (5PPE). The liquid is studied...... is the capacitance measurement at ambient pressure and C2 is the predicted capacitance at elevated pressure. We visually compare the predicted and measured plots and there is a good match between the two plots among the 42 pairs of isochronal states from the measurement...... isomorph-invariant terms, one of which is used in analyzing our data. It is the frequency-dependent term χe(f)ργ − 1, with electric susceptibility χe, density ρ, and density-scaling factor γ. Due to the unique design of our experimental setup, we obtain dielectric loss data where the amplitude...

  8. Explained variation and predictive accuracy in general parametric statistical models: the role of model misspecification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosthøj, Susanne; Keiding, Niels

    2004-01-01

    When studying a regression model measures of explained variation are used to assess the degree to which the covariates determine the outcome of interest. Measures of predictive accuracy are used to assess the accuracy of the predictions based on the covariates and the regression model. We give a ...... detailed and general introduction to the two measures and the estimation procedures. The framework we set up allows for a study of the effect of misspecification on the quantities estimated. We also introduce a generalization to survival analysis....

  9. Active structural vibration control: Robust to temperature variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek; Sharma, Manu; Thakur, Nagesh

    2012-11-01

    d-form augmented piezoelectric constitutive equations which take into account temperature dependence of piezoelectric strain coefficient (d31) and permittivity (∈33), are converted into e-form. Using e-form constitutive equations, a finite element model of a smart two dimensional plate instrumented with piezoelectric patches is derived. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton's variational principle. Coupled equations of motion are uncoupled using modal analysis. Modal state vectors are estimated using the Kalman observer. The first mode of smart cantilevered plate is actively controlled using negative first modal velocity feedback at various temperatures. Total control effort required to do so is calculated using the electro-mechanical impedance method. The temperature dependence of sensor voltage, control voltage, control effort and Kalman observer equations is shown analytically. Simulation results are presented using MATLAB. Variations in (i) peak sensor voltage, (ii) actual and estimated first modal velocities, (iii) peak control voltage, (iv) total control effort and (v) settling time with respect to temperature are presented. Active vibration control performance is not maintained at temperature away from reference temperature when the temperature dependence of piezoelectric stress coefficient ‘e31' and permittivity ‘∈33' is not included in piezoelectric constitutive equations. Active control of vibrations becomes robust to temperature variations when the temperature dependence of ‘e31' and ‘∈33' is included in piezoelectric constitutive equations.

  10. Fine-grained variation in caregivers' /s/ predicts their infants' /s/ category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristià, Alejandrina

    2011-05-01

    Within the debate on the mechanisms underlying infants' perceptual acquisition, one hypothesis proposes that infants' perception is directly affected by the acoustic implementation of sound categories in the speech they hear. In consonance with this view, the present study shows that individual variation in fine-grained, subphonemic aspects of the acoustic realization of /s/ in caregivers' speech predicts infants' discrimination of this sound from the highly similar /∫/, suggesting that learning based on acoustic cue distributions may indeed drive natural phonological acquisition.

  11. Intraspecific morphological and genetic variation of common species predicts ranges of threatened ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Trevon L.; Thomassen, Henri A.; Peralvo, Manuel; Buermann, Wolfgang; Milá, Borja; Kieswetter, Charles M.; Jarrín-V, Pablo; Devitt, Susan E. Cameron; Mason, Eliza; Schweizer, Rena M.; Schlunegger, Jasmin; Chan, Janice; Wang, Ophelia; Schneider, Christopher J.; Pollinger, John P.; Saatchi, Sassan; Graham, Catherine H.; Wayne, Robert K.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting where threatened species occur is useful for making informed conservation decisions. However, because they are usually rare, surveying threatened species is often expensive and time intensive. Here, we show how regions where common species exhibit high genetic and morphological divergence among populations can be used to predict the occurrence of species of conservation concern. Intraspecific variation of common species of birds, bats and frogs from Ecuador were found to be a significantly better predictor for the occurrence of threatened species than suites of environmental variables or the occurrence of amphibians and birds. Fully 93 per cent of the threatened species analysed had their range adequately represented by the geographical distribution of the morphological and genetic variation found in seven common species. Both higher numbers of threatened species and greater genetic and morphological variation of common species occurred along elevation gradients. Higher levels of intraspecific divergence may be the result of disruptive selection and/or introgression along gradients. We suggest that collecting data on genetic and morphological variation in common species can be a cost effective tool for conservation planning, and that future biodiversity inventories include surveying genetic and morphological data of common species whenever feasible. PMID:23595273

  12. Content and activity of human liver microsomal protein and prediction of individual hepatic clearance in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Gao, Na; Tian, Xin; Liu, Tingting; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Wen, Qiang; Xu, Binbin; Qi, Bing; Gao, Jie; Li, Hongmeng; Jia, Linjing; Qiao, Hailing

    2015-12-04

    The lack of information concerning individual variation in content and activity of human liver microsomal protein is one of the most important obstacles for designing personalized medicines. We demonstrated that the mean value of microsomal protein per gram of liver (MPPGL) was 39.46 mg/g in 128 human livers and up to 19-fold individual variations existed. Meanwhile, the metabolic activities of 10 cytochrome P450 (CYPs) were detected in microsomes and liver tissues, respectively, which showed huge individual variations (200-fold). Compared with microsomes, the activities of liver tissues were much suitable to express the individual variations of CYP activities. Furthermore, individual variations in the in vivo clearance of tolbutamide were successfully predicted with the individual parameter values. In conclusion, we offer the values for MPPGL contents in normal liver tissues and build a new method to assess the in vitro CYP activities. In addition, large individual variations exist in predicted hepatic clearance of tolbutamide. These findings provide important physiological parameters for physiologically-based pharmacokinetics models and thus, establish a solid foundation for future development of personalized medicines.

  13. Marked variation in predicted and observed variability of tandem repeat loci across the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields Denis C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandem repeat (TR variants in the human genome play key roles in a number of diseases. However, current models predicting variability are based on limited training sets. We conducted a systematic analysis of TRs of unit lengths 2–12 nucleotides in Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS sequences to define the extent of variation of 209,214 unique repeat loci throughout the genome. Results We applied a multivariate statistical model to predict TR variability. Predicted heterozygosity correlated with heterozygosity in the CEPH polymorphism database (correlation ρ = 0.29, p Conclusion Variability among 2–12-mer TRs in the genome can be modeled by a few parameters, which do not markedly differ according to unit length, consistent with a common mechanism for the generation of variability among such TRs. Analysis of the distributions of observed and predicted variants across the genome showed a general concordance, indicating that the repeat variation dataset does not exhibit strong regional ascertainment biases. This revealed a deficit of variant repeats in chromosomes 19 and Y – likely to reflect a reduction in 2-mer repeats in the former and a reduced level of recombination in the latter – and excesses in chromosomes 6, 13, 20 and 21.

  14. Measured and Predicted Variations in Fast Neutron Spectrum in Massive Shields of Water and Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute magnitude, and the variations in form, of the fast neutron spectrum during deep penetration (0.8 - 1.1 metre) in massive shields of water, ordinary and magnetite concrete have been studied by using threshold detectors (In (n, h'), S(n,p), Al(n, α)). The results have been compared with predictions by two rigorous (NIOBE, Moments method) and two non-rigorous (multigroup removal-diffusion) shielding codes (NRN, RASH D). The absolute results predicted were in general within 50% of the measured ones, i. e. showed as good or better accuracy than thermal and epithermal flux predictions in the same small-reactor configurations. No difference in accuracy was found between the rigorous and non-rigorous methods. The changes in the relative form of the spectrum (indicated by variations in the (Al/S) and (In/S) reaction rate ratios and amounting to factors up to 3 - 4 during a one metre penetration in water) were rather accurately (within 10 - 30%) predicted by all of the methods. The photonuclear excitation of the 335 keV level used for detecting the In(n, n') reaction was found to distort completely the In results in water at penetrations > 50 cm

  15. Autonomic activity during sleep predicts memory consolidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Lauren N; Cellini, Nicola; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2016-06-28

    Throughout history, psychologists and philosophers have proposed that good sleep benefits memory, yet current studies focusing on the relationship between traditionally reported sleep features (e.g., minutes in sleep stages) and changes in memory performance show contradictory findings. This discrepancy suggests that there are events occurring during sleep that have not yet been considered. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) shows strong variation across sleep stages. Also, increases in ANS activity during waking, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), have been correlated with memory improvement. However, the role of ANS in sleep-dependent memory consolidation has never been examined. Here, we examined whether changes in cardiac ANS activity (HRV) during a daytime nap were related to performance on two memory conditions (Primed and Repeated) and a nonmemory control condition on the Remote Associates Test. In line with prior studies, we found sleep-dependent improvement in the Primed condition compared with the Quiet Wake control condition. Using regression analyses, we compared the proportion of variance in performance associated with traditionally reported sleep features (model 1) vs. sleep features and HRV during sleep (model 2). For both the Primed and Repeated conditions, model 2 (sleep + HRV) predicted performance significantly better (73% and 58% of variance explained, respectively) compared with model 1 (sleep only, 46% and 26% of variance explained, respectively). These findings present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ANS activity may be one potential mechanism driving sleep-dependent plasticity. PMID:27298366

  16. Prediction of Human Activity by Discovering Temporal Sequence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Early prediction of ongoing human activity has become more valuable in a large variety of time-critical applications. To build an effective representation for prediction, human activities can be characterized by a complex temporal composition of constituent simple actions and interacting objects. Different from early detection on short-duration simple actions, we propose a novel framework for long -duration complex activity prediction by discovering three key aspects of activity: Causality, Context-cue, and Predictability. The major contributions of our work include: (1) a general framework is proposed to systematically address the problem of complex activity prediction by mining temporal sequence patterns; (2) probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is introduced to model causal relationships between constituent actions, where both large and small order Markov dependencies between action units are captured; (3) the context-cue, especially interactive objects information, is modeled through sequential pattern mining (SPM), where a series of action and object co-occurrence are encoded as a complex symbolic sequence; (4) we also present a predictive accumulative function (PAF) to depict the predictability of each kind of activity. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on two experimental scenarios with two data sets for each: action-only prediction and context-aware prediction. Our method achieves superior performance for predicting global activity classes and local action units. PMID:26353344

  17. Active experiments in the ionosphere and geomagnetic field variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivokon, V. P.; Cherneva, N. V.; Khomutov, S. Y.; Serovetnikov, A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Variations of ionospheric-magnetospheric relation energy, as one of the possible outer climatology factors, may be traced on the basis of analysis of natural geophysical phenomena such as ionosphere artificial radio radiation and magnetic storms. Experiments on active impact on the ionosphere have been carried out for quite a long time in Russia as well. The most modern heating stand is located in Alaska; it has been used within the HAARP Program. The possibility of this stand to affect geophysical fields, in particular, the geomagnetic field is of interest.

  18. Flatness Control Using Roll Coolant Based on Predicted Flatness Variation in Cold Rolling Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmae, Yukihiro; Okamura, Yoshihide

    Flatness control for cold rolling mills is one of the important technologies for improving of product quality and productivity. In particular, poor flatness leads to strip tearing in the extreme case and, moreover, it significantly reduces productivity. Therefore, various flatness control system has been developed. The main actuators for flatness control are classified into two types; one is mechanical equipment such as roll bender, the other is roll coolant, which controls thermal expansion of roll. Flatness variation such as center buckle or edge wave is mainly controlled by mechanical actuator which has high response characteristics. On another front, flatness variation of local zone can be controlled by roll coolant although one's response is lower than the response of mechanical actuator. For accomplishing good flatness accuracy in cold rolling mills, it is important to improve the performance of coolant control moreover. In this paper, a new coolant control method based on flatness variation model is described. In proposed method, the state of coolant spray on or off is selected to minimize the flatness deviation by using predicted flatness variation. The effectiveness of developed system has been demonstrated by application in actual plant.

  19. Variation in Rubisco content and activity under variable climatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmés, Jeroni; Aranjuelo, Iker; Medrano, Hipólito; Flexas, Jaume

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of the present review is to provide a compilation of published data of the effects of several climatic conditions on Rubisco, particularly its activity, state of activation, and concentration, and its influence on leaf gas exchange and photosynthesis. The environmental conditions analyzed include drought, salinity, heavy metals, growth temperature, and elevated [O3], [CO2], and ultraviolet-B irradiance. The results show conclusive evidence for a major negative effect on activity of Rubisco with increasing intensity of a range of abiotic stress factors. This decrease in the activity of Rubisco is associated with down-regulation of the activation state of the enzyme (e.g., by de-carbamylation and/or binding of inhibitory sugar phosphates) in response to drought or high temperature. On the contrary, the negative effects of low temperature, heavy metal stress (cadmium), ozone, and UV-B stress on Rubisco activity are associated with changes in the concentration of Rubisco. Notably, in response to all environmental factors, the regulation of in vivo CO2 assimilation rate was related to Rubisco in vitro parameters, either concentration and/or carboxylation, depending on the particular stress. The importance of the loss of Rubisco activity and its repercussion on plant photosynthesis are discussed in the context of climate change. It is suggested that decreased Rubisco activity will be a major effect induced by climate change, which will need to be considered in any prediction model on plant productivity in the near future.

  20. Computational Methodology for the Prediction of Functional Requirement Variations Across the Product Life-Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Mandil, Guillaume; Rivière, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The great majority of engineered products are subject to thermo-mechanical loads which vary with the product environment during the various phases of its life-cycle (machining, assembly, intended service use...). Those load variations may result in different values of the parts nominal dimensions, which in turn generate corresponding variation of the effective clearance (functional requirement) in the assembly. Usually, and according to the contractual drawings, the parts are measured after the machining stage, whereas the interesting measurement values are the ones taken in service for they allow the prediction of clearance value under operating conditions. Unfortunately, measurement in operating conditions may not be practical to obtain. Hence, the main purpose of this research is to create, through computations and simulations, links between the values of the loads, dimensions and functional requirements during the successive phases of the life cycle of some given product. [...

  1. The prediction of pseudo-resonance positions in the Schwinger variational principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherford, Charles A.; Tucker, Roy; Odom, Gregory

    The Schwinger Variational Principle is appled to s-wave electron-hydrogen atom scattering. It is shown computationally, that, consistent with a paper by B. Apagyi, P. Levay, and K. Ladanyi, there are pseudo-resonances at the static exchange level of approximation, but not at the static level. The T-matrix was employed, as well as, the K-matrix version of the Schwinger Principle, with a real Slater basis, and obtained the same results in both. The origin of the pseudo-resonances as resulting from singularities in the separable potential that is effectively employed in the Lippmann-Schwinger equation from which the Schwinger Variational Principle can be derived. The determination of the pseudo-resonance parameters from the separable potential is computationally inexpensive and may be used to predict the pseudo-resonance parameters for the scattering calculations so that they may be avoided.

  2. Study of CFD Variation on Transport Configurations from the Second Drag-Prediction Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Rivers, S. Melissa; Morrison, Joseph H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes a series of nearly 90 CFD test cases performed as a contribution to the second Drag Prediction Workshop, held in association with the AIAA in June 2003. Two configurations are included: DLR-F6 wing-body and wing-body-nacelle-pylon. The ability of CFD to predict the drag, lift, and pitching moment from experiment-including the "delta" arising from the addition of the nacelle and pylon-is assessed. In general, at a fixed angle of attack CFD overpredicts lift, but predicts the delta C (sub L) reasonably well. At low lift levels (C (sub L) less than 0.3)), delta C (sub D) is 20-30 drag counts (30-45%) high. At the target lift coefficient of C(sub L) = 0.5, delta C (sub D) is overpredicted by between 11-16 counts. However, the primary contribution of this paper is mot so much the assessment of CFD against experiment, but rather a detailed assessment and analysis of CFD variation. The series of test cases are designed to determine the sensitivity/variability of CFD to a variety of factors, including grid, turbulence model, transition code, and viscous model. Using medium-level grids (6-11 million points) at the target lift coefficient, the maximum variation in drag due to different grids is 5-11 drag counts, due to code is 5-10 counts, due to turbulence model is 7-15 counts, due to transition is 10-11 counts, and due to viscous model is 4-5 counts. Other specific variations are described in the paper.

  3. Surface Temperature Variation Prediction Model Using Real-Time Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M.; Vant-Hull, B.; Nazari, R.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Combination of climate change and urbanization are heating up cities and putting the lives of millions of people in danger. More than half of the world's total population resides in cities and urban centers. Cities are experiencing urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Hotter days are associated with serious health impacts, heart attaches and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Densely populated cities like Manhattan, New York can be affected by UHI impact much more than less populated cities. Even though many studies have been focused on the impact of UHI and temperature changes between urban and rural air temperature, not many look at the temperature variations within a city. These studies mostly use remote sensing data or typical measurements collected by local meteorological station networks. Local meteorological measurements only have local coverage and cannot be used to study the impact of UHI in a city and remote sensing data such as MODIS, LANDSAT and ASTER have with very low resolution which cannot be used for the purpose of this study. Therefore, predicting surface temperature in urban cities using weather data can be useful.Three months of Field campaign in Manhattan were used to measure spatial and temporal temperature variations within an urban setting by placing 10 fixed sensors deployed to measure temperature, relative humidity and sunlight. Fixed instrument shelters containing relative humidity, temperature and illumination sensors were mounted on lampposts in ten different locations in Manhattan (Vant-Hull et al, 2014). The shelters were fixed 3-4 meters above the ground for the period of three months from June 23 to September 20th of 2013 making measurements with the interval of 3 minutes. These high resolution temperature measurements and three months of weather data were used to predict temperature variability from weather forecasts. This study shows that the amplitude of spatial and temporal variation in temperature for each day can be predicted

  4. Spatial-Temporal Variation and Prediction of Rainfall in Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar M. Bibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Northeastern Nigeria seasonal rainfall is critical for the availability of water for domestic use through surface and sub-surface recharge and agricultural production, which is mostly rain fed. Variability in rainfall over the last 60 years is the main cause for crop failure and water scarcity in the region, particularly, due to late onset of rainfall, short dry spells and multi-annual droughts. In this study, we analyze 27 years (1980–2006 of gridded daily rainfall data obtained from a merged dataset by the National Centre for Environmental Prediction and Climate Research Unit reanalysis data (NCEP-CRU for spatial-temporal variability of monthly amounts and frequency in rainfall and rainfall trends. Temporal variability was assessed using the percentage coefficient of variation and temporal trends in rainfall were assessed using maps of linear regression slopes for the months of May through October. These six months cover the period of the onset and cessation of the wet season throughout the region. Monthly rainfall amount and frequency were then predicted over a 24-month period using the Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA Model. The predictions were evaluated using NCEP-CRU data for the same period. Kolmogorov Smirnov test results suggest that despite there are some months during the wet season (May–October when there is no significant agreement (p < 0.05 between the monthly distribution of the values of the model and the corresponding 24-month NCEP-CRU data, the model did better than simply replicating the long term mean of the data used for the prediction. Overall, the model does well in areas and months with lower temporal rainfall variability. Maps of the coefficient of variation and regression slopes are presented to indicate areas of high rainfall variability and water deficit over the period under study. The implications of these results for future policies on Agriculture and Water Management in the region are

  5. Inter-individual differences in the experience of negative emotion predict variations in functional brain architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Saverino, Cristina; Shayna Rosenbaum, R; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-12-01

    Current evidence suggests that two spatially distinct neuroanatomical networks, the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the default mode network (DMN), support externally and internally oriented cognition, respectively, and are functionally regulated by a third, frontoparietal control network (FPC). Interactions among these networks contribute to normal variations in cognitive functioning and to the aberrant affective profiles present in certain clinical conditions, such as major depression. Nevertheless, their links to non-clinical variations in affective functioning are still poorly understood. To address this issue, we used fMRI to measure the intrinsic functional interactions among these networks in a sample of predominantly younger women (N=162) from the Human Connectome Project. Consistent with the previously documented dichotomous motivational orientations (i.e., withdrawal versus approach) associated with sadness versus anger, we hypothesized that greater sadness would predict greater DMN (rather than DAN) functional dominance, whereas greater anger would predict the opposite. Overall, there was evidence of greater DAN (rather than DMN) functional dominance, but this pattern was modulated by current experience of specific negative emotions, as well as subclinical depressive and anxiety symptoms. Thus, greater levels of currently experienced sadness and subclinical depression independently predicted weaker DAN functional dominance (i.e., weaker DAN-FPC functional connectivity), likely reflecting reduced goal-directed attention towards the external perceptual environment. Complementarily, greater levels of currently experienced anger and subclinical anxiety predicted greater DAN functional dominance (i.e., greater DAN-FPC functional connectivity and, for anxiety only, also weaker DMN-FPC coupling). Our findings suggest that distinct affective states and subclinical mood symptoms have dissociable neural signatures, reflective of the symbiotic relationship

  6. Reconstruction and prediction of variations in the open solar magnetic flux and interplanetary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Lockwood

    2013-01-01

    Historic geomagnetic activity observations have been used to reveal centennial variations in the open solar flux and the near-Earth heliospheric conditions (the interplanetary magnetic field and the solar wind speed). The various methods are in very good agreement for the past 135 years when there were sufficient reliable magnetic observatories in operation to eliminate problems due to site-specific errors and calibration drifts. This review underlines the physical principles that allow these...

  7. Activity, exposure rate and spectrum prediction with Java programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to envision the radiation exposure during Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) experiments, a software called Activity Predictor is developed using JavaTM programming language. The Activity Predictor calculates activities, exposure rates and gamma spectra of activated samples for NAA experiments performed at Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC), Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The calculation procedure for predictions involves both analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The Activity Predictor software is validated with a series of activation experiments. It has been found that Activity Predictor software calculates the activities and exposure rates precisely. The software also predicts gamma spectrum for each measurement. The predicted spectra agreed partially with measured spectra. The error in net photo peak areas varied from 4.8 to 51.29%, which is considered to be due to simplistic modeling, statistical fluctuations and unknown contaminants in the samples. (author)

  8. Structural Variation within the Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Predict Memory for Impressions in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Shane Cassidy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that lesions to regions involved in social and emotional cognition disrupt socioemotional processing and memory. We investigated how structural variation of regions involved in socioemotional memory (ventromedial prefrontal cortex [vmPFC], amygdala, as opposed to a region implicated in explicit memory (hippocampus, affected memory for impressions in young and older adults. Anatomical MRI scans for fifteen young and fifteen older adults were obtained and reconstructed to gather information about cortical thickness and subcortical volume. Young adults had greater amygdala and hippocampus volumes than old, and thicker left vmPFC than old, although right vmPFC thickness did not differ across the age groups. Participants formed behavior-based impressions and responded to interpersonally meaningful, social but interpersonally irrelevant, or non-social prompts, and completed a memory test. Results showed that greater left amygdala volume predicted enhanced overall memory for impressions in older but not younger adults. Increased right vmPFC thickness in older, but not younger, adults correlated with enhanced memory for impressions formed in the interpersonally meaningful context. Hippocampal volume was not predictive of social memory in young or older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of structural variation in regions linked to socioemotional processing in the retention of impressions with age, and suggest that the amygdala and vmPFC play an integral role when encoding and retrieving social information.

  9. Analysis of substructural variation in families of enzymatic proteins with applications to protein function prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fofanov Viacheslav Y

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural variations caused by a wide range of physico-chemical and biological sources directly influence the function of a protein. For enzymatic proteins, the structure and chemistry of the catalytic binding site residues can be loosely defined as a substructure of the protein. Comparative analysis of drug-receptor substructures across and within species has been used for lead evaluation. Substructure-level similarity between the binding sites of functionally similar proteins has also been used to identify instances of convergent evolution among proteins. In functionally homologous protein families, shared chemistry and geometry at catalytic sites provide a common, local point of comparison among proteins that may differ significantly at the sequence, fold, or domain topology levels. Results This paper describes two key results that can be used separately or in combination for protein function analysis. The Family-wise Analysis of SubStructural Templates (FASST method uses all-against-all substructure comparison to determine Substructural Clusters (SCs. SCs characterize the binding site substructural variation within a protein family. In this paper we focus on examples of automatically determined SCs that can be linked to phylogenetic distance between family members, segregation by conformation, and organization by homology among convergent protein lineages. The Motif Ensemble Statistical Hypothesis (MESH framework constructs a representative motif for each protein cluster among the SCs determined by FASST to build motif ensembles that are shown through a series of function prediction experiments to improve the function prediction power of existing motifs. Conclusions FASST contributes a critical feedback and assessment step to existing binding site substructure identification methods and can be used for the thorough investigation of structure-function relationships. The application of MESH allows for an automated

  10. Variations in Extratropical Cyclone Activity in Northern East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinmin; ZHAI Panmao; WANG Cuicui

    2009-01-01

    Based on an improved objective cyclone detection and tracking algorithm, decadal variations in extratropical cyclones in northern East Asia are studied by using the ECMWF 40 Year Reanalysis (ERA-40) sea-level pressure data during 1958-2001. The results reveal that extratropical cyclone activity has displayed clear seasonal, interannual, and decadal variability in northern East Asia. Spring is the season when cyclones occur most frequently. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclones shows that cyclones occur mainly within the 40°-50°N latitudinal band in northern East Asia, and the most frequent region of occurrence is in Mongolia. Furthermore, this study also reveals the fact that the frequency of extratropical cyclones has significantly decreased in the lower latitude region of northern East Asia during 1958-2001, but dccadal variability has dominated in higher latitude bands, with frequent cyclone genesis. The intensity of extratropical cyclones has decreased on an annual and seasonal basis. Variation of the annual number of cyclones in northern East Asia is associated with the mean intensity of the baroclinic frontal zone, which is influenced by climate warming in the higher latitudes. Moreover, the dipole structure of extratopical cyclone change, with increases in the north and decreases in the southern part of northern East Asia, is related to the northward movement of the baroclinic frontal zone on either side of 110°E.

  11. Interplanetary Lyman $\\alpha$ line profiles: variations with solar activity cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Quemerais, E; Bertaux, J L; Koutroumpa, D; Clarke, J; Kyrola, E; Schmidt, W; Qu\\'emerais, Eric; Lallement, Rosine; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Clarke, John; Kyrola, Erkki; Schmidt, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Interplanetary Lyman alpha line profiles are derived from the SWAN H cell data measurements. The measurements cover a 6-year period from solar minimum (1996) to after the solar maximum of 2001. This allows us to study the variations of the line profiles with solar activity. These line profiles were used to derive line shifts and line widths in the interplanetary medium for various angles of the LOS with the interstellar flow direction. The SWAN data results were then compared to an interplanetary background upwind spectrum obtained by STIS/HST in March 2001. We find that the LOS upwind velocity associated with the mean line shift of the IP \\lya line varies from 25.7 km/s to 21.4 km/s from solar minimum to solar maximum. Most of this change is linked with variations in the radiation pressure. LOS kinetic temperatures derived from IP line widths do not vary monotonically with the upwind angle of the LOS. This is not compatible with calculations of IP line profiles based on hot model distributions of interplanet...

  12. Predicting mining activity with parallel genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaie, S.; Leigh, R.; Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    We explore several different techniques in our quest to improve the overall model performance of a genetic algorithm calibrated probabilistic cellular automata. We use the Kappa statistic to measure correlation between ground truth data and data predicted by the model. Within the genetic algorithm, we introduce a new evaluation function sensitive to spatial correctness and we explore the idea of evolving different rule parameters for different subregions of the land. We reduce the time required to run a simulation from 6 hours to 10 minutes by parallelizing the code and employing a 10-node cluster. Our empirical results suggest that using the spatially sensitive evaluation function does indeed improve the performance of the model and our preliminary results also show that evolving different rule parameters for different regions tends to improve overall model performance. Copyright 2005 ACM.

  13. Solar activity, geomagnetic perturbations and Vrancea (Romania) earthquake short-term predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the main results of applying the electromagnetic method for the short- term prediction of Vrancea earthquakes. The results are based on electromagnetic records made at Muntele Rosu Geophysical Observatory in Romania during the period December 1997 to July 2003. The paper highlights the importance as a precursor factor of the magnetic impedance BZ/BX, where BZ is the vertical component of the geomagnetic flux density and BX its horizontal component. The time variation of BZ/BX is closely examined in correlation with Vrancea seismic activity. The variations are compared to the geomagnetic perturbation of Ak > 20 (magnetic storms) that are generated by solar activity. Relations between these three factors, i.e. the BZ/BX ratio, magnetic storms, and Vrancea seismic activity are seen to combine into five distinct situations. The feasibility and difficulties of using the electromagnetic method for the short-term prediction of Vrancea earthquakes are examined in the final section. (authors)

  14. Spatial variation and prediction of forest biomass in a heterogeneous landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Lamsal; D.M.Rizzo; R.K.Meentemeyer

    2012-01-01

    Large areas assessments of forest biomass distribution are a challenge in heterogeneous landscapes,where variations in tree growth and species composition occur over short distances.In this study,we use statistical and geospatial modeling on densely sampled forest biomass data to analyze the relative importance of ecological and physiographic variables as determinants of spatial variation of forest biomass in the environmentally heterogeneous region of the Big Sur,California.We estimated biomass in 280 forest plots (one plot per 2.85 km2) and measured an array of ecological (vegetation community type,distance to edge,amount of surrounding non-forest vegetation,soil properties,fire history) and physiographic drivers (elevation,potential soil moisture and solar radiation,proximity to the coast) of tree growth at each plot location.Our geostatistical analyses revealed that biomass distribution is spatially structured and autocorrelated up to 3.1 km.Regression tree (RT) models showed that both physiographic and ecological factors influenced biomass distribution.Across randomly selected sample densities (sample size 112 to 280),ecological effects of vegetation community type and distance to forest edge,and physiographic effects of elevation,potentialsoil moisture and solar radiation were the most consistent predictors of biomass.Topographic moisture index and potential solar radiation had a positive effect on biomass,indicating the importance of topographicallymediated energy and moisture on plant growth and biomass accumulation.RT model explained 35% of the variation in biomass and spatially autocorrelated variation were retained in regession residuals.Regression kriging model,developed from RT combined with kriging of regression residuals,was used to map biomass across the Big Sur.This study demonstrates how statistical and geospatial modeling can be used to discriminate the relative importance of physiographic and ecologic effects on forest biomass and develop

  15. From field to region yield predictions in response to pedo-climatic variations in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    JÉGO, G.; Pattey, E.; Liu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The increase in global population coupled with new pressures to produce energy and bioproducts from agricultural land requires an increase in crop productivity. However, the influence of climate and soil variations on crop production and environmental performance is not fully understood and accounted for to define more sustainable and economical management strategies. Regional crop modeling can be a great tool for understanding the impact of climate variations on crop production, for planning grain handling and for assessing the impact of agriculture on the environment, but it is often limited by the availability of input data. The STICS ("Simulateur mulTIdisciplinaire pour les Cultures Standard") crop model, developed by INRA (France) is a functional crop model which has a built-in module to optimize several input parameters by minimizing the difference between calculated and measured output variables, such as Leaf Area Index (LAI). STICS crop model was adapted to the short growing season of the Mixedwood Plains Ecozone using field experiments results, to predict biomass and yield of soybean, spring wheat and corn. To minimize the numbers of inference required for regional applications, 'generic' cultivars rather than specific ones have been calibrated in STICS. After the calibration of several model parameters, the root mean square error (RMSE) of yield and biomass predictions ranged from 10% to 30% for the three crops. A bit more scattering was obtained for LAI (20%prediction to climate variations. Using RS data to re-initialize input parameters that are not readily available (e.g. seeding date) is considered an effective way

  16. Measured and Predicted Variations in Fast Neutron Spectrum when Penetrating Laminated Fe-D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations of the fast neutron spectrum in thin regions of alternating Fe and DO have been studied using threshold detectors (ln(n, n' ), S(n, p), Al(n, α)). The results have been compared to those calculated by two shielding codes (NRN and RASH D) of multigroup removal-diffusion type. The absolute fast spectrum calculated in our rather complicated configurations was found to agree with measurements within the same accuracy (a factor of two) as did the thermal flux. The calculated spectrum is slightly harder than the measured one, but the detailed variations (covering the range 1:5) in the form of the spectrum when penetrating Fe agree with observations to within 15-20 %. In and Al activities were found to be proportional to the integrated flux over 1 MeV throughout the whole configuration, while S showed the least proportionality

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of thunderstorm activities over Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnadara, Upul

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.

  18. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S.C. McCowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival.

  19. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  20. Robust Active Suspension Design Subject to Vehicle Inertial Parameter Variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ping Du; Nong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach in designing a robust controller for vehicle suspensions considering changes in vehicle inertial properties. A four-degree-of-freedom half-car model with active suspension is studied in this paper, and three main performance requirements are considered. Among these requirements, the ride comfort performance is optimized by minimizing the H∞ norm of the transfer function from the road disturbance to the sprung mass acceleration, while the road holding performance and the suspension deflection limitation are guaranteed by constraining the generalized H2 (GH2) norms of the transfer functions from the road disturbance to the dynamic tyre load and the suspension deflection to be less than their hard limits, respectively. At the same time, the controller saturation problem is considered by constraining its peak response output to be less than a given limit using the GH2 norm as well. By solving the finite number of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) with the minimization optimization procedure, the controller gains, which are dependent on the time-varying inertial parameters, can be obtained. Numerical simulations on both frequency and bump responses show that the designed parameter-dependent controller can achieve better active suspension performance compared with the passive suspension in spite of the variations of inertial parameters.

  1. Total variation regularization for fMRI-based prediction of behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Vincent; Varoquaux, Gaël; Eger, Evelyn; Thirion, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    While medical imaging typically provides massive amounts of data, the extraction of relevant information for predictive diagnosis remains a difficult challenge. Functional MRI (fMRI) data, that provide an indirect measure of task-related or spontaneous neuronal activity, are classically analyzed in a mass-univariate procedure yielding statistical parametric maps. This analysis framework disregards some important principles of brain organization: population coding, distributed and overlapping representations. Multivariate pattern analysis, i.e., the prediction of behavioural variables from brain activation patterns better captures this structure. To cope with the high dimensionality of the data, the learning method has to be regularized. However, the spatial structure of the image is not taken into account in standard regularization methods, so that the extracted features are often hard to interpret. More informative and interpretable results can be obtained with the l_1 norm of the image gradient, a.k.a. its ...

  2. MODIFIED REGRESSION APPROACH IN PREDICTION OF FINITE POPULATION MEAN USING KNOWN COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Misra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,we are utilizingthe modified regression approach for the prediction offinite population mean, with known coefficient of variation of study variabley, undersimplerandom sampling without replacement. The bias and mean square error of the proposed estimatorare obtained and compared with the usual regression estimator of the population mean and comesout to be more efficient in the sense of having lesser meansquare error. The optimum class ofestimators is obtained and for the greater practical utility proposed optimum estimator based onestimated optimum value of the characterizing scalar is also obtained and is shown to retain thesame efficiency to the first order of approximation as the former one. A numerical illustration isalso given to support the theoretical conclusions.

  3. Line Impedance Estimation Using Active and Reactive Power Variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Rodriguez, Pedro; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an estimation method of power system impedance based on power variations caused by a distributed power generation system (DPGS) at the point of common coupling (PCC). The proposed algorithm is computationally simple and uses the voltage variations at the point of common coupling...... (PCC) caused by the variations of the power delivered to utility network to derive the value of grid impedance. Accurate estimation of both resistive and inductive part of the impedance is obtained, as the results presented show....

  4. Climate variation and prediction of rapid intensification in tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Zhou, X.

    2008-02-01

    One of the greatest challenges in tropical weather forecasting is the rapid intensification (RI) of the tropical cyclone (TC), during which its one-minute maximum sustained wind speed increases at least 30 knots per 24 hours. Here we identify and elucidate the climatic conditions that are critical to the frequency and location of the RI on annual, intraseasonal, and interannual time scales. Whereas RI and formation share common environmental preferences, we found that the percentage of TCs with RI varies annually and from year to year. In August, only 30% of TC actually experiences RI, in contrast to the annual maximum of 47% in November. The proportion of RI in July September is higher during El Niño years (53%) than the corresponding one in the La Niña years (37%). Three climate factors may contribute to the increase in the proportion of RI: the southward shift in the monthly or seasonal mean location of the TC formation, the increase in the low-level westerly meridional shear vorticity, and the decrease in northerly vertical shear. When the mean latitude of TC formation increases, the mixed-layer heat content decreases while TC’s inertial stability increases; both are more detrimental to the RI than to TC formation because the RI requires large amount of latent heat energy being extracted efficiently from the ocean mixed layer and requires accelerated low-level radial inflow that carries latent heat reaching the inner core region. We further demonstrate that the RI frequency in the Philippine Sea and South China Sea can be predicted 10 to 30 days in advance based on the convective anomalies in the equatorial western Pacific (5° S 5° N, 130° 150° E) on intraseasonal time scale. The Niño 3.4 SSTA in June is a potential predictor for the peak TC season (July September) RI activity in the southeast quadrant of the western North Pacific (0 20° N, 140 180° E). The RI is an essential characteristic of category 4 and 5 hurricanes and super typhoons because

  5. Predicting GM(1,N)Model for the Coefficient of Variation of Hectometer Yarn's Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-feng

    2010-01-01

    The Coefficient of Variation(CV)of hectometer yarn's weight is one of the guidelines to evaluate its intrinsic quality.In the spinning manufacturing,the control of cotton yarn's weight unevenness is accomplished mainly in terms of a spot-check on semi-product and a succedent adjust in process parameters during spinning based on technicians'experience.However,it is theoretically believed among manufacturers that with fixed technical levels and parameters in the spinning process,the quality parameters of assorted cotton have a certain influence on the CV.In order to find out a rule of the influence that assorted cotton has on the CV,a GM(1,N)model,correlated raw cotton's quality parameter with the CV,has firstly been developed according to the modeling theory of grey system,and then been applied in the designing step to predict the CV.It has been approved by practical modeling and validation that the model could fit preferably an accrual CV value,and provide a method of quantitative predicting analysis for textile manufacturers to design cotton yarn's quality.

  6. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Foerster, B. [Philips Medical Systems, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Li, L.M. [Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Covolan, R.J.M. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-17

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  7. Variations of the temperature and solar activity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingQi Li; QuanSheng Ge; ZhiXin Hao; JingYun Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data collected at 119 meteorological stations over five regions of China during the period 1951-2010. The series of minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures from each climatic region have similar signatures, but there are differences among the five regions and the countrywide average. The results indicate that the periods of faster warming were not synchronous across the regions studied: warming in northeast China and Tibet began in 1986, while in central-east, southeast, and northwest China the warming emerged in 1995. Furthermore, central-east and northwest China, and Tibet, have warmed continuously since 2000, but the temper-ature has decreased during this period in southeast China. We evaluated the evolution of these temperature series using a novel nonlinear filtering technique based on the concept of the lifetime of temperature curves. The decadal to secular evolution of solar activity and temperature variation had similar signatures in the northeast, southeast, and northwest re-gions and the average across the whole country, indicating that solar activity is a significant control on climate change over secular time scales in these regions. In comparison with these regions, the signatures were different in central-east China and Tibet because of regional differences (e.g., landforms and elevation) and indirect effects (e.g., cloud cover influencing the radiation balance, thereby inducing climate change). Furthermore, the results of wavelet analysis indicated that the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has had a significant impact on climate change, but at different times among the regions, and these changes were most probably induced by differing responses of the atmospheric system to solar forcing.

  8. Prediction of ppm level electrical failure by using physical variation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hsin-Ming; Kung, Ji-Fu; Hsu, Y.-B.; Yamazaki, Y.; Maruyama, Kotaro; Toyoshima, Yuya; Chen, Chu-en

    2016-03-01

    their spatial correlation distance. For local variations (LV) there is no correlation, whereas for global variations (GV) the correlation distance is very large [7]-[9]. This is the first time to certificate the validation of spatial distribution from the affordable bias contour big data fundamental infrastructures. And then apply statistical techniques to dig out the variation sources. The GV come from systematic issue, which could be compensated by adaptive LT condition or OPC correction. But LV comes from random issue, which being considered as intrinsic problem such as structure, material, tool capability… etc. In this paper studying, we can find out the advanced technology node SRAM contact CD local variation (LV) dominates in total variation, about 70%. It often plays significant in-line real time catching WP-DPMO role of the product yield loss, especially for wafer edge is the worst loss within wafer distribution and causes serious reliability concern. The major root cause of variations comes from the PR material induced burr defect (LV), the second one comes from GV enhanced wafer edge short opportunity, which being attributed to three factors, first one factor is wafer edge CD deliberated enlargement for yield improvement as shown in Fig. 10. Second factor is overlaps/AA shifts due to tool capability dealing with incoming wafer's war page issue and optical periphery layout dependent working pitch issue as shown in Fig. 9 (1)., the last factor comes from wafer edge burr enhanced by wafer edge larger Photo Resistance (PR) spin centrifugal force. After implementing KPIs such as GV related AA/CD indexes as shown in Fig. 9 (1) and 10, respectively, and LV related burr index as shown in Fig. 11., we can construct the parts per million (PPM) level short probability model via multi-variables regression, canonical correlation analysis and logistic transformation. The model provides prediction of PPM level electrical failure by using in-line real time physical

  9. Latitudinal variation in seasonal activity and mortality in ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Jinelle H; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Carfagno, Gerardo L F; Weatherhead, Patrick J

    2010-06-01

    The ecology of ectotherms should be particularly affected by latitude because so much of their biology is temperature dependent. Current latitudinal patterns should also be informative about how ectotherms will have to modify their behavior in response to climate change. We used data from a total of 175 adult black ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta) radio-tracked in Ontario, Illinois, and Texas, a latitudinal distance of >1500 km, to test predictions about how seasonal patterns of activity and mortality should vary with latitude. Despite pronounced differences in temperatures among study locations, and despite ratsnakes in Texas not hibernating and switching from diurnal to nocturnal activity in the summer, seasonal patterns of snake activity were remarkably similar during the months that snakes in all populations were active. Rather than being a function of temperature, activity may be driven by the timing of reproduction, which appears similar among populations. Contrary to the prediction that mortality should be highest in the most active population, overall mortality did not follow a clinal pattern. Winter mortality did increase with latitude, however, consistent with temperature limiting the northern distribution of ratsnakes. This result was opposite that found in the only previous study of latitudinal variation in winter mortality in reptiles, which may be a consequence of whether or not the animals exhibit true hibernation. Collectively, these results suggest that, at least in the northern part of their range, ratsnakes should be able to adjust easily to, and may benefit from, a warmer climate, although climate-based changes to the snakes' prey or habitat, for example, could alter that prediction. PMID:20583726

  10. Predicting Physical Activity in Arab American School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically grounded research on the determinants of Arab American children's physical activity is virtually nonexistent. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) to predict Arab American children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).…

  11. Probabilistic electricity price forecasting with variational heteroscedastic Gaussian process and active learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel active learning model for the probabilistic electricity price forecasting. • Heteroscedastic Gaussian process that captures the local volatility of the electricity price. • Variational Bayesian learning that avoids over-fitting. • Active learning algorithm that reduces the computational efforts. - Abstract: Electricity price forecasting is essential for the market participants in their decision making. Nevertheless, the accuracy of such forecasting cannot be guaranteed due to the high variability of the price data. For this reason, in many cases, rather than merely point forecasting results, market participants are more interested in the probabilistic price forecasting results, i.e., the prediction intervals of the electricity price. Focusing on this issue, this paper proposes a new model for the probabilistic electricity price forecasting. This model is based on the active learning technique and the variational heteroscedastic Gaussian process (VHGP). It provides the heteroscedastic Gaussian prediction intervals, which effectively quantify the heteroscedastic uncertainties associated with the price data. Because the high computational effort of VHGP hinders its application to the large-scale electricity price forecasting tasks, we design an active learning algorithm to select a most informative training subset from the whole available training set. By constructing the forecasting model on this smaller subset, the computational efforts can be significantly reduced. In this way, the practical applicability of the proposed model is enhanced. The forecasting performance and the computational time of the proposed model are evaluated using the real-world electricity price data, which is obtained from the ANEM, PJM, and New England ISO

  12. Predictive models for radial sap flux variation in coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous temperate trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Aaron B; Miniat, Chelcy F; Clark, James S

    2016-08-01

    Accurately scaling sap flux observations to tree or stand levels requires accounting for variation in sap flux between wood types and by depth into the tree. However, existing models for radial variation in axial sap flux are rarely used because they are difficult to implement, there is uncertainty about their predictive ability and calibration measurements are often unavailable. Here we compare different models with a diverse sap flux data set to test the hypotheses that radial profiles differ by wood type and tree size. We show that radial variation in sap flux is dependent on wood type but independent of tree size for a range of temperate trees. The best-fitting model predicted out-of-sample sap flux observations and independent estimates of sapwood area with small errors, suggesting robustness in the new settings. We develop a method for predicting whole-tree water use with this model and include computer code for simple implementation in other studies.

  13. Predicting spatial variations of tree species richness in tropical forests from high-resolution remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Geoffrey A; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Saatchi, Sassan S; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying theories, empirical data sets, and remote-sensing metrics that can quantify tropical forest alpha diversity at a landscape scale. Quantifying patterns of tree species richness in the field is time consuming, especially in regions with over 100 tree species/ha. We examine species richness in a 50-ha plot in Barro Colorado Island in Panama and test if biophysical measurements of canopy reflectance from high-resolution satellite imagery and detailed vertical forest structure and topography from light detection and ranging (lidar) are associated with species richness across four tree size classes (>1, 1-10, >10, and >20 cm dbh) and three spatial scales (1, 0.25, and 0.04 ha). We use the 2010 tree inventory, including 204,757 individuals belonging to 301 species of freestanding woody plants or 166 ± 1.5 species/ha (mean ± SE), to compare with remote-sensing data. All remote-sensing metrics became less correlated with species richness as spatial resolution decreased from 1.0 ha to 0.04 ha and tree size increased from 1 cm to 20 cm dbh. When all stems with dbh > 1 cm in 1-ha plots were compared to remote-sensing metrics, standard deviation in canopy reflectance explained 13% of the variance in species richness. The standard deviations of canopy height and the topographic wetness index (TWI) derived from lidar were the best metrics to explain the spatial variance in species richness (15% and 24%, respectively). Using multiple regression models, we made predictions of species richness across Barro Colorado Island (BCI) at the 1-ha spatial scale for different tree size classes. We predicted variation in tree species richness among all plants (adjusted r² = 0.35) and trees with dbh > 10 cm (adjusted r² = 0.25). However, the best model results were for understory trees and shrubs (dbh 1-10 cm) (adjusted r² = 0.52) that comprise the majority of species richness in tropical forests. Our results indicate that high

  14. Predicting spatial variations of tree species richness in tropical forests from high-resolution remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Geoffrey A; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Saatchi, Sassan S; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying theories, empirical data sets, and remote-sensing metrics that can quantify tropical forest alpha diversity at a landscape scale. Quantifying patterns of tree species richness in the field is time consuming, especially in regions with over 100 tree species/ha. We examine species richness in a 50-ha plot in Barro Colorado Island in Panama and test if biophysical measurements of canopy reflectance from high-resolution satellite imagery and detailed vertical forest structure and topography from light detection and ranging (lidar) are associated with species richness across four tree size classes (>1, 1-10, >10, and >20 cm dbh) and three spatial scales (1, 0.25, and 0.04 ha). We use the 2010 tree inventory, including 204,757 individuals belonging to 301 species of freestanding woody plants or 166 ± 1.5 species/ha (mean ± SE), to compare with remote-sensing data. All remote-sensing metrics became less correlated with species richness as spatial resolution decreased from 1.0 ha to 0.04 ha and tree size increased from 1 cm to 20 cm dbh. When all stems with dbh > 1 cm in 1-ha plots were compared to remote-sensing metrics, standard deviation in canopy reflectance explained 13% of the variance in species richness. The standard deviations of canopy height and the topographic wetness index (TWI) derived from lidar were the best metrics to explain the spatial variance in species richness (15% and 24%, respectively). Using multiple regression models, we made predictions of species richness across Barro Colorado Island (BCI) at the 1-ha spatial scale for different tree size classes. We predicted variation in tree species richness among all plants (adjusted r² = 0.35) and trees with dbh > 10 cm (adjusted r² = 0.25). However, the best model results were for understory trees and shrubs (dbh 1-10 cm) (adjusted r² = 0.52) that comprise the majority of species richness in tropical forests. Our results indicate that high

  15. Common Variation in the DOPA Decarboxylase (DDC) Gene and Human Striatal DDC Activity In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Daniel P; Kohn, Philip D; Hegarty, Catherine E; Ianni, Angela M; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Gregory, Michael D; Masdeu, Joseph C; Berman, Karen F

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of multiple amine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and trace amines, relies in part on DOPA decarboxylase (DDC, AADC), an enzyme that is required for normative neural operations. Because rare, loss-of-function mutations in the DDC gene result in severe enzymatic deficiency and devastating autonomic, motor, and cognitive impairment, DDC common genetic polymorphisms have been proposed as a source of more moderate, but clinically important, alterations in DDC function that may contribute to risk, course, or treatment response in complex, heritable neuropsychiatric illnesses. However, a direct link between common genetic variation in DDC and DDC activity in the living human brain has never been established. We therefore tested for this association by conducting extensive genotyping across the DDC gene in a large cohort of 120 healthy individuals, for whom DDC activity was then quantified with [(18)F]-FDOPA positron emission tomography (PET). The specific uptake constant, Ki, a measure of DDC activity, was estimated for striatal regions of interest and found to be predicted by one of five tested haplotypes, particularly in the ventral striatum. These data provide evidence for cis-acting, functional common polymorphisms in the DDC gene and support future work to determine whether such variation might meaningfully contribute to DDC-mediated neural processes relevant to neuropsychiatric illness and treatment. PMID:26924680

  16. A simple method to estimate radial velocity variations due to stellar activity using photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Aigrain, S; Zucker, S

    2011-01-01

    We present a new, simple method to predict activity-induced radial velocity variations using high-precision time-series photometry. It is based on insights from a simple spot model, has only two free parameters (one of which can be estimated from the light curve) and does not require knowledge of the stellar rotation period. We test the method on simulated data and illustrate its performance by applying it to MOST/SOPHIE observations of the planet host-star HD189733, where it gives almost identical results to much more sophisticated, but highly degenerate models, and synthetic data for the Sun, where we demonstrate that it can reproduce variations well below the m/s level. We also apply it to Quarter 1 data for Kepler transit candidate host stars, where it can be used to estimate RV variations down to the 2-3m/s level, and show that RV amplitudes above that level may be expected for approximately two thirds of the candidates we examined.

