WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity measure aplicabilidade

  1. FASES DA TEORIA HUMANÍSTICA: ANÁLISE DA APLICABILIDADE EM PESQUISA

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    Ana Luiza Paula de Aguiar Lélis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar la aplicabilidad de las fases de la Teoría Humanística en investigaciones, según un Modelo de Análisis de Teoría. Estudio de análisis crítica de teoría de enfermería con énfasis en la aplicabilidad. Fue efectuada una búsq ueda, en abril y mayo de 2013, en las bases de datos SCOPUS, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature y en las disponibles en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud. Fueron utilizados los descriptores: “Teoria de Enfermagem” y “Pesquisa em Enfermagem” y Nursing Theory y Nursing Research , en publicaciones del 2002 hasta mayo de 2013. Siete artículos fueron seleccionados, de los cuales cinco revelaron todas las etapas en su desarrollo, evidenciando la aplicabilidad de la Teoría Humanística como soporte metodológico e n las investigaciones de enfermería.

  2. Teorías sobre la exclusión social: reflexionando acerca de su aplicabilidad

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    Santiago Bachiller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teorías sobre la exclusión social: reflexionando acerca de su aplicabilidad en el análisis de los procesos de precariedad social que afectan a los recolectores informales de un basural municipal

  3. Estudio de soluciones metálicas. (I Aplicabilidad y limitaciones de algunos modelos termodinámicos

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    Jaime Valderrama N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan y analizan las características centrales de los modelos termodinámicos energéticos basados en la interacción por pares entre un átomo y sus próximos vecinos. Se discute la aplicabilidad de estos modelos a sistemas metálicos binarios. Se concluye sugiriendo posibles alternativas para el refinamiento de estos modelos.

  4. Esferas y pliegues: la aplicabilidad de la biopolítica de Fichte a Deleuze

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    Ferreyra, Julian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El artículo propone construir una biopolítica afirmativa a través de la confrontación de las ontologías políticas de Johann Fichte y Gilles Deleuze. Se mostrará la afinidad entre la Thathandlung y cuatro conceptos deleuzianos que se entrelazan a lo largo de su obra: eterno retorno, intensidad, affectus y pliegue. Sin embargo, ambas filosofías trascendentales divergen en su concepción del tiempo: en Fichte, lleva a contraponer la agilidad de la actividad pura del Yo (eterna y la fijeza de las determinaciones práctico-políticas (temporales, mientras en Deleuze concreta la inmanencia entre ambos planos. Esa fijeza en Fichte se observa en el plano de la aplicabilidad (el cuerpo como esfera de acción y determina su concepción del Estado. Por tanto, una aplicabilidad basada en la forma del pliegue permite postular, para concluir, una forma deleuziana de Estado que sea eficaz ante los desafíos del mundo contemporáneo. This paper aims to construct an affirmative biopolitics through the confrontation of the political ontologies of Johann Fichte and Gilles Deleuze. We will show the affinity between the Thathandlung and four Deleuzian concepts that are interwoven throughout his work: eternal return, intensity, affectus and fold. However, both transcendental philosophies differ in their conception of time: Fichte opposes the agility of the pure activity of the I (eternal with the inflexibility of the practicalpolitical determinations (temporal, whereas Deleuze’s philosophy realizes the immanence of both realms. Ficthean inflexibility is observable in the realm of applicability (the body as the sphere of action and determines its conception of the State. Therefore, to conclude, an applicability based on the form of the fold enables us to propose a Deleuzian form of State that may be effective faced with the challenges of the contemporary world.

  5. Aplicabilidad de la teoría de colas al fenómeno hospitalario

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    Llano Monelos, Pablo de

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de la tesis es el análisis de la problemática de congestión de los sistemas hospitalarios, en concreto del área de influencia de la ciudad de A Coruña, bajo la óptica de la teoría de colas. [Resumen] Se trata de buscar la aplicabilidad de la teoría de colas como herramienta valida para realizar predicciones en el entorno de los problemas de congestión hospitalaria, con la ayuda de la simulación como herramienta para la validación de los resultados obteni...

  6. APLICABILIDADE DA TEORIA DE VIRGINIA HENDERSON PARA FUNDAMENTAÇÃO NA ENFERMAGEM: FRAGILIDADES E POTENCIALIDADES

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    Ferrari, Roberta Fernanda Rogonni; Rodrigues, Daysi Mara Murio Ribeiro; Baldissera, Vanessa Denardi Antoniassi; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; Carreira, Lígia

    2015-01-01

    A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a aplicabilidade da teoria dos 14 componentes do cuidado de Virginia Henderson por meio do levantamento da sua utilização em pesquisas nacionais e internacionais. Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa, a seleção dos artigos para o levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado nas bases de dados LILACS, ScIELOe BDENF, utilizando dois descritores controlados na base da BIREME (DeCs): “teoria de enfermagem”, “enfermagem”, e como não controlados “teoria ...

  7. Instrumentos de avaliação de linguagem infantil: aplicabilidade em deficientes

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    Cristhiane Ferreira Guimarães

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar testes e provas de avaliação de linguagem infantil de modo a discutir a aplicabilidade na população com deficiência física, auditiva, visual, mental e múltipla. No segundo semestre de 2011, pesquisou-se acerca das deficiências e das avaliações diretas de linguagem infantil oral, gestual e escrita, nacionais ou traduzidas. Consultou-se artigos e teses nas bases de dados online, além de livros e avaliações publicadas. Selecionou-se 28 avaliações, que foram agrupadas por objetivos de aplicação, descritas segundo estímulo e realização esperados, e analisadas pelos seguintes critérios: modalidades de avaliação, habilidades requeridas e conversão de códigos. Encontrou-se 23 modalidades de avaliação, cuja análise sugere que indivíduos que têm possibilidade de uso da visão, membros superiores e mente, e que conseguem compreender e utilizar imagem e português oral ou escrito como códigos, provavelmente terão maior gama de avaliações que os atenda. As dimensões semântica e pragmática pareceram ser as mais acessíveis, corroborando com a aplicação encontrada na literatura. Sobre a possibilidade de avaliação completa, verificou-se que apenas a dupla de habilidades "visão/membros superiores" permitiria isto. Um levantamento das informações sobre o perfil comunicativo do examinando comparado com o perfil comunicativo requisitado na avaliação auxilia na decisão sobre a compatibilidade destes e consequente aplicabilidade. No geral, consideradas as particularidades dos casos e das avaliações, instrumentos pré-selecionados poderão ser aplicáveis a indivíduos deficientes. Contudo, poderá ocorrer que, para alguns pacientes, não será possível realizar uma avaliação completa utilizando apenas instrumentos do tipo direto.

  8. APLICABILIDADE DAS NORMAS PENAIS NAS CONDUTAS ILÍCITAS DE CYBERBULLYING COMETIDAS EM REDES SOCIAIS NA INTERNET

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    Rafael Giordano Gonçalves Brito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O número de adeptos da Internet tem aumentado consideravelmente nos últimos anos, principalmente em virtude da utilização das redes sociais. Muitos desses usuários utilizam a rede mundial de computadores para a prática de condutas ilícitas, sendo comumente denominada de “crimes de informática”. Dentre os vários atos ilícitos, tais como: pedofilia, disseminação de vírus de computador, racismo, apologia e incitação aos crimes contra a vida, etc., somente um foi escolhido para ser abordado neste trabalho, o cyberbullying. O cometimento de tal conduta será estudado a fim de verificar a aplicabilidade das normas penais nestes atos.

  9. Estudo eletrofisiológico do nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral: aplicabilidade técnica e valores de referência

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    DIAS, RAFAEL JOSÉ SOARES; CARNEIRO, ARMANDO PEREIRA

    2000-01-01

    O estudo da condução neural dos segmentos mais distais dos nervos mais longos pode ser capaz de reconhecer mais precocemente as alterações oriundas da maioria das polineuropatias. O objetivo deste estudo, foi verificar a aplicabilidade técnica do exame de condução ortodrômica do ramo cutâneo dorsal do nervo sural (nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral) em pessoas saudáveis, padronizar os valores normais para serem utilizados como referência e comparar seus valores com os do nervo sural na perna. Quare...

  10. Proposta e aplicabilidade de modelo para avaliação da gestão municipal do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar

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    Cristine Garcia Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma proposta de modelo para avaliar a gestão municipal do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE, verificando sua aplicabilidade nos dez municípios de Santa Catarina, Brasil, com mais de 100 mil habitantes. A construção do modelo ocorreu mediante oficinas com especialistas e sua adequação foi realizada por meio do método Delphi, com a participação de 14 colaboradores. O modelo contemplou duas dimensões da gestão municipal: a dimensão político-organizacional, organizada nas subdimensões recursos, atuação intersetorial e controle social, e a dimensão técnico-operacional, que contempla as subdimensões eficácia alimentar e nutricional, monitoramento alimentar e nutricional e atuação pedagógica para a alimentação saudável. No total foram elencados 22 indicadores, coletados por meio de entrevistas com os nutricionistas responsáveis pelo PNAE. Na aplicabilidade os indicadores mostraram-se viáveis para contemplar as atribuições de responsabilidade municipal, devendo o modelo ser futuramente empregado para qualificar a atuação da gestão do PNAE.

  11. APLICABILIDADE DA SISTEMATIZAÇÃO DA ASSISTÊNCIA DE ENFERMAGEM NA ESTRATÉGIA DE SAÚDE DA FAMÍLIA: UMA REVISÃO BIBLIOGRÁFICA

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    Anna Paula Mendonça Barros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão da literatura realizada no período de 2002 a 2012 cujo objetivo foi revisar e analisar as publicações relacionadas à aplicabilidade da Sistematização da Assistência de Enfermagem na Estratégia de Saúde da Família. Os trabalhos selecionados foram agrupados por similaridade em três categorias temáticas: Funções assistenciais do enfermeiro na ESF; Aplicabilidade da SAE na prática do enfermeiro da ESF; Implementação da ESF e da SAE. Foi demonstrado aumento das publicações nos últimos anos e maior preocupação por parte dos enfermeiros a cerca da temática e que a utilização da SAE na ESF proporciona o estabelecimento de vínculo entre enfermeiro-usuário-família com fortalecimento do elo com a comunidade, de modo que o enfermeiro poderá interligar as informações disponíveis, guiando a assistência prestada a nível individual e familiar. Aplicar a SAE na ESF requer ao enfermeiro dedicação, ousadia e determinação frente às dificuldades em assimilar gerência e assistência, duas funções importantes que o enfermeiro realiza diariamente.

  12. Proposta de aplicabilidade da preservação digital ao prontuário eletrônico do paciente

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    Virginia Bentes Pinto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa baseada na revisão de literatura sobre a preservação e a curadoria digital, bem como a possibilidade de aplicabilidade ao contexto da documentação sanitária, enquanto memória da saúde e que buscou responder a seguinte questão: Como o padrão Open Archival Information System (OAIS pode ser aplicado aos prontuários eletrônicos do paciente, na perspectiva da preservação de conteúdos digitais, visando assegurar a confidencialidade, confiabilidade, autenticidade e acesso, a quem de direito, à informação registrada nesses documentos? O objetivo básico é estudar a literatura referente à preservação e à curadoria digital, com ênfase no padrão Open Archival Information System (OAIS, considerando sua aplicabilidade ao âmbito dos prontuários eletrônicos de pacientes, com vistas na confidencialidade, confiabilidade, autenticidade e acesso à recuperação da informação, observando-se o ordenamento jurídico concernente a esse documento. Pesquisa exploratória pautada no levantamento do estado da arte sobre o tema em lide. O corpus do estudo foi constituído de 01 prontuário (5 volumes da especialidade da nefrologia, com recorte no ano de 1970. O estudo empírico foi no Serviço de Arquivo Médico e Estatística, do Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio da Universidade Federal do Ceará. Os achados evidenciam que, embora já existam várias iniciativas sobre a preservação digital da documentação cientifica tecnológica e cultural, não encontramos experiências sobre prontuários. Ademais, o modelo OAIS pode ser aplicado ao contexto do prontuário eletrônico do paciente desde que observadas as características particulares de legalidade de acesso a esses documentos.

  13. Análisis de la aplicabilidad de la técnica Value Stream Mapping en el rediseño de sistemas productivos

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    Serrano Lasa, Ibon

    2007-01-01

    Los sistemas productivos de las empresas han de adaptarse a las exigencias de los mercados. El Value Stream Mapping (VSM) es una técnica desarrollada por la Producción Ajustada y orientada al rediseño de dichos sistemas productivos. Si bien existe divulgación teórica sobre la técnica así como publicaciones de casos prácticos exitosos, se detecta la carencia de un análisis que explore en profundidad la aplicabilidad de la técnica en entornos productivos relacionados con las lineas de flujo des...

  14. Correlação das escalas de avaliação utilizadas na doença de Parkinson com aplicabilidade na fisioterapia

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    Mello,Marcella Patrícia Bezerra de; Botelho,Ana Carla Gomes

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A doença de Parkinson (DP) é uma patologia neurológica crônica e degenerativa do sistema nervoso central que acomete os gânglios da base, cujas características principais são tremor, rigidez e bradicinesia. Com o progresso terapêutico, desenvolveram-se várias escalas visando monitorar a evolução da doença e a eficácia de tratamentos. O objetivo deste estudo de revisão bibliográfica é caracterizar as principais escalas usadas para a avaliação da DP, discutindo sua aplicabilidade à ...

  15. Estudo da adaptação e aplicabilidade do questionário perfil de atividades de Adelaide em idosos de uma comunidade Nipo-Brasileira Adaptation and applicability of the Adelaide activities profile for older adults of a community of Japanese origin

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    Miriam Masako Kanashiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento ativo está associado ao bem-estar e qualidade de vida. Este estudo de corte transversal teve o propósito de adaptar e analisar a aplicabilidade do questionário Perfil de Atividades de Adelaide (PAA, no Brasil e caracterizar a frequência e perfil de atividades de idosos pertencentes à cultura Japonesa. O questionário PAA foi traduzido e adaptado para o português do Brasil. A amostra foi composta por dois grupos: 30 praticantes do jogo mahjong e 30 praticantes do esporte gateball, de ambos os sexos. Observou-se que as mulheres foram mais ativas nos domínios serviço doméstico, serviço para outros, e lazer intelectual, os homens, em atividades sociais. O PAA pode ser útil para analisar o perfil da prática de atividades entre idosos e orientar a indicação de intervenções gerontológicas.Active aging is associated with well-being and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to adapt and analyze the applicability of the Adelaide Activities Profile (AAP in Brazil, and characterize the frequency and type of activities carried out by older adults who belong to the Japanese community. The questionnaire was translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. The sample was composed by two groups: 30 mahjong players and 30 gateball players, men and women. Women were more active in domestic chores, service to others, and intellectual leisure; men were more active in social activities. The AAP may be useful to analyze the activity profile of older adults and guide the indication of gerontological interventions.

  16. Correlação das escalas de avaliação utilizadas na doença de Parkinson com aplicabilidade na fisioterapia

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    Marcella Patrícia Bezerra de Mello

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A doença de Parkinson (DP é uma patologia neurológica crônica e degenerativa do sistema nervoso central que acomete os gânglios da base, cujas características principais são tremor, rigidez e bradicinesia. Com o progresso terapêutico, desenvolveram-se várias escalas visando monitorar a evolução da doença e a eficácia de tratamentos. O objetivo deste estudo de revisão bibliográfica é caracterizar as principais escalas usadas para a avaliação da DP, discutindo sua aplicabilidade à prática fisioterapêutica. MATERIAIS E MÉTODO: Levantamento bibliográfico a partir de bases de dados como Scielo, Medline, Lilacs, PubMed, entre 1990 a 2005. RESULTADOS: Seis escalas são abordadas: Escala dos Estágios de Incapacidade de Hoehn e Yahr; Escala Unificada de Avaliação da DP (UPDRS; Escala de Sydney; Questionário da DP (PDQ-39; Qualidade de vida (PSN; Escala de atividade de Parkinson (PAS. Destacando-se a PDQ-39 pela percepção do paciente sobre sua qualidade de vida. A PAS é a que melhor atende aos objetivos específicos da fisioterapia, pois avalia os principais problemas de mobilidade funcional. Além das escalas de Hoehn e Yahr e a UPDRS, por sua confiabilidade, pois podem ser usadas por fisioterapeutas para melhor avaliação do estado clínico-funcional do paciente. CONCLUSÃO: A necessidade de monitorar a evolução dos pacientes e os resultados de intervenção fisioterapêutica exige do fisioterapeuta o conhecimento para utilizar medidas sistematizadas e de fácil aplicabilidade para avaliar pacientes com DP. Cabe a esse profissional optar pela que permita uma tomada de decisão clínica compatível com seu local de trabalho, com as necessidades do paciente e com o meio em que ele vive.

  17. Patentes sobre invenciones biotecnológicas: criterios legales y jurisprudenciales europeos y su aplicabilidad en el derecho mexicano

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    Carlos Ernesto Arcudia Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las primeras solicitudes de protección de las invenciones biotecnológicas por medio de patente encontraron resistencia en las oficinas de patentes y en los tribunales. Se les consideraba productos de la naturaleza, o bien, que el sistema de patentes no era adecuado para la materia viva. También se argumentaba que las invenciones biotecnológicas no cumplían con los requisitos de patentabilidad; o que había prohibiciones legales que impedían su protección por medio de patente. La Oficina Europea de Patentes y los tribunales europeos, mediante una serie de resoluciones, fueron derogando las excepciones a la patentabilidad de la materia viva. Ese desarrollo jurisprudencial sirvió de base para la elaboración de la Directiva 98/44. Toda vez que la regulación del sistema de patentes europeo guarda una estrecha similitud con el sis - tema de patentes mexicano, proponemos la aplicabilidad de los criterios europeos para el examen de las solicitudes de patentes sobre materia viva.

  18. Instrumentos de avaliação da postura dinâmica: aplicabilidade ao ambiente escolar

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    Matias Noll

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Para que a avaliação da postura dinâmica seja efetivada é necessário, primeiramente, conhecer os diversos instrumentos, disponíveis e validados na literatura, apropriados para esse fim. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste artigo de revisão sistemática foi descrever, sintetizar e analisar criticamente os instrumentos encontrados na literatura que objetivem avaliar a postura dinâmica, tanto em adultos quanto em escolares, e refletir sobre a possibilidade de utilização desses métodos no ambiente escolar. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma busca sistemática de artigos em bases de dados (Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, SciELO publicados a partir da década de 1980 e no Banco de Teses e Dissertações da Capes. As palavras-chave utilizadas na busca pelos artigos foram back, spine, back injuries, school, back school, postural hygiene program, education, child, student, posture, em combinação com as palavras-chave evaluation, assessment, measurement, e os respectivos termos em português. Os instrumentos propostos deveriam preencher os seguintes critérios: (a avaliar a postura corporal durante a realização de atividades da vida diária (AVDs; (b utilizar critérios pré-definidos de avaliação da postura dinâmica; e (c avaliar a postura a partir de observação, direta ou a partir de filmagem. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados oito artigos originais que apresentam instrumentos de avaliação da postura dinâmica, avaliando a execução de AVDs a partir de critérios biomecânicos pré-definidos por escalas numéricas; destes, apenas quatro instrumentos foram elaborados com o propósito de avaliar a execução de AVDs de escolares. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: Em geral, os instrumentos apresentam algumas limitações metodológicas, embora sejam de fácil aplicabilidade.

  19. Adaptação e aplicabilidade de um algoritmo de diurético para pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca

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    Maria Karolina Echer Ferreira Feijó

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Estados congestivos podem ser identificados e manejados através de algoritmos como o Diuretic Treatment Algorithm (DTA para ajuste de diurético por telefone, com enfoque na avaliação clínica. Porém, o DTA está disponível somente em língua inglesa. OBJETIVO: Adaptar o DTA e testar sua aplicabilidade para uso no Brasil em pacientes ambulatoriais com IC. MÉTODOS: Seguiram-se as etapas de tradução, síntese, retrotradução, avaliação por comitê de especialistas e pré-teste (aplicabilidade clínica por meio de ensaio clínico randomizado. O DTA foi denominado, na versão para o Brasil, algoritmo de ajuste de diurético (AAD. Os pacientes foram randomizados para grupo intervenção (GI - ajuste de diurético conforme o AAD - ou grupo controle (GC - ajuste convencional. Foi avaliado o escore clínico de congestão (ECC e o peso para ambos os grupos. RESULTADOS: Foram realizadas 12 modificações no DTA. Incluíram-se 34 pacientes. Para aqueles congestos, o aumento de diurético guiado pelo AAD resultou em maior resolução da congestão, com redução de dois pontos no ECC para 50% da amostra -2 (-3,5; -1,0, enquanto a mediana para o GC foi 0 (-1,25; -1,0, (p < 0,001. A mediana de variação de peso foi maior no GI -1,4 (-1,7; -0,5 quando comparado ao GC 0,1 (1,2; -0,6, p = 0,001. CONCLUSÕES: O ADD mostrou-se aplicável na prática clínica após adaptação e parece resultar em melhor controle da congestão em pacientes com IC. A efetividade clínica da ferramenta merece ser testada em amostra maior de pacientes visando sua validação para uso no Brasil (Universal Trial Number: U1111-1130-5749 (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2013; [online]. ahead print, PP.0-0.

  20. Aplicabilidade das ações preconizadas pelo método canguru Share applicability recommended by kangaroo method

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    Alessandra Patricia Stelmak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:Identificar a prevalência das ações preconizadas pelo MC, na prática de cuidados ao recém-nascido pré-termo e/ou baixo peso, pela equipe de enfermagem de uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal que é referência estadual para o MC. Método: Pesquisa descritiva quantitativa, realizada através da aplicação de um questionário estruturado com 37 profissionais de enfermagem de nível médio, em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, de fevereiro a abril de 2014. Resultados: o acolhimento, o incentivo ao toque, o aleitamento materno e o controle ambiental são as ações mais executadas pela equipe, apresentando cada uma 97% de aplicabilidade prática, e como ações menos executadas, a troca de fralda em decúbito lateral (83%, e o banho envolto em cueiros (58%. Conclusão: Esta equipe realiza as ações humanizadas de cuidado conforme preconizados pelo MC, e compreende a importância desses cuidados para o desenvolvimento infantil dos recém-nascidos. Existe necessidade de processo de educação permanente em serviço.

  1. INDICADORES DE AVALIAÇÃO DE GOVERNANÇA EM DESTINOS TURÍSTICOS – uma análise da aplicabilidade dos modelos propostos

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    Doris Van de Meene Ruschmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar os conceitos relacionados à governança do turismo e, a partir dessa base, são relacionados diferentes modelos de indicadores propostos e tipologias aplicadas à governança, que ensaiam a construção de uma ferramenta de avaliação para a mensuração da governança do turismo. Este trabalho utilizou-se de pesquisa bibliográfica para identificar indicadores de avaliação encontrados na literatura sobre governança. Como resultado, foram identificados quatro estudos, dois deles relacionados com a governança do turismo, um com a governança pública e outro relacionado com as tipologias de governança aplicadas ao turismo. Esta análise também percebe a necessidade de um instrumento de real aplicabilidade que possa avaliar a governança do turismo em diferentes destinos.

  2. Aplicabilidade da classificação de alcoolismo tipo A/tipo B Aplicability of the type A/type B classification of alcoholics

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    Mário Sérgio Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a aplicabilidade da tipologia e caracterizar os subtipos identificados. MÉTODOS: Características de 300 homens alcoolistas atendidos em um programa ambulatorial foram submetidas à análise de cluster para separá-los em dois subgrupos de acordo com a tipologia de Babor et al. Efetivaram-se cruzamentos de dados (significância avaliada pelo Teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson para se verificar a associação dos clusters com variáveis clínicas e demográficas. RESULTADOS: Comparado ao outro grupo e pacientes, um dos clusters identificados foi caracterizado por um perfil de maior gravidade clínica. Pacientes do subtipo menos grave foram mais frequentemente (65,3% encaminhados a tratamentos simbólicos, enquanto pacientes do subtipo mais grave foram atendidos predominantemente (58,5% por abordagem exclusivamente farmacológica e aderiram mais ao tratamento proposto. CONCLUSÕES: Como os resultados identificaram subtipos de alcoolistas com distintas características, este estudo evidenciou a aplicabilidade clínica da tipologia de Babor et al. em nosso meio sociocultural¹. Também aponta para a relevância de estudos tipológicos que possam contribuir para uma mais ampla compreensão dos aspectos etiológicos, preventivos e terapêuticos do alcoolismo.OBJECTIVE: To test the applicability of this typology and to characterize the identified subtypes. METHODS: Characteristics of 300 alcoholic men attending an out-treatment program were submitted to cluster analysis for identification of two subgroups (clusters, according to the original classification. Cross-tabulations were then performed to test for possible association of identified clusters to demographic and clinical features. Statistical significance was given by Pearson chi-square tests. RESULTS: Compared to the other group, one of the identified clusters was characterized by a more severe clinical profile. Patients of the mild subtype were principally (65,3% referred to

  3. O papel da internet como canal de marketing e vendas : modelos de aplicabilidade da internet como canal de marketing e vendas sob o ponto de vista dos fabricantes de eletroeletrônicos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Flavio Dias Fonseca da

    2010-01-01

    A presente dissertação tem como objetivo analisar a aplicabilidade da Internet como um canal de Marketing para empresas fabricantes de eletroeletrônicos. A partir de um levantamento feito a respeito do crescimento da importância da Internet como uma ferramenta de Marketing e Vendas no Brasil e no Mundo, são colocadas três possíveis posturas estratégicas a serem adotadas pelos fabricantes com relação à adoção da Internet para o seu negócio: Não fazer comércio eletrônico, adotar ...

  4. Aplicabilidade da classificação dos resultados de enfermagem em pacientes com déficit no autocuidado: banho/higiene Aplicabilidad de la clasificación de resultados de enfermería en pacientes con déficit en el autocuidado: baño/higiene Nursing outcomes classification applicability on patients with self-care deficit: bathing/hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam de Abreu Almeida

    2010-03-01

    aspectos éticos fueron respetados. En 21 indicadores hubo variación estadísticamente significativa entre las medias de puntuación del primero para el segundo baño. Las escalas de la Clasificación NOC presentaron consistencia interna, mostrándose confiables para mensurar la evolución de los pacientes durante la implementación de los cuidados de enfermería.The purpose of this research is to explore the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC applicability on hospitalized orthopedic patients diagnosed with Self-care Deficit: bathing/hygiene. This is a quantitative, descriptive study developed in a university hospital with patients submitted to total hip replacement in 2008. The data collection instrument was composed of 24 NOC Self-care outcome indicators: Selfcare: Activities of Daily Living; Self-care: Bathing; Self-care: Hygiene; Self-care: Oral Hygiene; and a Likert scale in which 1 = dependent; 2 = does not participate; 3 = requires an assistant; 4 = independent but requires an assistant mechanism; 5 = completely independent. 25 patients bathing on first and third post-operative day were observed. Ethical aspects were respected. In 21 cases there was significant statistical variation between average scores from first to second bath. NOC classification scales presented internal consistency, proving their reliability to measure the patient evolution during nursing care implementation.

  5. A percepção dos formandos a respeito dos instrumentos básicos de enfermagem e sua aplicabilidade La percepción de los estudiantes del ultimo curso con respecto a los instrumentos basicos de enfermería y sú aplicabilidad The senior students perception about basic nursing tools and their applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anesilda Alves de Almeida Ribeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um estudo exploratório descritivo da percepção de estudantes de enfermagem sobre a aplicabilidade dos Instrumentos Básicos de Enfermagem (IBE no cotidiano da prática profissional. Os resultados evidenciam os fatores que contribuem para a continuidade da dicotomia entre teoria e prática e as possibilidades de superação/transformação desta realidade. Além disso, o estudo mostra que a concretização do saber-fazer, em enfermagem, demanda de cada enfermeira a conscientização de que é sua responsabilidade pessoal, profissional e social prestar assistência/cuidado com qualidade, através da aplicação plena dos saberes/conhecimentos profissionais.Este artículo presenta un estudio descriptivo-exploratório de la percepción de estudiantes sobre la aplicabilidad de los Instrumentos Básicos de Enfermería (IBE en la rutina diaria de la práctica profesional. Los resultados evidencian los factores que contribuyen para la continuidad de la dicotomía entre teoría y práctica y las posibilidades de superación/transformación de esta realidad. Además de eso, el estudio muestra que la concretización del saber hacer, en enfermería, demanda de cada enfermera la conscientización de que es de su responzabilidad personal, profesional y social prestar asistencia y cuidado con calidad a través de la aplicación plena de los saberes/conocimientos profesionales.This paper presents a descriptive exploratory study of student's perception about the applicability of basic nursing tools on the daily professional practice. Results highlights the factors that contribute to the continuity of dichotomy between theory and practice and the possibilities of overcoming/transformation of this reality. In addition, the study shows that the concretization of the know-how in nursing requires from each nurse to be aware of his/her personal, professional and social responsibility to offer a high quality health care, through the full

  6. ANÁLISIS SOBRE LA APLICABILIDAD DE LAS HERRAMIENTAS DE GESTIÓN AMBIENTAL PARA EL MANEJO DE LOS HUMEDALES NATURALES INTERIORES DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERRERA ARANGO MARÍA ALEJANDRA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Como resultado de la investigación de la información sobre la gestión ambiental de los humedales naturales interiores de Colombia, se analiza la aplicabilidad de las herramientas de gestión empleadas en el manejo integral de estos ecosistemas. Para la evaluación de esta información, se identificaron las principales categorías y subcategorías de análisis, partiendo de una clasificación de los humedales naturales interiores presentes en el país y su estado actual, la revisión de la normatividad ambiental vigente, los planes de manejo formulados por diferentes entidades y por último, la identificación de grupos de investigación de Colciencias que realizan estudios sobre este tema. Con base en estos resultados, se sistematiza la información encontrada, generando con ello una aproximación a una propuesta de análisis que contribuya a orientar futuras investigaciones y a la toma de decisiones acerca del manejo racional de los humedales en el país.

  7. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  8. Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: applicability and relation with the Glasgow Coma Scale Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidad y relación con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidade e relação com a Escala de Coma de Glasgow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Restrictions in the application of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test and questionings about the relationship between conscience and post-traumatic amnesia motivated this study, which aims to identify, through the Glasgow Coma Scale scores, when to initiate the application of this amnesia test, as well to verify the relationship between the results of these two indicators. The longitudinal prospective study was carried at a referral center for trauma care in São Paulo - Brazil. The sample consisted of 73 victims of blunt traumatic brain injury, admitted at this institution between January 03rd and May 03rd 2001. Regarding the applicability, the test could be applied in patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score > 12; however, the end of post traumatic amnesia was verified in patients who scored > 14 on the scale. A significant relationship (r s = 0.65 was verified between these measures, although different kinds of relationship between the end of the amnesia and changes in consciousness were observed.Restricciones en la aplicación del Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test y los cuestionamientos sobre la relación entre conciencia y amnesia post-traumática motivaron este estudio que visa identificar, a través de la puntuación de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow, el periodo más adecuado para la aplicación de la prueba de amnesia, y observar la relación entre los resultados de esos dos indicadores. El estudio prospectivo y longitudinal fue realizado en un centro de referencia para traumas en São Paulo - Brasil. El número fue de 73 victimas de trauma craneoencefálico contuso, internadas en esta institución en el periodo de 03/01 a 03/05/2001. Con relación a la aplicabilidad, la prueba puede ser aplicada en los pacientes con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow > 12, pero el término de la amnesia post-traumática fue observado en los pacientes con puntuación > 14 en la escala. Correlación significativa (rs = 0,65 fue observada entre esas

  9. Aplicabilidad del Impuesto Diferido en el Ecuador con los efectos introducidos a través de la Ley Orgánica de Incentivos a la Producción y Prevención del Fraude Fiscal y su Reglamento

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Benalcázar, Delia Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Con el propósito de establecer la aplicabilidad del Impuesto Diferido en el Ecuador con los efectos introducidos a través de la Ley Orgánica de Incentivos a la Producción y Prevención del Fraude Fiscal y su reglamento, este trabajo de investigación compila en el Capítulo Uno los conceptos fundamentales relacionados con el Impuesto Diferido, adicionalmente interrelaciona los casos de Impuestos Diferidos reconocidos por la Administración Tributaria en el artículo innumerado colocado a continuac...

  10. Aplicabilidade dos resultados de enfermagem em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca e volume de líquidos excessivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelza Celesilvia Chisté Linhares

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Testar a aplicabilidade clínica da Nursing Outcomes Classification em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada e Diagnóstico de Enfermagem Volume de Líquidos Excessivo. Métodos Estudo longitudinal conduzido em duas etapas em um hospital universitário no ano de 2013. Na primeira etapa, utilizou-se a validação por consenso de especialistas para selecionar os resultados de enfermagem e os indicadores relacionados ao diagnóstico de enfermagem; na segunda, foi realizado um estudo longitudinal para avaliação clínica dos pacientes, utilizando-se o instrumento contendo os resultados e indicadores produzidos no consenso. Resultados Foram realizadas avaliações em 17 pacientes. Na avaliação clínica, mensuraram-se os resultados de enfermagem através da avaliação de seus indicadores. Seis resultados apresentaram aumento nos escores, quando comparados às médias da primeira e da última avaliação. A utilização da Nursing Outcomes Classification na prática clínica demonstrou melhora dos pacientes internados por insuficiência cardíaca descompensada. Conclusão A Nursing Outcomes Classification foi sensível às alterações no quadro clínico dos pacientes.

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  13. Aplicabilidade do mismatch negativity em crianças e adolescentes: uma revisão descritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtes Bruckmann

    Full Text Available RESUMO O Mismatch Negativity (MMN é um potencial cortical que ocorre em resposta a uma mudança de um estímulo acústico em meio a uma sequência de repetidos estímulos, o que reflete a capacidade do cérebro em discriminar o som de modo passivo, ou seja, sem a necessidade de atenção do indivíduo ao estímulo sonoro. Diante disso, o objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão descritiva sobre o MMN, a fim de identificar a sua aplicabilidade em crianças e adolescentes nos últimos cinco anos. Para isso, realizou-se uma busca nas bases de dados Lilacs, SciELO, Medline e Pubmed utilizando os seguintes descritores: córtex auditivo, eletrofisiologia, potenciais evocados auditivos e as palavras Mismacth e Negativity. Nesta revisão, foram encontrados 14 estudos que avaliaram crianças e/ou adolescentes com dificuldade de articulação na fala, distúrbio específico de linguagem, transtorno do processamento auditivo, Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH, dislexia, autismo, risco para esquizofrenia, psicose, amusia, fenilcetonúria e atenção seletiva. Foi possível, assim, realizar a revisão descritiva sobre a aplicação do MMN em crianças e adolescentes, concluindo-se que, nos últimos cinco anos, houve uma produção considerável de artigos sobre o tema, embora no Brasil a presença de estudos a esse respeito ainda seja escassa. Nesse sentido, apesar de existir uma variedade de aplicações para o MMN, no que diz respeito à população brasileira, necessita-se ainda de evidências científicas que assegurem o efeito deste potencial nas diferentes faixas etárias. Verificou-se, também, que a busca por estudos sobre MMN nas bases de dados citadas pode ser realizada apenas utilizando as palavras Mismacth e Negativity.

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  15. Electrical measurement of sweat activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronstad, Christian; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Gjein, Gaute E; Fosse, Erik; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2008-01-01

    A multichannel logger for long-term measurements of sweat activity is presented. The logger uses skin surface electrodes for unipolar admittance measurements in the stratum corneum. The logger is developed with emphasis on clinical use. The portability of the logger enables recording of sweat activity under circumstances such as daily errands, exercise and sleep. Measurements have been done on 24 healthy volunteers during relaxation and exercise with heart rate monitoring. Recordings of sweat activity during sleep have been done on two healthy subjects. Early results show good agreement with the literature on sweating physiology and electrodermal activity. Results are presented showing measurements related to physical exercise, dermatomes, distribution of sweat glands and sympathetic activity. This study examines the normal sweating patterns for the healthy population, and we present results with the first 24 healthy volunteers. Comparing these results with similar measurements on hyperhidrosis patients will make it possible to find the most useful parameters for diagnosis and treatment evaluation

  16. Intubação difícil em crianças: aplicabilidade do índice de Mallampati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula S Vieira Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A preocupação de estar diante de uma via aérea difícil trouxe à tona a necessidade de se desenvolverem testes preditivos de intubação difícil. Tais testes foram, primariamente, desenvolvidos para populações adultas. Nos pacientes pediátricos, os estudos existentes sempre trataram de pacientes com malformações congênitas, politraumatizados e recém-nascidos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar, em pacientes na faixa etária de 4 a 8 anos, a aplicabilidade do teste preditivo de intubação difícil mais comumente utilizado em adultos, o índice de Mallampati, correlacionando-o com o índice de Cormack-Lehane. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 108 pacientes com idades entre 4 e 8 anos, ASA I, sem quaisquer tipos de malformações anatômicas, síndromes genéticas ou déficits cognitivos. Os pacientes foram submetidos, durante a avaliação pré-anestésica, ao índice de Mallampati. Após a indução anestésica, realizava-se a avaliação do índice de Cormack-Lehane. Nos testes estatísticos p < 0,05, foi considerado significativo. RESULTADOS: O índice de Mallampati apresentou correlação significativa com o índice de Cormack-Lehane. A sensibilidade e a especificidade do índice de Mallampati foram, respectivamente, de 75,8% e 96,2%, mas o intervalo de confiança da sensibilidade foi muito grande. CONCLUSÕES: O índice de Mallampati se mostrou aplicável em crianças de 4 a 8 anos.

  17. Lean Manufacturing measurement: The relationships between Lean activities and Lean metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Manotas Duque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Medición en Lean Manufacturing: Relaciones entre Actividades Lean y Métricas Lean Lean Manufacturing fue desarrollada por Toyota para satisfacer sus necesidades específicas en un mercado restringido y en tiempos de estrechez económica. Estos conceptos han sido estudiados y se ha comprobado su aplicabilidad en una amplia variedad de industrias. El objetivo de este artículo es el de integrar un conjunto de métricas que han sido propuestas por diferentes autores, de tal manera que sean consistentes con las etapas y elementos de implementaciones de Lean Manufacturing. Para lograrlo se presentan dos marcos de referencia para implementaciones Lean y los principales factores de éxito se utilizan como base para proponer métricas que identifiquen el avance en estos factores. Posteriormente se propone una tabla que cruza el impacto de las “Actividades Lean” sobre las métricas, postulando que muchos de los supuestos a priori sobre estos impactos deberían ser precisos. Finalmente se proponen algunas ideas para proyectos de investigación hacia el futuro y posibles extensiones de las aplicaciones propuestas aquí.

  18. Aplicabilidade do Brums: estados de humor em atletas de voleibol e tênis no alto rendimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Marcela Rotta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Os estados de humor são indicadores que auxiliam sobremaneira o rendimento e a prevenção da saúde do atleta. Objetivo: Analisar a aplicabilidade do instrumento BRUMS na avaliação do perfil de estados de humor em atletas de alto rendimento do sexo masculino, de voleibol n=59 e tênis n=69. Métodos: comparar as variáveis independentes: modalidade esportiva (voleibol e tênis; tempo de prática no alto rendimento (até 2 anos; mais de 2 anos e categorias de idade (jovens e adultos com as variáveis dependente do perfil de humor (tensão, depressão, raiva, vigor, fadiga e confusão mental. O estudo causal-comparativo, utilizou, para coleta de dados, o instrumento BRUMS, validado no Brasil, com participação das autoras desse estudo. Resultados: Ao executar a MANOVA, foram verificadas diferenças entre as modalidades (F=4,289/ p=0,001; Hotellings's Trace = 0,216 e tempo de prática (F=5,845/ p<0,001; Hotelling's Trace = 0,295 no vigor. A modalidade versus tempo de prática apresentou significância na interação das duas variáveis (p=0,003, em torno de 7% da variância. Também na variável tensão p=0,05 (voleibol vs. tempo de prática, na variável raiva p=0,001 (voleibol vs. categoria de idade. No tênis, a depressão p=0,001, raiva p=0,04 e confusão mental p< 0,02 com médias maiores em adultos e mais experientes. Conclusão: A modalidade foi responsável por 11% da alteração no perfil de humor (p=0,001.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  1. Aspectos teórico-metodológicos da história e sua aplicabilidade na prática de ensino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Mendonça Barbosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available É perceptível que os rumos no estudo acerca das ciências da educação têm se modificadocom os novos olhares que os intelectuais e os próprios educadores estão tendo desta teoriacientífica. Destarte quando se vai para a prática desta teoria, quando do momento em salade aula, muitas vezes esta ainda é pouco dinâmica e muito menos discutida e analisada doque sua esfera teórica. O que pretendemos com este artigo é creditar uma importância dosaspectos teórico-metodológicos discutidos na ciência histórica e da mesma importância quese faz aplicar esta metodologia na prática de ensino com alunos de graduação, para queestes, por sua vez, apliquem em salas de aulas do ensino regular. Na primeira parte destareflexão elucidaremos como a teoria e o tratamento de fontes foi enxergado pelo campotradicional da história – os ditos positivistas – e a aplicabilidades destes conceitos teóricometodológicosem uma pesquisa prática; no segundo momento analisaremos brevemente aprática teórico-metodológica em uma pesquisa histórica. Finalmente, no terceiro momentodeste artigo analisaremos duas realidades de salas de aula propostas por dois professores dePrática de Ensino em História de duas universidades federais distintas e tentaremoscompreender os métodos utilizados em aula para formulação de conceitos históricos.

  2. Measurement of activity of radioactive gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Renhong; Lei Jiarong; Wen Dezhi; Cheng Jing; Zheng Hui

    2005-10-01

    A set of standard instrument system with their accessories for the measurement of activity of radioactive gas have been developed. The specifications and performances of the system have been tested and examined. The conventional true values of activity of radioactive gas have been measured and its uncertainty has been assessed. The technique of the dissemination of the measurement of activity of radioactive gas has been researched. The specification and performance of the whole set of apparatus meet the requirements of the relational standard, critra, regulation, it can be regard as a work standard for the measurement of activity of radioactive gas in CAEP. (authors)

  3. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  4. System for optimizing activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Optimization procedures make it possible to perform committed activation investigations, reduce the number of experiments, make them less laborious, and increase their productivity. Separate mathematical functions were investigated for given optimization conditions, and these enable numerical optimal parameter values to be established only in the particular cases of specific techniques and mathematical computer programs. In the known mathematical models insufficient account is taken of the variety and complexity of real nuclide mixtures, the influence of background radiation, and the wide diversity of activation measurement conditions, while numerical methods for solving the optimization problem fail to reveal the laws governing the variations of the activation parameters and their functional interdependences. An optimization method was proposed in which was mainly used to estimate the time intervals for activation measurements of a mononuclide, binary or ternary nuclide mixture. However, by forming a mathematical model of activation processes it becomes possible to extend the number of nuclides in the mixture and to take account of the influence of background radiation and the diversity of the measurement alternatives. The analytical expressions and nomograms obtained can be used to determine the number of measurements, their minimum errors, their sensitivities when estimating the quantity of the tracer nuclide, the permissible quantity of interfering nuclides, the permissible background radiation intensity, and the flux of activating radiation. In the worker described herein these investigations are generalized to include spectrally resolved detection of the activation effect in the presence of the tracer and the interfering nuclides. The analytical expressions are combined into a system from which the optimal activation parameters can be found under different given conditions

  5. Instrumento para a abordagem psicossocial do indivíduo e da família na assistência domiciliar: condições de aplicabilidade Instrumento para el abordaje psicosocial del indivíduo y familia en la asistencia domiciliaria: las condiciones de aplicabilidad Psychosocial instrument to approach person and family in home care: conditions of applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilanice Alves de Araújo Püschel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Na Assistência Domiciliar (AD, o modelo clínico e hospitalar tem sido hegemônico. A abordagem psicossocial mostra-se necessária para os problemas identificados no âmbito domiciliar. Este artigo tem como objetivos: apresentar um instrumento de abordagem psicossocial do indivíduo e da família na assistência domiciliar e mostrar as condições de aplicabilidade do modelo psicossocial no domicílio, a partir da utilização desse instrumento. Esse instrumento foi aplicado pelas participantes de um curso de capacitação para a AD numa abordagem psicossocial, em pessoas doentes e familiares que estavam recebendo o cuidado no domicílio. Verificou-se que este é viável, porém à onipotência própria da clínica se sobrepõe uma impotência quase absoluta de raciocínio clínico-psicossocial. Há necessidade de validação desse instrumento e da composição de um campo de pesquisa significativo para a qualificação do ensino e da prática assistencial na AD.En la asistencia domiciliaria (AD el modelo clínico y hospitalario ha sido hegemónico. El abordaje psicosocial muestra que es necesario para los problemas identificados en el ámbito domiciliario. Este artículo tiene como objetivos: presentar un instrumento de abordaje psicosocial al individuo y a la familia en la asistencia domiciliaria y mostrar las condiciones de aplicabilidad del modelo psicosocial en el domicilio a partir de la utilización de ese instrumento. El instrumento fue aplicado, por las participantes de un curso de capacitación para la AD con abordaje psicosocial, en personas enfermas y familiares que estaban recibiendo el cuidado en el domicilio. Se verificó que éste es viable, sin embargo la omnipotencia propia de la clínica se sobrepone a una impotencia casi absoluta de raciocinio clínico-psicosocial. Hay necesidad de validar el instrumento y de la composición de un campo de investigación significativo para la calificación de la enseñanza y de la pr

  6. Mathematical model of radon activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Zambianchi, Pedro, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Present work describes a mathematical model that quantifies the time dependent amount of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn altogether and their activities within an ionization chamber as, for example, AlphaGUARD, which is used to measure activity concentration of Rn in soil gas. The differential equations take into account tree main processes, namely: the injection of Rn into the cavity of detector by the air pump including the effect of the traveling time Rn takes to reach the chamber; Rn release by the air exiting the chamber; and radioactive decay of Rn within the chamber. Developed code quantifies the activity of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn isotopes separately. Following the standard methodology to measure Rn activity in soil gas, the air pump usually is turned off over a period of time in order to avoid the influx of Rn into the chamber. Since {sup 220}Rn has a short half-life time, approximately 56s, the model shows that after 7 minutes the activity concentration of this isotope is null. Consequently, the measured activity refers to {sup 222}Rn, only. Furthermore, the model also addresses the activity of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny, which being metals represent potential risk of ionization chamber contamination that could increase the background of further measurements. Some preliminary comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations is presented. Obtained transient and steady-state solutions could be used for planning of Rn in soil gas measurements as well as for accuracy assessment of obtained results together with efficiency evaluation of chosen measurements procedure. (author)

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  9. Aplicabilidade científica do método dos elementos finitos Scientific aplication of finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel S. Lotti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O Método dos Elementos Finitos (MEF é uma análise matemática que consiste na discretização de um meio contínuo em pequenos elementos, mantendo as mesmas propriedades do meio original. Esses elementos são descritos por equações diferenciais e resolvidos por modelos matemáticos, para que sejam obtidos os resultados desejados. A origem do desenvolvimento deste recurso ocorreu no final do século XVIII, entretanto, a sua viabilização tornou-se possível somente com o advento dos computadores, facilitando a resolução das enormes equações algébricas. O MEF pode ser utilizado em diversas áreas das ciências exatas e biológicas e, devido à sua grande aplicabilidade e eficiência, existem trabalhos com esta metodologia nas diversas especialidades odontológicas, como na Ortodontia, quando se deseja analisar cargas, tensões ou deslocamentos. Com o contínuo uso desse método em pesquisas, com suas vantagens em relação a outros disponíveis, torna-se de suma importância o conhecimento da técnica, para que sua utilização possa proporcionar benefícios científicos à Ortodontia. Torna-se primordial que os ortodontistas clínicos conheçam os conceitos básicos do MEF para que os resultados dos trabalhos sejam melhor interpretados.The Finite Element Method consists of a series of mathematic equations that, utilized with the proper software, allows different kinds of computer simulations. The method was first reported in the end of the seventeenth century, however it’s practical utilization was made feasible only after the advent of computers. Scientific researches that works with this analysis is granted with many advantages. Especially in the Orthodontics field this approach can be very useful to evaluate the forces delivered by different orthodontic appliances, tooth movement and structures of the face. Due to it’s widespread use in orthodontic research it is of paramount importance to know well the method and its

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  11. National comparison on volume sample activity measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.; Grigorescu, E.L.; Popescu, C.; Razdolescu, C.