  17. Statistical Evaluation of Efficiency and Possibility of Earthquake Predictions with Gravity Field Variation and its Analytic Signal in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Jiang, Changsheng; Zhuang, Jiancang

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed at assessing gravity variations as precursors for earthquake prediction in the Tibet (Xizang)-Qinghai-Xinjiang-Sichuan Region, western China. We here take a statistical approach to evaluate efficiency and possibility of earthquake prediction. We used the most recent spatiotemporal gravity field variation datasets of 2002-2008 for the region that were provided by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONC). The datasets were space sparse and time discrete. In 2007-2010, 13 earthquakes (> M s 6.0) occurred in the region. The observed gravity variations have a statistical correlation with the occurrence of these earthquakes through the Molchan error diagram tests that lead to alarms over a good fraction of space-time. The results show that the prediction efficiency of amplitude of analytic signal of gravity variations is better than seismicity rate model and THD and absolute value of gravity variation, implying that gravity variations before earthquake may include precursory information of future large earthquakes.

  18. Carotenoids in Rhodoplanes species: variation of compositions and substrate specificity of predicted carotenogenesis enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaichi, Shinichi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V; Okamura, Keiko; Hiraishi, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Phototrophic bacteria necessarily contain carotenoids for photosynthesis, and accumulate unusual carotenoids in some cases. The carotenoids in all established species of Rhodoplanes (Rpl.), a representative of phototrophic genera, were identified using spectroscopic methods. The major carotenoid was spirilloxanthin in Rpl. roseus and Rpl. serenus, and rhodopin in "Rpl. cryptolactis". Rpl. elegans contained rhodopin, anhydrorhodovibrin, and spirilloxanthin. Rpl. pokkaliisoli contained not only rhodopin but also 1,1'-dihydroxylycopene and 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydrospirilloxanthin. These variations in carotenoid composition suggested that Rpl. roseus and Rpl. serenus had normal substrate specificity of the carotenogenesis enzymes of CrtC (acyclic carotene 1,2-hydratase), CrtD (acyclic carotenoid 3,4-desaturase), and CrtF (acyclic 1-hydroxycarotenoid methyltransferase). On the other hand, CrtC of Rpl. elegans, CrtD of "Rpl. cryptolactis", and CrtC, CrtD, and CrtF of Rpl. pokkaliisoli might have different characteristics from the usual activity of these normal enzymes in the normal spirilloxanthin pathway. These results suggest that the variation of carotenoids among the species of Rhodoplanes results from modified substrate specificity of the carotenogenesis enzymes involved.

  19. Stroke volume variation does not predict fluid responsiveness in patients with septic shock on pressure support ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Faber, T

    2006-01-01

    Stroke volume variation (SVV)--as measured by the pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) system--predicts the cardiac output response to a fluid challenge in patients on controlled ventilation. Whether this applies to patients on pressure support ventilation is unknown.......Stroke volume variation (SVV)--as measured by the pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) system--predicts the cardiac output response to a fluid challenge in patients on controlled ventilation. Whether this applies to patients on pressure support ventilation is unknown....

  20. Nonlinear Predictive Control of Semi-Active Landing Gear System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Dongsu; Gu, Hongbin; Liu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The application of model predictive control and constructive nonlinear control methodology to semi-active landing gear system is studied in this paper. A unified shock absorber mathematical model incorporates solenoid valve’s electromechanical and magnetic dynamics is built to facilitate simulation and controller design. Then we propose a hierarchical control structure to deal with the high nonlinearity. A dual mode model predictive controller as an outer loop controller is developed to gen...

  1. Reconstructed Total Solar Irradiance as a precursor for long-term solar activity predictions: a nonlinear dynamics approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sello, S

    2012-01-01

    Total solar irradiance variations, about 0.1% between solar activity maximum and minimum, are available from accurate satellite measurements since 1978 and thus do not provide useful information on longer-term secular trends. Recently, Krivova et al., 2007 reconstructed, using suitable models, the total solar irradiance from the end of the Maunder minimum to the present, based on variations of the surface distribution of the solar magnetic field. The latter is calculated from the long historical record of the sunspot numbers using a simple but consistent physical model. There are many classes of proposed prediction methods for solar cycles behavior, based on different direct solar activity indices or on various valuable proxies. In particular, the precursor based methods, utilize a given proxy index to predict the future evolution of solar activity. Long-term time series of sunspot numbers, allow us to reliably predict the behavior of the next solar cycle, few years in advance. In previous papers we predicted...

  2. How well do cognitive and environmental variables predict active commuting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been growing interest in theoretical studies integrating cognitions and environmental variables in the prediction of behaviour related to the obesity epidemic. This is the approach adopted in the present study in reference to the theory of planned behaviour. More precisely, the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of cognitive and environmental variables in the prediction of active commuting to get to and from work or school. Methods A prospective study was carried out with 130 undergraduate and graduate students (93 females; 37 males. Environmental, cognitive and socio-demographic variables were evaluated at baseline by questionnaire. Two weeks later, active commuting (walking/bicycling to get to and from work or school was self-reported by questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to predict intention and behaviour. Results The model predicting behaviour based on cognitive variables explained more variance than the model based on environmental variables (37.4% versus 26.8%; Z = 3.86, p p p Conclusion The results showed that cognitive variables play a more important role than environmental variables in predicting and explaining active commuting. When environmental variables were significant, they were mediated by cognitive variables. Therefore, individual cognitions should remain one of the main focuses of interventions promoting active commuting among undergraduate and graduate students.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Prediction of Ischemic Heart Disease Hospitalizations in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease (IHD is a leading cause of death worldwide. Urban public health and medical management in Shenzhen, an international city in the developing country of China, is challenged by an increasing burden of IHD. This study analyzed the spatio-temporal variation of IHD hospital admissions from 2003 to 2012 utilizing spatial statistics, spatial analysis, and space-time scan statistics. The spatial statistics and spatial analysis measured the incidence rate (hospital admissions per 1,000 residents and the standardized rate (the observed cases standardized by the expected cases of IHD at the district level to determine the spatio-temporal distribution and identify patterns of change. The space-time scan statistics was used to identify spatio-temporal clusters of IHD hospital admissions at the district level. The other objective of this study was to forecast the IHD hospital admissions over the next three years (2013–2015 to predict the IHD incidence rates and the varying burdens of IHD-related medical services among the districts in Shenzhen. The results show that the highest hospital admissions, incidence rates, and standardized rates of IHD are in Futian. From 2003 to 2012, the IHD hospital admissions exhibited similar mean centers and directional distributions, with a slight increase in admissions toward the north in accordance with the movement of the total population. The incidence rates of IHD exhibited a gradual increase from 2003 to 2012 for all districts in Shenzhen, which may be the result of the rapid development of the economy and the increasing traffic pollution. In addition, some neighboring areas exhibited similar temporal change patterns, which were also detected by the spatio-temporal cluster analysis. Futian and Dapeng would have the highest and the lowest hospital admissions, respectively, although these districts have the highest incidence rates among all of the districts from 2013 to 2015 based on the prediction

  4. Predicting Indian Summer Monsoon onset through variations of surface air temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbova, Veronika; Surovyatkina, Elena; Kurths, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall has an enormous effect on Indian agriculture, economy, and, as a consequence, life and prosperity of more than one billion people. Variability of the monsoonal rainfall and its onset have a huge influence on food production, agricultural planning and GDP of the country, which on 22% is determined by agriculture. Consequently, successful forecasting of the ISM onset is a big challenge and large efforts are being put into it. Here, we propose a novel approach for predictability of the ISM onset, based on critical transition theory. The ISM onset is defined as an abrupt transition from sporadious rainfall to spatially organized and temporally sustained rainfall. Taking this into account, we consider the ISM onset as is a critical transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon, which take place in time and also in space. It allows us to suggest that before the onset of ISM on the Indian subcontinent should be areas of critical behavior where indicators of the critical transitions can be detected through an analysis of observational data. First, we identify areas with such critical behavior. Second, we use detected areas as reference points for observation locations for the ISM onset prediction. Third, we derive a precursor for the ISM onset based on the analysis of surface air temperature and relative humidity variations in these reference points. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of this precursor on two observational data sets. The proposed approach allows to determine ISM onset in advance in 67% of all considered years. Our proposed approach is less effective during the anomalous years, which are associated with weak/strong monsoons, e.g. El-Nino, La-Nina or positive Indian Ocean Dipole events. The ISM onset is predicted for 23 out of 27 normal monsoon years (85%) during the past 6 decades. In the anomalous years, we show that time series analysis in both areas during the pre-monsoon period reveals indicators whether the

  5. Variational assimilation of land surface temperature observations for enhanced river flow predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolani, Giulia; Castelli, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Data assimilation (DA) has the potential of improving hydrologic forecasts. However, many issues arise in case it is employed for spatially distributed hydrologic models that describes processes in various compartments: large dimensionality of the inverse problem, layers governed by different equations, non-linear and discontinuous model structure, complex topology of domains such as surface drainage and river network.On the other hand, integrated models offer the possibility of improving prediction of specific states by exploiting observations of quantities belonging to other compartments. In terms of forecasting river discharges, and hence for their enhancement, soil moisture is a key variable, since it determines the partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and surface runoff. However, soil moisture measurements are affected by issues that could prevent a successful DA and an actual improvement of discharge predictions.In-situ measurements suffer a dramatic spatial scarcity, while observations from satellite are barely accurate and provide spatial information only at a very coarse scale (around 40 km).Hydrologic models that explicitly represent land surface processes of coupled water and energy balance provide a valid alternative to direct DA of soil moisture.They gives the possibility of inferring soil moisture states through DA of remotely sensed Land Surface Temperature (LST), whose measurements are more accurate and with a higher spatial resolution in respect to those of soil moisture. In this work we present the assimilation of LST data in a hydrologic model (Mobidic) that is part of the operational forecasting chain for the Arno river, central Italy, with the aim of improving flood predictions. Mobidic is a raster based, continuous in time and distributed in space hydrologic model, with coupled mass and energy balance at the surface and coupled groundwater and surface hydrology. The variational approach is adopted for DA, since it requires less

  6. Why Does Working Memory Capacity Predict Variation in Reading Comprehension? On the Influence of Mind Wandering and Executive Attention

    OpenAIRE

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Some people are better readers than others, and this variation in comprehension ability is predicted by measures of working memory capacity (WMC). The primary goal of this study was to investigate the mediating role of mind wandering experiences in the association between WMC and normal individual differences in reading comprehension, as predicted by the executive-attention theory of WMC (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004). We used a latent-variable, structural-equation-model approach, testing skilled...

  7. Making DDL Engaging Through Advance Organizers and Prediction Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金忍冬

    2012-01-01

      This paper addresses some of the requirements of the advance organizers and prediction activities for DDL (Data-Driv⁃en Learning) based on multi-modal corpora for learning English as a second language. It analyzes preliminary advantages and dis⁃advantages of using multi-modal corpora for DDL and focuses on key methodological issues related to self-guided learning and corpus operation. Pedagogical suggestions are provided on how to make the multi-modal corpora based DDL engaging in accor⁃dance with Krashen’ s Language Input Hypothesis with the assistance of advance organizers and prediction activities.

  8. A neural network model for olfactory glomerular activity prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Zu; Tsuji, Toshio; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the importance of odors and methods for their evaluation have seen increased emphasis, especially in the fragrance and food industries. Although odors can be characterized by their odorant components, their chemical information cannot be directly related to the flavors we perceive. Biological research has revealed that neuronal activity related to glomeruli (which form part of the olfactory system) is closely connected to odor qualities. Here we report on a neural network model of the olfactory system that can predict glomerular activity from odorant molecule structures. We also report on the learning and prediction ability of the proposed model.

  9. Does the ring species concept predict vocal variation in the crimson rosella, Platycercus elegans, complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribot, Raoul F. H.; Berg, Mathew L.; Buchanan, Katherine L.; Komdeur, Jan; Joseph, Leo; Bennett, Andrew T. D.

    2009-01-01

    Vocal variation may be important in population divergence. We studied geographical variation in contact calls of parrots of the crimson rosella, Platycercus elegans, complex, which is characterized by striking geographical plumage coloration variation. This complex has long been considered a rare ex

  10. TH-A-9A-01: Active Optical Flow Model: Predicting Voxel-Level Dose Prediction in Spine SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J; Wu, Q.J.; Yin, F; Kirkpatrick, J; Cabrera, A [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ge, Y [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To predict voxel-level dose distribution and enable effective evaluation of cord dose sparing in spine SBRT. Methods: We present an active optical flow model (AOFM) to statistically describe cord dose variations and train a predictive model to represent correlations between AOFM and PTV contours. Thirty clinically accepted spine SBRT plans are evenly divided into training and testing datasets. The development of predictive model consists of 1) collecting a sequence of dose maps including PTV and OAR (spinal cord) as well as a set of associated PTV contours adjacent to OAR from the training dataset, 2) classifying data into five groups based on PTV's locations relative to OAR, two “Top”s, “Left”, “Right”, and “Bottom”, 3) randomly selecting a dose map as the reference in each group and applying rigid registration and optical flow deformation to match all other maps to the reference, 4) building AOFM by importing optical flow vectors and dose values into the principal component analysis (PCA), 5) applying another PCA to features of PTV and OAR contours to generate an active shape model (ASM), and 6) computing a linear regression model of correlations between AOFM and ASM.When predicting dose distribution of a new case in the testing dataset, the PTV is first assigned to a group based on its contour characteristics. Contour features are then transformed into ASM's principal coordinates of the selected group. Finally, voxel-level dose distribution is determined by mapping from the ASM space to the AOFM space using the predictive model. Results: The DVHs predicted by the AOFM-based model and those in clinical plans are comparable in training and testing datasets. At 2% volume the dose difference between predicted and clinical plans is 4.2±4.4% and 3.3±3.5% in the training and testing datasets, respectively. Conclusion: The AOFM is effective in predicting voxel-level dose distribution for spine SBRT. Partially supported by NIH

  11. Stock Price Change Rate Prediction by Utilizing Social Network Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangkun Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL and genetic algorithm (GA. MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques.

  12. Seasonal variation of CCN concentrations and aerosol activation properties in boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-L. Sihto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of EUCAARI activities, the annual cycle of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations and critical diameter for cloud droplet activation as a function of supersaturation were measured using a CCN counter and a HTDMA (hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer at SMEAR II station, Hyytiälä, Finland. The critical diameters for CCN activation were estimated from (i the measured CCN concentration and particle size distribution data, and (ii the hygroscopic growth factors by applying κ-Köhler theory, in both cases assuming an internally mixed aerosol. The critical diameters derived by these two methods were in good agreement with each other. The effect of new particle formation on the diurnal variation of CCN concentration and critical diameters was studied. New particle formation was observed to increase the CCN concentrations by 70–110%, depending on the supersaturation level. The average value for the κ-parameter determined from hygroscopicity measurements was κ = 0.18 and it predicted well the CCN activation in boreal forest conditions in Hyytiälä. The derived critical diameters and κ-parameter confirm earlier findings with other methods, that aerosol particles at CCN sizes in Hyytiälä are mostly organic, but contain also more hygrosopic, probably inorganic salts like ammonium sulphate, making the particles more CCN active than pure secondary organic aerosol.

  13. Variability of single trial brain activation predicts fluctuations in reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stephan; Banaschewski, Tobias; Roessner, Veit; Klein, Christoph; Rietschel, Marcella; Feige, Bernd; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Brain activation stability is crucial to understanding attention lapses. EEG methods could provide excellent markers to assess neuronal response variability with respect to temporal (intertrial coherence) and spatial variability (topographic consistency) as well as variations in activation intensity (low frequency variability of single trial global field power). We calculated intertrial coherence, topographic consistency and low frequency amplitude variability during target P300 in a continuous performance test in 263 15-year-olds from a cohort with psychosocial and biological risk factors. Topographic consistency and low frequency amplitude variability predicted reaction time fluctuations (RTSD) in a linear model. Higher RTSD was only associated with higher psychosocial adversity in the presence of the homozygous 6R-10R dopamine transporter haplotype. We propose that topographic variability of single trial P300 reflects noise as well as variability in evoked cortical activation patterns. Dopaminergic neuromodulation interacted with environmental and biological risk factors to predict behavioural reaction time variability.

  14. Prediction of interindividual variation in drug plasma levels in vivo from individual enzyme kinetic data and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaards, J.J.P.; Hissink, E.M.; Briggs, M.; Weaver, R.; Jochemsen, R.; Jackson, P.; Bertrand, M.; Bladeren, P. van

    2000-01-01

    A strategy is presented to predict interindividual variation in drug plasma levels in vivo by the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and human in vitro metabolic parameters, obtained through the combined use of microsomes containing single cytochrome P450 enzymes and a human liver

  15. Why Does Working Memory Capacity Predict Variation in Reading Comprehension? On the Influence of Mind Wandering and Executive Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Some people are better readers than others, and this variation in comprehension ability is predicted by measures of working memory capacity (WMC). The primary goal of this study was to investigate the mediating role of mind-wandering experiences in the association between WMC and normal individual differences in reading comprehension, as predicted…

  16. Individual variation in fathers' testosterone reactivity to infant distress predicts parenting behaviors with their 1-year-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Patty X; Saini, Ekjyot K; Thomason, Elizabeth; Schultheiss, Oliver C; Gonzalez, Richard; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-04-01

    Positive father involvement is associated with positive child outcomes. There is great variation in fathers' involvement and fathering behaviors, and men's testosterone (T) has been proposed as a potential biological contributor to paternal involvement. Previous studies investigating testosterone changes in response to father-infant interactions or exposure to infant cues were unclear as to whether individual variation in T is predictive of fathering behavior. We show that individual variation in fathers' T reactivity to their infants during a challenging laboratory paradigm (Strange Situation) uniquely predicted fathers' positive parenting behaviors during a subsequent father-infant interaction, in addition to other psychosocial determinants of paternal involvement, such as dispositional empathy and marital quality. The findings have implications for understanding fathering behaviors and how fathers can contribute to their children's socioemotional development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 303-314, 2016. PMID:26497119

  17. Predicting the Size of Sunspot Cycle 24 on the Basis of Single- and Bi-Variate Geomagnetic Precursor Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Examined are single- and bi-variate geomagnetic precursors for predicting the maximum amplitude (RM) of a sunspot cycle several years in advance. The best single-variate fit is one based on the average of the ap index 36 mo prior to cycle minimum occurrence (E(Rm)), having a coefficient of correlation (r) equal to 0.97 and a standard error of estimate (se) equal to 9.3. Presuming cycle 24 not to be a statistical outlier and its minimum in March 2008, the fit suggests cycle 24 s RM to be about 69 +/- 20 (the 90% prediction interval). The weighted mean prediction of 11 statistically important single-variate fits is 116 +/- 34. The best bi-variate fit is one based on the maximum and minimum values of the 12-mma of the ap index; i.e., APM# and APm*, where # means the value post-E(RM) for the preceding cycle and * means the value in the vicinity of cycle minimum, having r = 0.98 and se = 8.2. It predicts cycle 24 s RM to be about 92 +/- 27. The weighted mean prediction of 22 statistically important bi-variate fits is 112 32. Thus, cycle 24's RM is expected to lie somewhere within the range of about 82 to 144. Also examined are the late-cycle 23 behaviors of geomagnetic indices and solar wind velocity in comparison to the mean behaviors of cycles 2023 and the geomagnetic indices of cycle 14 (RM = 64.2), the weakest sunspot cycle of the modern era.

  18. Prospect of Using Numerical Dynamo Model for Prediction of Geomagnetic Secular Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Modeling of the Earth's core has reached a level of maturity to where the incorporation of observations into the simulations through data assimilation has become feasible. Data assimilation is a method by which observations of a system are combined with a model output (or forecast) to obtain a best guess of the state of the system, called the analysis. The analysis is then used as an initial condition for the next forecast. By doing assimilation, not only we shall be able to predict partially secular variation of the core field, we could also use observations to further our understanding of dynamical states in the Earth's core. One of the first steps in the development of an assimilation system is a comparison between the observations and the model solution. The highly turbulent nature of core dynamics, along with the absence of any regular external forcing and constraint (which occurs in atmospheric dynamics, for example) means that short time comparisons (approx. 1000 years) cannot be made between model and observations. In order to make sensible comparisons, a direct insertion assimilation method has been implemented. In this approach, magnetic field observations at the Earth's surface have been substituted into the numerical model, such that the ratio of the multiple components and the dipole component from observation is adjusted at the core-mantle boundary and extended to the interior of the core, while the total magnetic energy remains unchanged. This adjusted magnetic field is then used as the initial field for a new simulation. In this way, a time tugged simulation is created which can then be compared directly with observations. We present numerical solutions with and without data insertion and discuss their implications for the development of a more rigorous assimilation system.

  19. Circadian Rhythms of Locomotor Activity in Captive Birds and Mammals : Their Variations with Season and Latitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Aschoff, Jürgen

    1975-01-01

    1. The seasonal variations in time of daily onset and end of locomotor activity are described for 3 species of mammals and 5 species of birds kept in captivity at the arctic circle and at lower latitude. These variations are most pronounced at high latitude. 2. The duration of daily activity plotted

  20. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  1. Predicting active users' personality based on micro-blogging behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Ang; Hao, Bibo; Guan, Zengda; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 839 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory [corrected]. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors.

  2. Effects of intraleaf variations in carbonic anhydrase activity and gas exchange on leaf C18OO isoflux in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affek, Hagit P; Krisch, Maria J; Yakir, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Variation in the C18OO content of atmospheric CO2 (delta18Oa) can be used to distinguish photosynthesis from soil respiration, which is based on carbonic anhydrase (CA)-catalyzed 18O exchange between CO2 and 18O-enriched leaf water (delta18Ow). Here we tested the hypothesis that mean leaf delta18Ow and assimilation rates can be used to estimate whole-leaf C18OO flux (isoflux), ignoring intraleaf variations in CA activity and gas exchange parameters. We observed variations in CA activity along the leaf (> 30% decline from the leaf center toward the leaf ends), which were only partially correlated to those in delta18Ow (7 to 21 per thousand), delta18O and delta13C of leaf organic matter (25 to 30 per thousand and -12.8 to -13.2 per thousand, respectively), and substomatal CO2 concentrations (intercellular CO2 concentrations, c(i), at the leaf center were approximately 40% of those at the leaf tip). The combined effect of these variations produced a leaf-integrated isoflux that was different from that predicted based on bulk leaf values. However, because of canceling effects among the influencing parameters, isoflux overestimations were only approximately 10%. Conversely, use of measured parameters from a leaf segment could produce large errors in predicting leaf-integrated C18OO fluxes. PMID:16411935

  3. Thermospheric mass density variations during geomagnetic storms and a prediction model based on the merging electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Ma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With the help of four years (2002–2005 of CHAMP accelerometer data we have investigated the dependence of low and mid latitude thermospheric density on the merging electric field, Em, during major magnetic storms. Altogether 30 intensive storm events (Dstmin<−100 nT are chosen for a statistical study. In order to achieve a good correlation Em is preconditioned. Contrary to general opinion, Em has to be applied without saturation effect in order to obtain good results for magnetic storms of all activity levels. The memory effect of the thermosphere is accounted for by a weighted integration of Em over the past 3 h. In addition, a lag time of the mass density response to solar wind input of 0 to 4.5 h depending on latitude and local time is considered. A linear model using the preconditioned Em as main controlling parameter for predicting mass density changes during magnetic storms is developed: ρ=0.5 Em + ρamb, where ρamb is based on the mean density during the quiet day before the storm. We show that this simple relation predicts all storm-induced mass density variations at CHAMP altitude fairly well especially if orbital averages are considered.

  4. Prediction of individual differences in risky behaviour in young adults via variations in local brain structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra eNasiriavanaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of how inter-individual differences play a role in risk-taking behaviour has become a much debated issue. We investigated this problem based on the well-known balloon analogue risk task (BART in which participants inflate a virtual balloon opting for a higher score in the face of a riskier chance of the balloon explosion. In this study, based on a structural Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM technique we demonstrate a significant positive correlation between BART score and size of the grey matter volume in the anterior insula in riskier subjects. Although the anterior insula is among the candidate brain areas that were involved in the risk taking behaviour in fMRI studies, here based on our structural data it is the sole area with a significant structural variation among different subjects. Also a seemingly conflicting finding is discussed where the anterior insula is shown to be more active in risk aversive subjects.

  5. Predicting activity approach based on new atoms similarity kernel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Atta, Ahmed H; Moussa, M I; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2015-07-01

    Drug design is a high cost and long term process. To reduce time and costs for drugs discoveries, new techniques are needed. Chemoinformatics field implements the informational techniques and computer science like machine learning and graph theory to discover the chemical compounds properties, such as toxicity or biological activity. This is done through analyzing their molecular structure (molecular graph). To overcome this problem there is an increasing need for algorithms to analyze and classify graph data to predict the activity of molecules. Kernels methods provide a powerful framework which combines machine learning with graph theory techniques. These kernels methods have led to impressive performance results in many several chemoinformatics problems like biological activity prediction. This paper presents a new approach based on kernel functions to solve activity prediction problem for chemical compounds. First we encode all atoms depending on their neighbors then we use these codes to find a relationship between those atoms each other. Then we use relation between different atoms to find similarity between chemical compounds. The proposed approach was compared with many other classification methods and the results show competitive accuracy with these methods.

  6. Prediction of daytime variations of HO2 radical concentrations in the marine boundary layer using BP network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) was established to predict the daytime variations of HO 2 radical concentration observed in the field campaign RISFEX 2003 (RIShiri Fall Experiment 2003) conducted in September 2003 at Rishiri Island (45.07 N,141.12 E,and 35m asl) in the Sea of Japan.The initial weight matrices and bias vectors for the network were optimized by a bee evolutionary genetic algorithm (BEGA).It was found that the input variables sensitive to HO 2 variation were photolysis frequency of O 3 to O(1 D) (J(O 1 D)),a composite parameter defined as the ratio of HC to NO x reactivity towards OH radicals (Φ),and the total aerosol surface area (A).The predicted results are closely correlated with the experimental data with the coefficient of determination (R2) close to 1.In addition,the means and ranges of the predicted HO 2 concentration agree with the observed data with the correlation coefficient (R),the index of agreement (IA) and the fractional bias (FB) in the range of 0.84-0.93,0.88-0.95 and 14%-7%,respectively.This study demonstrates that BPNN is a potential tool to predict the daytime variations of HO 2 radical concentrations in the marine boundary layer (MBL).

  7. Active diagnosis of hybrid systems - A model predictive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Ravn, Anders P.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh;

    2009-01-01

    A method for active diagnosis of hybrid systems is proposed. The main idea is to predict the future output of both normal and faulty model of the system; then at each time step an optimization problem is solved with the objective of maximizing the difference between the predicted normal and faulty...... outputs constrained by tolerable performance requirements. As in standard model predictive control, the first element of the optimal input is applied to the system and the whole procedure is repeated until the fault is detected by a passive diagnoser. It is demonstrated how the generated excitation signal...... can be used as a test signal for sanity check at the commissioning or for detection of faults hidden by regulatory actions of the controller. The method is tested on the two tank benchmark example. ©2009 IEEE....

  8. Neural activity during encoding predicts false memories created by misinformation

    OpenAIRE

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E.L.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. We used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and misinformation to see whether neural activity during either encoding phase could predict what would be remembered. fMRI data were collected as participants studied ...

  9. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Scharinger; Ulrich Rabl; Christian H. Kasess; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Tina Hofmaier; Kersten Diers; Lucie Bartova; Gerald Pail; Wolfgang Huf; Zeljko Uzelac; Beate Hartinger; Klaudius Kalcher; Thomas Perkmann; Helmuth Haslacher; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy...

  10. Resource assurance predicts specialist and generalist bee activity in drought

    OpenAIRE

    Minckley, Robert L.; Roulston, T'ai H.; Williams, Neal M.

    2013-01-01

    Many short-lived desert organisms remain in diapause during drought. Theoretically, the cues desert species use to continue diapause through drought should differ depending on the availability of critical resources, but the unpredictability and infrequent occurrence of climate extremes and reduced insect activity during such events make empirical tests of this prediction difficult. An intensive study of a diverse bee–plant community through a drought event found that bee specialists of a drou...

  11. Variations in the pre-ejection period induced by ventricular extra systoles may be feasible to predict fluid responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistisen, Simon Tilma; Andersen, Kristian Kjær; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Kirkegaard, Hans

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring that can predict fluid responsiveness is an unsettled matter for spontaneously breathing patients. Based on the convincing results with dynamic monitoring based on preload variations induced by mechanical ventilation, we hypothesised that the extra systolic post-ectopic beat could constitute a similar intermittent preload shift inducing a brief variation in blood pressure and that the magnitude of this variation could predict the hemodynamic response to volume expansion in sedated pigs. Ten pigs were sedated and hemodynamically monitored and four intravascular volume shifts were made: blood depletion (25% of estimated blood volume; 660 ml), retransfusion (of 500 ml depleted blood), and two sequential volume expansions (500 ml colloid each). Between volume shifts, supraventricular and ventricular extra systoles were induced by a pacemaker. Hemodynamic variables such as pulse pressure (PP) and pre-ejection period (PEP) were determined for each heart beat and the hemodynamic changes in the post-ectopic beats compared to sinus beats was extracted (e.g. ∆PP and ∆PEP) and used to predict fluid responsiveness of subsequent volume expansions which was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Ventricular extra systoles were generally useful for fluid responsiveness prediction (ROC areas >0.65). ∆PEP variables best predicted fluid responsiveness: ∆PEP derived from arterial pressure curve and ECG had ROC area of 0.84 and sensitivity of 0.77 and specificity of 0.71; ∆PEP derived from plethysmographic curve and ECG had ROC area of 0.79 and sensitivity of 0.71 and specificity of 0.70. However, ∆PP was not a useful variable in this study (ROC area <0.65). Hemodynamic analysis of post ectopic beats may be a feasible method for fluid responsiveness prediction. PMID:24203263

  12. Improving active space telescope wavefront control using predictive thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica; Perrin, Marshall D.

    2015-01-01

    Active control algorithms for space telescopes are less mature than those for large ground telescopes due to differences in the wavefront control problems. Active wavefront control for space telescopes at L2, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), requires weighing control costs against the benefits of correcting wavefront perturbations that are a predictable byproduct of the observing schedule, which is known and determined in advance. To improve the control algorithms for these telescopes, we have developed a model that calculates the temperature and wavefront evolution during a hypothetical mission, assuming the dominant wavefront perturbations are due to changes in the spacecraft attitude with respect to the sun. Using this model, we show that the wavefront can be controlled passively by introducing scheduling constraints that limit the allowable attitudes for an observation based on the observation duration and the mean telescope temperature. We also describe the implementation of a predictive controller designed to prevent the wavefront error (WFE) from exceeding a desired threshold. This controller outperforms simpler algorithms even with substantial model error, achieving a lower WFE without requiring significantly more corrections. Consequently, predictive wavefront control based on known spacecraft attitude plans is a promising approach for JWST and other future active space observatories.

  13. Validation of Predicted Diurnal and Semi-diurnal Tidal Variations in Polar Motion with GPS-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shailen; Sibois, Aurore

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we reconcile predicted diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal variations in polar motion using observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) space geodetic technique. We demonstrate closure at the level of less than 4 microarcseconds of the budget between our adopted models for predicted polar motion tidal variations and our GPS-based observations. Our GPS-based observations are composed of a 10-year continuous time series of polar motion estimates with 15-minute temporal resolution. Our adopted models account for the contribution from the relative angular momentum of the ocean tides and so-called libration. We compute predicted ocean tide contributions using a modern hydrodynamic model of tide heights and currents that assimilates satellite altimetry data. We use the model for libration effects provided by the current IERS conventions, as taken from Mathews and Bretagnon [2003]. We also show that the currently recommended models from the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) conventions do not close the budget with respect to our GPS-based observations. In particular, residual diurnal and semidiurnal tidal variations in polar motion are observed when using the current IERS conventions for ocean tide effects and libration. We infer that the root source for these residual tidal variations is errors in the 20-year old model for ocean tide effects from the IERS conventions, and that predicted ocean tide effects from a modern model mitigates these errors. The noise floor of our high-rate GPS-based times series of polar motion is less than 4 microarcseconds in the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal frequency bands, and is well below the level of the predicted effects of both the ocean tide and libration effects. Diurnal and semidiurnal tidal variations in polar motion are predominantly caused by the ocean tides, which have amplitudes of a few hundred microarcseconds. Libration, namely the effect of external luni-solar torques acting on the triaxial Earth

  14. Model and scenario variations in predicted number of generations of Spodoptera litura Fab. on peanut during future climate change scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathukumalli Srinivasa Rao

    Full Text Available The present study features the estimation of number of generations of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. Fab. on peanut crop at six locations in India using MarkSim, which provides General Circulation Model (GCM of future data on daily maximum (T.max, minimum (T.min air temperatures from six models viz., BCCR-BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHams5, INCM-CM3.0 and MIROC3.2 along with an ensemble of the six from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1. This data was used to predict the future pest scenarios following the growing degree days approach in four different climate periods viz., Baseline-1975, Near future (NF -2020, Distant future (DF-2050 and Very Distant future (VDF-2080. It is predicted that more generations would occur during the three future climate periods with significant variation among scenarios and models. Among the seven models, 1-2 additional generations were predicted during DF and VDF due to higher future temperatures in CNRM-CM3, ECHams5 & CSIRO-Mk3.5 models. The temperature projections of these models indicated that the generation time would decrease by 18-22% over baseline. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to partition the variation in the predicted number of generations and generation time of S. litura on peanut during crop season. Geographical location explained 34% of the total variation in number of generations, followed by time period (26%, model (1.74% and scenario (0.74%. The remaining 14% of the variation was explained by interactions. Increased number of generations and reduction of generation time across the six peanut growing locations of India suggest that the incidence of S. litura may increase due to projected increase in temperatures in future climate change periods.

  15. Modeling of the diurnal variation of the maximum applicable frequency for radio-communication on short waves considering solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method of modeling of the diurnal variation of parameter maximum applicable frequency (MAF) has been developed. The method has been tested by the use of the data of Ionospheric Digital Database of the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), Boulder, Colorado, USA, namely, the data of Julruh - (φ=54,5°N). The type of the parameter dependence on solar activity has been studied and a model of diurnal variation of the median values in January has been made. The model is polynomial dependent on F10,7 allowing prediction of MAF. The model is made up according to data of 1958-1986 period. Prognosis was made for the next four years. Error is less than 15% for any hour and it is 10% less in the daytime. The method permits to make models for any point of the Earth (where the measurements are carried out during several cycles of solar activity) for each month. (author)

  16. Variation in sexual dimorphism and assortative mating do not predict genetic divergence in the sexually dimorphic Goodeid fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.MAC(I)AS GARCIA; G SMITH; C.GONZ(A)LEZ ZUARTH; J.A.GRAVES; M.G.RITCHIE

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is often used as a proxy for the intensity of sexual selection in comparative studies of sexual selection and diversification.The Mexican Goodeinae are a group of livebearing freshwater fishes with large variation between species in sexual dimorphism in body shape.Previously we found an association between variation in morphological sexual dimorphism between species and the amount of gene flow within populations in the Goodeinae.Here we have examined if morphological differentiation within a single dimorphic species is related to assortative mating or gene flow between populations.In the Amarillo fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus studies have shown that exaggerated male fins are targets of female preferences.We find that populations of the species differ in the level of sexual dimorphism displayed due to faster evolution of differences in male than female morphology.However,this does not predict variation in assortative mating tests in the laboratory; in fact differences in male morphology are negatively correlated with assortative mating.Microsatellite markers reveal significant genetic differences between populations.However,gene flow is not predicted by either morphological differences or assortative mating.Rather,it demonstrates a pattern of isolation by distance with greater differentiation between watersheds.We discuss the caveats of predicting behavioural and genetic divergence from so-called proxies of sexual selection.

  17. Variation in sexual dimorphism and assortative mating do not predict genetic divergence in the sexually dimorphic Goodeid fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.MACÍAS GARCIA, G.SMITH, C.GONZÁLEZ ZUARTH, J.A. GRAVES,M.G.RITCHIE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism is often used as a proxy for the intensity of sexual selection in comparative studies of sexual selection and diversification. The Mexican Goodeinae are a group of livebearing freshwater fishes with large variation between species in sexual dimorphism in body shape. Previously we found an association between variation in morphological sexual dimorphism between species and the amount of gene flow within populations in the Goodeinae. Here we have examined if morphological differentiation within a single dimorphic species is related to assortative mating or gene flow between populations. In the Amarillo fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus studies have shown that exaggerated male fins are targets of female preferences. We find that populations of the species differ in the level of sexual dimorphism displayed due to faster evolution of differences in male than female morphology. However, this does not predict variation in assortative mating tests in the laboratory; in fact differences in male morphology are negatively correlated with assortative mating. Microsatellite markers reveal significant genetic differences between populations. However, gene flow is not predicted by either morphological differences or assortative mating. Rather, it demonstrates a pattern of isolation by distance with greater differentiation between watersheds. We discuss the caveats of predicting behavioural and genetic divergence from so-called proxies of sexual selection [Current Zoology 58 (3: 437-449, 2012].

  18. Recognition and prediction of individual and combined muscular activation modes via surface EMG analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Graupe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses how recognition of individual and combined muscular activation modes (functions and the prediction of intended such modes can be accomplished by identifying parameters of noninvasive surface EMG signals. It outlines the mathematical analysis of surface EMG signal to facilitate such recognition and related prediction, including recognition of intention (in terms of attempts to activate motor functions from the EMG, without accessing the CNS itself, in cases where a patient, say, a high-level amputee does not have the final-activation muscles and joints. The EMG activity thus allows to interpret and recognize CNS commands from minute variations in the parameters of surface EMG signals that record changes in the firing of motor neurons triggering contractions in related muscle fibers. We note that although in popular media this is sometimes referred to as detection of “thoughts”, no thoughts are detected, but only motor-outcomes of thoughts as found in the EMG signal. Examples of concrete cases where such recognition or prediction were accomplished in the author’s lab and in devices that came out of that lab, are given as are references to these in the literature over the last 35 years.

  19. Assessing effects of variation in global climate data sets on spatial predictions from climate envelope models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanach, Stephanie; Watling, James I.; Fletcher, Robert J., Jr.; Speroterra, Carolina; Bucklin, David N.; Brandt, Laura A.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Escribano, Yesenia; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change poses new challenges for natural resource managers. Predictive modeling of species–environment relationships using climate envelope models can enhance our understanding of climate change effects on biodiversity, assist in assessment of invasion risk by exotic organisms, and inform life-history understanding of individual species. While increasing interest has focused on the role of uncertainty in future conditions on model predictions, models also may be sensitive to the initial conditions on which they are trained. Although climate envelope models are usually trained using data on contemporary climate, we lack systematic comparisons of model performance and predictions across alternative climate data sets available for model training. Here, we seek to fill that gap by comparing variability in predictions between two contemporary climate data sets to variability in spatial predictions among three alternative projections of future climate. Overall, correlations between monthly temperature and precipitation variables were very high for both contemporary and future data. Model performance varied across algorithms, but not between two alternative contemporary climate data sets. Spatial predictions varied more among alternative general-circulation models describing future climate conditions than between contemporary climate data sets. However, we did find that climate envelope models with low Cohen's kappa scores made more discrepant spatial predictions between climate data sets for the contemporary period than did models with high Cohen's kappa scores. We suggest conservation planners evaluate multiple performance metrics and be aware of the importance of differences in initial conditions for spatial predictions from climate envelope models.

  20. Variation in Soil Enzyme Activities in a Temperate Agroforestry Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of agroforestry and grass buffers into row crop watersheds improves overall environmental quality, including soil quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on soil carbon, soil nitrogen, microbial diversity, enzyme activity, and DNA concentrati...

  1. Variation in activity of pepsin extracted from buffalo stomach mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepsin was extracted from the buffalo's mucosa in an acidic medium by incubating at 40 degree C for 48 h and dried in an air blanket at 50 degree C. Conditions for the maximum yield M pepsin were optimized. Changes in pH, temperature and incubation time affect the yield of pepsin, It has been noted that the time of the year in which extractions were made under optimized conditions was an important factor which affected the yield as well as activity of pepsin. Studies showed that maximum yield 11.5% was in February 2009 and minimum 10.3% in May 2009. It was further studied that the activity of the pepsin extracted in February was higher i.e 110 U/mg as compared to the activity of the enzyme extracted during the month of May which was 102.6 U/mg. The purpose of the study was to consider the conditions of the slaughter houses to attain maximum yield of pepsin with maximum activity. (author)

  2. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

    2010-04-01

    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work.

  3. Generating Novel Allelic Variation Through Activator Insertional Mutagenesis in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Ling; Singh, Manjit; Pitt, Lauren; Sweeney, Meredith; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    The maize transposable element Activator (Ac) has been exploited as an insertional mutagen to disrupt, clone, and characterize genes in a number of plant species. To develop an Ac-based mutagenesis platform for maize, a large-scale mutagenesis was conducted targeting the pink scutellum1 locus. We selected 1092 Ac transposition events from a closely linked donor Ac, resulting in the recovery of 17 novel ps1 alleles. Multiple phenotypic classes were identified corresponding to Ac insertions in ...

  4. Low skin conductance activity in infancy predicts aggression in toddlers 2 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erika; Shelton, Katherine H; Baibazarova, Eugenia; Hay, Dale F; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2013-06-01

    Low autonomic nervous system activity is claimed to be a biomarker for aggressive and antisocial behavior. Although there is evidence that low skin conductance activity (SCA) accounts for variation in the severity of antisocial behavior and predicts the onset of aggression in children and adults, it is unknown whether SCA measured in infancy can predict the development of aggression. We measured SCA in 70 typically developing 1-year-old infants at baseline, during an orienting habituation paradigm, and during a fear challenge. We also observed the infants' fear behavior, and each mother rated her infant's temperament and her attachment to her child. At follow-up, mothers rated the children at 3 years old for aggressive and nonaggressive behavior problems. Low infant SCA predicted aggressive behavior, but there was no association between SCA and nonaggressive behavior problems. Mothers' ratings of the infants' temperament and their maternal attachment and the infants' observed fearlessness did not predict later aggression. These results suggest that SCA is a specific biomarker for aggression in low-risk samples of infants.

  5. Linear filters as a method of real-time prediction of geomagnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important factors controlling geomagnetic activity include the solar wind velocity, the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and the field orientation. Because these quantities change so much in transit through the solar wind, real-time monitoring immediately upstream of the earth provides the best input for any technique of real-time prediction. One such technique is linear prediction filtering which utilizes past histories of the input and output of a linear system to create a time-invariant filter characterizing the system. Problems of nonlinearity or temporal changes of the system can be handled by appropriate choice of input parameters and piecewise approximation in various ranges of the input. We have created prediction filters for all the standard magnetic indices and tested their efficiency. The filters show that the initial response of the magnetosphere to a southward turning of the IMF peaks in 20 minutes and then again in 55 minutes. After a northward turning, auroral zone indices and the midlatitude ASYM index return to background within 2 hours, while Dst decays exponentially with a time constant of about 8 hours. This paper describes a simple, real-time system utilizing these filters which could predict a substantial fraction of the variation in magnetic activity indices 20 to 50 minutes in advance

  6. Testing a four-dimensional variational data assimilation method using an improved intermediate coupled model for ENSO analysis and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuan; Wu, Xinrong; Zhang, Rong-Hua

    2016-07-01

    A four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation method is implemented in an improved intermediate coupled model (ICM) of the tropical Pacific. A twin experiment is designed to evaluate the impact of the 4D-Var data assimilation algorithm on ENSO analysis and prediction based on the ICM. The model error is assumed to arise only from the parameter uncertainty. The "observation" of the SST anomaly, which is sampled from a "truth" model simulation that takes default parameter values and has Gaussian noise added, is directly assimilated into the assimilation model with its parameters set erroneously. Results show that 4D-Var effectively reduces the error of ENSO analysis and therefore improves the prediction skill of ENSO events compared with the non-assimilation case. These results provide a promising way for the ICM to achieve better real-time ENSO prediction.

  7. Prediction of Antifungal Activity of Gemini Imidazolium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Pałkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of antimicrobial therapy contributes to the development of strains of fungi resistant to antimicrobial drugs. Since cationic surfactants have been described as good antifungals, we present a SAR study of a novel homologous series of 140 bis-quaternary imidazolium chlorides and analyze them with respect to their biological activity against Candida albicans as one of the major opportunistic pathogens causing a wide spectrum of diseases in human beings. We characterize a set of features of these compounds, concerning their structure, molecular descriptors, and surface active properties. SAR study was conducted with the help of the Dominance-Based Rough Set Approach (DRSA, which involves identification of relevant features and relevant combinations of features being in strong relationship with a high antifungal activity of the compounds. The SAR study shows, moreover, that the antifungal activity is dependent on the type of substituents and their position at the chloride moiety, as well as on the surface active properties of the compounds. We also show that molecular descriptors MlogP, HOMO-LUMO gap, total structure connectivity index, and Wiener index may be useful in prediction of antifungal activity of new chemical compounds.

  8. Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a framework for predicting quantitative relationships between molecular initiatin...

  9. Scarcity of female mates predicts regional variation in men's and women's sociosexual orientation across US states

    OpenAIRE

    Kandrik, Michal; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have linked regional variation in willingness to engage in uncommitted sexual relationships (i.e., sociosexual orientation) to many different socio-ecological measures, such as adult sex ratio, life expectancy, and gross domestic product. However, these studies share a number of potentially serious limitations, including reliance on a single dataset of responses aggregated by country and a failure to properly consider intercorrelations among different socio-ecological measure...

  10. Melanopsin Gene Variations Interact With Season to Predict Sleep Onset and Chronotype

    OpenAIRE

    Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Wong, Patricia M.; Franzen, Peter L.; HASLER, BRANT P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Miller, Megan A.; Kepreos, Kyle M.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    The human melanopsin gene has been reported to mediate risk for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is hypothesized to be caused by decreased photic input during winter when light levels fall below threshold, resulting in differences in circadian phase and/or sleep. However, it is unclear if melanopsin increases risk of SAD by causing differences in sleep or circadian phase, or if those differences are symptoms of the mood disorder. To determine if melanopsin sequence variations are asso...

  11. Analysis of Variation Characters and Prediction Model of Soil Temperature in Solar Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the soil temperature changes and its forecast model in greenhouse by solar heat. [Method] Annual and daily variation characters of soil temperature were analyzed in this paper by using the observation data of air temperature out of solar greenhouse and different layers soil temperature in it. The soil temperature (daily maximum, daily minimum and daily mean) forecasting models were also studied. Simulation and test were conducted to the forecast model of soil temperature in ...

  12. γ- Irradiation Effect: Variation of Photosynthetic Activity of Euglena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on carbon fixation (Specific production rate: SPR), CO2 utilization efficiency (CUE) and electron transfer rate (ETR) in the photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis strain Z in a dose-response dependent manner. Methods Euglena cells were cultured in an inorganic nutrient medium containing ammonium chloride or proteose peptone. Cells were exposed to gamma-ray at 5 doses (0, 100, 250, 350, 500 Gy for water). Five days after irradiation, three photosynthetic activities were measured. SPR, which is a carbon uptake rate per unit carbon mass, was determined by 13C tracer methodology. CUE was evaluated using a relation of carbon isotope fractionation in Calvin cycle. ETR in photosystem II (PS II) was measured by a chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Results Even at a dose of 500 Gy, 80 % of ETR of the non-irradiated control (0 Gy) was sustained, while SPR and CUE were about half the level in the non-irradiated control at 500 Gy. Furthermore, the dose response of ETR was considerably different from the others. Conclusion Our findings suggest that not only PS II but also the Calvin cycle in the photosynthetic system is affected by gamma ray irradiation.