    1992-01-01

    A national comparison on volume sample activity measurements methods may be regarded as a step toward accomplishing the traceability of the environmental and food chain activity measurements to national standards. For this purpose, the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory has distributed 137 Cs and 134 Cs water-equivalent solid standard sources to 24 laboratories having responsibilities in this matter. Every laboratory has to measure the activity of the received source(s) by using its own standards, equipment and methods and report the obtained results to the organizer. The 'measured activities' will be compared with the 'true activities'. A final report will be issued, which plans to evaluate the national level of precision of such measurements and give some suggestions for improvement. (Author)

  12. Oxygen activity measurements in simulated converter matte

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshilombo, KG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available to the composition of the gas atmosphere over the melt. The measured oxygen activity was generally close to that predicted by FactSage calculations. This indicates that such oxygen activity measurements could be useful to monitor iron removal during converting...

  13. Resin 90Y microsphere activity measurements for liver brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezarn, William A.; Kennedy, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the radioactivity administered to the patient is one of the major components of 90 Y microsphere liver brachytherapy. The activity of 90 Y microspheres in a glass delivery vial was measured in a dose calibrator. The calibration value to use for 90 Y in the dose calibrator was verified using an activity calibration standard provided by the microsphere manufacturer. This method allowed for the determination of a consistent, reproducible local activity standard. Additional measurements were made to determine some of the factors that could affect activity measurement. The axial response of the dose calibrator was determined by the ratio of activity measurements at the bottom and center of the dose calibrator. The axial response was 0.964 for a glass shipping vial, 1.001 for a glass V-vial, and 0.988 for a polycarbonate V-vial. Comparisons between activity measurements in the dose calibrator and those using a radiation survey meter were found to agree within 10%. It was determined that the dose calibrator method was superior to the survey meter method because the former allowed better defined measurement geometry and traceability of the activity standard back to the manufacturer. Part of the preparation of resin 90 Y microspheres for patient delivery is to draw out a predetermined activity from a shipping vial and place it into a V-vial for delivery to the patient. If the drawn activity was placed in a glass V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a glass V-vial was 4% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. If the drawn activity was placed in a polycarbonate V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a polycarbonate V-vial activity was 20% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. Careful characterization of the local activity measurement standard is recommended instead of simply accepting the calibration value of the dose calibrator manufacturer

  14. Teste de identificação de sentenças sintéticas com mensagem competitiva ipsilateral pediátrico: revisão narrativa sobre a sua aplicabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Freitas Vellozo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O Processamento auditivo é a capacidade que o sistema nervoso tem para usar a informação que chega pela audição. As habilidades auditivas são necessárias para que haja o processamento das informações. Testes comportamentais são utilizados para avaliar desordens do processamento auditivo, como o Teste de Identificação de Sentenças Sintéticas com Mensagem Competitiva Ipsilateral Pediátrico (PSI, que avalia a habilidade de figura-fundo para sons verbais. Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa que objetiva identificar a aplicabilidade do teste PSI, nos últimos dez anos. Uma busca nas bases de dados: Lilacs, PubMed, Medline, IBCS e SciELO foi realizada, utilizando-se como descritores: percepção auditiva, testes auditivos, transtorno da percepção auditiva ,audição, compreensão, combinados com a palavra PSI. Foram encontrados 52 artigos, sendo selecionados, lidos na íntegra e analisados, apenas, oito artigos. Pôde-se observar grande variabilidade em sua aplicação, demonstrando ser uma eficaz ferramenta de avaliação do processamento auditivo em diferentes populações e faixas etárias.

  15. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  16. Microscopic cross-section measurements by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila L, J.

    1987-08-01

    Microscopic cross sections measured by thermal neutron activation using RP-0 reactor at the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute. The method consists in measuring microscopic cross section ratios through activated samples, requiring being corrected in thermal and epithermal energetic range by Westcott formalism. Furthermore, the comptage ratios measured for each photopeak to its decay fraction should be normalized from interrelation between both processes above, activation microscopic cross sections are obtained

  17. Measurement of natural activity in peat ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, J.

    1985-01-01

    High proportions of radioactive materials in peat ashes may involve radiation hazards during handling and deposition of these waste materials. Measurements have been performed to determine the content of radioactive materials in ashes from peat burning. The activities in fly ash and ''solid'' ash in seven peat-fired power plants in Sweden are presented. The methods of analysing and measuring peat ashes for activity from different radionuclides are described. The activity levels in ash samples are given

  18. Activation measurements for fast neutrons. Part A. Sulfur (32P) activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The sulfur activation measurements at Hiroshima have been useful in refining and verifying the neutron source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb (Kerr and Pace 1988). For example, the Riken measurements of sulfur activation at Hiroshima were used to demonstrate that a two dimensional calculation of the neutron leakage was required for the Hiroshima bomb in order to accurately account for the blind spot in the neutron leakage through the nose of the device (Kerr 1982a,b; Kerr et al. 1983; Pace and Kerr 1984). The sulfur activation measurements at Hiroshima are discussed and compared in this section with the results of DS86 and DS02 calculations for the air-over-ground transport of neutrons at Hiroshima. (J.P.N.)

  19. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  20. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  1. Measurement for cobalt target activity and its axial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyuan; Chen Zigen.

    1985-01-01

    Cobalt target activity and its axial distribution are measured in process of producing radioactive isotopes 60 Co by irradiation in HFETR. Cobalt target activity is obtained with measured data at 3.60 m and 4.60 m, relative axial distribution of cobalt target activity is obtained with one at 30 cm, and axial distribution of cobalt target activity(or specific activity) is obtained with both of data. The difference between this specific activity and measured result for 60 Co teletherapy sources in the end is less than +- 5%

  2. Counting systems characterization for air activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Balamurugan, M.; Ravi, P.M.

    2018-01-01

    Air activity measurements are carried out continuously at all the nuclear power plant (NPP) sites both during pre-operational phase and also during operation of nuclear facility. These measurements provide a trend line for the background air activity in the surrounding environments of an operating NPP. Any increase in air activity over the benchmark level becomes very handy to investigate the releases from the station and to give feedback to the operators of NPP about the prevailing air activity levels and their correlation to the plant releases. This paper compiles the results obtained for air filter samples using different counters operating in GM region and also plastic scintillators

  3. Measuring the osmotic pressure of active colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael; Soni, Vishal; Magkiriadou, Sofia; Ferrari, Melissa; Youssef, Mina; Driscoll, Michelle; Sacanna, Stefano; Chaikin, Paul; Irvine, William

    We study the behavior of a system of colloidal spinners, consisting of weakly magnetic colloids driven by a rotating magnetic field. First the particles are allowed to sediment to an equilibrium density profile in a gravitational field, from which we measure the equilibrium equation of state. By spinning the particles at various frequencies, we introduce activity into the system through the hydrodynamic interactions between particles. We observe that the activity expands the sedimentation profile to a new steady state, from which we measure the pressure as a function of the density and activity. We compare the effects of activity on the pressure and mean-squared displacement of spinners and tracer particles.

  4. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part A. Cobalt (60Co) activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Maruyama, Takashi; Cullings, Harry M.; Komura, Kazuhisa; Okumura, Yutaka; Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    The 60 Co measurements at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were reviewed and compared with the results of the new DS02 calculations for the two cities. Some corrections were made to previously published data from the 1965 measurements of JNIRS, ground ranges of all of the 60 Co measurements were reviewed and new ground ranges were determined when possible by transforming sample coordinates to the new city maps for Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and transmission factors were investigated for a number of samples used in the 60 Co measurements. Transmission factors were not calculated for all samples used in the 60 Co measurements but some general rules were given for estimating transmission factors for these samples. Experimental measurements of the background 60 Co activity from environmental neutrons were also reviewed, and it was found that the 60 Co background from environmental neutrons was not an important factor in the 60 Co measurements of bomb-induced activity at either city. (J.P.N.)

  5. Estudo eletrofisiológico do nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral: aplicabilidade técnica e valores de referência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAS RAFAEL JOSÉ SOARES

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da condução neural dos segmentos mais distais dos nervos mais longos pode ser capaz de reconhecer mais precocemente as alterações oriundas da maioria das polineuropatias. O objetivo deste estudo, foi verificar a aplicabilidade técnica do exame de condução ortodrômica do ramo cutâneo dorsal do nervo sural (nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral em pessoas saudáveis, padronizar os valores normais para serem utilizados como referência e comparar seus valores com os do nervo sural na perna. Quarenta e cinco pessoas com idade média de 41,56 anos (19-75 foram avaliadas, com registro de potenciais de ação de nervo sensitivo nos noventa pés. O eletrodo de captação foi colocado inferior e posteriormente ao maléolo lateral e a estimulação realizada 10 cm distalmente na face dorso-lateral dos pés. O valor médio para a velocidade de condução do nervo sural cutâneo dorsal encontrado foi 47,35 ± 4,8 m/s e para a amplitude, 4,19 ± 1,9 miV. A velocidade de condução do segmento distal foi 14% inferior à do proximal. A amplitude média dos potenciais de ação sensitivos do segmento distal foi 73% aquém daquela obtida no segmento proximal. Os resultados confirmam a possibilidade técnica de se estudar o ramo cutâneo dorsal do nervo sural e sugerem que o limite mínimo de normalidade para sua velocidade de condução, após correção para a temperatura de 34ºC, seja 38 m/s. Diferenças na amplitude e velocidade de condução devem ser consideradas entre grupos etários.

  6. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson; Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of 226 Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H 2 O, which allows one to identify the 222 Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10 5 pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H 2 O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ( 226 Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when 222 Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  7. Measurement of 137Cs activity in living chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balas, J.; Poeschl, M.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of measuring the 137 Cs activity in broiler chickens in vivo was examined. The experiment was conducted with broiler chickens 7 to 22 days old (White Leghorn hybrid, race ISA VEDETTE). Three oral doses of 137 Cs (total activity 5 kBq/chicken) were administered during a day (at 8:00, 12:00 and 16:00). The radioactivity was determined by gamma spectroscopy with a stabilised Nal/Tl detector. The measurement was carried out on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 14 and 15 after the 137 Cs administration in vivo. The detector was put closely to the body in the area of breast muscles. The radiocesium activity concentrations in fresh daily excreta were also determined. A rapid uptake of the orally administered 137 Cs (within a few hours) as well as a rapid loss of radiocesium were observed. The dynamics and accuracy of the in vivo measurement of 137 Cs activity were comparable with the recently published results of in vitro measurement of radiocesium activity. Only the initial 137 Cs activity (during 2 days after 137 Cs application) was higher with regard to the content of contaminated feed mixture in the gastrointestinal tract

  8. Measurement of neutron activation in concrete samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of activation studies of ordinary and barytes concrete samples relevant for research reactor decommissioning are given. Five important long-lived radioactive isotopes ( 54 Mn, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 133 Ba, and 152 Eu) were identified from the gamma-ray spectra measured in the irradiated concrete samples. Activation of these samples was also calculated using ORIGEN2 code. Comparison of calculated and measured results is given. (author)

  9. Active Market Share: measuring competitiveness in retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, D.; Malm, E.

    1999-01-01

    As retail electric and gas markets deregulate, market share measurement becomes critical for marketers, regulators, and incumbent utilities. Yet traditional market share measures miss important features of these network industries. In this paper we model provider choice in network industries and develop two alternate market share measures - The Active Market Share (AMS) and the New Mover Market Share (NMMS), that are based on 'active demand'. These measures are shown to provide more accurate real-time measures of market activity. The NMMS is a special case of the AMS which is easy to measure empirically. Numerical simulations are used to provide comparisons between each measure over time. Both the AMS and NMMS will be important tools for anyone interested in measuring the competitiveness of deregulating markets. (author)

  10. Neutron activation measurements in research reactor concrete shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.; Bozic, M.

    2001-01-01

    The results of activation measurement inside TRIGA research reactor concrete shielding are given. Samples made of ordinary and barytes concrete together with gold and nickel foils were irradiated in the reactor body. Long-lived neutron-induced gamma-ray-emitting radioactive nuclides in the samples were measured with HPGe detector. The most active longlived radioactive nuclides in ordinary concrete samples were found to be 60 Co and 152 Eu and in barytes concrete samples 60 Co, 152 Eu and 133 Ba. Measured activity density of all nuclides was found to decrease almost linearly with depth in logarithmic scale.(author)

  11. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Annette; Honig, Anja; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Mueller, Andre; Marcos, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC 2 and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring α-particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes

  12. y su aplicabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. de Lourdes Álvarez Medina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las competencias centrales de la empresa (core competencies,1 que han sido objeto de múltiples estudios, son parte medular del paradigma de administración estratégica y su uso se extiende a otras áreas de estudio como la economía, educación, ingeniería, ciencias de la salud, etc. Sin embargo, existe un gran debate respecto a cómo emergen y evolucionan, además de cómo identificarlas, medirlas y relacionarlas con una ventaja competitiva. En este trabajo se hace una revisión de las principales propuestas teóricas y estudios empíricos y se concluye que las competencias centrales de la empresa son un constructo teórico que intentan explicar cómo y por qué una empresa alcanza el éxito económico. A pesar de que existe una gran cantidad de bibliografía con propuestas teóricas existen pocos estudios empíricos que no han logrado probar la relación lineal entre competencias centrales, ventaja competitiva y desempeño superior

  13. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  14. Beta activity measurements in high, variable gamma backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanga, D.; Sandu, E.; Craciun, L.

    1997-01-01

    In many cases beta activity measurements must be performed in high and variable gamma backgrounds. In such instances it is necessary to use well-shielded detectors but this technique is limited to laboratory equipment and frequently insufficient. In order to perform in a simple manner beta activity measurements in high and variable backgrounds a software-aided counting technique have been developed and a counting system have been constructed. This technique combines the different counting techniques with traditional method of successive measurement of the sample and background. The counting system is based on a programmable multi-scaler which is endowed with appropriate software and allow all operations to be performed via keyboard in an interactive fashion. Two large - area proportional detectors were selected in order to have the same background and the same gamma response within 5%. A program has been developed for the counting data analysis and beta activity computing. The software-aided counting technique has been implemented for beta activity measurement in high and variable backgrounds. (authors)

  15. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fior, L.; Nicolosi Correa, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Paschuk, S.A., E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Denyak, V.V. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Schelin, H.R. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Pele Pequeno Principe Research Institute, Av. Silva Jardim, 1632, Curitiba, PR 80250-200 (Brazil); Soreanu Pecequilo, B.R. [Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches, IPEN, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-/05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kappke, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 cm{sup 3} were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), and external hazard index (H{sub ext}) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radon activity in air related to building materials was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The index of activity concentration of building materials was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radium equivalent activity of

  16. Associations between active commuting to school and objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børrestad L, Anita Bjørkelund; Ostergaard, Lars; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    , b) compare moderate vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children cycling vs. walking to school, and c) thus calculate possible underestimated MVPA, when using accelerometers to measure commuter cycling. Methods: A total of 78 children, average age 11.4 (SD = 0.5), participated in the study....... Physical activity was measured with cycle computers and accelerometers for 4 days. Mode of commuting and demographic information was self-reported in a questionnaire. Results: Children who reported to cycle to school spent significantly more time cycling than those who walked to school, 53.6 (SD = ± 33......Background: To provide more accurate assessment of commuting behavior and potential health effect, it is important to have accurate methods. Therefore, the current study aimed to a) compare questionnaire reported mode of commuting with objectively measured data from accelerometer and cycle computer...

  17. Measuring physical activity and sedentary behaviour at work: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Retamal, Marcelo; Hinckson, Erica A

    2011-01-01

    To identify methods used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour at the workplace and review the validity and reliability of these measures. Databases were searched for relevant published articles including MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Keywords used were physical-activity, workplace, sedentary-behaviour, measurement and questionnaire. Studies included were original, written in English, published between 1990 and 2009, and focused on validated physical activity and sedentary behaviour measures at work. Eleven papers were identified in which three used criterion standards, three objective measures, and five subjective measures. The most common method of data collection was through self-report, surveys or questionnaires. Physical activity measured with motion sensors, ranged from 4,422 to 10,334 steps/day (pedometers) and sedentary time ranged from 1.8 to 6 hours/day (h/d) (accelerometers). Self-report measures provided information relevant to the perception of physical activity at work (∼ 0.5 h/d), sitting time (> 3 h/d) and calculated energy expenditure (< 800 kcal/d). Physical activity levels at work were low while sedentary behaviour was high. This was largely a function of occupation (white-collar vs. blue-collar). None of the studies assessed validity or reliability of measures used however, instruments as assessed by others showed moderate to strong validity and reliability values.

  18. Measurements of {sup 55}Fe activity in activated steel samples with GEMPix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curioni, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dinar, N. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Université de Paris VII, 5 rue Thomas-Mann, 75013 Paris (France); La Torre, F.P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Leidner, J., E-mail: johannes.leidner@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Murtas, F. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Puddu, S.; Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-03-21

    In this paper we present a novel method, based on the recently developed GEMPix detector, to measure the {sup 55}Fe content in samples of metallic material activated during operation of CERN accelerators and experimental facilities. The GEMPix, a gas detector with highly pixelated read-out, has been obtained by coupling a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) to a quad Timepix ASIC. Sample preparation, measurements performed on 45 samples and data analysis are described. The calibration factor (counts per second per unit specific activity) has been obtained via measurements of the {sup 55}Fe activity determined by radiochemical analysis of the same samples. Detection limit and sensitivity to the current Swiss exemption limit are calculated. Comparison with radiochemical analysis shows inconsistency for the sensitivity for only two samples, most likely due to underestimated uncertainties of the GEMPix analysis. An operative test phase of this technique is already planned at CERN.

  19. Selective functional activity measurement of a PEGylated protein with a modification-dependent activity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alfred; Engelmaier, Andrea; Mohr, Gabriele; Haindl, Sonja; Schwarz, Hans Peter; Turecek, Peter L

    2017-01-05

    BAX 855 (ADYNOVATE) is a PEGylated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) that showed prolonged circulatory half-life compared to unmodified rFVIII in hemophilic patients. Here, the development and validation of a novel assay is described that selectively measures the activity of BAX 855 as cofactor for the serine protease factor IX, which actives factor X. This method type, termed modification-dependent activity assay, is based on PEG-specific capture of BAX 855 by an anti-PEG IgG preparation, followed by a chromogenic FVIII activity assay. The assay principle enabled sensitive measurement of the FVIII cofactor activity of BAX 855 down to the pM-range without interference by non-PEGylated FVIII. The selectivity of the capture step, shown by competition studies to primarily target the terminal methoxy group of PEG, also allowed assessment of the intactness of the attached PEG chains. Altogether, the modification-dependent activity not only enriches, but complements the group of methods to selectively, accurately, and precisely measure a PEGylated drug in complex biological matrices. In contrast to all other methods described so far, it allows measurement of the biological activity of the PEGylated protein. Data obtained demonstrate that this new method principle can be extended to protein modifications other than PEGylation and to a variety of functional activity assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A combined system for measuring animal motion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M S; Young, C W; Li, Y C

    2000-01-31

    In this study, we have developed a combined animal motion activity measurement system that combines an infrared light matrix subsystem with an ultrasonic phase shift subsystem for animal activity measurement. Accordingly, in conjunction with an IBM PC/AT compatible personal computer, the combined system has the advantages of both infrared and ultrasonic subsystems. That is, it can at once measure and directly analyze detailed changes in animal activity ranging from locomotion to tremor. The main advantages of this combined system are that it features real time data acquisition with the option of animated real time or recorded display/playback of the animal's motion. Additionally, under the multi-task operating condition of IBM PC, it can acquire and process behavior using both IR and ultrasound systems simultaneously. Traditional systems have had to make separate runs for gross and fine movement recording. This combined system can be profitably employed for normative behavioral activity studies and for neurological and pharmacological research.

  1. From Structure to Activity: Using Centrality Measures to Predict Neuronal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jack McKay; Wennekers, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    It is clear that the topological structure of a neural network somehow determines the activity of the neurons within it. In the present work, we ask to what extent it is possible to examine the structural features of a network and learn something about its activity? Specifically, we consider how the centrality (the importance of a node in a network) of a neuron correlates with its firing rate. To investigate, we apply an array of centrality measures, including In-Degree, Closeness, Betweenness, Eigenvector, Katz, PageRank, Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search (HITS) and NeuronRank to Leaky-Integrate and Fire neural networks with different connectivity schemes. We find that Katz centrality is the best predictor of firing rate given the network structure, with almost perfect correlation in all cases studied, which include purely excitatory and excitatory-inhibitory networks, with either homogeneous connections or a small-world structure. We identify the properties of a network which will cause this correlation to hold. We argue that the reason Katz centrality correlates so highly with neuronal activity compared to other centrality measures is because it nicely captures disinhibition in neural networks. In addition, we argue that these theoretical findings are applicable to neuroscientists who apply centrality measures to functional brain networks, as well as offer a neurophysiological justification to high level cognitive models which use certain centrality measures.

  2. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.

  3. Incorporating Plutonium Particle Size Effects in the Assessment of Active Mode Measurement Uncertainty in Passive-Active Neutron Radioassay Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwood, Larry G.; Harker, Yale D.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of active mode measurement uncertainty in passive-active neutron radioassay systems used to measure Pu content in nuclear waste is severely hampered by lack of knowledge of the waste Pu particle size distribution, which is a major factor in determining bias in active mode measurements. The sensitivity of active mode measurements to particle size precludes using simulations or surrogate waste forms to estimate uncertainty in active mode measurements when the particle size distribution is not precisely known or inadequately reproduced. An alternative approach is based on a statistical comparison of active and passive mode results in the mass range for which both active and passive mode analyses produce useable measurements. Because passive mode measurements are not particularly sensitive to particle size effects, their uncertainty can be more easily assessed. Once bias corrected, passive mode measurements can serve as confirmatory measurements for the estimation of active mode bias. Further statistical analysis of the errors in measurements leads to precision estimates for the active mode

  4. Measuring patient activation in The Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademakers, Jany; Nijman, Jessica; van der Hoek, Lucas; Heijmans, Monique; Rijken, Mieke

    2012-07-31

    The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer) self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one's health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. The translation was done according to WHO guidelines. The PAM 13-Dutch was sent to 4178 members of the Dutch National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability (NPCD) in April 2010 (study A) and again to a sub sample of this group (N = 973) in June 2010 (study B). Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cross-validation with the SBSQ-D (a measure for Health literacy) were computed. The Dutch results were compared to similar Danish and American data. The psychometric properties of the PAM 13-Dutch were generally good. The level of internal consistency is good (α = 0.88) and item-rest correlations are moderate to strong. The Dutch mean PAM score (61.3) is comparable to the American (61.9) and lower than the Danish (64.2). The test-retest reliability was moderate. The association with Health literacy was weak to moderate. The PAM-13 Dutch is a reliable instrument to measure patient activation. More research is needed into the validity of the Patient Activation Measure, especially with respect to a more comprehensive measure of Health literacy.

  5. Activation method for measuring the neutron spectra parameters. Computer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, B.V.; Ionov, V.S.; Konyaev, S.I.; Marin, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    The description of mathematical statement of a task for definition the spectral characteristics of neutron fields with use developed in RRC KI unified activation detectors (UKD) is resulted. The method of processing of results offered by authors activation measurements and calculation of the parameters used for an estimation of the neutron spectra characteristics is discussed. Features of processing of the experimental data received at measurements of activation with using UKD are considered. Activation detectors UKD contain a little bit specially the picked up isotopes giving at irradiation peaks scale of activity in the common spectrum scale of activity. Computing processing of results of the measurements is applied on definition of spectrum parameters for nuclear reactor installations with thermal and close to such power spectrum of neutrons. The example of the data processing, the measurements received at carrying out at RRC KI research reactor F-1 is resulted [ru

  6. Multicomponent activation detector measurements of reactor neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, J.; Aarnio, P. A.; Routti, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    Information on the neutron flux is required in many applications of research reactors, such as activation analysis or radiation damage measurements. Flux spectrum measurements are commonly carried out with activation foils. The reaction types used are threshold reactions in the fast energy region, resonance reactions in the intermediate region and neutron capture reactions with l/v-cross section in the thermal region. It has been shown that it is possible to combine several detector elements into homogeneous multicomponent detectors. The activities of all detector reaction products can be determined with a single gamma spectrum measurement. The multicomponent principle sets some restrictions on the choice of detector reactions, for example, each product nuclide may be produced in one reaction only. Separate multicomponent threshold and resonance detectors were designed for the fast and intermediate regions, respectively. The detectors were fabricated in polyethylene irradiation capsules or quartz glass ampoules, and they were irradiated in a cadmium cover. The detectors were succesfully used in the irradiation ring and in the core of a Triga reactor. The intermediate and fast neutron spectrum was unfolded with the least-squares unfolding program LOUHI. According to the preliminary results multicomponent activation detectors might constitute a convenient means for carrying out routine neutron spectrum measurements in research reactors. (orig.)

  7. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen

    2014-01-01

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future

  8. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  9. Distribution measurement of 60Co target radioactive specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyan; Chen Zigen; Ren Min

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive specific activity distribution of cobalt 60 target by irradiation in HFETR is a key parameter. With the collimate principle, the under water measurement device and conversion coefficient which is get by experiments, and the radioactive specific activity distribution is obtained. The uncertainty of measurement is less than 10%

  10. Accurate measurements of neutron activation cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkova, V.

    1999-01-01

    The applications of some recent achievements of neutron activation method on high intensity neutron sources are considered from the view point of associated errors of cross sections data for neutron induced reaction. The important corrections in -y-spectrometry insuring precise determination of the induced radioactivity, methods for accurate determination of the energy and flux density of neutrons, produced by different sources, and investigations of deuterium beam composition are considered as factors determining the precision of the experimental data. The influence of the ion beam composition on the mean energy of neutrons has been investigated by measurement of the energy of neutrons induced by different magnetically analysed deuterium ion groups. Zr/Nb method for experimental determination of the neutron energy in the 13-15 MeV energy range allows to measure energy of neutrons from D-T reaction with uncertainty of 50 keV. Flux density spectra from D(d,n) E d = 9.53 MeV and Be(d,n) E d = 9.72 MeV are measured by PHRS and foil activation method. Future applications of the activation method on NG-12 are discussed. (author)

  11. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribby, Calvin P; Miller, Harvey J; Brown, Barbara B; Werner, Carol M; Smith, Ken R

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces : the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals' trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time.

  12. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  13. Measurement and characterization of cellulase activity in sclerophyllous forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Stéven

    2002-07-01

    Cellulases are enzymatic proteins which hydrolyze cellulose polymers to smaller oligosaccharides, cellobiose and glucose. They consist in three major types of enzymes: endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), cellobiohydrolases (EC 3.2.1.91) and beta-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) which play an essential role in carbon turnover of forest ecosystem. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the parameters (i.e. buffer type, pH, temperature, quantity of litter, incubation time and reagent type) which affect the measurement of cellulase activity in a sclerophyllous forest litter, and secondly to compare two methods for measuring cellulase activity: a direct method and an extraction method. In the direct method, the litter was directly incubated with a buffered solution containing the enzyme substrate, whereas in the extraction method, the cellulases were firstly extracted before measuring their activity. The results were compared with other studies about soil cellulase activity, and it appeared that several parameters (buffer type, pH, temperature and sample quantity) which influence the measurement of cellulase activity differ according to whether a soil or a litter is considered. Concerning the procedure used for the measurement of cellulase activity, results showed that the activity values were higher when using an extraction procedure than when using a direct procedure. The extraction procedure, combined with a concentration stage of the extract, also allowed electrophoretic analysis (PAGE) of the cellulases extracted from the litter. The electrophoretic pattern revealed two cellulase isoenzymes which may be related to the occurrence of two pH-activity peaks of these enzymes when citrate buffer was used for the measurement of cellulase activity in the litter.

  14. Summary of activation cross section measurements at FNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kasugai, Y.; Kumar, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation cross sections around 14 MeV for seventeen reactions have been measured at the FNS facility in JAERI in order to provide experimental data meeting the requirement in the radioactive wastes disposal assessment in the D-T fusion reactor. This report summarizes contributing data measured in several phases of experiments to the IAEA-CRP on ''Activation Cross sections for the Generation of Long-Lived radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology''. (author). 18 refs, 1 tab

  15. Measures of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity in Australian clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew; Bagga, Hanish

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate which rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity measures are being collected in patients receiving glucocorticoids, non-biologic or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in Australian rheumatology practice. Methods. A retrospective audit of medical records was conducted from eight rheumatology practices around Australia. Each rheumatologist recruited 30 consecutive eligible patients into the review, 10 of whom must have been receiving a biological agent for rheumatoid arthritis. Disease activity measures and radiographic assessments were collected from each patient's last consultation. For biologic patients, disease activity measures were also collected from when the patient was first initiated on the biological agent. Results. At last consultation, the disease measures that were recorded most often were ESR (89.2%), haemoglobin (87.5%), and CRP (84.2%). DAS28 was infrequently recorded (16.3%). The rate of recording disease activity measures for patients receiving biologic DMARDs decreased over time (mean 27 months). Conclusion. This review has shown inconsistency of RA activity measures being recorded in Australian rheumatology clinical practice. An accurate assessment of the disease process is necessary to effectively target rheumatoid arthritis patients to treat in order to achieve optimal outcomes.

  16. Measuring patient activation in the Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rademakers Jany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one’s health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. Methods The translation was done according to WHO guidelines. The PAM 13-Dutch was sent to 4178 members of the Dutch National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability (NPCD in April 2010 (study A and again to a sub sample of this group (N = 973 in June 2010 (study B. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cross-validation with the SBSQ-D (a measure for Health literacy were computed. The Dutch results were compared to similar Danish and American data. Results The psychometric properties of the PAM 13-Dutch were generally good. The level of internal consistency is good (α = 0.88 and item-rest correlations are moderate to strong. The Dutch mean PAM score (61.3 is comparable to the American (61.9 and lower than the Danish (64.2. The test-retest reliability was moderate. The association with Health literacy was weak to moderate. Conclusions The PAM-13 Dutch is a reliable instrument to measure patient activation. More research is needed into the validity of the Patient Activation Measure, especially with respect to a more comprehensive measure of Health literacy.

  17. Phase Method of Invariant Measurement of Active-Inductive Measuring Two-Pole Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris MAMIKONYAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been given the solution of the technical problem of separate measurement of parameters of inductance coils and inductive primary converters on alternating current without application of potential-current signals. As a measuring circuit the scheme of voltage divider with active-inductive two-pole is used, and as an output signal there has been used the angle of phase shift between two output voltages of the measuring circuit. For forming the output signal temporal separation of measurement channel is used. The advantages of phase method are mostly due to capacity of using microcontrollers. In the technical solutions under consideration the microcontroller regulates the measuring process and develops the measurement results.

  18. Measuring patient activation in Italy: Translation, adaptation and validation of the Italian version of the patient activation measure 13 (PAM13-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Lozza, Edoardo; Hibbard, Judith

    2015-12-23

    The Patient Activation Measure (PAM13) is an instrument that assesses patient knowledge, skills, and confidence for disease self-management. This cross-sectional study was aimed to validate a culturally-adapted Italian Patient Activation Measure (PAM13-I) for patients with chronic conditions. 519 chronic patients were involved in the Italian validation study and responded to PAM13-I. The PAM 13 was translated into Italian by a standardized forward-backward translation. Data quality was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and average inter-item correlation), item-rest correlations. Rasch Model and differential item functioning assessed scale properties. Mean PAM13-I score was 66.2. Rasch analysis showed that the PAM13-I is a good measure of patient activation. The level of internal consistency was good (α = 0.88). For all items, the distribution of answers was left-skewed, with a small floor effect (range 1.7-4.5 %) and a moderate ceiling effect (range 27.6-55.0 %). The Italian version formed a unidimensional, probabilistic Guttman-like scale explaining 41 % of the variance. The PAM13-I has been demonstrated to be a valid and reliable measure of patient activation and the present study suggests its applicability to the Italian-speaking chronic patient population. The measure has good psychometric properties and appears to be consistent with the developmental nature of the patient activation phenomenon, although it presents a different ranking order of the items comparing to the American version. PAM13-I can be a useful assessment tool to evaluate interventions aimed at improving patient engagement in healthcare and to train doctors in attuning their communication to the level of patients' activation. Future research could be conducted to further confirm the validity of the PAM13-I.

  19. Influence Of Dilution Factor For Activity Measurement Of 60CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermawan-Candra; Nazaroh; Ermi-Juita

    2003-01-01

    Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60 Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60 Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)

  20. Measuring and influencing physical activity with smartphone technology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bort-Roig, Judit; Gilson, Nicholas D; Puig-Ribera, Anna; Contreras, Ruth S; Trost, Stewart G

    2014-05-01

    Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in physical activity research, although little is known regarding their effectiveness as measurement and intervention tools. This study systematically reviewed evidence on smartphones and their viability for measuring and influencing physical activity. Research articles were identified in September 2013 by literature searches in Web of Knowledge, PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ScienceDirect. The search was restricted using the terms (physical activity OR exercise OR fitness) AND (smartphone* OR mobile phone* OR cell phone*) AND (measurement OR intervention). Reviewed articles were required to be published in international academic peer-reviewed journals, or in full text from international scientific conferences, and focused on measuring physical activity through smartphone processing data and influencing people to be more active through smartphone applications. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of articles and examined titles and abstracts to exclude those out of scope. Data on study characteristics, technologies used to objectively measure physical activity, strategies applied to influence activity; and the main study findings were extracted and reported. A total of 26 articles (with the first published in 2007) met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in highly economically advantaged countries; 12 articles focused on special populations (e.g. obese patients). Studies measured physical activity using native mobile features, and/or an external device linked to an application. Measurement accuracy ranged from 52 to 100% (n = 10 studies). A total of 17 articles implemented and evaluated an intervention. Smartphone strategies to influence physical activity tended to be ad hoc, rather than theory-based approaches; physical activity profiles, goal setting, real-time feedback, social support networking, and online expert consultation were identified as the most useful

  1. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria Using Gross Domestic Product. ... and environmental factors in planning. There is need for adequate understanding of spatial pattern and centrographic analysis of economic activity to support evidence based economic and regional development policies.

  2. Management system of in vivo reports of activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.C.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Lourenco, M.C.; Dantas, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The SGRIMA (management system of in vivo reports of activity measurements) is a software for Windows developed specifically for the Laboratory of In Vivo Measurements of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry -, in order to manage the individual monitoring process that includes personal data archiving, data relating to the parameters of each measure and calculation results of activity. The software was developed in MS Visual Basic 6, using a MS Access database and can be run on personal computers with MS Windows 98 or higher

  3. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring the purpose of firms' customer and competitor-oriented activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    Traditional empirical market orientation research predominantly focuses on the presence of firms' market-oriented activities. This paper empirically explores a novel structure of four multi-indicator measures assessing the purpose of firms' customer and competitor-oriented activities. The operati......Traditional empirical market orientation research predominantly focuses on the presence of firms' market-oriented activities. This paper empirically explores a novel structure of four multi-indicator measures assessing the purpose of firms' customer and competitor-oriented activities...

  5. Normalization of voltage-sensitive dye signal with functional activity measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaroh Takagaki

    Full Text Available In general, signal amplitude in optical imaging is normalized using the well-established DeltaF/F method, where functional activity is divided by the total fluorescent light flux. This measure is used both directly, as a measure of population activity, and indirectly, to quantify spatial and spatiotemporal activity patterns. Despite its ubiquitous use, the stability and accuracy of this measure has not been validated for voltage-sensitive dye imaging of mammalian neocortex in vivo. In this report, we find that this normalization can introduce dynamic biases. In particular, the DeltaF/F is influenced by dye staining quality, and the ratio is also unstable over the course of experiments. As methods to record and analyze optical imaging signals become more precise, such biases can have an increasingly pernicious impact on the accuracy of findings, especially in the comparison of cytoarchitechtonic areas, in area-of-activation measurements, and in plasticity or developmental experiments. These dynamic biases of the DeltaF/F method may, to an extent, be mitigated by a novel method of normalization, DeltaF/DeltaF(epileptiform. This normalization uses as a reference the measured activity of epileptiform spikes elicited by global disinhibition with bicuculline methiodide. Since this normalization is based on a functional measure, i.e. the signal amplitude of "hypersynchronized" bursts of activity in the cortical network, it is less influenced by staining of non-functional elements. We demonstrate that such a functional measure can better represent the amplitude of population mass action, and discuss alternative functional normalizations based on the amplitude of synchronized spontaneous sleep-like activity. These findings demonstrate that the traditional DeltaF/F normalization of voltage-sensitive dye signals can introduce pernicious inaccuracies in the quantification of neural population activity. They further suggest that normalization

  6. Principle of coincidence method and application in activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mou; Dai Yihua; Ni Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The basic principle of coincidence method was discussed. The basic principle was generalized by analysing the actual example, and the condition in theory of coincidence method was brought forward. The cause of variation of efficiency curve and the effect of dead-time in activity measurement were explained using the above principle and condition. This principle of coincidence method provides the foundation in theory for activity measurement. (authors)

  7. Vectorised Spreading Activation algorithm for centrality measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Troussov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spreading Activation is a family of graph-based algorithms widely used in areas such as information retrieval, epidemic models, and recommender systems. In this paper we introduce a novel Spreading Activation (SA method that we call Vectorised Spreading Activation (VSA. VSA algorithms, like “traditional” SA algorithms, iteratively propagate the activation from the initially activated set of nodes to the other nodes in a network through outward links. The level of the node’s activation could be used as a centrality measurement in accordance with dynamic model-based view of centrality that focuses on the outcomes for nodes in a network where something is flowing from node to node across the edges. Representing the activation by vectors allows the use of the information about various dimensionalities of the flow and the dynamic of the flow. In this capacity, VSA algorithms can model multitude of complex multidimensional network flows. We present the results of numerical simulations on small synthetic social networks and multi­dimensional network models of folksonomies which show that the results of VSA propagation are more sensitive to the positions of the initial seed and to the community structure of the network than the results produced by traditional SA algorithms. We tentatively conclude that the VSA methods could be instrumental to develop scalable and computationally efficient algorithms which could achieve synergy between computation of centrality indexes with detection of community structures in networks. Based on our preliminary results and on improvements made over previous studies, we foresee advances and applications in the current state of the art of this family of algorithms and their applications to centrality measurement.

  8. Decision for counting condition of radioactive waste activities measuring by Ludlum detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang-Purwanto

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive waste must measured for activities before be throw out to environment. Measuring will be important in ordered to know activities can be given management direction. For activities radioactive waste on limit threshold value must processed, but for under limit threshold value activities can be throw out to environment. Activities measuring for solid radioactive waste and liquid by (Total, β, γ) Ludlum detector connected Mode-1000 Scaler Counting. Before measuring for solid waste activities was decisioned optimally counting condition, and be obtained are : sample weight 3.5 gram, heating temperature of 125 o C and heating time at 60 minutes. Activities measuring result by total detector ranges from (0.68-0.71) 10 -1 μCi/gram, β detector ranges from (0.24-0.25) 10 -1 μCi/gram and γ detector ranges from (0.35-0.37) μCi/gram

  9. Time regimes optimization of the activation-measurement cycle in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Criteria of the optimum time conditions of the activation-measurement cycle in neutron activation analysis have been formulated. The optimized functions i.e. the relative precision or the factor of ''merit'' of the analytical signal measured as functions of the cycle time parameters have been proposed. The structure and possibilities of the optimizing programme STOPRC have been presented. This programme is completely written in FORTRAN and takes advantage of the library of standard spectra and fast, stochastic algorithms. The time conditions predicted with the aid of the programme have been discussed and compared with the experimental results for the case of the determination of tungsten in industrial dusts. 31 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  10. Well-Being Tracking via Smartphone-Measured Activity and Sleep: Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMasi, Orianna; Feygin, Sidney; Dembo, Aluma; Aguilera, Adrian; Recht, Benjamin

    2017-10-05

    Automatically tracking mental well-being could facilitate personalization of treatments for mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder. Smartphones present a novel and ubiquitous opportunity to track individuals' behavior and may be useful for inferring and automatically monitoring mental well-being. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which activity and sleep tracking with a smartphone can be used for monitoring individuals' mental well-being. A cohort of 106 individuals was recruited to install an app on their smartphone that would track their well-being with daily surveys and track their behavior with activity inferences from their phone's accelerometer data. Of the participants recruited, 53 had sufficient data to infer activity and sleep measures. For this subset of individuals, we related measures of activity and sleep to the individuals' well-being and used these measures to predict their well-being. We found that smartphone-measured approximations for daily physical activity were positively correlated with both mood (P=.004) and perceived energy level (PSleep duration was positively correlated with mood (P=.02) but not energy. Our measure for sleep disturbance was not found to be significantly related to either mood or energy, which could imply too much noise in the measurement. Models predicting the well-being measures from the activity and sleep measures were found to be significantly better than naive baselines (Psleep inferred from smartphone activity were strongly related to and somewhat predictive of participants' well-being. Whereas the improvement over naive models was modest, it reaffirms the importance of considering physical activity and sleep for predicting mood and for making automatic mood monitoring a reality. ©Orianna DeMasi, Sidney Feygin, Aluma Dembo, Adrian Aguilera, Benjamin Recht. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 05.10.2017.

  11. LOFT experimental measurements uncertainty analyses. Volume XX. Fluid-velocity measurement using pulsed-neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassahn, G.D.; Taylor, D.J.N.

    1982-08-01

    Analyses of uncertainty components inherent in pulsed-neutron-activation (PNA) measurements in general and the Loss-of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) system in particular are given. Due to the LOFT system's unique conditions, previously-used techniques were modified to make the volocity measurement. These methods render a useful, cost-effective measurement with an estimated uncertainty of 11% of reading

  12. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  13. Dynamic Measurement of Disease Activity in Acute Pancreatitis: The Pancreatitis Activity Scoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bechien U; Batech, Michael; Quezada, Michael; Lew, Daniel; Fujikawa, Kelly; Kung, Jonathan; Jamil, Laith H; Chen, Wansu; Afghani, Elham; Reicher, Sonya; Buxbaum, James; Pandol, Stephen J

    2017-07-01

    Acute pancreatitis has a highly variable course. Currently there is no widely accepted method to measure disease activity in patients hospitalized for acute pancreatitis. We aimed to develop a clinical activity index that incorporates routine clinical parameters to assist in the measurement, study, and management of acute pancreatitis. We used the UCLA/RAND appropriateness method to identify items for inclusion in the disease activity instrument. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by two sets of iterative modified Delphi meetings including a panel of international experts between November 2014 and November 2015. The final instrument was then applied to patient data obtained from five separate study cohorts across Southern California to assess profiles of disease activity. From a list of 35 items comprising 6 domains, we identified 5 parameters for inclusion in the final weighted clinical activity scoring system: organ failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, abdominal pain, requirement for opiates and ability to tolerate oral intake. We applied the weighted scoring system across the 5 study cohorts comprising 3,123 patients. We identified several distinct patterns of disease activity: (i) overall there was an elevated score at baseline relative to discharge across all study cohorts, (ii) there were distinct patterns of disease activity related to duration of illness as well as (iii) early and persistent elevation of disease activity among patients with severe acute pancreatitis defined as persistent organ failure. We present the development and initial validation of a clinical activity score for real-time assessment of disease activity in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  14. Novel fast-neutron activation counter for high repetition rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Springham, S. V.; Zhang, T.; Rawat, R. S.; Tan, T. L.; Krishnan, M.; Beg, F. N.; Lee, S.; Schmidt, H.; Lee, P.