  13. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging. PMID:26860430

  14. Prediction of Early Childhood Caries via Spatial-Temporal Variations of Oral Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; Yang, Fang; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cunpei; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Amir, Amnon; Knight, Rob; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Microbiota-based prediction of chronic infections is promising yet not well established. Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common infection in children. Here we simultaneously tracked microbiota development at plaque and saliva in 50 4-year-old preschoolers for 2 years; children either stayed healthy, transitioned into cariogenesis, or experienced caries exacerbation. Caries onset delayed microbiota development, which is otherwise correlated with aging in healthy children. Both plaque and saliva microbiota are more correlated with changes in ECC severity (dmfs) during onset than progression. By distinguishing between aging- and disease-associated taxa and exploiting the distinct microbiota dynamics between onset and progression, we developed a model, Microbial Indicators of Caries, to diagnose ECC from healthy samples with 70% accuracy and predict, with 81% accuracy, future ECC onsets for samples clinically perceived as healthy. Thus, caries onset in apparently healthy teeth can be predicted using microbiota, when appropriately de-trended for age. PMID:26355216

  15. An epigenetic signature in peripheral blood predicts active ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Teschendorff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that DNA methylation (DNAm markers in peripheral blood may hold promise as diagnostic or early detection/risk markers for epithelial cancers. However, to date no study has evaluated the diagnostic and predictive potential of such markers in a large case control cohort and on a genome-wide basis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By performing genome-wide DNAm profiling of a large ovarian cancer case control cohort, we here demonstrate that active ovarian cancer has a significant impact on the DNAm pattern in peripheral blood. Specifically, by measuring the methylation levels of over 27,000 CpGs in blood cells from 148 healthy individuals and 113 age-matched pre-treatment ovarian cancer cases, we derive a DNAm signature that can predict the presence of active ovarian cancer in blind test sets with an AUC of 0.8 (95% CI (0.74-0.87. We further validate our findings in another independent set of 122 post-treatment cases (AUC = 0.76 (0.72-0.81. In addition, we provide evidence for a significant number of candidate risk or early detection markers for ovarian cancer. Furthermore, by comparing the pattern of methylation with gene expression data from major blood cell types, we here demonstrate that age and cancer elicit common changes in the composition of peripheral blood, with a myeloid skewing that increases with age and which is further aggravated in the presence of ovarian cancer. Finally, we show that most cancer and age associated methylation variability is found at CpGs located outside of CpG islands. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results underscore the potential of DNAm profiling in peripheral blood as a tool for detection or risk-prediction of epithelial cancers, and warrants further in-depth and higher CpG coverage studies to further elucidate this role.

  16. Predictive Analysis of Landslide Activity Using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markuzon, N.; Regan, J.; Slesnick, C.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides are historically one of the most damaging geohazard phenomena in terms of death tolls and socio-economic losses. Therefore, understanding the underlying causes of landslides and how environmental phenomena affect their frequency and severity is of critical importance. Of specific importance for mitigating future damage is increasing our understanding of how climate change will affect landslide severity, occurrence rates, and damage. We are developing data driven models aimed at predicting landslide activity. The models learn multi-dimensional weather and geophysical patterns associated with historical landslides and estimate location-dependent probabilities for landslides under current or future weather and geophysical conditions. Our approach uses machine learning algorithms capable of determining non-linear associations between dependent variables and landslide occurrence without requiring detailed knowledge of geomorphology. Our primary goal in year one of the project is to evaluate the predictive capabilities of data mining models in application to landslide activity, and to analyze if the approach will discover previously unknown variables and/or relationships important to landslide occurrence, frequency or severity. The models include remote sensing and ground-based data, including weather, landcover, slope, elevation and drainage information as well as urbanization data. The historical landslide dataset we used to build our preliminary models was compiled from City of Seattle landslide files, United States Geological Survey reports, newspaper articles, and a verified subset of the Seattle Landslide Database that consists of all reported landslides within Seattle, WA, between 1948 and 1999. Most of the landslides analyzed to-date are shallow. Using statistical analysis and unsupervised clustering methods we have thus far identified subsets of weather conditions that lead to a significantly higher landslide probability, and have developed

  17. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with Leisure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda eHanna-Pladdy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age . These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study examined the type of leisure activity (musical versus other as well as the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (> 10 years and nonmusicians (ages 59-80 were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and life-style activities (AAP. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to explain performance variance in musicians. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal immediate recall, judgment of line orientation (JLO, and Letter Number Sequencing (LNS, but not the AAP. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted JLO in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (< 9 years predicted enhanced LNS in musicians, while analyses for AAP, verbal recall and fluency were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not leisure activity, predicted variability across verbal and visuospatial domains in aging. Early musical acquisition predicted auditory

  18. Uncertainties in modeling, prediction, and actions in response to variations in patient geometric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Rojano

    External beam radiation therapy is an effective method for treating cancer in many body sites. Highly conformal plans can be created to provide good target coverage while sparing the surrounding normal tissue. A fundamental problem in delivering these conformal plans is the inter- and intra-fractional variations in patient geometry, which result in deviation of the delivered dose from the planned dose, thus reducing the probability of tumor control or increasing the risk of normal tissue toxicity. To address this problem, various motion management strategies have been implemented in the clinic, and several others are under investigation. While the technique employed for management of geometric variation can change depending on the type and source of the variation (set up error, respiratory-induced motion and deformation, or tumor shrinkage or tissue loss in response to treatment) as well as other clinical factors, all these techniques have one thing in common and that is the fact that they are not perfect. This work investigates the uncertainties associated with the measurement and management of motion and deformation, and evaluates the impact of these uncertainties on the accuracy of geometry and dose tracking for treatment adaptation. This research quantified the magnitude and distribution of error in deformable image registration for aligning image volumes acquired at different breathing states. It further explored the potential of reducing the registration error in deforming lung geometry, by applying a method from multivariate statistics (principal component analysis) to identify the significant modes of variation in this geometry. It also demonstrated the potential for tracking respiratory induced deformation in various regions in the lung, using a few surrogates such as implanted markers. In addition to the evaluation of registration error for thoracic geometry affected by respiratory motion, this work also investigates the accuracy of deformable image

  19. Prediction of seasonal climate-induced variations in global food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki;

    2013-01-01

    attention to the cropping forecasts of important food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years(2......-4). Here we present a global assessment of the reliability of crop failure hindcasts for major crops at two lead times derived by linking ensemble seasonal climatic forecasts with statistical crop models. We found that moderate-to-marked yield loss over a substantial percentage (26-33 of the harvested area...... of these crops is reliably predictable if climatic forecasts are near perfect. However, only rice and wheat production are reliably predictable at three months before the harvest using within-season hindcasts. The reliabilities of estimates varied substantially by crop-rice and wheat yields were the most...

  20. Variational prediction of the mechanical behavior of shape memory alloys based on thermal experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Philipp; Jaeger, Stefanie; Kastner, Oliver; Eggeler, Gunther; Hackl, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present simulations of shape memory alloys which serve as first examples demonstrating the predicting character of energy-based material models. We begin with a theoretical approach for the derivation of the caloric parts of the Helmholtz free energy. Afterwards, experimental results for DSC measurements are presented. Then, we recall a micromechanical model based on the principle of the minimum of the dissipation potential for the simulation of polycrystalline shape memory alloys. The previously determined caloric parts of the Helmholtz free energy close the set of model parameters without the need of parameter fitting. All quantities are derived directly from experiments. Finally, we compare finite element results for tension tests to experimental data and show that the model identified by thermal measurements can predict mechanically induced phase transformations and thus rationalize global material behavior without any further assumptions.

  1. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang G. J.; Wang, G.-J.; Smith, L.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Tomasi, D.; Wong, C.T.; Hoffman, W.; Jayne, M.; Alia-Klein, N.; Thanos, P.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-20

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  2. Solubility Prediction of Active Pharmaceutical Compounds with the UNIFAC Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouar, Abderrahim; Benmessaoud, Ibtissem; Koutchoukali, Ouahiba; Koutchoukali, Mohamed Salah

    2016-03-01

    The crystallization from solution of an active pharmaceutical ingredient requires the knowledge of the solubility in the entire temperature range investigated during the process. However, during the development of a new active ingredient, these data are missing. Its experimental determination is possible, but tedious. UNIFAC Group contribution method Fredenslund et al. (Vapor-liquid equilibria using UNIFAC: a group contribution method, 1977; AIChE J 21:1086, 1975) can be used to predict this physical property. Several modifications on this model have been proposed since its development in 1977, modified UNIFAC of Dortmund Weidlich et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 26:1372, 1987), Gmehling et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 32:178, 1993), Pharma-modified UNIFAC Diedrichs et al. (Evaluation und Erweiterung thermodynamischer Modelle zur Vorhersage von Wirkstofflöslichkeiten, PhD Thesis, 2010), KT-UNIFAC Kang et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 41:3260, 2002), ldots In this study, we used UNIFAC model by considering the linear temperature dependence of interaction parameters as in Pharma-modified UNIFAC and structural groups as defined by KT-UNIFAC first-order model. More than 100 binary datasets were involved in the estimation of interaction parameters. These new parameters were then used to calculate activity coefficient and solubility of some molecules in various solvents at different temperatures. The model gives better results than those from the original UNIFAC and shows good agreement between the experimental solubility and the calculated one.

  3. Climate variability and change on the Mongolian Plateau: historical variation and future predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liguang; Yao, Zhijun; Huang, He Qing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, variations in temperature and precipitation over the Mongolian Plateau are analyzed using Climatic Research Unit monthly observations from 1911 to 2010. In addition, the climatology regime of future climate projections is presented using 16 state-of-the-art global climate models...... participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 under 2 different representative concentration pathway (RCP) emissions scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). In the process, changes in the climate normals of 1961-1990 and 2061-2090 are compared. The following results were obtained: (1) Over the past.......5, respectively, and the increases in mean temperature are 3.5 and 7.1 degrees C. The spatial patterns are more complicated. These results suggest that the Mongolian Plateau will experience significant climate warming and accompanying increased precipitation. Adaptation strategies are needed to improve...

  4. Geographic variation of surface energy partitioning in the climatic mean predicted from the maximum power limit

    CERN Document Server

    Dhara, Chirag; Kleidon, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Convective and radiative cooling are the two principle mechanisms by which the Earth's surface transfers heat into the atmosphere and that shape surface temperature. However, this partitioning is not sufficiently constrained by energy and mass balances alone. We use a simple energy balance model in which convective fluxes and surface temperatures are determined with the additional thermodynamic limit of maximum convective power. We then show that the broad geographic variation of heat fluxes and surface temperatures in the climatological mean compare very well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis over land and ocean. We also show that the estimates depend considerably on the formulation of longwave radiative transfer and that a spatially uniform offset is related to the assumed cold temperature sink at which the heat engine operates.

  5. Predicting eruptions from precursory activity using remote sensing data hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, K. A.; Ramsey, M. S.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-07-01

    Many volcanoes produce some level of precursory activity prior to an eruption. This activity may or may not be detected depending on the available monitoring technology. In certain cases, precursors such as thermal output can be interpreted to make forecasts about the time and magnitude of the impending eruption. Kamchatka (Russia) provides an ideal natural laboratory to study a wide variety of eruption styles and precursory activity prior to an eruption. At Bezymianny volcano for example, a clear increase in thermal activity commonly occurs before an eruption, which has allowed predictions to be made months ahead of time. Conversely, the eruption of Tolbachik volcano in 2012 produced no discernable thermal precursors before the large scale effusive eruption. However, most volcanoes fall between the extremes of consistently behaved and completely undetectable, which is the case with neighboring Kliuchevskoi volcano. This study tests the effectiveness of using thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to track volcanic thermal precursors using data from both the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors. It focuses on three large eruptions that produced different levels and durations of effusive and explosive behavior at Kliuchevskoi. Before each of these eruptions, TIR spaceborne sensors detected thermal anomalies (i.e., pixels with brightness temperatures > 2 °C above the background temperature). High-temporal, low-spatial resolution (i.e., ~ hours and 1 km) AVHRR data are ideal for detecting large thermal events occurring over shorter time scales, such as the hot material ejected following strombolian eruptions. In contrast, high-spatial, low-temporal resolution (i.e., days to weeks and 90 m) ASTER data enables the detection of much lower thermal activity; however, activity with a shorter duration will commonly be missed. ASTER and AVHRR data are combined to track low

  6. Predictable variation of range-sizes across an extreme environmental gradient in a lizard adaptive radiation: evolutionary and ecological inferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pincheira-Donoso

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns of current species geographic range-size variation reflect historical dynamics of dispersal and provide insights into future consequences under changing environments. Evidence suggests that climate warming exerts major damage on high latitude and elevation organisms, where changes are more severe and available space to disperse tracking historical niches is more limited. Species with longer generations (slower adaptive responses, such as vertebrates, and with restricted distributions (lower genetic diversity, higher inbreeding in these environments are expected to be particularly threatened by warming crises. However, a well-known macroecological generalization (Rapoport's rule predicts that species range-sizes increase with increasing latitude-elevation, thus counterbalancing the impact of climate change. Here, I investigate geographic range-size variation across an extreme environmental gradient and as a function of body size, in the prominent Liolaemus lizard adaptive radiation. Conventional and phylogenetic analyses revealed that latitudinal (but not elevational ranges significantly decrease with increasing latitude-elevation, while body size was unrelated to range-size. Evolutionarily, these results are insightful as they suggest a link between spatial environmental gradients and range-size evolution. However, ecologically, these results suggest that Liolaemus might be increasingly threatened if, as predicted by theory, ranges retract and contract continuously under persisting climate warming, potentially increasing extinction risks at high latitudes and elevations.

  7. Effect of source variation on drug release from HPMC tablets: linear regression modeling for prediction of drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriyaprasarth, Suchada; Sriamornsak, Pornsak

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of source variation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) raw material on prediction of drug release from HPMC matrix tablets. To achieve this objective, the flow ability (i.e., angle of repose and Carr's compressibility index) and apparent viscosity of HPMC from 3 sources was investigated to differentiate HPMC source variation. The physicochemical properties of drug and manufacturing process were also incorporated to develop the linear regression model for prediction of drug release. Specifically, the in vitro release of 18 formulations was determined according to a 2 × 3 × 3 full factorial design. Further regression analysis provided a quantitative relationship between the response and the studied independent variables. It was found that either apparent viscosity or Carr's compressibility index of HPMC powders combining with solubility and molecular weight of drug had significant impact on the release behavior of drug. The increased drug release was observed when a greater in drug solubility and a decrease in the molecular weight of drug were applied. Most importantly, this study has shown that the HPMC having low viscosity or high compressibility index resulted in an increase of drug release, especially in the case of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:21420475

  8. Macroecology of Sexual Selection: A Predictive Conceptual Framework for Large-Scale Variation in Reproductive Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Glauco; Buzatto, Bruno A; García-Hernández, Solimary; Macías-Ordóñez, Rogelio

    2016-09-01

    Abiotic factors exert direct and indirect influences on behavioral, morphological, and life-history traits. Because some of these traits are related to reproduction, there is a causal link between climatic conditions and the expression of reproductive traits. This link allows us to generate predictions on how reproductive traits vary in large geographic scales. Here we formalize this macroecological framework, present some general predictions, and explore empirical examples using harvestmen as study organisms. Our results show that the length of breeding season in harvestmen is primarily influenced by the number of warm months and that precipitation plays a secondary role in modulating the period devoted to reproduction. Moreover, we show that the probability of resource defense polygyny increases with longer breeding seasons and that the presence of this type of mating system positively affects the magnitude of sexual dimorphism in harvestmen. Finally, the presence of postovipositional parental care is also influenced by the length of breeding season but not by actual evapotranspiration, which is our proxy for the intensity of biotic interactions. We argue that the macroecological framework proposed here may be a fruitful field of investigation, with important implications for our understanding of sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive traits in both animals and plants. PMID:27513913

  9. Long-term trends of foE and geomagnetic activity variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. de la Morena

    Full Text Available A relationship between foE trends and geomagnetic activity long-term variations has been revealed for the first time. By analogy with earlier obtained results on the foF2 trends it is possible to speak about the geomagnetic control of the foE long-term trends as well. Periods of increasing geomagnetic activity correspond to negative foE trends, while these trends are positive for the decreasing phase of geomagnetic activity. This "natural" relationship breaks down around 1970 (on some stations later when pronounced positive foE trends have appeared on most of the stations considered. The dependence of foE trends on geomagnetic activity can be related with nitric oxide variations at the E-layer heights. The positive foE trends that appeared after the "break down" effect may also be explained by the [NO] decrease which is not related to geomagnetic activity variations. But negative trends or irregular foE variations on some stations for the same time period require some different mechanism. Chemical pollution of the lower thermosphere due to the anthropogenic activity may be responsible for such abnormal foE behavior after the end of the 1960s.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  10. Brain monoamine oxidase A activity predicts trait aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2008-05-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme that breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, produces aggressive phenotypes across species. Therefore, a common polymorphism in the MAO A gene (MAOA, Mendelian Inheritance in Men database number 309850, referred to as high or low based on transcription in non-neuronal cells) has been investigated in a number of externalizing behavioral and clinical phenotypes. These studies provide evidence linking the low MAOA genotype and violent behavior but only through interaction with severe environmental stressors during childhood. Here, we hypothesized that in healthy adult males the gene product of MAO A in the brain, rather than the gene per se, would be associated with regulating the concentration of brain amines involved in trait aggression. Brain MAO A activity was measured in vivo in healthy nonsmoking men with positron emission tomography using a radioligand specific for MAO A (clorgyline labeled with carbon 11). Trait aggression was measured with the multidimensional personality questionnaire (MPQ). Here we report for the first time that brain MAO A correlates inversely with the MPQ trait measure of aggression (but not with other personality traits) such that the lower the MAO A activity in cortical and subcortical brain regions, the higher the self-reported aggression (in both MAOA genotype groups) contributing to more than one-third of the variability. Because trait aggression is a measure used to predict antisocial behavior, these results underscore the relevance of MAO A as a neurochemical substrate of aberrant aggression. PMID:18463263

  11. Changes in the ecosystem structure of the Black Sea under predicted climatological and anthropogenic variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, Ekin; Salihoglu, Baris; Fach Salihoglu, Bettina; Libralato, Simone; Cannaby, Heather; Oguz, Temel; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2014-05-01

    A dynamic Ecopath with Ecosim higher-trophic-level (HTL) model representation of the Black Sea ecosystem was coupled to the physical (BIMS-CIR) and biogeochemical (BIMS-ECO) models of the Black Sea in order to investigate historical anthropogenic and climatological interactions and feedbacks in the ecosystem. Further, the coupled models were used to assess the likely consequences of these interactions on the ecosystem's structure and functioning under predicted future climate (IPCC A1B) and fishing variability. Therefore, two model scenarios were used; i) a hindcast scenario (1980-1999) to evaluate and understand the impacts of the short-term climate and physical variability and the introduction of invasive species on the Black Sea ecosystem, and ii) a forecast scenario (2080-2099) to investigate the potential implications of climate change and anthropogenic exploitation on living resources of the Black Sea ecosystem by the end of the 21st century. According to the outcomes of the hindcast simulation, fisheries were found to be the main driver in determining the structure and functioning of the Black Sea ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. The coupled physical-biogeochemical forecast simulations predicted a slight but statistically significant basin-wide increase in the Black Sea's primary productivity by the end of the century due to increased stratification induced by basin-wide temperature increase and reduced Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) formation which increased the residence time of riverine nutrients within the euphotic zone. Despite this increased primary productivity, the HTL model forecast simulation predicted a significant decrease in the commercial fish stocks primarily due to fisheries exploitation if current catch rates are maintained into the future. Results further suggested that some economically important small pelagic fish species are likely to disappear from the ecosystem making the recovery of the already-collapsed piscivorous

  12. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  13. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  14. Temperament variation in sensitivity to parenting: predicting changes in depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiff, Cara J; Lengua, Liliana J; Bush, Nicole R

    2011-11-01

    Temperament was examined as a moderator of maternal parenting behaviors, including warmth, negativity, autonomy granting, and guidance. Observations of parenting and questionnaire measures of temperament and adjustment were obtained from a community sample (N = 214; ages 8-12). Trajectories of depression and anxiety were assessed across 3 years. The pattern of parenting as a predictor of internalizing symptoms depended on temperament. Maternal negativity predicted increases in depression for children low in fear. Effortful control moderated sensitivity to maternal negativity, autonomy granting, and guidance. Children low in effortful control reported more symptoms in the presence of negative or poor-fitting parenting. The results support differential responding, but also suggest that temperament may render children vulnerable for the development of problems regardless of parenting. PMID:21800017

  15. Springback prediction of titanium tube bending considering Bauschinger effect and Young's modulus variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Yang, H.; Li, H.; Tao, Z. J.; Li, G. J.

    2016-08-01

    High strength titanium bent tubes present promising usages in advanced aircraft and spacecraft to achieve lightweight and improve overall performance. However, the high ratio of yield strength to Young's modulus results in significant springback in bending, which limits their forming accuracy. In this work, the Bauschinger effect and nonlinear unloading behavior of high strength Ti-3Al-2.5V tube are experimentally investigated. Then, to describe such behaviors, the Yoshida-Uemori (Y-U) two-surface hardening model and Chord unloading model are introduced into the elastoplastic constitutive framework and numerically implemented. Taking rotary draw (RDB) bending as a case, the springback angles are predicted and analyzed by comparison with the experimental results.

  16. A variational method for correcting non-systematic errors in numerical weather prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO AiMei; XI Shuang; QIU ChongJian

    2009-01-01

    A variational method based on previous numerical forecasts is developed to estimate and correct non-systematic component of numerical weather forecast error. In the method, it is assumed that the error is linearly dependent on some combination of the forecast fields, and three types of forecast combination are applied to identifying the forecasting error: 1) the forecasts at the ending time, 2) the combination of initial fields and the forecasts at the ending time, and 3) the combination of the fore-casts at the ending time and the tendency of the forecast. The Single Value Decomposition (SVD) of the covariance matrix between the forecast and forecasting error is used to obtain the inverse mapping from flow space to the error space during the training period. The background covariance matrix is hereby reduced to a simple diagonal matrix. The method is tested with a shallow-water equation model by introducing two different model errors. The results of error correction for 6, 24 and 48 h forecasts show that the method is effective for improving the quality of the forecast when the forecasting error obviously exceeds the analysis error and it is optimal when the third type of forecast combinations is applied.

  17. A variational method for correcting non-systematic errors in numerical weather prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A variational method based on previous numerical forecasts is developed to estimate and correct non-systematic component of numerical weather forecast error. In the method, it is assumed that the error is linearly dependent on some combination of the forecast fields, and three types of forecast combination are applied to identifying the forecasting error: 1) the forecasts at the ending time, 2) the combination of initial fields and the forecasts at the ending time, and 3) the combination of the forecasts at the ending time and the tendency of the forecast. The Single Value Decomposition (SVD) of the covariance matrix between the forecast and forecasting error is used to obtain the inverse mapping from flow space to the error space during the training period. The background covariance matrix is hereby reduced to a simple diagonal matrix. The method is tested with a shallow-water equation model by introducing two different model errors. The results of error correction for 6, 24 and 48 h forecasts show that the method is effective for improving the quality of the forecast when the forecasting error obviously exceeds the analysis error and it is optimal when the third type of forecast combinations is applied.

  18. Predicting cell types and genetic variations contributing to disease by combining GWAS and epigenetic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gerasimova

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are enriched in individuals suffering from a given disease. Most disease-associated SNPs fall into non-coding regions, so that it is not straightforward to infer phenotype or function; moreover, many SNPs are in tight genetic linkage, so that a SNP identified as associated with a particular disease may not itself be causal, but rather signify the presence of a linked SNP that is functionally relevant to disease pathogenesis. Here, we present an analysis method that takes advantage of the recent rapid accumulation of epigenomics data to address these problems for some SNPs. Using asthma as a prototypic example; we show that non-coding disease-associated SNPs are enriched in genomic regions that function as regulators of transcription, such as enhancers and promoters. Identifying enhancers based on the presence of the histone modification marks such as H3K4me1 in different cell types, we show that the location of enhancers is highly cell-type specific. We use these findings to predict which SNPs are likely to be directly contributing to disease based on their presence in regulatory regions, and in which cell types their effect is expected to be detectable. Moreover, we can also predict which cell types contribute to a disease based on overlap of the disease-associated SNPs with the locations of enhancers present in a given cell type. Finally, we suggest that it will be possible to re-analyze GWAS studies with much higher power by limiting the SNPs considered to those in coding or regulatory regions of cell types relevant to a given disease.

  19. Latitudinal Variation in Carbon Storage Can Help Predict Changes in Swamps Affected by Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Plants may offer our best hope of removing greenhouse gases (gases that contribute to global warming) emitted to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. At the same time, global warming could change environments so that natural plant communities will either need to shift into cooler climate zones, or become extirpated (Prasad and Iverson, 1999; Crumpacker and others, 2001; Davis and Shaw, 2001). It is impossible to know the future, but studies combining field observation of production and modeling can help us make predictions about what may happen to these wetland communities in the future. Widespread wetland types such as baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps in the southeastern portion of the United States could be especially good at carbon sequestration (amount of CO2 stored by forests) from the atmosphere. They have high levels of production and sometimes store undecomposed dead plant material in wet conditions with low oxygen, thus keeping gases stored that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere (fig. 1). To study the ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon, our project has taken two approaches. The first analysis looked at published data to develop an idea (hypothesis) of how production levels change across a temperature gradient in the baldcypress region (published data study). The second study tested this idea by comparing production levels across a latitudinal range by using swamps in similar field conditions (ongoing carbon storage study). These studies will help us make predictions about the future ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon in soil and plant biomass, as well as the ability of these forests to shift northward with global warming.

  20. Interindividual variation in Complex I activity in Fundulus heteroclitus along a steep thermocline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Samuel J; Crawford, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    The first enzyme in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway is Complex I (EC 1.6.5.3). Complex I is a large heteromeric enzyme complex with 45 protein subunits that translocates H(+) ions across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Among northern and southern populations of the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus, Complex I subunits have fixed amino acid substitutions. Additionally, there are differences in oxidative phosphorylation activity among populations of F. heteroclitus. To investigate whether these differences are related to Complex I, enzyme activity was measured in 121 individuals from five populations of F. heteroclitus and its sister species Fundulus grandis acclimated to a constant 20°C temperature. Within each population, Complex I activity is highly variable among individuals of F. heteroclitus (coefficient of variation percentage among individuals has a mean of 90% in the five F. heteroclitus populations), and the mean Complex I activity among populations is significantly different at the latitudinal extremes of the range. Importantly, Complex I activity is more similar between F. heteroclitus from the southernmost population and its sister species F. grandis than to the northern populations of F. heteroclitus, suggesting important evolutionary differences. Unexpectedly, the activity is nearly fourfold higher in southern populations than northern populations. Mitochondrial density appears to compensate partially for decreased activity in northern individuals; activity per wet weight is only twofold higher in southern populations. We suggest that some of the variation in Complex I activity is genetically based and thus is being influenced by directional selection. However, this conclusion presents a conundrum: there should not be so much variation in Complex I activity within a population if this variation is biologically important.

  1. Acquisition and Active Navigation of Knowledge Particles throughout Product Variation Design Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuyou; XU Jinghua

    2009-01-01

    The variation design of complex products has such features as multivariate association, weak theory coupling and implicit knowledge iteration. However, present CAD soft wares are still restricted to making decisions only according to current design status in dynamic navigation which leads to the huge drain of the knowledge hidden in design process. In this paper, a method of acquisition and active navigation of knowledge particles throughout product variation design process is put forward. The multi-objective decision information model of the variation design is established via the definition of condition attribute set and decision attribute set in finite universe. The addition and retrieval of the variation semantics is achieved through bidirectional association between the transplantable structures and variation design semantics. The mapping relationships between the topology lapping geometry elements set and constraint relations set family is built by means of geometry feature analysis. The acquisition of knowledge particles is implemented by attribute reduction based on rough set theory to make multi-objective decision of variation design. The topology lapping status of transplantable substructures is known from DOF reduction. The active navigation of knowledge particles is realized through embedded event-condition-action(ECA) rules. The independent prototype system taking Alan, Charles, Ian's system(ACIS) as kernel has been developed to verify the proposed method by applying variation design of complex mechanical products. The test results demonstrate that the navigation decision basis can be successfully extended from static isolated design status to dynamic continuous design process so that it more flexibly adapts to the different designers and various variation design steps. It is of profound significance for enhancing system intelligence as well as improving design quality and efficiency.

  2. Variation in contents of main active components and antioxidant activity in leaves of different pigeon pea cultivars during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuo-Fu; Jin, Shuang; Luo, Meng; Pan, You-Zhi; Li, Ting-Ting; Qi, Xiao-Lin; Efferth, Thomas; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2013-10-23

    Pigeon pea is an important and multiuse grain legume crop, and its leaves are a very valuable natural resource. To obtain a high-quality biological resource, it is necessary to choose the excellent cultivar and determine the appropriate harvest time. In this study, the variation in contents of main active components and antioxidant activity in leaves of six pigeon pea cultivars during growth were investigated. The level of each individual active component significantly varied during growth, but with a different pattern, and this variation was different among cultivars. Flavonoid glycosides orientin, vitexin, and apigenin-6,8-di-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside showed two peak values at mid-late and final stages of growth in most cases. Pinostrobin chalcone, longistyline C, and cajaninstilbene acid showed remarkablely higher values at the mid-late stage of growth than at other stages. Pinostrobin had an extremely different variation pattern compared to other active components. Its content was the highest at the earlier stage of growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that vitexin and apigenin-6,8-di-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside were mainly responsible for distinguishing cultivars analyzed. In a comprehensive consideration, the leaves should preferentially be harvested at the 135th day after sowing when the level of active components and antioxidant activity reached higher values. Cultivars ICP 13092, ICPL 87091, and ICPL 96053 were considered to be excellent cultivars with high antioxidant activity. Our findings can provide valuable information for producing a high-quality pigeon pea resource. PMID:24066714

  3. Variation in energy expenditure among black-legged kittiwakes : Effects of activity-specific metabolic rates and activity budgets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodice, PGR; Roby, DD; Suryan, RM; Irons, DB; Kaufman, AM; Turco, KR; Visser, GH

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the effect of variation in time-activity budgets (TABs) and foraging behavior on energy expenditure rates of parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). We quantified TABs using direct observations of radio-tagged adults and simultaneously measured field metabolic rates

  4. Periodic Hα variations in GL 581: Further evidence for an activity origin to GL 581d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzes, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Radial velocity measurements initially showed evidence that the M dwarf GL 581 might host up to six planetary companions. Two of these, GL 581g and GL 581d had orbital distances in the so-called "habitable zone" of the star. The existence of both of these planets have been called into question. Additional radial velocity measurements for GL 581g could not confirm its presence. A study of Hα in GL 581 showed that changes in this activity indicator correlated with radial velocity variations attributed to GL 581d. Thus two planets that were important for studies of habitable planets may be artifacts of stellar activity. Aims: Previous investigations analyzing the same activity data have reached different conclusions regarding the existence of GL 581d. We therefore investigated the Hα variations for GL 581 to assess the nature of the radial velocity variations attributed to the possible planet GL 581d. Methods: We performed a Fourier analysis of the published Hα measurements for GL 581. Fourier components were selectively found and removed in a so-called pre-whitening process thus isolating any variations at the orbital frequency of GL 581d. Results: The frequency analysis yields five significant frequencies, one of which is associated with the 66.7 d orbital period of the presumed planet Gl 581d. The Hα variations at this period show sine-like variations that are 180° out-of-phase with the radial velocity variations of GL 581d. This is seen in the full data set that spans almost 7 years, as well as a subset of the data near the end of the time series that had good temporal sampling over 230 days. Furthermore, no significant temporal variations are found in the ratio of the amplitudes of the Hα index and radial velocity variations. This provides additional evidence that the radial velocity signal attributed to GL 581d is in fact due to stellar activity. Conclusions: The analysis confirms the anti-correlation of the radial velocity of GL 581d with the H

  5. Accelerometer based Activity Classification with Variational Inference on Sticky HDP-SLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Basbug, Mehmet Emin; Ozcan, Koray; Velipasalar, Senem

    2015-01-01

    As part of daily monitoring of human activities, wearable sensors and devices are becoming increasingly popular sources of data. With the advent of smartphones equipped with acceloremeter, gyroscope and camera; it is now possible to develop activity classification platforms everyone can use conveniently. In this paper, we propose a fast inference method for an unsupervised non-parametric time series model namely variational inference for sticky HDP-SLDS(Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Switchin...

  6. Characterisation of regional variations in a stitched CMOS active pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stitched, large area, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), active pixel sensors (APS) show promises for X-ray imaging applications. In this paper we present an investigation of the effects of stitching on uniformity of sensor response for an experimental APS. The sensor, known as LAS (large area sensor), was made by reticular stitching onto a single silicon wafer of a 5x5 array of regions consisting of 270x270 pixels with 40 μm pixel pitch, to yield 1350x1350 pixels and an imaging area of 54x54 mm. Data acquired from two different sensors of the same type were filtered to remove spiking pixels and electromagnetic interference (EMI). The non-linear compensation (NLC) technique for CMOS sensor analysis was used to determine the variation in gain, read noise, full well capacity and dynamic range between stitched regions. Variations across stitched regions were analysed using profiles, analysis of pixel variations at stitch boundaries and using a measurement of non-uniformity within a stitched region. The results showed that non-uniformity variations were present, which increased with signal (1.5-3.5% at dark signal, rising to 3-8%). However, these were found to be smaller than variations caused by differences in readout electronics, particularly at low signal levels. The results suggest these variations should be correctable using standard calibration methods.

  7. Performance prediction for Grid workflow activities based on features-ranked RBF network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jie; Duan Rubing; Farrukh Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    Accurate performance prediction of Grid workflow activities can help Grid schedulers map activities to appropriate Grid sites. This paper describes an approach based on features-ranked RBF neural network to predict the performance of Grid workflow activities. Experimental results for two kinds of real world Grid workflow activities are presented to show effectiveness of our approach.

  8. Genotypic and environmental variation in barley limit dextrinase activity and its relation to malt quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-dong; YANG Juan; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2006-01-01

    Variation in the limit dextrinase activity of barley malt, and the relationships between limit dextrinase activity and malt quality parameters were investigated using eight cultivars grown at seven diverse locations in China for two successive years.Limit dextrinase activity varied with genotype and location, with the levels ranging from 0.245 U/g to 0.980 U/g. The results showed that the variation in limit dextrinase activity was more attributable to the environment (location and year) than to the genotype. The response of limit dextrinase activity to the environment differed markedly among cultivars, and was reflected by large difference in coefficient of variation of cultivars across diverse locations. Regression analysis showed that limit dextrinase activity was negatively correlated with malt viscosity (r=-0.52, P<0.01), positively correlated with Kolbach index (r=0.38,P<0.01) and malt extract (r=0.30, P<0.05), but had no significant correlation with malt protein content and diastatic power.

  9. Chaos in balance: non-linear measures of postural control predict individual variations in visual illusions of motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Apthorp

    Full Text Available Visually-induced illusions of self-motion (vection can be compelling for some people, but they are subject to large individual variations in strength. Do these variations depend, at least in part, on the extent to which people rely on vision to maintain their postural stability? We investigated by comparing physical posture measures to subjective vection ratings. Using a Bertec balance plate in a brightly-lit room, we measured 13 participants' excursions of the centre of foot pressure (CoP over a 60-second period with eyes open and with eyes closed during quiet stance. Subsequently, we collected vection strength ratings for large optic flow displays while seated, using both verbal ratings and online throttle measures. We also collected measures of postural sway (changes in anterior-posterior CoP in response to the same visual motion stimuli while standing on the plate. The magnitude of standing sway in response to expanding optic flow (in comparison to blank fixation periods was predictive of both verbal and throttle measures for seated vection. In addition, the ratio between eyes-open and eyes-closed CoP excursions during quiet stance (using the area of postural sway significantly predicted seated vection for both measures. Interestingly, these relationships were weaker for contracting optic flow displays, though these produced both stronger vection and more sway. Next we used a non-linear analysis (recurrence quantification analysis, RQA of the fluctuations in anterior-posterior position during quiet stance (both with eyes closed and eyes open; this was a much stronger predictor of seated vection for both expanding and contracting stimuli. Given the complex multisensory integration involved in postural control, our study adds to the growing evidence that non-linear measures drawn from complexity theory may provide a more informative measure of postural sway than the conventional linear measures.

  10. An improved model for predicting performance of finned tube heat exchanger under frosting condition, with frost thickness variation along fin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, C.P. [Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, Melaka (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering and Technology; Cheng, Y.C.; Lai, A.C.K. [Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2006-01-15

    Frost accumulation on a heat exchanger, a direct result of combined heat and mass transfer between the moist air flowing across a cold surface, causes heat transfer performance degradation due to the insulating effect of frost layer and the coil blockage as the frost grows. The complex geometry of finned tube heat exchangers leads to uneven wall and air temperature distribution inside the coil, and causes variations of frost growth rate and densification along the coil. In this study, a general distributed model with frost formation was developed. The equations for finned tube heat exchanger were derived in non-steady-state manner and quasi-steady state in the frost model. In order to make the model more realistic, the variation of frost along fin due to uneven temperature distribution was included. The presented model is able to predict the dynamic behavior of an air cooler both under non-frost and frost condition. Comparisons were made based on the frost mass accumulation, pressure drop across coil and energy transfer coefficient, and results were found to agree well with reported experimental results. (author)

  11. Genotypic and Environmental Variations of Arabinoxylan Content and Endoxylanase Activity in Barley Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-qin; XUE Da-wei; WU Fei-bo; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) content in barley grains is an important quality determinant when barley is used as raw material of malt or beer production. The cultivar and environmental variations of total arabinoxylan (TAX), water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and endoxylanase activity (EA) were investigated using eight barley cultivars growing at seven locations with diverse environmental conditions. The results showed that both barley cultivar and location significantly affected the TAX, WEAX and EA levels, but the variations of TAX content and EA were mainly attributed to cultivar, while the impact of location on WEAX content was greater than that of cultivar. Correlation analysis indicated that TAX was significantly correlated to WUAX.

  12. Periodic Halpha variations in GL 581: Further evidence for an activity origin to GL 581d

    CERN Document Server

    Hatzes, Artie P

    2015-01-01

    Radial velocity measurements showed evidence that the M dwarf GL 581 might host a planet, GL 581d, in the so-called "habitable zone" of the star. A study of Halpha in GL 581 demonstrated that changes in this activity indicator correlated with radial velocity variations attributed to GL 581d. An exopplanet that was important for studies of planet habitability may be an artifact of stellar activity. Previous investigations analyzing the same activity data have reached different conclusions regarding the existence of GL 581d. We therfore investigated the Halpha variations for GL 581 to assess the nature of the radial velocity variations attributed to the possible planet GL 581d. We performed a Fourier analysis of the published Halpha measurements for GL 581d using a so-called pre-whitening process to isolate the variations at the orbital frequency of GL 581d. The frequency analysis yields five significant frequencies, one of which is associated with the 66.7 d orbital period of the presumed planet Gl 581d. The H...

  13. Bet hedging in a warming ocean: predictability of maternal environment shapes offspring size variation in marine sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Lisa N S

    2015-12-01

    Bet hedging at reproduction is expected to evolve when mothers are exposed to unpredictable cues for future environmental conditions, whereas transgenerational plasticity (TGP) should be favoured when cues reliably predict the environment offspring will experience. Since climate predictions forecast an increase in both temperature and climate variability, both TGP and bet hedging are likely to become important strategies to mediate climate change effects. Here, the potential to produce variably sized offspring in both warming and unpredictable environments was tested by investigating whether stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) mothers adjusted mean offspring size and within-clutch variation in offspring size in response to experimental manipulation of maternal thermal environment and predictability (alternating between ambient and elevated water temperatures). Reproductive output traits of F1 females were influenced by both temperature and environmental predictability. Mothers that developed at ambient temperature (17 °C) produced larger, but fewer eggs than mothers that developed at elevated temperature (21 °C), implying selection for different-sized offspring in different environments. Mothers in unpredictable environments had smaller mean egg sizes and tended to have greater within-female egg size variability, especially at 21 °C, suggesting that mothers may have dynamically modified the variance in offspring size to spread the risk of incorrectly predicting future environmental conditions. Both TGP and diversification influenced F2 offspring body size. F2 offspring reared at 21 °C had larger mean body sizes if their mother developed at 21 °C, but this TGP benefit was not present for offspring of 17 °C mothers reared at 17 °C, indicating that maternal TGP will be highly relevant for ocean warming scenarios in this system. Offspring of variable environment mothers were smaller but more variable in size than offspring from constant environment

  14. Evaluation of the impact of AIRS profiles on prediction of Indian summer monsoon using WRF variational data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Attada; Parekh, Anant; Kumar, Prashant; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the impact of temperature and moisture profiles from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the prediction of the Indian summer monsoon, using the variational data assimilation system annexed to the Weather Research and Forecasting model. In this study, three numerical experiments are carried out. The first is the control and includes no assimilation; in the second, named Conv, assimilation of conventional Global Telecommunication System data is performed. The third one, named ConvAIRS, is identical to the Conv except that it also includes assimilation of AIRS profiles. The initial fields of tropospheric temperature and water vapor mixing ratio showed significant improvement over the model domain. Assimilation of AIRS profiles has significant impact on predicting the seasonal mean monsoon characteristics such as tropospheric temperature, low-level moisture distribution, easterly wind shear, and precipitation. The vertical structure of the root-mean-square error is substantially affected by the assimilation of AIRS profiles, with smaller errors in temperature, humidity, and wind magnitude. The consequent improved representation of moisture convergence in the boundary layer (deep convection as well) causes an increase in precipitation forecast skill. The fact that the monsoonal circulation is better captured, thanks to an improved representation of thermal gradients, which in turn leads to more realistic moisture transport, is particularly noteworthy. Several previous data impact studies with AIRS and other sensors have focused on the short or medium range of the forecast. The demonstrated improvement in all the predicted fields associated with the Indian summer monsoon, consequent to the month long assimilation of AIRS profiles, is an innovative finding with large implications to the operational seasonal forecasting capabilities over the Indian subcontinent.

  15. On the Nature of Extraversion: Variation in Conditioned Contextual Activation of Dopamine-Facilitated Affective, Cognitive, and Motor Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard allen Depue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports an association between extraversion and dopamine (DA functioning. DA facilitates incentive motivation and the conditioning and incentive encoding of contexts that predict reward. Therefore, we assessed whether extraversion is related to the efficacy of acquiring conditioned contextual facilitation of three processes that are dependent on DA: motor velocity, positive affect, and visuospatial working memory. We exposed high and low extraverts to three days of association of drug reward (methylphenidate, MP with a particular laboratory context (Paired group, a test day of conditioning, and three days of extinction in the same laboratory. A Placebo group and an Unpaired group (that had MP in a different laboratory context served as controls. Conditioned contextual facilitation was assessed by (i presenting video clips that varied in their pairing with drug and laboratory context and in inherent incentive value, and (ii measuring increases from day 1 to Test day on the three processes above. Results showed acquisition of conditioned contextual facilitation across all measures to video clips that had been paired with drug and laboratory context in the Paired high extraverts, but no conditioning in the Paired low extraverts (nor in either of the control groups. Increases in the Paired high extraverts were correlated across the three measures. Also, conditioned facilitation was evident on the first day of extinction in Paired high extraverts, despite the absence of the unconditioned effects of MP. By the last day of extinction, responding returned to day 1 levels. The findings suggest that extraversion is associated with variation in the acquisition of contexts that predict reward. Over time, this variation may lead to differences in the breadth of networks of conditioned contexts. Thus, individual differences in extraversion may be maintained by activation of differentially encoded central representations of incentive contexts that

  16. Decadal variation of ocean heat content and tropical cyclone activity over the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankar Nath; S D Kotal; P K Kundu

    2016-02-01

    The upper ocean heat content up to 700 m depth (OHC700) is an important climatic parameter required for atmospheric and oceanographic studies like a cyclone. In this study, therefore, an attempt has been made to examine the inter-decadal variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activity and OHC700 over the Bay of Bengal (BOB) for the post-monsoon season (October–December) during 1955–2013 periods. The sea-surface temperature (SST), geopotential height at 500 hPa, low-level vorticity at 850 hPa, vertical wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, middle tropospheric humidity at 500 hPa and outgoing long-wave radiation are also being studied using seasonal mean data. The results show a significant inter-decadal variation during 1955–2013, with two distinct decadal periods: active decadal period (ADP) (1955–1988) and inactive decadal period (IDP) (1989–2013). The anomalies of these parameters are opposite in phase for two periods. It is found that the large scale atmospheric features and oceanic parameters have significant inter-decadal variability, but frequency of the tropical cyclone is attributed to the variation in the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic conditions rather than the variation of oceanic parameters OHC700 and SSTs during the post-monsoon season.

  17. Predicting anti-androgenic activity of bisphenols using molecular docking and quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianhai; Liu, Huihui; Yang, Qian; Liu, Jining; Chen, Jingwen; Shi, Lili

    2016-11-01

    Both in vivo and in vitro assay indicated that bisphenols can inhibit the androgen receptor. However, the underlying antagonistic mechanism is unclear. In this study, molecular docking was employed to probe the interaction mechanism between bisphenols and human androgen receptor (hAR). The binding pattern of ligands in hAR crystal structures was also analyzed. Results show that hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant interactions between the ligands and hAR. The critical amino acid residues involved in forming hydrogen bonding between bisphenols and hAR is Asn 705 and Gln 711. Furthermore, appropriate molecular structural descriptors were selected to characterize the non-bonded interactions. Stepwise multiple linear regressions (MLR) analysis was employed to develop quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting the anti-androgenic activity of bisphenols. Based on the QSAR development and validation guideline issued by OECD, the goodness-of-fit, robustness and predictive ability of constructed QSAR model were assessed. The model application domain was characterized by the Euclidean distance and Williams plot. The mechanisms of the constructed model were also interpreted based on the selected molecular descriptors i.e. the number of hydroxyl groups (nROH), the most positive values of the molecular surface potential (Vs,max) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO). Finally, based on the model developed, the data gap for other twenty-six bisphenols on their anti-androgenic activity was filled. The predicted results indicated that the anti-androgenic activity of seven bisphenols was higher than that of bisphenol A. PMID:27561732

  18. Modeling and prediction of daily gas concentration variation at a mining face based on the elliptic orbit model:A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zongchang; Zhou Shaowu

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring and analysis of daily gas concentrations at a mining face is a vital task on safety production and security management in the coal-mining industry. This study addresses modeling and prediction of daily gas concentration variations based on the elliptic orbit model. The model describes the hourly variation in daily gas concentration by mapping its time-series into the polar coordinates to create its elliptic orbit trace for further analysis. Experiments show workability of the proposed method that daily gas concentration variation at a mining face of one coal mine in China is well described by the elliptic orbit model. Result analysis and performance comparison of the proposed elliptic orbit model with the classical AR model on the same prediction tasks indicate potentiality of the proposed elliptic orbit model, which presents a vivid approach for modeling and forecasting daily gas concentration variations in an intuitive and concise way.