    2006-01-01

    A fast-neutron beryllium activation counter has been constructed for neutron measurements on a high repetition rate deuterium plasma focus. Beryllium activation is especially suitable for measurements of DD neutron yields. The cross section for the relevant reaction, 9 Be(n,α) 6 He, results in a maximum sensitivity at the characteristic energy of the DD neutrons (∼2.5 MeV) and practically no sensitivity to neutrons with energies 6 He enabled the shot-to-shot neutron yield from the plasma focus to be measured for repetition rates from 0.2 to 3 Hz (and for a range of deuterium gas pressures). With careful analysis, the shot-to-shot yield can be measured up to a maximum repetition rate of 3 Hz, beyond which the pileup of counts from the previous shots reduces the accuracy of the measurements to an unacceptable level. This new beryllium activation counter has been cross-checked against an indium activation counter to obtain absolute neutron yields. At a charging voltage of 12.5 kV (bank energy of 2.2 kJ), the average neutron yield was found to be (7.9±0.7)x10 7 per shot (standard deviation of 4x10 7 ). It was found that activation of the plasma focus construction materials (especially aluminum) must be taken into account

  15. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  16. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaglione, Christine N.; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies – can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. - Highlights: • A novel, direct measurement of Catalase enzyme activity via, oxygen sensing method. • Steady-stateprofiles of Catalase activity follow the Michaelis-Menten Kinetics. • Catalase-specific activity demonstrated using genetic and pharmacological tools. • Overcomes limitations of spectroscopic methods and indirect calorimetric approaches. • Clear

  17. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, Christine N.; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan, E-mail: Ramanujanv@csmc.edu

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies – can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. - Highlights: • A novel, direct measurement of Catalase enzyme activity via, oxygen sensing method. • Steady-stateprofiles of Catalase activity follow the Michaelis-Menten Kinetics. • Catalase-specific activity demonstrated using genetic and pharmacological tools. • Overcomes limitations of spectroscopic methods and indirect calorimetric approaches. • Clear

  18. Absolute measurement of the activity of 222Rn using a proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Ingo; Greupner, Heinz; Keyser, Uwe

    2002-01-01

    A measuring set-up comprising a proportional counter of calculable 222 Rn efficiency and quantifiable active volume (δ V 222 Rn efficiency is determined by computer simulation of the measured α-spectra. The procedures necessary for absolute measurements by means of the counter are described, and the suitability of the counter for absolute measurements of the 222 Rn activity is proved by experiments. Thus, a new method for the realization of the unit of activity of 222 Rn is obtained, which is independent of the unit of activity of 226 Ra

  19. Activity measurements in the Federal Physico-Technical Institute (PTB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Absolute methods of activity determination and secondary measuring procedures, which are carried out using ionisation chambers for radioactive solutions and NaI(Tl) detectors as well as extended surface proportional counters for solid substances, are the metrological techniques generally available for measurements of radioactivity. The range of methods discussed here was limited to those that are used most frequently in the routine of activity determinations or directly relevant to nuclear medicine or radiation protection. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Improvements on Low Level Activity Gamma Measurements and X-ray Spectrometry at the CEA-MADERE Measurement Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeyeva Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The CEA MADERE platform (Measurement Applied to DosimEtry in REactors is a part of the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory (LDCI. This facility is dedicated to the specific activity measurements of solid and radioactive samples using Gamma and X-ray spectrometry. MADERE is a high-performance facility devoted to neutron dosimetry for experimental programs performed in CEA and for the irradiation surveillance programmes of PWR vessels. The MADERE platform is engaged in a continuous improvement process. Recently, two High Efficiency diodes have been integrated to the MADERE platform in order to manage the accurate low level activity measurements (few Bq per sample. This new equipment provides a good level of efficiency over the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. The background continuum is reduced due to the use of a Ultra Low Background (ULB lead shielding. Relative and absolute X-ray measurement techniques have been improved in order to facilitate absolute rhodium activity measurement (Rh103m on solid samples. Additional efforts have been made to increase the accuracy of the relative niobium (Nb93m activity measurement technique. The way of setting up an absolute measurement method for niobium is under investigation. After a presentation of the MADERE's measurement devices, this paper focuses on the technological options taken into account for the design of high efficiency measurement devices. Then, studies performed on X-ray measurement techniques are presented. Some details about the calculation of uncertainties and correction factors are also mentioned. Finally, future research and development axes are exposed.

  1. Neutron activation and mass spectrometric measurement of /sup 129/I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebin, R.S. Jr.; Brauer, F.P.; Kaye, J.H.; Rapids, M.S.; Stoffels, J.J.

    1987-11-01

    An integrated procedure has been developed for measurement of /sup 129/I by neutron activation analysis and mass spectrometry. An iodine isolation procedure previously used for neutron activation has been modified to provide separated iodine suitable for mass spectrometric measurement as well. Agreement between both methods has been achieved within error limits. The measurement limit by each method is about 10/sup 7/ atoms (2 fg) of /sup 129/I. 13 refs,. 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Dosimetry in single lung cells by means of microautoradiographic activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1976-01-01

    After inhalation of compounds containing promethium-147 in the lungs of mice most of the activity was deposited in the form of local concentrations (hotspots). By means of a special quantitative microautoradiographic method using stripping film ORWO K 105, measurements of the activity of single hotspots of about 10 -14 Ci were possible. A microphotometer with a variable measuring diaphragm was used for the determination of the density profile of the autoradiographic image in order to get hotspot depth within the biological specimen. To determine hotspot activity it was necessary to calibrate the film with a Pm-147 plane source. The systematic and random errors of the method are discussed in detail, giving a total error of +- 21% (SD) for one hotspot activity measurement. A few examples of biological results obtained by the method are given. Simple models were used to calculate doses absorbed in macrophage and alveolar cell nuclei from the measured activities. (author)

  3. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  4. Study of properties of active charcoal used for measuring of low radon activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, M.; Holy, K.

    2011-01-01

    We used the German charcoal Silicarbon for adsorption of radon from the air. From the column with activated carbon arranged in a row, we obtain cut-off dependence of radon on activated carbon at various temperatures, cooling and also at different speeds, drawing radon air through activated charcoal. From information we have chosen the most appropriate combination of temperature and cooling flow in order to maximize capture efficiency of radon in the first column of active charcoal. To change active carbon and optimization of operation allows us to measure the radon exhalation rate from various materials up to the level of 3·10 -9 Bq/s. (authors)

  5. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physica...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD.......It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...

  6. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra

  7. The measurement of activity in vials and syringes using a radionuclide assay calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, S.A.; Davies, I.H.

    1993-01-01

    To enable accurate measurements of the activity in both vials and syringes, a series of measurements was undertaken to ascertain the changes in response with geometry in nine isotope assay calibrators. From these measurements, two jigs were made for each calibrator to enable (a) optimal measurement of activity in vials and (b) optimal measurement of activity in a variety of syringe sizes. (Author)

  8. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004. 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321. Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006 over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions.

  9. Aplicabilidade da programação matemática multiobjetivo no planejamento da expansão de longo prazo da geração no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lins de Albuquerque

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho evidencia a aplicabilidade da Programação Linear Multiobjetivo no planejamento da expansão de longo prazo da geração do sistema elétrico brasileiro. Para melhor viabilizar a utilização da programação linear multiobjetivo no contexto em sistemas fortemente hidrelétricos, como o do Brasil, é explorada uma abordagem gráfica e proposto um procedimento. Por meio deste, permite-se encontrar a composição ótima de um sistema hidrotérmico para atender montantes projetados de energia elétrica no futuro, a qual se beneficie, também, das hidrologias favoráveis e de maior probabilidade de ocorrência, adotando-se, todavia, proteção contra períodos de vazões reduzidas com o uso de usinas térmicas de segurança flexíveis e de forma econômica. Como resultado deste trabalho, conclui-se que a metodologia de programação linear multiobjetivo tem amplo campo de utilização no contexto do novo modelo institucional do setor elétrico brasileiro, no qual o planejamento da expansão, coordenado pelo Governo Federal, será, naturalmente, foco de naturais e até conflitantes pressões e de objetivos a se considerar.The paper shows the application of Multiobjective Linear Programming with regard to the long-term planning of expanding the generation of electricity in Brazil. In order to apply linear multiobjective programming better in the context of powerful hydroelectric systems as has been occurring in Brazil, an approach is explored and a procedure considered which will allow the optimal composition of hydro-thermal systems to be found for supplying the electric energy requirements projected, for the future, which will benefit favorable flows and the greater probability of this occurring. However, at the same time there is a need to adopt protective measures against a period of reduced out-flow due to the use of thermo-electricity stations, for security and economic reasons. The results of this paper lead to the conclusion that

  10. Two-phase flow measurement by pulsed neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehler, P.

    1978-01-01

    The Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) technique for measuring the mass flow velocity and the average density of two-phase mixtures is described. PNA equipment can be easily installed at different loops, and PNA techniques are non-intrusive and independent of flow regimes. These features of the PNA technique make it suitable for in-situ measurement of two-phase flows, and for calibration of more conventional two-phase flow measurement devices. Analytic relations governing the various PNA methods are derived. The equipment and procedures used in the first air-water flow measurement by PNA techniques are discussed, and recommendations are made for improvement of future tests. In the present test, the mass flow velocity was determined with an accuracy of 2 percent, and average densities were measured down to 0.08 g/cm 3 with an accuracy of 0.04 g/cm 3 . Both the accuracy of the mass flow velocity measurement and the lower limit of the density measurement are functions of the injected activity and of the total number of counts. By using a stronger neutron source and a larger number of detectors, the measurable density can be decreased by a factor of 12 to .007 g/cm 3 for 12.5 cm pipes, and to even lower ranges for larger pipes

  11. Measurements of the PLT and PDX device activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavely, J.; Barnes, C.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Strachan, J.D.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements of the activation levels around the PLT and PDX tokamaks have been made using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometer and a Geiger counter. The activation results from radiation induced in the plasma by 14 MeV neutrons from the d(t,n)α fusion reaction, 14.7 MeV protons from the d( 3 He,p)α fusion reaction, 10 → 20 MeV hard x-rays from runaway electron induced bremmstrahlung, and 2.5 MeV neutrons from the d(d,n) 3 He fusion reaction. The magnitude of the activation is compared to that predicted for PDX on the basis of one-dimensional activation codes

  12. Measuring patient activation in the Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.; Nijman, J.; Hoek, L. van der; Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer) self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one's health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version;

  13. Performance tests for instruments measuring radon activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Schmidt, V.

    2009-01-01

    Performance tests of electronic instruments measuring the activity concentration of 222 Rn have been carried out with respect to the standard IEC 61577-2. In total, 9 types of instrument operating with ionization chambers or electrostatic collection have been tested for the influence of different climatic and radiological factors on the measurement characteristics. It is concluded that all types of instrument, which are commercially available, are suitable for indoor radon measurements. Because of the dependence on climatic conditions, the outdoor use is partly limited.

  14. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  15. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  16. Measurement of nuclear activity with Ge detectors and its uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse the influence magnitudes which affect the activity measurement of gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources. They prepared by means of the gravimetric method, as well as, determining the uncertainty of such measurement when this is carried out with a gamma spectrometer system with a germanium detector. This work is developed in five chapters: In the first one, named Basic principles it is made a brief description about the meaning of the word Measurement and its implications and the necessaries concepts are presented which are used in this work. In the second chapter it is exposed the gravimetric method used for the manufacture of the gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources, it is tackled the problem to determine the main influence magnitudes which affect in the measurement of their activity and the respective correction factors and their uncertainties are deduced. The third chapter describes the gamma spectrometry system which is used in this work for the measurement of the activity of isolated sources and also its performance and experimental arrangement that it is used. In the fourth chapter are applied the three previous items with the object of determining the uncertainty which would be obtained in the measurement of an isolated radioactive source elaborated with the gravimetric method in the experimental conditions less favourable predicted above the obtained results from the chapter two. The conclusions are presented in the fifth chapter and they are applied to establish the optimum conditions for the measurement of the activity of a gamma transmitter isolated radioactive source with a spectrometer with germanium detector. (Author)

  17. Measuring economic activity in China with mobile big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Dong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emerging trends in the use of smartphones, online mapping applications, and social media, in addition to the geo-located data they generate, provide opportunities to trace users’ socio-economic activities in an unprecedentedly granular and direct fashion and have triggered a revolution in empirical research. These vast mobile data offer new perspectives and approaches to measure economic dynamics, and they are broadening the social science and economics fields. In this paper, we explore the potential for using mobile data to measure economic activity in China from a bottom-up view. First, we build indices for gauging employment and consumer trends based on billions of geo-positioning data. Second, we advance the estimation of offline store foot traffic via location search data derived from Baidu Maps, which is then applied to predict Apple’s revenues in China and to accurately detect box-office fraud. Third, we construct consumption indicators to track trends in various service sector industries and verify them with several existing indicators. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to measure the world’s second-largest economy by mining such unprecedentedly large-scale and fine-granular spatial-temporal data. In this way, our research provides new approaches and insights into measuring economic activity.

  18. Intercomparison of 131I activity measurements in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. Y.; Yang, H. K.; Lim, C. I.; Lee, H. K.; Jeong, H. K.

    2004-01-01

    Activity measurements in nuclear medicine using a dose calibrator have been performed for several decades and their reliability has varied. To minimise the radiation dose to patients with radionuclides, it is necessary to ensure that the sample administered is accurately assayed. Recognizing the importance of intercomparison in nuclear medicine and the need to make access to activity standards traceable to the international measurement system, the KFDA, as a national secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL), started an intercomparison program in 2002. This program was initiated by survey to all nuclear medicine centres regarding general information about their dose calibrators, radioisotopes etc. 71 nuclear medicine centres (79 dose calibrators) participated in the intercomparison program with 131 I isotope. To assess the accuracy of clinical measurements of the activity of 131 I solutions and to determine the reason for the disagreement, an intercomparison was conducted using 4 ml aliquots in 10 ml P6 vial with a total activity in the region of 10 -20 MBq. The reference time of decay for all solutions was 0:00 on 25 September 2002. The half-life used was 8.04 days. For the evaluation of solution in KFDA, a sealed, high pressure and re-entrant ionisation chamber, NPL-CRC radionuclide calibrators were used. The verification of our calibration quality was by means of a comparison with the Korea Primary Standard Laboratory (KRISS). The activity ratio of KFDA to KRISS for the 131 I solutions is 1.011. The difference between the value quoted by the clinic, A hospital and the value obtained by the KFDA, A KFDA , is expressed as a percent deviation, i.e. DEV(%) 100x(A hospital -A KFDA )/A KFDA . From the data obtained it was found that 61% of the calibrators showed a deviation within +/-5%; 23% had a deviation in the range 5% 131 I solution activity measurements, using dose calibrators in Koreas, and also to provide the participants with a traceable standard to

  19. The motivation activation measure and media use in Singapore: Cross-cultural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, L.; Detenber, B.H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: First, it tests how the Motivation Activation Measure [MAM; Lang, A., Bradley, S. D., Sparks Jr, J. V., & Lee, S. (2007). The motivation activation measure (MAM): How well does MAM predict individual differences in physiological indicators of appetitive and aversive activation? Communication Methods and Measures, 1(2), 113-136] applies in a non-American (i.e. Asian) context, in order to provide evidence for the universality asserted through its theoretica...

  20. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×10 8 cm −2 s −1 to 10 14 cm −2 s −1 . The 202 Hg(n,γ) 203 Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203 Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg 2 Cl 2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps. - Highlights: • Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. • Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in neutron fields in research reactor. • 203 Hg induced radionuclide activity was measured using gamma spectrometry. • Mercury mass in fluorescent lamps can be measured by neutron activation analysis.

  1. A measurement error model for physical activity level as measured by a questionnaire with application to the 1999-2006 NHANES questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooze, Janet A; Troiano, Richard P; Carroll, Raymond J; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Freedman, Laurence S

    2013-06-01

    Systematic investigations into the structure of measurement error of physical activity questionnaires are lacking. We propose a measurement error model for a physical activity questionnaire that uses physical activity level (the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal energy expenditure) to relate questionnaire-based reports of physical activity level to true physical activity levels. The 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey physical activity questionnaire was administered to 433 participants aged 40-69 years in the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study (Maryland, 1999-2000). Valid estimates of participants' total energy expenditure were also available from doubly labeled water, and basal energy expenditure was estimated from an equation; the ratio of those measures estimated true physical activity level ("truth"). We present a measurement error model that accommodates the mixture of errors that arise from assuming a classical measurement error model for doubly labeled water and a Berkson error model for the equation used to estimate basal energy expenditure. The method was then applied to the OPEN Study. Correlations between the questionnaire-based physical activity level and truth were modest (r = 0.32-0.41); attenuation factors (0.43-0.73) indicate that the use of questionnaire-based physical activity level would lead to attenuated estimates of effect size. Results suggest that sample sizes for estimating relationships between physical activity level and disease should be inflated, and that regression calibration can be used to provide measurement error-adjusted estimates of relationships between physical activity and disease.

  2. Measurement of enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Keshwani, M M

    2009-01-01

    To study and understand the nature of living cells, scientists have continually employed traditional biochemical techniques aimed to fractionate and characterize a designated network of macromolecular components required to carry out a particular cellular function. At the most rudimentary level, cellular functions ultimately entail rapid chemical transformations that otherwise would not occur in the physiological environment of the cell. The term enzyme is used to singularly designate a macromolecular gene product that specifically and greatly enhances the rate of a chemical transformation. Purification and characterization of individual and collective groups of enzymes has been and will remain essential toward advancement of the molecular biological sciences; and developing and utilizing enzyme reaction assays is central to this mission. First, basic kinetic principles are described for understanding chemical reaction rates and the catalytic effects of enzymes on such rates. Then, a number of methods are described for measuring enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates, which mainly differ with regard to techniques used to detect and quantify concentration changes of given reactants or products. Finally, short commentary is given toward formulation of reaction mixtures used to measure enzyme activity. Whereas a comprehensive treatment of enzymatic reaction assays is not within the scope of this chapter, the very core principles that are presented should enable new researchers to better understand the logic and utility of any given enzymatic assay that becomes of interest.

  3. Measuring the Enzyme Activity of Arabidopsis Deubiquitylating Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Deubiquitylating enzymes, or DUBs, are important regulators of ubiquitin homeostasis and substrate stability, though the molecular mechanisms of most of the DUBs in plants are not yet understood. As different ubiquitin chain types are implicated in different biological pathways, it is important to analyze the enzyme characteristic for studying a DUB. Quantitative analysis of DUB activity is also important to determine enzyme kinetics and the influence of DUB binding proteins on the enzyme activity. Here, we show methods to analyze DUB activity using immunodetection, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, and fluorescence measurement that can be useful for understanding the basic characteristic of DUBs.

  4. Reliability and validity of an internet-based questionnaire measuring lifetime physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Mary A; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-11-15

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005-2006. Reliability was examined using a test-retest study. Validity was examined in a 2-part study consisting of 1) comparisons with previously validated instruments measuring similar constructs, the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire (LT-PAQ) and the Chasan-Taber Physical Activity Questionnaire (CT-PAQ), and 2) a priori hypothesis tests of constructs measured by the L-PAQ. The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 (household activity) to 0.89 (sports/recreation). Comparison between the L-PAQ and the LT-PAQ resulted in Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.41 (total activity) to 0.71 (household activity); comparison between the L-PAQ and the CT-PAQ yielded coefficients of 0.58 (sports/recreation), 0.56 (household activity), and 0.50 (total activity). L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity.

  5. Reliability and Validity of an Internet-based Questionnaire Measuring Lifetime Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    De Vera, Mary A.; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005–2006. Reliability was examined u...

  6. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part F. 36Cl measurements in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Yasuo; Seki, Riki; Matsuhiro, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sasa, Kimikazu; Usui, Toshihide; Sueki, Keisuke

    2005-01-01

    The development of the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system at the Tandem Accelerator Center of the University of Tsukuba was started in 1995, using the university's own molecular pilot beam technique. Presently, it is the only facility in Japan used to measure 36 Cl (Nagashima et al. 2000). The sensitivity of the 36 Cl AMS system is around 10 -14 36 Cl/Cl atom ratio, which is enough to measure the natural level of the 36 Cl/Cl ratio. The system is characterized by long-term stability, enabling high-quality, continuous measurements over many hours. Our AMS system was used to measure 36 Cl produced in soil by neutrons released into the environment at the time of the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura in 1999 (Seki et al. 2003). At the beginning of 2001, our group joined the collaborative efforts to investigate and clarify the discrepancy observed between measurements and calculations of neutron activities induced by the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Using our AMS system, 36 Cl was measured in granite samples from Hiroshima exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons and in distant, unexposed samples. (author)

  7. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  8. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  9. Software for a measuring facility for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Keyser, A.; De Roost, E.

    1985-01-01

    A software package has been developed for an APPLE P.C. The programs are intended to control an automated measuring station for photon activation analysis at GELINA, the linear accelerator of C.B.N.M. at Geel (Belgium). They allow to set-up a measuring scheme, to execute it under computer control, to accumulate and store 2 K-spectra using a built-in ADC and to output the results as listings, plots or evaluated reports

  10. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Christine N; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies - can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aplicabilidade do protocolo de prevenção de úlcera de pressão em unidade de terapia intensiva Applicability of the prevention protocol of pressure ulcers in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelly Wedja do Nascimento Lima e Silva

    2010-06-01

    study based which evaluated all adult patients staying in the intensive care unit from July 14 to August 10, 2009. The data were collected using the Braden's scale by three examiners who identified the pressure ulcer development risk. The data were analyzed using the SAS Statistical Software. For determination of the examiners' rates degree of coincidence, the Kappa value was used (95%CI. RESULTS: Regarding the related risk factors: 36.4% had mild sensory perception impairment; 50.9% had occasionally moist skin; 97.3% bedfast; 39.1% had very limited mobility; 45% probably had inappropriate nutrition; 61.8% had friction and shear problems. An agreement between the examiners was identified for nutrition and physical activity (38.1% to 100.0%; the Kappa population zero hypothesis was rejected; a paired examiners agreement (41.7% to 100.0% was identified for the items humidity and physical activity, and the Kappa values ranged from 0.13 to 1. CONCLUSIONS: These intensive care patients were identified to have increased risk of developing pressure ulcers. This tool was considered appropriate to support the implementation of preventive measures.

  12. Uncertain estimation of activity measurement in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Diaz, A.; Palau, S.P.A.; Cardenas, T.A.I.; Garcia, A.I.; Tulio, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Accuracy and precision of dose is mandatory in radiopharmaceutical therapy procedures to guarantee the treatment success. The evaluation of uncertain in dose measurement in NM lab becomes a very important step, moreover if the operational parameters change between different equipment. In order to assure the traceability of activity measurements, and the quality assurance of dose administration, the behavior of two dose calibrator Capintec CRC-15R and PTW Curimentor 3, were studied. Accuracy, precision, linearity of activity response and reproducibility, and the activity uncertain determination with a second lab source were determined. Accuracy was evaluate using Tc 99m and I 131 Pstandard source (Secondary Standard Laboratory), for 10R vial (V) and 5 ml syringe (S) geometry, obtaining 1.3% (V-I 131 ), 1.4% (V -Tc 99m ), 0.8% (S -Tc 99m ) for CRC-15R and 2.3% (V-I 131 ), 1.1%(V-Tc 99m ), 1.0% (S-Tc 99m ) for Curimentor 3. Precision and Reproducibility was calculate using Cs 137 source. The reproducibility of CRC-15R and Curimentor 3 was less than 1.1% and 1.2 % respectively, during all evaluation time. The linearity of activity response was evaluate only for Tc 99m , and the results obtained were CRC 15R (672.97mCi 0.07 mCi, 1.3 % like mayor deviation) and Curimentor 3 (670.91mCi 0.08 mCi; 0.6 % like mayor deviation). To calculate the uncertain was use I 131 sources, the influences of calibration factor, linearity to activity, precision, reproducibility, background, half live time took into account. The typical combine uncertain for I 131 activity of was 2.24% for CRC-15R and 2.41% for Curimentor 3. The results were traceable between two equipment, no statistical significant differences were found for all tests. The equipment have a proper performance in the checked parameters, showing compliance with AIEA and National Authorities recommendation. Conclusion: The two equipmentcan be used in NM services with high level of traceability and confidence, with

  13. The measurement of sedentary patterns and behaviors using the activPAL™ Professional physical activity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, Kieran P; Bourke, Alan K; Nelson, John; Donnelly, Alan E; Harrington, Deirdre M

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated the negative effects of sedentary time and sedentary patterns on health indices. However, these studies have used methodologies that do not directly measure the sedentary state. Recent technological developments in the area of motion sensors have incorporated inclinometers, which can measure the inclination of the body directly, without relying on self-report or count thresholds. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of methodologies used to examine a range of relevant variables, including sedentary levels and patterns from an inclinometer-based motion sensor. The activPAL Professional physical activity logger provides an output which can be interpreted and used without the need for further processing and additional variables were derived using a custom designed MATLAB® computer program. The methodologies described have been implemented on a sample of 44 adolescent females, and the results of a range of daily physical activity and sedentary variables are described and presented. The results provide a range of objectively measured and objectively processed variables, including total time spent sitting/lying, standing and stepping, number and duration of daily sedentary bouts and both bed hours and non-bed hours, which may be of interest when making association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors and health indices. (paper)

  14. FEATURES OF ACTIVE MEASURES OF LABOUR MARKET SUPPORT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa PANTEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Active labour market policy aims at rising labour force’s competitiveness to enhance adjustment between labour demand and supply. The measures of active labour market policy comprise vocational training and requalification, professional counseling, job search assistance etc. A special attention require active measures that increase labour force flexibility, i.e. its geographic and professional mobility. Present article has the goal to appreciate the efficiency of active measures in rising labour force employment in the Republic of Moldova.

  15. Chapter 4: Measurements of total beta-activity in the fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.; Johannessen, J.C.; Kotler, L.H.; Stewart, F.M.

    1974-01-01

    In order to provide information on fresh fission products in fallout reaching Australia from nuclear tests being conducted by France in Polynesia, measurements were made of total beta activity in daily fallout deposition of 25 Australian sampling stations covering a three month period from 25 July to 23 October 1973. The methods employed to measure the radioactivity of the samples are described and the data on total beta-activity, and the calculated external gamma radiation doses from fresh fallout are presented. (R.L.)

  16. Objectively measured active travel and uses of activity-friendly neighborhood resources: Does change in use relate to change in physical activity and BMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara B. Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies examine how objectively measured use of local physical activity resources contributes to objectively-measured healthy physical activity and weight changes over time. We utilized objective measures to test whether changes in active travel and uses of three physical activity (PA resources–parks, recreation centers, and transit– related to changes in PA and BMI. Adults (n=536 in Salt Lake City, UT, wore accelerometer and GPS units in 2012 and 2013, before and after neighborhood rail completion. Regression outcomes included accelerometer counts per minute (cpm, MVPA (moderate-to-vigorous activity minutes/10h accelerometer wear and measured BMI; key predictors were changes in active travel and PA resource uses (former and new uses. Significant results (all p<0.05 showed that increased active travel related to increased total PA (59.86cpm and 8.50 MVPA; decreased active travel related to decreased MVPA (−3.01 MVPA. Poorer outcomes were seen after discontinuing use of parks (−36.29cpm, −5.73 MVPA, and +0.44 BMI points, recreation centers (−6.18 MVPA, and transit (−48.14cpm, −5.43 MVPA, and +0.66 BMI. Healthier outcomes were seen after commencing use of parks (29.83cpm, 5.25 MVPA, recreation centers (44.63cpm and transit (38.44cpm, 4.17 MVPA, and −0.56 BMI. Transit and park/recreational center uses were unrelated, although park users were more likely to be recreation center users. Active travel and use of three neighborhood PA resources relate to healthy activity and could be fostered by policy and design. Keywords: Recreation center, Accelerometry, Active transport, Built environment, Parks, Global positioning system

  17. Ambulatory measurement of knee motion and physical activity: preliminary evaluation of a smart activity monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchau Henrik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a paucity of devices available for continuous, long-term monitoring of human joint motion. Non-invasive, inexpensive devices capable of recording human activity and joint motion have many applications for medical research. Such a device could be used to quantify range of motion outside the gait laboratory. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the modified Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA in measuring knee flexion angles, to detect different physical activities, and to quantify how often healthy subjects use deep knee flexion in the ambulatory setting. Methods We compared Biomotion Laboratory (BML "gold standard" data to simultaneous IDEEA measures of knee motion and gait, step up/down, and stair descent in 5 healthy subjects. In addition, we used a series of choreographed physical activities outside the BML to confirm the IDEEA's ability to accurately measure 7 commonly-performed physical activities. Subjects then continued data collection during ordinary activities outside the gait laboratory. Results Pooled correlations between the BML and IDEEA knee flexion angles were .97 +/- .03 for step up/down, .98 +/- .02 for stair descent, and .98 +/- .01 for gait. In the BML protocol, the IDEEA accurately identified gait, but was less accurate in identifying step up/down and stair descent. During sampling outside the BML, the IDEEA accurately detected walking, running, stair ascent, stair descent, standing, lying, and sitting. On average, subjects flexed their knees >120° for 0.17% of their data collection periods outside the BML. Conclusion The modified IDEEA system is a useful clinical tool for evaluating knee motion and multiple physical activities in the ambulatory setting. These five healthy subjects rarely flexed their knees >120°.

  18. Measurement of the 232Th-series activity in gas sockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman, I.

    1995-01-01

    The activity of 232 Th and its daughters in Th-based gas sockets is required for health risk assessment. By absolute measurement of the 228 Ac-and 212 Pb/ 208 Tl-activities, the total activity of the sockets can be assessed. It is governed by 228 Ra and 228 Th and the product age. (author) 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  19. Validation of the historical adulthood physical activity questionnaire (HAPAQ against objective measurements of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Christopher J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifetime physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE is an important determinant of risk for many chronic diseases but remains challenging to measure. Previously reported historical physical activity (PA questionnaires appear to be reliable, but their validity is less well established. Methods We sought to design and validate an historical adulthood PA questionnaire (HAPAQ against objective PA measurements from the same individuals. We recruited from a population-based cohort in Cambridgeshire, UK, (Medical Research Council Ely Study in whom PA measurements, using individually calibrated heart rate monitoring, had been obtained in the past, once between 1994 and 1996 and once between 2000 and 2002. 100 individuals from this cohort attended for interview. Historical PA within the domains of home, work, transport, sport and exercise was recalled using the questionnaire by asking closed questions repeated for several discrete time periods from the age of 20 years old to their current age. The average PAEE from the 2 periods of objective measurements was compared to the self-reported data from the corresponding time periods in the questionnaire. Results Significant correlations were observed between HAPAQ-derived and objectively measured total PAEE for both time periods (Spearman r = 0.44; P Conclusions HAPAQ demonstrates convergent validity for total PAEE and vigorous PA. This instrument will be useful for ranking individuals according to their past PA in studies of chronic disease aetiology, where activity may be an important underlying factor contributing to disease pathogenesis.

  20. Measuring presenteeism: which questionnaire to use in physical activity research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Burton, Nicola; Gilson, Nicholas David; Brown, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    An emerging area of interest in workplace health is presenteeism; the measurable extent to which physical or psychosocial symptoms, conditions and disease adversely affect the work productivity of those who choose to remain at work. Given established links between presenteeism and health, and health and physical activity, presenteeism could be an important outcome in workplace physical activity research. This study provides a narrative review of questionnaires for use in such research. Eight self-report measures of presenteeism were identified. Information regarding development, constructs measured and psychometric properties was extracted from relevant articles. Questionnaires were largely self-administered, had 4-44 items, and recall periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. Items were identified as assessing work performance, physical tolerance, psychological well-being and social or role functioning. Samples used to test questionnaires were predominantly American male employees, with an age range of 30-59 years. All instruments had undergone psychometric assessment, most commonly discriminant and construct validity. Based on instrument characteristics, the range of conceptual foci covered and acceptable measurement properties, the Health and Work Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Work Limitations Questionnaire are suggested as most suitable for further exploring the relationship between physical activity and presenteeism.

  1. Fitness Activity Recognition on Smartphones Using Doppler Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biying Fu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantified Self has seen an increased interest in recent years, with devices including smartwatches, smartphones, or other wearables that allow you to monitor your fitness level. This is often combined with mobile apps that use gamification aspects to motivate the user to perform fitness activities, or increase the amount of sports exercise. Thus far, most applications rely on accelerometers or gyroscopes that are integrated into the devices. They have to be worn on the body to track activities. In this work, we investigated the use of a speaker and a microphone that are integrated into a smartphone to track exercises performed close to it. We combined active sonar and Doppler signal analysis in the ultrasound spectrum that is not perceivable by humans. We wanted to measure the body weight exercises bicycles, toe touches, and squats, as these consist of challenging radial movements towards the measuring device. We have tested several classification methods, ranging from support vector machines to convolutional neural networks. We achieved an accuracy of 88% for bicycles, 97% for toe-touches and 91% for squats on our test set.

  2. Physical Activity in Vietnam: Estimates and Measurement Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Tan Van; Blizzard, Christopher Leigh; Luong, Khue Ngoc; Truong, Ngoc Le Van; Tran, Bao Quoc; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai; Nelson, Mark Raymond; Au, Thuy Bich; Ha, Son Thai; Phung, Hai Ngoc; Tran, Mai Hoang; Callisaya, Michele; Gall, Seana

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to provide the first national estimates of physical activity (PA) for Vietnam, and to investigate issues affecting their accuracy. Measurements were made using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) on a nationally-representative sample of 14706 participants (46.5% males, response 64.1%) aged 25-64 years selected by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. Approximately 20% of Vietnamese people had no measureable PA during a typical week, but 72.9% (men) and 69.1% (women) met WHO recommendations for PA by adults for their age. On average, 52.0 (men) and 28.0 (women) Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET)-hours/week (largely from work activities) were reported. Work and total PA were higher in rural areas and varied by season. Less than 2% of respondents provided incomplete information, but an additional one-in-six provided unrealistically high values of PA. Those responsible for reporting errors included persons from rural areas and all those with unstable work patterns. Box-Cox transformation (with an appropriate constant added) was the most successful method of reducing the influence of large values, but energy-scaled values were most strongly associated with pathophysiological outcomes. Around seven-in-ten Vietnamese people aged 25-64 years met WHO recommendations for total PA, which was mainly from work activities and higher in rural areas. Nearly all respondents were able to report their activity using the GPAQ, but with some exaggerated values and seasonal variation in reporting. Data transformation provided plausible summary values, but energy-scaling fared best in association analyses.

  3. Physical Activity in Vietnam: Estimates and Measurement Issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Van Bui

    Full Text Available Our aims were to provide the first national estimates of physical activity (PA for Vietnam, and to investigate issues affecting their accuracy.Measurements were made using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ on a nationally-representative sample of 14706 participants (46.5% males, response 64.1% aged 25-64 years selected by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling.Approximately 20% of Vietnamese people had no measureable PA during a typical week, but 72.9% (men and 69.1% (women met WHO recommendations for PA by adults for their age. On average, 52.0 (men and 28.0 (women Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET-hours/week (largely from work activities were reported. Work and total PA were higher in rural areas and varied by season. Less than 2% of respondents provided incomplete information, but an additional one-in-six provided unrealistically high values of PA. Those responsible for reporting errors included persons from rural areas and all those with unstable work patterns. Box-Cox transformation (with an appropriate constant added was the most successful method of reducing the influence of large values, but energy-scaled values were most strongly associated with pathophysiological outcomes.Around seven-in-ten Vietnamese people aged 25-64 years met WHO recommendations for total PA, which was mainly from work activities and higher in rural areas. Nearly all respondents were able to report their activity using the GPAQ, but with some exaggerated values and seasonal variation in reporting. Data transformation provided plausible summary values, but energy-scaling fared best in association analyses.

  4. Development of a direct observation Measure of Environmental Qualities of Activity Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Rigby, Patty; Batorowicz, Beata; McMain-Klein, Margot; Petrenchik, Theresa; Thompson, Laura; Gibson, Michelle

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an observer-rated measure of aesthetic, physical, social, and opportunity-related qualities of leisure activity settings for young people (with or without disabilities). Eighty questionnaires were completed by sets of raters who independently rated 22 community/home activity settings. The scales of the 32-item Measure of Environmental Qualities of Activity Settings (MEQAS; Opportunities for Social Activities, Opportunities for Physical Activities, Pleasant Physical Environment, Opportunities for Choice, Opportunities for Personal Growth, and Opportunities to Interact with Adults) were determined using principal components analyses. Test-retest reliability was determined for eight activity settings, rated twice (4-6wk interval) by a trained rater. The factor structure accounted for 80% of the variance. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy was 0.73. Cronbach's alphas for the scales ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and interrater reliabilities (ICCs) ranged from 0.60 to 0.93. Test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.70 to 0.90. Results suggest that the MEQAS has a sound factor structure and preliminary evidence of internal consistency, interrater, and test-retest reliability. The MEQAS is the first observer-completed measure of environmental qualities of activity settings. The MEQAS allows researchers to assess comprehensively qualities and affordances of activity settings, and can be used to design and assess environmental qualities of programs for young people. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Activation measurements of fast neutron radiative capture for 139La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Junhua; Han, Jiuning; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Li; Liu, Zhenlai; Sun, Guihua; Ge, Suhong

    2013-01-01

    The neutron capture cross section of the neutron magic isotope 139 La has been measured relative to that of 27 Al by means of the activation method. The fast neutrons were produced via the 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction on Pd-300 neutron generator. The natural high-purity La 2 O 3 powder was used as target material. Induced gamma activities were measured by a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Measurements were corrected for gamma-ray attenuations, random coincidence (pile-up), dead time and fluctuation of neutron flux. The new values for E n =13.5±0.2, 14.1±0.2, and 14.8±0.2 MeV are found to be 1.30±0.08, 1.15±0.08 and 0.99±0.07 mb, respectively. Results were discussed and compared with some corresponding values found in the literature. - Highlights: ► D–T neutron source was used to measure cross sections using activation method. ► 27 Al(n,α) 24 Na was used as the monitor for the measurement. ► The cross sections for the (n,γ) reactions on neutron magic isotope 139 La have been measured. ► The data for 139 La(n,γ) 140 La reaction are presented. ► The results were compared with previous data and with evaluation data

  6. PROMOTION OF ACTIVE MEASURES AND EMPLOYMENT STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches in the field of the labour market has allowed the identification of certain specific mechanisms for employment promotion; at present, on the Romanian labour market we find passive policies, concretised in financial aids paid to the unemployed, along with active policies, constituting the most efficient social protection activity addressed to the unemployed (they aim at counterbalancing the inefficiencies determined by the granting of financial allowances, help population to find a job by actions of information, professional training and contributing to the encouragement of the labour force mobility. The paper refers to some theoretical considerations related to the influence factors of employment stimulation, as well as to the unemployment – correlated adequate measures synapse. The applied research comprises the analysis of statistic documents; the method used is the case study, i.e. the activity of employment stimulation carried on by the County Agency for Employment Caraş-Severin, in the period 2004-2012. The conclusions highlight the impact of the activity of the institutions involved in the system of social protection and security within the labour market.

  7. Measurement of low β-activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grintals, J.

    1975-01-01

    The β-counter constructed combines a low background level with the possibility of giving certain information regarding β-energy which should make identification easier. The energy resolution is moderate, circa 12%, based on the 137 Cs spectrum. One factor which impairs the resolution is the long-term drift in the apparatus. It should, however, be possible to reduce this drift by using more stable electronics. It is possible to measure the small natural activity of 137 Cs in sea-water, and 40 K. Better electronics and better shielding should improve the background level by an estimated factor of 10 (compared with similar apparatus described in the literature). This aspect, however, is outside the scope of this report. (J.G.)

  8. Photon small-field measurements with a CMOS active pixel sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, F Jiménez; Rosenberg, I; Hedin, E; Royle, G

    2015-06-07

    In this work the dosimetric performance of CMOS active pixel sensors for the measurement of small photon beams is presented. The detector used consisted of an array of 520  × 520 pixels on a 25 µm pitch. Dosimetric parameters measured with this sensor were compared with data collected with an ionization chamber, a film detector and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. The sensor performance for beam profiles measurements was evaluated for field sizes of 0.5  × 0.5 cm(2). The high spatial resolution achieved with this sensor allowed the accurate measurement of profiles, beam penumbrae and field size under lateral electronic disequilibrium. Field size and penumbrae agreed within 5.4% and 2.2% respectively with film measurements. Agreements with ionization chambers better than 1.0% were obtained when measuring tissue-phantom ratios. Output factor measurements were in good agreement with ionization chamber and Monte Carlo simulation. The data obtained from this imaging sensor can be easily analyzed to extract dosimetric information. The results presented in this work are promising for the development and implementation of CMOS active pixel sensors for dosimetry applications.

  9. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  10. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe; Deniak, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity measures: American College of Rheumatology recommendations for use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaclyn; Caplan, Liron; Yazdany, Jinoos; Robbins, Mark L; Neogi, Tuhina; Michaud, Kaleb; Saag, Kenneth G; O'Dell, James R; Kazi, Salahuddin

    2012-05-01

    Although the systematic measurement of disease activity facilitates clinical decision making in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), no recommendations currently exist on which measures should be applied in clinical practice in the US. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) convened a Working Group (WG) to comprehensively evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of available RA disease activity measures and derive recommendations for their use in clinical practice. The Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Disease Activity Measures Working Group conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify RA disease activity measures. Using exclusion criteria, input from an Expert Advisory Panel (EAP), and psychometric analysis, a list of potential measures was created. A survey was administered to rheumatologists soliciting input. The WG used these survey results in conjunction with the psychometric analyses to derive final recommendations. Systematic review of the literature resulted in identification of 63 RA disease activity measures. Application of exclusion criteria and ratings by the EAP narrowed the list to 14 measures for further evaluation. Practicing rheumatologists rated 9 of these 14 measures as most useful and feasible. From these 9 measures, the WG selected 6 with the best psychometric properties for inclusion in the final set of ACR-recommended RA disease activity measures. We recommend the Clinical Disease Activity Index, Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein), Patient Activity Scale (PAS), PAS-II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data with 3 measures, and Simplified Disease Activity Index because they are accurate reflections of disease activity; are sensitive to change; discriminate well between low, moderate, and high disease activity states; have remission criteria; and are feasible to perform in clinical settings. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Whole-body profile scanner for in vivo quantitative activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    A whole-body profile scanner has been developed by fitting parallel slit collimators to a shadow shield whole-body counter. Sensitivity, uniformity and resolution measurements were performed using a number of different counting conditions. It is shown that improved accuracy of activity measurements is obtained by using a wide window counting technique for low and medium energy gamma emitters (99m Tc, 131 I), whereas a photopeak window should be used for high energy gamma emitters (47 Ca). Due to the finite spatial resolution of the system a systematic error in evaluating regional activities from the counting rate profile occurs which is characterized by a spatial spillover factor. The spatial spillover factor is measured and is subsequently used to calculate the error on basis of a simple model. It is shown that only small errors are caused by spatial spillover when the length of a region is at least three times the full width half maximum of the point spread function. Applying the above mentioned simple rules it is concluded that profile scanning is a sensitive and accurate technique for activity measurements in vivo. Two examples of clinical applications (measurement of bone accretion rates of calcium and Tc-pyrophosphate, regional radioiodine retention in patients with thyroid carcinoma) and a review of the papers on profile scanning demonstrate the types of investigations in which profile scanning is superior to alternative techniques. (author)

  13. Domain-Specific Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Sprengeler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the extent that different domains contribute to total sedentary (SED, light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. We aimed to identify domain-specific physical activity (PA patterns in school-aged children who were assessed by questionnaire and accelerometry. For the study, 298 German school children and adolescents aged 6–17 years wore an accelerometer for one week and completed a PA recall-questionnaire for the same period. Spearman coefficients (r were used to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA in five domains (transport, school hours, physical education, leisure-time, organized sports activities. School hours mainly contributed to the total objectively measured SED, LPA and MVPA (55%, 53% and 46%, respectively, whilst sports activities contributed only 24% to total MVPA. Compared to accelerometry, the proportion of self-reported LPA and MVPA during school hours was substantially underestimated but overestimated during leisure-time. The agreement of self-reported and objectively measured PA was low for total LPA (r = 0.09, 95% CI (confidence interval: −0.03–0.20 and total MVPA (r = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10–0.32, while moderate agreement was only found for total SED (r = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.53, LPA during transport (r = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.49–0.67 and MVPA during organized sports activities (r = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38–0.67. Since school hours mainly contribute to total SED, LPA and MVPA and self-reported LPA and MVPA during school were importantly underestimated compared to objectively measured LPA and MVPA, the application of objective measurements is compulsory to characterize the entire activity pattern of school-aged children.

  14. Specific activity measurement of 64Cu: A comparison of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastren, Tara; Guthrie, James; Eisenbeis, Paul; Voller, Tom; Mebrahtu, Efrem; Robertson, J. David; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Effective specific activity of 64 Cu (amount of radioactivity per µmol metal) is important in order to determine purity of a particular 64 Cu lot and to assist in optimization of the purification process. Metal impurities can affect effective specific activity and therefore it is important to have a simple method that can measure trace amounts of metals. This work shows that ion chromatography (IC) yields similar results to ICP mass spectrometry for copper, nickel and iron contaminants in 64 Cu production solutions. - Highlights: • Comparison of TETA titration, ICP mass spectrometry, and ion chromatography to measure specific activity. • Validates ion chromatography by using ICP mass spectrometry as the “gold standard”. • Shows different types and amounts of metal impurities present in 64 Cu

  15. Direct measurement of gaseous activities by diffusion-in long proportional counter method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Wu, Y.; Aratani, T.; Uritani, A.; Mori, C.

    1993-01-01

    Direct measurement of gaseous activities by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method) was studied. The measuring time without end effect was estimated by observing the behavior of 37 Ar in the counter and was long enough to carry out the accurate activity measurement. The correction for wall effect was also examined on the basis of the measured and calculated correction factors. Among the tested gases of methane, P10 gas and propane, P10 gas was made clear to be a suitable counting gas for the DLPC method because of good diffusion properties and small wall effect. This method is quite effective for standardization of gaseous activities used for tracer experiments and calibration works of radioactive gas monitoring instruments. (orig.)

  16. Objectively measured physical activity of hospital shift workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loef, Bette; van der Beek, Allard J; Holtermann, Andreas; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Baarle, Debbie; Proper, Karin I

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Shift work may alter workers' leisure-time and occupational physical activity (PA) levels, which might be one of the potential underlying mechanisms of the negative health effects of shift work. Therefore, we compared objectively measured PA levels between hospital shift and non-shift

  17. Experiment for water-flow measurement by pulsed-neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.

    1994-08-01

    An experiment is presented which constitutes a feasibility study for applying the neutron activation method for measurement of the water mass transport in pipings, e.g. in nuclear power stations. The fast neutron generator has been used as a pulsed-neutron activation source for oxygen in water which circulated in a closed system. The γ radiation of the nitrogen product isotope has been measured by the scintillation detectors placed in two positions at the piping. The two time distributions of the pulses have been recorded by a multiscaler (a software design based on CAMAC). The water flow velocity has been estimated from the peak-to-peak time distance. The tests have been performed under different experimental conditions (the neutron pulse duration, the time channel width, the water flow velocity) to define the stability, reproducibility and reliability of the measurement. The detailed results are presented in tables and in time distribution plots. The method has been found useful for the application considered. 4 refs, 17 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Active-interrogation measurements of fast neutrons from induced fission in low-enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.L.; Marcath, M.J.; Flaska, M.; Pozzi, S.A.; Chichester, D.L.; Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P.

    2014-01-01

    A detection system was designed with MCNPX-PoliMi to measure induced-fission neutrons from U-235 and U-238 using active interrogation. Measurements were then performed with this system at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy on low-enriched uranium samples. Liquid scintillators measured induced fission neutrons to characterize the samples in terms of their uranium mass and enrichment. Results are presented to investigate and support the use of organic liquid scintillators with active interrogation techniques to characterize uranium containing materials. -- Highlights: • We studied low-enriched uranium using active-interrogation experiments including a deuterium–tritium neutron generator and an americium–lithium isotopic neutron source. • Liquid scintillators measured induced-fission neutrons from the active-interrogation methods. • Fast-neutron (DT) and thermal-neutron (Am–Li) interrogation resulted in the measurement of trends in uranium mass and 235 U enrichment respectively. • MCNPX-PoliMi, the Monte Carlo transport code, simulated the measured induced-fission neutron trends in the liquid scintillators

  19. Active-interrogation measurements of fast neutrons from induced fission in low-enriched uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, J.L., E-mail: jldolan@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Marcath, M.J.; Flaska, M.; Pozzi, S.A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Chichester, D.L. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra (Italy)

    2014-02-21

    A detection system was designed with MCNPX-PoliMi to measure induced-fission neutrons from U-235 and U-238 using active interrogation. Measurements were then performed with this system at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy on low-enriched uranium samples. Liquid scintillators measured induced fission neutrons to characterize the samples in terms of their uranium mass and enrichment. Results are presented to investigate and support the use of organic liquid scintillators with active interrogation techniques to characterize uranium containing materials. -- Highlights: • We studied low-enriched uranium using active-interrogation experiments including a deuterium–tritium neutron generator and an americium–lithium isotopic neutron source. • Liquid scintillators measured induced-fission neutrons from the active-interrogation methods. • Fast-neutron (DT) and thermal-neutron (Am–Li) interrogation resulted in the measurement of trends in uranium mass and {sup 235}U enrichment respectively. • MCNPX-PoliMi, the Monte Carlo transport code, simulated the measured induced-fission neutron trends in the liquid scintillators.

  20. The motivation activation measure and media use in Singapore: Cross-cultural stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, L.; Detenber, B.H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: First, it tests how the Motivation Activation Measure [MAM; Lang, A., Bradley, S. D., Sparks Jr, J. V., & Lee, S. (2007). The motivation activation measure (MAM): How well does MAM predict individual differences in physiological indicators of appetitive and

  1. TIDE – Threat Identification using Active DNS Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperotto, Anna; van der Toorn, Olivier; van Rijswijk, Roland

    2017-01-01

    The Domain Name System contains a wealth of information about the security, stability and health of the Internet. Most research that leverages the DNS for detection of malicious activities does so by using passive measurements. The limitation of this approach, however, is that it is effective only

  2. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activity. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labelled water technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate physical activity in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of physical activity and their relationship with energy expenditure. The measures discussed include those based on energy expenditure or oxygen uptake including doubly labelled water, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures.

  3. CFD simulation of the pulsed neutron activation technique for water flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, H.; Nordlund, A.

    2005-01-01

    A pulse neutron activation (PNA) flowmeter uses a radioactive substance to measure water flow in pipes. The water in the pipe is bombarded with neutron pulses, thus introducing activity into the pipe. The activity is then transported and mixed with the flow. Gamma radiation emitted from the activity is measured with one or two detectors downstream from the activation point. The average velocity of the water is calculated using the time-resolved signal from the detector. The CFD program FLUENT was used to simulate the transport and mixing of the activity induced in the pipe. The turbulence of the flow is described with the k-ε model. Some parameters affecting a PNA measurement have been investigated. From the calculations it was possible to quantify how much the average initial velocity of the activity differs from the average velocity of the water. Results also show that activity initially produced far away from the wall has a substantial effect on the detector signal. To accurately simulate the detector signal it is necessary to include activity produced in a large part of the pipe. The results also indicate that the collimation of the detectors have a significant impact on the data and should be included when evaluating simulated data. Three different response functions were also tested. (authors)

  4. Does birth weight influence physical activity in youth? A combined analysis of four studies using objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Søren; Sharp, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Animal models suggest growth restriction in utero leads to lower levels of motor activity. Furthermore, individuals with very low birth weight report lower levels of physical activity as adults. The aim of this study was to examine whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of physical...... activity and sedentary time. This study uses combined analysis of three European cohorts and one from South America (n = 4,170). Birth weight was measured or parentally reported. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). PA was objectively measured using accelerometry...... for ≥3 days, ≥10 hours day. Data was standardized to allow comparisons between different monitors. Total physical activity was assessed as counts per minute (cpm), with time spent above moderate activity (MVPA) >2,000 counts and time spent sedentary (...

  5. Study on activity measurement of Nostoc flagelliforme cells based on color identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yizhong; Su, Jianyu; Liu, Tiegen; Kong, Fanzhi; Jia, Shiru

    2008-12-01

    In order to measure the activities of Nostoc flagelliforme cells, a new method based on color identification was proposed in this paper. N. flagelliforme cells were colored with fluoreseein diaeetate. Then, an image of colored N. flagelliforme cells was taken, and changed from RGB model to HIS model. Its histogram of hue H was calculated, which was used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of measured activity of N. flagelliforme cells. After training, the activity of N. flagelliforme cells was identified by the BP network according to the histogram of H of their colored image. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of activity measurement of N. flagelliforme cells based on color identification.

  6. Measuring and Explaining Cognitive Load During Design Activities: A fine-grained approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Barbara; Neurauter, Manuel; Burattin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in neuro–physiological measurements resulted in reliable and objective measures of Cognitive Load (CL), e.g., using pupillary responses. However, continuous measurement of CL in software design activities, e.g., conceptual modeling, has received little attention. In this paper, we...... present the progress of our work intended to close this gap by continuously measuring cognitive load during design activities. This work aims at advancing our understanding of WHEN and WHY designers face challenges. For this, we attempt to explore and explain the occurrence of CL using fine–granular units...

  7. Validation of MCNP NPP Activation Simulations for Decommissioning Studies by Analysis of NPP Neutron Activation Foil Measurement Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmert Ben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant (NPP activation methodology is presented and the work towards its validation by in-situ NPP foil irradiation campaigns is outlined. Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG in The Netherlands has been given the task of performing the corresponding neutron metrology. For this purpose, small Aluminium boxes containing a set of circular-shaped neutron activation foils have been prepared. After being irradiated for one complete reactor cycle, the sets have been successfully retrieved, followed by gamma-spectrometric measurements of the individual foils at NRG. Along with the individual activities of the foils, the reaction rates and thermal, intermediate and fast neutron fluence rates at the foil locations have been determined. These determinations include appropriate corrections for gamma self-absorption and neutron self-shielding as well as corresponding measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the NPP Monte Carlo calculations with the results of the foil measurements is done by using an individual generic MCNP model functioning as an interface and allowing the simulation of individual foil activation by predetermined neutron spectra. To summarize, the comparison between calculation and measurement serve as a sound validation of the Swiss NPP activation methodology by demonstrating a satisfying agreement between measurement and calculation. Finally, the validation offers a chance for further improvements of the existing NPP models by ensuing calibration and/or modelling optimizations for key components and structures.

  8. The Myotonometer: Not a Valid Measurement Tool for Active Hamstring Musculotendinous Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukoff, Derek N; Bell, Sarah E; Ryan, Eric D; Blackburn, J Troy

    2016-05-01

    Hamstring musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) is associated with lower-extremity injury risk (ie, hamstring strain, anterior cruciate ligament injury) and is commonly assessed using the damped oscillatory technique. However, despite a preponderance of studies that measure MTS reliably in laboratory settings, there are no valid clinical measurement tools. A valid clinical measurement technique is needed to assess MTS and permit identification of individuals at heightened risk of injury and track rehabilitation progress. To determine the validity and reliability of the Myotonometer for measuring active hamstring MTS. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. 33 healthy participants (15 men, age 21.33 ± 2.94 y, height 172.03 ± 16.36 cm, mass 74.21 ± 16.36 kg). Hamstring MTS was assessed using the damped oscillatory technique and the Myotonometer. Intraclass correlations were used to determine the intrasession, intersession, and interrater reliability of the Myotonometer. Criterion validity was assessed via Pearson product-moment correlation between MTS measures obtained from the Myotonometer and from the damped oscillatory technique. The Myotonometer demonstrated good intrasession (ICC3,1 = .807) and interrater reliability (ICC2,k = .830) and moderate intersession reliability (ICC2,k = .693). However, it did not provide a valid measurement of MTS compared with the damped oscillatory technique (r = .346, P = .061). The Myotonometer does not provide a valid measure of active hamstring MTS. Although the Myotonometer does not measure active MTS, it possesses good reliability and portability and could be used clinically to measure tissue compliance, muscle tone, or spasticity associated with multiple musculoskeletal disorders. Future research should focus on portable and clinically applicable tools to measure active hamstring MTS in efforts to prevent and monitor injuries.

  9. passive and active measurements for some ceramic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.F.; Said, S.A.; Ali, M.A.; Szegedi, S.

    2004-01-01

    passive measurements for an imported natural ore (zirconium silicate) used in ceramic industries were carried out to identify its radioactivity . this work was done for ceramic quality control purposes. accurate gamma spectrometers with 30% and 70% detector efficiencies were used in the measurements. the 235 U, 238 U and 232 Th radioactivity were determined . for the sake of comparison already manufactured different ceramic samples were investigated applying fast neutrons activation analysis (FNAA) and X-Ray florescence (XRF) techniques. the obtained results were discussed with the tabulated international radioactivity levels for building materials

  10. Measurement of radon activity concentration in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Pineau, C.; Dechaux, E.

    2010-01-01

    Radon exposure, along with medical-related exposure, is the leading source of exposure to ionising radiation for the French population. Measurement campaigns are done in the action plan, drawn up by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), in cooperation with the French directorate for housing, town planning and countryside (DHUP), the French radiation protection and nuclear safety institute (IRSN), the French health monitoring institute (InVS) and the French scientific and technical centre for construction (CSTB). The review of 2005-2008 measurement campaign shows that of the 7356 buildings screened, 84.8% had activity concentration levels below the 400 Bq/m 3 action level. For the other buildings (15.2%), action will be required to reduce human exposure to radon, possibly including building renovation/redevelopment work. In the 1999-2002 measurement campaign,12% of the 13,000 buildings screened had a radon activity concentration level higher than 400 Bq/m 3 . In addition, the ASN and the French general directorate of labour (DGT) are continuing to work on drawing up regulations for occupational risk management. The second national health and environment plan (PNSE 2) was published on 26 June 2009. It follows on from the actions initiated in PNSE 1, a document provided for under the Public Health Act dated 9 August 2004 and under the French 'Grenelle' environmental agreements. On the basis of guidelines laid out in PNSE 2, a radon action plan for 2009-2012 will be drawn up, enabling some of the actions to be continued, particularly in the fields of new building projects and dwellings. (author)

  11. Non-invasive measurement of adrenocortical activity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring physiological stress reactions through the quantification of plasma cortisol often involves physical restraint, which acts as a stressor itself. Here, we present the validation of a non-invasive method for assessing adrenocortical activity as an indicator of stress in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis). By conducting ...

  12. Physical activity measurement in older adults: relationships with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah J; Strath, Scott J; Swartz, Ann M

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between physical activity (PA) and mental health among older adults as measured by objective and subjective PA-assessment instruments. Pedometers (PED), accelerometers (ACC), and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) were administered to measure 1 week of PA among 84 adults age 55-87 (mean = 71) years. General mental health was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWL). Linear regressions revealed that PA estimated by PED significantly predicted 18.1%, 8.3%, and 12.3% of variance in SWL and positive and negative affect, respectively, whereas PA estimated by the PASE did not predict any mental health variables. Results from ACC data were mixed. Hotelling-William tests between correlation coefficients revealed that the relationship between PED and SWL was significantly stronger than the relationship between PASE and SWL. Relationships between PA and mental health might depend on the PA measure used.

  13. Toward autonomous measurements of photosynthetic electron transport rates: An evaluation of active fluorescence-based measurements of photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silsbe, G.M.; Oxborough, K.; Suggett, D.J.; Forster, R.M.; Ihnken, S.; Komárek, O.; Lawrenz, E.; Prášil, O.; Röttgers, R.; Šicner, M.; Simis, S.G.H.; Van Dijk, M.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a methods evaluation and intercalibration of active fluorescence-based measurements of the quantum yield ( inline image) and absorption coefficient ( inline image) of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry. Measurements of inline image, inline image, and irradiance (E) can be

  14. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jungmin; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.k; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, MunSeong; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young [Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki-shi (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a {sup 3}He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%–0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  15. Neutron activation detector saturation activities measured in the AAEC research reactor HIFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilditch, R.J.; Lowenthal, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and cobalt wires are irradiated with radiation damage specimens in each reactor period to determine variations in neutron flux densities. The results from these monitors constitute a considerable body of data with good statistical significance. However, a difficulty encountered when using measurements collected over a number of reactor periods for determining flux depression factors or cadmium ratios is accounting for the effects on saturation activities of different irradiation conditions, in particular the continuously changing fuel burn-up rates. This difficulty was overcome by correlating the saturation activities of (n,γ) reactions with the number of fissions in the fuel. The experimental saturation activities so correlated enable (1) flux depression factors to be obtained for cobalt and silver wires, relative to thin foils, and (2) use of these flux depression factors and others quoted in the literature to calculate the ratio of saturation activities of Co and Ag wires. Finally, reference is made to the potential usefulness of the 123 Sb(n,γ) reaction as a resonance detector given that a new method for making thin monitors can be readily applied to antimony

  16. Measurement of the absolute activity of alpha or beta emitters by measuring product nuclei (daughter) activity increase or by studing its radioactive decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.C. de.

    1981-01-01

    A new method for determining absolute activity of alpha or beta emitters by measuring daughter product radioactive decay is presented. The separation method of UX from hexahydrated uranyl nitrate UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 6H 2 O based on its dissolution in ethyl ether is described and the accuracy of this method is shown. The factors which accuate on total efficiency of a Geiger Mueller detector for beta particles are determined. The possibility to determine the mass of precursor element by daughter nuclei activity is shown. The results are compared with the one obtained by direct measurement of the mass (or number of atoms) of precursor radioactive substance and with theoretical values calculated for isotopes in secular equilibrium. (Author) [pt

  17. Clinical measurements of part-body calcium using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothill, P.; Smith, M.A.; Simpson, J.D.; Chew, I.; MacPherson, J.N.; Winney, R.J.; Strong, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Californium-252 sources have been used in a clinical environment for neutron activation analysis studies for a period of 2 1/2 years. During this period, changes in bone calcium in response to different treatment regimes have been measured in patients suffering from primary or secondary bone disease. The first measurements were performed on peripheral bone, in particular the forearm, using two sources of 252 Cf, minimum total activity 56mCi, for bilateral irradiation and two 15cmx10cm NaI crystals for detection. Optimization of the irradiation geometry and the patient irradiation programme enabled measurements to be performed with a precision of 1.6% and a dose of 3 rem. The precision estimate was based on 64 sets of repeated patient measurements and included errors due to patient movement. Apparatus was also developed to measure changes of calcium in the lumbar spine, particular attention being devoted to obtaining uniformity of sensitivity in the vertebrae. Unilateral irradiation with two 252 Cf sources, activity 100mCi each, separated by 20cm, and detection in whole-body counter with four 15cmx10cm NaI detectors gave a precision of 2% based on repeated measurements of 10 patients, with a dose of 1.3 rem to the spine and 10 rem to the skin surface. The following studies were undertaken: the effect of 1 α-hydroxycholecalciferol on 19 patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis, the use of vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 in the treatment of 33 patients with potential anticonvulsant osteomalacia, the effect of lithium carbonate in 20 patients with manic depression and the efficacy of conventional treatments in combating thyrotoxic osteodystrophy. (author)

  18. Pregnant and active – suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Krzepota

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background . The issue of physical activity of pregnant women, including determining proper recommendations, has been a broadly discussed topic in international circles. Objectives. The aim of this paper is to present the suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland. Material and methods . The study included 162 questionnaires, which were filled in correctly by pregnant women (third trimester who took part in childbirth classes organized by a childbirth school. As a research method, the PPAQ was chosen. The PPAQ allows pregnant women to self-assess their physical activity in the current trimester. The questions investigated time devoted to various types of activity related to household/caregiving, transportation, sports/exercise in their free time, occupational activity and inactivity. Based on the average weekly energy expenditure, each of these activities is classified by intensity: sedentary activity, light-intensity activity, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity. Results . While using the PPAQ in Poland, it is recommended to reduce the number of questions from 36 to 35, by removing question 18 (time of mowing lawn while on a riding mower. It is also advisable to convert American units of measurement into metric units, which are used in Poland. Conclusions . The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire in Poland may fill the gap in studies devoted to the physical activity of pregnant Polish women. With this questionnaire, it is possible to determine energy expenditure in terms of intensity and type of physical activity. It also serves as a reliable tool that can be used for international comparisons.

  19. Self-Reported Physical Activity is Not a Valid Method for Measuring Physical Activity in 15-Year-Old South African Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makama Andries Monyeki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of chronic lifestyle-related diseases. The development of valid instruments for the assessment of physical activity remains a challenge in field studies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the level of agreement between physical activity objectively measured by the ActiHeart® (Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd, Cambridge, UK device and subjectively reported physical activity by means of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF among adolescents attending schools in the Tlokwe Local Municipality, South Africa. A cross-sectional study design was used with a total of 63 boys and 45 girls aged 15 years who took part in the Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PHALS. Stature and weight were measured according to standard International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK protocols. Objective physical activity (PA was measured by a combined heart rate and accelerometer device (ActiHeart® for seven consecutive days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA was assessed. Subjective physical activity was assessed with the self-reported IPAQ-SF. Objective PA indicated that 93% of the participants were inactive and only 6% were highly active. The IPAQ-SF showed that 24% were inactive, with 57% active. A non-significant correlation (r = 0.11; p = 0.29 between the ActiHeart® measure of activity energy expenditure (AEE and total physical activity (IPAQ-SF was observed. The Bland–Altman plot showed no agreement between the two measurement instruments and also a variation in the level of equivalence. When Cohen’s kappa (κ was run to determine the agreement between the two measurement instruments for estimated physical activity, a poor agreement (κ = 0.011, p < 0.005 between the two was found. The poor level of agreement between the objective measure of physical activity (ActiHeart® and

  20. Development of a Blood Pressure Measurement Instrument with Active Cuff Pressure Control Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsien Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an oscillometric blood pressure (BP measurement approach based on the active control schemes of cuff pressure. Compared with conventional electronic BP instruments, the novelty of the proposed BP measurement approach is to utilize a variable volume chamber which actively and stably alters the cuff pressure during inflating or deflating cycles. The variable volume chamber is operated with a closed-loop pressure control scheme, and it is activated by controlling the piston position of a single-acting cylinder driven by a screw motor. Therefore, the variable volume chamber could significantly eliminate the air turbulence disturbance during the air injection stage when compared to an air pump mechanism. Furthermore, the proposed active BP measurement approach is capable of measuring BP characteristics, including systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, during the inflating cycle. Two modes of air injection measurement (AIM and accurate dual-way measurement (ADM were proposed. According to the healthy subject experiment results, AIM reduced 34.21% and ADM reduced 15.78% of the measurement time when compared to a commercial BP monitor. Furthermore, the ADM performed much consistently (i.e., less standard deviation in the measurements when compared to a commercial BP monitor.

  1. Applicability of a portable CdTe and NaI (Tl) spectrometer for activity measure; Aplicabilidade de um espectrometro portatil de CdTe e NaI (Tl) para a medida da atividade de Cesio-137 ({sup 137}Cs) e Berilio-7 ({sup 7}Be)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jaquiel Salvi

    2005-02-15

    In this work it was studied the application of an in situ gamma spectrometer (ROVER) of Amptek Inc., composed by a Cadmium Telluride detector (CdTe) of 3 mm x 3 mm x 1 mm and a 30 mm x 30 mm Sodium Iodide detector doped with Thallium [NaI (Tl)). The radioactive sources used were type pastille, sealed in aluminum and polyethylene, of {sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 152}Eu, 3 sources of {sup 137}Cs and soil samples contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. It was performed a factorial planning 2{sup 3} to optimize the in situ spectrometry system. This way it was determined that the best temperature for CdTe crystal operation is -22, deg C, with Shaping Time of 3 {mu}S and Rise Time Discrimination (RTD) with value 3. With the help of the certified radioactive sources, we determined the efficiency curve of the two detectors. The CdTe detector was positioned at the standard distance of 1 meter of the sources and also at 4.15 cm. The NaI (Tl) detector was also positioned at the standard distance of 1 meter of the sources and at 2.8 cm. Measures were performed to determine the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) for both detectors. For the pastille type sources, the {sup 137}Cs MDA for the CdTe detector at 4.15 cm, analyzing the energy line of 32 keV, was 6 kBq and at 1 meter of the {sup 137}Cs source, analyzing the line of 661.65 keV, the MDA was 67 kBq. For soil samples, CdTe detector at 4.15 cm presented a MDA of 693 kBq.kg-l for the line of 32 keV, and for the soil sample {sup 7}Be content the MDA found was 2867 Bq.kg{sup -1} at 4.15 cm. For the NaI (Tl) detector, analyzing the line of 661.65 keV, the {sup 137}Cs MDA for pastille type source at 1 meter of distance was 7 kBq, and for soil sample at 2.8 cm the measured {sup 137}Cs MDA was 71 Bq.kg{sup -1}. For the soil sample {sup 7}Be content, at 2.8 cm of the Nal (Tl) detector, the obtained MDA was 91 Bq.kg{sup -1}. Due to the minimum detectable activities found for the two detectors, we concluded that the employed in situ gamma

  2. Validation of Web-Based Physical Activity Measurement Systems Using Doubly Labeled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamada, Yosuke; Tokushima, Satoru; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Misaka; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Online or Web-based measurement systems have been proposed as convenient methods for collecting physical activity data. We developed two Web-based physical activity systems—the 24-hour Physical Activity Record Web (24hPAR WEB) and 7 days Recall Web (7daysRecall WEB). Objective To examine the validity of two Web-based physical activity measurement systems using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Methods We assessed the validity of the 24hPAR WEB and 7daysRecall WEB in 20 individuals, aged 25 to 61 years. The order of email distribution and subsequent completion of the two Web-based measurements systems was randomized. Each measurement tool was used for a week. The participants’ activity energy expenditure (AEE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) were assessed over each week using the DLW method and compared with the respective energy expenditures estimated using the Web-based systems. Results The mean AEE was 3.90 (SD 1.43) MJ estimated using the 24hPAR WEB and 3.67 (SD 1.48) MJ measured by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .679 (P WEB and 3.80 (SD 1.36) MJ by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .144 (P = .54). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranged from –3.83 to 4.81 MJ between the two methods. The Pearson correlation for TEE between the two methods was r = .590 (P = .006). The average input times using terminal devices were 8 minutes and 10 seconds for the 24hPAR WEB and 6 minutes and 38 seconds for the 7daysRecall WEB. Conclusions Both Web-based systems were found to be effective methods for collecting physical activity data and are appropriate for use in epidemiological studies. Because the measurement accuracy of the 24hPAR WEB was moderate to high, it could be suitable for evaluating the effect of interventions on individuals as well as for examining physical activity behavior. PMID:23010345

  3. International comparison of activity measurements of a solution of 75Se

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, Guy

    2002-04-01

    Activity measurements of a solution of 75Se, supplied by the BIPM, have been carried out by 21 laboratories within the framework of an international comparison. Seven different methods were used. Details on source preparation, experimental facilities and counting data are reported. The measured activity-concentration values show a total spread of 6.62% before correction and 6.02% after correction for delayed events, with standard deviations of the unweighted means of 0.45% and 0.36%, respectively. The correction for delayed events was measured directly by four laboratories. Unfortunately no consensus on the activity value could be deduced from their results. The results of the comparison have been entered in the tables of the International Reference System (SIR) for γ-ray emitting radionuclides. The half-life of the metastable state was also determined by two laboratories and found to be in good agreement with the values found in the literature.

  4. Measuring physical activity with accelerometers for individuals with intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Willie; Siebert, Erin A; Yun, Joonkoo

    2017-08-01

    Multiple studies have reported differing physical activity levels for individuals with intellectual disabilities when using accelerometers. One of the potential reasons for these differences may be due to how researchers measure physical activity. Currently there is a lack of understanding on measurement protocol of accelerometers. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the current practice of using accelerometers to measure physical activity levels among individuals with intellectual disabilities. A systematic search was conducted using multiple databases including Medline (1998-2015), Sport Discus (1992-2015), Web of Science (1965-2015), and Academic Research Premier (2004-2015). Seventeen articles were found that met the inclusion criteria. There is a lack of consistent research protocols for measuring physical activity levels with accelerometers. Issues with the amount of time participants wore the accelerometer was a challenge for multiple studies. Studies that employed external strategies to maximize wear time had higher compliance rates. There is a need to establish and standardize specific accelerometer protocols for measuring physical activity levels of individuals with intellectual disabilities for higher quality and more comparable data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THREE METHODS FOR MEASURING PEPSIN ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loken, Merle K.; Terrill, Kathleen D.; Marvin, James F.; Mosser, Donn G.

    1958-01-01

    Comparison has been made of a simple method originated by Absolon and modified in our laboratories for assay of proteolytic activity using RISA (radioactive iodinated serum albumin—Abbott Laboratories), with the commonly used photometric methods of Anson and Kunitz. In this method, pepsin was incubated with an albumin substrate containing RISA, followed by precipitation of the undigested substrate with trichloroacetic acid and measurement of radioactive digestion products in the supernatant fluid. The I131—albumin bond was shown in the present studies to be altered only by the proteolytic activity, and not by the incubation procedures at various values of pH. Any free iodine present originally in the RISA was removed by a single passage through a resin column (amberlite IRA-400-C1). Pepsin was shown to be most stable in solution at a pH of 5.5. Activity of pepsin was shown to be maximal when it was incubated with albumin at a pH of 2.5. Pepsin activity was shown to be altered in the presence of various electrolytes. Pepsin activity measured by the RISA and Anson methods as a function of concentration or of time of incubation indicated that these two methods are in good agreement and are equally sensitive. Consistently smaller standard errors were obtained by the RISA method of pepsin assay than were obtained with either of the other methods. PMID:13587910

  6. Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Carmen; López, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Even if behavioral studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. This study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1), memory games (G2), and card games (G3). Applied measures include the conceptual distinction between free time and leisure, the test of the organization of free time measuring 24 clock divisions, and EEG register during 12 word list memorizing. The results show that the type of leisure activity is associated with significant quantitative differences regarding the use of free time. G1 devotes more time to leisure activities than G2 (p = 0.007) and G3 (p = 0.034). G1 rests more actively than the other two groups (p = 0.001). The electrical localization of brain activity indicated a reverse tendency of activation according to the bands and groups. Engaging in educational leisure activities is a useful practice to protect healthy brain compensation strategies. Future longitudinal research may verify the causal relation between practicing educational leisure activities and functional brain aging.

  7. Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eRequena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Even if behavioural studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. Aim of this study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Methods: quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1, memory games (G2 and card games (G3. Applied measures include the conceptual distinction between free time and leisure, the Test of Organization of Free Time (TOFT measuring 24 clock divisions, and EEG register during 12 word list memorizing. The results show that the type of leisure activity is associated with significant quantitative differences regarding the use of free time. G1 devotes more time to leisure activities than G2 (p = 0.007 and G3 (p = 0.034. G1 rests more actively than the other two groups (p=0.001. The electrical localization of brain activity indicated a reverse tendency of activation according to the bands and groups. Discussion. Engaging in educational leisure activities is a useful practice to protect healthy brain compensation strategies. Future longitudinal research may verify the causal relation between practicing educational leisure activities and functional brain aging.

  8. Are Self-report Measures Able to Define Individuals as Physically Active or Inactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Donnelly, Alan E; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from nine European countries using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g., reporting ≥150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the ability of the three PA questionnaires to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (P for all PAQ 39.9% [95% CI, 37.5-42.1] and objective measure 48.5% [95% CI, 41.6-50.9]. All self-report methods showed low or moderate sensitivity (IPAQ 20.0%, RPAQ 18.7%, and EPIC-PAQ 69.8%) to correctly classify inactive people and the agreement between objective and self-reported PA was low (ĸ = 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.12], 0.12 [95% CI, 0.06-0.18], and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.13-0.24] for IPAQ, RPAQ, and EPIC-PAQ, respectively). The modest agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA suggests that population levels of PA derived from self-report should be interpreted cautiously. Implementation of objective measures in large-scale cohort studies and surveillance systems is recommended.

  9. Active silicon x-ray for measuring electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, R.T.

    1994-07-01

    Silicon diodes are commonly used for x-ray measurements in the soft x-ray region between a few hundred ev and 20 keV. Recent work by Cho has shown that the charge collecting region in an underbiased silicon detector is the depletion depth plus some contribution from a region near the depleted region due to charge-diffusion. The depletion depth can be fully characterized as a function of the applied bias voltage and is roughly proportional to the squart root of the bias voltage. We propose a technique to exploit this effect to use the silicon within the detector as an actively controlled x-ray filter. With reasonable silicon manufacturing methods, a silicon diode detector can be constructed in which the sensitivity of the collected charge to the impinging photon energy spectrum can be changed dynamically in the visible to above the 20 keV range. This type of detector could be used to measure the electron temperature in, for example, a tokamak plasma by sweeping the applied bias voltage during a plasma discharge. The detector samples different parts of the energy spectrum during the bias sweep, and the data collected contains enough information to determine the electron temperature. Benefits and limitations of this technique will be discussed along with comparisons to similar methods for measuring electron temperature and other applications of an active silicon x-ray filter

  10. A Ge-Si active target for the measurement of short lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bosisio, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Tenchini, R.; Triggiani, G.; Tonelli, G.; Bologna, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin; D'Angelo, P.; Manfredi, P.F.; Menasce, D.; Meroni, E.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Perasso, L.; Sala, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Enorini, M.; Laurelli, P.; Spillantini, P.; Zallo, A.

    1984-01-01

    A new Ge-Si active target is presently used in the Na1 experiment at CERN to study photoproduction of charmed particles and to measure their lifetimes. Some general comments on the active target technique are made. (orig.)

  11. Device for measuring active, reactive and apparent power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartosinski, E.; Wieland, J.

    1982-09-30

    The plan consists of a traditional electrodynamic mechanism for measuring power (IM) supplemented by three switches, two rectifiers, resistor, included in parallel, and phaseshifting throttle included in series with the voltage coil of the IM. This makes it possible by selection to perform three types of measurements: active power of alternating current or power of direct current, only the voltage coils and the IM current are engaged; reactive power, the resistor and the throttle are additionally engaged by the aforementioned method; complete (apparent) power--the current and the voltage are supplied directly to the IM coils, but in contrast to the first case, through rectifiers. The influence of the highest harmonic components of voltage and current which are not significant for industrial measurements can be eliminated in necessary cases using filtering devices.

  12. Measuring the Physical Activity Practices Used by Parents of Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Amber; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S.

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a critical role in shaping children’s attitudes, beliefs and behaviors, including those around physical activity and inactivity. Our ability to identify which practices effectively promote children’s physical activity and limit inactivity is limited by existing measurement instruments. This project will present a newly developed physical activity parenting practices survey, the psychometric properties of this survey’s scales, and their association with child physical activity and...

  13. 124Sb - Activity measurement and determination of photon emission intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.; Chauvenet, B.

    2009-07-01

    The international traceability of antimony 124, in term of activity, is very limited. The results of 124 Sb activity measurements sent to the SIR (BIPM - International System of Reference, BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sb-124.) are scarce. Up to now, only three laboratories have contributed. Two of them carried out measurements using the 4πβ-γ coincidence counting technique and the third one using the 4πγ method with a well-type crystal detector. The first two results are in agreement but the last one differs significantly from them, by 2 %. The decay scheme consistency cannot be excluded when trying to explain those discrepancies. In other respects, this nuclide emits high-energy gamma rays, and then could be selected as a valuable standard radionuclide for the calibration of gamma-ray detectors in that energy range, given well known photon intensities. Those considerations led to the proposal of an international exercise and to the realisation of this Euromet project, registered as project no. 907, coordinated by CEA-List-LNE/LNHB. The first part of this exercise was dedicated to activity measurements and to their comparison. For this purpose, participants were asked to make use of all the direct measurement techniques available in their laboratory in order to confirm or not the existence of possible biases specific to some measuring methods. In addition, this exercise offered the opportunity of improving the uncertainties of the gamma-ray intensities. Then, participants were asked, in the second part of the exercise, to carry out X-ray and gamma-ray intensity measurements. These results have been compared to previous published values and new decay scheme data are proposed. Eight international laboratories participated in this exercise. (authors)

  14. Performance on a Clinical Quadriceps Activation Battery Is Related to a Laboratory Measure of Activation and Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Michael; Struessel, Tamara; Paxton, Roger; Winters, Joshua; Baym, Carol; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relation between performance on a clinical quadriceps activation battery with (1) activation measured by doublet interpolation and (2) recovery of quadriceps strength and functional performance after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Planned secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. University research laboratory. Patients (N=162; mean age, 63±7y; 89 women) undergoing TKA. Patients were classified as high (quadriceps activation battery ≥4/6) or low (quadriceps activation battery ≤3/6) based on performance on the quadriceps activation battery measured 4 days after TKA. Differences between groups in activation and recovery at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after TKA were compared using a repeated-measures maximum likelihood model. The low quadriceps activation battery group demonstrated poorer quadriceps activation via doublet interpolation (P=.01), greater quadriceps strength loss (P=.01), and greater functional performance decline (all Pbattery group. Differences between low and high quadriceps activation battery groups on all measures did not persist at 3 and 12 months (all P>.05). Poor performance on the quadriceps activation battery early after TKA is related to poor quadriceps activation and poor recovery in the early postoperative period. Patients in the low quadriceps activation battery group took 3 months to recover to the same level as the high quadriceps activation battery group. The quadriceps activation battery may be useful in identifying individuals who need specific interventions to target activation deficits or different care pathways in the early postoperative period to speed recovery after TKA. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance Prismas an Innovative Concept of the Organizational Activity Results Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Jagiełło

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an innovative method of the organization activity results measurement which is called Performance Measurement System. It is kind of control system which can help to improve the competitive advantages of organization.

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  20. Development of a measurement approach to assess time children participate in organized sport, active travel, outdoor active play, and curriculum-based physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Janssen, Ian

    2018-03-22

    Children participate in four main types of physical activity: organized sport, active travel, outdoor active play, and curriculum-based physical activity. The objective of this study was to develop a valid approach that can be used to concurrently measure time spent in each of these types of physical activity. Two samples (sample 1: n = 50; sample 2: n = 83) of children aged 10-13 wore an accelerometer and a GPS watch continuously over 7 days. They also completed a log where they recorded the start and end times of organized sport sessions. Sample 1 also completed an outdoor time log where they recorded the times they went outdoors and a description of the outdoor activity. Sample 2 also completed a curriculum log where they recorded times they participated in physical activity (e.g., physical education) during class time. We describe the development of a measurement approach that can be used to concurrently assess the time children spend participating in specific types of physical activity. The approach uses a combination of data from accelerometers, GPS, and activity logs and relies on merging and then processing these data using several manual (e.g., data checks and cleaning) and automated (e.g., algorithms) procedures. In the new measurement approach time spent in organized sport is estimated using the activity log. Time spent in active travel is estimated using an existing algorithm that uses GPS data. Time spent in outdoor active play is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity and specificity of 85%) that was developed using data collected in sample 1 and which uses all of the data sources. Time spent in curriculum-based physical activity is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 92%) that was developed using data collected in sample 2 and which uses accelerometer data collected during class time. There was evidence of excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability of the estimates for all of these types of

  1. The use of pedometers for monitoring physical activity in children and adolescents: measurement considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemes, Stacy A; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2013-02-01

    Pedometers are increasingly being used to measure physical activity in children and adolescents. This review provides an overview of common measurement issues relating to their use. Studies addressing the following measurement issues in children/adolescents (aged 3-18 years) were included: pedometer validity and reliability, monitoring period, wear time, reactivity, and data treatment and reporting. Pedometer surveillance studies in children/adolescents (aged: 4-18 years) were also included to enable common measurement protocols to be highlighted. In children > 5 years, pedometers provide a valid and reliable, objective measure of ambulatory activity. Further evidence is required on pedometer validity in preschool children. Across all ages, optimal monitoring frames to detect habitual activity have yet to be determined; most surveillance studies use 7 days. It is recommended that standardized wear time criteria are established for different age groups, and that wear times are reported. As activity varies between weekdays and weekend days, researchers interested in habitual activity should include both types of day in surveillance studies. There is conflicting evidence on the presence of reactivity to pedometers. Pedometers are a suitable tool to objectively assess ambulatory activity in children (> 5 years) and adolescents. This review provides recommendations to enhance the standardization of measurement protocols.

  2. Análise da aplicabilidade de três instrumentos de avaliação de dor em distintas unidades de atendimento: ambulatório, enfermaria e urgência Analysis of the applicability of different pain questionnaires in three hospital settings: outpatient clinic, ward and emergency unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a aplicabilidade dos instrumentos de avaliação de dor em três ambientes hospitalares. METODOLOGIA: Foram estudados 60 pacientes com dor musculoesquelética atendidos no Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba: enfermaria da Ortopedia, ambulatório de Reumatologia e Unidade Regional de Emergência (Pronto-socorro. QUESTIONÁRIOS: Inventário breve de dor (BPI; questionário McGill de Dor (MPQ; escala visual analógica para dor (EVA. RESULTADOS: Na urgência, houve um predomínio do gênero masculino com média de idade de 35 anos. No ambulatório, foram entrevistados 18 homens com idade média de 42 anos e duas mulheres com idade média de 55 anos. Na enfermaria, predominavam os homens com idade média de 30,7 anos. No pronto-socorro e na enfermaria, a duração foi menor para a EVA e maior para o MPQ. A duração para a EVA foi menor e não diferiu com relação aos locais. Na enfermaria e no pronto-socorro, a preferência dos pacientes recaiu pelo BPI sendo que, na enfermaria, a EVA foi segunda opção. No ambulatório, a preferência dos pacientes recaiu sobre o BPI (80% seguido do MPQ e os entrevistadores se dividiram igualmente entre esses mesmos questionários. No pronto-socorro, a preferência dos entrevistadores foi pelo BPI (40%, os restantes foram divididos igualmente. Houve uma prevalência maior de concordância do que de discordância das preferências entre pacientes e entrevistadores. CONCLUSÃO: Os instrumentos multidimensionais para avaliação da dor têm limitações em sua aplicabilidade no cotidiano da assistência hospitalar à saúdeOBJECTIVE: To assess the applicability of pain assessment instruments in three hospital settings. METHODOLOGY: This study comprised 60 patients with musculoskeletal pain cared for at the Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba: orthopedic ward, Rheumatology outpatient clinic, and orthopedic emergency unit. QUESTIONNAIRES: Brief Pain Inventory (BPI; McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ; Visual

  3. Why and how FDI stocks are a biased measure of MNE affiliate activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; Hennart, J.-F.; Slangen, A.; Smeets, R.

    2010-01-01

    Many international business (IB) studies have used foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks to measure the aggregate value-adding activity of multinational enterprises (MNE) affiliates in host countries. We argue that FDI stocks are a biased measure of that activity, because the degree to which they

  4. Why and how FDI stocks are a biased measure of MNE affiliate activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Hennart, Jean-Francois; Slangen, Arjen; Smeets, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Many international business (IB) studies have used foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks to measure the aggregate value adding activity of multinational enterprises (MNE) affiliates in host countries We argue that FDI stocks are a biased measure of that activity, because the degree to which they

  5. Measurement of the activity of an artificial neutrino source based on 37Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, D. N.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Yants, V. E.; Barsanov, V. I.; Dzhanelidze, A. A.; Zlokazov, S. B.; Markov, S. Yu.; Shakirov, Z. N.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2007-01-01

    The activity of an artificial neutrino source based on 37 Ar was measured by a specially developed method of directly counting 37 Ar decays in a proportional counter. This source was used to irradiate the target of the SAGE radiochemical gallium-germanium neutrino telescope at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), whereupon the measurements were performed at the Institute of Reactor Materials (Zarechny, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia). The method used to prepare gaseous samples for measurements in proportional counters and the counting procedure are described. The measured activity of the 37 Ar neutrino source is 405.1 ± 3.7 kCi (corrected for decays that occurred within the period between the instant of activity measurement and the commencement of the irradiation of Ga target at 04:00 Moscow time, 30.04.2004)

  6. Behavioral and locomotor measurements using an open field activity monitoring system for skeletal muscle diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Kathleen S; Quinn, James L; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-09-29

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body systems as well when used with additional outcome measures. In addition, measures such as total distance traveled mirror the 6 min walk test, a clinical trial outcome measure. However, open field activity monitoring is also associated with significant challenges: Open field activity measurements vary according to animal strain, age, sex, and circadian rhythm. In addition, room temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, and even odor can affect assessment outcomes. Overall, this manuscript provides a well-tested and standardized open field activity SOP for preclinical trials in animal models of neuromuscular diseases. We provide a discussion of important considerations, typical results, data analysis, and detail the strengths and weaknesses of open field testing. In addition, we provide recommendations for optimal study design when using open field activity in a preclinical trial.

  7. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate by direct measurement the cross-sectional relationship between accelerometer-measured physical activity and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak): ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)), in a population-based cohort of young children, since such data are scarce. The study...... analyses indicated that the various physical activity variables explained between 2 and 8% of the variance in VO(2peak) in boys. In this population-based cohort, most daily activity variables were positively related to aerobic fitness in boys, whereas less clear relationships were observed in girls. Our...... finding that physical activity was only uniformly related to aerobic fitness in boys partly contradicts previous studies in older children and adolescents....