  19. Surface tensions of multi-component mixed inorganic/organic aqueous systems of atmospheric significance: measurements, model predictions and importance for cloud activation predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the physical properties of aerosol particles, it is necessary to adequately capture the behaviour of the ubiquitous complex organic components. One of the key properties which may affect this behaviour is the contribution of the organic components to the surface tension of aqueous particles in the moist atmosphere. Whilst the qualitative effect of organic compounds on solution surface tensions has been widely reported, our quantitative understanding on mixed organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems is limited.  Furthermore, it is unclear whether models that exist in the literature can reproduce the surface tension variability for binary and higher order multi-component organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems of atmospheric significance. The current study aims to resolve both issues to some extent. Surface tensions of single and multiple solute aqueous solutions were measured and compared with predictions from a number of model treatments. On comparison with binary organic systems, two predictive models found in the literature provided a range of values resulting from sensitivity to calculations of pure component surface tensions.  Results indicate that a fitted model can capture the variability of the measured data very well, producing the lowest average percentage deviation for all compounds studied.  The performance of the other models varies with compound and choice of model parameters. The behaviour of ternary mixed inorganic/organic systems was unreliably captured by using a predictive scheme and this was composition dependent. For more "realistic" higher order systems, entirely predictive schemes performed poorly. It was found that use of the binary data in a relatively simple mixing rule, or modification of an existing thermodynamic model with parameters derived from binary data, was able to accurately capture the surface tension variation with concentration. Thus, it would appear that in order to model

  20. Evaluating stability of histomorphometric features across scanner and staining variations: predicting biochemical recurrence from prostate cancer whole slide images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Patrick; Lee, George; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative histomorphometry (QH) is the process of computerized extraction of features from digitized tissue slide images. Typically these features are used in machine learning classifiers to predict disease presence, behavior and outcome. Successful robust classifiers require features that both discriminate between classes of interest and are stable across data from multiple sites. Feature stability may be compromised by variation in slide staining and scanning procedures. These laboratory specific variables include dye batch, slice thickness and the whole slide scanner used to digitize the slide. The key therefore is to be able to identify features that are not only discriminating between the classes of interest (e.g. cancer and non-cancer or biochemical recurrence and non- recurrence) but also features that will not wildly fluctuate on slides representing the same tissue class but from across multiple different labs and sites. While there has been some recent efforts at understanding feature stability in the context of radiomics applications (i.e. feature analysis of radiographic images), relatively few attempts have been made at studying the trade-off between feature stability and discriminability for histomorphometric and digital pathology applications. In this paper we present two new measures, preparation-induced instability score (PI) and latent instability score (LI), to quantify feature instability across and within datasets. Dividing PI by LI yields a ratio for how often a feature for a specific tissue class (e.g. low grade prostate cancer) is different between datasets from different sites versus what would be expected from random chance alone. Using this ratio we seek to quantify feature vulnerability to variations in slide preparation and digitization. Since our goal is to identify stable QH features we evaluate these features for their stability and thus inclusion in machine learning based classifiers in a use case involving prostate cancer

  1. In vitro anti-Mycobacterium avium activities of quinolones: predicted active structures and mechanistic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopman, G; Li, J Y; Wang, S; Pearson, A J; Chang, K; Jacobs, M R; Bajaksouzian, S; Ellner, J J

    1994-08-01

    The relationship between the structures of quinolones and their anti-Mycobacterium avium activities has been previously derived by using the Multiple Computer-Automated Structure Evaluation program. A number of substructural constraints required to overcome the resistance of most of the strains have been identified. Nineteen new quinolones which qualify under these substructural requirements were identified by the program and subsequently tested. The results show that the substructural attributes identified by the program produced a successful a priori prediction of the anti-M. avium activities of the new quinolones. All 19 quinolones were found to be active, and 4 of them are as active or better than ciprofloxacin. With these new quinolones, the updated multiple computer-automated structure evaluation program structure-activity relationship analysis has helped to uncover additional information about the nature of the substituents at the C5 and C7 positions needed for optimal inhibitory activity. A possible explanation of drug resistance based on the observation of suicide inactivation of bacterial cytochrome P-450 by the cyclopropylamine moiety has also been proposed and is discussed in this report. Furthermore, we confirm the view that the amount of the uncharged form present in a neutral pH solution plays a crucial role in the drug's penetration ability.

  2. Activated sewage sludge, a potential animal foodstuff. Part I. Proximate and mineral content; seasonal variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacon, A.G.J.; Ferns, P.N.

    1979-08-01

    A detailed proximate and mineral analysis of activated sewage sludge is described. Samples were collected at bi-weekly intervals from a rural domestic sewage works for one year. The following annual ranges and mean values were determined for the chemical components within the sludge samples: moisture, total nitrogen, crude protein, Lowry protein, fat, saponification value, available carbohydrate as glucose, fiber, ash, acid insoluble ash, and 26 elements. The seasonal variation patterns observed are discussed. 23 references

  3. Bursty Variations of Jovian 6cm Radio Emissions and Quasi-Periodic Jupiter's Polar Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Yu-Qing; Song, Huagang; Liu, Yinyu; Meng YANG

    2012-01-01

    In reference to Jupiter south polar quasi-periodic 40-50 min (QP-40) activities and the model scenario for global QP-40 oscillations of the Jovian inner radiation belt (IRB), we validate relevant predictions and confirmations by amassing empirical evidence from Ulysses, Cassini, Chandra, Galileo, XMM-Newton, and Advanced Composition Explorer for Jupiter north polar QP-40 activities. We report ground 6cm radio observations of Jupiter by Urumqi 25m telescope for synchrotron intensity bursty var...

  4. VFC - Variational Feedback Controller and its application to semi-active suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, G.; Carcaterra, A.

    2016-08-01

    Active and semi-active control of oscillating devices and structures is a challenging field and this paper proposes an original investigation based on variational controls that can be successfully applied to mechanical systems. The method produces a general class of new controllers, named VFC - Variational Feedback Controllers, that is the main theoretical contribution of the paper. The value of the theory relies on using a reformulation of the Variational Optimal Control Theory, that has in general the limit of producing control program strategies and not directly feedback control methods. The difficulties are in fact related to the intrinsic nature of the variational optimal control, that must solve initial and final boundary conditions. A special definition of the class of the considered objective functions, permits to skip this difficulty, producing a pure feedback control. The presented theory goes beyond with respect to the most acknowledged LQR variational-based techniques, in that VFC can be applied to more general nonlinear dynamical systems, even with finite time horizon. To test the effectiveness of the novel approach in real engineering problems, a deep investigation on nonlinear suspension systems treated by VFC is proposed in this paper. To this aim, VFC is systematically compared with the most recent methods available in this field and suitable to deal with nonlinear system control of car suspensions. In particular, the comparative analysis is made in terms of both comfort and handling key performance indexes, that permits to easily and significantly compare different control logics, such as the Sky-hook and Ground-hook control families, the Acceleration and Power Driven Dampers. The results of this comparison are collected in a performance plane, having comfort and handling indexes as coordinate axes, showing that VFC controllers completely cover the regions reached by the other mentioned control logics in this plane, but reveal to have access to

  5. Interindividual Variation in Functionally Adapted Trait Sets Is Established During Postnatal Growth and Predictable Based on Bone Robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nirnimesh; Bhola, Siddharth; Goldstone, Andrew; Chen, Fred; Chrzanowski, Jessica; Terranova, Carl J.; Ghillani, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Adults acquire unique sets of morphological and tissue-quality bone traits that are predictable based on robustness and deterministic of strength and fragility. How and when individual trait sets arise during growth has not been established. Longitudinal structural changes of the metacarpal diaphysis were measured for boys and girls from 3 mo to 8 yr of age using hand radiographs obtained from the Bolton-Brush collection. Robustness varied ∼2-fold among boys and girls, and individual values were established by 2 yr of age, indicating that genetic and environmental factors controlling the relationship between growth in width and growth in length were established early during postnatal growth. Significant negative correlations between robustness and relative cortical area and a significant positive correlation between robustness and a novel measure capturing the efficiency of growth indicated that coordination of the subperiosteal and endocortical surfaces was responsible for this population acquiring a narrow range of trait sets that was predictable based on robustness. Boys and girls with robust diaphyses had proportionally thinner cortices to minimize mass, whereas children with slender diaphyses had proportionally thicker cortices to maximize stiffness. Girls had more slender metacarpals with proportionally thicker cortices compared with boys at all prepubertal ages. Although postnatal growth patterns varied in fundamentally different ways with sex and robustness, the dependence of trait sets on robustness indicated that children sustained variants affecting subperiosteal growth because they shared a common biological factor regulating functional adaptation. Considering the natural variation in acquired trait sets may help identify determinants of fracture risk, because age-related bone loss and gain will affect slender and robust structures differently. PMID:20001599

  6. Heartbeat of the Sun from Principal Component Analysis and prediction of solar activity on a millenium timescale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, V V; Shepherd, S J; Popova, E; Zharkov, S I

    2015-01-01

    We derive two principal components (PCs) of temporal magnetic field variations over the solar cycles 21-24 from full disk magnetograms covering about 39% of data variance, with σ = 0.67. These PCs are attributed to two main magnetic waves travelling from the opposite hemispheres with close frequencies and increasing phase shift. Using symbolic regression analysis we also derive mathematical formulae for these waves and calculate their summary curve which we show is linked to solar activity index. Extrapolation of the PCs backward for 800 years reveals the two 350-year grand cycles superimposed on 22 year-cycles with the features showing a remarkable resemblance to sunspot activity reported in the past including the Maunder and Dalton minimum. The summary curve calculated for the next millennium predicts further three grand cycles with the closest grand minimum occurring in the forthcoming cycles 26-27 with the two magnetic field waves separating into the opposite hemispheres leading to strongly reduced solar activity. These grand cycle variations are probed by α - Ω dynamo model with meridional circulation. Dynamo waves are found generated with close frequencies whose interaction leads to beating effects responsible for the grand cycles (350-400 years) superimposed on a standard 22 year cycle. This approach opens a new era in investigation and confident prediction of solar activity on a millenium timescale. PMID:26511513

  7. Intraspecific variation in alkaline phosphatase activity in Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae, Bohlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domênica Teixeira de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To describe potential intraspecific variation in phosphorus incorporation in two strains of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bohlin, Ub3 and Ub7, alkaline phosphatase (AP activity was evaluated via enzyme-labeled fluorescence assay. Analysis using the probe ELF-97(r provides individual evaluation, and therefore can determine the nutritional status of inorganic phosphorus in phytoplanktonic cells. Bioassays compared the control treatment to both phosphate-enriched and phosphate-depleted treatments by varying only the phosphate concentration in the media. The P. tricornutum strains exhibited differences in their development when incubated in the phosphate-enriched media. The development of the Ub7 strain differed by exhibiting "luxury uptake" and utilization of organic phosphorus, and the alkaline phosphatase analysis indicated limitations of this clone under such conditions. The Ub7 strain showed higher AP activity, when compared to Ub3, in the P-enriched condition. P. tricornutum presented increases in AP activity and low variation in Surface/Volume ratio, by increasing biovolume and its maximum linear dimension, as strategies for phosphate incorporation. Our results highlight intraspecific differences in alkaline phosphatase activity, and hence differences in the incorporation of organic phosphorus, as the tested species regulated enzymatic activity under different external phosphate concentrations.

  8. Diurnal Variation in Gravity Wave Activity at Low and Middle Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, V. F.; Fritts, D. C.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.; Janches, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We employ a modified composite day extension of the Hocking (2005) analysis method to study gravity wave (GW) activity in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using 4 meteor radars spanning latitudes from 7deg S to 53.6deg S. Diurnal and semidiurnal modulations were observed in GW variances over all sites. Semidiurnal modulation with downward phase propagation was observed at lower latitudes mainly near the equinoxes. Diurnal modulations occur mainly near solstice and, except for the zonal component at Cariri (7deg S), do not exhibit downward phase propagation. At a higher latitude (SAAMER, 53.6deg S) these modulations are only observed in the meridional component where we can observe diurnal variation from March to May, and semidiurnal, during January, February, October (above 88 km) and November. Some of these modulations with downward phase progression correlate well with wind shear. When the wind shear is well correlated with the maximum of the variances the diurnal tide has its largest amplitudes, i.e., near equinox. Correlations exhibiting variations with tidal phases suggest significant GW-tidal interactions that have different characters depending on the tidal components and possible mean wind shears. Modulations that do not exhibit phase variations could be indicative of diurnal variations in GW sources.

  9. Origins of the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity in 1954 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Svalgaard

    Full Text Available We investigate the cause of the unusually strong semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity observed in the solar minimum years of 1954 and 1996. For 1996 we separate the contributions of the three classical modulation mechanisms (axial, equinoctial, and Russell-McPherron to the six-month wave in the aam index and find that all three contribute about equally. This is in contrast to the longer run of geomagnetic activity (1868-1998 over which the equinoctial effect accounts for ∼70% of the semiannual variation. For both 1954 and 1996, we show that the Russell-McPherron effect was enhanced by the Rosenberg-Coleman effect (an axial polarity effect which increased the amount of the negative (toward Sun [positive (away from Sun] polarity field observed during the first [second] half of the year; such fields yield a southward component in GSM coordinates. Because this favourable condition occurs only for alternate solar cycles, the marked semiannual variation in 1954 and 1996 is a manifestation of the 22-year cycle of geomagnetic activity. The 11-year evolution of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS also contributes to the strong six-month wave during these years. At solar minimum, the streamer belt at the base of the HCS is located near the solar equator, permitting easier access to high speed streams from polar coronal holes when the Earth is at its highest heliographic latitudes in March and September. Such an axial variation in solar wind speed was observed for 1996 and is inferred for 1954. Key words. Magnetosphere (solar wind – magnetosphere interactions; storms and substorms

  10. Long-term stellar activity variations of stars from the HARPS M-dwarf sample: Comparison between activity indices

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, J Gomes; Bonfils, X

    2010-01-01

    We used four known chromospheric activity indicators to measure long-term activity variations in a sample of 23 M-dwarf stars from the HARPS planet search program. We compared the indices using weighted Pearson correlation coefficients and found that in general (i) the correlation between $S_{CaII}$ and \\ion{Na}{i} is very strong and does not depend on the activity level of the stars, (ii) the correlation between our $S_{CaII}$ and H$\\alpha$ seems to depend on the activity level of the stars, and (iii) there is no strong correlation between $S_{CaII}$ and \\ion{He}{i} for these type of stars.

  11. A Sensorless Predictive Current Controlled Boost Converter by Using an EKF with Load Variation Effect Elimination Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling Tong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To realize accurate current control for a boost converter, a precise measurement of the inductor current is required to achieve high resolution current regulating. Current sensors are widely used to measure the inductor current. However, the current sensors and their processing circuits significantly contribute extra hardware cost, delay and noise to the system. They can also harm the system reliability. Therefore, current sensorless control techniques can bring cost effective and reliable solutions for various boost converter applications. According to the derived accurate model, which contains a number of parasitics, the boost converter is a nonlinear system. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is proposed for inductor current estimation and output voltage filtering. With this approach, the system can have the same advantages as sensored current control mode. To implement EKF, the load value is necessary. However, the load may vary from time to time. This can lead to errors of current estimation and filtered output voltage. To solve this issue, a load variation elimination effect elimination (LVEE module is added. In addition, a predictive average current controller is used to regulate the current. Compared with conventional voltage controlled system, the transient response is greatly improved since it only takes two switching cycles for the current to reach its reference. Finally, experimental results are presented to verify the stable operation and output tracking capability for large-signal transients of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Clinical relevance of pulse pressure variations for predicting fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients: the grey zone approach

    OpenAIRE

    Biais, Matthieu; Ehrmann, Stephan; Mari, Arnaud; Conte, Benjamin; Mahjoub, Yazine; Desebbe, Olivier; Pottecher, Julien; Lakhal, Karim; Benzekri-Lefevre, Dalila; Molinari, Nicolas; Boulain, Thierry; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Muller, Laurent; ,

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pulse pressure variation (PPV) has been shown to predict fluid responsiveness in ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The present study was aimed at assessing the diagnostic accuracy of PPV for prediction of fluid responsiveness by using the grey zone approach in a large population. Methods The study pooled data of 556 patients from nine French ICUs. Hemodynamic (PPV, central venous pressure (CVP) and cardiac output) and ventilator variables were recorded. Responders we...

  13. Active bacteria (CTC+) in temperate lakes: temporal and cross-system variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Danielsen, M.

    2001-01-01

    consequence of the low abundance of active bacteria is that in situ growth rates scaled to CTC+ cells are 3- to 7-fold higher than those scaled to DAPI counts. It is suggested that studies on factors controlling bacterioplankton activity at the single-cell level should be investigated scaled to active cells.......The temporal variation in the abundance and proportion of highly respiration-active bacteria in the eutrophic lakes Esrum and Frederiksborg Slotssø was determined with the redox dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC). In addition, a comparative late summer study was undertaken across......% of the variability in CTC+ abundance. In the comparative study, the abundance of CTC+ cells increased along the chlorophyll gradient, which explained 49% of the variability. The results showed that the abundance and, to a lesser degree, the proportion of CTC+ bacteria were controlled by substrate supply. One...

  14. Variation of Soil Microbial Biomass and Enzyme Activities at Different Growth Stages of Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Lu-sheng; LIAO Min; CHEN Cheng-li; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under submerged conditions with hybrid rice Zhenong 7 to study the variation in the soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic), soil respiration rate, soil microbial metabolic quotient, soil enzyme activities, chlorophyll content, proline content and peroxidase activity (POD) in rice leaf at different growth stages. The soil Cmic, Nmic and soii respiration rate significantly increased at the early stage and then declined during rice growth, but ascended slightly at maturity. However, soil metabolic quotient declined at all the stages. Soil urease activity increased at first and then decreased, while acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities descended before ascended and then descended again. Soil urease activity and acid phosphatase activity showed a peak value at the tillering stage about 30 days after rice transplanting, but the peak value of dehydrogenase activity emerged at about 50 days after rice transplanting and the three soil enzymatic activities were significantly different at the different developmental stages. As rice growing, chlorophyll content in rice leaf descended at the early stage then ascended and a peak value appeared at about the 70th after rice transplanting, after that declined drastically, while POD activity increased gradually, but proline content declined gradually. There was a slight relation between rice physiological indices and soil biochemical indices, which indicated that soil biochemical characteristics were affected significantly by rice growth in the interactior system of the rice, soil and microorganisms.

  15. CES1 genetic variation affects the activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Wang, G; Shi, J; Aa, J; Comas, R; Liang, Y; Zhu, H-J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) genetic variation on the activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) prodrugs. In vitro incubation study of human liver, intestine and kidney s9 fractions demonstrated that the ACEI prodrugs enalapril, ramipril, perindopril, moexipril and fosinopril are selectively activated by CES1 in the liver. The impact of CES1/CES1VAR and CES1P1/CES1P1VAR genotypes and diplotypes on CES1 expression and activity on enalapril activation was investigated in 102 normal human liver samples. Neither the genotypes nor the diplotypes affected hepatic CES1 expression and activity. Moreover, among several CES1 nonsynonymous variants studied in transfected cell lines, the G143E (rs71647871) was a loss-of-function variant for the activation of all ACEIs tested. The CES1 activity on enalapril activation in human livers with the 143G/E genotype was approximately one-third of that carrying the 143G/G. Thus, some functional CES1 genetic variants (for example, G143E) may impair ACEI activation, and consequently affect therapeutic outcomes of ACEI prodrugs. PMID:26076923

  16. Prediction of Pathway Activation by Xenobiotic-Responsive Transcription Factors in the Mouse Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals activate xenobioticresponsive transcription factors (TF). Identification of target genes of these factors would be useful in predicting pathway activation in in vitro chemical screening. Starting with a large compendium of Affymet...

  17. Factors Predicting Physical Activity Among Children With Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Yazdani, MD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. Methods We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child’s and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child’s exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Results Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child’s lack of interest (43%, lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%, too many behavioral problems (32%, and parents’ lack of time (29%. However, child’s lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children’s physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01. Conclusion In this group of students with special needs, children’s physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

  18. Variations of 14-C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14-C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14-C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14-C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14-C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14-C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects...

  19. THE FIRST RESULTS OF STUDIES OF TEMPORARY VARIATIONS IN SOILRADON ACTIVITY OF FAULTS IN WESTERN PRIBAIKALIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Zh. Seminsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radon concentrations in soil air are variable depending on factors that are considered external (planetary and internal (geodynamic relative to the Earth. In active fault zones, variations of gas emanations are most intense. A permanent monitoring station was established near Tyrgan settlement in Western Pribaikalie to study temporal variations of soil radon concentration, Q, in the faults of the Baikal rift, East Siberia. This station is located in the zone of the Primorsky normal fault that is the largest in the region. The station is equipped with radon radiometer PPA01M03 that records Q values every 85 minutes and also monitors a number of meteorological parameters, including atmospheric pressure, humidity, and air temperature.We analysed records of two measurement sessions (148 and 66 days covering a part of the year during which field measurement of Q are possible in the cold climate conditions of the area under study. According to the available monitoring data, variations of radon concentrations in the Primorsky fault zone may vary by more than one order of magnitude through a springsummerautumn period, and such variations are oscillatory. Significant changes of permeability in time occur due to intensive changes in the state of stresses of the rock massives under the impacts of the planetary and geodynamic factors. The influence of the first group of factors, i.e. planetary ones, is manifested by synchronous oscillations of radon concentrations and atmospheric pressure, which phases of occurrence are opposed. Domination of daily and fourday periods gives evidence that the state of stresses of the rock massives is impacted by the lunar tides and cyclonic phenomena associated with the interaction between the Earth and the Sun. The influence of the second group of factors, i.e. geodynamic ones, is suggested by an evident relation between radon emanations and seismic events, including the catastrophic earthquake in Japan (March 11, 2011, M=9

  20. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Wenya eNan; Feng eWan; Mang I eVai; Agostinho eRosa

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the tr...

  1. LSD-induced entropic brain activity predicts subsequent personality change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A V; Kaelen, M; Lövdén, M; Nilsson, J; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J; Carhart-Harris, R L

    2016-09-01

    Personality is known to be relatively stable throughout adulthood. Nevertheless, it has been shown that major life events with high personal significance, including experiences engendered by psychedelic drugs, can have an enduring impact on some core facets of personality. In the present, balanced-order, placebo-controlled study, we investigated biological predictors of post-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) changes in personality. Nineteen healthy adults underwent resting state functional MRI scans under LSD (75µg, I.V.) and placebo (saline I.V.). The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was completed at screening and 2 weeks after LSD/placebo. Scanning sessions consisted of three 7.5-min eyes-closed resting-state scans, one of which involved music listening. A standardized preprocessing pipeline was used to extract measures of sample entropy, which characterizes the predictability of an fMRI time-series. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate drug-induced shifts in brain entropy and their relationship with the observed increases in the personality trait openness at the 2-week follow-up. Overall, LSD had a pronounced global effect on brain entropy, increasing it in both sensory and hierarchically higher networks across multiple time scales. These shifts predicted enduring increases in trait openness. Moreover, the predictive power of the entropy increases was greatest for the music-listening scans and when "ego-dissolution" was reported during the acute experience. These results shed new light on how LSD-induced shifts in brain dynamics and concomitant subjective experience can be predictive of lasting changes in personality. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3203-3213, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27151536

  2. Harvester ant colony variation in foraging activity and response to humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Deborah M; Dektar, Katherine N; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2013-01-01

    Collective behavior is produced by interactions among individuals. Differences among groups in individual response to interactions can lead to ecologically important variation among groups in collective behavior. Here we examine variation among colonies in the foraging behavior of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus. Previous work shows how colonies regulate foraging in response to food availability and desiccation costs: the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest depends on the rate at which foragers return with food. To examine how colonies vary in response to humidity and in foraging rate, we performed field experiments that manipulated forager return rate in 94 trials with 17 colonies over 3 years. We found that the effect of returning foragers on the rate of outgoing foragers increases with humidity. There are consistent differences among colonies in foraging activity that persist from year to year.

  3. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Propolis Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of propolis samples from three localities of Minas Gerais state (southeast Brazil were determined. Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, using BHT as reference, and chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Propolis from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido municipalities were found to have high phenolic contents and pronounced antioxidant activity. From these extracts, 40 substances were identified, among them were simple phenylpropanoids, prenylated phenylpropanoids, sesqui- and diterpenoids. Quantitatively, the main constituent of both samples was allyl-3-prenylcinnamic acid. A sample from Virginópolis municipality had no detectable phenolic substances and contained mainly triterpenoids, the main constituents being α- and β-amyrins. Methanolic extracts from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido exhibited pronounced scavenging activity towards DPPH, indistinguishable from BHT activity. However, extracts from Virginópolis sample exhibited no antioxidant activity. Total phenolic substances, GC/MS analyses and antioxidant activity of samples from Itapecerica collected monthly over a period of 1 year revealed considerable variation. No correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic contents or contents of artepillin C and other phenolic substances, as assayed by CG/MS analysis.

  4. Relationships between diurnal blood pressure variation, physical activity, and health-related QOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Yasuko; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Tochikubo, Osamu; Mizushima, Shunsaku; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Kihara, Minoru; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the associations between diurnal blood pressure variation, physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Ninety-seven volunteers, including 52 hypertensive patients and 45 healthy subjects (average age, 48 years) participated in this study. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured using TM2425 (A&D Co). Physical activity was measured using actigraphy, and HRQOL was assessed by a Medical Outcome Study Short-Forum 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36). Awake mean physical activity positively correlated with the nocturnal dip in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r = 0.242, p physical functioning positively correlated with awake mean physical activity (r = 0.265, p physical activity (r = 0.269, p = 0.01). Using multiple regression analysis, the nocturnal dip in SBP was found to be correlated with awake and sleep mean physical activities (p physical activity is associated with the nocturnal dip in blood pressure. Moreover, physical activity correlates with some of the factors of HRQOL.

  5. PASS-GP: Predictive active set selection for Gaussian processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    available in GPs to make a common ranking for both active and inactive points, allowing points to be removed again from the active set. This is important for keeping the complexity down and at the same time focusing on points close to the decision boundary. We lend both theoretical and empirical support...

  6. Measuring disease activity to predict therapeutic outcome in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwee, C.B.; Prummel, M.F.; Gerding, M.N.; Kahaly, G.J.; Dekker, F.W.; Wiersinga, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The concept of disease activity in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) might explain why as many as one-third of patients do not respond to immunosuppressive treatment, because only patients in the active stage of disease are expected to respond. The hypothesis was adopted that a parameter used t

  7. Downward Link of Solar Activity Variations Through Wave Driven Equatorial Oscillations (QBO and SAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, J. G.; Mayr, H. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Signatures of the 11-year solar activity/irradiance cycle are observed in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the lower stratosphere. At these altitudes, the QBO is understood to be the result of "downward control" exerted by the wave mean flow interactions that drive the phenomenon. It is reasonable then to speculate that the QBO is a natural conduit to lower altitudes of solar activity variations in radiance (SAV). To test this hypothesis, we conducted experiments with a 2D version of our Numerical Spectral Model that incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). To account for the SAV, we change the solar heating rate on a logarithmic scale from 0.1% at the surface to 1% at 50 kin to 10% at 100 km. With the same GW flux, we then conduct numerical experiments to evaluate the magnitude of the solar activity irradiance effect (SAE) on the zonal circulation at low latitudes. The numerical results obtained show that, under certain conditions, the SAE is significant in the zonal circulation and does extend to lower altitudes where the SAV is small. The differences in the wind velocities can be as large as 5 m/s at 20 kin. We carried out two numerical experiments with integrations over more than 20 years: 1) With the QBO period "tuned" to be 30 months, of academic interest but instructive, the seasonal cycle in the solar forcing [through the Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO)] acts as a strong pacemaker to produce a firm lock on the period and phase of the QBO. The SAE then shows up primarily as a distinct but relatively weak amplitude modulation. 2) With the QBO period between 30 and 34 (or less than 30, presumably) months, the seasonal phase lock is weak compared with (1). The SAV in the seasonal cycle then causes variations in the QBO period and phase, and this amplifies the SAE to produce relatively large variations in the wind field. We conclude that, under realistic conditions as in (2), the solar seasonal forcing, with

  8. Variations of 14C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects, (i) very strong activity in the previous cycles (i.e. very low 14C level), (ii) the declining phase of a very strong Schwabe cycle, and (iii) a phase of very weak activity after the strong 14C rise - very short and/or weak cycle(s) like the suddenly starting Dalton minimum. (d) Furthermore, we can show that the strong change at AD 1795 happened after a pair of two packages of four Schwabe cycles with certain hemispheric leadership (each package consists of two Gnevyshev-Ohl pairs, respectively two Hale-Babcock pairs). We show with several additional arguments that the rise around AD 775 was not that special. We conclude that such large, short-term rises in 14C (around BC 671, AD 775, and 1795) do not need to be explained by highly unlikely solar super-flares nor other rare events, but by extra-solar cosmic rays modulated due to solar activity variations.

  9. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this stud...... and their corresponding predictive values using the IrisPlex prediction model [4]. The results suggested that maximum three (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs16891982) of the six IrisPlex SNPs are useful in practical forensic genetic casework....

  10. The immediate effect of the variation of anteroposterior laterotrusive contacts on the elevator EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, A; Rocabado, M; Cadenasso, P; Miralles, R; Cumsille, M A

    1993-07-01

    A unilateral maxillary splint divided into three occlusal blocks was built for eight healthy young adults. The three blocks allowed the anteroposterior location of the laterotrusive contacts to vary and to distribute the occlusal force over equivalent periodontal surfaces. The ipsilateral masseteric and temporalis electromyogram (EMG) activities were recorded with surface electrodes during maximal voluntary clenching. The elevator EMG activity with the anterior occlusal block in place was significantly lower than with the intermediate or posterior blocks. The reduction for both elevators with the intermediate block in place did not show a significant variation in comparison to the posterior block of the three blocks inserted. The elevator activity with the three occlusal blocks did not differ from that recorded with the posterior block alone. Neurophysiologic and biomechanical explanations are given related to this laterotrusive elevator muscular behavior.

  11. TEMPORAL SPATIAL VARIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUSTDEFORMATION OF ACTIVE TECTONIC BLOCKS IN NORTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuCaijun; LiZhicai; WangHua

    2003-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) observations during four measurement campaigns from 1992 to 1999 are used in a study of the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of crustal deformation of active tectonic blocks in North China. The Euler vectors for these active blocks are determined on the basis of GPS velocities of a group relative stable points in 1992,1995,1996 and in 1996,1999 respectively. We have studied the relative motion between blocks at the boundaries and the intra-block deformation field. We have also inverted the strain rate fields for these active blocks by bi-cubic spline model based on the GPS velocity field. The results show that the intra-block deformation rates are different from those in block boundary zones, and are also different in different periods; the deformational field is generally characterized by intra--block extension in North China.

  12. TEMPORAL SPATIAL VARIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUST DEFORMATION OF ACTIVE TECTONIC BLOCKS IN NORTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Caijun; Li Zhicai; Wang Hua

    2003-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) observations during four measurement campaigns from 1992 to 1999 are used in a study of the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of crustal deformation of active tectonic blocks in North China. The Euler vectors for these active blocks are determined on the basis of GPS velocities of a group relative stable points in 1992,1995,1996 and in 1996,1999 respectively. We have studied the relative motion between blocks at the boundaries and the intra-block deformation field. We have also inverted the strain rate fields for these active blocks by bi-cubic spline model based on the GPS velocity field. The results show that the intra-block deformation rates are different from those in block boundary zones, and are also different in different periods; the deformational field is generally characterized by intra-block extension in North China.

  13. Spring-fall asymmetry of substorm strength, geomagnetic activity and solar wind: Implications for semiannual variation and solar hemispheric asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsula, K.; Tanskanen, E.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the seasonal variation of substorms, geomagnetic activity and their solar wind drivers in 1993–2008. The number of substorms and substorm mean duration depict an annual variation with maxima in Winter and Summer, respectively, reflecting the annual change of the local ionosphere. In contradiction, substorm mean amplitude, substorm total efficiency and global geomagnetic activity show a dominant annual variation, with equinoctial maxima alternating between Spring in solar cycle 22 and Fall in cycle 23. The largest annual variations were found in 1994 and 2003, in the declining phase of the two cycles when high-speed streams dominate the solar wind. A similar, large annual variation is found in the solar wind driver of substorms and geomagnetic activity, which implies that the annual variation of substorm strength, substorm efficiency and geomagnetic activity is not due to ionospheric conditions but to a hemispherically asymmetric distribution of solar wind which varies from one cycle to another. Our results imply that the overall semiannual variation in global geomagnetic activity has been seriously overestimated, and is largely an artifact of the dominant annual variation with maxima alternating between Spring and Fall. The results also suggest an intimate connection between the asymmetry of solar magnetic fields and some of the largest geomagnetic disturbances, offering interesting new pathways for forecasting disturbances with a longer lead time to the future.

  14. Nonlinear Economic Model Predictive Control Strategy for Active Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Rui Mirra; Zong, Yi; Sousa, Joao M. C.;

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the development of advanced and innovative intelligent control techniques for energy management in buildings is a key issue within the smart grid topic. A nonlinear economic model predictive control (EMPC) scheme, based on the branch-and-bound tree search used as optimization algorithm...... for solving the nonconvex optimization problem is proposed in this paper. A simulation using the nonlinear model-based controller to control the temperature levels of an intelligent office building (PowerFlexHouse) is addressed. Its performance is compared with a linear model-based controller. The nonlinear...

  15. Transfer Student Success: Educationally Purposeful Activities Predictive of Undergraduate GPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauria, Renee M.; Fuller, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the effects of Educationally Purposeful Activities (EPAs) on transfer and nontransfer students' cumulative GPAs. Hierarchical, linear, and multiple regression models yielded seven statistically significant educationally purposeful items that influenced undergraduate student GPAs. Statistically significant positive EPAs for…

  16. Anxiety symptoms and disorder predict activity limitations in the elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Joanna; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Stewart, Rob; BERR, Claudine; Ritchie, Karen; Carrière, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: In the elderly, little attention has been paid to anxiety both on a symptom dimension and as a disorder, as an independent risk factor for the incidence of activity limitations. METHODS: In a community-dwelling cohort of 1581 persons aged 65+, the association between trait anxiety symptoms (Spielberger Trait, third highest tertile) and baseline DSM-IV anxiety disorder, and 7-year incident activity limitations was determined using mixed logistic regression...

  17. A predictive control algorithm for an active three-phase power filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Vlasenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with grid connection circuits for active filters, structures of active power filter control systems, and methods based on full capacity components determination. The existing structures of active power filter control and control algorithm adjustment for valve commutation loss reduction are analyzed. A predictive control algorithm for an active three-phase power filter is introduced.

  18. A predictive control algorithm for an active three-phase power filter

    OpenAIRE

    R.V. Vlasenko; Bialobrzeski, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with grid connection circuits for active filters, structures of active power filter control systems, and methods based on full capacity components determination. The existing structures of active power filter control and control algorithm adjustment for valve commutation loss reduction are analyzed. A predictive control algorithm for an active three-phase power filter is introduced.

  19. Solar Activity and Cloud Opacity Variations A Modulated Cosmic-Ray Ionization Model

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, D C; Marsden, David; Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The observed correlation between global low cloud amount and the flux of high energy cosmic-rays supports the idea that ionization plays a crucial role in tropospheric cloud formation. We explore this idea quantitatively with a simple model of cosmic-ray ionization enhancement of the formation of cloud condensation nuclei. This model predicts that solar modulation of the cosmic-ray ionization rate should be correlated with cloud opacity where the atmospheric aerosol concentration is low. Using the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project database (1983-1993), we find that the mean opacity of low latitude (40 degrees) clouds, on the other hand, show an anti-correlation with cosmic-ray flux, which we suggest may be a feedback effect resulting from the thicker low latitude clouds. We also show that the previously reported correlations of cloud amount with cosmic-ray flux probably result from the variations in longwave emissivity expected from our model, and not from variations in cloud amount. Further g...

  20. Long-term variation in the Sun's activity caused by magnetic Rossby waves in the tachocline

    OpenAIRE

    Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Oliver, R.; Hanslmeier, A.; Carbonell, M.; Ballester, J. L.; Gachechiladze, T.; I. G. Usoskin

    2015-01-01

    Long-term records of sunspot number and concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides (10Be and 14C) on the Earth reveal the variation of the Sun's magnetic activity over hundreds and thousands of years. We identify several clear periods in sunspot, 10Be, and 14C data as 1000, 500, 350, 200 and 100 years. We found that the periods of the first five spherical harmonics of the slow magnetic Rossby mode in the presence of a steady toroidal magnetic field of 1200-1300 G in the lower tachocline are i...

  1. A Local Stable Bootstrap for Power Variations of Pure-Jump Semimartingales and Activity Index Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich; Varneskov, Rasmus T.

    We provide a new resampling procedure - the local stable bootstrap - that is able to mimic the dependence properties of realized power variations for pure-jump semimartingales observed at different frequencies. This allows us to propose a bootstrap estimator and inference procedure for the activity...... index of the underlying process, β, as well as a bootstrap test for whether it obeys a jump-diffusion or a pure-jump process, that is, of the null hypothesis H₀: β=2 against the alternative H₁: β

  2. Long-term variation in the Sun's activity caused by magnetic Rossby waves in the tachocline

    CERN Document Server

    Zaqarashvili, T V; Hanslmeier, A; Carbonell, M; Ballester, J L; Gachechiladze, T; Usoskin, I G

    2015-01-01

    Long-term records of sunspot number and concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides (10Be and 14C) on the Earth reveal the variation of the Sun's magnetic activity over hundreds and thousands of years. We identify several clear periods in sunspot, 10Be, and 14C data as 1000, 500, 350, 200 and 100 years. We found that the periods of the first five spherical harmonics of the slow magnetic Rossby mode in the presence of a steady toroidal magnetic field of 1200-1300 G in the lower tachocline are in perfect agreement with the time scales of observed variations. The steady toroidal magnetic field can be generated in the lower tachocline either due to the steady dynamo magnetic field for low magnetic diffusivity or due to the action of the latitudinal differential rotation on the weak poloidal primordial magnetic field, which penetrates from the radiative interior. The slow magnetic Rossby waves lead to variations of the steady toroidal magnetic field in the lower tachocline, which modulate the dynamo magnetic field ...

  3. Study of variations of radon emanations from soil in Morocco using solid state nuclear track detectors. Correlations with atmospheric parameters and seismic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the quantity variations of radon emanating from soil in accordance with time. It aims to verify the possibility of the radon sign use in earthquake prediction. Regular measures of radon concentration in soil have been carried out over the two years 1991 and 1992 in five towns of Morocco: Rabat, Tetouan, Ifrane and Khouribga, and in geophysic observatory of Ibn Rochd (Berchid region). The measuring method is based on the solid state nuclear track detectors technique. The obtained results have shown an influence of the atmospheric effects on the radon emanation. The experiment proved that, on one hand, the variations of the aforesaid influence are correlated to variations of the pluviometry and the atmospheric temperature and, on the other hand, there is no notable effect of atmospheric pressure or atmospheric humidity. The good correlations between the different seismic activities and the variations of radon emanation rate in the five measurement stations, have shown the interest of radon use in the earthquake prediction field. 81 refs., 100 figs., 17 tabs.(F. M.)

  4. Spatial-temporal variation of the land surface temperature field and present-day tectonic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Ma; Shunyun Chen; Xiaoyan Hu; Peixun Liu; Liqiang Liu

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to acquire information on tectonic activity in western China from land surface temperature (LST) field data. On the basis of the established relationship between heat and strain, we analyzed the LST distribution in western China using the satelfite data product MODIS/Terra. Our results show that: 1.There are departures from annual changes of LST in some areas, and that these changes are associated with the activity of some active tectonic zones. 2. When annual-change background values caused by climate factors are removed, the long-period component (LST Low) of temperature residual (AT) of the LST is able to serve as an indicator for tectonic activity. We have found that a major earthquake can produce different effects on the LST fields of surrounding areas. These effects are characterized by both rises and drops in temperature. For example,there was a noteworthy temperature decline associated with the Sumatran M9 earthquake of 2004 in the Bayan Har-Songpan block of central Tibetan Plateau. 3. On the other hand, the LST field of a single area may respond differently to major shocks occurring in different areas in the regions surrounding China. For instance, the Kuninn M 8.1 event made the LST on the Longmen Mountains fault zone increase, whereas the Zaisan Lake M 7.9 quake of 2003, and the Sumatran M9 event of 2004, caused decreases in the same area's LST. 4. The variations of land surface temperature (LST) over time are different in different tectonic areas. These phenomena may provide clues for the study of tectonic deformation processes. On the basis of these phenomena, we use a combination of temperature data obtained at varied depths, regional seismicity and strain results obtained with GPS measurements, to test the information related to tectonic activity derived from variations of the LST field, and discuss its implications to the creation of models of regional tectonic deformation.

  5. The Predictive Role of Stock Market Return for Real Activity in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jiranyakul, Komain

    2012-01-01

    Stock market return is one of financial variables that contain information to forecast real activity such as industrial production and real GDP growth. However, it is still controversial that stock market return can have a predictive content on real activity. This paper attempts to investigate the ability of stock market return to predict industrial production growth (or real activity) in Thailand, which is an emerging market economy. The standard causality test and the equal forecast evalua...

  6. Study on the Seismic Active Earth Pressure by Variational Limit Equilibrium Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of limit equilibrium theory, the isoperimetric model of functional extremum regarding the seismic active earth pressure is deduced according to the variational method. On this basis, Lagrange multipliers are introduced to convert the problem of seismic active earth pressure into the problem on the functional extremum of two undetermined function arguments. Based on the necessary conditions required for the existence of functional extremum, the function of the slip surface and the normal stress distribution on the slip surface is obtained, and the functional extremum problem is further converted into a function optimization problem with two undetermined Lagrange multipliers. The calculated results show that the slip surface is a plane and the seismic active earth pressure is minimal when the action point is at the lower limit position. As the action point moves upward, the slip surface becomes a logarithmic spiral and the corresponding value of seismic active earth pressure increases in a nonlinear manner. And the seismic active earth pressure is maximal at the upper limit position. The interval estimation constructed by the minimum and maximum values of seismic active earth pressure can provide a reference for the aseismic design of gravity retaining walls.

  7. Mapping Activity Variations for Ru2O3 in Lunar Volcanic Green Glass Analogs Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malum, K. M.; Colson, R. O.; Sawarynski, M.

    2001-01-01

    Using differential pulse voltammetry, we are mapping variations in activities for NiO and Ru2O3 as a function of compositional variation for compositions centered around an Apollo 15 green glass analog. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Prediction of Antibacterial Activity from Physicochemical Properties of Antimicrobial Peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sousa Pereira Simoes de Melo, Manuel; Ferre, Rafael; Feliu, Lidia; Bardaji, Eduard; Planas, Marta; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

    2011-01-01

    Consensus is gathering that antimicrobial peptides that exert their antibacterial action at the membrane level must reach a local concentration threshold to become active. Studies of peptide interaction with model membranes do identify such disruptive thresholds but demonstrations of the possible co

  9. Predicting and preventing the future: actively managing multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly variable clinical course but a number of demographic, clinical and MRI features can guide the clinician in the assessment of disease activity and likely disability outcome. It is also clear that the inflammatory activity in the first five years of relapsing-remitting MS results in the neurodegenerative changes seen in secondary progressive MS 10-15 years later. While conventional first-line disease modifying therapy has an effect on relapses, about one third of patients have a suboptimal response to treatment. With the advent of highly active second-line therapies with their evident marked suppression of inflammation, the clinician now has the tools to manage the course of relapsing-remitting MS more effectively. The development of treatment optimisation recommendations based on the clinical response to first-line therapies can guide the neurologist in more active management of the early course of relapsing-remitting MS, with the aim of preventing both acute inflammatory axonal injury and the neurodegenerative process which leads to secondary progressive MS.

  10. Predicting Nitrogen Fertilizer Recommendations for Corn using an Active Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active sensors, mounted on typical agricultural equipment, can be used to measure N (nitrogen) status in corn (Zea mays L.). This gives a producer the potential to improve N fertilizer recommendations that will reduce nitrate loss to the environment. This study examines the relationship between re...

  11. Impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, D.; Rubino, A.; Traverso, P.; Tomasino, M.

    2008-06-01

    Using spectral and statistical analyses of discharges and basin average precipitation rates acquired over the Po River since the early 1800s, we investigate the impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns over northern Italy. Wet and dry periods appear to alternate in accordance with polarized sunspot cycles. Intriguingly, a solar signature on Po River discharges is detected to be highly significant since the late 1800s, before the onset of sunspots hyperactivity established by the middle 1900s. In particular, observed hydrological patterns over northern Italy are significantly correlated, under periods of quiet sunspot activity, with parameters characterizing the Sun's orbital motion, specifically with the time derivative of the solar angular momentum (τ) which is thought to modulate the strength of the solar wind and sunspot dynamics under weak sunspot activity. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is detected as potential link between the Sun and Po River discharges, since it is significantly correlated with both solar activity and the decadal variability in the north Italian climate. In particular, positive (negative) NAO anomalies, which are associated with comparatively lower (higher) Po River discharges, are assessed to alternatively correlate at decadal timescales either with τ or with the Earth's geomagnetic activity (GA), which closely follows sunspot activity. This changing correlation seems to be regulated by the strength of sunspot activity: under periods of quiet sunspot activity, a weakening of the GA-NAO connection and a reinforcement of the τ-NAO connection is observed. In this sense, the strength of solar activity apparently modulates the connection between the NAO and Po River discharges.

  12. Variation in energy expenditure among black-legged kittiwakes: effects of activity-specific metabolic rates and activity budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, P G R; Roby, D D; Suryan, R M; Irons, D B; Kaufman, A M; Turco, K R; Visser, G H

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the effect of variation in time-activity budgets (TABs) and foraging behavior on energy expenditure rates of parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). We quantified TABs using direct observations of radio-tagged adults and simultaneously measured field metabolic rates (FMR) of these same individuals (n=20) using the doubly labeled water technique. Estimated metabolic rates of kittiwakes attending their brood at the nest or loafing near the colony were similar (ca. 1.3 x basal metabolic rate [BMR]), although loafing during foraging trips was more costly (2.9 x BMR). Metabolic rates during commuting flight (7.3 x BMR) and prey-searching flight (6.2 x BMR) were similar, while metabolic rates during plunge diving were much higher (ca. 47 x BMR). The proportion of the measurement interval spent foraging had a positive effect on FMR (R2=0.68), while the combined proportion of time engaged in nest attendance and loafing near the colony had a negative effect on FMR (R2=0.72). Thus, more than two-thirds of the variation in kittiwake FMR could be explained by the allocation of time among various activities. The high energetic cost of plunge diving relative to straight flight and searching flight suggests that kittiwakes can optimize their foraging strategy under conditions of low food availability by commuting long distances to feed in areas where gross foraging efficiency is high. PMID:12905124

  13. Two dynamo waves derived with Principal Component Analysis of solar magnetic field and prediction of solar activity on millenium scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Shepherd, S. J.; Popova, E.; Zharkov, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present principal components analysis (PCA) of temporal magnetic field variations over the solar cycles 21-24. These PCs reveal two main magnetic waves with close frequencies (covering 40% of data variance) travelling from the opposite hemispheres with an increasing phase shift. Extrapolation of these PCs through their summary curve backward for 2000 years reveals a number of ~350-year grand cycles superimposed on 22 year-cycles with the features showing a remarkable resemblance to sunspot activity reported in the past. The summary curve calculated forward for the next millennium predicts further three grand cycles with the closest grand minimum occurring in the forthcoming cycles 25-27 when the two magnetic field waves have a phase shift of 11 years. These grand cycle variations are probed by Parker's two layer dynamo model with meridional circulation revealing two dynamo waves generated with close frequencies. Their interaction leads to beating effects responsible for the grand cycles (300-350 years) superimposed on standard 22 year cycles and for the super-grand cycle of 900-1000 years. This approach opens a new era in investigation and prediction of solar activity on long-term timescales.

  14. The Dst index underestimates the solar cycle variation of geomagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temerin, Michael; Li, Xinlin

    2015-07-01

    It is known that the correction of the Kyoto Dst index for the secular variation of the Earth's internal field produces a discontinuity in the Kyoto Dst index at the end of each year. We show that this secular correction also introduces a significant baseline error to the Kyoto Dst index that leads to an underestimate of the solar cycle variation of geomagnetic activity and of the strength of the ring current as measured by the Kyoto Dst index. Thus, the average value of the Kyoto Dst index would be approximately 13 nT more negative for the active year 2003 compared to quiet years 2006 and 2009 if the Kyoto Dst index properly measured the effects of the ring current and other currents that influence the Dst observatories. Discontinuities in the Kyoto Dst index at the end of each year have an average value of about 5 nT, but the discontinuity at the end of year 2002 was approximately 12 nT, and the discontinuity at the end of year 1982 may have been as large as 20 nT.

  15. Molecular physicochemical parameters predicting antioxidant activity of Brazilian natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scotti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are capable of oxidizing cellular proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, contributing to cellular aging, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, coronary heart and neurodegenerative diseases. Free radicals-scavenging by phenolic compounds occurs by the transfer of one electron followed by the H-abstraction. In order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of a series of seventeen phenolic compounds extracted from Brazilian flora (Chimarrhis turbinata and Arrabidea samydoides, some physicochemical parameters (heat formation of the neutral, radical, and cationic compounds; orbitals' energies; ClogP; ΔH OX; and ΔHf were calculated. Considering the results from the calculated descriptors, the molecules 10a-f can be classified as having a higher antioxidant activity.

  16. Baseline brain activity fluctuations predict somatosensory perception in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Boly, M; Balteau, E.; Schnakers, C; Degueldre, C.; Moonen, G.; Luxen, A.; Phillips, C.; Peigneux, P; Maquet, P; Laureys, S.

    2007-01-01

    In perceptual experiments, within-individual fluctuations in perception are observed across multiple presentations of the same stimuli, a phenomenon that remains only partially understood. Here, by means of thulium–yttrium/aluminum–garnet laser and event-related functional MRI, we tested whether variability in perception of identical stimuli relates to differences in prestimulus, baseline brain activity. Results indicate a positive relationship between conscious perception of low-intensity so...

  17. Optimal Coding Predicts Attentional Modulation of Activity in Neural Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Santiago; Pearlmutter, Barak A.

    2007-01-01

    Neuronal activity in response to a fixed stimulus has been shown to change as a function of attentional state, implying that the neural code also changes with attention. We propose an information-theoretic account of such modulation: that the nervous system adapts to optimally encode sensory stimuli while taking into account the changing relevance of different features. We show using computer simulation that such modulation emerges in a coding system informed about the uneven relevance of ...

  18. Seasonal variation for the antidiabetic activity ofLoranthus micranthus methanol extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patience Ogoamaka Osadebe; Edwin Ogechukwu Omeje; Philip Felix Uzor; Ernest Kenechukwu David; Damian Chiedozie Obiorah

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the season in which the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus, parasitic onPersea americana possesses optimum antidiabetic activity and to determine the seasonal variation in the constituents.Methods: The antidiabetic activities of the aqueous methanol extracts of the leaves of Eastern Nigeria mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus, harvested in two seasons of the year, the onset of rainy season (April) and the peak of rainy season (July) were compared. The tests were carried out on six (6) groups (A-F) of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Groups A and B received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the April sample extracts respectively while groups C and D received same doses of the July sample extracts. Group E and F which were the positive and negative controls received 10 mg/kg of glibenclamide and 2 ml/kg of 3% tween 20 respectively. The blood glucose levels of the animals were monitored hourly with a glucometer for six hours. The phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were also carried out by standard procedures.Results: The results showed that group A and B exhibited significant (P0.05) FBS reduction (15.9%) while group D exhibited highly significant (P<0.01) reduction (47.5%) with the maximum reduction occurring after 6 hours. The phytochemical analysis of the crude methanol extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, acidic compounds, resins and oils. These were present in different proportions in both seasons.Conclusions: This study shows that there is a seasonal, dose-dependent variation in the chemical compositionviz-a-viz the antidiabetic activity of the plant under study. This activity is highest at the peak of the rainy season.

  19. Variation in GUS activity in vegetatively propagated Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardet, Ludovic; Leclercq, Julie; Bénistan, Elise; Dessailly, Florence; Oliver, Gérald; Martin, Florence; Montoro, Pascal

    2011-10-01

    Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants are regenerated from transgenic callus lines by somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis is not yet available for commercial propagation of Hevea clones, which requires conventional grafting of buds on rootstock seedlings (budding). The stability of transgene expression in budded plants is therefore necessary for further development of genetic engineering in rubber trees. Transgene expression was assessed by fluorimetric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in fully developed leaves of in vitro plants from transgenic lines and their sub-lines obtained by budding. A large variation in GUS activity was found in self-rooted in vitro plants of five transgenic lines, and the absence of activity in one line suggested transgene silencing. Beyond confirming transmissibility of the reporter gene by budding and long-term expression, a quantification of GUS activity revealed that greater variability existed in budded plants compared to self-rooted mother in vitro plants for three transgenic lines. Although somatic embryogenesis provided more stable GUS activity, budding remained an efficient way of propagating transgenic plants but transgene expression in budded plants should be verified for functional analysis and further development. PMID:21643815

  20. Enabling Predictive Simulation and UQ of Complex Multiphysics PDE Systems by the Development of Goal-Oriented Variational Sensitivity Analysis and a-Posteriori Error Estimation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estep, Donald [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-11-30

    This project addressed the challenge of predictive computational analysis of strongly coupled, highly nonlinear multiphysics systems characterized by multiple physical phenomena that span a large range of length- and time-scales. Specifically, the project was focused on computational estimation of numerical error and sensitivity analysis of computational solutions with respect to variations in parameters and data. In addition, the project investigated the use of accurate computational estimates to guide efficient adaptive discretization. The project developed, analyzed and evaluated new variational adjoint-based techniques for integration, model, and data error estimation/control and sensitivity analysis, in evolutionary multiphysics multiscale simulations.

  1. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    OpenAIRE

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Andersen, Mikkel M; Harder, Stine; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this study, we investigate the role of gender as a factor that contributes to eye colour variation and suggest that the gender effect on eye colour is population specific. A total of 230 Italian individuals we...

  2. VARIATIONS IN THE COMPLEMENT ACTIVITY AND FIXABILITY OF GUINEA PIG SERUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1911-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from the foregoing series of experiments. The complementary activity varies within a definite limit in different specimens of guinea pig serum. With sera which stood in contact with the clot for twenty hours, the strongest and weakest were in the ratio of 0.015 cubic centimeter to 0.04 cubic centimeter. The former was 2.66 times stronger than the latter. The variation observed with the same series of sera after forty-six hours was still more striking. The strongest was 0.013 cubic centimeter, and the weakest, 0.06 cubic centimeter, that is, the former was 4.6 times stronger than the latter. These findings agree with those made by Massol and Grysez. The variations were not so marked with the majority of sera. It is noteworthy that a large number of the sera gained in the complementary activity when remaining in contact with the clot for forty-six hours, while some sera became weakened during the same length of time. The amount of serum fixed by given constant quantities of syphilitic serum and antigen varies much more markedly than the variations in their complementary activity. One serum failed altogether to be fixed. On the other hand, one sample of serum was so easily fixable that 0.24 cubic centimeter (corresponding to 9.6 complement units of this specimen) disappeared, while the average quantity fixed was only 0.098 cubic centimeter (corresponding to 4.64 complement units). The normal standard of fixability was shown in about 50 per cent. of the specimens examined. If the zone of normal fixability is enlarged in both directions by one unit, the percentage of normal fixability would become 65.8. There is no definite relationship between the complementary activity and the fixability of a given specimen of guinea pig serum. The facts derived from our present experiments, especially in regard to the exceptions in the fixative quality of this serum, demand the utmost precaution from those intending to employ it for diagnostic

  3. Predicting activities without computing descriptors: graph machines for QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulon, A; Picot, T; Duprat, A; Dreyfus, G

    2007-01-01

    We describe graph machines, an alternative approach to traditional machine-learning-based QSAR, which circumvents the problem of designing, computing and selecting molecular descriptors. In that approach, which is similar in spirit to recursive networks, molecules are considered as structured data, represented as graphs. For each example of the data set, a mathematical function (graph machine) is built, whose structure reflects the structure of the molecule under consideration; it is the combination of identical parameterised functions, called "node functions" (e.g. a feedforward neural network). The parameters of the node functions, shared both within and across the graph machines, are adjusted during training with the "shared weights" technique. Model selection is then performed by traditional cross-validation. Therefore, the designer's main task consists in finding the optimal complexity for the node function. The efficiency of this new approach has been demonstrated in many QSAR or QSPR tasks, as well as in modelling the activities of complex chemicals (e.g. the toxicity of a family of phenols or the anti-HIV activities of HEPT derivatives). It generally outperforms traditional techniques without requiring the selection and computation of descriptors. PMID:17365965

  4. Magnetic activity and orbital period variation of the eclipsing binary KV Gem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Pi, Qingfeng; Yang, Yuangui; Li, Zhongmu

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents new CCD BVRI light curves of a neglected eclipsing binary KV Gem. Our new light curves were obtained in 2010 and 2011 at the Xinglong station of the National Astronomical Observatories, China. By analyzing all available light minimum times, we derived an update ephemeris and found there existed a cyclic variation overlaying a continuous period decrease. This kind of cyclic variation may probably be attributed to the light-time effect via the presence of an unseen third body or magnetic activity cycle. The long-term period decrease suggests that KV Gem is undergoing a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary component at a rate of 3.4(0.3)×(10-7 M⊙/year for period decrease and a third body (10.3±0.2 years), and 5.5(0.6)×10-7 M⊙/year for decrease and magnetic cycle (8.8±0.1 years). By analyzing the light curves in 2011, photometric solutions and starspots parameters of the system are obtained using Wilson-Devinney program. Based on the photometric solution in 2011, we still could use the spot model to explain successfully our light curves in 2010 and three published light curves. Comparing the starspot longitudes and factors, KV Gem are variable on a long time scale of about years. For the data of KV Gem, the brightness vary with time around phases 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75, which means that there is a possible photospheric active evolution. More data are needed to monitor to detect stellar cycle of KV Gem. For chromospheric activity of KV Gem, we found strong absorption in the observed Hβ,Hγ, and Ca II H & K spectra, and no obvious emission.

  5. Substrate sources regulate spatial variation of metabolically active methanogens from two contrasting freshwater wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongxin; Liu, Deyan; Ding, Weixin; Kang, Hojeong; Freeman, Chris; Yuan, Junji; Xiang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    There is ample evidence that methane (CH4) emissions from natural wetlands exhibit large spatial variations at a field scale. However, little is known about the metabolically active methanogens mediating these differences. We explored the spatial patterns in active methanogens of summer inundated Calamagrostis angustifolia marsh with low CH4 emissions and permanently inundated Carex lasiocarpa marsh with high CH4 emissions in Sanjiang Plain, China. In C. angustifolia marsh, the addition of (13)C-acetate significantly increased the CH4 production rate, and Methanosarcinaceae methanogens were found to participate in the consumption of acetate. In C. lasiocarpa marsh, there was no apparent increase in the CH4 production rate and no methanogen species were labeled with (13)C. When (13)CO2-H2 was added, however, CH4 production was found to be due to Fen Cluster (Methanomicrobiales) in C. angustifolia marsh and Methanobacterium Cluster B (Methanobacteriaceae) together with Fen Cluster in C. lasiocarpa marsh. These results suggested that CH4 was produced primarily by hydrogenotrophic methanogens using substrates mainly derived from plant litter in C. lasiocarpa marsh and by both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens using substrates mainly derived from root exudate in C. angustifolia marsh. The significantly lower CH4 emissions measured in situ in C. angustifolia marsh was primarily due to a deficiency of substrates compared to C. lasiocarpa marsh. Therefore, we speculate that the substrate source regulates both the type of active methanogens and the CH4 production pathway and consequently contributes to the spatial variations in CH4 productions observed in these freshwater marshes. PMID:26286511

  6. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  7. Synchronization by Food Access Modifies the Daily Variations in Expression and Activity of Liver GABA Transaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia De Ita-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Daytime restricted feeding (DRF is an experimental protocol that influences the circadian timing system and underlies the expression of a biological clock known as the food entrained oscillator (FEO. Liver is the organ that reacts most rapidly to food restriction by adjusting the functional relationship between the molecular circadian clock and the metabolic networks. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a signaling molecule in the liver, and able to modulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study was aimed at characterizing the expression and activity of the mostly mitochondrial enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T during DRF/FEO expression. We found that DRF promotes a sustained increase of GABA-T in the liver homogenate and mitochondrial fraction throughout the entire day-night cycle. The higher amount of GABA-T promoted by DRF was not associated to changes in GABA-T mRNA or GABA-T activity. The GABA-T activity in the mitochondrial fraction even tended to decrease during the light period. We concluded that DRF influences the daily variations of GABA-T mRNA levels, stability, and catalytic activity of GABA-T. These data suggest that the liver GABAergic system responds to a metabolic challenge such as DRF and the concomitant appearance of the FEO.

  8. Diurnal variations of saltation activity at Tazhong: the hinterland of Taklimakan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; He, Qing; Mamtimin, Ali; Huo, Wen; Liu, Xinchun

    2013-02-01

    The Taklimakan Desert of China is a region of frequent sandstorms and, thus, is a major sand and dust source area. Tazhong, a small mining village, is located near the center of the Taklimakan Desert at a distance of 220 km from the desert margins. Near Tazhong, we conducted a 2-year field investigation designed to monitor the diurnal variation of saltation activity using fast-responding piezoelectric saltation sensors (Sensits). Results suggest that saltation activity tends to occur more frequently during daytime in all seasons, relatively high levels of saltation activity are maintained from around 11:30 to around 16:30 local standard time (LST), because of stronger wind speed, higher soil temperature and lower relative humidity. During the spring and summer seasons, the saltation activity can occur at any time of the day, while there are some periods with zero saltation seconds at night and in the early morning during autumn and winter seasons. The results confirm that sandstorms tend to occur more frequently during daylight hours, so it may be helpful to forecast and guard against the occurrence of blowing sand or sandstorms in the Taklimakan Desert.

  9. Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression Exposure to many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals can cause adverse outcomes. These adverse outcomes, such as cancer, have been linked to mol...

  10. Surface tensions of multi-component mixed inorganic/organic aqueous systems of atmospheric significance: measurements, model predictions and importance for cloud activation predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the physical properties of aerosol particles, it is necessary to adequately capture the behaviour of the ubiquitous complex organic components. One of the key properties which may affect this behaviour is the contribution of the organic components to the surface tension of aqueous particles in the moist atmosphere. Whilst the qualitative effect of organic compounds on solution surface tensions has been widely reported, our quantitative understanding on mixed organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems is limited. Furthermore, it is unclear whether models that exist in the literature can reproduce the surface tension variability for binary and higher order multi-component organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems of atmospheric significance. The current study aims to resolve both issues to some extent. Surface tensions of single and multiple solute aqueous solutions were measured and compared with predictions from a number of model treatments. On comparison with binary organic systems, two predictive models found in the literature provided a range of values resulting from sensitivity to calculations of pure component surface tensions. Results indicate that a fitted model can capture the variability of the measured data very well, producing the lowest average percentage deviation for all compounds studied. The performance of the other models varies with compound and choice of model parameters. The behaviour of ternary mixed inorganic/organic systems was unreliably captured by using a predictive scheme and this was dependent on the composition of the solutes present. For more atmospherically representative higher order systems, entirely predictive schemes performed poorly. It was found that use of the binary data in a relatively simple mixing rule, or modification of an existing thermodynamic model with parameters derived from binary data, was able to accurately capture the surface tension variation with concentration. Thus

  11. Structure-based activity prediction for an enzyme of unknown function

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, Johannes C.; Marti-Arbona, Ricardo; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Fedorov, Elena; Almo, Steven C.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Raushel, Frank M.

    2007-01-01

    With many genomes sequenced, a pressing challenge in biology is predicting the function of the proteins that the genes encode. When proteins are unrelated to others of known activity, bioinformatics inference for function becomes problematic. It would thus be useful to interrogate protein structures for function directly. Here, we predict the function of an enzyme of unknown activity, Tm0936 from Thermotoga maritima, by docking high-energy intermediate forms of thousands of candidate metaboli...

  12. Seasonal and diurnal variation of lightning activity over southern Africa and correlation with European whistler observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Collier

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS data have been analysed to ascertain the statistical pattern of lightning occurrence over southern Africa. The diurnal and seasonal variations are mapped in detail. The highest flash rates (107.2 km-2 y-1 occur close to the equator but maxima are also found over Madagascar (32.1 km-2 y-1 and South Africa (26.4 km-2 y-1. A feature of the statistics is a relatively steady contribution from over the ocean off the east coast of South Africa that appears to be associated with the Agulhas current.

    Lightning statistics are of intrinsic meteorological interest but they also relate to the occurrence of whistlers in the conjugate region. Whistler observations are made at Tihany, Hungary. Statistics reveal that the period of most frequent whistler occurrence does not correspond to the maximum in lightning activity in the conjugate region but is strongly influenced by ionospheric illumination and other factors. The whistler/flash ratio, R, shows remarkable variations during the year and has a peak that is narrowly confined to February and March.

  13. NONINVASIVE DETECTION OF BRAIN ACTIVITY VARIATION UNDER DIFFERENT DEPTH OF ANESTHESIA BY EEG COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jin; Li Wenwen; Zheng Chongxun; Jing Guixia; Liu Xueliang

    2006-01-01

    Objective To detect the change of brain activity under different depth of anesthesia (DOA)noninvasively. Methods The Lempel-Ziv complexity C(n) was used to analyze EEG and its four components (delta,theta, alpha, beta), which was recorded from SD rats under different DOA. The relationship between C(n) and DOA was studied. Results The C(n) of EEG will decrease while the depth of anesthesia increasing and vice versa. It can be used to detect the change of DOA sensitively. Compared with power spectrum, the change of C(n) is opposite to that of power spectru,. Only the C(n) of delta rhythm has obvious variations induced by the change of DOA, and the variations of delta is as similar as the EEG's. Conclusion The study shows that the desynchronized EEG is replaced by the synchronized EEG when rat goes into anesthesia state from awake, that is just the reason why complexity and power spectrum appear corresponding changes under different DOA. C(n) of delta rhythm dynamic change leads to the change of EEG, and the delta rhythm is the dominant rhythm during anesthesia for rats.

  14. Assimilation of Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite data in a regional numerical weather prediction model using a one-dimensional variational approach

    OpenAIRE

    Elementi, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The quality of temperature and humidity retrievals from the infrared SEVIRI sensors on the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites is assessed by means of a one dimensional variational algorithm. The study is performed with the aim of improving the spatial and temporal resolution of available observations to feed analysis systems designed for high resolution regional scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The non-hydrostatic forecast model COSMO (COn...

  15. Insights into induced earthquakes and aftershock activity with in-situ measurements of seismic velocity variations in an active underground mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenguier, F.; Olivier, G.; Campillo, M.; Roux, P.; Shapiro, N.; Lynch, R.

    2015-12-01

    The behaviour of the crust shortly after large earthquakes has been the subject of numerous studies, but many co- and post-seismic processes remain poorly understood. Damage and healing of the bulk rock mass, post-seismic deformation and the mechanisms of earthquake triggering are still not well understood. These processes are important to properly model and understand the behaviour of faults and earthquake cycles.In this presentation, we will show how in-situ measurements of seismic velocity variations have given new insights into these co- and post-seismic processes. An experiment was performed where a blast was detonated in a tunnel in an underground mine, while seismic velocity variations were accurately (0.005 %) measured with ambient seismic noise correlations. Additionally, aftershock activity was examined and the influence of the removal of a piece of solid rock was estimated with elastic static stress modelling. The majority of the aftershocks were delayed with respect to the passing of the dynamic waves from the blast, while the locations of the aftershocks appeared clustered and not homogeneously spread around the blast location. A significant velocity drop is visible during the time of the blast, which is interpreted as co-seismic damage and plastic deformation. These non-elastic effects are healed by the confining stresses over a period of 5 days until the seismic velocity converges to a new baseline level. The instantaneous weakening and gradual healing observed from the velocity variations are qualitatively similar to results reported in laboratory studies. The change in the baseline level of the seismic velocity before and after the blast indicate a change in the static stress that is comparable to the results of elastic static stress modelling. The differences between the elastic model predictions and the seismic velocity variations could be due to zones of fractured rock, indicated by the spatial clustering of the aftershocks, that are not

  16. Variations in the characteristics of Changjiang sediment discharging into the sea due to human activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Gao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The variations in sediment load and composition from tributaries of the Changjiang River by human activities were analyzed. The temporal-spatial variations in the sediment load in the main river of the Changjiang under the impact of dam emplacement were determined. We identified the grain size variation of the sediment in the accumulation areas (i.e., the estuarine and adjacent coastal waters during different periods and, on such a basis, discussed about the environmental change signature in the sedimentary record. The results indicate that the timing of reduction in the sediment load of the main stream of the Changjiang was different from downstream to upstream sections, due to the variations in the sediment load of the sub-catchments, and four step-wise reduction periods were observed: 1956–1969, 1970–1985, 1986–2002, and 2003–2010. In addition, the proportion of the sediment load originating from the Jinsha River continuously increased before 2003, due to the sequential reduction in the sediment load of the Han and Jialing Rivers. After 2003, channel erosion of the main river of the Changjiang became a major source of the sediment discharging into the sea. Before 2003, the various sub-catchments as the sources of the sediment entering the sea may be evaluated by analyzing the sediment components in the deposition area, because the sedimentary materials were delivered directly from the upstream portions of the Changjiang; after 2003, although the clay component may be still originated mainly from the upstream areas, the silt and sand components have been derived to a large extent from the erosion of the mid-lower and estuarine reach main channel. Thus, the sediment source of the estuarine-coastal deposits associated with the Changjiang could not be represented by the upstream sources alone. This observation implies that caution should be taken in tracing the sediment sources, interpreting sediment records, and modeling the sediment

  17. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  18. Electrical PR Interval Variation Predicts New Occurrence of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Frequent Premature Atrial Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kwang Jin; Hwang, Jin Kyung; Park, Seung-Jung; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo; Park, Kyoung-Min

    2016-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and fluctuation of autonomic tone is more prominent in patients with AF. As autonomic tone affects the heart rate (HR), and there is an inverse relationship between HR and PR interval, PR interval variation could be greater in patients with AF than in those without AF. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between PR interval variation and new-onset AF in patients with frequent PACs.We retrospectively enrolled 207 patients with frequent PACs who underwent electrocardiographs at least 4 times during the follow-up period. The PR variation was calculated by subtracting the minimum PR interval from the maximum PR interval. The outcomes were new occurrence of AF and all-cause mortality during the follow-up period.During a median follow-up of 8.3 years, 24 patients (11.6%) developed new-onset AF. Univariate analysis showed that prolonged PR interval (PR interval > 200 ms, P = 0.021), long PR variation (PR variation > 36.5 ms, P = 0.018), and PR variation (P = 0.004) as a continuous variable were associated with an increased risk of AF. Cox regression analysis showed that prolonged PR interval (hazard ratio = 3.321, 95% CI 1.064-10.362, P = 0.039) and PR variation (hazard ratio = 1.013, 95% CI 1.002-1.024, P = 0.022) were independent predictors for new-onset AF. However, PR variation and prolonged PR interval were not associated with all-cause mortality (P = 0.465 and 0.774, respectively).PR interval variation and prolonged PR interval are independent risk factors for new-onset AF in patients with frequent PACs. However we were unable to determine a cut-off value of PR interval variation for new-onset AF. PMID:27057868

  19. A note on periodicity of long-term variations of optical continuum in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kai-Xing; Bi, Shao-Lan; Wang, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    Graham et al. found a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) that have long-term periodic variations in optical continuum, the nature of the periodicity remains uncertain. We investigate the periodic variability characteristics of the sample by testing the relations of the observed variability periods with AGN optical luminosity, black hole mass and accretion rates, and find no significant correlations. We also test the observed periods in several different aspects related to accretion disks surrounding single black holes, such as the Keplerian rotational periods of 5100~\\AA\\ photon-emission regions and self-gravity dominated regions and the precessing period of warped disks. These tests shed new lights on understanding AGN variability in general. Under the assumption that the periodic behavior is associated with SMBHB systems in particular, we compare the separations ($\\mathscr{D}_{\\bullet}$) against characteristic radii of broad-line regions (...

  20. Study of FBAR response with variation in active area of membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Gurpreet Singh; Singh, Tarandip; Prasad, Mahanth

    2016-04-01

    In most of the communication devices such as filter, duplexer and oscillator, the need of acoustic resonator is the key part because of their small size and high performances. The design of a resonator based on three layers: (1) Bottom metal electrode such as Pt, Mo, Al and Au etc. (2) Piezoelectric layer such as ZnO, AlN and PZT etc. and (3) Top metal electrode. In this paper, the effects of active area on resonance frequency and impedance response of FBAR device have been studied. The FBAR devices having different membrane sizes, 150×150 µm2, 300×300 µm2, 450×450 µm2 and 600×600 µm2 were designed and simulated using COMSOL software Tool. The variation in resonance frequencies are found to be 2.62-2.65 GHz. Based on simulation results, one of the membrane having size, 300×300 µm2 has been fabricated for FBAR device.

  1. Phenotypic variation in metabolism and morphology correlating with animal swimming activity in the wild: relevance for the OCLTT (oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance), allocation and performance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders; Jepsen, Niels; Berg, Søren; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is affecting animal physiology in many parts of the world. Using metabolism, the oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis provides a tool to predict the responses of ectothermic animals to variation in temperature, oxygen availability and pH in the aquatic environment. The hypothesis remains controversial, however, and has been questioned in several studies. A positive relationship between aerobic metabolic scope and animal activity would be consistent with the OCLTT but has rarely been tested. Moreover, the performance model and the allocation model predict positive and negative relationships, respectively, between standard metabolic rate and activity. Finally, animal activity could be affected by individual morphology because of covariation with cost of transport. Therefore, we hypothesized that individual variation in activity is correlated with variation in metabolism and morphology. To test this prediction, we captured 23 wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a lake, tagged them with telemetry transmitters, measured standard and maximal metabolic rates, aerobic metabolic scope and fineness ratio and returned the fish to the lake to quantify individual in situ activity levels. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, whereas the activity assay involved high-resolution telemetry providing positions every 30 s over 12 days. We found no correlation between individual metabolic traits and activity, whereas individual fineness ratio correlated with activity. Independent of body length, and consistent with physics theory, slender fish maintained faster mean and maximal swimming speeds, but this variation did not result in a larger area (in square metres) explored per 24 h. Testing assumptions and predictions of recent conceptual models, our study indicates that individual metabolism is not a strong determinant of animal activity, in contrast to individual morphology, which is

  2. On dependence of seismic activity on 11 year variations in solar activity and/or cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhantayev, Zhumabek; Khachikyan, Galina; Breusov, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    It is found in the last decades that seismic activity of the Earth has a tendency to increase with decreasing solar activity (increasing cosmic rays). A good example of this effect may be the growing number of catastrophic earthquakes in the recent rather long solar minimum. Such results support idea on existence a solar-lithosphere relationship which, no doubts, is a part of total pattern of solar-terrestrial relationships. The physical mechanism of solar-terrestrial relationships is not developed yet. It is believed at present that one of the main contenders for such mechanism may be the global electric circuit (GEC) - vertical current loops, piercing and electrodynamically coupling all geospheres. It is also believed, that the upper boundary of the GEC is located at the magnetopause, where magnetic field of the solar wind reconnects with the geomagnetic field, that results in penetrating solar wind energy into the earth's environment. The effectiveness of the GEC operation depends on intensity of cosmic rays (CR), which ionize the air in the middle atmosphere and provide its conductivity. In connection with the foregoing, it can be expected: i) quantitatively, an increasing seismic activity from solar maximum to solar minimum may be in the same range as increasing CR flux; and ii) in those regions of the globe, where the crust is shipped by the magnetic field lines with number L= ~ 2.0, which are populated by anomalous cosmic rays (ACR), the relationship of seismic activity with variations in solar activity will be manifested most clearly, since there is a pronounced dependence of ACR on solar activity variations. Checking an assumption (i) with data of the global seismological catalog of the NEIC, USGS for 1973-2010, it was found that yearly number of earthquake with magnitude M≥4.5 varies into the 11 year solar cycle in a quantitative range of about 7-8% increasing to solar minimum, that qualitatively and quantitatively as well is in agreement with the

  3. The influence of geographic variations on the muscular activity in selected sports movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, J P; Alewaeters, K; Zinzen, E

    2001-12-01

    Surface EMG (SEMG) has been used frequently to study motion techniques or skills, body positions, material or equipment used, training-methodology and learning processes in sports and ergonomics. Little if any information is available on the effect of the geographical environment on the neuromuscular control of an athlete or workman during his/her performance or effort. Motions were chosen in Alpine skiing and cycling. Thirty-one certified ski instructors and twelve professional road cyclists participated in the study of geographical variance and its impact on muscle activity. SEMG was measured from the agonists and antagonists of the upper- and lower limb. Skiers were measured on downhill slopes ranging from 19 to 51% while the cyclists performed with different saddle positions on 2, 7 and 12% slope inclinations, respectively. Verification of the variation of muscular intensity (IEMG) over the slope inclination during a simulated giant slalom indicated that the muscular activity increased with increasing slope angle and decreased with decreasing slope angle, while heart rate measured with short-range radio telemetry increased at a constant rate between start and finish independent of the geographical variations. In a direct descent on different slopes % levels the integrated EMG is well related to the inclination (r=0.82) confirming the findings of the giant slalom. In cycling we found that, regardless of the pelvis position, the muscular intensity of lower limb muscles increased with increasing slope inclination, while the muscular intensity of the arms decreased with the same increasing slope inclination. In addition the decreased intensity of the arm muscles remained significantly higher with the pelvis (saddle) fully forward. The geography of the terrain did influence the neuromuscular work and therewith probably the performance also. The influence however, varies with specific circumstances and is coupled with items of variability of the equipment used and

  4. Functional Genetic Variation in Dopamine Signaling Moderates Prefrontal Cortical Activity During Risky Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Milky; Nurmi, Erika L; Laughlin, Christopher P; Morales, Angelica M; Gail, Emma H; Hellemann, Gerhard S; London, Edythe D

    2016-02-01

    Brain imaging has revealed links between prefrontal activity during risky decision-making and striatal dopamine receptors. Specifically, striatal dopamine D2-like receptor availability is correlated with risk-taking behavior and sensitivity of prefrontal activation to risk in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). The extent to which these associations, involving a single neurochemical measure, reflect more general effects of dopaminergic functioning on risky decision making, however, is unknown. Here, 65 healthy participants provided genotypes and performed the BART during functional magnetic resonance imaging. For each participant, dopamine function was assessed using a gene composite score combining known functional variation across five genes involved in dopaminergic signaling: DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, DAT1, and COMT. The gene composite score was negatively related to dorsolateral prefrontal cortical function during risky decision making, and nonlinearly related to earnings on the task. Iterative permutations of all possible allelic variations (7777 allelic combinations) was tested on brain function in an independently defined region of the prefrontal cortex and confirmed empirical validity of the composite score, which yielded stronger association than 95% of all other possible combinations. The gene composite score also accounted for a greater proportion of variability in neural and behavioral measures than the independent effects of each gene variant, indicating that the combined effects of functional dopamine pathway genes can provide a robust assessment, presumably reflecting the cumulative and potentially interactive effects on brain function. Our findings support the view that the links between dopaminergic signaling, prefrontal function, and decision making vary as a function of dopamine signaling capacity. PMID:26119471

  5. Solar activity variations of nocturnal thermospheric meridional winds over Indian longitude sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhav Haridas, M. K.; Manju, G.; Arunamani, T.

    2016-09-01

    The night time F-layer base height information from ionosondes located at two equatorial stations Trivandrum (TRV 8.5°N, 77°E) and Sriharikota (SHAR 13.7°N, 80.2°E) spanning over two decades are used to derive the climatology of equatorial nocturnal Thermospheric Meridional Winds (TMWs) prevailing during High Solar Activity (HSA) and Low Solar Activity (LSA) epochs. The important inferences from the analysis are 1) Increase in mean equatorward winds observed during LSA compared to HSA during pre midnight hours; 25 m/s for VE (Vernal Equinox) and 20 m/s for SS (Summer Solstice), AE (autumnal Equinox) and WS (Winter Solstice). 2) Mean wind response to Solar Flux Unit (SFU) is established quantitatively for all seasons for pre-midnight hours; rate of increase is 0.25 m/s/SFU for VE, 0.2 m/s/SFU for SS and WS and 0.08 m/s/SFU for AE. 3) Theoretical estimates of winds for the two epochs are performed and indicate the role of ion drag forcing as a major factor influencing TMWs. 4) Observed magnitude of winds and rate of flux dependencies are compared to thermospheric wind models. 5) Equinoctial asymmetry in TMWs is observed for HSA at certain times, with more equatorward winds during AE. These observations lend a potential to parameterize the wind components and effectively model the winds, catering to solar activity variations.

  6. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR activation and FXR genetic variation in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian M Nijmeijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that activation of the bile salt nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR protects against intestinal inflammation in mice. Reciprocally, these inflammatory mediators may decrease FXR activation. We investigated whether FXR activation is repressed in the ileum and colon of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients in remission. Additionally, we evaluated whether genetic variation in FXR is associated with IBD. METHODS: mRNA expression of FXR and FXR target gene SHP was determined in ileal and colonic biopsies of patients with Crohn's colitis (n = 15 and ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 12, all in clinical remission, and healthy controls (n = 17. Seven common tagging SNPs and two functional SNPs in FXR were genotyped in 2355 Dutch IBD patients (1162 Crohn's disease (CD and 1193 UC and in 853 healthy controls. RESULTS: mRNA expression of SHP in the ileum is reduced in patients with Crohn's colitis but not in patients with UC compared to controls. mRNA expression of villus marker Villin was correlated with FXR and SHP in healthy controls, a correlation that was weaker in UC patients and absent in CD patients. None of the SNPs was associated with IBD, UC or CD, nor with clinical subgroups of CD. CONCLUSIONS: FXR activation in the ileum is decreased in patients with Crohn's colitis. This may be secondary to altered enterohepatic circulation of bile salts or transrepression by inflammatory signals but does not seem to be caused by the studied SNPs in FXR. Increasing FXR activity by synthetic FXR agonists may have benefit in CD patients.

  7. Comparative study to predict dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity of β-amino amide scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study was performed on 34 β-amino amide derivatives as dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors in order to determine their structural requirement to enhance the antidiabetic activities. Hologram quantitative structure activity relationships models utilized specialized fragment fingerprints (hologram length 353 which showed good predictivity with cross-validated q 2 and conventional r 2 values of 0.971 and 0.971, respectively. Models were validated and optimized by a test set of eight compounds and gave satisfactory predictive ability. Hologram quantitative structure activity relationships maps were helpful in prediction of the structural features of the ligands to account for the activity in terms of positively and negatively contributing towards activity. The information obtained from maps could be effectively use as a guiding tool for further structure modifications and synthesis of new potent antidiabetic agents.

  8. Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: street gang membership, social and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research.

  9. Seasonal variations in notification of active tuberculosis cases in China, 2005-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although seasonal variation in tuberculosis (TB incidence has been described in many countries, it remains unknown in China. METHODS: A time series decomposition analysis (X-12-ARIMA was performed to examine the seasonal variation in active TB cases nationwide from 2005 through 2012 in China. Seasonal amplitude was calculated for the evaluation of TB seasonal variation. RESULTS: A total of 7.78 million active TB cases were reported over a period of 8 years. A spring peak (April was observed with seasonal amplitude of 46.3%, compared with the winter trough (February. Most cases in provinces with subtropical and tropical monsoon climate showed lower amplitudes than those in temperate continental, plateau and mountain climate regions. The magnitude of seasonality varied inversely with annual average temperature, r (95% CI = -0.71 (-0.79, -0.61. The seasonal amplitudes were 56.7, 60.5, 40.6, 46.4 and 50.9% for patients aged ≤14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Students demonstrated greater seasonal amplitude than peasants, migrant workers and workers (115.3% vs. 43.5, 41.6 and 48.1%. Patients with pulmonary TB had lower amplitude compared to patients with pleural and other extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB (45.9% vs. 52.0 and 56.3%. Relapse cases with sputum smear positive TB (SS+ TB had significantly higher seasonal amplitude compared to new cases with sputum smear positive TB (52.2% vs. 41.6%. CONCLUSIONS: TB is a seasonal disease in China. The peak and trough of TB transmission actually are in winter and in autumn respectively after factors of delay are removed. Higher amplitudes of TB seasonality are more likely to happen in temperate continental, plateau and mountain climate regions and regions with lower annual average temperature, and young person, students, patients with EPTB and relapse cases with SS+ TB are more likely to be affected by TB seasonality.

  10. New Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models Improve Predictability of Ames Mutagenicity for Aromatic Azo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, Serena; Benfenati, Emilio; Manganaro, Alberto; Kulkarni, Sunil; Barton-Maclaren, Tara S; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-10-01

    Existing Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models have limited predictive capabilities for aromatic azo compounds. In this study, 2 new models were built to predict Ames mutagenicity of this class of compounds. The first one made use of descriptors based on simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES), calculated with the CORAL software. The second model was based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm. The statistical quality of the predictions from single models was satisfactory. The performance further improved when the predictions from these models were combined. The prediction results from other QSAR models for mutagenicity were also evaluated. Most of the existing models were found to be good at finding toxic compounds but resulted in many false positive predictions. The 2 new models specific for this class of compounds avoid this problem thanks to a larger set of related compounds as training set and improved algorithms.

  11. Multiple dynamo modes as a mechanism for long-term solar activity variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käpylä, M. J.; Käpylä, P. J.; Olspert, N.; Brandenburg, A.; Warnecke, J.; Karak, B. B.; Pelt, J.

    2016-05-01

    the overall irregular behavior as being due to the interplay of the different dynamo modes showing different equatorial symmetries, especially the smoother part of the irregular variations being related to the variations of the mode strengths, evolving with different and variable cycle lengths. The abrupt low-activity epoch in the dominant dynamo mode near the surface is related to a strong maximum of the bottom toroidal field strength, which causes abrupt disturbances especially in the differential rotation profile via the suppression of the Reynolds stresses.

  12. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  13. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB ( r = 0.54 to 0.57, p maternal age, polygyny prevalence, wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

  14. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB (r = 0.54 to 0.57, p wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

  15. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of Kythera earthquake of 12th January, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Asteriadis, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Pikridas, Ch.

    2007-07-01

    TEC variations over a particular site sustain variations of different causality, global (earth revolution, earth rotation, earth-tides, variations of the geomagnetic field etc.) or local (atmospheric or underground explosions, earthquakes, volcanoes etc. A lot of work has been done by a great number of researchers on the characteristics of ionospheric variations according to their causality (wave - length, attenuation and velocity and way of propagation). In order that TEC variations over a particular site be used as earthquake precursory diagnostic a concrete sense of the interrelation of TEC variations over different sites as well as their respond of the geomagnetic field variations would be of great interest. In this paper the TEC data of eight GPS stations of the EUREF network (AUT1, Thessaloniki and TUC2, Crete in Greece, MAT, Matera and LAMP, Lampedusa in Italy, GAIA in Portugal, RABT in Rabat, EVPA, Evpatoria in Ukrain and TRAB, Trabson in Turkey) were analyzed using wavelet analysis in order to detect any frequency dependence of the correlation of TEC over different stations. In the same time frequency dependence of Dst and TEC variations are searched in order to detect any correlation. The main conclusion of this analysis is that the constituents of TEC variation with periods <3h are more suitable in searching for earthquake precursors. On the base of this conclusion the analyzed TEC series are searched for possible precursory phenomena. Variation in TEC constituents with periods <3h over the stations AUT1 and TUC2 occurred ±10days of the seismic activity may be attributed to this tectonic activity.

  16. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity of 20th October, in the area of eastern Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Asteriadis, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Pikridas, Ch.

    2007-04-01

    It is well known that TEC variations over a particular site sustain variations of different causality, global (earth revolution, earth rotation, earth-tides, variations of the geomagnetic field etc.) or local (atmospheric or underground explosions, earthquakes, volcanoes etc. A lot of work has been done by a great number of researchers on the characteristics of ionospheric variations according to their causality (wave- length, attenuation and velocity and way of propagation). In order that TEC variations over a particular site be used as earthquake precursory diagnostic a concrete sense of the interrelation of TEC variations over different sites as well as their respond of the geomagnetic field variations would be of great interest. In this paper the TEC data of eight GPS stations of the EUREF network (AUT1, Thessaloniki, TUC2, Crete in Greece, MAT.Matera and LAMP, Lampedusa in Italy, GAIA, in Portugal, RABT, Rabat, EVPA, Evpatoria in Ukrain and TRAB, Trabson in Turkey) were analyzed using wavelet analysis in order to detect any frequency dependence of the correlation of TEC over different stations. In the same time frequency dependence of Dst and TEC variations are searched in order to detect any correlation. The main conclusion of this analysis is that the constituents of TEC variation with periods <3h are more suitable in searching for earthquake precursors. On the base of this conclusion the analyzed TEC series are searched for possible precursory phenomena. Variation in TEC constituents with periods <3h over the stations AUT1 and TUC2 occurred ±10days of the seismic activity may be attributed to this tectonic activity.

  17. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activities on streamflow variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianxia; Zhang, Hongxue; Wang, Yimin; Zhu, Yuelu

    2016-04-01

    Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impact of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impact on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resource management. By using an elasticity-based method and calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrological models, we quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activities and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in the Jinghe basin, located in the northwest of China. This is an important watershed of the Shaanxi province that supplies drinking water for a population of over 6 million people. The results showed that the maximum value of the moisture index (E0/P) was 1.91 and appeared in 1991-2000, and the decreased speed of streamflow was higher since 1990 compared with 1960-1990. The average annual streamflow from 1990 to 2010 was reduced by 26.96 % compared with the multiyear average value (from 1960 to 2010). The estimates of the impacts of climate variability and human activities on streamflow decreases from the hydrological models were similar to those from the elasticity-based method. The maximum contribution value of human activities was 99 % when averaged over the three methods, and appeared in 1981-1990 due to the effects of soil and water conservation measures and irrigation water withdrawal. Climate variability made the greatest contribution to streamflow reduction in 1991-2000, the values of which was 40.4 %. We emphasized various source of errors and uncertainties that may occur in the hydrological model (parameter and structural uncertainty) and elasticity-based method (model parameter) in climate change impact studies.

  18. Phenotypic variation in metabolism and morphology correlating with animal swimming activity in the wild: relevance for the OCLTT (oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance), allocation and performance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    H in the aquatic environment. The hypothesis remains controversial, however, and has been questioned in several studies. A positive relationship between aerobic metabolic scope and animal activity would be consistent with the OCLTT but has rarely been tested. Moreover, the performance model and the allocation...... model predict positive and negative relationships, respectively, between standard metabolic rate and activity. Finally, animal activity could be affected by individual morphology because of covariation with cost of transport. Therefore, we hypothesized that individual variation in activity is correlated...... with variation in metabolism and morphology. To test this prediction, we captured 23 wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a lake, tagged them with telemetry transmitters, measured standard and maximal metabolic rates, aerobic metabolic scope and fineness ratio and returned the fish to the lake to quantify...

  19. Differences in Muscle Activity During Cable Resistance Training Are Influenced by Variations in Handle Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Héctor M; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebeca C; Romero, Matthew A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-07-01

    Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HM, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Romero, MA, and Signorile, JF. Differences in muscle activity during cable resistance training are influenced by variations in handle types. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2001-2009, 2016-There has been a recent resurgence in the use of cable machines for resistance training allowing movements that more effectively simulate daily activities and sports-specific movements. By necessity, these devices require a machine/human interface through some type of handle. Considerable data from material handling, industrial engineering, and exercise training studies indicate that handle qualities, especially size and shape, can significantly influence force production and muscular activity, particularly of the forearm muscles, which affect the critical link in activities that require object manipulation. The purpose for this study was to examine the influence of three different handle conditions: standard handle (StandH), ball handle with the cable between the index and middle fingers (BallIM), and ball handle with the cable between the middle and ring fingers (BallMR), on activity levels (rmsEMG) of the triceps brachii lateral and long heads (TriHLat, TriHLong), brachioradialis (BR), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum (ED) during eight repetitions of standing triceps pushdown performed from 90° to 0° elbow flexion at 1.5 s per contractile stage. Handle order was randomized. No significant differences were seen for triceps or BR rmsEMG across handle conditions; however, relative patterns of activation did vary for the forearm muscles by handle condition, with more coordinated activation levels for the FCR and ED during the ball handle conditions. In addition, the rmsEMG for the ED was significantly higher during the BallIM than any other condition and during the BallMR than the StandH. These results indicate that the use of ball handles with the cable passing between different fingers

  20. Differences in Muscle Activity During Cable Resistance Training Are Influenced by Variations in Handle Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Héctor M; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebeca C; Romero, Matthew A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-07-01

    Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HM, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Romero, MA, and Signorile, JF. Differences in muscle activity during cable resistance training are influenced by variations in handle types. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2001-2009, 2016-There has been a recent resurgence in the use of cable machines for resistance training allowing movements that more effectively simulate daily activities and sports-specific movements. By necessity, these devices require a machine/human interface through some type of handle. Considerable data from material handling, industrial engineering, and exercise training studies indicate that handle qualities, especially size and shape, can significantly influence force production and muscular activity, particularly of the forearm muscles, which affect the critical link in activities that require object manipulation. The purpose for this study was to examine the influence of three different handle conditions: standard handle (StandH), ball handle with the cable between the index and middle fingers (BallIM), and ball handle with the cable between the middle and ring fingers (BallMR), on activity levels (rmsEMG) of the triceps brachii lateral and long heads (TriHLat, TriHLong), brachioradialis (BR), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum (ED) during eight repetitions of standing triceps pushdown performed from 90° to 0° elbow flexion at 1.5 s per contractile stage. Handle order was randomized. No significant differences were seen for triceps or BR rmsEMG across handle conditions; however, relative patterns of activation did vary for the forearm muscles by handle condition, with more coordinated activation levels for the FCR and ED during the ball handle conditions. In addition, the rmsEMG for the ED was significantly higher during the BallIM than any other condition and during the BallMR than the StandH. These results indicate that the use of ball handles with the cable passing between different fingers

  1. New active drugs against liver stages of Plasmodium predicted by molecular topology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, N.; Garcia-Domenech, R.; Galvez, J.; Farhati, K.; Franetich, J.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Hannoun, L.; Derouin, F.; Danis, M.; Mazier, D.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study based on a database of 127 compounds previously tested against the liver stage of Plasmodium yoelii in order to develop a model capable of predicting the in vitro antimalarial activities of new compounds. Topological indices we

  2. Prediction of in vitro and in vivo oestrogen receptor activity using hierarchical clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, hierarchical clustering classification models were developed to predict in vitro and in vivo oestrogen receptor (ER) activity. Classification models were developed for binding, agonist, and antagonist in vitro ER activity and for mouse in vivo uterotrophic ER bindi...

  3. In normal human fibroblasts variation in DSB repair capacity cannot be ascribed to radiation-induced changes in the localisation, expression or activity of major NHEJ proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Vronskaja, Svetlana; Overgaard, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to test whether for normal human fibroblasts the variation in double-strand break (DSB) repair capacity results from radiation-induced differences in localisation, expression or activity of major non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) proteins...... in the nucleus with no detectable amount in the cytoplasm. This distribution was not altered upon irradiation. In non-irradiated cells the level of these proteins varied with a CV ranging between 16% and 20%, but there was no correlation with the respective cellular DSB repair capacity. Irradiation (3.5 and 15Gy...... in the activity of the DNA-PK complex induced upon irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: For normal human fibroblasts, the level or activity of NHEJ proteins measured prior to or after irradiation cannot be used to predict the DSB repair capacity or cellular radiosensitivity. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  4. Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

    2009-11-11

    The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries.

  5. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail; Przybylski, Roman

    2008-06-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from aerial parts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) as affected by four seasonal, namely summer, autumn, winter and spring growing variation were investigated. The hydro-distilled essential oils content ranged from 0.5% to 0.8%, the maximum amounts were observed in winter while minimum in summer. The essential oils consisted of linalool as the most abundant component (56.7-60.6%), followed by epi-α-cadinol (8.6-11.4%), α-bergamotene (7.4-9.2%) and γ-cadinene (3.2-5.4%). Samples collected in winter were found to be richer in oxygenated monoterpenes (68.9%), while those of summer were higher in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (24.3%). The contents of most of the chemical constituents varied significantly (pMucor mucedo, Fusarium solani, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus solani was assessed by disc diffusion method and measurement of determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. The results of antimicrobial assays indicated that all the tested microorganisms were affected. Both the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the oils varied significantly (p<0.05), as seasons changed.

  6. Variation of North-South Asymmetry of Solar Flare Index and Associated Solar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. BHATTACHARYA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The unequal distributions of various aspects of solar activity between the north and south hemisphere of the Sun have been reported in the paper. When we consider north and south asymmetries of both sunspot area and solar flare indices over the cycles 20 to 23 it is noted that (i there are large variations both in northern and southern sunspot areas, (ii both hemispheres have an asymmetric behavior in terms of a solar activity measure, (iiisunspot areas in northern and southern hemispheres exhibit 11 year periodicity when they were analyzed separately, (iv asymmetry at the end of prolonged cycle 23 is unusually high, (v the northern hemisphere is dominant up to 2001 but thereafter the southern hemisphere takes over from 2002 to the end of solar cycle 23 and then the northern hemisphere dominates in the beginning of cycle 24, (vi yearly plot of flare index reveals that the northern and southern hemisphere is not in phase wherein the northern hemisphere leads in phase by 2 years with two adjacent peaks.

  7. Task-free MRI predicts individual differences in brain activity during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavor, I; Parker Jones, O; Mars, R B; Smith, S M; Behrens, T E; Jbabdi, S

    2016-04-01

    When asked to perform the same task, different individuals exhibit markedly different patterns of brain activity. This variability is often attributed to volatile factors, such as task strategy or compliance. We propose that individual differences in brain responses are, to a large degree, inherent to the brain and can be predicted from task-independent measurements collected at rest. Using a large set of task conditions, spanning several behavioral domains, we train a simple model that relates task-independent measurements to task activity and evaluate the model by predicting task activation maps for unseen subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. Our model can accurately predict individual differences in brain activity and highlights a coupling between brain connectivity and function that can be captured at the level of individual subjects.

  8. TEC variations during low solar activity period (2005-2007) near the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly Crest region in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagiya, Mala S.; Joshi, H. P.; Iyer, K. N.; Aggarwal, M.; Ravindran, S.; Pathan, B. M.