  8. Activity measurements of {sup 55}Fe by two different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, P.A.L. da; Iwahara, A.; Silva, C.J. da; Poledna, R.; Loureiro, J.S.; Silva, M.A.L. da, E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes; Ruzzarin, Anelise [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    A calibrated germanium detector and CIEMAT/NIST liquid scintillation method were used in the standardization of solution of {sup 55}Fe coming from a key-comparison BIPM. Commercial HISAFE'3 cocktails were used in source preparation for activity measurements in CIEMAT/NIST method. Measurements were performed in Liquid Scintillation Counter. In the germanium counting method standard point sources were prepared for obtaining atomic number versus efficiency curve of the detector in order to obtain the efficiency of 5.9 keV KX-ray of {sup 55}Fe by interpolation. The activity concentrations obtained were 508.2 ± 3.56 and 510.0 ± 16.20 kBq/g, respectively for CIEMAT/NIST and germanium methods. (author)

  9. Gross alfa activity measurement in water from the Agueda river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.; Figueroa, C.F.; Gomez, J.M.G.; Lozano, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Gross α activity has been measured in water from the Agueda river, in the province of Salamanca (Spain), covering about 45 km around the uranium mine Fe. The activity has been found to be negligeable above the mine, and average values range from 0.13Bq/λ just after the mine to 0,05 Bq/λ 22 km below. (author) 9 refs

  10. A UAV-based active AirCore system for measurements of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Andersen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed and field-tested an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based active AirCore for atmospheric mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. The system applies an alternative way of using the AirCore technique invented by NOAA. As opposed to the conventional concept of passively sampling air using the atmospheric pressure gradient during descent, the active AirCore collects atmospheric air samples using a pump to pull the air through the tube during flight, which opens up the possibility to spatially sample atmospheric air. The active AirCore system used for this study weighs ∼ 1.1 kg. It consists of a ∼ 50 m long stainless-steel tube, a small stainless-steel tube filled with magnesium perchlorate, a KNF micropump, and a 45 µm orifice working together to form a critical flow of dried atmospheric air through the active AirCore. A cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS was used to analyze the air samples on site not more than 7 min after landing for mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. We flew the active AirCore system on a UAV near the atmospheric measurement station at Lutjewad, located in the northwest of the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Five consecutive flights took place over a 5 h period on the same morning, from sunrise until noon. We validated the measurements of CO2 and CH4 from the active AirCore against those from the Lutjewad station at 60 m. The results show a good agreement between the measurements from the active AirCore and the atmospheric station (N  =  146; R2CO2: 0.97 and R2CH4: 0.94; and mean differences: ΔCO2: 0.18 ppm and ΔCH4: 5.13 ppb. The vertical and horizontal resolution (for CH4 at typical UAV speeds of 1.5 and 2.5 m s−1 were determined to be ±24.7 to 29.3 and ±41.2 to 48.9 m, respectively, depending on the storage time. The collapse of the nocturnal boundary layer and the buildup of the mixed layer were clearly observed with three consecutive vertical

  11. A UAV-based active AirCore system for measurements of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Truls; Scheeren, Bert; Peters, Wouter; Chen, Huilin

    2018-05-01

    We developed and field-tested an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based active AirCore for atmospheric mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. The system applies an alternative way of using the AirCore technique invented by NOAA. As opposed to the conventional concept of passively sampling air using the atmospheric pressure gradient during descent, the active AirCore collects atmospheric air samples using a pump to pull the air through the tube during flight, which opens up the possibility to spatially sample atmospheric air. The active AirCore system used for this study weighs ˜ 1.1 kg. It consists of a ˜ 50 m long stainless-steel tube, a small stainless-steel tube filled with magnesium perchlorate, a KNF micropump, and a 45 µm orifice working together to form a critical flow of dried atmospheric air through the active AirCore. A cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) was used to analyze the air samples on site not more than 7 min after landing for mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. We flew the active AirCore system on a UAV near the atmospheric measurement station at Lutjewad, located in the northwest of the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Five consecutive flights took place over a 5 h period on the same morning, from sunrise until noon. We validated the measurements of CO2 and CH4 from the active AirCore against those from the Lutjewad station at 60 m. The results show a good agreement between the measurements from the active AirCore and the atmospheric station (N = 146; R2CO2: 0.97 and R2CH4: 0.94; and mean differences: ΔCO2: 0.18 ppm and ΔCH4: 5.13 ppb). The vertical and horizontal resolution (for CH4) at typical UAV speeds of 1.5 and 2.5 m s-1 were determined to be ±24.7 to 29.3 and ±41.2 to 48.9 m, respectively, depending on the storage time. The collapse of the nocturnal boundary layer and the buildup of the mixed layer were clearly observed with three consecutive vertical profile measurements in the early morning hours. Besides

  12. A comparison of subjective and objective measures of physical activity from the Newcastle 85+ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerd, Paul; Catt, Michael; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Trenell, Michael; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about physical activity (PA) in the very old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to examine the convergent validity of subjective and objective measures of PA in adults aged over 85 years. A total of 484 participants aged 87-89 years recruited to the Newcastle 85+ study completed a purpose-designed physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which categorised participants as mildly active, moderately active and very active. Out of them, 337 participants wore a triaxial, raw accelerometer on the right wrist over a 5-7-day period to obtain objective measures of rest/activity, PA intensity and PA type. Data from subjective and objective measurement methods were compared. Self-reported PA was significantly associated with objective measures of the daily sedentary time, low-intensity PA and activity type classified as sedentary, activities of daily living and walking. Objective measures of PA were significantly different when low, moderate and high self-reported PA categories were compared (all P PAQ demonstrated convergent validity with objective measures of PA. Our findings suggest that this PAQ can be used in the very old to rank individuals according to their level of total PA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  13. Interplay between patient global assessment, pain, and fatigue and influence of other clinical disease activity measures in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between patient-reported outcome measures in rheumatology is not well clarified. The objective of the study was to examine associations on the group level and concordance on the individual patient level between patient global assessment (PaGl), pain, and fatigue as scored on visual...... analog scales (VAS) in the daily clinic by patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Associations with other measures of disease activity were also examined. Traditional disease activity data on 221 RA patients with active disease planned to initiate biological treatment were extracted from...... clinical measures of disease activity and were nearly identical on the group level. On the individual patient level, however, differences between the scores varied considerably. The findings highlight the challenge of understanding and dealing with traditional patient-reported VAS measures when it comes...

  14. Quantitative measurement of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity using thallium-201: comparison with rubidium-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Shon, Sang Kyun; Lee, Kyu Bo; Lee, In Kyu

    1998-01-01

    Na + -K + ATPase activity has been estimated by the degree of inhibition of cation transport by cardiac glycosides (ouabain) using Rb-86 as a substrate. The biological characteristics of Tl-201 is known to be similar to those of potassium as a transport substrate in the presence of glucose, insulin or phobol myristate acetate (PMA). The purpose of this study was to measure ouabain sensitive Na + -K + ATPase activity using Tl-201 and compare with that using Rb-86. Smooth muscle cells isolated from rat aorta or human placental umbilical artery were cultured, and used to measure cellular Na + -K + ATPase activity. Na + -K + ATPase activity was measured as a percentage decrease in cellular uptake of Tl-201 or Rb-86 by ouabain under the presence of glucose, insulin or PMA in media. Na + -K + ATPase activity measured with Tl-201, as a transport substrate, was not different from those measured with Rb-86 in rat or human smooth muscle cell preparation. Incubation with high concentration glucose resulted in about 30% decrease in enzyme activity. In contrast, insulin or PMA resulted in 50-70% or 28% increase from baseline activity, respectively. These results suggests that Tl-201 could replace Rb-86 in measurement of ouabain sensitive Na + -K + ATPase activity in vitro. High level of glucose concentration decreased cellular Na + -K + ATPase activity, but insulin or PMA increased it

  15. Parent-child relationship of directly measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mâsse Louise C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on parent-child correlations of physical activity have been mixed. Few studies have examined concurrent temporal patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in parents and children using direct measures. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child activity correlations by gender, day of week, and time of day, using accelerometers - a method for direct assessment of physical activity. Methods Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity and sedentary time in 45 fathers, 45 mothers and their children (23 boys, 22 girls, mean age 9.9 years over the course of 4 days (Thursday - Sunday. Participants were instructed to wear accelerometers for 24 hours per day. Data from accelerometers were aggregated into waking hours on weekdays and weekends (6:00 am to midnight and weekday after-school hours (3:00 - 7:00 pm. Results Across the 4 days, the mean minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA for fathers was 30.0 (s.d. = 17.3, for mothers was 30.1 (s.d. = 20.1 and for children was 145.47 (s.d. = 51.64. Mothers' and fathers' minutes of MVPA and minutes of sedentary time were positively correlated with child physical activity and sedentary time (all ps Conclusions Greater parental MVPA was associated with increased child MVPA. In addition, having two parents with higher levels of MVPA was associated with greater levels of activity in children. Sedentary time in children was not as strongly correlated with that of their parents. Findings lend support to the notion that to increase childhood activity levels it may be fruitful to improve physical activity among parents.

  16. Youth destinations associated with objective measures of physical activity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Angie L; Melly, Steven J; Allen, Joseph G; Morris, Jeffrey S; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2009-09-01

    Limited availability of desirable destinations within walkable distances and unsuitable weather may adversely affect physical activity among adolescents on weekends. This study examines evidence for associations between objective measures of local environment and physical activity levels of adolescents. Students (n=152, 59% male; mean age, 13.7 years) from 10 neighborhoods with schools in four communities wore TriTrac-R3D accelerometers recording physical movements on weekends. Minute-by-minute data were summed over 15-minute intervals providing estimates of proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and (log) mean physical activity levels on weekends (n=7,506 intervals). Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were calculated using geographic information systems including average daily traffic, housing density, open space, and density of employees per square kilometer in youth destinations. Linear mixed models were fit examining associations between neighborhood environmental variables and accelerometer measures of physical activity, controlling for time, day, age, body mass index, gender of respondent, race/ethnicity, precipitation, and temperature deviation. On weekends, the presence of greater densities of employees in neighborhood destinations serving youth (beta=3.96, p=0.050) was directly associated with MVPA, independent of student characteristics. Young people attending schools in neighborhoods characterized by greater densities of employees in destinations for youth are more physically active on weekends. Compared with neighborhoods with lower densities, attending a school in neighborhoods with higher densities of employees in potential destinations for youth may contribute to participation in an additional 30 minutes of MVPA per day on weekends.

  17. Sensor-2-sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Nuno Alexandre de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    O avanço na indústria informática e eletrónica fez com que o uso e aplicabilidade das Redes Sensoriais Sem Fios (RSSF) tenham crescido notavelmente, permitindo o desenvolvimento de dispositivos de baixo consumo energético e com capacidades de comunicação sem fios. Dada a elevada aplicabilidade das RSSF, é por vezes difícil identificar e definir as entidades necessárias para atingir um determinado objetivo aplicacional. Identificando as diversas entidades e as suas caracterís...

  18. Design parameters for measurements of local catalytic activity on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Johannessen, Tue; Jørgensen, Jan Hoffmann

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward......, the limits of the range in reaction rate, which can be Studied are estimated. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward...... limit for the lateral resolution of the measurement, and that a flow rate of the order of 240 (ml/min)(n) is sufficient to achieve this resolution. The sensitivity is reasonable also with high flow rates, due to the presence of a pocket of stagnant gas under the tip of the capillary. Furthermore...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  20. Enzyme activity measurement via spectral evolution profiling and PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Meyer, Anne S.; Garcia, Javier Lopez

    2013-01-01

    The recent advances in multi-way analysis provide new solutions to traditional enzyme activity assessment. In the present study enzyme activity has been determined by monitoring spectral changes of substrates and products in real time. The method relies on measurement of distinct spectral...... fingerprints of the reaction mixture at specific time points during the course of the whole enzyme catalyzed reaction and employs multi-way analysis to detect the spectral changes. The methodology is demonstrated by spectral evolution profiling of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral fingerprints using...

  1. Measuring physical activity in young people with cerebral palsy: validity and reliability of the ActivPAL™ monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bania, Theofani

    2014-09-01

    We determined the criterion validity and the retest reliability of the ΑctivPAL™ monitor in young people with diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Activity monitor data were compared with the criterion of video recording for 10 participants. For the retest reliability, activity monitor data were collected from 24 participants on two occasions. Participants had to have diplegic CP and be between 14 and 22 years of age. They also had to be of Gross Motor Function Classification System level II or III. Outcomes were time spent in standing, number of steps (physical activity) and time spent in sitting (sedentary behaviour). For criterion validity, coefficients of determination were all high (r(2)  ≥ 0.96), and limits of group agreement were relatively narrow, but limits of agreement for individuals were narrow only for number of steps (≥5.5%). Relative reliability was high for number of steps (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.87) and moderate for time spent in sitting and lying, and time spent in standing (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.60-0.66). For groups, changes of up to 7% could be due to measurement error with 95% confidence, but for individuals, changes as high as 68% could be due to measurement error. The results support the criterion validity and the retest reliability of the ActivPAL™ to measure physical activity and sedentary behaviour in groups of young people with diplegic CP but not in individuals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Cellular telephones measure activity and lifespace in community-dwelling adults: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C; Hoarty, Carrie A; Carlson, Richard H; Goulding, Evan H; Potter, Jane F; Bonasera, Stephen J

    2011-02-01

    To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual's lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Unobtrusive measurement of indoor energy expenditure using an infrared sensor-based activity monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bosun; Han, Jonghee; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an unobtrusive energy expenditure (EE) measurement system using an infrared (IR) sensor-based activity monitoring system to measure indoor activities and to estimate individual quantitative EE. IR-sensor activation counts were measured with a Bluetooth-based monitoring system and the standard EE was calculated using an established regression equation. Ten male subjects participated in the experiment and three different EE measurement systems (gas analyzer, accelerometer, IR sensor) were used simultaneously in order to determine the regression equation and evaluate the performance. As a standard measurement, oxygen consumption was simultaneously measured by a portable metabolic system (Metamax 3X, Cortex, Germany). A single room experiment was performed to develop a regression model of the standard EE measurement from the proposed IR sensor-based measurement system. In addition, correlation and regression analyses were done to compare the performance of the IR system with that of the Actigraph system. We determined that our proposed IR-based EE measurement system shows a similar correlation to the Actigraph system with the standard measurement system.

  4. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ashley R; Goodman, Anna; Page, Angie S

    2015-01-01

    .8-18.4 years) who provided at least three days of valid accelerometer data. Linear regression was used to examine associations between age, sex, weight status, country and physical activity outcomes. RESULTS: Boys were less sedentary and more active than girls at all ages. After 5 years of age......BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth have been reported to vary by sex, age, weight status and country. However, supporting data are often self-reported and/or do not encompass a wide range of ages or geographical locations. This study aimed to describe objectively......-measured physical activity and sedentary time patterns in youth. METHODS: The International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) consists of ActiGraph accelerometer data from 20 studies in ten countries, processed using common data reduction procedures. Analyses were conducted on 27,637 participants (2...

  5. Controle de gestão: a aplicabilidade do modelo das três dimensões na investigação de níveis e tipos de comprometimento do capital humano nas organizações terceirizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Yoshitake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es investigar y analizar el nivel y los tipos de intensidades del comprometimiento de trabajadores tercerizados que actúan concomitantemente con los de la empresa contratante, por medio del modelo de las tres dimensiones. Se pretendió analizar tanto el nivel y los tipos, en cuanto a la forma como las características personales y organizacionales ejercen influencia sobre el comprometimiento de ese tipo de empleado que, de forma particular, pertenece a una empresa y presta sus servicios a otra. Se utili - zó pesquisa descriptiva con abordaje cuantitativo para análisis de los datos, utilizándose técnicas estadísticas, como: media general, la ANOVA, Prueba “t emparejado”, t-Student y el método alpha de Cronbach. Además de pesquisa bibliográfica y documental, se efectuó un estudio de caso. La importancia del estudio puede ser definida como fundamental para el control de gestión del activo humano en las organizaciones de empresas contratantes y contratadas. El resultado de la pesquisa evidenció la aplicabilidad del modelo de las tres di - mensiones de comprometimiento: afectivo, instrumental y normativo. El estudio desarrolla - do se insiere en el interior de estudios contemporáneos del control de gestión o gerencial que han alzado temas que podrían ser descritos como “controles relacionales en las orga - nizaciones”, en el caso, las posibilidades de estudio de las relaciones como la satisfacción, la confianza y el comprometimiento.

  6. [Measurement of physical activity in older adults. Correlation between the PRISCUS-PAQ and accelerometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampisch, U S; Platen, P; Moschny, A; Wilm, S; Thiem, U; Hinrichs, T

    2012-04-01

    The German questionnaire PRISCUS-PAQ was developed to measure actual physical activity of older adults in a telephone interview. PRISCUS-PAQ consists of ten main questions to assess the time spend in domestic activities (e.g., housework, gardening), sporting activities (e.g., riding a bicycle), and inactivity (e.g., sedentary activity, sleeping during the day) during the prior week. By assessing the number of days for each activity and the mean duration of performing this activity, a total score can be calculated. The total score corresponds to the energy consumption for 1 week. The aim of this study is to estimate the correlation of the PRISCUS-PAQ total score and accelerometry as an objective measurement method for the assessment of physical activity. A total of 114 participants (58% women) with a mean age of 76 years participated in the study. PRISCUS-PAQ was initially analyzed descriptively. To assess the validity of PRISCUS-PAQ, the correlation (correlation coefficient of Spearman) was calculated between the total score of the questionnaire PRISCUS-PAQ and the 95% trimmed sum of an accelerometer with a measurement period of 1 week. The correlation coefficient for the association of the PRISCUS-PAQ total score and the 95% trimmed sum of the acceleration values was r = 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.10–0.44). Activities of daily life like cleaning and other domestic activities highly contributed to the weekly energy consumption of the participants. The association between the PRISCUS-PAQ questionnaire and accelerometry measured physical activity is comparable to other validated and established international questionnaires. The PRISCUS-PAQ is the first German questionnaire that allows the measurement of physical activity of older adults in a telephone interview.

  7. Temperament and Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Canadian Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer D. Irwin; Andrew M. Johnson; Leigh M. Vanderloo; Shauna M. Burke; Patricia Tucker

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess the influence of preschoolers' temperament on their objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time. Actical? accelerometers were used to measure preschoolers' from London, Canada's (n?=?216; 2.5?5?years) physical activity and sedentary levels during childcare hours (5 consecutive days; 15?s epoch). The Child Temperament Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess child temperament via parent/guardian report. The six subscales of the CTQ (i.e., reaction to foo...

  8. Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R Ness

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity.We carried out a cross sectional analysis on 5,500 12-year-old children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Total physical activity and minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA were measured using the Actigraph accelerometer. Fat mass and obesity (defined as the top decile of fat mass were measured using the Lunar Prodigy dual x-ray emission absorptiometry scanner. We found strong negative associations between MVPA and fat mass that were unaltered after adjustment for total physical activity. We found a strong negative dose-response association between MVPA and obesity. The odds ratio for obesity in adjusted models between top and the bottom quintiles of minutes of MVPA was 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.13, p-value for trend <0.0001 in boys and 0.36 (95% CI 0.17-0.74, p-value for trend = 0.006 in girls.We demonstrated a strong graded inverse association between physical activity and obesity that was stronger in boys. Our data suggest that higher intensity physical activity may be more important than total activity.

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  10. Measuring the effectiveness of marketing activities use in relation to company size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Sychrová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to research the relationship between measurements of effectiveness of marketing activities and company size. An analysis of the economic sources, professional publications, analysis and reports of previous research shows that the concept of measuring of effectiveness is one of the key themes, which economists always pay much attention. It is a criterion that helps to rationally decide on the use limited resources to meet the needs that are not limited. This topic deals with numerous domestic and foreign literatures. The authors are not only different concepts of effectiveness, but also the using terminology. There are multiple definitions of terms “effectiveness” For the same purpose and meaning. The same concept is often defined semantically different. Therefore, every company has a strong interest to be in all their activities more effectively than the competition. Logical response to changes and requirements of nowadays is using a combination of lot of methods to measure marketing effectiveness. Methods used for this article includes two phases. The first it was gained date by primary research, using a structure questionnaire and processed by statistical software SPSS. Research sample consists 115 companies operating in the Czech environment, which was chosen at random. There is investigated the correlation between measuring the effectiveness of marketing activities and company size. The second part investigated the dependence between the choice of metrics used to measure the effectiveness and company size. The results of the research showed that there is no correlation between measuring the effectiveness of marketing activities and company size. The value of Pearson Chi-Square test is greater than 0.05, it is 0.187. We can presume that dependency does not exist or it is small for these. Value of Symmetric measures is 0.432, which means that the intensity tends to be small rather than high.

  11. Absolute determination of 75Se for international comparison of activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglicki, F.A.; Arenillas, P.A.; Furnari, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    An international intercomparison of absolute activity measurements of a solution of Se-75, organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France, in 1992, has been carried out. The methodology and results are presented. Source preparation, experimental techniques and measurement system are described. (author). 2 refs

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  14. Whole-body dose meters. Measurements of total activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.; Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin

    1990-01-01

    By means of measurements using a whole-body dose meter, the course of the incorporation of radionuclides was established between April 1986 and May 1989 for unchanged conditions of alimentation, activity-conscious alimentation, and uniquely increased incorporation. Monitoring covered persons from the most different spheres of life. The incorporation is compared with the one resulting from nuclear weapons explosions in the atmosphere. (DG) [de

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  16. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  17. Comparison of disease activity measures for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, PA; Cuthbertson, DD; Hellmich, B; Hoffman, GS; Jayne, DRW; Kallenberg, CGM; Krischer, JP; Luqmani, R; Mahr, AD; Matteson, EL; Specks, U; Stone, JH

    2011-01-01

    Aim Currently, several different instruments are used to measure disease activity and extent in clinical trials of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, leading to division among investigative groups and difficulty comparing study results. An exercise comparing six different vasculitis instruments was performed. Methods A total of 10 experienced vasculitis investigators from 5 countries scored 20 cases in the literature of Wegener granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis using 6 disease assessment tools: the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), The BVAS for Wegener granulomatosis (BVAS/WG), BVAS 2003, a Physician Global Assessment (PGA), the Disease Extent Index (DEI) and the Five Factor Score (FFS). Five cases were rescored by all raters. Results Reliability of the measures was extremely high (intraclass correlations for the six measures all=0.98). Within each instrument, there were no significant differences or outliers among the scores from the 10 investigators. Test/retest reliability was high for each measure: range=0.77 to 0.95. The scores of the five acute activity measures correlated extremely well with one another. Conclusions Currently available tools for measuring disease extent and activity in ANCA-associated vasculitis are highly correlated and reliable. These results provide investigators with confidence to compare different clinical trial data and helps form common ground as international research groups develop new, improved and universally accepted vasculitis disease assessment instruments. PMID:18664546

  18. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical...... activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one......-dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Results: Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg.m(-2) and PAEE was 28...

  19. Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Aminotransferase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Xin; Zhang, Chengsen; Xu, Yang; Cooks, R. Graham

    2017-06-01

    A change in enzyme activity has been used as a clinical biomarker for diagnosis and is useful in evaluating patient prognosis. Current laboratory measurements of enzyme activity involve multi-step derivatization of the reaction products followed by quantitative analysis of these derivatives. This study simplified the reaction systems by using only the target enzymatic reaction and directly detecting its product. A protocol using paper spray mass spectrometry for identifying and quantifying the reaction product has been developed. Evaluation of the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was chosen as a proof-of-principle. The volume of sample needed is greatly reduced compared with the traditional method. Paper spray has a desalting effect that avoids sprayer clogging problems seen when examining serum samples by nanoESI. This very simple method does not require sample pretreatment and additional derivatization reactions, yet it gives high quality kinetic data, excellent limits of detection (60 ppb from serum), and coefficients of variation <10% in quantitation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardt Jill

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment is required to assess current and changing physical activity levels, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase activity levels. This study systematically reviewed the literature to determine the extent of agreement between subjectively (self-report e.g. questionnaire, diary and objectively (directly measured; e.g. accelerometry, doubly labeled water assessed physical activity in adults. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies of adult populations. Searching identified 4,463 potential articles. Initial screening found that 293 examined the relationship between self-reported and directly measured physical activity and met the eligibility criteria. Data abstraction was completed for 187 articles, which described comparable data and/or comparisons, while 76 articles lacked comparable data or comparisons, and a further 30 did not meet the review's eligibility requirements. A risk of bias assessment was conducted for all articles from which data was abstracted. Results Correlations between self-report and direct measures were generally low-to-moderate and ranged from -0.71 to 0.96. No clear pattern emerged for the mean differences between self-report and direct measures of physical activity. Trends differed by measure of physical activity employed, level of physical activity measured, and the gender of participants. Results of the risk of bias assessment indicated that 38% of the studies had lower quality scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that the measurement method may have a significant impact on the observed levels of physical activity. Self-report measures of physical activity were both higher and lower than directly measured levels of physical activity, which poses a problem for both reliance on self-report measures and for attempts to correct for self-report – direct measure differences. This review reveals

  1. Bilateral Comparison CIEMAT-CENTIS-DMR for radionuclide activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a bilateral comparison of radionuclide activity measurements between the Radionuclide Metrology Department of the Center of Isotopes of Cuba (CENTIS-DMR), and the Ionising Radiation Metrology Laboratory (LMRI) of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) of Spain. The aim of the comparison was to establish the comparability of the measurement instruments and methods used to obtain radioactive reference materials of some gamma-emitting nuclides at CENTIS-DMR. The results revealed that there are no statistically significant differences between the data reported by both laboratories. (Author) 7 refs

  2. On-line and precise measurement of iron wear using thin layer activation reactions by proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Nishimura, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    For the purpose of the on-line measurement of iron wear, thin layer activation (TLA) method or surface layer activation (SLA) method has been carried out since early 1970s. This method uses the irradiation of charged particle beam like protons from an accelerator onto a metal surface to produce a thin activated layer of several tens μm. The wear of this activated layer is measured by nondestructive on-line method with a radiation detector. There are two methods of the measurement. One is the activity loss measurement on the surface, and the other is the activity measurement of the metal debris collected in a filter. The former method is considered here. The purpose it to measure the wear of engine cam noses to help the development of good engine oil. Proton beam irradiation with a tandem van de Graaff accelerator, wear calibration using a gamma ray spectrometer, on-line wear measurement of cam noses of car engines by TLA method and so on are reported. The 7.00 MeV proton beam from a van de Graaff accelerator was used for activation, and Co-56, Co-57 and Co-58 were obtained in thin layers. (K.I.)

  3. Clearance measurements on activated parts of accelerators by combined methods; Verfahrenskombinierte Freigabemessung aktivierter Beschleunigerteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, S.; Friedemann, S. [VKTA, Dresden (Germany); Enghardt, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay

    2016-07-01

    The process of clearance of radioactive materials according to paragraph 29 StrlSchV contents the comparison of activity to mass and surface of the material. To avoid a borderless assessment of activity of activation it is often necessary to use combined measurement methods: For clearance of collimators of a medical proton accelerator (energy range up to 200 MeV) it needs to know the nuclide composition. The energetical and geometrical calibration was fixed by experiments. The clearance based on measurements of activity distribution, gammaspectroscopy verification of nuclide composition and gamma-counting detectors. Parts of medical electron-accelerators achieved its clearance by combination of abovementioned methods and in-situ-gammaspectroscopy. Activated und contaminated lead stones achieved its clearance by measurements of fluence, laboratory evaluation of samples, in-situ-gammaspectroscopy and wipe tests.

  4. Calibrating a novel multi-sensor physical activity measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, D; Sasaki, J E; Howe, C A; Freedson, P S; Liu, S; Gao, R X; Staudenmayer, J

    2011-01-01

    Advancing the field of physical activity (PA) monitoring requires the development of innovative multi-sensor measurement systems that are feasible in the free-living environment. The use of novel analytical techniques to combine and process these multiple sensor signals is equally important. This paper describes a novel multi-sensor 'integrated PA measurement system' (IMS), the lab-based methodology used to calibrate the IMS, techniques used to predict multiple variables from the sensor signals, and proposes design changes to improve the feasibility of deploying the IMS in the free-living environment. The IMS consists of hip and wrist acceleration sensors, two piezoelectric respiration sensors on the torso, and an ultraviolet radiation sensor to obtain contextual information (indoors versus outdoors) of PA. During lab-based calibration of the IMS, data were collected on participants performing a PA routine consisting of seven different ambulatory and free-living activities while wearing a portable metabolic unit (criterion measure) and the IMS. Data analyses on the first 50 adult participants are presented. These analyses were used to determine if the IMS can be used to predict the variables of interest. Finally, physical modifications for the IMS that could enhance the feasibility of free-living use are proposed and refinement of the prediction techniques is discussed

  5. Total body-calcium measurements: comparison of two delayed-gamma neutron activation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This study compares two independently calibrated delayed-gamma neutron activation (DGNA) facilities, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, New York, and the other at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), Houston, Texas that measure total body calcium (TBCa). A set of BNL phantoms was sent to CNRC for neutron activation analysis, and a set of CNRC phantoms was measured at BNL. Both facilities showed high precision (<2%), and the results were in good agreement, within 5%. (author)

  6. Documentación y análisis de los principales frameworks de arquitectura de software en aplicaciones empresariales

    OpenAIRE

    Sarasty España, Hugo Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Este documento se enfoca en un tema común hoy en día en el ambiente tecnológico y empresarial, el cual es la arquitectura de software y su aplicabilidad a través de frameworks a proyectos empresariales. Este documento de investigación servirá de base para obtener un conocimiento y entendimiento de los frameworks de arquitectura de software más usados en el desarrollo de aplicaciones empresariales, determinando su aplicabilidad según el proyecto que se esté abordando. Facultad de Informátic...

  7. Pluralismo y derechos fundamentales en el estado social de derecho: la situación de las poblaciones indígenas en Colombia en 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Cruz, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Este es un estudio sobre la garantía y aplicabilidad de los derechos humanos de las poblaciones indígenas colombianas durante los primeros cuatro años de mandato de la administración Santos. La investigación busca explicar la manera en que las adversas condiciones socio económicas que caracterizan el desarrollo de las poblaciones indígenas, denotan la incapacidad del Estado Social de Derecho para garantizar la protección y aplicabilidad de los derechos fundamentales de estas comunidades. Las ...

  8. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  9. Measuring of physical activity of UK FTVS and Palestra students using IPAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Hronková, Ilona

    2011-01-01

    Title: Measuring of physical activity of UK FTVS and Palestra students using IPAQ Aims: - find out the range of physical activity of students from schools mentioned above - compare the results with each other and also with other researches - confirm or disconfirm hypotheses - set down conclusions Methods: questionnaire Results: - students of both schools are highly physically active (in comparison with ordinary population) - UK FTVS students are more active in all kinds of physical activity p...

  10. Accurate and reproducible measurements of RhoA activation in small samples of primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nini, Lylia; Dagnino, Lina

    2010-03-01

    Rho GTPase activation is essential in a wide variety of cellular processes. Measurement of Rho GTPase activation is difficult with limited material, such as tissues or primary cells that exhibit stringent culture requirements for growth and survival. We defined parameters to accurately and reproducibly measure RhoA activation (i.e., RhoA-GTP) in cultured primary keratinocytes in response to serum and growth factor stimulation using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based G-LISA assays. We also established conditions that minimize RhoA-GTP in unstimulated cells without affecting viability, allowing accurate measurements of RhoA activation on stimulation or induction of exogenous GTPase expression. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of radon activity concentrations in air of Tuzla city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Fazlic, R.; Tresnjo, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The survey was conducted over one year in the area of Tuzla city and its surrounding. At the measuring locations there were registered Daily and seasonal variations in outdoor radon concentration were observed, with average values lying within the region of 9 - 30 Bq/m 3 . The results of the measurements will be included in the concentration map of radon activity in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is under preparation. (P.A.)

  12. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  13. Fast neutron activating detectors for pulsed flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyatlov, V.D.; Kunaev, G.T.; Popytaev, A.N.; Cheremukhov, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements to the activation detectors of the pulsed flows of the fast neutrons are considered; the criteria of optimum measurement time, geometrical moderator sizes and radioactive detector element properties have been obtained. On their analysis parameter selection has been carried out. The neutron detector to register the short pulses has been designed and calibrated. The ways of further increase of sensitivity and efficiency of such detectors are discussed

  14. Clustering of children's activity behaviour: the use of self-report versus direct measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Mark S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While we concur with the objectives of the recent International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity paper published by Jago and colleagues titled "Physical activity and sedentary behaviour typologies of 10-11 year olds", we feel that the results as currently presented do not support their conclusions. Though the authors created groups of children with dramatically different patterns of self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour, an inspection of the objectively measured accelerometry data shows little difference between the groups. Further, in at least one instance the difference between groups was of the opposite direction when using objective measures, as opposed to the self-report measures used in the published analysis. Thus, we caution the authors from making conclusions based on their self-report data, and propose that they re-analyze their data using their objectively measured data instead.

  15. Measurements of fusion neutron yields by neutron activation technique: Uncertainty due to the uncertainty on activation cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunas, Gediminas, E-mail: gediminas.stankunas@lei.lt [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Batistoni, Paola [ENEA, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sjöstrand, Henrik; Conroy, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-11

    The neutron activation technique is routinely used in fusion experiments to measure the neutron yields. This paper investigates the uncertainty on these measurements as due to the uncertainties on dosimetry and activation reactions. For this purpose, activation cross-sections were taken from the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF-v1.05) in 640 groups ENDF-6 format for several reactions of interest for both 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons. Activation coefficients (reaction rates) have been calculated using the neutron flux spectra at JET vacuum vessel, both for DD and DT plasmas, calculated by MCNP in the required 640-energy group format. The related uncertainties for the JET neutron spectra are evaluated as well using the covariance data available in the library. These uncertainties are in general small, but not negligible when high accuracy is required in the determination of the fusion neutron yields.

  16. Results of Long-term Measurement of 222Rn Volume Activity in Soil Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Matos, M.; Boem, R.; Stanys, T.; Hola, O.; Polaskova, A.

    1999-01-01

    Radon in the soil air was continuously monitored for four years. The measured volume activities differ one from another even three times. On the basis of the measured data the annual and average daily courses of the 222 Rn volume activity were studied for individual months. In annual courses the winter and also summer maxima of the 222 Rn volume activity were found out. The study of the average daily courses revealed that the oscillation of the 222 Rn volume activity about its average value during a day is only a few percent. For dry summer months a linear relation was found out between the changes of the 222 Rn volume activity and the changes of the atmospheric pressure in their average daily courses (Authors)

  17. Difference frequency generation spectroscopy as a vibrational optical activity measurement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sangheon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-03-19

    Vibrational optical activity (VOA) of chiral molecules in condensed phases can be studied by using vibrational circular dichroism and Raman optical activity measurement techniques. Recently, IR-vis sum frequency generation has shown to be an alternative VOA measurement method. Such a three-wave-mixing method employing a polarization modulation technique can be a potentially useful VOA measurement tool. Here, a theoretical description of difference frequency generation (DFG) employing circularly polarized visible radiations is presented. Frequency scanning to obtain a VOA-DFG spectrum is achieved by controlling the difference between the two electronically nonresonant incident radiation frequencies. If the two incident beams are linearly polarized and their polarization directions are perpendicular to each other, one can selectively measure the all-electric-dipole-allowed chiral component of the DFG susceptibility. In addition, by using circularly polarized beams and taking the DFG difference intensity signal, which is defined as the difference between left and right circularly polarized DFG signals, additional chiral susceptibility components originating from the electric quadrupole transition can be measured. The DFG as a novel VOA measurement technique for solution samples containing chiral molecules will therefore be a useful coherent spectroscopic tool for determining absolute configuration of chiral molecules in condensed phases.

  18. Behavioral and Locomotor Measurements Using an Open Field Activity Monitoring System for Skeletal Muscle Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tatem, Kathleen S.; Quinn, James L.; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body sy...

  19. Feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements to assess physical activity in toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerometers are considered to be the most promising tool for measuring physical activity (PA in free-living young children. So far, no studies have examined the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in children under 3 years of age. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in toddlers (1- to 3-year olds. Methods Forty-seven toddlers (25 boys; 20 ± 4 months wore a GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer for 6 consecutive days and parental perceptions of the acceptability of wearing the monitor were assessed to examine feasibility. To investigate the validity of the ActiGraph and the predictive validity of three ActiGraph cut points, accelerometer measurements of 31 toddlers (17 boys; 20 ± 4 months during free play at child care were compared to directly observed PA, using the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P. Validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman correlations and predictive validity using area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC-AUC. Results The feasibility examination indicated that accelerometer measurements of 30 toddlers (63.8% could be included with a mean registration time of 564 ± 62 min during weekdays and 595 ± 83 min during weekend days. According to the parental reports, 83% perceived wearing the accelerometer as 'not unpleasant and not pleasant' and none as 'unpleasant'. The validity evaluation showed that mean ActiGraph activity counts were significantly and positively associated with mean OSRAC-P activity intensity (r = 0.66; p Conclusions The present findings suggest that ActiGraph accelerometer measurements are feasible and valid for quantifying PA in toddlers. However, further research is needed to accurately identify PA intensities in toddlers using accelerometry.

  20. Contrasting Various Metrics for Measuring Tropical Cyclone Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yuh Yu Ping-Gin Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular metrics used for measuring the tropical cyclone (TC activity, including NTC (number of tropical cyclones, TCD (tropical cyclone days, ACE (accumulated cyclone energy, PDI (power dissipation index, along with two newly proposed indices: RACE (revised accumulated cyclone energy and RPDI (revised power dissipation index, are compared using the JTWC (Joint Typhoon Warning Center best-track data of TC over the western North Pacific basin. Our study shows that, while the above metrics have demonstrated various degrees of discrepancies, but in practical terms, they are all able to produce meaningful temporal and spatial changes in response to climate variability. Compared with the conventional ACE and PDI, RACE and RPDI seem to provide a more precise estimate of the total TC activity, especially in projecting the upswing trend of TC activity over the past few decades, simply because of a better approach in estimating TC wind energy. However, we would argue that there is still no need to find a ¡§universal¡¨ or ¡§best¡¨ metric for TC activity because different metrics are designed to stratify different aspects of TC activity, and whether the selected metric is appropriate or not should be determined solely by the purpose of study. Except for magnitude difference, the analysis results seem insensitive to the choice of the best-track datasets.

  1. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwakura M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masahiro Iwakura,1,2 Kazuki Okura,2 Kazuyuki Shibata,1,2 Atsuyoshi Kawagoshi,2 Keiyu Sugawara,2 Hitomi Takahashi,2 Takanobu Shioya1 1Department of Rehabilitation, Akita City Hospital, 2Department of Physical Therapy, Akita University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Akita, Japan Background: Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods: Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST] and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]. Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results: The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033, Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013, 4 m gait speed (P<0.001, five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002, daily steps (P=0.003, and MV-PA (P=0.022 compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001 and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014 in the COPD group after adjusting for

  2. Measuring Perceived Benefits and Perceived Barriers for Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the psychometric properties and relationship to physical activity levels of the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) among college students. Methods: A total of 398 college students completed the EBBS and a measure of self-efficacy, the Physical Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. In addition, a subsample of 275 students also…

  3. Objectively measured walkability and active transport and weight-related outcomes in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Gerlinde; Van Dyck, Delfien; Titze, Sylvia; Stronegger, Willibald

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which GIS-based measures of walkability (density, land-use mix, connectivity and walkability indexes) in urban and suburban neighbourhoods are used in research and which of them are consistently associated with walking and cycling for transport, overall active transportation and weight-related measures in adults. A systematic review of English publications using PubMed, Science Direct, Active Living Research Literature Database, the Transportation Research Information Service and reference lists was conducted. The search terms utilised were synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for the outcomes. Thirty-four publications based on 19 different studies were eligible. Walkability measures such as gross population density, intersection density and walkability indexes most consistently correlated with measures of physical activity for transport. Results on weight-related measures were inconsistent. More research is needed to determine whether walkability is an appropriate measure for predicting weight-related measures and overall active transportation. As most of the consistent correlates, gross population density, intersection density and the walkability indexes have the potential to be used in planning and monitoring.

  4. The establishment of a portable high sensitivity exhaled thoron activity measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xing-an; Cheng, Yong-e

    2008-01-01

    A portable system, using electrostatic collection, for the measurement of exhaled thoron activity in humans is described, together with the basic theory, equipment, calibration procedures, measurement and the preliminary use. The portable system built on experience at the Argonne National Laboratory to achieve a reduction in measurement time from 30 hours to 200 minutes, and to increase the total efficiency of the system from 50%(ANL) to 55% with a minimum detection limit decreased to 0.007 Bq (zero activity± σ). The total standard error of this system is 47% for a thorium lung burden of 0.22 Bq. The average background of this scintillation detector was 0.003 counts/min. (author)

  5. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p p = .031 were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031, measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006, and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003. Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall satisfaction are likely to engage in higher levels

  6. A method to measure hydrolytic activity of adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Bartolommei

    Full Text Available The detection of small amounts (nanomoles of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases, that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the γ-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening.

  7. Alpha activity of 190 Pt isotope measured with CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Terranova, M.L.

    1996-11-01

    A new method to measure alpha activity of long-lived radioisotopes is reported. The method consists basically in using CR-39 track detectors in close contact with thick samples of the radioelement to be investigated. Accordingly, a long-term exposure experiment has been performed using metallic sheets of natural platinum to measure alpha activity of platinum 190 isotope. The half-life of platinum 190 has been obtained in good agreement with two recent theoretical half-life predictions. (author). 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wientzek

    Full Text Available In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC, physical activity (PA has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  9. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  10. Challenges of Measuring a Faculty Member Activity in Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, A; Mojtahedzadeh, R; Emami Razavi, S H

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the features of Mission Based Management is measuring the activities of faculty members and departments and their contributions to the school's mission. As it is important to assess the school's readiness for such a system, in this study we assessed the view points of Tehran Medical School's department chairs about faculty members’ activities. Methods We used focus group technique to identify participants' view points. We divided 30 department chairs into homogenous groups o...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  12. Tritium Activity Measurement of Water Samples Using Liquid Scintillation Counter and Electrolytical Enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baresic, J.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Horvatincic, N.; Obelic, B.; Sironic, A.; Kozar-Logar J.

    2011-01-01

    Tritium (3H) activity of natural waters (precipitation, groundwater, surface waters) has recently become too low to be directly measured by low-level liquid scintillation (LSC) techniques. It is therefore necessary to perform electrolytical enrichment of tritium in such waters prior to LSC measurements. Electrolytical enrichment procedure has been implemented at the Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI) Tritium Laboratory in 2008, and since then 19 electrolyses have been completed. The mean enrichment factor E (a ratio between the final and initial 3H activities) after stabilisation of the system is E R BI = 22.5 @ 0.5, and the mean enrichment parameter (which describes the process of water mass reduction during electrolysis) is P R BI 0.949 @ 0.003. These values are comparable with those obtained at the Jo@ef Stefan Institute (JSI) Laboratory for liquid scintillation counting, at the electrolysis equipment of the same producer (AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland) after 66 electrolyses carried out under identical conditions since 2007: E J SI = 18.9 @ 1.5, and P J SI = 0.896 @ 0.021. Both RBI and JSI laboratories have Ultra-low-level LSC Quantulus 1220 (Wallac, PerkinElmer) for measurement of 3H activity. A set of water samples having 3H activities in the range from 0 TU (''dead-water'' samples) to 18 000 TU (1 TU 0.118 Bq/L) were measured at both laboratories. Samples having 3H activity <200 TU were electrolytically enriched, while the others were measured directly in LSC. A very good agreement was obtained (correlation coefficient 0.991). Both laboratories participated in the IAEA TRIC2008 international intercomparison exercise. The analyses of reported 3H activity results in terms of z and u parameters showed that all results in both laboratories were acceptable. (author)

  13. Measurements of indoor 222RN activity in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Del Claro, Flávia; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the results of systematic measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) in residential environments and workplaces in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba (Paraná State, Brazil) during the period 2004–2012. For radon in air activity measurements, polycarbonate Track Etch Detectors CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers protected by borosilicate glass fiber filters, were used. After being exposed in air, the CR-39 detectors were submitted to a chemical etching in a 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 °C for 14 h. The alpha particle tracks were identified and manually counted with an optical microscope, and with the results of previously performed calibrations, the indoor activity concentration of 222 Rn was calculated. The calibration of CR-39 and the alpha particle tracks chemical development procedures were performed in collaboration the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan). The major part of indoor 222 Rn concentration in residences was found to be below 100 Bq/m 3 . In the case of working places, all measurements of 222 Rn concentrations were below 100 Bq/m 3 . These values are considered within the limits set by international regulatory agencies, such as the US EPA and ICRP, which adopt up to 148 and 300 Bq/m 3 as upper values for the reference levels for radon gas activity in dwellings, respectively. The latest value of 300 Bq/m 3 for radon activity in air is proposed by ICRP considering the upper value for the individual dose reference level for radon exposure of 10 mSv/yr. - Highlights: • Radon activity in air of dwellings was measured. • Radon activity in air of workplaces was measured. • Obtained experimental results are compared with International Norms and Regulations

  14. Measurement of Circulating Cytokines and Immune-Activation Markers by Multiplex Technology in the Clinical Setting: What Are We Really Measuring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Najib

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of circulating cytokine levels can provide important information in the study of the pathogenesis of disease. John L. Fahey was a pioneer in the measurement of circulating cytokines and immune-activation markers and a leader in the quality assessment/control of assays for measurement of circulating cytokines. Insights into the measurement of circulating cytokines, including consideration of multiplex assays, are presented here.

  15. Measuring emotions during epistemic activities: the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Vogl, Elisabeth; Muis, Krista R; Sinatra, Gale M

    2017-09-01

    Measurement instruments assessing multiple emotions during epistemic activities are largely lacking. We describe the construction and validation of the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales, which measure surprise, curiosity, enjoyment, confusion, anxiety, frustration, and boredom occurring during epistemic cognitive activities. The instrument was tested in a multinational study of emotions during learning from conflicting texts (N = 438 university students from the United States, Canada, and Germany). The findings document the reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the instrument. A seven-factor model best fit the data, suggesting that epistemically-related emotions should be conceptualised in terms of discrete emotion categories, and the scales showed metric invariance across the North American and German samples. Furthermore, emotion scores changed over time as a function of conflicting task information and related significantly to perceived task value and use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies.

  16. Measurement properties of the Human Activity Profile questionnaire in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Daniel C; Wegner, Fernando; Costa, Lucíola C M; Chiavegato, Luciana D; Lunardi, Adriana C

    To test the measurement properties (reproducibility, internal consistency, ceiling and floor effects, and construct validity) of the Human Activity Profile (HAP) questionnaire in hospitalized patients. This measurement properties study recruited one-hundred patients hospitalized for less than 48h for clinical or surgical reasons. The HAP was administered at baseline and after 48h in a test-retest design). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-6) was also administered at baseline, aiming to assess the construct validity. We tested the following measurement properties: reproducibility (reliability assessed by type 2,1 intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2,1 )); agreement by the standard error of measurement (SEM) and by the minimum detectable change with 90% confidence (MDC 90 ), internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha, construct validity using a chi-square test, and ceiling and floor effects by calculating the proportion of patients who achieved the minimum or maximum scores. Reliability was excellent with an ICC of 0.99 (95% CI=0.98-0.99). SEM was 1.44 points (1.5% of the total score), the MDD 90 was 3.34 points (3.5% of the total score) and the Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 (alpha if item deleted ranging from 0.94 to 0.94). An association was observed between patients classified by HAP and by IPAQ-6 (χ 2 =3.38; p=0.18). Ceiling or floor effects were not observed. The HAP shows adequate measurement properties for the assessment of the physical activity/inactivity level in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    was with the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor......An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow...... for frequent measurements, and thereby the possibility for detailed determination of the denitrification biokinetics. An internal nitrate electrode calibration is implemented in the experiments to avoid the often-encountered electrode drift problem. It was observed that the best experimental design...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

  19. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  20. Measurement of the activity of electron capturing isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoerenyi, A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to measure precisely the activity of electron capturing isotopes, an equipment was constructed for the detection the X-photons, the Auger- and the conversing electrons by a high-pressure, gas-flow 4π proportional counter. The proportional counter and the NaI(Tl) scintillation counter are placed in a common lead-shielding, thus, the equipment is suited for the measurement of radioisotopes decaying in coincidence. The structure of the proportional counter and of the pressure-control system are detailed. As an example, the energy spectra of a 109 Cd solution, taken at different pressures, are published. At a pressure of 1.1 MPa the 3 peaks are well separated. The results of an international test, in which the radioactivity of a 57 Co sample was determined, are published, too. (L.E.)