    2009-03-01

    The dual frequency signals from the GPS satellites recorded at Rajkot (22.29° N, 70.74° E, Geographic, 14.03° N Geomagnetic) near the Equatorial ionization anomaly crest in India have been analyzed to study the ionospheric variations in terms of Total Electron Content (TEC) for the low solar activity period from April 2005 to December 2007. In this study, we describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of TEC, solar activity dependence of TEC and effects of a space weather related event, a geomagnetic storm on TEC. The diurnal variation of TEC shows pre-dawn minimum for a short period of time, followed by a steep early morning increase and then reaches maximum value between 14:00 LT and 16:00 LT. The mean diurnal variations during different seasons are brought out. It is found that TEC at Rajkot is at its maximum during Equinoctial months (March, April, September, October), and minimum during the Winter months (November, December, January, February), with intermediate values during Summer months (May, June, July, August), showing a semi annual variation. TEC values have been decreasing since 2005, onwards showing positive correlation with solar activity. TEC variations during the geomagnetic storm commencing 24 August 2005 with Dst=-216 nT are analysed. TEC shows a positive ionospheric storm effect on the first day of the storm and negative ionospheric storm effect on the next day. The equatorial Electrojet control on the development of the equatorial anomaly is also demonstrated.

  9. Variation of Floods Characteristics and Their Responses to Climate and Human Activities in Poyang Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianghu; ZHANG Qi

    2015-01-01

    The Poyang Lake is one of the most frequently flooded areas in China.Understanding the changing characteristics of floods as well as the affecting factors is an important prerequisite of flood disaster prevention and mitigation.The present study identified the characteristics variations of historical floods in the Poyang Lake and their tendencies based on the Mann-Kendall (M-K) test,and also investigated the related affecting factors,both from climate and human activities.The results revealed that the highest flood stages,duration as well as hazard coefficient of floods showed a long-term increasing linear trend during the last 60 years with the M-K statistic of 1.49,1.60 and 1.50,respectively.And,a slightly increasing linear trend in the timing of the highest stages indicated the floods occurred later and later during the last six decades.The rainfall during the flood season and subsequent discharges of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River and runoff from the Poyang Lake Basin were mainly responsible for the severe flood situation in the Poyang Lake in the 1990s.In addition,the intensive human activities,including land reclamation and levee construction,also played a supplementary role in increasing severity of major floods.While,the fewer floods in the Poyang Lake after 2000 can be attributed to not only the less rainfall over the Poyang Lake Basin and low discharges of the Changjiang River during flood periods,but also the stronger influences of human activity which increased the floodwater storage of the Poyang Lake than before.

  10. Variations in ectoenzymatic hydrolytic activity in an oligotrophic environment (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, W Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Cristina; Castellano, Michela; Ruggieri, Nicoletta; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2008-09-01

    The variations in the expression of two hydrolytic ectoenzymes (leucine aminopeptidase - LA - and β glucosidase — BG) were studied in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea during spring 2004. This area is characterised by a complex morphology and hydrodynamism, which generate significant differences between different sectors, particularly in the 0-100 m layer. However, the area generally exhibits oligotrophic features such as low autotrophic pigment and organic matter concentrations and a higher bacterial biomass than the phytoplanktonic one. Despite this general bottom-up pressure, adaptations by the microbial consumers were indicated by the ectoenzymatic activities and by the relationships between the enzymes, their organic substrates and their producers (namely the bacteria). In particular, bacteria were able to exploit the inorganic N supply (nitrite + nitrate provided by irregular intrusions of intermediate waters) to escape the bottom-up limitation and produce enzymes such as BG devoted to the degradation of cellulose remnants and, therefore, also able to take advantage on this refractory organic matter. In the 200-800 m layer, where trophic limitation was strong due to the low values of potentially-labile organic matter (namely proteins), the peculiar hydrodynamism led to the formation of nepheloid layers rich in organic matter, which provided the bacteria with substrates and allowed the development of a significant correlation between LA activity and its own organic substrate. Furthermore, a reduction of the bottom-up pressure was also indicated by a higher mean bacteria cell size in the entire water column of the central and eastern sectors, and a significantly increased expression of BG related to the increase in the cell size. The ectoenzymatic activities, therefore, suggested that the southern Tyrrhenian Sea should be considered as a mosaic of subsystems, where the peculiar hydrological features stimulate bacterial adaptations and enhance the channelling of

  11. Application of Artificial Intelligence to the Prediction of the Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynac, Mathieu; Cortes-Cabrera, Alvaro; Prieto, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are vastly used as natural antibiotics in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Their intrinsic chemical variability and synergisms/antagonisms between its components make difficult to ensure consistent effects through different batches. Our aim is to evaluate the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of their antimicrobial activity. Methods. The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of 49 EOs, extracts, and/or fractions was extracted from NCCLS compliant works. The fast artificial neural networks (FANN) software was used and the output data reflected the antimicrobial activity of these EOs against four common pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Clostridium perfringens as measured by standardised disk diffusion assays. Results. ANNs were able to predict >70% of the antimicrobial activities within a 10 mm maximum error range. Similarly, ANNs were able to predict 2 or 3 different bioactivities at the same time. The accuracy of the prediction was only limited by the inherent errors of the popular antimicrobial disk susceptibility test and the nature of the pathogens. Conclusions. ANNs can be reliable, fast, and cheap tools for the prediction of the antimicrobial activity of EOs thus improving their use in CAM.

  12. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Cheval

    Full Text Available Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91 completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA and sedentary behaviors (IASB. Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a positively predicted by IAPA, (b negatively predicted by IASB, and (c was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined.

  13. Structure-Functional Study of Tyrosine and Methionine Dipeptides: An Approach to Antioxidant Activity Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Torkova; Olga Koroleva; Ekaterina Khrameeva; Tatyana Fedorova; Mikhail Tsentalovich

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chemical methods allow screening and prediction of peptide antioxidant activity on the basis of known experimental data. It can be used to design the selective proteolysis of protein sources in order to obtain products with antioxidant activity. Molecular geometry and electronic descriptors of redox-active amino acids, as well as tyrosine and methionine-containing dipeptides, were studied by Density Functional Theory method. The calculated data was used to reveal several descriptors r...

  14. Early prediction of movie box office success based on Wikipedia activity big data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Mestyán

    Full Text Available Use of socially generated "big data" to access information about collective states of the minds in human societies has become a new paradigm in the emerging field of computational social science. A natural application of this would be the prediction of the society's reaction to a new product in the sense of popularity and adoption rate. However, bridging the gap between "real time monitoring" and "early predicting" remains a big challenge. Here we report on an endeavor to build a minimalistic predictive model for the financial success of movies based on collective activity data of online users. We show that the popularity of a movie can be predicted much before its release by measuring and analyzing the activity level of editors and viewers of the corresponding entry to the movie in Wikipedia, the well-known online encyclopedia.

  15. Early Prediction of Movie Box Office Success based on Wikipedia Activity Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mestyán, Márton; Kertész, János

    2012-01-01

    Use of socially generated "big data" to access information about collective states of the minds in human societies becomes a new paradigm in the emerging field of computational social science. One of the natural application of this would be prediction of the society's reaction to a new product in the sense of popularity and adoption rate. However, bridging between "real time monitoring" and "early predicting" remains as a big challenge. Here, we report on an endeavor to build a minimalistic predictive model for the financial success of movies based on collective activity data of online users. We show that the popularity of a movie could be predicted well in advance by measuring and analyzing the activity level of editors and viewers of the corresponding entry to the movie in Wikipedia, the well-known online encyclopedia.

  16. Predicting the activation states of the muscles governing upper esophageal sphincter relaxation and opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Taher I; Jones, Corinne A; Hammer, Michael J; Cock, Charles; Dinning, Philip; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Costa, Marcello; McCulloch, Timothy M

    2016-03-15

    The swallowing muscles that influence upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening are centrally controlled and modulated by sensory information. Activation and deactivation of neural inputs to these muscles, including the intrinsic cricopharyngeus (CP) and extrinsic submental (SM) muscles, results in their mechanical activation or deactivation, which changes the diameter of the lumen, alters the intraluminal pressure, and ultimately reduces or promotes flow of content. By measuring the changes in diameter, using intraluminal impedance, and the concurrent changes in intraluminal pressure, it is possible to determine when the muscles are passively or actively relaxing or contracting. From these "mechanical states" of the muscle, the neural inputs driving the specific motor behaviors of the UES can be inferred. In this study we compared predictions of UES mechanical states directly with the activity measured by electromyography (EMG). In eight subjects, pharyngeal pressure and impedance were recorded in parallel with CP- and SM-EMG activity. UES pressure and impedance swallow profiles correlated with the CP-EMG and SM-EMG recordings, respectively. Eight UES muscle states were determined by using the gradient of pressure and impedance with respect to time. Guided by the level and gradient change of EMG activity, mechanical states successfully predicted the activity of the CP muscle and SM muscle independently. Mechanical state predictions revealed patterns consistent with the known neural inputs activating the different muscles during swallowing. Derivation of "activation state" maps may allow better physiological and pathophysiological interpretations of UES function.

  17. Comparison between measured and predicted resting metabolic rate in moderately active adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo A; Bertini, I; Puijia, A; Testolin, G; Testolin, C

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to check the validity of predictive equations for the calculation of resting metabolic rate (RMR) in moderately active adolescents. The RMR was measured in a sample of 25 healthy 15.5-18.2-year-old boys practicing soccer. The RMR was assessed by indirect calorimetry for 30 min following an overnight fast. Body composition was estimated from skinfold thickness measurements. Among the available equations to predict RMR, we decided to use those a of Molnar et al., Harris-Benedict, Schofield, and Cunningham. Measured and predicted values were compared by means of a one-way ANOVA. Also the Bland-Altman test was performed in order to evaluate the accuracy of the prediction equations compared to the measured value. The measured RMR was found to be 1834 +/- 160 kcal/day (mean +/- SD), while the Molnar et al., Schofield, Harris-Benedict, and Cunningham predicted values were 1707 +/- 78, 1866 +/- 89, 1779 +/- 84 and 1830 +/- 87 kcal/day, respectively. On average, compared to the measured values only the Molnar et al. equation differed significantly. On an individual basis, all the equations demonstrated considerable variability between measured and predicted RMRs. The predicted values also differed significantly. As regards the moderately active subjects (16-18 years old), we recommend the use of the Schofield equation, based on simple anthropometric parameters and also that of Cunningham, even if the estimation or measurement of fat-free mass may be cumbersome for everyday pediatric use. PMID:10664318

  18. Evaluation of Interindividual Human Variation in Bioactivation and DNA Adduct Formation of Estragole in Liver Predicted by Physiologically Based Kinetic/Dynamic and Monte Carlo Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Ans; Paini, Alicia; Spenkelink, Albertus; Scholz, Gabriele; Schilter, Benoit; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2016-04-18

    Estragole is a known hepatocarcinogen in rodents at high doses following metabolic conversion to the DNA-reactive metabolite 1'-sulfooxyestragole. The aim of the present study was to model possible levels of DNA adduct formation in (individual) humans upon exposure to estragole. This was done by extending a previously defined PBK model for estragole in humans to include (i) new data on interindividual variation in the kinetics for the major PBK model parameters influencing the formation of 1'-sulfooxyestragole, (ii) an equation describing the relationship between 1'-sulfooxyestragole and DNA adduct formation, (iii) Monte Carlo modeling to simulate interindividual human variation in DNA adduct formation in the population, and (iv) a comparison of the predictions made to human data on DNA adduct formation for the related alkenylbenzene methyleugenol. Adequate model predictions could be made, with the predicted DNA adduct levels at the estimated daily intake of estragole of 0.01 mg/kg bw ranging between 1.6 and 8.8 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides (nts) (50th and 99th percentiles, respectively). This is somewhat lower than values reported in the literature for the related alkenylbenzene methyleugenol in surgical human liver samples. The predicted levels seem to be below DNA adduct levels that are linked with tumor formation by alkenylbenzenes in rodents, which were estimated to amount to 188-500 adducts per 10(8) nts at the BMD10 values of estragole and methyleugenol. Although this does not seem to point to a significant health concern for human dietary exposure, drawing firm conclusions may have to await further validation of the model's predictions. PMID:26952143

  19. TEC variations during low solar activity period (2005–2007) near the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly Crest region in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bagiya, Mala S.; H. P. Joshi; Iyer, K. N.; Aggarwal, M; Ravindran, S.; B. M. Pathan

    2009-01-01

    The dual frequency signals from the GPS satellites recorded at Rajkot (22.29° N, 70.74° E, Geographic, 14.03° N Geomagnetic) near the Equatorial ionization anomaly crest in India have been analyzed to study the ionospheric variations in terms of Total Electron Content (TEC) for the low solar activity period from April 2005 to December 2007. In this study, we describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of TEC, solar activity dependence of TEC and effects of a space weather related...

  20. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL.

  1. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this study......, we investigate the role of gender as a factor that contributes to eye colour variation and suggest that the gender effect on eye colour is population specific. A total of 230 Italian individuals were typed for the six IrisPlex SNPs (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs12896399, rs1393350, rs16891982 and rs...... eye colour independently of ancestry. Furthermore, we found gender to be significantly associated with quantitative eye colour measurements in the Italian population sample. We found that the association was statistically significant only among Italian individuals typed as heterozygote GA for HERC2 rs...

  2. Semi-active model predictive control for 3rd generation benchmark problem using smart dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Guiyun; Sun Bingnan; Lü Yanping

    2007-01-01

    A semi-active strategy for model predictive control (MPC), in which magneto-rheological dampers are used as an actuator, is presented for use in reducing the nonlinear seismic response of high-rise buildings. A multi-step predictive model is developed to estimate the seismic performance of high-rise buildings, taking into account of the effects of nonlinearity, time-variability, model mismatching, and disturbances and uncertainty of controlled system parameters by the predicted error feedback in the multi-step predictive model. Based on the predictive model, a Kalman-Bucy observer suitable for semi-active strategy is proposed to estimate the state vector from the acceleration and semi-active control force feedback.The main advantage of the proposed strategy is its inherent stability, simplicity, on-line real-time operation, and the ability to handle nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time-variability properties of structures. Numerical simulation of the nonlinear seismic responses of a controlled 20-story benchmark building is carried out, and the simulation results are compared to those of other control systems. The results show that the developed semi-active strategy can efficiently reduce the nonlinear seismic response of high-rise buildings.

  3. A note on periodicity of long-term variations of optical continuum in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai-Xing; Li, Yan-Rong; Bi, Shao-Lan; Wang, Jian-Min

    2016-06-01

    Graham et al. found a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) that have long-term periodic variations in optical continuum. The nature of the periodicity remains uncertain. We investigate the periodic variability characteristics of the sample by testing the relations of the observed variability periods with AGN optical luminosity, black hole mass and accretion rates, and find no significant correlations. We also test the observed periods in several different aspects related to accretion discs surrounding single black holes, such as the Keplerian rotational periods of 5100 Å photon-emission regions and self-gravity dominated regions and the precessing period of warped discs. These tests shed new lights on understanding AGN variability in general. Under the assumption that the periodic behaviour is associated with supermassive black hole binary systems in particular, we compare the separations (r {D}_{bullet }) against characteristic radii of broad-line regions (R_riptscriptstyle BLR) of the binaries and find r {D}_{bullet }≈ 0.05R_riptscriptstyle BLR. This interestingly implies that these binaries have only circumbinary BLRs.

  4. Nitrate reductase activity and its diurnal variation rhythm for Camptotheca acuminata seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNShi-qin; YANXiu-feng

    2004-01-01

    Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in different plant organs and leaves in different positions of Camptotheca acuminata seedlings was determined by an In vivo assay, the diurnal variation rhythm of NRA in leaves of different positions was observed,and the correlations between leaf NRA, leaf area and lamina mass per unit area (LMA) were also examined. The results showed that NRA in the leaf was significantly highest, compared with that in other organs such as roots, stems and leaves. In this experiment, the 10 leaves were selected from the apex to the base of the seedlings in order. The different NRA occurred obviously in leaves of different positions of C. acuminata seedlings from the apex to the base, and NRA was higher in the 4th-6th leaves.The diurnal change rhythm of leaf NRA showed a one peak curve, and maximum NRA value appeared at about midday (at 12:30 or so). No obvious correlations between NRA and leaf area or lamina mass per unit area were observed. This study offered scientific foundation for the further research on nitrogen metabolism of C. acuminata.

  5. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through stiffness variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of a noise radiating element is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating element is tuned by a plurality of force transmitting mechanisms which contact the noise radiating element. Each one of the force transmitting mechanisms includes an expandable element and a spring in contact with the noise radiating element so that excitation of the element varies the spring force applied to the noise radiating element. The elements are actuated by a controller which receives input of a signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the elements and causes the spring force applied to the noise radiating element to be varied. The force transmitting mechanisms can be arranged to either produce bending or linear stiffness variations in the noise radiating element.

  6. Long-time temperature variations in Portugal over the last 140 years and the effect of the solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Morozova, A L; Pais, M A

    2010-01-01

    We present the analysis of temperature variations in Portugal for 140 years (from 1865 to 2005). The two stations with the longest time series of temperature measurements (Lisbon and Coimbra) have been used to study the dependence of the portuguese climate variations on the changes of both global circulation and solar activity. Monthly averaged temperature series have been analyzed together with monthly North-Atlantic Oscillation index data, sunspot numbers and cosmic ray flux intensity. Different statistical methods (the correlation analysis and the multiple regression analysis) were used. Our results show that the temperature in Portugal depends not only on the atmospheric variations in the studied region but also on the variations of the solar parameters such as sunspot numbers and the cosmic rays flux intensity. Also, the dependence of temperature on solar parameters is strong during the cold season (November to February), while much weaker during the warm season. For some months, strong correlations betw...

  7. Chemical and microbial components of urban air PM cause seasonal variation of toxicological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I; Happo, Mikko S; Huttunen, Kati; Sillanpää, Markus; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2015-09-01

    The chemical and microbial composition of urban air particulate matter (PM) displays seasonal variation that may affect its harmfulness on human health. We studied the in vitro inflammatory and cellular metabolic activity/cytotoxicity of urban air particulate samples collected in four size-ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1, PM1-0.2, PM0.2) during four seasons in relatively clean urban environment in Helsinki, Finland. The composition of the same samples were analyzed, including ions, elements, PAH compounds and endotoxins. In addition, microbial contribution on the detected responses was studied by inhibiting the endotoxin-induced responses with Polymyxin B both in the PM samples and by two different bacterial strains representing Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was exposed to the size segregated particulate samples as well as to microbe samples for 24h and markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity were analyzed. The toxicological responses were dependent on the dose as well as size range of the particles, PM10-2.5 being the most potent and smaller size ranges having significantly smaller responses. Samples collected during spring and autumn had in most cases the highest inflammatory activity. Soil components and other non-exhaust particulate emissions from road traffic correlated with inflammatory responses in coarse particles. Instead, PAH-compounds and K(+) had negative associations with the particle-induced inflammatory responses in fine particles, suggesting the role of incomplete biomass combustion. Endotoxin content was the highest in PM10-2.5 samples and correspondingly, the largest decrease in the responses by Polymyxin B was seen with the very same samples. We found also that inhibitory effect of Polymyxin B was not completely specific for Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, in addition to endotoxin, also other microbial components may have a significant effect on the toxicological responses by ambient particulate matter.

  8. Variation in Environmentalism among University Students: Majoring in Outdoor Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Predicts Environmental Concerns and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnocky, Steven; Stroink, Mirella L.

    2011-01-01

    In a survey of Canadian university students (N = 205), the relationship between majoring in an outdoor recreation university program and environmental concern, cooperation, and behavior were examined. Stepwise linear regression indicated that enrollment in outdoor recreation was predictive of environmental behavior and ecological cooperation; and…

  9. Phobic anxiety in 11 nations : part II. Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures predict national-level variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, WA; Eisemann, M; Oei, TPS; Caballo, VE; Sanavio, E; Sica, C; Bages, N; Feldman, L; Torres, B; Iwawaki, S; Hatzichristou, C; Castro, J; Canalda, G; Furnham, A; van der Ende, J

    2004-01-01

    Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures termed Masculinity-Femininity (MAS) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) (Hofstede, 2001) are proposed to be of relevance for understanding national-level differences in self-assessed fears. The potential predictive role of national MAS was based on the classica

  10. Integrating Real-time and Manual Monitored Soil Moisture Data to Predict Hillslope Soil Moisture Variations with High Temporal Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Lv, Ligang; Zhou, Zhiwen; Liao, Kaihua

    2016-04-01

    Spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture 15 has been remaining an challenge to be better understood. A trade-off exists between spatial coverage and temporal resolution when using the manual and real-time soil moisture monitoring methods. This restricted the comprehensive and intensive examination of soil moisture dynamics. In this study, we aimed to integrate the manual and real-time monitored soil moisture to depict the hillslope dynamics of soil moisture with good spatial coverage and temporal resolution. Linear (stepwise multiple linear regression-SMLR) and non-linear models (support vector machines-SVM) were used to predict soil moisture at 38 manual sites (collected 1-2 times per month) with soil moisture automatically collected at three real-time monitoring sites (collected every 5 mins). By comparing the accuracies of SMLR and SVM for each manual site, optimal soil moisture prediction model of this site was then determined. Results show that soil moisture at these 38 manual sites can be reliably predicted (root mean square errorswetness index, profile curvature, and relative difference of soil moisture and its standard deviation influenced the selection of prediction model since they related to the dynamics of soil water distribution and movement. By using this approach, hillslope soil moisture spatial distributions at un-sampled times and dates were predicted after a typical rainfall event. Missing information of hillslope soil moisture dynamics was then acquired successfully. This can be benefit for determining the hot spots and moments of soil water movement, as well as designing the proper soil moisture monitoring plan at the field scale.

  11. A thorough analysis of the short- and mid-term activity-related variations in the solar acoustic frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, A R G; Avelino, P P; Chaplin, W J; Campante, T L

    2016-01-01

    The frequencies of the solar acoustic oscillations vary over the activity cycle. The variations in other activity proxies are found to be well correlated with the variations in the acoustic frequencies. However, each proxy has a slightly different time behaviour. Our goal is to characterize the differences between the time behaviour of the frequency shifts and of two other activity proxies, namely, the area covered by sunspots and the 10.7cm flux. We define a new observable that is particularly sensitive to the short-term frequency variations. We then compare the observable when computed from model frequency shifts and from observed frequency shifts obtained with the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) for cycle 23. Our analysis shows that on the shortest time-scales the variations in the frequency shifts seen in the GONG observations are strongly correlated with the variations in the area covered by sunspots. However, a significant loss of correlation is still found. We verify that the times when the fre...

  12. Can the monitoring of animal welfare parameters predict pork meat quality variation through the supply chain (from farm to slaughter)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L M; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Saucier, L; Faucitano, L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the animal welfare conditions evaluated through the supply chain and pork quality variation. A total of 4,680 pigs from 12 farms-5 animal welfare improved raising system (AWIRS) and 7 conventional raising system (CON) farms-were assessed from farm to slaughter through a comprehensive audit protocol merging the European Welfare Quality, the Canadian Animal Care Assessment, and American Meat Institute audit guide criteria. At the abattoir, a subsample of 1,440 pigs (120 pigs/farm) was randomly chosen out of 24 loads (2 farms per wk) transported by 2 drivers (driver A and driver B) for the assessment of stunning effectiveness, carcass bruises, blood lactate levels, and meat quality traits. Meat quality was assessed in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle 24 h postmortem by measuring ultimate pH (pHu), color (L*, a*, and b*), and drip loss. Data were analyzed by the MIXED, GLIMMIX, and NAPAR1WAY procedures of SAS. Spearman correlations were calculated to determine the relationship between audit scores and meat quality traits. Better animal welfare conditions, as showed by greater final scores for good housing (GHo; = 0.001) and good health ( = 0.006) principles, were recorded at AWIRS farms. Pigs from AWIRS farms handled by driver B displayed a greater percentage of turning back ( = 0.01) and slips ( animal welfare audit protocols are important sources of variation in the behavioral response of pigs to preslaughter handling and may affect pork quality variation. However, the different live weight between CON and AWIRS pigs may have biased the meat quality results in this study.

  13. Along strike variation of tremor activities and thermal structures in various subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, S.; Ide, S.; Yoshioka, S.

    2012-12-01

    A family of slow earthquakes, e.g., deep low frequency tremors, low frequency earthquakes (LFEs), very low frequency earthquakes (VLFs) and slow slip events (SSEs), are observed in various subduction zones. These phenomena represent shear slip on the plate interface, and they are thought to be related to brittle-ductile transition behavior on the plate interface because they are often located near the transition zones of interplate coupling estimated from GPS data. Such slip behavior along the plate interface would be controlled by temperature. Furthermore, tremors are considered to be related to fluid dehydrated from the subducting slab, through temperature dependent chemical reactions. Therefore, tremors occurrences are expected to be influenced by temperature, though some studies have questioned about the relationship between tremor activity and temperature. Here we investigate the source locations of deep tremor using an envelope correlation method and compare them with the temperature and shear strength profiles along the plate interface calculated using a numerical model (Yoshioka and Sanshadokoro, 2002). The study areas include New Zealand, southern Chile, and Mexico, where tremor behavior changes significantly along the strike of the plate interface. Investigating such along-strike variation in individual subduction zone may clarify the temperature dependence of tremor because environmental conditions affecting tremor occurrence are similar, unlike the comparison between different subduction zones. In the Hikurangi subduction zone beneath the North Island, New Zealand, the depth of SSE are quite different along the strike, e.g., deeper in the central region and shallower in the northern region (e.g. Wallace and Beavan, 2010). We reanalyze tremors detected by previous studies (Kim et al., 2011; Ide, 2012) to estimate their absolute depth and confirm that tremors in North Island are on the plate interface in both the central and the northern regions. Thermal

  14. A new insight into the nature of seasonal variations in coordinate time series of GPS sites located near active faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimenko, Sergey V.; Bykov, Victor G.; Shestakov, Nikolay V.; Grib, Nikolay N.; Takahashi, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    This study provides new insights into the nature of seasonal variations in coordinate time series of GPS sites located near active faults and methods of their modeling. Monthly averaged coordinate time series were analyzed for several pairs of collocated GPS sites situated near the active fault intersection area, in close proximity to the central part of the northern boundary of the Amurian plate and the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault zone. It is concluded that the observed seasonal variations are best described by a breather function which is one of the solutions of the well-known sine-Gordon equation. The obtained results suggest that, in this case, the source of seasonal variations may be caused by the appearance of solitary strain waves in the fault intersection system, which may be qualitatively treated as standing waves of compression-extension of the geological medium. Based on statistical testing, the limits of applicability of the suggested model have been established.

  15. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced. PMID:27180911

  16. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced.

  17. Variations in first principles calculated defect energies in GaAs and their effect on practical predictions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak; D Balamurugan; K Nandi

    2003-01-01

    There is an abundant literature on calculations of formation and ionization energies of point defects in GaAs. Since most of these energies, especially the formation energies, are difficult to measure, the calculations are primary means of obtaining their values. However, based on the assumptions of the calculations, the reported values differ greatly among the various calculations. In this paper we discuss the sources of errors and their impact on practical predictions valuable in GaAs device fabrication. In particular, we have compared a large set of computed energies and selected the most appropriate values. Then, in the context of GaAs material quality, we investigated the impact of errors in calculation of formation energies on the performance of the GaAs substrate for device fabrication. We find that in spite of the errors inherent in ab initio calculations, it is possible to correctly predict the behaviour of GaAs substrate.

  18. Interindividual Variation in Functionally Adapted Trait Sets Is Established During Postnatal Growth and Predictable Based on Bone Robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Nirnimesh; Bhola, Siddharth; Goldstone, Andrew; Chen, Fred; Chrzanowski, Jessica; Terranova, Carl J.; Ghillani, Richard; Jepsen, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    Adults acquire unique sets of morphological and tissue-quality bone traits that are predictable based on robustness and deterministic of strength and fragility. How and when individual trait sets arise during growth has not been established. Longitudinal structural changes of the metacarpal diaphysis were measured for boys and girls from 3 mo to 8 yr of age using hand radiographs obtained from the Bolton-Brush collection. Robustness varied ∼2-fold among boys and girls, and individual values w...

  19. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,pmusic induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01). PMID:26544602

  20. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,pmusic induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01).

  1. Neural Activities Underlying the Feedback Express Salience Prediction Errors for Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Hu, Xueping; Pan, Weigang; Yang, Chun; Wang, Lijun; Li, Yiyuan; Chen, Antao

    2016-01-01

    Feedback information is essential for us to adapt appropriately to the environment. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), a frontocentral negative deflection after the delivery of feedback, has been found to be larger for outcomes that are worse than expected, and it reflects a reward prediction error derived from the midbrain dopaminergic projections to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as stated in reinforcement learning theory. In contrast, the prediction of response-outcome (PRO) model claims that the neural activity in the mediofrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the ACC, is sensitive to the violation of expectancy, irrespective of the valence of feedback. Additionally, increasing evidence has demonstrated significant activities in the striatum, anterior insula and occipital lobe for unexpected outcomes independently of their valence. Thus, the neural mechanism of the feedback remains under dispute. Here, we investigated the feedback with monetary reward and electrical pain shock in one task via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results revealed significant prediction-error-related activities in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and left cingulate gyrus for both money and pain. This implies that some regions underlying the feedback may signal a salience prediction error rather than a reward prediction error. PMID:27694920

  2. The CR‐Ω+ Classification Algorithm for Spatio‐Temporal Prediction of Criminal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Godoy‐Calderón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a spatio‐temporal prediction model that allows forecasting of the criminal activity behavior in a particular region byusing supervised classification. The degree of membership of each pattern is interpreted as the forecasted increase or decreasein the criminal activity for the specified time and location. The proposed forecasting model (CR‐Ω+ is based on the family ofKora‐Ω Logical‐Combinatorial algorithms operating on large data volumes from several heterogeneous sources using aninductive learning process. We propose several modifications to the original algorithms by Bongard and Baskakova andZhuravlëv which improve the prediction performance on the studied dataset of criminal activity. We perform two analyses:punctual prediction and tendency analysis, which show that it is possible to predict punctually one of four crimes to beperpetrated (crime family, in a specific space and time, and 66% of effectiveness in the prediction of the place of crime, despiteof the noise of the dataset. The tendency analysis yielded an STRMSE (Spatio‐Temporal RMSE of less than 1.0.

  3. Interethnic variation of CYP2C19 alleles, 'predicted' phenotypes and 'measured' metabolic phenotypes across world populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke-Galindo, I; Céspedes-Garro, C; Rodrigues-Soares, F; Naranjo, M E G; Delgado, Á; de Andrés, F; López-López, M; Peñas-Lledó, E; LLerena, A

    2016-04-01

    The present study evaluates the worldwide frequency distribution of CYP2C19 alleles and CYP2C19 metabolic phenotypes ('predicted' from genotypes and 'measured' with a probe drug) among healthy volunteers from different ethnic groups and geographic regions, as well as the relationship between the 'predicted' and 'measured' CYP2C19 metabolic phenotypes. A total of 52 181 healthy volunteers were studied within 138 selected original research papers. CYP2C19*17 was 42- and 24-fold more frequent in Mediterranean-South Europeans and Middle Easterns than in East Asians (PIslands. Regarding CYP2C19 metabolic phenotype, poor metabolizers (PMs) were more frequent among Asians than in Europeans, contrarily to the phenomenon reported for CYP2D6. A correlation has been found between the frequencies of CYP2C19 poor metabolism 'predicted' from CYP2C19 genotypes (gPMs) and the poor metabolic phenotype 'measured' with a probe drug (mPMs) when subjects are either classified by ethnicity (r=0.94, P<0.001) or geographic region (r=0.99, P=0.002). Nevertheless, further research is needed in African and Asian populations, which are under-represented, and additional CYP2C19 variants and the 'measured' phenotype should be studied. PMID:26503820

  4. Structure-Functional Study of Tyrosine and Methionine Dipeptides: An Approach to Antioxidant Activity Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Torkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum chemical methods allow screening and prediction of peptide antioxidant activity on the basis of known experimental data. It can be used to design the selective proteolysis of protein sources in order to obtain products with antioxidant activity. Molecular geometry and electronic descriptors of redox-active amino acids, as well as tyrosine and methionine-containing dipeptides, were studied by Density Functional Theory method. The calculated data was used to reveal several descriptors responsible for the antioxidant capacities of the model compounds based on their experimentally obtained antioxidant capacities against ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate and peroxyl radical. A formula to predict antioxidant activity of peptides was proposed.

  5. A chemometric approach for prediction of antifungal activity of some benzoxazole derivatives against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to promote and facilitate prediction of antifungal activity of the investigated series of benzoxazoles against Candida albicans. The clinical importance of this investigation is to simplify design of new antifungal agents against the fungi which can cause serious illnesses in humans. Quantitative structure activity relationship analysis was applied on nineteen benzoxazole derivatives. A multiple linear regression (MLR procedure was used to model the relationships between the molecular descriptors and the antifungal activity of benzoxazole derivatives. Two mathematical models have been developed as a calibration models for predicting the inhibitory activity of this class of compounds against Candida albicans. The quality of the models was validated by the leave-one-out technique, as well as by the calculation of statistical parameters for the established model. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172012 i br. 172014

  6. Predictions of Unbalanced Response of Turbo Compressor Equipped with Active Magnetic Bearings through System Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, SeongKi; NOh, Myounggyu; Park, Young Woo [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kiwook; Lee, Nam Soo; Jeog, Jinhee [LG Electronics, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Since vibrations in rotating machinery is a direct cause of performance degradation and failures, it is very important to predict the level of vibrations as well as have a method to lower the vibrations to an acceptable level. However, the changes in balancing during installation and the vibrational modes of the support structure are difficult to predict. This paper presents a method for predicting the unbalanced response of a turbo-compressor supported by active magnetic bearings (AMBs). Transfer functions of the rotor are obtained through system identification using AMBs. These transfer functions contain not only the dynamics of the rotor but also the vibrational modes of the support structure. Using these transfer functions, the unbalanced response is calculated and compared with the run-up data obtained from a compressor prototype. The predictions revealed the effects of the support structure, validating the efficacy of the method.

  7. Predicting Kinase Activity in Angiotensin Receptor Phosphoproteomes Based on Sequence-Motifs and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgebo, Rikke; Horn, Heiko; Olsen, Jesper V;

    2014-01-01

    -arrestin dependent signalling. Two complimentary global phosphoproteomics studies have analyzed the complex signalling induced by the AT1aR. Here we integrate the data sets from these studies and perform a joint analysis using a novel method for prediction of differential kinase activity from phosphoproteomics data...... developed a new method for kinase-centric analysis of phosphoproteomes to pinpoint differential kinase activity in large-scale data sets....

  8. Extended XG Equation for the Prediction of Adsorption Equilibrium of Vapor Mixture on Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢自立; 敦坤敏; 吴菊芳; 袁存禾

    2003-01-01

    The XG equation, which is developed by us previously for describing the adsorption equilibrium of pure vapor on activated carbon, is extended to multi-component system. Verified by experimental data, the extended XG equation was found to be more successful in predicting the adsorption equilibrium of vapor mixture on activated carbon than the extended Langmuir equation, the extended BET equation and the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST).

  9. Brain Activity in Valuation Regions while Thinking about the Future Predicts Individual Discount Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W.; Kim, B. Kyu; Zauberman, Gal

    2013-01-01

    People vary widely in how much they discount delayed rewards, yet little is known about the sources of these differences. Here we demonstrate that neural activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and ventral striatum (VS) when human subjects are asked to merely think about the future—specifically, to judge the subjective length of future time intervals—predicts delay discounting. High discounters showed lower activity for longer time delays, while low discounters showed the opposite ...

  10. Predicting active school travel: The role of planned behavior and habit strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtagh Shemane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite strong support for predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior (TPB substantial variance in both intention and behavior is unaccounted for by the model’s predictors. The present study tested the extent to which habit strength augments the predictive validity of the TPB in relation to a currently under-researched behavior that has important health implications, namely children’s active school travel. Method Participants (N = 126 children aged 8–9 years; 59 % males were sampled from five elementary schools in the west of Scotland and completed questionnaire measures of all TPB constructs in relation to walking to school and both walking and car/bus use habit. Over the subsequent week, commuting steps on school journeys were measured objectively using an accelerometer. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to test the predictive utility of the TPB and habit strength in relation to both intention and subsequent behavior. Results The TPB accounted for 41 % and 10 % of the variance in intention and objectively measured behavior, respectively. Together, walking habit and car/bus habit significantly increased the proportion of explained variance in both intention and behavior by 6 %. Perceived behavioral control and both walking and car/bus habit independently predicted intention. Intention and car/bus habit independently predicted behavior. Conclusions The TPB significantly predicts children’s active school travel. However, habit strength augments the predictive validity of the model. The results indicate that school travel is controlled by both intentional and habitual processes. In practice, interventions could usefully decrease the habitual use of motorized transport for travel to school and increase children’s intention to walk (via increases in perceived behavioral control and walking habit, and decreases in car/bus habit. Further research is needed to identify effective

  11. A general model for predicting coolant activity behaviour for fuel-failure monitoring analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Jaby, A., E-mail: Ali.El-Jaby@cnsc-ccsn.gc.c [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Iglesias, F. [Candesco Corporation, 230 Richmond Street West, 10th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, M5V 1V6 (Canada); Ip, M. [Bruce Power, 123 Front Street West, 4th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, M5J 2M2 (Canada)

    2010-04-01

    A mathematical treatment has been developed to predict the release of volatile fission products from operating defective nuclear fuel elements. The fission product activity in both the fuel-to-sheath gap and primary heat transport system as a function of time can be predicted during all reactor operating conditions, including: startup, steady-state, shutdown, and bundle-shifting manoeuvres. In addition, an improved ability to predict the coolant activity of the {sup 135}Xe isotope in commercial reactors is discussed. A method is also proposed to estimate both the burnup and the amount of tramp uranium deposits in-core. The model has been validated against in-reactor experiments conducted with defective fuel elements containing natural and artificial failures at the Chalk River Laboratories. Lastly, the model has been benchmarked against a defective fuel occurrence in a commercial reactor.

  12. A general model for predicting coolant activity behaviour for fuel-failure monitoring analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical treatment has been developed to predict the release of volatile fission products from operating defective nuclear fuel elements. The fission product activity in both the fuel-to-sheath gap and primary heat transport system as a function of time can be predicted during all reactor operating conditions, including: startup, steady-state, shutdown, and bundle-shifting manoeuvres. In addition, an improved ability to predict the coolant activity of the 135Xe isotope in commercial reactors is discussed. A method is also proposed to estimate both the burnup and the amount of tramp uranium deposits in-core. The model has been validated against in-reactor experiments conducted with defective fuel elements containing natural and artificial failures at the Chalk River Laboratories. Lastly, the model has been benchmarked against a defective fuel occurrence in a commercial reactor.

  13. Predicting Atlantic seasonal hurricane activity using outgoing longwave radiation over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Li, Laifang

    2016-07-01

    Seasonal hurricane activity is a function of the amount of initial disturbances (e.g., easterly waves) and the background environment in which they develop into tropical storms (i.e., the main development region). Focusing on the former, a set of indices based solely upon the meridional structure of satellite-derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) over the African continent are shown to be capable of predicting Atlantic seasonal hurricane activity with very high rates of success. Predictions of named storms based on the July OLR field and trained only on the time period prior to the year being predicted yield a success rate of 87%, compared to the success rate of NOAA's August outlooks of 53% over the same period and with the same average uncertainty range (±2). The resulting OLR indices are statistically robust, highly detectable, physically linked to the predictand, and may account for longer-term observed trends.

  14. Influence of sunspot number and magnetic activity on the diurnal variation of the geomagnetic field at mid to high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, R.A. (British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge); Hodder, B.M. (Natural Environment Research Council, Edinburgh (UK). Inst. of Geological Sciences)

    1984-02-01

    The variations of the diurnal range of the geomagnetic field with sunspot number and with magnetic activity was studied at mid and high latitude stations in the northern hemisphere at different seasons. The effect of increasing sunspot number is small at lower latitudes and increases with geomagnetic latitude, while the effect of increasing magnetic activity is to increase the range at all latitudes, very greatly at the higher geomagnetic latitudes.

  15. On the variation of the ionospheric potential due to large-scale radioactivity enhancement and solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyunyaev, Nikolay N.; Mareev, Evgeny A.; Zhidkov, Artem A.

    2015-08-01

    Sensitivity of the global electric circuit (GEC) to variations of atmospheric conductivity and current sources is analyzed and discussed. When the undisturbed exponential conductivity profile is assumed all over the Earth, the most substantial changes in the ionospheric potential (IP) are caused by conductivity perturbations inside thunderstorms; if, in addition, conductivity reduction inside thunderstorms and nonelectrified clouds is assumed, the IP becomes less sensitive to conductivity perturbations; besides, the IP is even more sensitive to source current variations than to conductivity. Current source and voltage source descriptions of GEC generators are compared; it is shown that the IP variation may critically depend on the chosen description. As an application, the IP variation due to nuclear weapons testing is studied; it is shown that neither local nor global increase of conductivity in the stratosphere could alone explain the observed 40% IP increase in the 1960s; at the same time this increase might be accounted for by a 40% increase in the source current density or a 46% reduction of the conductivity inside thunderstorms, provided that it was not reduced initially. The IP variation due to solar activity and, in particular, due to solar modulation of galactic cosmic ray flux is also discussed and modeled, which required an adequate parameterization of the rate of atmospheric ion pair production over the solar cycle. It is estimated that the maximum IP variation on the scale of the solar cycle does not exceed 5% of the mean value, unless source current perturbations are taken into account.

  16. Role of parent literacy and numeracy expectations and activities in predicting early numeracy skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Kleemans, M.A.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    The home numeracy environment (i.e., parents' numeracy expectations and activities), is related to early numeracy in young children. As recent studies have shown that both cognitive and linguistic factors play an important role in predicting numeracy development, it may be assumed that rather than t

  17. Role of Parent Literacy and Numeracy Expectations and Activities in Predicting Early Numeracy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Eliane; Kleemans, Tijs; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    The home numeracy environment (i.e., parents' numeracy expectations and activities), is related to early numeracy in young children. As recent studies have shown that both cognitive and linguistic factors play an important role in predicting numeracy development, it may be assumed that rather than the home "numeracy" environment, the…

  18. M-ficolin levels reflect disease activity and predict remission in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Christian Gytz; Thiel, Steffen; Jensenius, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    To assess plasma M-ficolin concentrations in disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to investigate the correlation of M-ficolin concentrations with disease activity markers, and to determine the predictive value of M-ficolin with respect ...

  19. Prediction of muscle activities from electrocorticograms in primary motor cortex of primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk Shin

    Full Text Available Electrocorticography (ECoG has drawn attention as an effective recording approach for brain-machine interfaces (BMI. Previous studies have succeeded in classifying movement intention and predicting hand trajectories from ECoG. Despite such successes, however, there still remains considerable work for the realization of ECoG-based BMIs as neuroprosthetics. We developed a method to predict multiple muscle activities from ECoG measurements. We also verified that ECoG signals are effective for predicting muscle activities in time varying series when performing sequential movements. ECoG signals were band-pass filtered into separate sensorimotor rhythm bands, z-score normalized, and smoothed with a Gaussian filter. We used sparse linear regression to find the best fit between frequency bands of ECoG and electromyographic activity. The best average correlation coefficient and the normalized root-mean-square error were 0.92±0.06 and 0.06±0.10, respectively, in the flexor digitorum profundus finger muscle. The δ (1.5∼4Hz and γ2 (50∼90Hz bands contributed significantly more strongly than other frequency bands (P<0.001. These results demonstrate the feasibility of predicting muscle activity from ECoG signals in an online fashion.

  20. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor for Risk Prediction in Patients Admitted with Acute Chest Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Andersson, Charlotte; Marott, Jacob L;

    2013-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) predict mortality in several clinical settings, but the long-term prognostic importance of suPAR in chest pain patients admitted on suspicion of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) is uncertain....

  1. Early Prediction of Outcome of Activities of Daily Living After Stroke A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Janne M.; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E. H.; Ket, Johannes C. F.; Heymans, Martijn W.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Knowledge about robust and unbiased factors that predict outcome of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount in stroke management. This review investigates the methodological quality of prognostic studies in the early poststroke phase for final ADL to identify variables t

  2. Testing Predictions of the Interactive Activation Model in Recovery from Aphasia after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokel, Regina; Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of pre- and post-treatment error analysis from an aphasic patient with anomia. The Interactive Activation (IA) model of word production (Dell, Schwartz, Martin, Saffran, & Gagnon, 1997) is utilized to make predictions about the anticipated changes on a picture naming task and to explain emerging patterns.…

  3. Factors of Participants and Blogs That Predict Blogging Activeness during Teaching Practice and Induction Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luik, Piret; Taimalu, Merle

    2016-01-01

    The blog as a type of social software has been used in education for several years, and its positive effect in the field has been asserted in many studies. This study presents the factors of participants and blogs that predict blogging activeness during teaching practice and induction year. During the teaching practice and induction year all…

  4. Consensus Modeling for Prediction of Estrogenic Activity of Ingredients Commonly Used in Sunscreen Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreen products are predominantly regulated as over-the-counter (OTC drugs by the US FDA. The “active” ingredients function as ultraviolet filters. Once a sunscreen product is generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE via an OTC drug review process, new formulations using these ingredients do not require FDA review and approval, however, the majority of ingredients have never been tested to uncover any potential endocrine activity and their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER is unknown, despite the fact that this is a very extensively studied target related to endocrine activity. Consequently, we have developed an in silico model to prioritize single ingredient estrogen receptor activity for use when actual animal data are inadequate, equivocal, or absent. It relies on consensus modeling to qualitatively and quantitatively predict ER binding activity. As proof of concept, the model was applied to ingredients commonly used in sunscreen products worldwide and a few reference chemicals. Of the 32 chemicals with unknown ER binding activity that were evaluated, seven were predicted to be active estrogenic compounds. Five of the seven were confirmed by the published data. Further experimental data is needed to confirm the other two predictions.

  5. North-south asymmetry in solar activity: predicting the amplitude of the next solar cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Javaraiah, J

    2007-01-01

    Using Greenwich and SOON sunspot group data during the period 1874 -- 2005, we find that the sums of the areas of the sunspot groups in $0^\\circ$ -- $10^\\circ$ latitude-interval of the Sun's northern hemisphere and in the time-interval, minus 1.35 year to plus 2.15 year from the time of the preceding minimum--and in the same latitude interval of the southern hemisphere but plus 1.0 year to plus 1.75 year from the time of the maximum--of a sunspot cycle are well correlating with the amplitude (maximum of the smoothed monthly sunspot number) of its immediate following cycle. Using this relationship it is possible to predict the amplitude of a sunspot cycle by about 9 -- 13 years in advance. We predicted $74 \\pm 10$ for the amplitude of the upcoming cycle~24. Variations in solar meridional flows during solar cycles and 9 -- 16 year variations in solar equatorial rotation may be responsible for the aforementioned relationship.

  6. Broad climatological variation of surface energy balance partitioning across land and ocean predicted from the maximum power limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Chirag; Renner, Maik; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-07-01

    Longwave radiation and turbulent heat fluxes are the mechanisms by which the Earth's surface transfers heat into the atmosphere, thus affecting the surface temperature. However, the energy partitioning between the radiative and turbulent components is poorly constrained by energy and mass balances alone. We use a simple energy balance model with the thermodynamic limit of maximum power as an additional constraint to determine this partitioning. Despite discrepancies over tropical oceans, we find that the broad variation of heat fluxes and surface temperatures in the ERA-Interim reanalyzed observations can be recovered from this approach. The estimates depend considerably on the formulation of longwave radiative transfer, and a spatially uniform offset is related to the assumed cold temperature sink at which the heat engine operates. Our results suggest that the steady state surface energy partitioning may reflect the maximum power constraint.