  1. Active ion temperature measurement with heating neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yukitoshi; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Shin

    1987-03-01

    When the heating neutral-beam (hydrogen beam) is injected into a deuterium plasma, the density of neutral particles is increased locally. By using this increased neutral particles, the local ion temperature is measured by the active charge-exchange method. The analyzer is the E//B type mass-separated neutral particle energy analyzer and the measured position is about one third outside of the plasma radius. The deuterium energy spectrum is Maxwellian, and the temperature is increased from 350 eV to 900 eV during heating. Since the local hydrogen to deuterium density concentration and the density of the heating neutral-beam as well as the ion temperature can be obtained good S/N ratio, the usefulness of this method during neutral-beam heating is confirmed by this experiment. (author)

  2. A Markovian Entropy Measure for the Analysis of Calcium Activity Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marken, John P; Halleran, Andrew D; Rahman, Atiqur; Odorizzi, Laura; LeFew, Michael C; Golino, Caroline A; Kemper, Peter; Saha, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    Methods to analyze the dynamics of calcium activity often rely on visually distinguishable features in time series data such as spikes, waves, or oscillations. However, systems such as the developing nervous system display a complex, irregular type of calcium activity which makes the use of such methods less appropriate. Instead, for such systems there exists a class of methods (including information theoretic, power spectral, and fractal analysis approaches) which use more fundamental properties of the time series to analyze the observed calcium dynamics. We present a new analysis method in this class, the Markovian Entropy measure, which is an easily implementable calcium time series analysis method which represents the observed calcium activity as a realization of a Markov Process and describes its dynamics in terms of the level of predictability underlying the transitions between the states of the process. We applied our and other commonly used calcium analysis methods on a dataset from Xenopus laevis neural progenitors which displays irregular calcium activity and a dataset from murine synaptic neurons which displays activity time series that are well-described by visually-distinguishable features. We find that the Markovian Entropy measure is able to distinguish between biologically distinct populations in both datasets, and that it can separate biologically distinct populations to a greater extent than other methods in the dataset exhibiting irregular calcium activity. These results support the benefit of using the Markovian Entropy measure to analyze calcium dynamics, particularly for studies using time series data which do not exhibit easily distinguishable features.

  3. A Markovian Entropy Measure for the Analysis of Calcium Activity Time Series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Marken

    Full Text Available Methods to analyze the dynamics of calcium activity often rely on visually distinguishable features in time series data such as spikes, waves, or oscillations. However, systems such as the developing nervous system display a complex, irregular type of calcium activity which makes the use of such methods less appropriate. Instead, for such systems there exists a class of methods (including information theoretic, power spectral, and fractal analysis approaches which use more fundamental properties of the time series to analyze the observed calcium dynamics. We present a new analysis method in this class, the Markovian Entropy measure, which is an easily implementable calcium time series analysis method which represents the observed calcium activity as a realization of a Markov Process and describes its dynamics in terms of the level of predictability underlying the transitions between the states of the process. We applied our and other commonly used calcium analysis methods on a dataset from Xenopus laevis neural progenitors which displays irregular calcium activity and a dataset from murine synaptic neurons which displays activity time series that are well-described by visually-distinguishable features. We find that the Markovian Entropy measure is able to distinguish between biologically distinct populations in both datasets, and that it can separate biologically distinct populations to a greater extent than other methods in the dataset exhibiting irregular calcium activity. These results support the benefit of using the Markovian Entropy measure to analyze calcium dynamics, particularly for studies using time series data which do not exhibit easily distinguishable features.

  4. A method of alpha-radiating nuclide activity measuring in aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.P.; Galkina, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Scintillation method of determination of alpha-radiating nuclide activity in aerosol filters was suggested. The method involves dissolution of the filter in organic solvent, introduction of luminophore into solution prepared, drying of the preparation and measurement of radionuclide activity. Dependences of alpha-radiation detection efficiency on the content of luminophore, filter material, colourless and coloured substances in preparations analyzed were considered

  5. Evaluation of physical activity measures used in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; McClain, James J; Lee, Chong D; Swan, Pamela D; Alvar, Brent A; Mitros, Melanie R; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of five commonly used physical activity questionnaires (PAQ) in women aged 45-65 yr with varying physical activity (PA) levels. Data were obtained from the Evaluation of Physical Activity Measures in Middle-aged Women (PAW) Study and included 66 women (aged 52.6 +/- 5.4 yr). PAQ evaluated include Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (past week and past month version), Nurses' Health Study PAQ, Active Australia Survey, and Women's Health Initiative PAQ. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between administrations of the PAQ were used to assess test-retest reliability. Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients were used to examine the associations of PA and physical fitness data with PAQ summary estimates. Accelerometer-determined median (25th, 75th percentiles) times (min.d) spent in moderate-lifestyle [760-1951 counts (ct)], moderate-walk (1952-5724 ct), vigorous (> or =5725 ct), and combined moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA > or = 1952 ct) during the 35 d of observation were 66.0 (51.2, 81.3), 23.1 (14.1, 34.6), 0.4 (0.0, 2.3), and 24.3 (15.9, 41.6) min, respectively. The PAQ were shown to be reproducible and relatively stable over time (ICC = 0.32 to 0.91) and were associated with total counts per day (ct.d, 0.46 to 0.60, all P PAQ evaluated in this study were shown to be reliable and associated with PA and physical fitness measures. Current findings support the utility of these PAQ for PA assessment in research studies of middle-aged women.

  6. Dry, portable calorimeter for nondestructive measurement of the activity of nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Norman S.; Lewis, Robert N.; Perry, Ronald B.

    1976-01-01

    The activity of a quantity of heat-producing nuclear fuel is measured rapidly, accurately and nondestructively by a portable dry calorimeter comprising a preheater, an array of temperature-controlled structures comprising a thermally guarded temperature-controlled oven, and a calculation and control unit. The difference between the amounts of electric power required to maintain the oven temperature with and without nuclear fuel in the oven is measured to determine the power produced by radioactive disintegration and hence the activity of the fuel. A portion of the electronic control system is designed to terminate a continuing sequence of measurements when the standard deviation of the variations of the amount of electric power required to maintain oven temperature is within a predetermined value.

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  8. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  9. A novel track density measurement method by thermal neutron activation of DYECETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Mahdi, Sh.

    1995-01-01

    A novel track density evaluation method based on thermal neutron activation of some elements of dyed electrochemically etched tracks (DYECETs) of charged particles in detectors like polycarbonate (PC) followed by measurements of gamma activity of the activated detectors is introduced. In this method, the tracks of charged particles like fast neutron-induced recoils in PC detectors were electrochemically etched, dyed by ''QuicDYECET'' methods as recently introduced by us, activated by thermal neutrons and counted for gamma activity determination to be correlated with track density. The activities of elements such as bromine-82 ( 82 Br) and sodium-24 ( 24 Na) on dyes such as Eosin Yellowish, Eosin Bluish, etc. determined by a hyper-pure germanium detector, were found to be in good correlation with DYECET density and thus particle fluence or dose. The effects of different types of dyes and their elements, dye concentration, neutron fluences and ECE durations on the DYECET density responses were studied. This new development is a method of scientific interest, potentially possessing some interesting features, as an alternative method for ECE track density determination using a gamma activity measuring system. It also has the drawback of being applicable only in centres having thermal neutron facilities. The results of the above studies are presented and discussed. (Author)

  10. Improvements on Low Level Activity Gamma Measurements and X-ray Spectrometry at the CEA-MADERE Measurement Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeyeva Victoria; Domergue Christophe; Destouches Christophe; Girard Jean Michel; Philibert Hervé; Bonora Jonathan; Thiollay Nicolas; Lyoussi Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    The CEA MADERE platform (Measurement Applied to DosimEtry in REactors) is a part of the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory (LDCI). This facility is dedicated to the specific activity measurements of solid and radioactive samples using Gamma and X-ray spectrometry. MADERE is a high-performance facility devoted to neutron dosimetry for experimental programs performed in CEA and for the irradiation surveillance programmes of PWR vessels. The MADERE platform is engaged in a continuo...

  11. Do Activity Level Outcome Measures Commonly Used in Neurological Practice Assess Upper-Limb Movement Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Marika; Levin, Mindy F

    2017-07-01

    Movement is described in terms of task-related end point characteristics in external space and movement quality (joint rotations in body space). Assessment of upper-limb (UL) movement quality can assist therapists in designing effective treatment approaches for retraining lost motor elements and provide more detailed measurements of UL motor improvements over time. To determine the extent to which current activity level outcome measures used in neurological practice assess UL movement quality. Outcome measures assessing arm/hand function at the International Classification of Function activity level recommended by neurological clinical practice guidelines were reviewed. Measures assessing the UL as part of a general mobility assessment, those strictly evaluating body function/structure or participation, and paediatric measures were excluded. In all, 15 activity level outcome measures were identified; 9 measures assess how movement is performed by measuring either end point characteristics or movement quality. However, except for the Reaching Performance Scale for Stroke and the Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke Patients, these measures only account for deficits indirectly by giving a partial score if movements are slower or if the person experiences difficulties. Six outcome measures neither assess any parameters related to movement quality, nor distinguish between improvements resulting from motor compensation or recovery of desired movement strategies. Current activity measures may not distinguish recovery from compensation and adequately track changes in movement quality over time. Movement quality may be incorporated into clinical assessment using observational kinematics with or without low-cost motion tracking technology.

  12. Self-Reported Versus Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Biomarkers Among NHANES Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Britni R; Moser, Richard P; Dodd, Kevin W; Atienza, Audie A; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Berrigan, David

    2015-05-01

    Discrepancies in self-report and accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may influence relationships with obesity-related biomarkers in youth. Data came from 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for 2174 youth ages 12 to 19. Biomarkers were: body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), BMI percentile, height and waist circumference (WC, cm), triceps and subscapular skinfolds (mm), systolic & diastolic blood pressure (BP, mmHg), high-density lipoprotein (HDL, mg/dL), total cholesterol (mg/dL), triglycerides (mg/dL), insulin (μU/ml), C-reactive protein (mg/dL), and glycohemoglobin (%). In separate sex-stratified models, each biomarker was regressed on accelerometer variables [mean MVPA (min/day), nonsedentary counts, and MVPA bouts (mean min/day)] and self-reported MVPA. Covariates were age, race/ethnicity, SES, physical limitations, and asthma. In boys, correlations between self-report and accelerometer MVPA were stronger (boys: r = 0.14-0.21; girls: r = 0.07-0.11; P girls, there were no significant associations between biomarkers and any measures of physical activity. Physical activity measures should be selected based on the outcome of interest and study population; however, associations between PA and these biomarkers appear to be weak regardless of the measure used.

  13. Vectra DA for the objective measurement of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, O G; Sasso, E H

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and regular assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is required to achieve treatment targets such as remission and to optimize clinical outcomes. To assess inflammation accurately, predict joint damage and monitor treatment response, a measure of disease activity in RA should reflect the pathological processes resulting in irreversible joint damage and functional disability. The Vectra DA blood test is an objective measure of disease activity for patients with RA. Vectra DA provides an accurate, reproducible score on a scale of 1 to 100 based on the concentrations of 12 biomarkers that reflect the pathophysiologic diversity of RA. The analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of Vectra DA have been evaluated for patients with RA in registries and prospective and retrospective clinical studies. As a biomarker-based instrument for assessing disease activity in RA, the Vectra DA test can help monitor therapeutic response to methotrexate and biologic agents and assess clinically challenging situations, such as when clinical measures are confounded by non-inflammatory pain from fibromyalgia. Vectra DA scores correlate with imaging of joint inflammation and are predictive for radiographic progression, with high Vectra DA scores being associated with more frequent and severe progression and low scores being predictive for non-progression. In summary, the Vectra DA score is an objective measure of RA disease activity that quantifies inflammatory status. By predicting risk for joint damage more effectively than conventional clinical and laboratory measures, it has the potential to complement these measures and optimise clinical decision making.

  14. Methodological Considerations and Comparisons of Measurement Results for Extracellular Proteolytic Enzyme Activities in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Obayashi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular hydrolytic enzymes that degrade organic matter in aquatic ecosystems play key roles in the biogeochemical carbon cycle. To provide linkages between hydrolytic enzyme activities and genomic or metabolomic studies in aquatic environments, reliable measurements are required for many samples at one time. Extracellular proteases are one of the most important classes of enzymes in aquatic microbial ecosystems, and protease activities in seawater are commonly measured using fluorogenic model substrates. Here, we examined several concerns for measurements of extracellular protease activities (aminopeptidases, and trypsin-type, and chymotrypsin-type activities in seawater. Using a fluorometric microplate reader with low protein binding, 96-well microplates produced reliable enzymatic activity readings, while use of regular polystyrene microplates produced readings that showed significant underestimation, especially for trypsin-type proteases. From the results of kinetic experiments, this underestimation was thought to be attributable to the adsorption of both enzymes and substrates onto the microplate. We also examined solvent type and concentration in the working solution of oligopeptide-analog fluorogenic substrates using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and 2-methoxyethanol (MTXE. The results showed that both 2% (final concentration of solvent in the mixture of seawater sample and substrate working solution DMSO and 2% MTXE provide similarly reliable data for most of the tested substrates, except for some substrates which did not dissolve completely in these assay conditions. Sample containers are also important to maintain the level of enzyme activity in natural seawater samples. In a small polypropylene containers (e.g., standard 50-mL centrifugal tube, protease activities in seawater sample rapidly decreased, and it caused underestimation of natural activities, especially for trypsin-type and chymotrypsin-type proteases. In

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs ...

  16. Activated carbon as a pseudo-reference electrode for electrochemical measurement inside concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The application of Kynol based activated carbon (KAC) as a pseudo-reference electrode for potentiometric measurement inside concrete is presented. Due to its high surface area the activated carbons has a large electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC > 50 F g(-1)) and are used as electrode material

  17. Validating a Lifestyle Physical Activity Measure for People with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kaya, Cahit; Huck, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the measurement structure of the "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" (PASIPD) as an assessment tool of lifestyle physical activities for people with severe mental illness. Method: A quantitative descriptive research design using factor analysis was employed. A sample of 72 individuals…

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

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    Full Text Available ... Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity ... Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example ... Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  5. A gravimetric method for the measurement of total spontaneous activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadecki, B J; Brand, P H; Koch, L G; Britton, S L

    1999-10-01

    Currently available methods for the measurement of spontaneous activity of laboratory animals require expensive, specialized equipment and may not be suitable for use in low light conditions with nocturnal species. We developed a gravimetric method that uses common laboratory equipment to quantify the total spontaneous activity of rats and is suitable for use in the dark. The rat in its home cage is placed on a top-loading electronic balance interfaced to a computer. Movements are recorded by the balance as changes in weight and transmitted to the computer at 10 Hz. Data are analyzed on-line to derive the absolute value of the difference in weight between consecutive samples, and the one-second average of the absolute values is calculated. The averages are written to file for off-line analysis and summed over the desired observation period to provide a measure of total spontaneous activity. The results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that: 1) recorded weight changes were not influenced by position of the weight on the bottom of the cage, 2) values recorded from a series of weight changes were not significantly different from the calculated values, 3) the constantly decreasing force exerted by a swinging pendulum placed on the balance was accurately recorded, 4) the measurement of activity was not influenced by the evaporation of a fluid such as urine, and 5) the method can detect differences in the activity of sleeping and waking rats over a 10-min period, as well as during 4-hr intervals recorded during active (night-time) and inactive (daytime) periods. These results demonstrate that this method provides an inexpensive, accurate, and noninvasive method to quantitate the spontaneous activity of small animals.

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

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    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  8. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Baumgartner, A.; Rechberger, F.; Seidel, C.; Stietka, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. - Highlights: • Dose models for indoor radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials. • Strategies and methods in radionuclide metrology, activity measurement and dose modelling. • Selection of appropriate parameters in radiation protection standards for building materials. • Scientific-based limitations of indoor exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials

  9. Interpretation of Spectrometric Measurements of Active Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, D.; Wade, G.

    2014-09-01

    Over 5000 visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectrometric measurements of active geostationary satellites have been collected with the National Research Council (NRC) 1.8m Plaskett telescope located at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, Canada. The objective of this ongoing experiment is to study how reflectance spectroscopy can be used to reliably identify specific material types on the surface of artificial Earth-orbiting objects. Active geostationary satellites were selected as the main subjects for this experiment since their orientation is stable and can be estimated to a high-level of confidence throughout a night of observation. Furthermore, for most geostationary satellites, there is a wide variety of sources that can provide some level of information as to their external surface composition. Notwithstanding the high number of measurements that have been collected to date, it was assumed that the experimenters would have a much greater success rate in material identification given the choice experimental subjects. To date, only the presence of aluminum has been confidently identified in some of the reflectance spectra that have been collected. Two additional material types, namely photovoltaic cells and polyimide film, the first layer of multi-layer insulation (MLI), have also been possibly identified. However uncertainties in the reduced spectral measurements prevent any definitive conclusion with respect to these materials at this time. The surprising lack of results with respect to material identification have forced the experimenters to use other data interpretation methods to characterize the spectral scattering characteristics of the studied satellites. The results from this study have already led to improvements in the ways that reflectance spectra from spacecraft are collected and analysed. Equally important, the data interpretation techniques elaborated over the course of this experiment will also serve to increase the body of

  10. A Comparison of Self-Reported and Objective Physical Activity Measures in Young Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Stefanie; Garland, Suzanne; Young, Elisa; Bennell, Kim Louise; Tay, Ilona; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The evidence for beneficial effects of recommended levels of physical activity is overwhelming. However, 70% of Australians fail to meet these levels. In particular, physical activity participation by women falls sharply between ages 16 to 25 years. Further information about physical activity measures in young women is needed. Self-administered questionnaires are often used to measure physical activity given their ease of application, but known limitations, including recall bias, compromise the accuracy of data. Alternatives such as objective measures are commonly used to overcome this problem, but are more costly and time consuming. To compare the output between the Modified Active Australia Survey (MAAS), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and an objective physical activity measure-the SenseWear Armband (SWA)-to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the MAAS and to determine the acceptability of the SWA among young women. Young women from Victoria, Australia, aged 18 to 25 years who had participated in previous studies via Facebook advertising were recruited. Participants completed the two physical activity questionnaires online, immediately before and after wearing the armband for 7 consecutive days. Data from the SWA was blocked into 10-minute activity times. Follow-up IPAQ, MAAS, and SWA data were analyzed by comparing the total continuous and categorical activity scores, while concurrent validity of IPAQ and MAAS were analyzed by comparing follow-up scores. Test-retest reliability of MAAS was analyzed by comparing MAAS total physical activity scores at baseline and follow-up. Participants provided feedback in the follow-up questionnaire about their experience of wearing the armband to determine acceptability of the SWA. Data analyses included graphical (ie, Bland-Altman plot, scatterplot) and analytical (ie, canonical correlation, kappa statistic) methods to determine agreement between MAAS, IPAQ, and SWA data. A total of 58

  11. Comparisons of activity measurements in nuclear medicine with radionuclide calibrators in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsovcova, V.; Dryak, P.

    2002-01-01

    Activity measurements in nuclear medicine using so called 'radionuclide calibrators' or 'activimeters' have been performed for several decades and their reliability has varied. This paper presents comparison of data obtained in annual accuracy checks during the last decade in the Czech Republic, which were carried out by Czech Metrological Institute, Inspectorate for Ionizing Radiation (CMI IIR). Since there is a legal requirement of annual accuracy checks, all of 48 Nuclear Medicine departments in the Czech Republic have participated in the survey. During the last decade the system of accuracy checks has undergone a gradual development. In the initial system one radionuclide sample out of the offer-list was prepared and its activity measured by 4πγ reference chamber. The sample was then sent to the participants, who measured for them an unknown activity and filled out the questionnaire. Later the answers were evaluated in CMI IIR. This system was found unsatisfactory, mostly because of the long time intervals between the measurement and evaluation of results. Therefore, a different system, under which each participant can choose for the accuracy check all the radionuclides from the offered set, was first tried in the year 2000. The offered set is being gradually enlarged, so in 2001 it consisted of four nuclides 99m Tc, 131 I, 67 Ga and 201 Tl. Solution samples (5 ml volume in 10 ml standard serum bottle - the most common in the CR) are prepared in advance from all the nuclides except for 99m Tc and measured with 4πγ chamber to obtain a conventionally true value of activity. In case of 99m Tc is as the true value considered the activity measured with CMI's activimeter whose calibration is periodically compared with 4πγ chamber measurements

  12. Automation of a measurement systems of waste drum alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labarre, S.; Bardy, N.

    1985-10-01

    The alpha radiator activity in the two-hundred liter waste drums is found by an IN96, computerized analyzer of the society Intertechnique, from data delivered by a gamma detector (GeHP) and by neutron detection blocks (He counter). This computerized analyzer manages not only the drum rotation and position in front of the detector, but also the experimental data monitoring and their processing from specific programs (background noise, calibration, drum measurements). Thanks to this automation, the measurement number and their reliability are optimized [fr

  13. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  14. Activity measurement of tritium in biological samples by azeotropic distillation liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei; Zheng Xiaomin

    1994-01-01

    The authors introduced a method of extracting tissue free water tritium (TFWT) in biological samples by azeotropic distillation with toluene and of measuring its activity by liquid scintillation counter. Measured TFWT recovery ratios of pine needles (fresh), green vegetables, radish, milk, meat, rice are 0.90, 0.95, 0.95, 0.85, 0.53 and 0.90; and the activities of TFWT are 1.8, 3.2, 1.8, 4.0, 3.3 and 2.7 Bq/L, respectively

  15. Exploring Patient Activation in the Clinic: Measurement from Three Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Ledford, Christopher C.; Childress, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To further conceptualize and operationalize patient activation (PA), using measures from patient, physician, and researcher perspectives. Data Source/Study Setting. Multimethod observation in 2010 within a family medicine clinic. Study Design. Part of an intervention with 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, this observational study…

  16. Accurate and simple measurement method of complex decay schemes radionuclide activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.; Clement, C.; Bac, C.

    1975-01-01

    A simple method for the measurement of the activity is described. It consists of using a well-type sodium iodide crystal whose efficiency mith monoenergetic photon rays has been computed or measured. For each radionuclide with a complex decay scheme a total efficiency is computed; it is shown that the efficiency is very high, near 100%. The associated incertainty is low, in spite of the important uncertainties on the different parameters used in the computation. The method has been applied to the measurement of the 152 Eu primary reference [fr

  17. Direct measurement of tritium production rate in LiPb with removed parasitic activities: Preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuc, Tadeusz, E-mail: kuc@agh.edu.pl; Pohorecki, Władysław; Ostachowicz, Beata

    2014-10-15

    Liquid scintillation (LS) technique applied to direct measurement of tritium activity produced in LiPb eutectic in Frascati HCLL TBM mock-up neutronic experiment has been tested so far in the case of LS measurement after long period since irradiation. LiPb samples irradiated in neutron filed show, except of tritium, meaningful activity of other radioisotopes (parasitic). Parasitic activity, mainly from isotopes of lead ({sup 209}Pb, {sup 204m}Pb, {sup 203}Pb) calculated with the use of FISPACT, exceeds ca 5 times tritium activity 1.4 h after irradiation. We propose to remove disturbing radioisotopes in a chemical way to avoid long “cooling” of the irradiated samples before tritium measurement. Samples (1 g of LiPb) irradiated in reactor fast neutron flux were diluted and metallic cations removed by chemical precipitation. For this purpose we used: potassium iodide (KJ), strontium chloride (SrCl{sub 2}), APDC (C{sub 5}H{sub 8}NS{sub 2}·NH{sub 4}), NaDDTC (C{sub 5}H{sub 10}NNaS{sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O), and PAN (C{sub 15}H{sub 11}N{sub 3}O). Precipitation procedure in each case lasted ca 5–25 min, and the following filtration next 10–20 min. In each filtrate (ca 120 ml) we measured Pb concentration in total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analyzer and parasitic activity (left after 21-day “cooling”) applying HPGe gamma spectrometer. Pb cations precipitated by SrCl{sub 2} and than by PAN lowered activity of Pb isotopes to less than 1% of the initial tritium activity. Another combination of reagents: NaDDTC followed by SrCl{sub 2} in a single and double step filtration reduced Pb concentration 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} times, respectively. Reduction of this order allows tritium radiometric measurement ca 3 h after irradiation with acceptable accuracy. This time can be shortened by applying correction for decay of known parasitic activity. Input of {sup 76}As and other less abundant radioisotopes can be eliminated using high purity LiPb. Tritium activity of

  18. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  19. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  20. The impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program in older adults with schizophrenia on subjectively and objectively measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eLeutwyler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods: In this one group pretest posttest pilot study, twenty participants played an active videogame for 30 minutes, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. Results: There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. Conclusions: These results suggest participants’ perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.

  1. The Impact of a Videogame-Based Pilot Physical Activity Program in Older Adults with Schizophrenia on Subjectively and Objectively Measured Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin; Cooper, Bruce; Dowling, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. In this one group pre-test, post-test pilot study, 20 participants played an active videogame for 30 min, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. These results suggest participants' perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.

  2. The effect of ISM absorption on stellar activity measurements and its relevance for exoplanet studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Marcelja, S. E.; Staab, D.; Cubillos, P. E.; France, K.; Haswell, C. A.; Ingrassia, S.; Jenkins, J. S.; Koskinen, T.; Lanza, A. F.; Redfield, S.; Youngblood, A.; Pelzmann, G.

    2017-05-01

    Past ultraviolet and optical observations of stars hosting close-in Jupiter-mass planets have shown that some of these stars present an anomalously low chromospheric activity, significantly below the basal level. For the hot Jupiter planet host WASP-13, observations have shown that the apparent lack of activity is possibly caused by absorption from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM). Inspired by this result, we study the effect of ISM absorption on activity measurements (S and log R 'HK indices) for main-sequence late-type stars. To this end, we employ synthetic stellar photospheric spectra combined with varying amounts of chromospheric emission and ISM absorption. We present the effect of ISM absorption on activity measurements by varying several instrumental (spectral resolution), stellar (projected rotational velocity, effective temperature, and chromospheric emission flux), and ISM parameters (relative velocity between stellar and ISM Ca II lines, broadening b-parameter, and Ca II column density). We find that for relative velocities between the stellar and ISM lines smaller than 30-40 km s-1 and for ISM Ca II column densities log NCaII ⪆ 12, the ISM absorption has a significant influence on activity measurements. Direct measurements and three dimensional maps of the Galactic ISM absorption indicate that an ISM Ca II column density of log NCaII = 12 is typically reached by a distance of about 100 pc along most sight lines. In particular, for a Sun-like star lying at a distance greater than 100 pc, we expect a depression (bias) in the log R'HK value larger than 0.05-0.1 dex, about the same size as the typical measurement and calibration uncertainties on this parameter. This work shows that the bias introduced by ISM absorption must always be considered when measuring activity for stars lying beyond 100 pc. We also consider the effect of multiple ISM absorption components. We discuss the relevance of this result for exoplanet studies and revise the

  3. Wearable motion sensors to continuously measure real-world physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Bruce H

    2013-12-01

    Rehabilitation for sensorimotor impairments aims to improve daily activities, walking, exercise, and motor skills. Monitoring of practice and measuring outcomes, however, is usually restricted to laboratory-based procedures and self-reports. Mobile health devices may reverse these confounders of daily care and research trials. Wearable, wireless motion sensor data, analyzed by activity pattern-recognition algorithms, can describe the type, quantity, and quality of mobility-related activities in the community. Data transmission from the sensors to a cell phone and the Internet enable continuous monitoring. Remote access to laboratory quality data about walking speed, duration and distance, gait asymmetry and smoothness of movements, as well as cycling, exercise, and skills practice, opens new opportunities to engage patients in progressive, personalized therapies with feedback about the performance. Clinical trial designs will be able to include remote verification of the integrity of complex physical interventions and compliance with practice, as well as capture repeated, ecologically sound, ratio scale outcome measures. Given the progressively falling cost of miniaturized wearable gyroscopes, accelerometers, and other physiologic sensors, as well as inexpensive data transmission, sensing systems may become as ubiquitous as cell phones for healthcare. Neurorehabilitation can develop these mobile health platforms for daily care and clinical trials to improve exercise and fitness, skills learning, and physical functioning.

  4. Telemetry Option in the Measurement of Physical Activity for Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melczer Csaba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of physical activity among patients with heart failure typically requires a special approach due to the patients’ physical status. Nowadays, a technology is already available that can measure the kinematic movements in 3-D by a pacemaker and implantable defibrillator giving an assessment on software. The telemetry data can be transmitted to a central system. The research aims to elaborate the methods that help to compare of the data concerning physical activity both built-in an accelerometer in Cardiac Resychrinisation Therapy (CRT devices and data obtained from an external Actigraph GT3XE-Plus Triaxial Activity Monitor. 5 persons participated in the pilot study (n=5; mean age: 57+- 13.37; BMI: 90.6+- 7.63. The Actigraph data from CRT device were examined in a 6-day-interval, between February 28 and March 5, 2014. The investigation started conducting a 6-minute walking test and continued with the measurement of daily physical activity. For data analysis descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis were used. It is clear from the data obtained from Actigraph that the MET values (mean: 1.17 ± 0.096 of the patients in the sample were extremely low due to their disease. However, some patients with higher physical activity than average (1.26; 1.28 seemed to be noteworthy, but they showed lower performance than healthy people. The physical activity of the patients during the 6-minute walking test corresponded to 1.9-2.48 MET. The physical activity of patients was found typically in the “light or moderate range” classifying the physical activity by Actigraph. Data from Actigraph are accurate and detailed making the physical activity of the patients measurable and appreciable. The results of the 6-minute walking test were in the category from moderate to very vigorous for individualized moderate physical performance based on Actigraph. It indicates the individual performance differences among patients. However, the daily

  5. Efficiency calibration of a HPGe detector for [18F] FDG activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa

    2013-01-01

    The radionuclide 18 F, in the form of flurodeoxyglucose (FDG), is the most used radiopharmaceutical for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Due to [ 18 F]FDG increasing demand, it is important to ensure high quality activity measurements in the nuclear medicine practice. Therefore, standardized reference sources are necessary to calibrate of 18 F measuring systems. Usually, the activity measurements are performed in re-entrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides, since it is essential to minimize source preparation time. The purpose of this work was to perform the standardization of the [ 18 F]FDG solution by gamma spectrometry. In addition, the reference sources calibrated by this method can be used to calibrate and test the radionuclide calibrators from the Divisao de Producao de Radiofarmacos (DIPRA) of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE). Standard sources of 152 Eu, 137 Cs and 68 Ge were used for the efficiency calibration of the spectrometer system. As a result, the efficiency curve as a function of energy was determined in wide energy range from 122 to 1408 keV. Reference sources obtained by this method can be used in [ 18 F]FDG activity measurements comparison programs for PET services localized in the Brazilian Northeast region. (author)

  6. Simplified methods for in vivo measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity in rodent brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, Michael R.; Sherman, Phillip S.; Snyder, Scott E.

    1999-01-01

    Simplified methods for in vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rodent brain were evaluated using N-[ 11 C]methylpiperidinyl propionate ([ 11 C]PMP) as an enzyme substrate. Regional mouse brain distributions were determined at 1 min (representing initial brain uptake) and 30 min (representing trapped product) after intravenous [ 11 C]PMP administration. Single time point tissue concentrations (percent injected dose/gram at 30 min), tissue concentration ratios (striatum/cerebellum and striatum/cortex ratios at 30 min), and regional tissue retention fractions (defined as percent injected dose 30 min/percent injected dose 1 min) were evaluated as measures of AChE enzymatic activity in mouse brain. Studies were carried out in control animals and after dosing with phenserine, a selective centrally active AChE inhibitor; neostigmine, a peripheral cholinesterase inhibitor; and a combination of the two drugs. In control and phenserine-treated animals, absolute tissue concentrations and regional retention fractions provide good measures of dose-dependent inhibition of brain AChE; tissue concentration ratios, however, provide erroneous conclusions. Peripheral inhibition of cholinesterases, which changes the blood pharmacokinetics of the radiotracer, diminishes the sensitivity of all measures to detect changes in central inhibition of the enzyme. We conclude that certain simple measures of AChE hydrolysis rates for [ 11 C]PMP are suitable for studies where alterations of the peripheral blood metabolism of the tracer are kept to a minimum

  7. Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian

    2010-05-01

    New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

  8. Applicability of portable spectrometer for activity measurement of contaminated water and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Narayani; Rekha, A.K.; Anilkumar, S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute activity measurement is often necessary to assess the impact of radioactivity contamination due to various incidents. Commercially available portable spectrometer cum dose rate meter is used for the identification of radionuclides involved and associated dose rates. In this paper the authors discusses the study carried out on the applicability of portable spectrometer for absolute radioactivity measurements in water and soil matrices. The portable spectrometer and the methodology developed for activity estimation has been used in many insitu applications. (author)

  9. Validity of Multisensor Array for Measuring Energy Expenditure of an Activity Bout in Early Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Flora Kramer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke survivors use more energy than healthy people during activities such as walking, which has consequences for the way exercise is prescribed for stroke survivors. There is a need for wearable device that can validly measure energy expenditure (EE of activity to inform exercise prescription early after stroke. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the SenseWear-Armband (SWA to measure EE and step-counts during activity 0.75 for walking and sit-to-stand, respectively. However, agreement levels changed with increasing EE levels (i.e., proportional bias. The SWA did not accurately measure step-counts. Conclusion. The SWA should be used with caution to measure EE of activity of mild to moderate stroke survivors <1 month after stroke.

  10. Tracer technique for measuring specific activity of 63 Ni, using 4πβ-γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.

    1979-01-01

    The specific activity of a 6 3 Ni solution has been measured by an efficiency tracer technique using a 4 π β - γ coincidence system. 6 3 Ni was chosen. Because it's a very low energy pure beta emitter. Due to chemical compatibility and beta spectral shapes, 6 0 Co has been chosen as tracer. In the determination of 6 3 Ni, the specific activity. As the efficiency tracer techniques requires a previous knowledge of tracer activity, this has been measured by a conventional 4 π β -γ coincidence method. (author)

  11. Measurement of laser welding pool geometry using a closed convex active contour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Rui; Zhang, Pu; Duan, Aiqing; Xiao, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computer vision method to measure geometric parameters of the weld pool in a deep penetration CO 2 laser welding system. Accurate measurement was achieved by removing a huge amount of interference caused by spatter, arc light and plasma to extract the true weld pool contour. This paper introduces a closed convex active contour (CCAC) model derived from the active contour model (snake model), which is a more robust high-level vision method than the traditional low-level vision methods. We made an improvement by integrating an active contour with the information that the weld pool contour is almost a closed convex curve. An effective thresholding method and an improved greedy algorithm are also given to complement the CCAC model. These influences can be effectively removed by using the CCAC model to acquire and measure the weld pool contour accurately and relatively fast. (paper)

  12. Employment effects of active labor market measures for sick-listed workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette

    We use unique and rich register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers to investigate the effect of active labor market measures on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in 98...... job centers’ use of active labor market measures. We find that ordinary education and especially subsidized job training have statistically significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, statistically significant positive effect on the transition into employment...... but no effect on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a statistically significant positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition to employment. This null effect consists of a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock...

  13. Objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity in office employees: relationships with presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Ryde, Gemma C; Gilson, Nicholas D; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J

    2013-08-01

    Employee presenteeism is the extent to which health conditions adversely affect at-work productivity. Given the links between health and activity, this study examined associations between objectively measured physical activity, sedentary behavior, and presenteeism. Participants were 108 office employees (70% women, mean age 40.7 ± 11.2 years). Activity was measured using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers to determine sedentary (≤150 counts) and light (151 to 1689 counts) activity; presenteeism with the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Fifty-seven percent of time was spent in sedentary behavior and 38% in light activity. The median Work Limitations Questionnaire Index was 4.38; 6% of participants reported at least moderate impairment. Significant associations were reported for time spent in sedentary behavior before/after work (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.08 to 6.20) and in light activity, overall (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.97) and during workday lunch hours (OR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.77), and presenteeism. Future studies should seek greater variation in employee levels of activity and presenteeism to confirm these relationships.

  14. Limites de aplicabilidade da determinação do ácido delta-aminolevulínico urinário como teste screening na avaliação da intoxicação profissional pelo chumbo Applicability limits of urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid as a screening test to evaluate professional intoxication by lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Caldeira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicabilidade da determinação da concentração do ácido delta-aminolevulínico urinário (ALA-U no controle da saúde de trabalhadores expostos ocupacionalmente ao chumbo foi realizada em dois grupos de trabalhadores. Os valores médios de Pb-S para os dois grupos foram 17,3 µg/dl (6,2-39,4 e 61,5 µg/dl (41,1-91,0, respectivamente. As concentrações de ALA-U foram determinadas por HPLC e por espectrofotometria. Uma correlação significativa (pThe relationship between concentrations of ALA-U and Pb-S for two groups of workers is reported. The first group consisted of workers from a telephone company, and the second, of workers from battery factories with average Pb-S equivalent to 17,3 µg/dl (6,2-39,4 and 61,5 µg/dl (41,1-91,0, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of ALA-U levels as a screening test for different levels of lead in blood by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and of spectrophotometry. A significant correlation was found between measured ALA and levels of blood lead (R = 0,739 - first group; R = 0,902 - second group; p < 0,001. The validity of ALA-U test to evaluate different levels of lead in blood was also studied. By using ALA levels of 3 mg/g creatinine as a threshold to detect levels of lead in blood equal to or higher than 20 µg/dl, the test results, for the workers in the first group, showed sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 90%. In both groups, the false positives as well as the false negatives were lower than 10%, which was enough to validate the test.

  15. Cross-cultural validation of the parent-patient activation measure in low income Spanish- and English-speaking parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Leifheit, Kathryn; Shah, Harita; Valenzuela-Araujo, Doris; Sloand, Elizabeth; Polk, Sarah; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-12-01

    (1) To measure healthcare activation among low-income parents by language (English/Spanish); and (2) to assess the psychometrics of the Parent-Patient Activation Measure (P-PAM) in the study population. We surveyed parents/guardians of publicly-insured children who were established patients at a pediatrics clinic for ≥6months. Surveys included the Parent-Patient Activation Measure (P-PAM), a 13-item measure adapted from the well-validated Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Of 316 surveys, 68% were completed in Spanish. Mean activation score in the English-language survey group was 79.1 (SD 16.2); mean score in the Spanish-language group was 70.7 (SD 17.9) (pSpanish α=0.93). The P-PAM had acceptable test-retest reliability, but no previously reported PAM factor structure fit the study data adequately for either language. Healthcare activation among low-income parents was greater for parents surveyed in English compared with those surveyed in Spanish. The P-PAM has acceptable reliability and validity in English and Spanish, but a different factor structure than the PAM. Activation as measured by the P-PAM may not have the same associations with or impact on health/healthcare outcomes in pediatrics compared with adults owing to possible measure differences between the P-PAM and PAM. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Development of counting system for wear measurements using Thin Layer Activation and the Wearing Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Michel de A.; Suita, Julio C.; Salgado, César M., E-mail: mchldante@gmail.com, E-mail: suita@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper focus on developing a counting system for the Wearing Apparatus, which is a device previously built to generate measurable wear on a given surface (Main Source) and to carry the fillings from it to a filter (second source). The Thin Layer Activation is a technique used to produce activity on one of the Wearing Apparatus' piece, this activity is proportional to the amount of material worn, or scrapped, from the piece's surface. Thus, by measuring the activity on those two points it is possible to measure the produced wear. The methodology used in this work is based on simulations through MCNP-X Code to nd the best specifications for shielding, solid angles, detectors dimensions and collimation for the Counting System. By simulating several scenarios, each one different from the other, and analyzing the results in the form of Counts Per Second, the ideal counting system's specifications and geometry to measure the activity in the Main Source and the Filter (second source) is chosen. After that, a set of previously activated stainless steel foils were used to reproduce the real experiments' conditions, this real experiment consists of using TLA and the Wearing Apparatus, the results demonstrate that the counting system and methodology are adequate for such experiments. (author)

  17. Measuring the Effectiveness of Sales Promotion Activities on Brand Loyalty: A Study on COCA COLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is descriptive in nature measuring the effect and relationship in between sales promotion activities and brand loyalty. The study is done on COCA COLA brand in the open market. The research problem observed here as to measure the efficiency of sales promotion and brand loyalty to get the real effectiveness on sales promotion activities. The research objectives formulated are to know the importance of component of sales promotion activities, to know the effect of advertising on sales promotion activities, to realize the importance of brand loyalty on sales promotion activities. A quantitative method was used to accomplish the purpose of the study. A survey instrument developed taking items to measure all variables with five points likert scale. A sample size of 159 (from 210 incorporated in the study having the reliability of 0.851(more than 0.7. The data analyzed using SPSS for descriptive statistics and regression to measure the effect of independent variable on dependent variable. It is recommend that COCA COLA should improve more on its different activities and produce different product and with tasty fast food or build up different production of equipment to expand its business in the whole world’s market .

  18. Sudanese Students' Perceptions of Their Class Activities: Psychometric Properties and Measurement Invariance of My Class Activities--Arabic Language Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nielsen; Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah; Gentry, Marcia; Balhmar, Tahani Abdulrahman; Hakami, Sultan Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Arabic version of "My Class Activities" (MCA), an instrument designed to measure students' perceptions of interest, challenge, choice, and enjoyment in classrooms. Scores of 3,516 Sudanese students in Grades 2 to 8 were used. Confirmatory factor analysis…

  19. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...... changes with behavioral state in a regionally specific manner, and that overall activity increases during quiet sleep, and is even more enhanced in active sleep. PVH activation could be expected to stimulate pituitary release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and affect input to autonomic regulatory...

  20. Aplicabilidade tecnológica da jabuticaba

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Lismaíra Gonçalves Caixeta

    2014-01-01

    Dentre as espécies nativas de importância no Brasil, destaca-se a jabuticabeira (Myrciaria sp), porém a jabuticaba, embora popular em todo o País, não chega a ter valor comercial elevado, uma vez que depois de colhida, a fruta tem uma vida útil em torno de três dias. A fim de evitar perdas, jabuticabas podem ser industrializadas, porém geralmente os processos de industrialização geram quantidades apreciáveis de cascas e sementes, que representam, aproximadamente, 50% da fruta. ...

  1. Activity measurement algorithm in solid radioactive waste clearance procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Skala, L.

    2014-01-01

    Most of European metrology experts prefer in radiation wastes characterization process to use scaling factor method in combination with high definition gamma spectrometry rather than radionuclide vector method in combination with gross gamma activity measurement. The second method is actually used in Slovakian nuclear facilities. The international (IAEA) and Slovak national authorities (UVZ) recognize both approach but there is a fact, that high definition gamma spectrometry radionuclides more properly. (authors)

  2. Children's television viewing and objectively measured physical activity: associations with family circumstance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Jo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contribution of family circumstance to physical activity and television viewing has not been widely investigated in pre-adolescents, and available information is inconsistent. This study examines whether television viewing and objectively measured physical activity vary by different indicators of family circumstance. Methods Data from the 2001 Children's Leisure Activity Study and the 2002/3 Health, Eating and Play Study, involving Australian children in Grades Prep (mean age 6y and 5–6 (mean age 11y, were combined. Children wore accelerometers for six consecutive 24 hour periods. Average min/day in low-intensity activity (1.0–1.9 METs and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (≥3 METs were calculated. Parents reported children's television viewing and family circumstance. Linear regression analyses were conducted separately for young girls, young boys, older girls and older boys. Results Complete data were available for 2458 children. Parental education and, to a lesser extent, employment level were inversely associated with television viewing. Children in single-parent families, those whose fathers were not in paid employment, and those without siblings tended to spend more time in low-intensity activity than their peers. Children with siblings spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity; associations were stronger for girls. Maternal education was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity for younger children. Maternal employment was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity for older children. Multivariable models did not demonstrate a cumulative explanatory effect. Conclusion Individual measures of family circumstance were differentially associated with television, low-intensity activity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity and associations were often not consistent across age-by-gender groups. Interventions may need to be tailored

  3. Quantitative measurement of membrane Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity using thallium-201: comparison with rubidium-86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Shon, Sang Kyun; Lee, Kyu Bo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Kyu [School of Medicine, Kyemyung Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity has been estimated by the degree of inhibition of cation transport by cardiac glycosides (ouabain) using Rb-86 as a substrate. The biological characteristics of Tl-201 is known to be similar to those of potassium as a transport substrate in the presence of glucose, insulin or phobol myristate acetate (PMA). The purpose of this study was to measure ouabain sensitive Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity using Tl-201 and compare with that using Rb-86. Smooth muscle cells isolated from rat aorta or human placental umbilical artery were cultured, and used to measure cellular Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity. Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity was measured as a percentage decrease in cellular uptake of Tl-201 or Rb-86 by ouabain under the presence of glucose, insulin or PMA in media. Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity measured with Tl-201, as a transport substrate, was not different from those measured with Rb-86 in rat or human smooth muscle cell preparation. Incubation with high concentration glucose resulted in about 30% decrease in enzyme activity. In contrast, insulin or PMA resulted in 50-70% or 28% increase from baseline activity, respectively. These results suggests that Tl-201 could replace Rb-86 in measurement of ouabain sensitive Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity in vitro. High level of glucose concentration decreased cellular Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity, but insulin or PMA increased it.