  7. Can the monitoring of animal welfare parameters predict pork meat quality variation through the supply chain (from farm to slaughter)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L M; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Saucier, L; Faucitano, L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the animal welfare conditions evaluated through the supply chain and pork quality variation. A total of 4,680 pigs from 12 farms-5 animal welfare improved raising system (AWIRS) and 7 conventional raising system (CON) farms-were assessed from farm to slaughter through a comprehensive audit protocol merging the European Welfare Quality, the Canadian Animal Care Assessment, and American Meat Institute audit guide criteria. At the abattoir, a subsample of 1,440 pigs (120 pigs/farm) was randomly chosen out of 24 loads (2 farms per wk) transported by 2 drivers (driver A and driver B) for the assessment of stunning effectiveness, carcass bruises, blood lactate levels, and meat quality traits. Meat quality was assessed in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle 24 h postmortem by measuring ultimate pH (pHu), color (L*, a*, and b*), and drip loss. Data were analyzed by the MIXED, GLIMMIX, and NAPAR1WAY procedures of SAS. Spearman correlations were calculated to determine the relationship between audit scores and meat quality traits. Better animal welfare conditions, as showed by greater final scores for good housing (GHo; = 0.001) and good health ( = 0.006) principles, were recorded at AWIRS farms. Pigs from AWIRS farms handled by driver B displayed a greater percentage of turning back ( = 0.01) and slips ( < 0.001) during unloading and a greater ( = 0.02) frequency of falls in the stunning chute. A greater ( = 0.02) reluctance to move at loading was found in CON pigs loaded by driver A compared with driver B, whereas a greater ( < 0.001) reluctance to move was found in these pigs at unloading when they were unloaded by driver B. Drip loss was higher ( = 0.003) and pale, soft, and exudative pork percentage was greater ( < 0.001) in the LL muscle of the heavier AWIRS pigs. The GHO principle was best correlated with pHu ( = -0.75, = 0.01) and Minolta L* value ( = 0.87, < 0.001) of the LL muscle. Overall, drip

  8. Seasonal and magnetic activity variations of ionospheric electric fields above the southern mid-latitude station, Bundoora, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    Full Text Available We investigate the seasonal, local solar time, and geomagnetic activity variations of the average Doppler velocity measured by an HF digital ionosonde deployed at Bundoora, Australia (145.1° E, 37.7° S, geographic; 49° S magnetic. The Doppler velocities were heavily averaged to suppress the short-term effects (<3 hours of atmospheric gravity waves, and thereby obtain the diurnal variations attributed to the tidally-driven ionospheric dynamo and electric fields generated by magnetic disturbances. The observed seasonal variations in Doppler velocity were probably controlled by variations in the lower thermospheric winds and ionospheric conductivity above Bundoora and in the magnetically conjugate location. The diurnal variations of the meridional (field-perpendicular drifts and their perturbations exhibited a complex structure, and were generally smaller than the variations in the zonal drifts. The latter were basically strongly west-ward during the evening to early morning, and weakly east-ward during the late morning to just past noon. The zonal perturbations were strongly enhanced by increasing geomagnetic activity, and closely resembled the perturbation drifts measured by the incoherent scatter radar (ISR at Millstone Hill (71.5° W, 42.6° N; 57° N. There was also some resemblance between the diurnal variations in the meridional drifts. Overall, the comparisons suggest that with sufficient averaging, Doppler velocities measured with digital ionosondes at mid-latitudes correspond to true ion motions driven by ionospheric electric fields. This is a useful result because apart from the ISRs located in the American-European sector, there are no ground-based instruments capable of measuring electric fields in the mid-latitude ionosphere.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ionosphere atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  9. Role of spontaneous physical activity in prediction of susceptibility to activity based anorexia in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN.

  10. Predictive Control Applied to a Solar Desalination Plant Connected to a Greenhouse with Daily Variation of Irrigation Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Roca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The water deficit in the Mediterranean area is a known matter severely affecting agriculture. One way to avoid the aquifers’ exploitation is to supply water to crops by using thermal desalination processes. Moreover, in order to guarantee long-term sustainability, the required thermal energy for the desalination process can be provided by solar energy. This paper shows simulations for a case study in which a solar multi-effect distillation plant produces water for irrigation purposes. Detailed models of the involved systems are the base of a predictive controller to operate the desalination plant and fulfil the water demanded by the crops.

  11. Early functional magnetic resonance imaging activations predict language outcome after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Dorothee; Ronneberger, Olaf; Kümmerer, Dorothee; Mader, Irina; Weiller, Cornelius; Klöppel, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    An accurate prediction of system-specific recovery after stroke is essential to provide rehabilitation therapy based on the individual needs. We explored the usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from an auditory language comprehension experiment to predict individual language recovery in 21 aphasic stroke patients. Subjects with an at least moderate language impairment received extensive language testing 2 weeks and 6 months after left-hemispheric stroke. A multivariate machine learning technique was used to predict language outcome 6 months after stroke. In addition, we aimed to predict the degree of language improvement over 6 months. 76% of patients were correctly separated into those with good and bad language performance 6 months after stroke when based on functional magnetic resonance imaging data from language relevant areas. Accuracy further improved (86% correct assignments) when age and language score were entered alongside functional magnetic resonance imaging data into the fully automatic classifier. A similar accuracy was reached when predicting the degree of language improvement based on imaging, age and language performance. No prediction better than chance level was achieved when exploring the usefulness of diffusion weighted imaging as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging acquired two days after stroke. This study demonstrates the high potential of current machine learning techniques to predict system-specific clinical outcome even for a disease as heterogeneous as stroke. Best prediction of language recovery is achieved when the brain activation potential after system-specific stimulation is assessed in the second week post stroke. More intensive early rehabilitation could be provided for those with a predicted poor recovery and the extension to other systems, for example, motor and attention seems feasible. PMID:20299389

  12. A correction factor to f-chart predictions of active solar fraction in active-passive heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B. L.; Beckman, W. A.; Duffie, J. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Klein, S. A.

    1983-11-01

    The extent to which a passive system degrades the performance of an active solar space heating system was investigated, and a correction factor to account for these interactions was developed. The transient system simulation program TRNSYS is used to simulate the hour-by-hour performance of combined active-passive (hybrid) space heating systems in order to compare the active system performance with simplified design method predictions. The TRNSYS simulations were compared to results obtained using the simplified design calculations of the f-Chart method. Comparisons of TRNSYS and f-Chart were used to establish the accuracy of the f-Charts for active systems. A correlation was then developed to correct the monthly loads input into the f-Chart method to account for controller deadbands in both hybrid and active only buildings. A general correction factor was generated to be applied to the f-Chart method to produce more accurate and useful results for hybrid systems.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF SEASON AND LONG-TERM VARIATIONS OF NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES SPECIFIC ACTIVITY IN UNDERGROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Goncharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article contains the data on the investigations of season and long-term variations of radiation safety indexes of the water of some underground sources and centralized water-supply system of Tver city.

  14. TEC variations during low solar activity period (2005–2007 near the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly Crest region in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindran

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The dual frequency signals from the GPS satellites recorded at Rajkot (22.29° N, 70.74° E, Geographic, 14.03° N Geomagnetic near the Equatorial ionization anomaly crest in India have been analyzed to study the ionospheric variations in terms of Total Electron Content (TEC for the low solar activity period from April 2005 to December 2007. In this study, we describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of TEC, solar activity dependence of TEC and effects of a space weather related event, a geomagnetic storm on TEC. The diurnal variation of TEC shows pre-dawn minimum for a short period of time, followed by a steep early morning increase and then reaches maximum value between 14:00 LT and 16:00 LT. The mean diurnal variations during different seasons are brought out. It is found that TEC at Rajkot is at its maximum during Equinoctial months (March, April, September, October, and minimum during the Winter months (November, December, January, February, with intermediate values during Summer months (May, June, July, August, showing a semi annual variation. TEC values have been decreasing since 2005, onwards showing positive correlation with solar activity. TEC variations during the geomagnetic storm commencing 24 August 2005 with Dst=−216 nT are analysed. TEC shows a positive ionospheric storm effect on the first day of the storm and negative ionospheric storm effect on the next day. The equatorial Electrojet control on the development of the equatorial anomaly is also demonstrated.

  15. Variation in trait trade-offs allows differentiation among predefined plant functional types: implications for predictive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Lieneke M; Aerts, Rien; Bönisch, Gerhard; Kattge, Jens; Van Bodegom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Plant functional types (PFTs) aggregate the variety of plant species into a small number of functionally different classes. We examined to what extent plant traits, which reflect species' functional adaptations, can capture functional differences between predefined PFTs and which traits optimally describe these differences. We applied Gaussian kernel density estimation to determine probability density functions for individual PFTs in an n-dimensional trait space and compared predicted PFTs with observed PFTs. All possible combinations of 1-6 traits from a database with 18 different traits (total of 18 287 species) were tested. A variety of trait sets had approximately similar performance, and 4-5 traits were sufficient to classify up to 85% of the species into PFTs correctly, whereas this was 80% for a bioclimatically defined tree PFT classification. Well-performing trait sets included combinations of correlated traits that are considered functionally redundant within a single plant strategy. This analysis quantitatively demonstrates how structural differences between PFTs are reflected in functional differences described by particular traits. Differentiation between PFTs is possible despite large overlap in plant strategies and traits, showing that PFTs are differently positioned in multidimensional trait space. This study therefore provides the foundation for important applications for predictive ecology. PMID:26352461

  16. Application of artificial neural network in precise prediction of cement elements percentages based on the neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari Zadeh, E.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Roshani, G. H.; Rezaei, A.

    2016-05-01

    Due to variation of neutron energy spectrum in the target sample during the activation process and to peak overlapping caused by the Compton effect with gamma radiations emitted from activated elements, which results in background changes and consequently complex gamma spectrum during the measurement process, quantitative analysis will ultimately be problematic. Since there is no simple analytical correlation between peaks' counts with elements' concentrations, an artificial neural network for analyzing spectra can be a helpful tool. This work describes a study on the application of a neural network to determine the percentages of cement elements (mainly Ca, Si, Al, and Fe) using the neutron capture delayed gamma-ray spectra of the substance emitted by the activated nuclei as patterns which were simulated via the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, version 2.7. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is developed with four specific peaks related to Ca, Si, Al and Fe, which were extracted as inputs. The proposed RBF model is developed and trained with MATLAB 7.8 software. To obtain the optimal RBF model, several structures have been constructed and tested. The comparison between simulated and predicted values using the proposed RBF model shows that there is a good agreement between them.

  17. Temporal variations in microbial biomass C and cellulolytic enzyme activity in arable soils: effects of organic matter input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pedersen, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    -OM). The cultivation systems differed in whether their source of fertiliser was mainly mineral or organic, in whether a winter cover crop was grown, and whether straw was mulched or removed. Sampling occurred at approximately monthly intervals, over a period of two years. Distinct temporal variations in microbial...... biomass C concentration and activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were observed. The temporal pattern was generally similar in the low-OM and high-OM cultivation systems. Temporal variations may have been driven by environmental factors (e.g., temperature and moisture) and crop...

  18. Reward prediction-related increases and decreases in tonic neuronal activity of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi eOkada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neuromodulators serotonin, acetylcholine, and dopamine have been proposed to play important roles in the execution of movement, control of several forms of attentional behavior, and reinforcement learning. While the response pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and its specific role in reinforcement learning have been revealed, the roles of the other neuromodulators remain elusive. Reportedly, neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, one major source of serotonin, continually track the state of expectation of future rewards by showing a correlated response to the start of a behavioral task, reward cue presentation, and reward delivery. Here, we show that neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN, one major source of acetylcholine, showed similar encoding of the expectation of future rewards by a systematic increase or decrease in tonic activity. We recorded and analyzed PPTN neuronal activity in monkeys during a reward conditioned visually guided saccade task. The firing patterns of many PPTN neurons were tonically increased or decreased throughout the task period. The tonic activity pattern of neurons was correlated with their encoding of the predicted reward value; neurons exhibiting an increase or decrease in tonic activity showed higher or lower activity in the large reward-predicted trials, respectively. Tonic activity and reward-related modulation ended around the time of reward delivery. Additionally, some tonic changes in activity started prior to the appearance of the initial stimulus, and were related to the anticipatory fixational behavior. A partially overlapping population of neurons showed both the initial anticipatory response and subsequent predicted reward value-dependent activity modulation by their systematic increase or decrease of tonic activity. These bi-directional reward- and anticipatory behavior-related modulation patterns are suitable for the presumed role of the PPTN in reward processing and

  19. Predicting kinase activity in angiotensin receptor phosphoproteomes based on sequence-motifs and interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Bøgebo

    Full Text Available Recent progress in the understanding of seven-transmembrane receptor (7TMR signalling has promoted the development of a new generation of pathway selective ligands. The angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1aR is one of the most studied 7TMRs with respect to selective activation of the β-arrestin dependent signalling. Two complimentary global phosphoproteomics studies have analyzed the complex signalling induced by the AT1aR. Here we integrate the data sets from these studies and perform a joint analysis using a novel method for prediction of differential kinase activity from phosphoproteomics data. The method builds upon NetworKIN, which applies sophisticated linear motif analysis in combination with contextual network modelling to predict kinase-substrate associations with high accuracy and sensitivity. These predictions form the basis for subsequently nonparametric statistical analysis to identify likely activated kinases. This suggested that AT1aR-dependent signalling activates 48 of the 285 kinases detected in HEK293 cells. Of these, Aurora B, CLK3 and PKG1 have not previously been described in the pathway whereas others, such as PKA, PKB and PKC, are well known. In summary, we have developed a new method for kinase-centric analysis of phosphoproteomes to pinpoint differential kinase activity in large-scale data sets.

  20. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  1. Application of genetic algorithm - multiple linear regressions to predict the activity of RSK inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avval Zhila Mohajeri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with developing a linear quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR model for predicting the RSK inhibition activity of some new compounds. A dataset consisting of 62 pyrazino [1,2-α] indole, diazepino [1,2-α] indole, and imidazole derivatives with known inhibitory activities was used. Multiple linear regressions (MLR technique combined with the stepwise (SW and the genetic algorithm (GA methods as variable selection tools was employed. For more checking stability, robustness and predictability of the proposed models, internal and external validation techniques were used. Comparison of the results obtained, indicate that the GA-MLR model is superior to the SW-MLR model and that it isapplicable for designing novel RSK inhibitors.

  2. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nicola; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Howie, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can identify cognitions that predict differences in behaviour between individuals. However, it is not clear whether the TPB can predict the behaviour of an individual person. This study employs a series of n-of-1 studies and time series analyses to examine the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity (PA) behaviours of six individuals. Six n-of-1 studies were conducted, in which TPB cognitions and up to three PA behaviours (walking, gym workout and a personally defined PA) were measured twice daily for six weeks. Walking was measured by pedometer step count, gym attendance by self-report with objective validation of gym entry and the personally defined PA behaviour by self-report. Intra-individual variability in TPB cognitions and PA behaviour was observed in all participants. The TPB showed variable predictive utility within individuals and across behaviours. The TPB predicted at least one PA behaviour for five participants but had no predictive utility for one participant. Thus, n-of-1 designs and time series analyses can be used to test theory in an individual. PMID:22943555

  3. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nicola; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Howie, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can identify cognitions that predict differences in behaviour between individuals. However, it is not clear whether the TPB can predict the behaviour of an individual person. This study employs a series of n-of-1 studies and time series analyses to examine the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity (PA) behaviours of six individuals. Six n-of-1 studies were conducted, in which TPB cognitions and up to three PA behaviours (walking, gym workout and a personally defined PA) were measured twice daily for six weeks. Walking was measured by pedometer step count, gym attendance by self-report with objective validation of gym entry and the personally defined PA behaviour by self-report. Intra-individual variability in TPB cognitions and PA behaviour was observed in all participants. The TPB showed variable predictive utility within individuals and across behaviours. The TPB predicted at least one PA behaviour for five participants but had no predictive utility for one participant. Thus, n-of-1 designs and time series analyses can be used to test theory in an individual.

  4. Pixel area variations in sensors: a novel framework for predicting pixel fidelity and distortion in flat field response

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We describe the drift field in thick depleted silicon sensors as a superposition of a one-dimensional backdrop field and various three-dimensional perturbative contributions that are physically motivated. We compute trajectories for the conversions along the field lines toward the channel and into volumes where conversions are confined by the perturbative fields. We validate this approach by comparing predictions against measured response distributions seen in five types of fixed pattern distortion features. We derive a quantitative connection between "tree ring" flat field distortions to astrometric and shape transfer errors with connections to measurable wavelength dependence - as ancillary pixel data that may be used in pipeline analysis for catalog population. Such corrections may be tested on DECam data, where correlations between tree ring flat field distortions and astrometric errors - together with their band dependence - are already under study. Dynamic effects, including the brighter-fatter phenomen...

  5. Predicting active school travel: The role of planned behavior and habit strength

    OpenAIRE

    Murtagh Shemane; Rowe David A; Elliott Mark A; McMinn David; Nelson Norah M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite strong support for predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) substantial variance in both intention and behavior is unaccounted for by the model’s predictors. The present study tested the extent to which habit strength augments the predictive validity of the TPB in relation to a currently under-researched behavior that has important health implications, namely children’s active school travel. Method Participants (N = 126 children aged 8–9 years; 5...

  6. Broca's region and Visual Word Form Area activation differ during a predictive Stroop task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Skakkebæk, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Competing theories attempt to explain the function of Broca's area in single word processing. Studies have found the region to be more active during processing of pseudo words than real words and during infrequent words relative to frequent words and during Stroop (incongruent) color words compared...... to Non-Stroop (congruent) words. Two related theories explain these findings as reflecting either “cognitive control” processing in the face of conflicting input or a linguistic prediction error signal, based on a predictive coding approach. The latter implies that processing cost refers to violations...

  7. Non-dipping blood pressure variations in adult Kazakhs are derived from decreased daytime physical activity and increased nighttime sympathetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Yukio; Izumi, Yoichi; Kasamaki, Yuji; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Mitsubayashi, Hiromi; Ohta, Masakatsu; Ichimaru, Yuhei

    2016-01-01

    Many of the elderly Kazakhs have been found to exhibit non-dipping blood pressure variations (BPV). Such variations are seen in both normotensive and hypertensive Kazakhs. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine whether middle-aged Kazakhs also include large numbers of non-dippers, (2) to compare the characteristics of non-dipping and dipping, and (3) to clarify the mechanisms responsible for non-dipping type BPV by examining the autonomic nervous activity and physical activity. We performed ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The subjects were divided into two groups (dipping and non-dipping type). We monitored the subjects' physical activity with accelerometry and assessed their autonomic nerve activity by performing a frequency domain analysis of their heart rate variability (HRV). The power spectral density (PSD) of the HRV was calculated using fast Fourier transformation. We analyzed the systolic blood pressure (SBP) variations with the maximum entropy method (MEM). The dippers and non-dippers accounted for 48% and 52% of the subjects, respectively. MEM analysis revealed that the SBP variations of the non-dippers exhibited a 24 hour periodicity with a very weak PSD as well as an ultradian periodicity. The non-dippers exhibited higher low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio and lower HF/(LF + HF) ratios than the dippers, particularly during the nighttime. In addition, the non-dippers performed less physical activity than the dippers. These differences in cardiac autonomic function and physical activity might contribute to the generation of a weak circadian rhythm in SBP, and thus, ultimately lead to the non-dipping SBP variations observed in non-dipper Kazakhs.

  8. Effects of seasonal variations on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Haniza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations during rainy and hot season on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits in approximately one year duration specifically on November 2012, December 2012, January 2013, March 2013, April 2013, May 2013, July 2013, August 2013 and November 2013. Fruit samples (Sungkai and Semenyih variants) were collected from Sime Darby Beverages plantation located in Sitiawan. The fruits were samples for 9 times from Nov 2012 to Nov 2013 except Feb 2013, Jun 2013, Sept 2013 and Oct 2013. Fruits were peeled, seeded and blended into uniform puree. Samples were then extracted for its antioxidant activity determination using 50% acetone. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using total phenolic compounds (TPC) assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl1-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH). Analysis was conducted using 96-well microplate spectrophotometer UV. The highest TPC result was Semenyih var recorded 2192.80 mg GAE/100g FW whilst Sungkai var 1595.98 mg GAE/100g FW both on July 2013 with rainfall was at the least (45mm) and the lowest for Sungkai var was 792.75 mg GAE/100g FW and 1032.41 mg GAE/100g FW for Semenyih var, both on Nov 2012 with 185mm rainfall. There were significant negative correlation between TPC and rainfall (mm) for both Semenyih var (r = - 0.699, p<0.005, r2 = 0.489) and Sungkai var (r = -0.72, p<0.05, r2 = 0.531). The highest FRAP result (mg TE/100g FW) was 1677.74 for Semenyih var (Aug 2013, rainfall = 160.5mm) and the highest FRAP for Sungkai var was 1104.60 (Jul 2013, rainfall = 45.0mm) whereas the lowest for Semenyih and Sungkai var was 1090.22 (Mar 2013, rainfall = 97.5mm) and 767.88 (Nov 2012, rainfall = 185.50) respectively. There was weak negative correlation between FRAP and rainfall(mm) for both Sungkai var (r = - 0.324, p<0.05, r2 = 0.105) and Semenyih var (r = - 0.362, p<0.05, r2 = 0.132). The highest DPPH for Semenyih var was 88.40% (Aug

  9. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predi...

  10. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months have been studied. By immediate effect of gamma radiation, an increase in the oxigen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers has been observed. Such increase persits even four months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated ''in vitro'' the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues.(author)

  11. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Phenotypic variation in metabolism and morphology correlating with animal swimming activity in the wild: relevance for the OCLTT (oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance), allocation and performance models

    OpenAIRE

    Baktoft, Henrik; Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders; Jepsen, Niels; Berg, Søren; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is affecting animal physiology in many parts of the world. Using metabolism, the oxygen- and capacitylimitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis provides a tool to predict the responses of ectothermic animals to variation in temperature, oxygen availability and pH in the aquatic environment. The hypothesis remains controversial, however, and has been questioned in several studies. A positive relationship between aerobic metabolic scope and animal activity would b...

  13. Which environmental factors predict seasonal variation in the coral health of Acropora digitifera and Acropora spicifera at Ningaloo Reef?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Hinrichs

    Full Text Available The impact of physico-chemical factors on percent coral cover and coral health was examined on a spatial basis for two dominant Acropora species, A. digitifera and A. spicifera, at Ningaloo Reef (north-western Australia in the southeast Indian Ocean. Coral health was investigated by measuring metabolic indices (RNA/DNA ratio and protein concentration, energy levels (lipid ratio and autotrophic indices (chlorophyll a (chl a and zooxanthellae density at six stations during typical seasons (austral autumn 2010 (March and April, austral winter 2010 (August and during an extreme La Niña event in summer 2011 (February. These indices were correlated with 15 physico-chemical factors (measured immediately following coral sampling to identify predictors for health indices. Variations in metabolic indices (protein concentration and RNA/DNA ratio for A. spicifera were mainly explained by nitrogen, temperature and zooplankton concentrations under typical conditions, while for A. digitifera, light as well as phytoplankton, in particular picoeukaryotes, were important, possibly due to higher energy requirement for lipid synthesis and storage in A. digitifera. Optimum metabolic values occurred for both Acropora species at 26-28°C when autotrophic indices (chl a and zooxanthellae density were lowest. The extreme temperature during the La Niña event resulted in a shift of feeding modes, with an increased importance of water column plankton concentrations for metabolic rates of A. digitifera and light and plankton for A. spicifera. Our results suggest that impacts of high sea surface temperatures during extreme events such as La Niña may be mitigated via reduction on metabolic rates in coral host. The high water column plankton concentrations and associated low light levels resulted in a shift towards high symbiont densities, with lower metabolic rates and energy levels than the seasonal norm for the coral host.

  14. Predicted bond length variation in wurtzite and zinc-blende InGaN and AlGaN alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, T.; Zunger, Alex

    1999-01-01

    Valence force field simulations utilizing large supercells are used to investigate the bond lengths in wurtzite and zinc-blende InxGa1-xN and AlxGa1-xN random alloys. We find that (i) while the first-neighbor cation-anion shell is split into two distinct values in both wurtzite and zinc-blende alloys (RGa-N1≠RIn-N1), the second-neighbor cation-anion bonds are equal (RGa-N2=RIn-N2). (ii) The second-neighbor cation-anion bonds exhibit a crucial difference between wurtzite and zinc-blende binary structures: in wurtzite we find two bond distances which differ in length by 13% while in the zinc-blende structure there is only one bond length. This splitting is preserved in the alloy, and acts as a fingerprint, distinguishing the wurtzite from the zinc-blende structure. (iii) The small splitting of the first-neighbor cation-anion bonds in the wurtzite structure due to nonideal c/a ratio is preserved in the alloy, but is obscured by the bond length broadening. (iv) The cation-cation bond lengths exhibit three distinct values in the alloy (Ga-Ga, Ga-In, and In-In), while the anion-anion bonds are split into two values corresponding to N-Ga-N and N-In-N. (v) The cation-related splitting of the bonds and alloy broadening are considerably larger in InGaN alloy than in AlGaN alloy due to larger mismatch between the binary compounds. (vi) The calculated first-neighbor cation-anion and cation-cation bond lengths in InxGa1-xN alloy are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The remaining bond lengths are provided as predictions. In particular, the predicted splitting for the second-neighbor cation-anion bonds in the wurtzite structure awaits experimental testing.

  15. Predicted bond length variation in wurtzite and zinc-blende InGaN and AlGaN alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattila, T.; Zunger, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, 80401 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Valence force field simulations utilizing large supercells are used to investigate the bond lengths in wurtzite and zinc-blende In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N random alloys. We find that (i) while the first-neighbor cation{endash}anion shell is split into two distinct values in both wurtzite and zinc-blende alloys (R{sub Ga{minus}N{sub 1}}{ne}R{sub In{minus}N{sub 1}}), the second-neighbor cation{endash}anion bonds are equal (R{sub Ga{minus}N{sub 2}}=R{sub In{minus}N{sub 2}}). (ii) The second-neighbor cation{endash}anion bonds exhibit a crucial difference between wurtzite and zinc-blende binary structures: in wurtzite we find {ital two} bond distances which differ in length by 13{percent} while in the zinc-blende structure there is only {ital one} bond length. This splitting is preserved in the alloy, and acts as a fingerprint, distinguishing the wurtzite from the zinc-blende structure. (iii) The small splitting of the first-neighbor cation{endash}anion bonds in the wurtzite structure due to nonideal {ital c/a} ratio is preserved in the alloy, but is obscured by the bond length broadening. (iv) The cation{endash}cation bond lengths exhibit three distinct values in the alloy (Ga{endash}Ga, Ga{endash}In, and In{endash}In), while the anion{endash}anion bonds are split into two values corresponding to N{endash}Ga{endash}N and N{endash}In{endash}N. (v) The cation{endash}related splitting of the bonds and alloy broadening are considerably larger in InGaN alloy than in AlGaN alloy due to larger mismatch between the binary compounds. (vi) The calculated first-neighbor cation{endash}anion and cation{endash}cation bond lengths in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N alloy are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The remaining bond lengths are provided as predictions. In particular, the predicted splitting for the second-neighbor cation{endash}anion bonds in the wurtzite structure awaits experimental testing. {copyright} {ital 1999

  16. Lack of circadian variation in the activity of the autonomic nervous system after major abdominal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg-Adamsen, Susan; Lie, Claus;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Most sudden postoperative deaths occur during the night and we conjectured that this was associated with circadian variations in the autonomic nervous tone, reflected in heart rate variability. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTINGS: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 44...... interval for the period of measurement (SDNN), the root mean square of the standard deviation of the differences between NN intervals (RMSSD), the percentage of NN intervals differing by more than 50 msec from adjacent NN intervals (pNN50) and the coefficient of component variance (meanNN/SDNN). MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate and heart rate variability. RESULTS: Circadian variation calculated from the SDNN (p = 0.43) the pNN50 (p = 0.11), the RMSSD (p = 0.47), and mean NN:SDNN ratio (p = 0.13) was absent postoperatively. Circadian variation in the heart rate was present but was set on a higher...

  17. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Tully, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9 during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  18. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-01-01

    LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9) during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  19. Development of a predictive model to determine micropollutant removal using granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. de Ridder

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of organic micropollutants in drinking water and its sources has opened up a field of study related to monitoring concentration levels in water sources, evaluating their toxicity and estimating their removal in drinking water treatment processes. Because a large number of organic micropollutants is currently present (although in relatively low concentrations in drinking water sources, a method should be developed to select which micropollutants has to be evaluated with priority. In this paper, a screening model is presented that can predict solute removal by activated carbon, in ultrapure water and in natural water. Solute removal prediction is based on a combination of solute hydrophobicity (expressed as log D, the pH corrected log Kow, solute charge and the carbon dose. Solute molecular weight was also considered as model input parameter, but this solute property appeared to relate insufficiently to solute removal.

    Removal of negatively charged solutes by preloaded activated carbon was reduced while the removal of positively charged solutes was increased, compared with freshly regenerated activated carbon. Differences in charged solute removal by freshly regenerated activated carbon were small, indicating that charge interactions are an important mechanism in adsorption onto preloaded carbon. The predicted solute removal was within 20 removal-% deviation of experimentally measured values.

  20. Development of a predictive model to determine micropollutant removal using granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. de Ridder

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of organic micropollutants in drinking water and its sources has opened up a field of study related to monitoring concentration levels in water sources, evaluating their toxicity and estimating their removal in drinking water treatment processes. Because a large number of organic micropollutants is currently present (although in relatively low concentrations in drinking water sources, a method should be developed to select which micropollutants has to be evaluated with priority. In this paper, a screening model is presented that can predict solute removal by activated carbon, in ultrapure water and in natural water. Solute removal prediction is based on a combination of solute hydrophobicity (expressed as log D, the pH corrected log Kow, solute charge and the carbon dose. Solute molecular weight was also considered as model input parameter, but this solute property appeared to relate insufficiently to solute removal.

    Removal of negatively charged solutes by preloaded activated carbon was reduced while the removal of positively charged solutes was increased, compared with freshly regenerated activated carbon. Differences in charged solute removal by freshly regenerated activated carbon were small, indicating that charge interactions are an important mechanism in adsorption onto preloaded carbon. The predicted solute removal was within 20 removal-% deviation of experimentally measured values for most solutes.

  1. A model for signal processing and predictive control of semi-active structural control system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M-H Shih; W-P Sung; Ching-Jong Wang

    2009-06-01

    The theory for structural control has been well developed and applied to perform excellent energy dissipation using dampers. Both active and semi-active control systems may be used to decide on the optimal switch point of the damper based on the current and past structural responses to the excitation of external forces. However, numerous noises may occur when the control signals are accessed and transported thus causing a delay of the damper. Therefore, a predictive control technique that integrates an improved method of detecting the control signal based on the direction of the structural motion, and a calculator for detecting the velocity using the least-square polynomial regression is proposed in this research. Comparisons of the analytical data and experimental results show that this predictor is effective in switching the moving direction of the semi-active damper. This conclusion is further verified using the component and shaking table test with constant amplitude but various frequencies, and the El Centro earthquake test. All tests confirm that this predictive control technique is effective to alleviate the time delay problem of semi-active dampers. This predictive control technique promotes about 30% to 40% reduction of the structural displacement response and about 35% to 45% reduction of the structural acceleration response.

  2. Resting lateralized activity predicts the cortical response and appraisal of emotions: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Grippa, Elisabetta; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the effect of lateralized left-right resting brain activity on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues and on the explicit appraisal (stimulus evaluation) of emotions based on their valence. Indeed subjective responses to different emotional stimuli should be predicted by brain resting activity and should be lateralized and valence-related (positive vs negative valence). A hemodynamic measure was considered (functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Indeed hemodynamic resting activity and brain response to emotional cues were registered when subjects (N = 19) viewed emotional positive vs negative stimuli (IAPS). Lateralized index response during resting state, LI (lateralized index) during emotional processing and self-assessment manikin rating were considered. Regression analysis showed the significant predictive effect of resting activity (more left or right lateralized) on both brain response and appraisal of emotional cues based on stimuli valence. Moreover, significant effects were found as a function of valence (more right response to negative stimuli; more left response to positive stimuli) during emotion processing. Therefore, resting state may be considered a predictive marker of the successive cortical responsiveness to emotions. The significance of resting condition for emotional behavior was discussed. PMID:25862673

  3. Statistical analysis and verification of 3-hourly geomagnetic activity probability predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Zhong, Qiuzhen; Liu, Siqing; Miao, Juan; Liu, Fanghua; Li, Zhitao; Tang, Weiwei

    2015-12-01

    The Space Environment Prediction Center (SEPC) has classified geomagnetic activity into four levels: quiet to unsettled (Kp 6). The 3-hourly Kp index prediction product provided by the SEPC is updated half hourly. In this study, the statistical conditional forecast models for the 3-hourly geomagnetic activity level were developed based on 10 years of data and applied to more than 3 years of data, using the previous Kp index, interplanetary magnetic field, and solar wind parameters measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer as conditional parameters. The quality of the forecast models was measured and compared against verifications of accuracy, reliability, discrimination capability, and skill of predicting all geomagnetic activity levels, especially the probability of reaching the storm level given a previous "calm" (nonstorm level) or "storm" (storm level) condition. It was found that the conditional models that used the previous Kp index, the peak value of BtV (the product of the total interplanetary magnetic field and speed), the average value of Bz (the southerly component of the interplanetary magnetic field), and BzV (the product of the southerly component of the interplanetary magnetic field and speed) over the last 6 h as conditional parameters provide a relative operating characteristic area of 0.64 and can be an appropriate predictor for the probability forecast of geomagnetic activity level.

  4. Using social cognitive theory to predict physical activity and fitness in underserved middle school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-06-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using multiple regression analyses we accounted for 12% of the variance in PA and 13-21% of the variance in fitness. The best predictors of PA were barrier self-efficacy, classmate social support, and gender; whereas, only gender predicted fitness. The results affirmed the importance of barrier self-efficacy and gender differences. Our findings regarding classmate social support are some of the first to illuminate the importance of school-specific peers in promoting PA.

  5. Prediction of the antiglycation activity of polysaccharides from Benincasa hispida using a response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiang; Kuang, Fei; Kong, Fansheng; Yan, Chunyan

    2016-10-20

    Benincasa hispida is a popular vegetable in China. Our previous experiments suggested that polysaccharides isolated from B. hispida fruits (PBH) have antiglycation effect and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Ultrasonic treatments can be used to extract polysaccharides from Benincasa hispida (PBH). The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the ultrasonic treatment conditions and the antiglycation activity of PBH. A mathematical model was generated with an artificial neural network (ANN) toolbox from MATLAB to analyze the effects of ultrasonic treatment conditions on antiglycation activity. The response surface plots showed relationships between ultrasonic extraction conditions and bioactivity. The R(2) value of the model was 0.9919, which suggested good fitness of the neural network. The application of genetic algorithms showed that the optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions resulted in the highest antiglycation activity for PBH. These were 150W, 46°C, and 35min. These conditions produced a predicted antiglycation activity of 41.2%; the actual activity was 40.9% under optimal conditions. This is very close to the predicted value. The experimental data indicated that the PBH possessed both antiglycation and antioxidant activities. The maximum actual value of antiglycation was 101.7% that of the positive control, and the PBH inhibited the DPPH free radicals with an EC50 value of 0.98mg/mL. This is 66.2% that of ascorbic acid. These results explained the observations that B. hispida can decrease glucose levels in diabetic patients. The experimental results also showed that the ANN could be used for optimization and prediction. PMID:27474577

  6. Predicting trace organic compound attenuation with spectroscopic parameters in powdered activated carbon processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Austin D; Park, Minkyu; Anumol, Tarun; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-08-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) is of growing interest in water research and society. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has been proven to be an effective method of removal for TOrCs in water, with the degree of effectiveness depending on dosage, contact time, and activated carbon type. In this study, the attenuation of TOrCs in three different secondary wastewater effluents using four PAC materials was studied in order to elucidate the effectiveness and efficacy of PAC for TOrC removal. With the notable exception of hydrochlorothiazide, all 14 TOrC indicators tested in this study exhibited a positive correlation of removal rate with their log Dow values, demonstrating that the main adsorption mechanism was hydrophobic interaction. As a predictive model, the modified Chick-Watson model, often used for the prediction of microorganism inactivation by disinfectants, was applied. The applied model exhibited good predictive power for TOrC attenuation by PAC in wastewater. In addition, surrogate models based upon spectroscopic measurements including UV absorbance at 254 nm and total fluorescence were applied to predict TOrC removal by PAC. The surrogate model was found to provide an excellent prediction of TOrC attenuation for all combinations of water quality and PAC type included in this study. The success of spectrometric parameters as surrogates in predicting TOrC attenuation by PAC are particularly useful because of their potential application in real-time on-line sensor monitoring and process control at full-scale water treatment plants, which could lead to significantly reduced operator response times and PAC operational optimization. PMID:27174829

  7. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    McCowan, Luke S.C.; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We fo...

  8. Real-time prediction of neuronal population spiking activity using FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Will X Y; Cheung, Ray C C; Chan, Rosa H M; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W

    2013-08-01

    A field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based hardware architecture is proposed and utilized for prediction of neuronal population firing activity. The hardware system adopts the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) generalized Laguerre-Volterra model (GLVM) structure to describe the nonlinear dynamic neural process of mammalian brain and can switch between the two important functions: estimation of GLVM coefficients and prediction of neuronal population spiking activity (model outputs). The model coefficients are first estimated using the in-sample training data; then the output is predicted using the out-of-sample testing data and the field estimated coefficients. Test results show that compared with previous software implementation of the generalized Laguerre-Volterra algorithm running on an Intel Core i7-2620M CPU, the FPGA-based hardware system can achieve up to 2.66×10(3) speedup in doing model parameters estimation and 698.84 speedup in doing model output prediction. The proposed hardware platform will facilitate research on the highly nonlinear neural process of the mammal brain, and the cognitive neural prosthesis design. PMID:23893208

  9. Predicting interwell heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs: Outcrop observations and applications of progressive facies variation through a depositional cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, P.R.; Barton, M.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Nearly 11 billion barrels of mobile oil remain in known domestic fluvial-deltaic reservoirs despite their mature status. A large percentage of this strategic resource is in danger of permanent loss through premature abandonment. Detailed reservoir characterization studies that integrate advanced technologies in geology, geophysics, and engineering are needed to identify remaining resources that can be targeted by near-term recovery methods, resulting in increased production and the postponement of abandonment. The first and most critical step of advanced characterization studies is the identification of reservoir architecture. However, existing subsurface information, primarily well logs, provides insufficient lateral resolution to identify low-permeability boundaries that exist between wells and compartmentalize the reservoir. Methods to predict lateral variability in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs have been developed on the basis of outcrop studies and incorporate identification of depositional setting and position within a depositional cycle. The position of a reservoir within the framework of a depositional cycle is critical. Outcrop studies of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone of Utah have demonstrated that the architecture and internal heterogeneity of sandstones deposited within a given depositional setting (for example, delta front) vary greatly depending upon whether they were deposited in the early, progradational part of a cycle or the late, retrogradational part of a cycle. The application of techniques similar to those used by this study in other fluvial-deltaic reservoirs will help to estimate the amount and style of remaining potential in mature reservoirs through a quicklook evaluation, allowing operators to focus characterization efforts on reservoirs that have the greatest potential to yield additional resources.

  10. Heartbeat Of the Sun Derived With PCA From Solar Background Magnetic Field And Its Use For Prediction Of the Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Shepherd, S.; Popova, H.; Zharkov, S.

    2014-12-01

    We report the principal components derived from the solar background magnetic field (SBMF in cycles 21-23) in a form of pairs of magnetic waves travelling with a phase shift from one hemisphere to another and analysed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles. This analysis allowed us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the solar background magnetic field and to extrapolate these PCs to the cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 fit very closely (with accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations. This approach predicts a strong reduction of the solar background magnetic field in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted principal components (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The derived mathematical laws in PCs are also used to predict the dynamics of solar magnetic waves on larger temporal scales of centuries. The derived variations of PCs in SBMF are probed by the modified two layers Parker's dynamo model allowing us to predict on the similar temporal scale the evolution of the solar activity which reveal a remarkable close fit to the observations.

  11. Single-trial prediction of reaction time variability from MEG brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Ryu; Ogawa, Kenji; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Neural activity prior to movement onset contains essential information for predictive assistance for humans using brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs). Even though previous studies successfully predicted different goals for upcoming movements, it is unclear whether non-invasive recording signals contain the information to predict trial-by-trial behavioral variability under the same movement. In this paper, we examined the predictability of subsequent short or long reaction times (RTs) from magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a delayed-reach task. The difference in RTs was classified significantly above chance from 550 ms before the go-signal onset using the cortical currents in the premotor cortex. Significantly above-chance classification was performed in the lateral prefrontal and the right inferior parietal cortices at the late stage of the delay period. Thus, inter-trial variability in RTs is predictable information. Our study provides a proof-of-concept of the future development of non-invasive BMIs to prevent delayed movements. PMID:27250872

  12. Limited ability of existing nomograms to predict outcomes in men undergoing active surveillance for prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, SY; Cowan, JE; Clint Cary, K; Chan, JM; Carroll, PR; Cooperberg, MR

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the ability of current nomograms to predict disease progression at repeat biopsy or at delayed radical prostatectomy (RP) in a prospectively accrued cohort of patients managed by active surveillance (AS). Materials and Methods: A total of 273 patients meeting low-risk criteria who were managed by AS and who underwent multiple biopsies and/or delayed RP were included in the study. The Kattan (base, medium and full), Steyerberg, Nakanishi and Chun nomograms were used to cal...

  13. Drug Predictive Cues Activate Aversion-Sensitive Striatal Neurons That Encode Drug Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Daniel S.; Robble, Mykel A.; Hebron, Emily M.; Dupont, Matthew J.; Ebben, Amanda L.; Wheeler, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Drug-associated cues have profound effects on an addict's emotional state and drug-seeking behavior. Although this influence must involve the motivational neural system that initiates and encodes the drug-seeking act, surprisingly little is known about the nature of such physiological events and their motivational consequences. Three experiments investigated the effect of a cocaine-predictive stimulus on dopamine signaling, neuronal activity, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. In all exper...

  14. Using activity-based modeling to predict spatial and temporal electrical vehicle power demand in Flanders

    OpenAIRE

    Knapen, Luk; Kochan, Bruno; BELLEMANS, Tom; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Electric power demand for household generated traffic is estimated as a function of time and space for the region of Flanders. An activity-based model is used to predict traffic demand. Electric vehicle (EV) type and charger characteristics are determined on the basis of car ownership and by assuming that EV categories market shares will be similar to the current ones for internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) published in government statistics. Charging opportunities at home and work locat...

  15. Prediction-error in the context of real social relationships modulates reward system activity

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua ePoore; Jennifer ePfeifer; Elliot eBerkman; Tristen eInagaki; Benjamin Locke Welborn; Matthew eLieberman

    2012-01-01

    The human reward system is sensitive to both social (e.g., validation) and non-social rewards (e.g., money) and is likely integral for relationship development and reputation building. However, data is sparse on the question of whether implicit social reward processing meaningfully contributes to explicit social representations such as trust and attachment security in pre-existing relationships. This event-related fMRI experiment examined reward system prediction-error activity in response to...

  16. Prediction of vehicle activity for emissions estimation under oversaturated conditions along signalized arterials

    OpenAIRE

    Skabardonis, Alexander; Geroliminis, Nikolaos; Christofa, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    The traditional methodology for estimating vehicle emissions based on vehicle miles traveled and average speed is not reliable because it does not consider the effects of congestion, control devices, and driving mode (cruise, acceleration, deceleration, and idle). We developed an analytical model to predict vehicle activity on signalized arterials with emphasis on oversaturated traffic conditions. The model depends only on loop detector data and signal settings as inputs and provides estimate...

  17. The influence of active region information on the prediction of solar flares: an empirical model using data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Núñez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the occurrence of solar flares is a challenge of great importance for many space weather scientists and users. We introduce a data mining approach, called Behavior Pattern Learning (BPL, for automatically discovering correlations between solar flares and active region data, in order to predict the former. The goal of BPL is to predict the interval of time to the next solar flare and provide a confidence value for the associated prediction. The discovered correlations are described in terms of easy-to-read rules. The results indicate that active region dynamics is essential for predicting solar flares.

  18. Seasonal Variation in Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents and DPPH Scavenging Activity of Bellis perennis L. Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Siatka; Marie Kašparová

    2010-01-01

    Variations in total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant activity of Bellis perennis (common daisy) flowers were investigated. The flowers were collected monthly (from March to October, i.e., during the usual flowering season of the plant) at three localities in three different years. Total flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically by two methods: by formation of a complex with aluminium chloride after acidic hydrolysis of flower extracts (method 1) and by reaction w...

  19. Seasonal and spatial variations in microbial activity at various phylogenetic resolutions at a groundwater – surface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ran; Smets, Barth F.; Gan, Ping;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal and spatial variation in activity and density of the metabolically active in situ microbial community (AIMC) at a landfill leachate-impacted groundwater – surface water interface (GSI). A series of AIMC traps were designed and implemented for AIMC sampling and microbial...... activity and density examinations. Measurements were made not only at the level of bacterial domain but also at the levels of alphaproteobacterial Rhizobiales order and gammaproteobacterial Pseudomonas genus, both of which included a large number of iron-oxidizing bacteria as revealed from previous....... This taxon constituted 2%–14% of all bacteria with similar activity distribution profiles. The Pseudomonas group occupied only 0.1‰–0.5‰ of the total bacterial density, but its activity was 27 times higher than the bacterial average. Of the 16S rRNA sequences in the AIMC clone library, 7.5% were...

  20. Can the climate background of western North Pacific typhoon activity be predicted by climate model?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG XianMei; WANG HuiJun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the observation and reanalysis data through 1948-2004, the vertical shear of zonal wind, outgoing Iongwave radiation, and divergence fields in the lower and upper troposphere during summer are revealed to correlate significantly with the concurrent western North Pacific (WNP) typhoon frequency, and they therefore can be regarded as predictors for the WNP typhoon activity anomaly. After that, the 34-year (1970-2003) ensemble hindcast experiments are performed by the nine-level atmospheric general circulation model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics Under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP9L-AGCM), aiming to investigate the numerical predictability of the summer vertical shear of zonal wind and divergence field in the lower troposphere. It is found that the temporal correlation coefficients between the hindcast and observation are 0.70 and 0.62 for the vertical shear of zonal wind and divergence field, respectively. This suggests that the model possesses a large potential skill for predicting the large-scale climate background closely related to the WNP typhoon activity, and the model is therefore capable of performing the real-time numerical prediction of the WNP typhoon activity anomaly to some extent.

  1. Brain activity in predictive sensorimotor control for landings: an EEG pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, J; von Detten, S; van Niekerk, S-M; Schubert, M; Ageberg, E; Louw, Q A

    2013-12-01

    Landing from a jump is related to predictive sensorimotor control. Frontal, central and parietal brain areas are known to play a role in this process based on online sensory feedback. This can be measured by EEG. However, there is only limited knowledge about brain activity during predictive preparation for drop landings (DL). The purpose is to demonstrate changes in brain activity in preparation for DL in different conditions. After resting, 10 athletes performed a series of DLs and were asked to concentrate on the landing preparation for 10 s before an auditory signal required them to drop land from a 30 cm platform. This task was executed before and after a standardized fatigue protocol. EEG spectral power was calculated during DL preparation. Frontal Theta power was increased during preparation compared to rest. Parietal Alpha-2 power demonstrated higher values in preparation after fatigue condition while lower limb kinematics remained unchanged. Cortical activity in frontal and parietal brain areas is sensitive for predictive sensorimotor control of drop landings. Frontal Theta power demonstrates an increase and is related to higher attentional control. In a fatigued condition the parietal Alpha-2 power increase might be related to a deactivation in the somatosensory brain areas. PMID:23740338

  2. Prediction of mutant activity and its application in molecular design of tumor necrosis factor-a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐卫东; 奚涛; 王波; 郭冬林; 徐贤秀; 朱德煦

    1997-01-01

    Two models for prediction of the activity and stability of site-directed mutagenesis on tumor necrosis factor-α are established. The models are based on straightforward structural considerations, which do not require the elaboration of site-directed mutagenesis on the protein core and the hydrophobic surface area by analyzing the properties of the mutated amino acid residues. The reliabilities of the models have been tested by analyzing the mutants of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) whose two leucine residues (L29, L157) were mutated. Based on these models, a TNF-α mutant with high activity was created by molecular design.

  3. Statistical analysis of automatically detected ion density variations recorded by DEMETER and their relation to seismic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Parrot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Many examples of ionospheric perturbations observed during large seismic events were recorded by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER. However, there are also ionospheric variations without seismic activity. The present study is devoted to a statistical analysis of the night-time ion density variations. Software was implemented to detect variations in the data before earthquakes world-wide. Earthquakes with magnitudes >4.8 were selected and classified according to their magnitudes, depths and locations (land, close to the coast, or below the sea. For each earthquake, an automatic search for ion density variations was conducted from 15 days before the earthquake, when the track of the satellite orbit was at less than 1,500 km from the earthquake epicenter. The result of this first step provided the variations relative to the background in the vicinity of the epicenter for each 15 days before each earthquake. In the second step, comparisons were carried out between the largest variations over the 15 days and the earthquake magnitudes. The statistical analysis is based on calculation of the median values as a function of the various seismic parameters (magnitude, depth, location. A comparison was also carried out with two other databases, where on the one hand, the locations of the epicenters were randomly modified, and on the other hand, the longitudes of the epicenters were shifted. The results show that the intensities of the ionospheric perturbations are larger prior to the earthquakes than prior to random events, and that the perturbations increase with the earthquake magnitudes.


  4. A cluster expansion model for predicting activation barrier of atomic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Tafizur; Jaipal, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Chatterjee, Abhijit, E-mail: achatter@iitk.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2013-06-15

    We introduce a procedure based on cluster expansion models for predicting the activation barrier of atomic processes encountered while studying the dynamics of a material system using the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method. Starting with an interatomic potential description, a mathematical derivation is presented to show that the local environment dependence of the activation barrier can be captured using cluster interaction models. Next, we develop a systematic procedure for training the cluster interaction model on-the-fly, which involves: (i) obtaining activation barriers for handful local environments using nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations, (ii) identifying the local environment by analyzing the NEB results, and (iii) estimating the cluster interaction model parameters from the activation barrier data. Once a cluster expansion model has been trained, it is used to predict activation barriers without requiring any additional NEB calculations. Numerical studies are performed to validate the cluster expansion model by studying hop processes in Ag/Ag(100). We show that the use of cluster expansion model with KMC enables efficient generation of an accurate process rate catalog.

  5. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  6. Physics-based enzyme design: predicting binding affinity and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Sarah; Pearlman, David A; Sherman, Woody

    2014-12-01

    Computational enzyme design is an emerging field that has yielded promising success stories, but where numerous challenges remain. Accurate methods to rapidly evaluate possible enzyme design variants could provide significant value when combined with experimental efforts by reducing the number of variants needed to be synthesized and speeding the time to reach the desired endpoint of the design. To that end, extending our computational methods to model the fundamental physical-chemical principles that regulate activity in a protocol that is automated and accessible to a broad population of enzyme design researchers is essential. Here, we apply a physics-based implicit solvent MM-GBSA scoring approach to enzyme design and benchmark the computational predictions against experimentally determined activities. Specifically, we evaluate the ability of MM-GBSA to predict changes in affinity for a steroid binder protein, catalytic turnover for a Kemp eliminase, and catalytic activity for α-Gliadin peptidase variants. Using the enzyme design framework developed here, we accurately rank the most experimentally active enzyme variants, suggesting that this approach could provide enrichment of active variants in real-world enzyme design applications.

  7. Creative elements: network-based predictions of active centres in proteins, cellular and social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Csermely, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Active centres and hot spots of proteins have a paramount importance in enzyme action, protein complex formation and drug design. Recently a number of publications successfully applied the analysis of residue networks to predict active centres in proteins. Most real-world networks show a number of properties, such as small-worldness or scale-free degree distribution, which are rather general features of networks from molecules to the society. Based on extensive analogies I propose that the existing findings and methodology enable us to detect active centres in cells, social networks and ecosystems. Members of these active centres are creative elements of the respective networks, which may help them to survive unprecedented, novel challenges, and play a key role in the development, survival and evolvability of complex systems.

  8. Physical meaning of the equinoctial effect for semi-annual variation in geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yoshida

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical meaning of the equinoctial effect for semi-annual variation in geomagnetic activity is investigated based on the three-hourly am index and solar wind parameters. When the z component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF in geocentric solar magnetospheric (GSM coordinates is southward, am indices are well correlated with BsVx2, where Bs is the southward component of the IMF and Vx is the solar wind velocity in the sun-earth direction. The am-BsVx2 relationship, however, depends on the range of Vx2: the am in higher ranges of Vx2 tends to be larger than am in lower ranges of Vx2 for the same value of BsVx2 for both equinoctial and solstitial epochs. Using the data sets of the same Vx2 range, it is shown that distribution of points in the am-BsVx2 diagram at the solstitial epochs overlaps with that at the equinoctial epochs and the average am values in each BsVx2 bin in solstitial epochs are closely consistent with those in equinoctial epochs, if Vx2 for each point at solstices are reduced to Vx2sin2 (Ψ where Ψ is the geomagnetic colatitude of the sub-solar point. Further, it is shown that monthly averages of the am index in the long period is well correlated with the values of sin2(ψ for the middle day of each month. These findings indicate that the factor that contributes to the generation of geomagnetic disturbance is not the velocity of the solar wind, but the component of the solar wind velocity perpendicular to the dipole axis of the geomagnetic

  9. The influence of active region information on the prediction of solar flares: an empirical model using data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, M.; Fidalgo, R.; Baena, M.; Morales, R.

    2005-01-01

    International audience Predicting the occurrence of solar flares is a challenge of great importance for many space weather scientists and users. We introduce a data mining approach, called Behavior Pattern Learning (BPL), for automatically discovering correlations between solar flares and active region data, in order to predict the former. The goal of BPL is to predict the interval of time to the next solar flare and provide a confidence value for the associated prediction. The discovered ...

  10. Predictive features of persistent activity emergence in regular spiking and intrinsic bursting model neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Sidiropoulou

    stimulus that code for its ability to induce persistent activity and predict differential roles of RS and IB neurons in persistent activity expression.

  11. The role of solar activity variations and ozonosphere state as global dimming of earth's atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Вадимович Холопцев

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The location of the segments of the Earth's atmosphere, in which important factors of interannual variations of monthly mean values of the optical density of clouds are coincident with them over time change the corresponding values of total ozone content and the Wolf numbers have been revealed. The impact of these changes on the effect of "global dimming" will intensify with further increase in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. 

  12. North-South differences in the Earth's high-latitude upper atmosphere dynamics: Influence of solar activity and seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Matthias; Cnossen, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    Recent observations have shown that the upper thermospheric/ionospheric response to solar wind and IMF dependent drivers of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (M-I-T) system can be very dissimilar in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. We present statistical studies of the high-latitude upper thermospheric neutral wind circulation patterns obtained from almost a decade of measurements with an accelerometer on board the CHAMP spacecraft. The influence of the solar activity and the dependence on seasonal variations is analysed with respect to average cross-polar wind velocities and high-latitude neutral wind vorticity values. Using the Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere (CMIT) model, on the other hand, we simulated representative equinox as well as solstice intervals for low and high solar activity conditions. For the simulations, we used on the one hand side symmetric dipole and on the other realistic (IGRF) geomagnetic field configurations. The comparative survey of both the numerical simulation and the statistical observation results show some prominent asymmetries between the two hemispheres, which are caused by the different geographic-geomagnetic offsets and/or the different patterns of geomagnetic flux densities. The average cross-polar neutral wind velocities show a distinct seasonal variation with minimum values during the respective hemispheric winter solstice. The neutral wind vorticity values are generally larger in the Northern than the Southern Hemisphere, except for northern winter solstice conditions. The hemispheric differences become larger for higher solar activity and show a semidiurnal variation. In contrast, the spatial variance of the upper thermospheric neutral wind is usually considerably larger in the polar region of the Southern Hemisphere compared with the Northern, and the hemispheric difference shows a strong semidiurnal variation.

  13. Predictive Framework and Experimental Tests of the Kinetic Isotope Effect at Redox-Active Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavner, A.; John, S.; Black, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Electrochemical reactions provide a compelling framework to study kinetic isotope effects because redox-related processes are important for a wide variety of geological and environmental processes. In the laboratory, electrochemical reaction rates can be electronically controlled and measured in the laboratory using a potentiostat. This enables variation of redox reactions rates independent of changes in chemistry and, and the resulting isotope compositions of reactants and products can be separated and analyzed. In the past years, a series of experimental studies have demonstrated a large, light, and tunable kinetic isotope effect during electrodeposition of metal Fe, Zn, Li, Cu, and Mo from a variety of solutions (e.g. Black et al., 2009, 2010, 2011). A theoretical framework based on Marcus kinetic theory predicts a voltage-dependent kinetic isotope effect (Kavner et al., 2005, 2008), however while this framework was able to predict the tunable nature of the effect, it was not able to simultaneously predict absolute reaction rates and relative isotope rates. Here we present a more complete development of a statistical mechanical framework for simple interfacial redox reactions, which includes isotopic behavior. The framework is able to predict a kinetic isotope effect as a function of temperature and reaction rate, starting with three input parameters: a single reorganization energy which describes the overall kinetics of the electron transfer reaction, and the equilibrium reduced partition function ratios for heavy and light isotopes in the product and reactant phases. We show the framework, elucidate some of the predictions, and show direct comparisons against isotope fractionation data obtained during laboratory and natural environment redox processes. A. Kavner, A. Shahar, F. Bonet, J. Simon and E. Young (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69(12), 2971-2979. A. Kavner, S. G. John, S. Sass, and E. A. Boyle (2008), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol 72, pp. 1731

  14. Structure prediction and activity analysis of human heme oxygenase-1 and its mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Wei Xia; Wen-Pu Zhou; Wen-Jun Cui; Xue-Hong Zhang; Qing-Xiang Shen; Yun-Zhu Li; Shan-Chang Yu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To predict wild human heme oxygenase-1 (whHO-1)and hHO-1 His25Ala mutant (△hHO-1) structures, to clone and express them and analyze their activities.METHODS: Swiss-PdbViewer and Antheprot 5.0 were used for the prediction of structure diversity and physicalchemical changes between wild and mutant hHO-1. hHO1 His25Ala mutant cDNA was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two plasmids of E. coli DH5α. Expression products were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, and their activities were measured.RESULTS: rHO-1 had the structure of a helical fold with the heme sandwiched between heme-heme oxygenase1 helices. Bond angle, dihedral angle and chemical bond in the active pocket changed after Ala25 was replaced by His25, but Ala25 was still contacting the surface and the electrostatic potential of the active pocket was negative. The mutated enzyme kept binding activity to heme. Two vectors pBHO-1 and pBHO-1(M) were constructed and expressed. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography yielded 3.6-fold and 30-fold higher purities of whHO-1, respectively. The activity of △hHO-1 was reduced 91.21% after mutation compared with whHO-1.CONCLUSION: Proximal His25 ligand is crucial for normal hHO-1 catalytic activity. △hHO-1 is deactivated by mutation but keeps the same binding site as whHO-1. △hHO-1 might be a potential inhibitor of whHO-1 for preventing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  15. Sources of variation and genetic profile of spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity in the Chios sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouttos Athanasios

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organising the breeding plan of a seasonally breeding species, such as sheep, presents a challenge to farmers and the industry as a whole, since both economical and biological considerations need to be carefully balanced. Understanding the breeding activity of individual animals becomes a prerequisite for a successful breeding program. This study set out to investigate the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity of ewes of the Chios dairy sheep breed in Greece. The definition of the trait was based on blood progesterone levels, measured before exposing the ewes to rams, which marks the onset of the usual breeding season. Data were 707 records, taken over two consecutive years, of 435 ewes kept at the Agricultural Research Station of Chalkidiki in northern Greece. When all available pedigree was included, the total number of animals involved was 1068. On average, 29% of all ewes exhibited spontaneous, out-of-season ovulatory activity, with no substantial variation between the years. Significant sources of systematic variation were the ewe age and live weight, and the month of previous lambing. Older, heavier ewes, that had lambed early the previous autumn, exhibited more frequent activity. Heritability estimates were 0.216 (± 0.084 with a linear and 0.291 with a threshold model. The latter better accounts for the categorical nature of the trait. The linear model repeatability was 0.230 (± 0.095. The results obtained in this study support the notion that spontaneous out-of-season ovulatory activity can be considered in the development of a breeding plan for the Chios sheep breed.

  16. [The estimation of daily physical activity with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates continuously recorded].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono-oka, T; Kaneko, I

    1993-05-01

    The daily level of physical activity was estimated using the heart rate monitor, PE3000 (Polar Electro, Finland). The level was expressed with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates recorded from waking time to dinner time. In the course of a day of intense physical activity, CV was confirmed to rise significantly. Then the CV was estimated and compared among 3 age classes, young (10-18 years), middle-aged (30-47 years), and elderly (62-76 years). The CVs of young people were significantly higher than those of middle-aged (P < 0.001) and elderly (P < 0.01), regardless of sex. However there was no significant sex difference in all age classes. These results suggest that the CV is an accurate index of daily physical activity. Thus clinicians can use the CV of heart rates to estimate the level of physical activity of individuals which closely relates to QOL.

  17. Protein Function Prediction Based on Active Semi-sup ervised Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuesong,CHENG Yuhu; LI Lijing

    2016-01-01

    In our study, the active learning and semi-supervised learning methods are comprehensively used for label delivery of proteins with known functions in Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network so as to predict the func-tions of unknown proteins. Because the real PPI network is generally observed with overlapping protein nodes with multiple functions, the mislabeling of overlapping protein may result in accumulation of prediction errors. For this reason, prior to executing the label delivery process of semi-supervised learning, the adjacency matrix is used to detect overlapping proteins. As the topological structure description of interactive relation between proteins, PPI network is observed with party hub protein nodes that play an important role, in co-expression with its neighborhood. Therefore, to reduce the manual labeling cost, party hub proteins most beneficial for improvement of prediction ac-curacy are selected for class labeling and the labeled party hub proteins are added into the labeled sample set for semi-supervised learning later. As the experimental results of real yeast PPI network show, the proposed algorithm can achieve high prediction accuracy with few labeled samples.

  18. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower. PMID:26075793

  19. Predicting Flash Point of Organosilicon Compounds Using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Peng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flash point (FP of a compound is the primary property used in the assessment of fire hazards for flammable liquids and is amongst the crucial information that people handling flammable liquids must possess as far as industrial safety is concerned. In this work, the FPs of 236 organosilicon compounds were collected and used to construct a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR model for predicting their FPs. The CODESSA PRO software was adopted to calculate the required molecular descriptors, and 350 molecular descriptors were developed for each compound. A modified stepwise regression algorithm was applied to choose descriptors that were highly correlated with the FP of organosilicon compounds. The proposed model was a linear regression model consisting of six descriptors. This 6-descriptor model gave an R2 value of 0.9174, QLOO2 value of 0.9106, and Q2 value of 0.8989. The average fitting error and the average predictive error were found to be of 10.34 K and 11.22 K, respectively, and the average fitting error in percentage and the average predictive error in percentage were found to be of 3.30 and 3.60%, respectively. Compared with the known reproducibility of FP measurement using standard test method, these predicted results were of a satisfactory precision.

  20. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower.

  1. Variations of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) during thoracic radiotherapy are predictive for radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vascular endothelial cells are important targets of radiotherapy, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis (RP). This study investigated the variations of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) during three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and analyzed the correlation between these variations with the occurrence of RP. From November 2008 to November 2009, eighty-four consecutive patients receiving 3D-CRT for stage III disease were evaluated prospectively. Circulating EPCs and TGF-β1 levels were measured at baseline, every 2 weeks during, and at the end of treatment. RP was evaluated prospectively at 6 weeks after 3D-CRT. Thirty-eight patients (47.5%) experienced score 1 or more of RP. The baseline levels of EPCs and TGF-β1 were analyzed, no difference was found between patients with and without RP during and after 3D-CRT. By serial measurement of TGF-β1 and EPCs levels, we found that the mean levels of EPCs in the whole population remained stable during radiotherapy, but the mean levels of TGF-β1 increased slowly during radiotherapy. TGF-β1 and EPCs levels were all significantly higher at week 2, week 4 and week 6 in patients with RP than that in patients without RP, respectively. During the period of radiation treatment, TGF-β1 levels began to increase in the first 2 weeks and became significantly higher at week 6 (P < 0.01). EPCs levels also began to increase in the first 2 weeks and reached a peak at week 4. Using an ANOVA model for repeated-measures, we found significant associations between the levels of TGF-β1 and EPCs during the course of 3D-CRT and the risk of developing RP (P < 0.01). Most of the dosimetric factors showed a significant association with RP. Early variations of TGF-β1 and EPCs levels during 3D-CRT are significantly associated with the risk of RP. Variations of circulating TGF-β1

  2. Structure-Based Activity Prediction for an Enzyme of Unknown Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann,J.; Marti-Arbona, R.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Almo, S.; Shoichet, B.; Raushel, F.

    2007-01-01

    With many genomes sequenced, a pressing challenge in biology is predicting the function of the proteins that the genes encode. When proteins are unrelated to others of known activity, bioinformatics inference for function becomes problematic. It would thus be useful to interrogate protein structures for function directly. Here, we predict the function of an enzyme of unknown activity, Tm0936 from Thermotoga maritima, by docking high-energy intermediate forms of thousands of candidate metabolites. The docking hit list was dominated by adenine analogues, which appeared to undergo C6-deamination. Four of these, including 5-methylthioadenosine and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), were tested as substrates, and three had substantial catalytic rate constants (10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). The X-ray crystal structure of the complex between Tm0936 and the product resulting from the deamination of SAH, S-inosylhomocysteine, was determined, and it corresponded closely to the predicted structure. The deaminated products can be further metabolized by T. maritima in a previously uncharacterized SAH degradation pathway. Structure-based docking with high-energy forms of potential substrates may be a useful tool to annotate enzymes for function.

  3. BD-Func: a streamlined algorithm for predicting activation and inhibition of pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Warden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BD-Func (BiDirectional FUNCtional enrichment is an algorithm that calculates functional enrichment by comparing lists of pre-defined genes that are known to be activated versus inhibited in a pathway or by a regulatory molecule. This paper shows that BD-Func can correctly predict cell line alternations and patient characteristics with accuracy comparable to popular algorithms, with a significantly faster run-time. BD-Func can compare scores for individual samples across multiple groups as well as provide predictive statistics and receiver operating characteristic (ROC plots to quantify the accuracy of the signature associated with a binary phenotypic variable. BD-Func facilitates collaboration and reproducibility by encouraging users to share novel molecular signatures in the BD-Func discussion group, which is where the novel progesterone receptor and LBH589 signatures from this paper can be found. The novel LBH589 signature presented in this paper also serves as a case study showing how a custom signature using cell line data can accurately predict activity in vivo. This software is available to download at https://sourceforge.net/projects/bdfunc/.

  4. Artificial neural network prediction of the psychometric activities of phenylalkylamines using DFT-calculated molecular descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINA HAGHDADI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR method was used to predict the psychometric activity values (as mescaline unit, log MU of 48 phenylalkylamine derivatives from their density functional theory (DFT calculated molecular descriptors and an artificial neural network (ANN. In the first step, the molecular descriptors were obtained by DFT calculation at the 6-311G level of theory. Then the stepwise multiple linear regression method was employed to screen the descriptor spaces. In the next step, an artificial neural network and multiple linear regressions (MLR models were developed to construct nonlinear and linear QSAR models, respectively. The standard errors in the prediction of log MU by the MLR model were 0.398, 0.443 and 0.427 for training, internal and external test sets, respectively, while these values for the ANN model were 0.132, 0.197 and 0.202, respectively. The obtained results show the applicability of QSAR approaches by using ANN techniques in prediction of log MU of phenylalkylamine derivatives from their DFT-calculated molecular descriptors.

  5. New mechanistically based model for predicting reduction of biosolids waste by ozonation of return activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biomass inactivation followed an exponential decay with increasing ozone doses. • From pure cultures, inactivation did not result in significant COD solubilization. • Ozone dose inactivation thresholds resulted from floc structure modifications. • Modeling description of biomass inactivation during RAS-ozonation was improved. • Model best describing inactivation resulted in best performance predictions. - Abstract: Two pilot-scale activated sludge reactors were operated for 98 days to provide the necessary data to develop and validate a new mathematical model predicting the reduction of biosolids production by ozonation of the return activated sludge (RAS). Three ozone doses were tested during the study. In addition to the pilot-scale study, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted with mixed liquor suspended solids and with pure cultures to parameterize the biomass inactivation process during exposure to ozone. The experiments revealed that biomass inactivation occurred even at the lowest doses, but that it was not associated with extensive COD solubilization. For validation, the model was used to simulate the temporal dynamics of the pilot-scale operational data. Increasing the description accuracy of the inactivation process improved the precision of the model in predicting the operational data

  6. A general model for predicting coolant activity behaviour for fuel-failure monitoring analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Jaby, A., E-mail: Ali.El-Jaby@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Iglesias, F.C. [Candesco Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ip, M. [Bruce Power, Toronto, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A mathematical treatment has been developed to predict the release of volatile fission products from operating defective nuclear fuel elements. The fission product activity in both the fuel-to-sheath gap and primary heat transport system as a function of time can be predicted during all reactor operating conditions, including: startup, steady-state, shutdown, and bundle-shifting manoeuvres. In addition, an improved ability to predict the coolant activity of the {sup 135}Xe isotope in commercial reactors is discussed. A method is also proposed to estimate both the burnup and the amount of tramp uranium deposits in-core. The model has been implemented as a stand-alone code written in the C++ computer programming language using a finite-difference variable-mesh numerical scheme for the mass transport equations in the UO{sub 2} fuel grain. The model has been validated against in-reactor experiments conducted with defective fuel elements containing natural and artificial failures at the Chalk River Laboratories. Lastly, the model has been benchmarked against a defective fuel occurrence in a commercial reactor. (author)

  7. Visual cortex activity predicts subjective experience after reading books with colored letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Scholte, H Steven; van Es, Daniel M; Knapen, Tomas; Rouw, Romke

    2016-07-29

    One of the most astonishing properties of synesthesia is that the evoked concurrent experiences are perceptual. Is it possible to acquire similar effects after learning cross-modal associations that resemble synesthetic mappings? In this study, we examine whether brain activation in early visual areas can be directly related to letter-color associations acquired by training. Non-synesthetes read specially prepared books with colored letters for several weeks and were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. If the acquired letter-color associations were visual in nature, then brain activation in visual cortex while viewing the trained black letters (compared to untrained black letters) should predict the strength of the associations, the quality of the color experience, or the vividness of visual mental imagery. Results showed that training-related activation of area V4 was correlated with differences in reported subjective color experience. Trainees who were classified as having stronger 'associator' types of color experiences also had more negative activation for trained compared to untrained achromatic letters in area V4. In contrast, the strength of the acquired associations (measured as the Stroop effect) was not reliably reflected in visual cortex activity. The reported vividness of visual mental imagery was related to veridical color activation in early visual cortex, but not to the acquired color associations. We show for the first time that subjective experience related to a synesthesia-training paradigm was reflected in visual brain activation.

  8. Visual cortex activity predicts subjective experience after reading books with colored letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Scholte, H Steven; van Es, Daniel M; Knapen, Tomas; Rouw, Romke

    2016-07-29

    One of the most astonishing properties of synesthesia is that the evoked concurrent experiences are perceptual. Is it possible to acquire similar effects after learning cross-modal associations that resemble synesthetic mappings? In this study, we examine whether brain activation in early visual areas can be directly related to letter-color associations acquired by training. Non-synesthetes read specially prepared books with colored letters for several weeks and were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. If the acquired letter-color associations were visual in nature, then brain activation in visual cortex while viewing the trained black letters (compared to untrained black letters) should predict the strength of the associations, the quality of the color experience, or the vividness of visual mental imagery. Results showed that training-related activation of area V4 was correlated with differences in reported subjective color experience. Trainees who were classified as having stronger 'associator' types of color experiences also had more negative activation for trained compared to untrained achromatic letters in area V4. In contrast, the strength of the acquired associations (measured as the Stroop effect) was not reliably reflected in visual cortex activity. The reported vividness of visual mental imagery was related to veridical color activation in early visual cortex, but not to the acquired color associations. We show for the first time that subjective experience related to a synesthesia-training paradigm was reflected in visual brain activation. PMID:26162617

  9. Predicting risk-taking behavior from prefrontal resting-state activity and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Studer

    Full Text Available Risk-taking is subject to considerable individual differences. In the current study, we tested whether resting-state activity in the prefrontal cortex and trait sensitivity to reward and punishment can help predict risk-taking behavior. Prefrontal activity at rest was assessed in seventy healthy volunteers using electroencephalography, and compared to their choice behavior on an economic risk-taking task. The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale was used to measure participants' trait sensitivity to reward and punishment. Our results confirmed both prefrontal resting-state activity and personality traits as sources of individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Right-left asymmetry in prefrontal activity and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale, reflecting trait sensitivity to punishment, were correlated with the level of risk-taking on the task. We further discovered that scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale modulated the relationship between asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state activity and risk-taking. The results of this study demonstrate that heterogeneity in risk-taking behavior can be traced back to differences in the basic physiology of decision-makers' brains, and suggest that baseline prefrontal activity and personality traits might interplay in guiding risk-taking behavior.

  10. A New Global Empirical Model of the Electron Temperature with the Inclusion of the Solar Activity Variations for IRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlik, V.; Triskova, L.

    2012-01-01

    A data-base of electron temperature (T(sub e)) comprising of most of the available LEO satellite measurements in the altitude range from 350 to 2000 km has been used for the development of a new global empirical model of T(sub e) for the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). For the first time this will include variations with solar activity. Variations at five fixed altitude ranges centered at 350, 550, 850, 1400, and 2000 km and three seasons (summer, winter, and equinox) were represented by a system of associated Legendre polynomials (up to the 8th order) in terms of magnetic local time and the earlier introduced in vdip latitude. The solar activity variations of T(sub e) are represented by a correction term of the T(sub e) global pattern and it has been derived from the empirical latitudinal profiles of T(sub e) for day and night (Truhlik et al., 2009a). Comparisons of the new T(sub e) model with data and with the IRI 2007 Te model show that the new model agrees well with the data generally within standard deviation limits and that the model performs better than the current IRI T(sub e) model.

  11. Antecedent occipital alpha band activity predicts the impact of oculomotor events in perceptual switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori eNakatani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oculomotor events such as blinks and saccades transiently interrupt the visual input and, even though this mostly goes undetected, these brief interruptions could still influence the percept. In particular, both blinking and saccades facilitate switching in ambiguous figures such as the Necker cube. To investigate the neural state antecedent to these oculomotor events during the perception of an ambiguous figure, we measured the human scalp electroencephalogram (EEG. When blinking led to perceptual switching, antecedent occipital alpha band activity exhibited a transient increase in amplitude. When a saccade led to switching, a series of transient increases and decreases in amplitude was observed in the antecedent occipital alpha band activity. Our results suggest that the state of occipital alpha band activity predicts the impact of oculomotor events on the percept.

  12. Seasonal variation in daily activity patterns of free-ranging European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, Lammina G; Strijkstra, Arjen M; Hut, Roelof A; Hoffmann, Ilse E; Millesi, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Daily aboveground activity of European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) in their natural habitat was recorded with a visual scanning procedure during the active seasons of 1992 and 1993. Activity patterns were analyzed with respect to time of year and to the animal's reproductive state. Aboveground activity started on average 3.9 h (SD 0.6 h, n = 37 days) after civil twilight at dawn and ended on average 3.2 h (SD 0.9 h, n = 37 days) before civil twilight at dusk. Between onset and offset of activity, 54% was spent aboveground, of which 73% was spent foraging. Activity patterns were influenced by photoperiod, rainfall, and by reproductive state. During mating, reproductively active males started activity earlier than females and reproductively inactive males. For females, time spent foraging was high during lactation. The midpoint of daily activity was at 12:16 h (SD 0.37 h, n = 37 days). Activity patterns of European ground squirrels thus appear robustly positioned in the middle of the photoperiod. PMID:15129824

  13. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lehne

    Full Text Available Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc. is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman" subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus, lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  14. Optimization and Prediction of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Metal Active Gas Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampaiboon, Anusit; Lasunon, On-Uma; Bubphachot, Bopit

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of welding parameters on ultimate tensile strength of structural steel, ST37-2, welded by Metal Active Gas welding. A fractional factorial design was used for determining the significance of six parameters: wire feed rate, welding voltage, welding speed, travel angle, tip-to-work distance, and shielded gas flow rate. A regression model to predict ultimate tensile strength was developed. Finally, we verified optimization of the process parameters experimentally. We achieved an optimum tensile strength (558 MPa) and wire feed rate, 19 m/min, had the greatest effect, followed by tip-to-work distance, 7 mm, welding speed, 200 mm/min, welding voltage, 30 V, and travel angle, 60°. Shield gas flow rate, 10 L/min, was slightly better but had little effect in the 10-20 L/min range. Tests showed that our regression model was able to predict the ultimate tensile strength within 4%.

  15. Design and analysis of a model predictive controller for active queue management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xiaoping; Ma, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Model predictive (MP) control as a novel active queue management (AQM) algorithm in dynamic computer networks is proposed. According to the predicted future queue length in the data buffer, early packets at the router are dropped reasonably by the MPAQM controller so that the queue length reaches the desired value with minimal tracking error. The drop probability is obtained by optimizing the network performance. Further, randomized algorithms are applied to analyze the robustness of MPAQM successfully, and also to provide the stability domain of systems with uncertain network parameters. The performances of MPAQM are evaluated through a series of simulations in NS2. The simulation results show that the MPAQM algorithm outperforms RED, PI, and REM algorithms in terms of stability, disturbance rejection, and robustness.

  16. Prediction of near-field strong ground motions for scenario earthquakes on active fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haiyun; Xie Lili; Tao Xiaxin; Li Jie

    2006-01-01

    A method to predict near-field strong ground motions for scenario earthquakes on active faults is proposed. First,macro-source parameters characterizing the entire source area, i.e., global source parameters, including fault length, fault width,rupture area, average slip on the fault plane, etc., are estimated by seismogeology survey, seismicity and seismic scaling laws.Second, slip distributions characterizing heterogeneity or roughness on the fault plane, i.e., local source parameters, are reproduced/evaluated by the hybrid slip model. Finally, the finite fault source model, developed from both the global and local source parameters, is combined with the stochastically synthetic technique of ground motion using the dynamic corner frequency based on seismology. The proposed method is applied to simulate the acceleration time histories on three base-rock stations during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Comparisons between the predicted and recorded acceleration time histories show that the method is feasible and practicable.

  17. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN.

  18. Analysis Of The Method Of Predictive Control Applicable To Active Magnetic Suspension Systems Of Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnyta-Mazurek Paulina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional controllers are usually synthesized on the basis of already known parameters associated with the model developed for the object to be controlled. However, sometimes it proves extremely difficult or even infeasible to find out these parameters, in particular when they subject to changes during the exploitation lifetime. If so, much more sophisticated control methods have to be applied, e.g. the method of predictive control. Thus, the paper deals with application of the predictive control approach to follow-up tracking of an active magnetic suspension where the mathematical and simulation models for such a control system are disclosed with preliminary results from simulation investigations of the control system in question.

  19. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN. PMID:26209847

  20. Predicting the activity coefficients of free-solvent for concentrated globular protein solutions using independently determined physical parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin W McBride

    Full Text Available The activity coefficient is largely considered an empirical parameter that was traditionally introduced to correct the non-ideality observed in thermodynamic systems such as osmotic pressure. Here, the activity coefficient of free-solvent is related to physically realistic parameters and a mathematical expression is developed to directly predict the activity coefficients of free-solvent, for aqueous protein solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. The model is based on the free-solvent model, which has previously been shown to provide excellent prediction of the osmotic pressure of concentrated and crowded globular proteins in aqueous solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. Thus, this model uses only the independently determined, physically realizable quantities: mole fraction, solvent accessible surface area, and ion binding, in its prediction. Predictions are presented for the activity coefficients of free-solvent for near-saturated protein solutions containing either bovine serum albumin or hemoglobin. As a verification step, the predictability of the model for the activity coefficient of sucrose solutions was evaluated. The predicted activity coefficients of free-solvent are compared to the calculated activity coefficients of free-solvent based on osmotic pressure data. It is observed that the predicted activity coefficients are increasingly dependent on the solute-solvent parameters as the protein concentration increases to near-saturation concentrations.

  1. Predicting the activity coefficients of free-solvent for concentrated globular protein solutions using independently determined physical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W; Rodgers, Victor G J

    2013-01-01

    The activity coefficient is largely considered an empirical parameter that was traditionally introduced to correct the non-ideality observed in thermodynamic systems such as osmotic pressure. Here, the activity coefficient of free-solvent is related to physically realistic parameters and a mathematical expression is developed to directly predict the activity coefficients of free-solvent, for aqueous protein solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. The model is based on the free-solvent model, which has previously been shown to provide excellent prediction of the osmotic pressure of concentrated and crowded globular proteins in aqueous solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. Thus, this model uses only the independently determined, physically realizable quantities: mole fraction, solvent accessible surface area, and ion binding, in its prediction. Predictions are presented for the activity coefficients of free-solvent for near-saturated protein solutions containing either bovine serum albumin or hemoglobin. As a verification step, the predictability of the model for the activity coefficient of sucrose solutions was evaluated. The predicted activity coefficients of free-solvent are compared to the calculated activity coefficients of free-solvent based on osmotic pressure data. It is observed that the predicted activity coefficients are increasingly dependent on the solute-solvent parameters as the protein concentration increases to near-saturation concentrations.

  2. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanas Verikas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each. The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG

  3. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  4. Variation in activity of root extracellular phytase between genotypes of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Mohammad Farouq

    1997-01-01

    Barley genotypes grown in nutrient solution under P nutrient stress and sterile conditions were compared in activity of root-associated and root-released extracellular phytase. The activity of root-associated phytase of all genotypes was about 10 times higher than that of root-released phytase...... and the genotypes performed differently with regard to the activity of the enzymes. The winter barley genotype, Marinka had the highest activity of root-associated extracellular phytase which differed significantly from Alexis and Senate, but not from Regatta. Alexis showed the lowest activity of root......-released extracellular phytase which differed significantly from those of Marinka and Regatta, but not from Senate. Generally, there was a significant correlation between the activity of root-associated and released extracellular phytase....

  5. Responses of desertification to variations in wind activity over the past five decades in arid and semiarid areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XunMing; LI JiJun; DONG GuangRong; XIA DunSheng

    2008-01-01

    There have been significant variations in wind activity over the past five decades in arid and semiarid areas in China. High wind activity occurred from the 1960s to the 1970s, but wind activity has de-creased continuously from the 1980s to the present; as a result, the potential sand transport during the latter period was only 20%-50% of the values during the 1960s and 1970s. Phases of high wind activ-ity were highly consistent with the trends in desertification over the past five decades in arid and semiarid areas in China, but spring precipitation was also a significant factor: rapid desertification during the 1960s and 1970s was due to high wind activity, generally combining with low spring pre-cipitation; subsequent rehabilitation since the 1980s has resulted from the combined effects of low wind activity and higher spring precipitation. Therefore, although modern desertification and rehabili-tation processes are being more or less affected by human activities, both processes appear to be more strongly controlled by climate change.

  6. Seasonal prediction of lightning activity in North Western Venezuela: Large-scale versus local drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Á. G.; Díaz-Lobatón, J.; Chourio, X.; Stock, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Lake Maracaibo Basin in North Western Venezuela has the highest annual lightning rate of any place in the world (~ 200 fl km- 2 yr- 1), whose electrical discharges occasionally impact human and animal lives (e.g., cattle) and frequently affect economic activities like oil and natural gas exploitation. Lightning activity is so common in this region that it has a proper name: Catatumbo Lightning (plural). Although short-term lightning forecasts are now common in different parts of the world, to the best of the authors' knowledge, seasonal prediction of lightning activity is still non-existent. This research discusses the relative role of both large-scale and local climate drivers as modulators of lightning activity in the region, and presents a formal predictability study at seasonal scale. Analysis of the Catatumbo Lightning Regional Mode, defined in terms of the second Empirical Orthogonal Function of monthly Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS-TRMM) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite data for North Western South America, permits the identification of potential predictors at seasonal scale via a Canonical Correlation Analysis. Lightning activity in North Western Venezuela responds to well defined sea-surface temperature patterns (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Meridional Mode) and changes in the low-level meridional wind field that are associated with the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and tropical cyclone activity, but it is also linked to local drivers like convection triggered by the topographic configuration and the effect of the Maracaibo Basin Nocturnal Low Level Jet. The analysis indicates that at seasonal scale the relative contribution of the large-scale drivers is more important than the local (basin-wide) ones, due to the synoptic control imposed by the former. Furthermore, meridional CAPE transport at 925 mb is identified as the best potential predictor for lightning activity in the Lake

  7. Earthquake prediction activities and Damavand earthquake precursor test site in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Iran has long been known as one of the most seismically active areas of the world, and it frequently suffers destructive and catastrophic earthquakes that cause heavy loss of human life and widespread damage. The Alborz region in the northern part of Iran is an active EW trending mountain belt of 100 km wide and 600 km long. The Alborz range is bounded by the Talesh Mountains to the west and the Kopet Dagh Mountains to the east and consists of several sedimentary and volcanic layers of Cambrian to Eocene ages that were deformed during the late Cenozoic collision. Several active faults affect the central Alborz. The main active faults are the North Tehran and Mosha faults. The Mosha fault is one of the major active faults in the central Alborz as shown by its strong historical seismicity and its clear morphological signature. Situated in the vicinity of Tehran city, this 150-km-long N100° E trending fault represents an important potential seismic source. For earthquake monitoring and possible future prediction/precursory purposes, a test site has been established in the Alborz mountain region. The proximity to the capital of Iran with its high population density, low frequency but high magnitude earthquake occurrence, and active faults with their historical earthquake events have been considered as the main criteria for this selection. In addition, within the test site, there are hot springs and deep water wells that can be used for physico-chemical and radon gas analysis for earthquake precursory studies. The present activities include magnetic measurements; application of methodology for identification of seismogenic nodes for earthquakes of M ≥ 6.0 in the Alborz region developed by International Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, IIEPT RAS, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (IIEPT&MG RAS); a feasibility study using a dense seismic network for identification of future locations of seismic monitoring stations and application

  8. ChIP-seq Accurately Predicts Tissue-Specific Activity of Enhancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Blow, Matthew J.; Li, Zirong; Zhang, Tao; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Shoukry, Malak; Wright, Crystal; Chen, Feng; Afzal, Veena; Ren, Bing; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2009-02-01

    A major yet unresolved quest in decoding the human genome is the identification of the regulatory sequences that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes. Distant-acting transcriptional enhancers are particularly challenging to uncover since they are scattered amongst the vast non-coding portion of the genome. Evolutionary sequence constraint can facilitate the discovery of enhancers, but fails to predict when and where they are active in vivo. Here, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with the enhancer-associated protein p300, followed by massively-parallel sequencing, to map several thousand in vivo binding sites of p300 in mouse embryonic forebrain, midbrain, and limb tissue. We tested 86 of these sequences in a transgenic mouse assay, which in nearly all cases revealed reproducible enhancer activity in those tissues predicted by p300 binding. Our results indicate that in vivo mapping of p300 binding is a highly accurate means for identifying enhancers and their associated activities and suggest that such datasets will be useful to study the role of tissue-specific enhancers in human biology and disease on a genome-wide scale.

  9. A model for predicting coolant activity behaviour for fuel-failure monitoring analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical treatment has been developed to predict the release of volatile fission products from operating defective CANDU nuclear fuel elements. The activity in both the fuel-to-sheath gap and primary heat transport system (PHTS) coolant as a function of time can be predicted during all reactor operating conditions, including: startup, steady-state, shutdown, and bundle-shifting manoeuvres. The model has been implemented as the STAR (Steady-state and Transient Activity Release) code. This code is stand-alone developed in the C++ programming language using a custom-developed finite-difference variable-mesh (FDVM) numerical solution technique. The model parameters are derived from in-reactor X-2 defective fuel experiments conducted at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). STAR has been successfully benchmarked against analytical solutions of the diffusional release-to-birth ratio and coolant activity concentration of 129I. In addition, STAR has been validated against two documented defect occurrences in the Bruce-B commercial nuclear generating station (NGS). (author)

  10. A method for predicting the number of active bubbles in sonochemical reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, Slimane; Ferkous, Hamza; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Rezgui, Yacine; Guemini, Miloud

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the number of active bubbles in acoustic cavitation field is very important for the prediction of the performance of ultrasonic reactors toward most chemical processes induced by ultrasound. The literature in this field is scarce, probably due to the complicated nature of the phenomena. We introduce here a relatively simple semi-empirical method for predicting the number of active bubbles in an acoustic cavitation field. By coupling the bubble dynamics in an acoustical field with chemical kinetics occurring in the bubble during oscillation, the amount of the radical species OH and HO2 and molecular H2O2 released by a single bubble was estimated. Knowing that the H2O2 measured experimentally during sonication of water comes from the recombination of hydroxyl (OH) and perhydroxyl (HO2) radicals in the liquid phase and assuming that in sonochemistry applications, the cavitation is transient and the bubble fragments at the first collapse, the number of bubbles formed per unit time per unit volume is then easily determined using material balances for H2O2, OH and HO2 in the liquid phase. The effect of ultrasonic frequency on the number of active bubbles was examined. It was shown that increasing ultrasonic frequency leads to a substantial increase in the number of bubbles formed in the reactor. PMID:25127247

  11. Prediction-error in the context of real social relationships modulates reward system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua ePoore

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The human reward system is sensitive to both social (e.g., validation and non-social rewards (e.g., money and is likely integral for relationship development and reputation building. However, data is sparse on the question of whether implicit social reward processing meaningfully contributes to explicit social representations such as trust and attachment security in pre-existing relationships. This event-related fMRI experiment examined reward system prediction-error activity in response to a potent social reward—social validation—and this activity’s relation to both attachment security and trust in the context of real romantic relationships. During the experiment, participants’ expectations for their romantic partners’ positive regard of them were confirmed (validated or violated, in either positive or negative directions. Primary analyses were conducted using predefined regions of interest, the locations of which were taken from previously published research. Results indicate that activity for mid-brain and striatal reward system regions of interest was modulated by social reward expectation violation in ways consistent with prior research on reward prediction-error. Additionally, activity in the striatum during viewing of disconfirmatory information was associated with both increases in post-scan reports of attachment anxiety and decreases in post-scan trust, a finding that follows directly from representational models of attachment and trust.

  12. Eye Movements during Auditory Attention Predict Individual Differences in Dorsal Attention Network Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo M.; Fu, Richard Z.; Seemungal, Barry M.; Wise, Richard J. S.; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms supporting auditory attention are not fully understood. A dorsal frontoparietal network of brain regions is thought to mediate the spatial orienting of attention across all sensory modalities. Key parts of this network, the frontal eye fields (FEF) and the superior parietal lobes (SPL), contain retinotopic maps and elicit saccades when stimulated. This suggests that their recruitment during auditory attention might reflect crossmodal oculomotor processes; however this has not been confirmed experimentally. Here we investigate whether task-evoked eye movements during an auditory task can predict the magnitude of activity within the dorsal frontoparietal network. A spatial and non-spatial listening task was used with on-line eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). No visual stimuli or cues were used. The auditory task elicited systematic eye movements, with saccade rate and gaze position predicting attentional engagement and the cued sound location, respectively. Activity associated with these separate aspects of evoked eye-movements dissociated between the SPL and FEF. However these observed eye movements could not account for all the activation in the frontoparietal network. Our results suggest that the recruitment of the SPL and FEF during attentive listening reflects, at least partly, overt crossmodal oculomotor processes during non-visual attention. Further work is needed to establish whether the network’s remaining contribution to auditory attention is through covert crossmodal processes, or is directly involved in the manipulation of auditory information. PMID:27242465

  13. Predeliberation activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum and the prediction of subsequent value judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Uri; Rutishauser, Ueli; Kim, Soyoun; Cai, Xinying; Lee, Daeyeol; Koch, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Rational, value-based decision-making mandates selecting the option with highest subjective expected value after appropriate deliberation. We examined activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum of monkeys deciding between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed ones. We previously found neurons that modulated their activity in this task according to the animal's choice, while it deliberated (choice neurons). Here we found neurons whose spiking activities were predictive of the spatial location of the selected target (spatial-bias neurons) or the size of the chosen reward (reward-bias neurons) before the onset of the cue presenting the decision-alternatives, and thus before rational deliberation could begin. Their predictive power increased as the values the animals associated with the two decision alternatives became more similar. The ventral striatum (VS) preferentially contained spatial-bias neurons; the caudate nucleus (CD) preferentially contained choice neurons. In contrast, the DLPFC contained significant numbers of all three neuron types, but choice neurons were not preferentially also bias neurons of either kind there, nor were spatial-bias neurons preferentially also choice neurons, and vice versa. We suggest a simple winner-take-all (WTA) circuit model to account for the dissociation of choice and bias neurons. The model reproduced our results and made additional predictions that were borne out empirically. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that the DLPFC and striatum harbor dissociated neural populations that represent choices and predeliberation biases that are combined after cue onset; the bias neurons have a weaker effect on the ultimate decision than the choice neurons, so their influence is progressively apparent for trials where the values associated with the decision alternatives are increasingly similar.

  14. Predeliberation activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum and the prediction of subsequent value judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri eMaoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rational, value-based decision-making mandates selecting the option with highest subjective expected value after appropriate deliberation. We examined activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and striatum of monkeys deciding between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed ones. We previously found neurons that modulated their activity in this task according to the animal’s choice, while it deliberated (choice neurons. Here we found neurons whose spiking activities were predictive of the spatial location of the selected target (spatial-bias neurons or the size of the chosen reward (reward-bias neurons before the onset of the cue presenting the decision-alternatives, and thus before rational deliberation could begin. Their predictive power increased as the values the animals associated with the two decision alternatives became more similar. The ventral striatum (VS preferentially contained spatial-bias neurons; the caudate nucleus (CD preferentially contained choice neurons. In contrast, the DLPFC contained significant numbers of all three neuron types, but choice neurons were not preferentially also bias neurons of either kind there, nor were spatial-bias neurons preferentially also choice neurons, and vice versa. We suggest a simple winner-take-all circuit model to account for the dissociation of choice and bias neurons. The model reproduced our results and made additional predictions that were borne out empirically. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that the DLPFC and striatum harbor dissociated neural populations that represent choices and predeliberation biases that are combined after cue onset; the bias neurons have a weaker effect on the ultimate decision than the choice neurons, so their influence is progressively apparent for trials where the values associated with the decision alternatives are increasingly similar.

  15. Motion or activity: their role in intra- and inter-subject variation in fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben E; Nørgaard, Minna D; Rostrup, Egill;

    2005-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) carries the potential for non-invasive measurements of brain activity. Typically, what are referred to as activation images are actually thresholded statistical parametric maps. These maps possess large inter-session variability. This is especially problematic when applying ...

  16. Sources of variation in habitual physical activity of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Lund; Korsholm, L; Møller, N C;

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of gender, maturity state, seasonality, type of measurement day and socioeconomic status (SES) on habitual physical activity in 8-10-year-old children and 14-16-year-old adolescents (n=1318). Physical activity was assessed objectively by accelerometry...

  17. Predicting Endoscopic Disease Activity in Crohn's Disease : A New and Validated Noninvasive Disease Activity Index (The Utrecht Activity Index)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, Itta M.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; Hommes, Daniel W.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Fidder, Herma H.; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Background:Mucosal healing is presently considered one of the primary goals in treatment of Crohn's disease (CD), but this can only be confirmed by endoscopy. We aimed to design and validate a new disease activity index based on a combination of clinical characteristics and readily available laborat

  18. Daily and seasonal variations in radon activity concentration in the soil air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Műllerová, Monika; Holý, Karol; Bulko, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Radon activity concentration in the soil air in the area of Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics (FMPI) in Bratislava, Slovak Republic, has been continuously monitored since 1994. Long-term measurements at a depth of 0.8 m and short-term measurements at a depth of 0.4 m show a high variability in radon activity concentrations in the soil. The analysis of the data confirms that regular daily changes in radon activity concentration in the soil air depend on the daily changes in atmospheric pressure. It was also found that the typical annual courses of the radon activity concentration in the soil air (with summer minima and winter maxima) were disturbed by mild winter and heavy summer precipitation. Influence of precipitation on the increase in the radon activity concentration in the soil air was observed at a depth of 0.4 m and subsequently at a depth of 0.8 m.

  19. Seasonal variations of the phenolic constituents in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) leaves, stems and fruits, and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujor, Oana-Crina; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Volf, Irina; Popa, Valentin I; Dufour, Claire

    2016-12-15

    The seasonal variations of the content and diversity of phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity of leaves, stems and fruits of bilberry collected in May, July and September, were evaluated for two consecutive years. UPLC/MS(n) analyses showed the predominance of anthocyanins in fruits, caffeic acid derivatives in leaves whereas flavanol oligomers represented more than half of the phenolic compounds in stems. Thioacidolysis revealed degrees of polymerization between 2 and 4 and (-)-epicatechin as the main flavanol unit. The sum of the phenolic compounds by UPLC was highly correlated with the total polyphenol content and the antioxidant activity in the DPPH test for all the extracts except for May leaves. The latter were relatively rich in p-coumaric acid derivatives. Seasonal effects were more marked for leaves, which exhibited higher antioxidant activities and phenolic contents in July and September when these parameters were at their highest in July for stems. PMID:27451155

  20. Predicting above normal wildfire activity in southern Europe as a function of meteorological drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildfires are a recurrent feature of ecosystems in southern Europe, regularly causing large ecological and socio-economic damages. For efficient management of this hazard, long lead time forecasts could be valuable tools. Using logistic regression, we show that the probability of above normal summer wildfire activity in the 1985–2010 time period can be forecasted as a function of meteorological drought with significant predictability (p <0.05) several months in advance. The results show that long lead time forecasts of this natural hazard are feasible in southern Europe, which could potentially aid decision-makers in the design of strategies for forest management. (letter)