  4. A helium gas scintillator active target for photoreaction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Annand, John R.M.; Buchanan, Emma; Gardner, Simon; Hamilton, David J.; Livingston, Kenneth; McGeorge, John C.; MacGregor, Ian J.D.; MacRae, Roderick; Reiter, Andreas J.H.; Rosner, Guenther; Sokhan, Daria; Strandberg, Bruno [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Adler, Jan-Olof; Fissum, Kevin; Schroeder, Bent [University of Lund, Department of Physics, Lund (Sweden); Akkurt, Iskender [Sueleyman Demirel University, Fen-Edebiyat Faculty, Isparta (Turkey); Brudvik, Jason; Hansen, Kurt; Isaksson, Lennart; Lundin, Magnus [MAX IV Laboratory, PO Box 118, Lund (Sweden); Middleton, Duncan G. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Centre for Astro and Particle Physics, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Sjoegren, Johan [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); MAX IV Laboratory, PO Box 118, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-10-15

    A multi-cell He gas scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 g/cm{sup 3} at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of N{sub 2} to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has a timing resolution of around 1 ns and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in {sup 4}He, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response. (orig.)

  5. Determination of calibration factors for field measurements of liquid and gaseous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, M.T.; Ravi, T.; Raghunath, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    While working out the procedures for calibration and activity estimation of 41 Ar gaseous effluent earlier, it was felt necessary to obtain similar factors for liquid and gas activity measurements for other energies also. The paper describes the work done towards this and the conversion factors and minimum detectable levels established. (author). 3 tabs., 1 ref

  6. International Comparability of 131I, 201TI and 99mTc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa, P; Serra, R; Hernandez, A.T.; Varela, C

    2006-01-01

    This paper refers about the International Comparability of 131 I, 201 TI and 99m Tc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine. Traceability of activity measurements in nuclear medicine based in two aspects: Comparability of clinic results and the safe and effective use of drugs. A bilateral international comparison for activity measurements CIEMAT CENTIS DMR was done. 2000-2004 National Program for 99m Tc 201 TI, 131 I vial and syringe measurements in radionuclide calibrators including a simulated test for activity administration. It is employed the Cause Effect Diagram for the activity measurement result of a source in the calibrator and the statistical methods for comparing several characteristics of the obtained data. The result of the comparisons demonstrates that the measurement quality has increased from one year to another

  7. Quick evaluation of the neutron dose following a criticality accident by measurement of sodium 24 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabardel, R.; Ricourt, A.; Parmentier, N.

    1984-07-01

    In order to quickly sort out the irradiated individuals following a criticality accident, the neutron dose can be evaluated quickly by measuring the sodium-24 activity induced in the human body. The report supplies the information necessary for this evaluation from the response of various detectors of current use in radiation protection. The first part describes the method of evaluation of sodium-24 activity (A) given by the reading (M) of each instrument. The second part describes the method of kerma evaluation from the measured sodium-24 activity. The third part is an experimental application of the method of kerma evaluation from the sodium-24 activity measured in a phantom irradiated in the SILENE reactor flux. The results given by radiation protection instruments are in good agreement with the calculated values for a front exposure and demonstrate the usefulness of measuring the induced sodium-24 activity by radiation protection instruments of current use [fr

  8. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials by Bremsstrahlung measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1986-12-01

    The determination of phosphorus in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation via the reaction 31 P (n,γ) 32 P is described. The Bremsstrahlung produced by 32 P is measured in a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The samples are measured within the polyethylene irradiation container with no changes between irradiation and measurement. The sources of error were studied and the proposed method was applied to the determination of phosphorus in ten internationally certified materials. (author)

  10. Incorporation monitoring by measurements of activity concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukelmann, G.; Dalheimer, A.; Dilger, H.; Henrichs, K.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation monitoring of workers handling actinides is in many cases not possible by individual methods: The sensitivity of bioassay of methods (in vivo, in vitro) is not sufficient to detect amounts as required by the low annual limits of intake. Similar difficulties may occur with the use of radionuclides with very short physical half-lives. In these cases, the measuring of activity concentrations in the air is the only way to monitor the workers and to meet legal requirements. The essential problem connected with this approach is to make sure, that the air sample analyzed represents the average air inhaled actually. Correspondingly, the new system regulating the incorporation monitoring in Germany requires additional measures to ensure this representatively. (author)

  11. Cross-sectional associations of objectively measured physical activity with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo; Peijs, Lone; Bugge, Anna

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adolescents. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 415 adolescents who participated in the 2015 follow-up of the Childhood Health Activity and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (the CHAMPS-study DK). Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry monitors. Serum BDNF levels were analyzed using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anthropometrics and pubertal status were measured using standardized procedures. With adjustment for age, pubertal status and body mass index, mean physical activity (counts per minute) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0.013). Similarly, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with serum BDNF in boys (P=0.035). In girls, mean physical activity and MVPA were not associated with serum BDNF. Without adjustment for wear time, sedentary time was not associated with serum BDNF in either sex. These findings indicate that higher physical activity is associated with lower serum BDNF in boys, but not in girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simplified methods for in vivo measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity in rodent brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, Michael R. E-mail: mkilbour@umich.edu; Sherman, Phillip S.; Snyder, Scott E

    1999-07-01

    Simplified methods for in vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rodent brain were evaluated using N-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidinyl propionate ([{sup 11}C]PMP) as an enzyme substrate. Regional mouse brain distributions were determined at 1 min (representing initial brain uptake) and 30 min (representing trapped product) after intravenous [{sup 11}C]PMP administration. Single time point tissue concentrations (percent injected dose/gram at 30 min), tissue concentration ratios (striatum/cerebellum and striatum/cortex ratios at 30 min), and regional tissue retention fractions (defined as percent injected dose 30 min/percent injected dose 1 min) were evaluated as measures of AChE enzymatic activity in mouse brain. Studies were carried out in control animals and after dosing with phenserine, a selective centrally active AChE inhibitor; neostigmine, a peripheral cholinesterase inhibitor; and a combination of the two drugs. In control and phenserine-treated animals, absolute tissue concentrations and regional retention fractions provide good measures of dose-dependent inhibition of brain AChE; tissue concentration ratios, however, provide erroneous conclusions. Peripheral inhibition of cholinesterases, which changes the blood pharmacokinetics of the radiotracer, diminishes the sensitivity of all measures to detect changes in central inhibition of the enzyme. We conclude that certain simple measures of AChE hydrolysis rates for [{sup 11}C]PMP are suitable for studies where alterations of the peripheral blood metabolism of the tracer are kept to a minimum.

  13. Measuring the Effectiveness of Sales Promotion Activities on Brand Loyalty: A Study on COCA COLA

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Shankar Singh; Osman Sahin

    2017-01-01

    The study is descriptive in nature measuring the effect and relationship in between sales promotion activities and brand loyalty. The study is done on COCA COLA brand in the open market. The research problem observed here as to measure the efficiency of sales promotion and brand loyalty to get the real effectiveness on sales promotion activities. The research objectives formulated are to know the importance of component of sales promotion activities, to know the effect of advertising on sales...

  14. Approximate determination of efficiency for activity measurements of cylindrical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbig, W [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Bothe, M [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Some calibration samples are necessary with the same geometrical parameters but of different materials, containing known activities A homogeniously distributed. Their densities are measured, their mass absorption coefficients may be unknown. These calibration samples are positioned in the counting geometry, for instance directly on the detector. The efficiency function {epsilon}(E) for each sample is gained by measuring the gamma spectra and evaluating all usable gamma energy peaks. From these {epsilon}(E) the common valid {epsilon}{sub geom}(E) will be deduced. For this purpose the functions {epsilon}{sub mu}(E) for these samples have to be established. (orig.)

  15. Can glycogen be measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, J.F.; Smith, A.H.; King, R.F.G.H.; Smith, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The object of this note is to examine the feasibility of measuring liver glycogen using in vivo neutron activation analysis. The authors present equations which allow the mass of glycogen to be expressed in terms of the masses of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen. Using the most precise, published measurements of these elements, the standard deviation in the estimate of liver glycogen was 34 g. The magnitude of this error precluded observing changes in liver glycogen which are normally in the range 16 g to 72 g. However, this technique might be useful in detecting transient high concentrations of liver glycogen.(UK)

  16. Detection of actinides with an electron accelerator by active photoneutron interrogation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, A.; Carrel, F.; Gmar, M.; Laine, F.; Normand, S.; Lyoussi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The solution for management of a nuclear waste package is chosen according to its radiological characteristics. One of the most important of these features is the α-activity which is due to actinides ( 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, etc.) If non-destructive passive methods are not sufficient to quantify the latter, non-destructive active methods based on the fission process represent a solution of interest. First, these methods consist in irradiating a package in order to induce fission reactions on the actinides, and then, to detect the prompt and delayed particles which are emitted following these reactions. Our aim is to conduct neutron interrogation measurements on nuclear waste packages using an electron accelerator as a photoneutron generator. One of the main interests of this approach is that the intensity of the neutron flux can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than the one delivered by a deuterium-tritium generator. With the objective of improving nuclear waste characterization, the development of this method could enable the integration of three complementary techniques on a single measurement cell (active neutron interrogation, active photon interrogation, and high-energy imaging). In this paper, simulation and experimental results are presented. A simulation study using MCNPX has been conducted in order to determine the characteristics of the photoneutron flux emitted by the electron accelerator of the SAPHIR facility owned by CEA LIST. Energy spectra, angular distribution and intensity of the photoneutron flux have been obtained. A photoneutron interrogation measurement cell based on this accelerator has been built and assessed by carrying out measurements on uranium samples. Delayed gamma-ray spectra have been acquired and enabled to confirm the experimental feasibility of our method. (authors)

  17. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Robert R., E-mail: robert.greenberg@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8395 (United States); Bode, Peter, E-mail: p.bode@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A., E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere - Metrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance - Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  18. Are self-report measures able to define individuals as physically active or inactive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steene-Johannessen, J.; Anderssen, S.A.; Ploeg, H.P. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Donnelly, A.E.; Brage, S.; Ekelund, U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Methods: Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in

  19. Examining the validity of the ActivPAL monitor in measuring posture and ambulatory movement in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminian Saeideh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreasing sedentary activities that involve prolonged sitting may be an important strategy to reduce obesity and other physical and psychosocial health problems in children. The first step to understanding the effect of sedentary activities on children’s health is to objectively assess these activities with a valid measurement tool. Purpose To examine the validity of the ActivPAL monitor in measuring sitting/lying, standing, and walking time, transition counts and step counts in children in a laboratory setting. Methods Twenty five healthy elementary school children (age 9.9 ± 0.3 years; BMI 18.2 ± 1.9; mean ± SD were randomly recruited across the Auckland region, New Zealand. Children were fitted with ActivPAL monitors and observed during simulated free-living activities involving sitting/lying, standing and walking, followed by treadmill and over-ground activities at various speeds (slow, normal, fast against video observation (criterion measure. The ActivPAL sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transition counts and steps were also compared with video data. The accuracy of step counts measured by the ActivPAL was also compared against the New Lifestyles NL-2000 and the Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 pedometers. Results We observed a perfect correlation between the ActivPAL monitor in time spent sitting/lying, standing, and walking in simulated free-living activities with direct observation. Correlations between the ActivPAL and video observation in total numbers of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitions were high (r = 0.99 ± 0.01. Unlike pedometers, the ActivPAL did not misclassify fidgeting as steps taken. Strong correlations (r = 0.88-1.00 between ActivPAL step counts and video observation in both treadmill and over-ground slow and normal walking were also observed. During treadmill and over-ground fast walking and running, the correlations were low (r = 0.21-0.46. Conclusion The ActivPAL monitor is

  20. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, Jan; Koleska, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, NOV (2015), s. 56-59 ISSN 0969-806X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010237; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : fluorescent lamp * mercury measurement * neutron activation analysis * research reactor Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2015

  1. Understanding the Nature of Measurement Error When Estimating Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity via Physical Activity Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David R; McGrath, Ryan; Vella, Chantal A; Kramer, Matthew; Baer, David J; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2018-03-26

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) is used to estimate activity energy expenditure (AEE) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Bias and variance in estimates of AEE and MVPA from the PAQ have not been described, nor the impact of measurement error when utilizing the PAQ to predict biomarkers and categorize individuals. The PAQ was administered to 385 adults to estimate AEE (AEE:PAQ) and MVPA (MVPA:PAQ), while simultaneously measuring AEE with doubly labeled water (DLW; AEE:DLW) and MVPA with an accelerometer (MVPA:A). Although AEE:PAQ [3.4 (2.2) MJ·d -1 ] was not significantly different from AEE:DLW [3.6 (1.6) MJ·d -1 ; P > .14], MVPA:PAQ [36.2 (24.4) min·d -1 ] was significantly higher than MVPA:A [8.0 (10.4) min·d -1 ; P PAQ regressed on AEE:DLW and MVPA:PAQ regressed on MVPA:A yielded not only significant positive relationships but also large residual variances. The relationships between AEE and MVPA, and 10 of the 12 biomarkers were underestimated by the PAQ. When compared with accelerometers, the PAQ overestimated the number of participants who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Group-level bias in AEE:PAQ was small, but large for MVPA:PAQ. Poor within-participant estimates of AEE:PAQ and MVPA:PAQ lead to attenuated relationships with biomarkers and misclassifications of participants who met or who did not meet the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

  2. Validation of a physical activity questionnaire to measure the effect of mechanical strain on bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Han C G; Bakker, I; Twisk, J W R; van Mechelen, W

    2002-05-01

    Most of the questionnaires available to estimate the daily physical activity levels of humans are based on measuring the intensity of these activities as multiples of resting metabolic rate (METs). Metabolic intensity of physical activities is the most important component for evaluating effects on cardiopulmonary fitness. However, animal studies have indicated that for effects on bone mass the intensity in terms of energy expenditure (metabolic component) of physical activities is less important than the intensity of mechanical strain in terms of the forces by the skeletal muscles and/or the ground reaction forces. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) used in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS) was applied to investigate the long-term effects of habitual physical activity patterns during youth on health and fitness in later adulthood. The PAQ estimates both the metabolic components of physical activities (METPA) and the mechanical components of physical activities (MECHPA). Longitudinal measurements of METPA and MECHPA were made in a young population of males and females ranging in age from 13 to 32 years. This enabled evaluation of the differential effects of physical activities during adolescence (13-16 years), young adulthood (21-28 years), and the total period of 15 years (age 13-28 years) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in males (n = 139) and females (n = 163) at a mean age of 32 years. The PAQ used in the AGAHLS during adolescence (13-16 years) and young adulthood (21-28 years) has the ability to measure the physical activity patterns of both genders, which are important for the development of bone mass at the adult age. MECHPA is more important than METPA. The highest coefficient of 0.33 (p PAQ was established by comparing PAQ scores during four annual measurements in 200 boys and girls with two other objective measures of physical activity: movement

  3. DNA-Based Sensor for Real-Time Measurement of the Enzymatic Activity of Human Topoisomerase I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lærke Bay; Jepsen, Morten Leth; Kristoffersen, Emil Laust

    2013-01-01

    Sensors capable of quantitative real-time measurements may present the easiest and most accurate way to study enzyme activities. Here we present a novel DNA-based sensor for specific and quantitative real-time measurement of the enzymatic activity of the essential human enzyme, topoisomerase I....... The basic design of the sensor relies on two DNA strands that hybridize to form a hairpin structure with a fluorophore-quencher pair. The quencher moiety is released from the sensor upon reaction with human topoisomerase I thus enabling real-time optical measurement of enzymatic activity. The sensor....... The cytotoxic effect of camptothecins correlates directly with the intracellular topoisomerase I activity. We therefore envision that the presented sensor may find use for the prediction of cellular drug response. Moreover, inhibition of topoisomerase I by camptothecin is readily detectable using the presented...

  4. The use of medicinal plants as a therapeutical resource: from the influences of the professional formation to the ethical and legal implications of its applicability as an extension of nursing care practice El uso de plantas medicinales como recurso terapéutico: de las influencias de la formación profesional a las implicaciones éticas y legales de su aplicabilidad como extensión de la práctica de cuidar de la enfermera O uso de plantas medicinais como recurso terapêutico: das influências da formação profissional às implicações éticas e legais de sua aplicabilidade como extensão da prática de cuidar realizada pela enfermeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Aparecida Titonelli Alvim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research aimed to analyze the biomedical influence in the context of nurses' formation and professional activities; to reflect about ethical and legal implications of using medicinal plants in nursing care; to argue about the need to configure and delimit this resource as a legitimate instrument for expanding nursing care practice. We used the creative-sensible method and developed dynamics with a group of nurses to produce data, analyzed in the categories "the biomedical influence in the academic-professional orientation of nursing" and "ethical and legal implications in the applicability of medicinal plants in care". Results indicated the need to advance in studies on the nursing diagnosis that implies the prescription of medicinal plants, so that the client is well taken care of by nurses, thus legitimizing it as an extension of their professional practice. Not as an exclusive territory, but as shared and interdisciplinary health care action.Esta investigación cualitativa buscó analizar la influencia biomédica en el contexto de formación y actuación profesional de los enfermeros; reflejar sobre las implicaciones éticas y legales del uso de plantas medicinales en la enfermería; discutir la necesidad de configuración y delimitación de este recurso como instrumento legítimo de extensión de la práctica de enfermería. Fue utilizado el método creativo-sensible y el desarrollo de dinámicas junto con un grupo de enfermeras para producir los datos de la investigación, analizados en las categorías "la influencia biomédica en la orientación académico-profesional de enfermería" y "las implicaciones éticas y legales en la aplicabilidad de plantas medicinales en el cuidado". Los resultados señalaran la necesidad de avanzar en los estudios sobre la diagnosis de enfermería que implica en prescribir plantas medicinales para que el cliente sea bien cuidado por la enfermera y, así, se pueda legitimarla como extensi

  5. The continuous monitoring of the artificial beta aerosol activity by measuring the alpha and beta activity in aerosol simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hironobu; Oonishi, Masaki; Matsuura, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    We have constructed the system to monitor the artificial beta aerosol activity around the nuclear power plants continuously in real time. The smaller releases of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power plants can be lost in the fluctuations of the natural background of the beta aerosol activity, when only the beta activity of the aerosol is measured. This method to discriminate the artificial and the natural beta activity of the aerosol is based on the fact that the ratio of the natural alpha and beta activities of the aerosol is almost constant. The detection limit of this system is below 3 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  6. The measurement of activity-weighted size distributions of radon progeny: methods and laboratory intercomparison studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Strydom, R.; Ramamurthi, M.; Knutson, E.O.; Tu, K.W.; Scofield, P.; Holub, R.F.; Cheng, Y.S.; Su, Y.F.; Winklmayr, W.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 5 y, there have been significant improvements in measurement of activity-weighted size distributions of airborne radon decay products. The modification of screen diffusion batteries to incorporate multiple screens of differing mesh number, called graded screen arrays, have permitted improved size resolution below 10 nm such that the size distributions can now be determined down to molecular sized activities (0.5 nm). In order to ascertain the utility and reliability of such systems, several intercomparison tests have been performed in a 2.4 m3 radon chamber in which particles of varying size have been produced by introducing SO2 and H2O along with the radon to the chamber. In April 1988, intercomparison studies were performed between direct measurements of the activity-weighted size distributions as measured by graded screen arrays and an indirect measurement of the distribution obtained by measuring the number size distribution with a differential mobility analyzer and multiplying by the theoretical attachment rate. Good agreement was obtained in these measurements. A second set of intercomparison studies among a number of groups with graded screen array systems was made in April 1989 with the objective of resolving spectral structure below 10 nm. Again, generally good agreement among the various groups was obtained although some differences were noted. It is thus concluded that such systems can be constructed and can be useful in making routine measurements of activity-weighted size distributions with reasonable confidence in the results obtained

  7. One method of measure low activity level of α, β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shimin

    2003-01-01

    In this paper it is described that several method of measure low activity level of Alpha and Beta, and an circuit diagram for signal of Alpha and Beta to differentiate with method of wave shape identification. With the method, the signal of Beta did not interfere any signal to the count-way of Alpha. For adopted the technology the model JA-3502 of eight detectors of low background Alpha and Beta measuring instrument only have 2.65 x 10 -4 cpm/cm 2 background count rate at count-way of Alpha. Opposite the model FJ-2600 middle area low background Alpha and Beta measuring instrument have 1.27 x 10 -3 cpm/cm 2 background count rate at count-way of Alpha. The latter is 5 times of other

  8. Feasibility studies of high-pressure 4π proportional counter for absolute activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Y.; Kawada, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A high-pressure proportional counter system is constructed. The high pressure 4πβ counter system constructed is made of aluminum and is divided into two 2π counters. The gas pressure is controlled with a pressure regulator and very fine leak valves to keep the balance of a stable pressure and constant flow rate. Investigation of characteristics of th counter shows that there is an almost linear relation between voltage and pressure. The linearlity of gas gain of this counter to the electron energies is measured with different gas pressures. Quite good linear gas multiplication is obtained at 0.9 MPa. Another investigation is made of application of to activity measurement of 109 Cd. When the gas pressure is over 0.5 MPa, the proportion of collected conversion electrons to absolute activity comes to a constant value of 96 %. This is quite good agreement with the decay data of 96.4 % conversion electron emission rate. The study indicated many excellent features for activity measurement. Especially the efficiency variation technique is good for automatic data acquisition with a programmable high voltage supplier. Moreover, since it is possible to obtain absolute activity with only one sample, it will be quite useful for limited samples experiments. (N.K.)

  9. Cross-sectional associations of active transport, employment status and objectively measured physical activity: analyses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Hu, Liang; Hipp, J Aaron; Imm, Kellie R; Schutte, Rudolph; Stubbs, Brendon; Colditz, Graham A; Smith, Lee

    2018-05-05

    To investigate associations between active transport, employment status and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a representative sample of US adults. Cross-sectional analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5180 adults (50.2 years old, 49.0% men) were classified by levels of active transportation and employment status. Outcome measure was weekly time spent in MVPA as recorded by the Actigraph accelerometer. Associations between active transport, employment status and objectively measured MVPA were examined using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, race and ethnicity, education level, marital status, smoking status, working hour duration (among the employed only) and self-reported leisure time physical activity. Patterns of active transport were similar between the employed (n=2897) and unemployed (n=2283), such that 76.0% employed and 77.5% unemployed engaged in no active transport. For employed adults, those engaging in high levels of active transport (≥90 min/week) had higher amount of MVPA than those who did not engage in active transport. This translated to 40.8 (95% CI 15.7 to 65.9) additional minutes MVPA per week in men and 57.9 (95% CI 32.1 to 83.7) additional minutes MVPA per week in women. Among the unemployed adults, higher levels of active transport were associated with more MVPA among men (44.8 min/week MVPA, 95% CI 9.2 to 80.5) only. Findings from the present study support interventions to promote active transport to increase population level physical activity. Additional strategies are likely required to promote physical activity among unemployed women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. No associations between objectively measured physical activity and spinal pain in 11-15-year-old Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Årtun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Boyle, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    ) in a school-based prospective cohort study. Physical activity was measured using the Actigraph GT3X Triaxial Activity Monitor, which measures the intensity of physical activity over time. This was worn for 1 week and spinal pain was assessed via e-survey that participants completed during school time......BACKGROUND: Physical activity is thought to play a role in spinal pain (neck pain, mid back pain, low back pain) in children and adolescents, either as a risk or protective factor, but current evidence is conflicting. The overall aim of this study was to determine the cross......-sectional and longitudinal associations between different levels of objectively measured physical activity, i.e. sedentary; moderate and vigorous; vigorous physical activity, and spinal pain in 11-15-year-old Danes. METHODS: Data were collected at baseline (2010) (n = 906) and at follow-up 2 years later (n = 625...

  12. Measurements of radon activity concentrations in air at Niska spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Vuckovic, B.; Ninkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radon activity concentrations in air were measured in the recreational-tourist center of Niska Banja. Alpha Guard PQ 2000/ MC50 instrumentation (Genitron instruments, Frankfurt) was used. The observed indoor radon concentrations in the air of the Radon Hotel pool lay within the range of 0.980-1.908 kBq/m 3 and were directly dependent on the exhalation of radon from thermomineral waters. Radon concentrations were also measured outdoors, at locations for capping thermomineral water, as well as at locations for draining used water from the Radon Hotel pool. Outdoor radon concentrations as high as over 500 Bq/m 3 were observed. Gamma dose rates were measured in parallel and found to lie within the range of 72-420 nSv/h. The gamma doses correlated well with the observed radon levels. The largest gamma dose rates in air were measured in the pool of Radon Hotel and at the site where this thermomineral water is being capped

  13. The in vivo measurement of radiocaesium activity in lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, J.C.; Andrews, D.; Dunderdale, J.; Shaw, P.; Lally, A.

    1988-01-01

    Contamination of certain areas of the UK with radiocaesium from the Chernobyl accident led to restrictions being placed on the movement of lambs in these areas. To determine whether part of an area met the criteria for derestriction required the laboratory monitoring of meat from lambs sacrificed for the purpose. This was a slow process because there was no means of knowing which parts of an area had the lowest activity levels in lambs, that is where the chances of removing restrictions were the greatest. A rapid, simple and cheap method for the in vivo monitoring of caesium activity in lambs was developed. Correlation between the results from this method and in-laboratory measurements was reasonable. The method was used successfully to monitor lambs in Cumbria and north Wales during July and August 1986. (author)

  14. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  15. An instrumentation for control and measurement of activated mineral samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaarup, P.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of an instrumentation for control of a pneumatic tube system used to transport mineral samples for activation in a reactor and from there to a detector arrangement. A possible content of uranium in the samples can be seen from the radiation measured. The instrumentation includes a PDP-11 computer and a CAMAC crate

  16. In vivo measurement of circulating leucocyte activation in patients following cardiopulmonary bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Hazel A. E-mail: hazel.jones@imperial.ac.uk; Choudhury, Marina; Harris, David N.F

    2004-10-01

    We have developed a simple technique to measure in vivo activation of circulating leucocytes and assessed it in 6 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Arterial, mixed venous, and jugular bulb blood samples were taken following i.v. [{sup 18}F]FDG, before and after CPB. [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in leucocytes was measured by phosphor imaging of spun blood-filled capillary tubes. Leucocyte radioactivity was quantified ([(leucocytes-plasma)/plasma radioactivity] and normalised to leucocyte counts. [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake (mean{+-}SEM)) before CPB was undetectable, being -0.014{+-}0.007, -0.011{+-}0.003, -0.012{+-}0.006, -0.010{+-}0.005, whereas increased uptake was demonstrated following CPB, 0.006{+-}0.006, 0.009{+-}0.005, 0.021{+-}0.005, 0.034{+-}0.006, at 20, 40, 60, and 80 min, respectively. There was no significant difference in activation between sampling sites before or after CPB. This method gives a sensitive index of activation of circulating leucocytes in whole blood, enabling investigation of activation of circulating white cells without the influence of sample handling or the requirement for time-consuming cell separation procedures.

  17. Preparation of gaseous CRMs from the primary system for "2"2"2Rn activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.J.; Kim, B.C.; Lee, K.B.; Lee, J.M.; Park, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    For disseminating the gaseous radon standard traceable to the KRISS primary system based on the defined solid angle counting method, two kinds of radon CRM (a glass ampule type and a stainless steel cylinder type) were developed. The activity of the CRM was certified by subtracting a residual activity from the measured activity by the primary system. After certification, the ampule CRM was used to calibrate a radon-monitoring instrument and the cylinder CRM to calibrate an HPGe system. We also improved the measurement procedure of the radon primary system. In a typical radon energy spectrum, the radon peak overlaps with the polonium peak. For more reliable and accurate measurement of radon activity, a fitting method was adopted for the evaluation of radon area in the alpha energy spectrum. The result of radon activity evaluated by using the fitting method is in good agreement with that by the previous integration method. - Highlights: • Preparation of gaseous Rn-222 CRMs from primary measurement system. • Convolution of 3 left-handed exponentials with a Gaussian function to count radon. • Calibration of continuous radon monitor using glass ampoule CRM. • Calibration of HPGe system as secondary standard for stainless steel cylinder CRM.

  18. Immunocapture and microplate-based activity and quantity measurement of pyruvate dehydrogenase in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Pervez, Hira; Andersen, Lars W; Uber, Amy; Montissol, Sophia; Patel, Parth; Donnino, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity is altered in many human disorders. Current methods require tissue samples and yield inconsistent results. We describe a modified method for measuring PDH activity from isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). RESULTS/METHODOLOGY: We found that PDH activity and quantity can be successfully measured in human PBMCs. Freeze-thaw cycles cannot efficiently disrupt the mitochondrial membrane. Processing time of up to 20 h does not affect PDH activity with proteinase inhibitor addition and a detergent concentration of 3.3% showed maximum yield. Sample protein concentration is correlated to PDH activity and quantity in human PBMCs from healthy subjects. Measuring PDH activity from PBMCs is a novel, easy and less invasive way to further understand the role of PDH in human disease.

  19. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Colleen M; Burghardt, Paul R; Levine, James A

    2012-03-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems-including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors-that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: Relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems—including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors—that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. PMID:22230703

  1. An easy-to-perform photometric assay for methyltransferase activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäberle, Till F; Siba, Christian; Höver, Thomas; König, Gabriele M

    2013-01-01

    Methyltransferases (MTs) catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to a suitable substrate. Such methylations are important modifications in secondary metabolisms, especially on natural products produced by polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases, many of which are of special interest due to their prominent pharmacological activities (e.g., lovastatin, cyclosporin). To gain basic biochemical knowledge on the methylation process, it is of immense relevance to simplify methods concerning experimental problems caused by a large variety in substrates. Here, we present a photometric method to analyze MT activity by measuring SAM consumption in a coupled enzyme assay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Objectively measured physical activity in Finnish employees: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutikainen, Sara; Helander, Elina; Pietilä, Julia; Korhonen, Ilkka; Kujala, Urho M

    2014-12-10

    To objectively measure the amount of intensity-specific physical activity by gender and age with respect to body mass index (BMI) during workdays and days off among Finnish employees. A cross-sectional study. Primary care occupational healthcare units. A sample of 9554 Finnish employees (4221 men and 5333 women; age range 18-65 years; BMI range 18.5-40 kg/m(2)) who participated in health assessments related to occupational health promotion. The amount of moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity (≥3 and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) was assessed by estimating the minute-to-minute oxygen consumption from the recorded beat-to-beat R-R interval data. The estimation method used heart rate, respiration rate and on/off response information from R-R interval data calibrated by age, gender, height, weight and self-reported physical activity class. The proportion of participants fulfilling the aerobic physical activity recommendation of ≥150 min/week was calculated on the basis of ≥10 min bouts, by multiplying the VPA minutes by 2. Both MVPA and VPA were higher among men and during days off, and decreased with increasing age and BMI (pphysical activity recommendation was highest for normal weight men (65%; 95% CI 62% to 67%) and lowest for obese women (10%; 95% CI 8% to 12%). Objectively measured physical activity is higher among men and during days off, and decreases with increasing age and BMI. The amount of VPA is very low among obese, overweight and older women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Measuring and Explaining Cognitive Load During Design Activities: A fine-grained approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Barbara; Neurauter, Manuel; Burattin, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in neuro–physiological measurements resulted in reliable and objective measures of Cognitive Load (CL), e.g., using pupillary responses. However, continuous measurement of CL in software design activities, e.g., conceptual modeling, has received little attention. In this paper, we...... of analysis (e.g., type of subtasks, evolution of design artifact’s quality, and manner of technology use). We expect implications for the future development of intelligent software systems, which are aware WHEN a particular designer experiences challenges, but also WHY challenges occur....

  4. Measurements of fast ion spatial dynamics during magnetic activity in the RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J. A.; Anderson, J. K.; Bonofiglo, P.; Kim, J.; McConnell, R.; Magee, R. M.

    2017-10-01

    Fast ions in the RFP are only weakly affected by a stochastic magnetic field and behave nearly classically in concentration too low to excite Alfvenic activity. At high fast ion concentration sourced by H-NBI in 300kA RFP discharges, a substantial drop in core-localized high pitch fast ions is observed during bursts of coupled EPM and IAE (magnetic island-induced Alfven eigenmode) activity (100-200kHz) through neutral particle analysis. Sourcing instead fast deuterium with NBI, the DD fusion products can measure the dynamics of the fast ion density profile. Both a collimated neutron detector and a new 3MeV fusion proton detector loaned by TriAlpha Energy measure the fast ion density profile with 5cm spatial resolution and 100 μs temporal resolution. In D-NBI, the bursting EPM is excited at slightly lower frequency and the IAE activity is nearly absent, likely due to an isotope effect and loss of wave-particle interaction. In these cases, neutral particle analysis shows little change in the core-localized high pitch fast ion content, and the fusion product profile indicates little change in the fast ion density profile, leaving unexplained the mechanism removing EPM drive. We measure a substantial redistribution of the fast ion profile due to strong lower-frequency ( 30kHz) MHD activity that accompanies the current profile relaxation in the RFP. Profile flattening is strongest in low bulk density discharges, which often occur with a total increase in global neutron flux from acceleration of the beam ions. Work supported by US DoE.

  5. Electronic monitoring of psychomotor activity as a supplementary objective measure of depression severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2015-01-01

    and bipolar disorder (unadjusted model: B = 0.46, 95% CI 0.037-0.89, P = 0.034). In contrast, correlations between activity energy expenditure (kJ/kg/day), cardio-respiratory fitness (mlO2/min/kg) and HDRS-17 were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that measuring sleeping heart rate in non...... control persons aged 18-60 years were included. Psychomotor activity was measured using a combined heart rate and movement sensor device (Actiheart) for 3 consecutive days, 24 h a day. RESULTS: We found that sleeping heart rate (beats/min) correlated with HDRS-17 in both patients with unipolar disorder...

  6. Promoting Active Urban Aging: A Measurement Approach to Neighborhood Walkability for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Weiss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of the built environment on physical activity behavior among older adults is an important public health goal, but evaluating these relationships remains complicated due to the difficulty of measuring specific attributes of the environment. As a result, there is conflicting evidence regarding the association between perceived and objectively measured walkability and physical activity among urban-dwelling older adults. This suggests that both actual environmental features and perceptions of these attributes influence walking behavior. The purpose of this pilot project is to create an Objective Walkability Index (OWI by census block using a Geographic Information System (GIS and supplement the results with resident perceptions thus more accurately characterizing the context of walkability. Computerized Neighborhood Environment Tracking (ComNET was used to systematically assess environmental risks impacting activity patterns of older adults in two New York City neighborhoods. In addition, the Senior Center Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment (SCENE survey was administered to older adults attending two senior centers located within the target neighborhoods. The results indicate that there is substantial variation in OWI score both between and within the neighborhoods suggesting that residence in some communities may increase the risk of inactivity among older adults. Also, low walkability census blocks were clustered within each neighborhood providing an opportunity for targeted investigation into localized threats to walkability. A lack of consensus regarding the association between the built environment and physical activity among older adults is a consequence of the problems inherent in measuring these determinants. Further empirical evidence evaluating the complex relationships between the built environment and physical activity is an essential step towards creating active communities.

  7. Promoting Active Urban Aging: A Measurement Approach to Neighborhood Walkability for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Rachael L; Maantay, Juliana A; Fahs, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the role of the built environment on physical activity behavior among older adults is an important public health goal, but evaluating these relationships remains complicated due to the difficulty of measuring specific attributes of the environment. As a result, there is conflicting evidence regarding the association between perceived and objectively measured walkability and physical activity among urban-dwelling older adults. This suggests that both actual environmental features and perceptions of these attributes influence walking behavior. The purpose of this pilot project is to create an Objective Walkability Index (OWI) by census block using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and supplement the results with resident perceptions thus more accurately characterizing the context of walkability. Computerized Neighborhood Environment Tracking (ComNET) was used to systematically assess environmental risks impacting activity patterns of older adults in two New York City neighborhoods. In addition, the Senior Center Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment (SCENE) survey was administered to older adults attending two senior centers located within the target neighborhoods. The results indicate that there is substantial variation in OWI score both between and within the neighborhoods suggesting that residence in some communities may increase the risk of inactivity among older adults. Also, low walkability census blocks were clustered within each neighborhood providing an opportunity for targeted investigation into localized threats to walkability. A lack of consensus regarding the association between the built environment and physical activity among older adults is a consequence of the problems inherent in measuring these determinants. Further empirical evidence evaluating the complex relationships between the built environment and physical activity is an essential step towards creating active communities.

  8. Measurement of rain intensity by means of active-passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkova, Anna; Khlopov, Grygoriy

    2014-05-01

    Measurement of rain intensity is of great interest for municipal services and agriculture, particularly because of increasing number of floods and landslides. At that monitoring of amount of liquid precipitation allows to schedule work of hydrological services to inform the relevant public authorities about violent weather in time. That is why development of remote sensing methods for monitoring of rains is quite important task. The inverse problem solution of rain remote sensing is based on the measurements of scattering or radiation characteristics of rain drops. However liquid precipitation has a difficult structure which depends on many parameters. So using only scattering or radiation characteristics obtained by active and passive sensing at a single frequency does not allow to solve the inverse problem. Therefore double frequency sensing is widely used now for precipitation monitoring. Measurement of reflected power at two frequencies allows to find two parameters of drop size distribution of rain drops. However three-parameter distributions (for example gamma distribution) are the most prevalent now as a rain model, so in this case solution of the inverse problem requires the measurement of at least three uncorrelated variables. That is why a priori statistical meteorological data obtained by contact methods are used additionally to the double frequency sensing to solve the inverse problem. In particular, authors proposed and studied the combined method of double frequency sensing of rains based on dependence of the parameters of gamma distribution on rain intensity. The numerical simulation and experimental study shown that the proposed method allows to retrieve the profile of microstructure and integral parameters of rain with accuracy less than 15%. However, the effectiveness of the proposed method essentially depends on the reliability of the used statistical data which are tend to have a strong seasonal and regional variability led to significant

  9. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a 252 Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.)

  10. Alpha emitters activity measurement using the defined solid angle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchis, P.

    1983-01-01

    The defined solid angle counting method can reach a very high accuracy, specially for heavy ions as alpha particles emitted by a radioactive source. The activity measurement of such sources with a relative uncertainty of the order of 0.01% is investigated. Such an accuracy is available only under suitable conditions: the radiation emitted by the source must be isotropic and all the particles emitted in the effective solid angle must be detected. The efficiency detection value must be equal to unity and phenomena such as absorption or scattering must be null. It is shown that corrections often become necessary. All parameters which can influence the measurements are studied [fr

  11. Water flow measurements with the pulsed neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, P.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and study the feasibility of a flow-meter, based on the pulsed neutron activation method. It is a non-invasive method with good potential regarding accuracy. However, the ultimate accuracy has not been fully investigated before. Two series of flow rate measurements have been performed and analysed. The first series was done under moderately accurate flow calibration conditions to get sufficient confidence in the method and to get indication of the obtainable accuracy. The results were encouraging and further measurements with high accuracy flow calibration were planned. A dedicated loop was designed and built, and it was used with satisfactory performance. Two models have been used for analysis of recorded data; time weighting method and a fit to Taylor diffusion theory. The results show that the accuracy in mean flow velocity obtained from the used analysis models is in the range of 2-4% for Reynolds numbers greater than 10,000. Data recorded from high calibration measurements will also be used for validation of future calculations. 19 refs, 4 figs

  12. Measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Kuecuekoender, Erdal; Zorer, Ozlem Selcuk; Dogru, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were measured in human tooth taken from 3 to 6 age-groups to 40 and over ones. Accumulated teeth samples are investigated in two groups as under and above 18 years. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of human tooth samples was measured by using a gas-flow proportional counter (PIC-MPC 9604-α/β counter). In tooth samples, for female age-groups, the obtained results show that the mean gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations varied between 0.534-0.203 and 0.010-0.453 Bq g -1 and the same concentrations for male age-groups varied between 0.009-1.168 and 0.071-0.204 Bq g -1 , respectively.

  13. Passive and active measurements of radon-related parameters inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Luxor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Elmagd, M [Radiation Measurements Department, National Institute for Standard, Giza (Egypt); Metwally, S M [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Fiki, S A [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Eissa, H M [Radiation Measurements Department, National Institute for Standard, Giza (Egypt); Salama, E [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-01-15

    Radon and its related parameters were measured using passive (CR-39) and active (Alpha-Guard analyzer) techniques inside seven ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings in Luxor. The measurements were performed throughout the winter and summer seasons. The average radon concentration inside the tombs ranges from 96.9+/-10.8 to 415+/-43Bqm{sup -3} in winter and from 86.4+/-13.8 to 6102.8+/-573.6 in summer. Because of the variations of tombs dimensions and their ventilation systems, the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny ranges from 0.228+/-0.02 to 0.95+/-0.05. The effective doses for the tomb workers, the tour guide and visitors were calculated. Active measurements show that radon exhalation rates range from 0.68+/-0.30 to 1.47+/-0.27Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} and from 0.60+/-0.03 to 1.42+/-0.05Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} for passive measurements. The real radium content was determined for all examined tombs by HPGe detector, while the effective radium content was obtained by Alpha-Guard and sealed cup techniques. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with the real radium content. A good correlation was found between active and passive measurements of radon exhalation rate.

  14. Passive and active measurements of radon-related parameters inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Luxor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Elmagd, M.; Metwally, S.M.; El-Fiki, S.A.; Eissa, H.M.; Salama, E.

    2007-01-01

    Radon and its related parameters were measured using passive (CR-39) and active (Alpha-Guard analyzer) techniques inside seven ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings in Luxor. The measurements were performed throughout the winter and summer seasons. The average radon concentration inside the tombs ranges from 96.9+/-10.8 to 415+/-43Bqm -3 in winter and from 86.4+/-13.8 to 6102.8+/-573.6 in summer. Because of the variations of tombs dimensions and their ventilation systems, the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny ranges from 0.228+/-0.02 to 0.95+/-0.05. The effective doses for the tomb workers, the tour guide and visitors were calculated. Active measurements show that radon exhalation rates range from 0.68+/-0.30 to 1.47+/-0.27Bqm -2 h -1 and from 0.60+/-0.03 to 1.42+/-0.05Bqm -2 h -1 for passive measurements. The real radium content was determined for all examined tombs by HPGe detector, while the effective radium content was obtained by Alpha-Guard and sealed cup techniques. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with the real radium content. A good correlation was found between active and passive measurements of radon exhalation rate

  15. Theoretical and experimental study of radon measurement with designing and calibration domestic canister with active charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urosevic, V.; Nikezic, D.; Zekic, R.

    2005-01-01

    Radon concentration in air may change significantly large variation due to atmospheric variation. Measurement with active charcoal can be inaccurate because the variation in radon concentration. We made model to simulate radon measurements with active charcoal in order to optimize and improve integration characteristic. A numerical method and computer code based on the method of finite elements is developed for the case of variable radon concentration in air. This program simulates radon adsorption by the activated charcoal bed, enabling determination of sensitivity. The dependence of sensitivity on different parameters, such as temperature, thickness of the charcoal, etc. was studied using this program. Using results of theoretical investigation we designed and calibrated our canister with active charcoal for radon measurements. (author)

  16. Intercomparison of 131I and 99mTc activity measurements in Brazilian nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, Akira; De Oliveira, Antonio E.; Tauhata, Luiz; Silva, Carlos J. da; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2001-01-01

    This work outlines the quality assurance program for the activity measurements of the most used radionuclides at Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). The program aims to guarantee that the patient is given the correct prescribed amount of activity in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. This accurate administration depends upon proper use and calibration of the activity meters by the NMS. Underestimation of administered activity in diagnostic practices could delay correct diagnosis disturbing the value of the investigation. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered to the patient. The preliminary results of intercomparison for 131 I and 99m Tc showed that many activity meters used at NMS's present problems giving results up to 41% greater than the reference values determined at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) which is recognized as the Brazilian authorized metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation. These results have demonstrated that the NMS should improve the accuracy of the activity measurements of the radionuclides administered to the patients and establish the traceability to the national standards of measurements. These standards are based on a pressurized well-type ionization chamber installed at LNMRI and calibrated with reference sources standardized by absolute methods. The protocol of the intercomparison and recommendations made in order to minimize errors in measuring procedures are described and results are discussed

  17. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child

  18. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2010-10-07

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. This work

  19. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other

  20. Electric field measurement of two commercial active/sham coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James Evan; Peterchev, Angel V

    2018-06-22

    Sham TMS coils isolate the ancillary effects of their active counterparts, but typically induce low-strength electric fields (E-fields) in the brain, which could be biologically active. We measured the E-fields induced by two pairs of commonly-used commercial active/sham coils. Approach: E-field distributions of the active and sham configurations of the Magstim 70 mm AFC and MagVenture Cool-B65 A/P coils were measured over a 7-cm-radius, hemispherical grid approximating the cortical surface. Peak E-field strength was recorded over a range of pulse amplitudes. Main results: The Magstim and MagVenture shams induce peak E-fields corresponding to 25.3% and 7.72% of their respective active values. The MagVenture sham has an E-field distribution shaped like its active counterpart. The Magstim sham induces nearly zero E-field under the coil's center, and its peak E-field forms a diffuse oval 3-7 cm from the center. Electrical scalp stimulation paired with the MagVenture sham is estimated to increase the sham E-field in the brain up to 10%. Significance: Different commercial shams induce different E-field strengths and distributions in the brain, which should be considered in interpreting outcomes of sham stimulation. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Immunocapture and microplate-based activity and quantity measurement of pyruvate dehydrogenase in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Pervez, Hira; Andersen, Lars W; Uber, Amy; Montissol, Sophia; Patel, Parth; Donnino, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Background Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity is altered in many human disorders. Current methods require tissue samples and yield inconsistent results. We describe a modified method for measuring PDH activity from isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results/Methodology We found that PDH activity and quantity can be successfully measured in human PBMCs. Freeze-thaw cycles cannot efficiently disrupt the mitochondrial membrane. Processing time of up to 20 h does not affect PDH activity with proteinase inhibitor addition and a detergent concentration of 3.3% showed maximum yield. Sample protein concentration is correlated to PDH activity and quantity in human PBMCs from healthy subjects. Conclusion Measuring PDH activity from PBMCs is a novel, easy and less invasive way to further understand the role of PDH in human disease. PMID:25826140

  2. Passive and Active Measurements of Radon related parameters inside ancient Egyptian Tombs in Luxor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Elmagd, M.; Eissa, H.M.; Metwally, S.M.; Fiki, S.A.; Salama, E.

    2005-01-01

    Radon concentration and its exhalation rate were measured using active (Alpha-Guard analyzer) and passive (CR-39) techniques inside seven ancient Egyptian tombs of the Kings valley in Luxor. The measurements were performed during the winter season of tourism (15/10/2003 up to 09/02/2004). The real radium content was determine for all examined tombs by HPGe detector, while the effective radium content was obtained by Alpha-Guard and sealed cup techniques. The average radon concentration inside the tombs based on the active technique ranges from 116 42 to 362 115 Bq m-3 and the exhalation rate ranges from 0.68 to 1.47 Bq m-2 h-1. For passive measurements, the average radon concentrations inside the tombs vary from 88 5 to 517 8 Bq m-3 while the exhalation rate ranges from 0.60 to 1.42 0.05 Bq m-2 h-1. Because of the variations of tombs dimensions and their ventilation systems, the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny ranges from 0.10 0.04 to 0.99 0.14 based on Can and Bare measurement method. The effective dose rate inside the tombs varies from 0.11 0.04 to 4.28 0.68 Sv/h, based on UNSCEAR 2000 dose conversion factors for radon and its progeny. Radon exhalation rate was correlated with the real radium content. Moreover, a good correlation was found between active and passive measurements. So it may be useful to use passive technique in large scale instead of the active one

  3. Passive and Active Measurements of Radon related parameters inside ancient Egyptian Tombs in Luxor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Elmagd, M; Eissa, H M [National institute for standerd, radiation Measurements department, Giza (Egypt); Metwally, S M; Fiki, S A; Salama, E [Faculty of Science Department of physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-04-01

    Radon concentration and its exhalation rate were measured using active (Alpha-Guard analyzer) and passive (CR-39) techniques inside seven ancient Egyptian tombs of the Kings valley in Luxor. The measurements were performed during the winter season of tourism (15/10/2003 up to 09/02/2004). The real radium content was determine for all examined tombs by HPGe detector, while the effective radium content was obtained by Alpha-Guard and sealed cup techniques. The average radon concentration inside the tombs based on the active technique ranges from 116 42 to 362 115 Bq m-3 and the exhalation rate ranges from 0.68 to 1.47 Bq m-2 h-1. For passive measurements, the average radon concentrations inside the tombs vary from 88 5 to 517 8 Bq m-3 while the exhalation rate ranges from 0.60 to 1.42 0.05 Bq m-2 h-1. Because of the variations of tombs dimensions and their ventilation systems, the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny ranges from 0.10 0.04 to 0.99 0.14 based on Can and Bare measurement method. The effective dose rate inside the tombs varies from 0.11 0.04 to 4.28 0.68 Sv/h, based on UNSCEAR 2000 dose conversion factors for radon and its progeny. Radon exhalation rate was correlated with the real radium content. Moreover, a good correlation was found between active and passive measurements. So it may be useful to use passive technique in large scale instead of the active one.

  4. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults With Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Hsien; Waring, Molly E; Eaton, Charles B; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and metabolic syndrome among adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Using cross-sectional data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we identified 566 adults with OA with available accelerometer data assessed using Actigraph AM-7164 and measurements necessary to determine metabolic syndrome by the Adult Treatment Panel III. Analysis of variance was conducted to examine the association between continuous variables in each activity level and metabolic syndrome components. Logistic models estimated the relationship of quartile of daily minutes of different physical activity levels to odds of metabolic syndrome adjusted for socioeconomic and health factors. Among persons with OA, most were women average age of 62.1 years and average disease duration of 12.9 years. Half of adults with OA had metabolic syndrome (51.0%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 44.2%-57.8%), and only 9.6% engaged in the recommended 150 minutes per week of moderate/vigorous physical activity. Total sedentary time was associated with higher rates of metabolic syndrome and its components, while light and objectively measured moderate/vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Higher levels of light activity were associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (quartile 4 versus quartile 1: adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.84, P for linear trend physical activity, especially in light intensity, is more likely to be associated with decreasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome among persons with OA. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Activities at Forschungszentrum Juelich in Safeguards Analytical Techniques and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, M.; Knott, A.; Middendorp, R.; Niemeyer, I.; Kueppers, S.; Zoriy, M.; Froning, M.; Bosbach, D.

    2015-01-01

    The application of safeguards by the IAEA involves analytical measurements of samples taken during inspections. The development and advancement of analytical techniques with support from the Member States contributes to strengthened and more efficient verification of compliance with non-proliferation obligations. Since recently, a cooperation agreement has been established between Forschungszentrum Juelich and the IAEA in the field of analytical services. The current working areas of Forschungszentrum Juelich are: (i) Production of synthetic micro-particles as calibration standard and reference material for particle analysis, (ii) qualification of the Forschungszentrum Juelich as a member of the IAEA network of analytical laboratories for safeguards (NWAL), and (iii) analysis of impurities in nuclear material samples. With respect to the synthesis of particles, a dedicated setup for the production of uranium particles is being developed, which addresses the urgent need for material tailored for its use in quality assurance and quality control measures for particle analysis of environmental swipe samples. Furthermore, Forschungszentrum Juelich has been nominated as a candidate laboratory for membership in the NWAL network. To this end, analytical capabilities at Forschungszentrum Juelich have been joined to form an analytical service within a dedicated quality management system. Another activity is the establishment of analytical techniques for impurity analysis of uranium-oxide, mainly focusing on inductively coupled mass spectrometry. This contribution will present the activities at Forschungszentrum Juelich in the area of analytical measurements and techniques for nuclear verification. (author)

  6. Access to hands-on mathematics measurement activities using robots controlled via speech generating devices: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kim; Cook, Al

    2014-07-01

    To examine how using a robot controlled via a speech generating device (SGD) influences the ways students with physical and communication limitations can demonstrate their knowledge in math measurement activities. Three children with severe physical disabilities and complex communication needs used the robot and SGD system to perform four math measurement lessons in comparing, sorting and ordering objects. The performance of the participants was measured and the process of using the system was described in terms of manipulation and communication events. Stakeholder opinions were solicited regarding robot use. Robot use revealed some gaps in the procedural knowledge of the participants. Access to both the robot and SGD was shown to provide several benefits. Stakeholders thought the intervention was important and feasible for a classroom environment. The participants were able to participate actively in the hands-on and communicative measurement activities and thus meet the demands of current math instruction methods. Current mathematics pedagogy encourages doing hands-on activities while communicating about concepts. Adapted Lego robots enabled children with severe physical disabilities to perform hands-on length measurement activities. Controlling the robots from speech generating devices (SGD) enabled the children, who also had complex communication needs, to reflect and report on results during the activities. By using the robots combined with SGDs, children both exhibited their knowledge of and experienced the concepts of mathematical measurements.

  7. Auditory cortical activation and plasticity after cochlear implantation measured by PET using fluorodeoxyglucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Lachowska, Magdalena; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible relationships between duration of cochlear implant use and results of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements in the temporal lobes performed while subjects listened to speech stimuli. Other aspects investigated were whether implantation side impacts significantly on cortical representations of functions related to understanding speech (ipsi- or contralateral to the implanted side) and whether any correlation exists between cortical activation and speech therapy results. Objective cortical responses to acoustic stimulation were measured, using PET, in nine cochlear implant patients (age range: 15 to 50 years). All the patients suffered from bilateral deafness, were right-handed, and had no additional neurological deficits. They underwent PET imaging three times: immediately after the first fitting of the speech processor (activation of the cochlear implant), and one and two years later. A tendency towards increasing levels of activation in areas of the primary and secondary auditory cortex on the left side of the brain was observed. There was no clear effect of the side of implantation (left or right) on the degree of cortical activation in the temporal lobe. However, the PET results showed a correlation between degree of cortical activation and speech therapy results.

  8. Measurement of highly active samples of ultrashort-lived radionuclides and its problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Baan, J.G.; Panek, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of highly active eluates obtained from the generators for ultrashort-lived radionuclides poses several problems which are briefly discussed by using the example of the /sup 195m/Hg→/sup 195m/Au generator. For overcoming some of the problems, the construction of a multiple single-channel analyzer that allows high count rates, is described, as well as the counting technique applicable for highly active eluates

  9. Telemetry Option in the Measurement of Physical Activity for Patients with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melczer, Csaba; Melczer, László; Oláh, András; Sélleyné-Gyúró, Mónika; Welker, Zsanett; Ács, Pongrác

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity among patients with heart failure typically requires a special approach due to the patients' physical status. Nowadays, a technology is already available that can measure the kinematic movements in 3-D by a pacemaker and implantable defibrillator giving an assessment on software. The telemetry data can be…

  10. Moderate Physical Activity and Its Relationship to Select Measures of a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Frank; Dunnagan, Tim; Haynes, George; Moore, Sylvia; Pelican, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    In rural communities, physical activity may influence and predict nutritional behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if an individual's stage of participation in moderate physical activity was related to select measures of a healthy diet. Data were collected using a mail-in survey from a random sample conducted in the…

  11. Spectrum unfolding from activation measurements in a CTR-model blanket experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijpers, L.J.M.

    1977-07-01

    Neutron spectra in a lithium fusion reactor model blanket are determined experimentally by performing SAND II unfolding runs from measured activities. The principles of the iterative SAND II method are given and characteristics of the output are described. The spectra are calculated from available data with the aid of a Monte Carlo program, of which procedure numerical results are given. Both kinds of spectra are compared; when number of input data is varied or different cross section data sets are chosen, inconsistencies in activities or cross section data may be detected. (orig./WL) [de

  12. A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Stina; Bell, Kristie L.; Mitchell, Louise E.; Davies, Peter S. W.; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA) measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC). Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group. PMID:22927865

  13. A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Oftedal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC. Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group.

  14. Quantitatively accurate activity measurements with a dedicated cardiac SPECT camera: Physical phantom experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmoghaddas, Amir, E-mail: apour@ottawaheart.ca; Wells, R. Glenn [Physics Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada and Cardiology, The University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y4W7 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Recently, there has been increased interest in dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners with pinhole collimation and improved detector technology due to their improved count sensitivity and resolution over traditional parallel-hole cameras. With traditional cameras, energy-based approaches are often used in the clinic for scatter compensation because they are fast and easily implemented. Some of the cardiac cameras use cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detectors which can complicate the use of energy-based scatter correction (SC) due to the low-energy tail—an increased number of unscattered photons detected with reduced energy. Modified energy-based scatter correction methods can be implemented, but their level of accuracy is unclear. In this study, the authors validated by physical phantom experiments the quantitative accuracy and reproducibility of easily implemented correction techniques applied to {sup 99m}Tc myocardial imaging with a CZT-detector-based gamma camera with multiple heads, each with a single-pinhole collimator. Methods: Activity in the cardiac compartment of an Anthropomorphic Torso phantom (Data Spectrum Corporation) was measured through 15 {sup 99m}Tc-SPECT acquisitions. The ratio of activity concentrations in organ compartments resembled a clinical {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scan and was kept consistent across all experiments (1.2:1 heart to liver and 1.5:1 heart to lung). Two background activity levels were considered: no activity (cold) and an activity concentration 1/10th of the heart (hot). A plastic “lesion” was placed inside of the septal wall of the myocardial insert to simulate the presence of a region without tracer uptake and contrast in this lesion was calculated for all images. The true net activity in each compartment was measured with a dose calibrator (CRC-25R, Capintec, Inc.). A 10 min SPECT image was acquired using a dedicated cardiac camera with CZT detectors (Discovery NM530c, GE

  15. Activation cross-section measurements of some proton induced reactions on Ni, Co and Mo for proton activation analysis (PAA) purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, A.A.; Alzahrani, J.; Azzam, A.; Nuclear Research Center, Cairo

    2011-01-01

    The experimental proton induced reaction cross sections on some elements of the Havar alloy were measured using the activation method and the well established stacked-foil technique combined with high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. They included the reactions nat Ni(p,x) 57 Ni, nat Co(p,x) 58(m+g) Co and nat Mo(p,x) 94g,95g,96(m+g) Tc, the aim being to obtain reliable data in the proton energy range up to 26 MeV for some important reactions to be used in the proton activation analysis of steel or other alloys. Irradiations were performed using the CS-30 Cyclotron at KFSH and RC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The activity measurements were carried out in PNU laboratories, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The experimental excitation functions for the investigated reactions were constructed and compared with the performed computed theoretical nuclear model calculations using two different codes: ALICE-IPPE and TALYS. A comparison between our measured cross-section values and the available published data is also presented, with a view to checking the consistency of the reported experimental work from various laboratories.

  16. Activity concentration measurements using a conjugate gradient (Siemens xSPECT) reconstruction algorithm in SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ian S; Hoffmann, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The interest in quantitative single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) shows potential in a number of clinical applications and now several vendors are providing software and hardware solutions to allow 'SUV-SPECT' to mirror metrics used in PET imaging. This brief technical report assesses the accuracy of activity concentration measurements using a new algorithm 'xSPECT' from Siemens Healthcare. SPECT/CT data were acquired from a uniform cylinder with 5, 10, 15 and 20 s/projection and NEMA image quality phantom with 25 s/projection. The NEMA phantom had hot spheres filled with an 8 : 1 activity concentration relative to the background compartment. Reconstructions were performed using parameters defined by manufacturer presets available with the algorithm. The accuracy of activity concentration measurements was assessed. A dose calibrator-camera cross-calibration factor (CCF) was derived from the uniform phantom data. In uniform phantom images, a positive bias was observed, ranging from ∼6% in the lower count images to ∼4% in the higher-count images. On the basis of the higher-count data, a CCF of 0.96 was derived. As expected, considerable negative bias was measured in the NEMA spheres using region mean values whereas positive bias was measured in the four largest NEMA spheres. Nonmonotonically increasing recovery curves for the hot spheres suggested the presence of Gibbs edge enhancement from resolution modelling. Sufficiently accurate activity concentration measurements can easily be measured on images reconstructed with the xSPECT algorithm without a CCF. However, the use of a CCF is likely to improve accuracy further. A manual conversion of voxel values into SUV should be possible, provided that the patient weight, injected activity and time between injection and imaging are all known accurately.

  17. Accuracy, reproducibility, and uncertainty analysis of thyroid-probe-based activity measurements for determination of dose calibrator settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinas, Pedro L; Tanguay, Jesse; Gonzalez, Marjorie; Vuckovic, Milan; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Cristina; Häfeli, Urs O; Celler, Anna

    2016-12-01

    In the nuclear medicine department, the activity of radiopharmaceuticals is measured using dose calibrators (DCs) prior to patient injection. The DC consists of an ionization chamber that measures current generated by ionizing radiation (emitted from the radiotracer). In order to obtain an activity reading, the current is converted into units of activity by applying an appropriate calibration factor (also referred to as DC dial setting). Accurate determination of DC dial settings is crucial to ensure that patients receive the appropriate dose in diagnostic scans or radionuclide therapies. The goals of this study were (1) to describe a practical method to experimentally determine dose calibrator settings using a thyroid-probe (TP) and (2) to investigate the accuracy, reproducibility, and uncertainties of the method. As an illustration, the TP method was applied to determine 188 Re dial settings for two dose calibrator models: Atomlab 100plus and Capintec CRC-55tR. Using the TP to determine dose calibrator settings involved three measurements. First, the energy-dependent efficiency of the TP was determined from energy spectra measurements of two calibration sources ( 152 Eu and 22 Na). Second, the gamma emissions from the investigated isotope ( 188 Re) were measured using the TP and its activity was determined using γ-ray spectroscopy methods. Ambient background, scatter, and source-geometry corrections were applied during the efficiency and activity determination steps. Third, the TP-based 188 Re activity was used to determine the dose calibrator settings following the calibration curve method [B. E. Zimmerman et al., J. Nucl. Med. 40, 1508-1516 (1999)]. The interobserver reproducibility of TP measurements was determined by the coefficient of variation (COV) and uncertainties associated to each step of the measuring process were estimated. The accuracy of activity measurements using the proposed method was evaluated by comparing the TP activity estimates of 99m Tc

  18. Match-to-match variation in physical activity and technical skill measures in professional Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Thomas; Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the match-to-match variability in physical activity and technical performance measures in Australian Football, and examine the influence of playing position, time of season, and different seasons on these measures of variability. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system, accelerometer and technical performance measures (total kicks, handballs, possessions and Champion Data rank) were collected from 33 players competing in the Australian Football League over 31 matches during 2011-2012 (N=511 observations). The global positioning system data were categorised into total distance, mean speed (mmin(-1)), high-speed running (>14.4 kmh(-1)), very high-speed running (>19.9 kmh(-1)), and sprint (>23.0 kmh(-1)) distance while player load was collected from the accelerometer. The data were log transformed to provide coefficient of variation and the between subject standard deviation (expressed as percentages). Match-to-match variability was increased for higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance, coefficient of variation %: 13.3-28.6%) compared to global measures (speed, total distance, player load, coefficient of variation %: 5.3-9.2%). The between-match variability was relativity stable for all measures between and within AFL seasons, with only few differences between positions. Higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance), but excluding mean speed, total distance and player load, were all higher in the final third phase of the season compared to the start of the season. While global measures of physical performance are relatively stable, higher-speed activities and technical measures exhibit a large degree of between-match variability in Australian Football. However, these measures remain relatively stable between positions, and within and between Australian Football League seasons. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  19. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    OpenAIRE

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Masahiro Iwakura,1,2 Kazuki Okura,2 Kazuyuki Shibata,1,2 Atsuyoshi Kawagoshi,2 Keiyu Sugawara,2 Hitomi Takahashi,2 Takanobu Shioya1 1Department of Rehabilitation, Akita City Hospital, 2Department of Physical Therapy, Akita University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Akita, Japan Background: Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured ph...

  20. Underground measurements of aerosol in radon and thoron progeny activity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Bandi, F.; Phillips, C.R.; Duport, P.

    1990-01-01

    Aerosol and activity distributions of 218 Polonium, 214 Lead, 214 Bismuth, and 212 Lead were determined in two different underground mining environments by means of an optimized time-delay counting scheme and diffusion batteries. In one environment, diesel equipment was operating; and in the other, electrically powered equipment. The two environments differed significantly in total aerosol concentration. In the diesel environment, in particular, aerosol concentrations were unsteady, and fluctuated with vehicular traffic and mining activities. As measured by radon progeny disequilibrium, the age of the air ranged from about 25 to 60 minutes. Thoron working levels were of the same order as radon working levels. In this paper, comparisons are made between the aerosol and activity size distributions in both the diesel and electric mine

  1. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Brage, Søren; Carstensen, Bendix; Sandbaek, Annelli; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gram, Jeppe; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard; Lauritzen, Torsten; Witte, Daniel Rinse

    2015-05-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one-dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg·m and PAEE was 28.1 kJ·kg·d, with 18.9 h·d spent sedentary, 4.5 h·d in light-intensity physical activity, and 0.4 h·d in moderate-intensity physical activity. PAEE was significantly negatively associated with VAT, and in women, PAEE was also significantly negatively associated with SAT. The difference in VAT was -1.1 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.8 to -0.3) per 10-kJ·kg·d increment, and the corresponding difference in SAT for women was -0.6 mm (95% CI = -1.2 to -0.04) in models adjusted for age, sex, and waist circumference. Exchanging 1 h of light physical activity with moderate physical activity was significantly associated with VAT (-4.5 mm, 95% CI = -7.6 to -1.5). Exchanging one sedentary hour with light physical activity was significantly associated with both VAT (-0.9 mm, 95% CI = -0.1 to -1.8) and SAT (-0.4 mm, 95% CI = -0.0 to -0.7). In this population with low physical activity levels, cross-sectional findings indicate that increasing overall physical activity and decreasing time spent sedentary is important to avoid the accumulation of metabolically deleterious VAT.

  2. Using Volcanic Lightning Measurements to Discern Variations in Explosive Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.; McNutt, S. R.; Edens, H. E.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.

    2013-12-01

    VHF observations of volcanic lightning have been made during the recent eruptions of Augustine Volcano (2006, Alaska, USA), Redoubt Volcano (2009, Alaska, USA), and Eyjafjallajökull (2010, Iceland). These show that electrical activity occurs both on small scales at the vent of the volcano, concurrent with an eruptive event and on large scales throughout the eruption column during and subsequent to an eruptive event. The small-scale discharges at the vent of the volcano are often referred to as 'vent discharges' and are on the order of 10-100 meters in length and occur at rates on the order of 1000 per second. The high rate of vent discharges produces a distinct VHF signature that is sometimes referred to as 'continuous RF' radiation. VHF radiation from vent discharges has been observed at sensors placed as far as 100 km from the volcano. VHF and infrasound measurements have shown that vent discharges occur simultaneously with the onset of eruption, making their detection an unambiguous indicator of explosive volcanic activity. The fact that vent discharges are observed concurrent with explosive volcanic activity indicates that volcanic ejecta are charged upon eruption. VHF observations have shown that the intensity of vent discharges varies between eruptive events, suggesting that fluctuations in eruptive processes affect the electrification processes giving rise to vent discharges. These fluctuations may be variations in eruptive vigor or variations in the type of eruption; however, the data obtained so far do not show a clear relationship between eruption parameters and the intensity or occurrence of vent discharges. Further study is needed to clarify the link between vent discharges and eruptive behavior, such as more detailed lightning observations concurrent with tephra measurements and other measures of eruptive strength. Observations of vent discharges, and volcanic lightning observations in general, are a valuable tool for volcano monitoring, providing a

  3. Measures of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity in Australian Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew; Bagga, Hanish

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate which rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity measures are being collected in patients receiving glucocorticoids, non-biologic or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in Australian rheumatology practice. Methods. A retrospective audit of medical records was conducted from eight rheumatology practices around Australia. Each rheumatologist recruited 30 consecutive eligible patients into the review, 10 of whom must have been receiving a biological...

  4. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part J. Evaluation of thermal neutron transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to relate thermal neutron activation measurements in samples to the calculated free-in-air thermal neutron activation levels given in Chapter 3, use is made of sample transmission factors. Transmission factors account for the modification of the fluence and activation at each sample's in situ location. For the purposes of this discussion, the transmission factor (TF) is defined as the ratio of the in situ sample activation divided by the free-in-air (FIA) activation at a height of 1 m above ground at the same ground range. The procedures for calculation of TF's and example results are presented in this section. (author)

  5. Novel measurement method of activation energy of non-metallic materials for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang-Dae; Lim, Byung-Ju; Song, Chi-Sung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents novel technique and its applicability for measuring activation energy of non-metallic materials for NPPs (nuclear power plants). The E a is a principal property for life assessment and accelerating thermal aging of equipment during environmental qualification. The E a is conventionally obtained by tensile test using UTM (Universal Testing Machine). However, this conventional method has many difficulties such as lots of big standardized specimens required and long measuring time of at least 3 months. Moreover, this is not only an inapplicable method during inservice inspection but destructive method, which are main obstacles for using UTM. Fortunately, newly developed technique for the E a such as TGA (Thermo-gravimetric Analysis) and DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analysis) can eliminate almost all the problems of UTM. The common TGA is to measure weight change with time under constant heating rate. TGA was devised to perform the compositional analysis of materials such as rubber, carbon black, filler, volatile, etc., and to determine the thermal stability/decomposition, stoichiometry of reactions, and kinetics of reaction, by weight changes of materials when heated. TGA method has various advantages such as small amount of the sample (e.g. 20 mg), shortened measuring time of approximately 2 days, and virtually non-destructive method. In this study, we have tried to find the justification of TGA utilization for E a measurement by comparing the measured TGA data to UTM data for three cable materials. Considering reasonable consistency of our TGA data with UTM data, we conclude that TGA method gives convenient way to measure the activation energy for EPR, CR, and CSP materials with many merits, such as measuring time, specimen size and quantity required, and test expenses. (author)

  6. Radon determination by activated charcoal adsorption and liquid scintillation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.O.; Canoba, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    A passive diffusion method for the determination of radon concentration has been optimised and calibrated. The device consists of a scintillation vial containing activated charcoal, a diffusion barrier and a desiccant agent. The response to diverse atmospheric humidity and variable exposure intervals was studied. The result is a detector, which is independent of atmospheric humidity for at least (up to) 7 days of exposure. The method was compared with electret detectors (US EPA) with very satisfactory results. The advantages of this method are its simplicity, low cost, low detection limit, the total automatization of the measurement and its total independence of humidity to measure in a wide range of radon concentrations. (author) [es

  7. Pre-analytical and Analytical Variables Affecting the Measurement of Plasma-Derived Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, RD; Barcel, DA; Williams, JC; Wang, JG; Boles, JC; Manly, DA; Key, NS; Mackman, N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Elevated levels of tissue factor positive (TF+) microparticles (MPs) are observed in plasma from a variety of patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. We and others have described the measurement of TF activity in MPs isolated from plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-analytical and analytical variables on TF activity of MPs isolated from blood of healthy volunteers treated ex vivo with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods We evaluated the following parameters: use of different centrifugation speeds to isolate the MPs; comparison of TF activity of MPs isolated from platelet poor plasma versus platelet free plasma; effect of freeze/thaw on MP TF activity; and comparison of the MP TF activity assay with the measurement of TF protein by ELISA or flow cytometry. Results MPs prepared from platelet poor plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g or 100,000 × g for 15 minutes had similar levels of TF activity. However, significantly less TF activity was found in MPs isolated from platelet free plasma compared with platelet poor plasma. Interestingly, freeze/thawing of the plasma showed donor to donor variation in MP TF activity, with a moderate increase in some individuals. Conclusion TF+ MPs can be quantitatively isolated from platelet poor or platelet free plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g for 15 minutes. Measurement of MP TF activity in plasma can be used to detect a prothrombotic state in patients with various diseases. PMID:21737126

  8. Reliability of Wearable Inertial Measurement Units to Measure Physical Activity in Team Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Holme, Benjamin R; Spencer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    To assess the reliability and sensitivity of commercially available inertial measurement units to measure physical activity in team handball. Twenty-two handball players were instrumented with 2 inertial measurement units (OptimEye S5; Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia) taped together. They participated in either a laboratory assessment (n = 10) consisting of 7 team handball-specific tasks or field assessment (n = 12) conducted in 12 training sessions. Variables, including PlayerLoad™ and inertial movement analysis (IMA) magnitude and counts, were extracted from the manufacturers' software. IMA counts were divided into intensity bands of low (1.5-2.5 m·s -1 ), medium (2.5-3.5 m·s -1 ), high (>3.5 m·s -1 ), medium/high (>2.5 m·s -1 ), and total (>1.5 m·s -1 ). Reliability between devices and sensitivity was established using coefficient of variation (CV) and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD). Laboratory assessment: IMA magnitude showed a good reliability (CV = 3.1%) in well-controlled tasks. CV increased (4.4-6.7%) in more-complex tasks. Field assessment: Total IMA counts (CV = 1.8% and SWD = 2.5%), PlayerLoad (CV = 0.9% and SWD = 2.1%), and their associated variables (CV = 0.4-1.7%) showed a good reliability, well below the SWD. However, the CV of IMA increased when categorized into intensity bands (2.9-5.6%). The reliability of IMA counts was good when data were displayed as total, high, or medium/high counts. A good reliability for PlayerLoad and associated variables was evident. The CV of the previously mentioned variables was well below the SWD, suggesting that OptimEye's inertial measurement unit and its software are sensitive for use in team handball.

  9. TRitium Activity Measurements with a PhotomultipliEr in Liquids–The TRAMPEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priester, Florian; Klein, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We have set up a new test device for measuring of tritiated water samples. • The device is very compact and easy and reliable in operation. • Easy integration in flow-through systems is possible. • The device has been operated at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe for several months. • The lower detection limit has been improved with regard to predecessors experiments. - Abstract: A common technique for the determination of the activity of tritiated water (HTO) is liquid scintillation counting (LSC). This implies sample taking, sample preparation and radioactive waste processing afterwards. When handling highly tritiated water special care has to be taken because of possible harmfulness of the sample. Furthermore, LSC devices are mostly large, heavy and expensive. The TRAMPEL experiment aims at measuring the activity of tritiated water in-line without sample taking. The device is intended to be easy to use and operate, quite inexpensive and compact. The measurement principle is based on electrons from β-decay which induce light in commercially available scintillation fibres. The light is detected by a small photomultiplier tube (PMT). A proof-of-principle was set up for static measurements using standard stainless steel parts. The complete device has a volume of less than 0.5 l.

  10. TRitium Activity Measurements with a PhotomultipliEr in Liquids–The TRAMPEL experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priester, Florian, E-mail: florian.priester@kit.edu; Klein, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We have set up a new test device for measuring of tritiated water samples. • The device is very compact and easy and reliable in operation. • Easy integration in flow-through systems is possible. • The device has been operated at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe for several months. • The lower detection limit has been improved with regard to predecessors experiments. - Abstract: A common technique for the determination of the activity of tritiated water (HTO) is liquid scintillation counting (LSC). This implies sample taking, sample preparation and radioactive waste processing afterwards. When handling highly tritiated water special care has to be taken because of possible harmfulness of the sample. Furthermore, LSC devices are mostly large, heavy and expensive. The TRAMPEL experiment aims at measuring the activity of tritiated water in-line without sample taking. The device is intended to be easy to use and operate, quite inexpensive and compact. The measurement principle is based on electrons from β-decay which induce light in commercially available scintillation fibres. The light is detected by a small photomultiplier tube (PMT). A proof-of-principle was set up for static measurements using standard stainless steel parts. The complete device has a volume of less than 0.5 l.

  11. Association between objectively measured physical activity, chronic stress and leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Bruwer, Erna J; Hamer, Mark; de Ridder, J Hans; Malan, Leoné

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) attenuates chronic stress and age-related and cardiovascular disease risks, whereby potentially slowing telomere shortening. We aimed to study the association between seven-day objectively measured habitual PA, chronic stress and leukocyte telomere length. Study participants were African (N.=96) and Caucasian (N.=107) school teachers of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans study. All lifestyle characteristics (including PA) were objectively measured. The general health questionnaire and serum cortisol were assessed as psychological and physical measures of chronic stress. Leukocyte telomere length was measured using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Africans had significantly shorter telomeres (Pstress or telomere length. However, more time spent with light intensity PA time was significantly and independently correlated with lower waist circumference (r=-0.21, P=0.004); in turn, greater waist circumference was significantly associated shorter telomeres (β=-0.17 [-0.30, -0.03], P=0.017). Habitual PA of different intensity was not directly associated with markers of chronic stress and leukocyte telomere length in this biethnic cohort. However, our findings suggest that light intensity PA could contribute to lowered age-related disease risk and healthy ageing by facilitating maintenance of a normal waist circumference.

  12. SWEPP PAN assay system uncertainty analysis: Active mode measurements of solidified aqueous sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.; Meachum, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is being used as a temporary storage facility for transuranic waste generated by the US Nuclear Weapons program at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. Currently, there is a large effort in progress to prepare to ship this waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. In order to meet the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan nondestructive assay compliance requirements and quality assurance objectives, it is necessary to determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results produced by the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) Passive Active Neutron (PAN) radioassay system. This paper is one of a series of reports quantifying the results of the uncertainty analysis of the PAN system measurements for specific waste types and measurement modes. In particular this report covers active mode measurements of weapons grade plutonium-contaminated aqueous sludge waste contained in 208 liter drums (item description codes 1, 2, 7, 800, 803, and 807). Results of the uncertainty analysis for PAN active mode measurements of aqueous sludge indicate that a bias correction multiplier of 1.55 should be applied to the PAN aqueous sludge measurements. With the bias correction, the uncertainty bounds on the expected bias are 0 ± 27%. These bounds meet the Quality Assurance Program Plan requirements for radioassay systems

  13. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-09-29

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies.

  14. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies. (orig.) [de

  15. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested

  16. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  17. Long distance elementary measurement of the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Lou Benchao; Wu Chunlei; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan

    2009-04-01

    The working principle and the structure and performances of a long distance controllable individual radiation dose ratio instrument are described. The radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is elementarily measured by using this instrument in the neutron generator hall with high neutron yield. When neutron yield arrives to 2 x 10 11 s -1 , the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is 99.9 μSv/h in 1 h after the generator being stopped. The radiation dose ratio is reduced to 24.4 μSv/h in 39 h after the generator being stopped. When neutron yield is 3.2 x 10 10 s -1 , the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is 21.9 μSv/h in 36 min, after the generator being stopped. The measurement results may provide reference for physical experimenters and neutron generator operators. (authors)

  18. A cluster analysis of patterns of objectively measured physical activity in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H; Yu, Ying-Ying; McDowell, Ian; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, T H

    2013-08-01

    The health benefits of exercise are clear. In targeting interventions it would be valuable to know whether characteristic patterns of physical activity (PA) are associated with particular population subgroups. The present study used cluster analysis to identify characteristic hourly PA patterns measured by accelerometer. Cross-sectional design. Objectively measured PA in Hong Kong adults. Four-day accelerometer data were collected during 2009 to 2011 for 1714 participants in Hong Kong (mean age 44?2 years, 45?9% male). Two clusters were identified, one more active than the other. The ‘active cluster’ (n 480) was characterized by a routine PA pattern on weekdays and a more active and varied pattern on weekends; the other, the ‘less active cluster’ (n 1234), by a consistently low PA pattern on both weekdays and weekends with little variation from day to day. Demographic, lifestyle, PA level and health characteristics of the two clusters were compared. They differed in age, sex, smoking, income and level of PA required at work. The odds of having any chronic health conditions was lower for the active group (adjusted OR50?62, 95% CI 0?46, 0?84) but the two groups did not differ in terms of specific chronic health conditions or obesity. Implications are drawn for targeting exercise promotion programmes at the population level.

  19. Chemical composition measurements of the low activity waste (LAW) EPA-Series glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for a series of simulated low activity waste glasses provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 100.2 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %.

  20. Measurement of total-body oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon in vivo by photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulin, K.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of assessing nutritional status, the feasibility of measuring the total body quantities of the major body elements, i.e. oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, using the photon beam of a 45 MV betatron and a whole-body counter, has been evaluated in detail. Following photon activation a single energy γ-radiation (.511 MeV) is observed from all three elements to be measured. The half-lives of 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C, however, are sufficiently different (20.5 min, 10.0 min, and 20.4 min. respectively) to permit their measurement from an analysis of the measured decay curve. Following corrections for interfering reactions, a computer curve-fitting algorithm is used to resolve the data into 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C components. Measurements of O, N, and C have been made both in phantoms and in live and dead rats. A comparison of the body composition results from this technique with results from chemical analysis indicates that measured carbon can quite accurately predict total body fat. The comparison of the total body nitrogen measurement by photon activation with total body protein by chemical analysis was inconclusive and suggests that further work be done to verify the estimated accuracy of the nitrogen measurement

  1. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...

  2. Use of Active Learning to Design Wind Tunnel Runs for Unsteady Cavity Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind tunnel tests to measure unsteady cavity flow pressure measurements can be expensive, lengthy, and tedious. In this work, the feasibility of an active machine learning technique to design wind tunnel runs using proxy data is tested. The proposed active learning scheme used scattered data approximation in conjunction with uncertainty sampling (US. We applied the proposed intelligent sampling strategy in characterizing cavity flow classes at subsonic and transonic speeds and demonstrated that the scheme has better classification accuracies, using fewer training points, than a passive Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS strategy.

  3. Detailed measurements and modelling of thermo active components using a room size test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    measurements in an office sized test facility with thermo active ceiling and floor as well as modelling of similar conditions in a computer program designed for analysis of building integrated heating and cooling systems. A method for characterizing the cooling capacity of thermo active components is described...... typically within 1-2K of the measured results. The simulation model, whose room model splits up the radiative and convective heat transfer between room and surfaces, can also be used to predict the dynamical conditions, where especially the temperature rise during the day is important for designing...

  4. Objective vs. self-reported physical activity and sedentary time: effects of measurement method on relationships with risk biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Celis-Morales

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Imprecise measurement of physical activity variables might attenuate estimates of the beneficial effects of activity on health-related outcomes. We aimed to compare the cardiometabolic risk factor dose-response relationships for physical activity and sedentary behaviour between accelerometer- and questionnaire-based activity measures. METHODS: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were assessed in 317 adults by 7-day accelerometry and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Fasting blood was taken to determine insulin, glucose, triglyceride and total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations and homeostasis model-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR. Waist circumference, BMI, body fat percentage and blood pressure were also measured. RESULTS: For both accelerometer-derived sedentary time (50% lower for the IPAQ-reported compared to the accelerometer-derived measure (p<0.0001 for both interactions. The relationships for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and risk factors were less strong than those observed for sedentary behaviours, but significant negative relationships were observed for both accelerometer and IPAQ MVPA measures with glucose, and insulin and HOMA(IR values (all p<0.05. For accelerometer-derived MVPA only, additional negative relationships were seen with triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference and percentage body fat, and a positive relationship was evident with HDL cholesterol (p = 0.0002. Regression coefficients for HOMA(IR, insulin and triglyceride were 43-50% lower for the IPAQ-reported compared to the accelerometer-derived MVPA measure (all p≤0.01. CONCLUSION: Using the IPAQ to determine sitting time and MVPA reveals some, but not all, relationships between these activity measures and metabolic and vascular disease risk factors. Using this self-report method to quantify activity can therefore underestimate the strength of some

  5. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The

  6. Correlation between physical activity measured by accelerometry and BMI in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Stabelini Neto

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between physical activity measured by accelerometry and excess weight in schoolchildren. Three hundred and ninety one school-age adolescents (10 to 18 years old participated in the study. The cut-off points used to estimate time spent in physical activity were: moderate ≥3.0 METs and vigorous ≥6.0 METs. Student’s t-test and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient were used to verify statistical differences and correlations between physical activity and body mass index (BMI. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Male schoolchildren spent more time in moderate (96.1 ± 39.6 min.day-1 and vigorous (9.7 ± 8.8 min.day-1 physical activity than their female peers (moderate: 73.7 ± 37.7 min.day-1; vigorous: 6.1 ± 6.8 min.day-1. For both sexes, younger schoolchildren (10 to 14 years old were more physically active than older ones (14 to 18 years old. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity was inversely related to BMI. These findings suggest that regular physical activity (RPA is related to body weight reduction in schoolchildren. Therefore, RPA can be used as an obesity prevention strategy in elementary school.

  7. The Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score as a Measure of Disease Activity in Patients with Giant Cell Arteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, TA; Cuthbertson, D; Carette, S; Hoffman, GS; Khalidi, NA; Koening, CL; Langford, CA; McKinnon-Maksimowicz, K; McAlear, CA; Monach, PA; Seo, P; Warrington, KJ; Ytterberg, SR; Merkel, PA; Matteson, EL

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) in the assessment of disease activity in giant cell arteritis (GCA). Methods Patients with GCA enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal study with symptoms of active vasculitis during any visit were included. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to explore the association of the BVAS with other measures of disease activity. Results During a mean (SD) follow-up of 2.3 (1.6) years, symptoms of active GCA were present in 236 visits in 136 subjects (100 female, 74%). Median (range) BVAS1 (new/worse symptoms) was 1 (0–10) and median (range) BVAS2 (persistent symptoms) was 0 (0–5). Median (range) physician global assessment (PGA) was 4 (0–9) for disease activity in the past 28 days and 2 (0–9) for activity on the day of the visit. Important ischemic manifestations of active vasculitis not captured by the BVAS included tongue/jaw claudication (27%), upper extremity claudication (15%), lower extremity claudication (5%), carotidynia (7%), ischemic retinopathy (5%). During 25 visits (11%) with active disease, all symptoms of active vasculitis were captured in the “Other” category yet still resulted in a BVAS 1 and BVAS 2 of 0. BVAS1 moderately correlated with PGA for the past 28 days (Spearman’s correlation 0.50) and physician-rated disease activity for the past 28 days (Spearman’s correlation 0.46). Conclusions The BVAS has limited utility in GCA. Patients with active GCA can have a BVAS of 0. Many important ischemic symptoms attributable to active vasculitis are not captured in the composite score. PMID:27036388

  8. Measuring the impact of child protection through Activation States

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlaczek, Z; Bringer, JD; Cockburn, C; Nutt, G; Pitchford, A; Russell, K; Brackenridge, CH

    2005-01-01

    Child protection (CP) has risen to the top of the UK sports policy agenda in the past four years and the Football Association has invested in this major strategy as part of its commitment to “use the power of football to build a better future” (FA, 2000a). Evidencing the impact of child protection is, however, a complex task, exacerbated by the dearth of measurement tools that exist for this purpose in sport. This article presents a new model of ‘Activation States’ that has been designed and...

  9. [Methods of measuring telomere length and telomerase activity--practice and problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y; Suda, T; Hatakeyama, K

    1998-05-01

    The development of a highly sensitive method for detection of telomerase activity, telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), has provided knowledge on telomerase activity in normal and cancer tissues. Subsequent several modifications have been achieved, including an introduction of the internal standard and hybridization protection technique that leads to simplicity and improvement of reproducibility and linearity of this method, and application of TRAP to in situ analysis to identify the cells responsible for telomerase activity. As for measurement of telomere length, fluorescence in situ hybridization technique appeared to give an information of telomere length on an individual chromosome in contrast to analysis of terminal restriction fragment, a conventional method which can express mean telomere length of all chromosomes. Further methodological improvement in this field is ongoing and showing a new sight on cell mortality and immortality.

  10. Measurement methods of physical activity in investigation associated with assessment of quality of life in elder adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurysh N.O.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of publication in physical activity measurement methods is provided. Presented three groups of physical activity measurement methods criterion, objective, subjective methods. Established that criterion methods are more accurate and used for validate objective and subjective methods. Subjective methods frequently used in investigation of youth and elderly population. Advisability of IPAQ questionnaire in international physical activity investigation of elderly adults is substantiated.

  11. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, Part D. U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A, Marchetti; Stephen D, Egbert; James A, Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G, Rugel; W, Ruhm; G, Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents the 36 Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of 36 Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36 Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of 36 Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction 35 Cl(n,γ) 36 Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, 39 K(n,α) 36 Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the 36 Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain ∼ 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that 36 Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of 36 Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure 36 Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded 36 Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been 36 Cl measurements made by a Japanese group. The impetus for the extensive 36 Cl and other neutron activation

  12. A specific colorimetric assay for measuring transglutaminase 1 and factor XIII activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Kitamura, Miyako; Alea, Mileidys Perez; Ceylan, Ismail; Thomas, Vincent; El Alaoui, Saïd

    2009-11-15

    Transglutaminase (TGase) is an enzyme that catalyzes both isopeptide cross-linking and incorporation of primary amines into proteins. Eight TGases have been identified in humans, and each of these TGases has a unique tissue distribution and physiological significance. Although several assays for TGase enzymatic activity have been reported, it has been difficult to establish an assay for discriminating each of these different TGase activities. Using a random peptide library, we recently identified the preferred substrate sequences for three major TGases: TGase 1, TGase 2, and factor XIII. In this study, we use these substrates in specific tests for measuring the activities of TGase 1 and factor XIII.

  13. The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Raste, Yogini; Demeyer, Heleen; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Jong, Corina; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Polkey, Michael I.; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Tabberer, Maggie; Dobbels, Fabienne; Ivanoff, Nathalie; de Boer, Willem I.; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly; Serra, Ignasi; Basagaña, Xavier; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A.; Karlsson, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD. Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised, two-way cross-over, multicentre study using PROactive draft questionnaires (daily and clinical visit versions) and two activity monitors. Item reduction followed an iterative process including classical and Rasch model analyses, and input from patients and clinical experts. 236 COPD patients from five European centres were included. Results indicated the concept of physical activity in COPD had two domains, labelled “amount” and “difficulty”. After item reduction, the daily PROactive instrument comprised nine items and the clinical visit contained 14. Both demonstrated good model fit (person separation index >0.7). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the bidimensional structure. Both instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α>0.8), test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.9) and exhibited moderate-to-high correlations (r>0.6) with related constructs and very low correlations (r<0.3) with unrelated constructs, providing evidence for construct validity. Daily and clinical visit “PROactive physical activity in COPD” instruments are hybrid tools combining a short patient-reported outcome questionnaire and two activity monitor variables which provide simple, valid and reliable measures of physical activity in COPD patients. PMID:26022965

  14. Neutron activation analyses and half-life measurements at the usgs triga reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert E.

    Neutron activation of materials followed by gamma spectroscopy using high-purity germanium detectors is an effective method for making measurements of nuclear beta decay half-lives and for detecting trace amounts of elements present in materials. This research explores applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two parts. Part 1. High Precision Methods for Measuring Decay Half-Lives, Chapters 1 through 8 Part one develops research methods and data analysis techniques for making high precision measurements of nuclear beta decay half-lives. The change in the electron capture half-life of 51Cr in pure chromium versus chromium mixed in a gold lattice structure is explored, and the 97Ru electron capture decay half-life are compared for ruthenium in a pure crystal versus ruthenium in a rutile oxide state, RuO2. In addition, the beta-minus decay half-life of 71mZn is measured and compared with new high precision findings. Density Functional Theory is used to explain the measured magnitude of changes in electron capture half-life from changes in the surrounding lattice electron configuration. Part 2. Debris Collection Nuclear Diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility, Chapters 9 through 11 Part two explores the design and development of a solid debris collector for use as a diagnostic tool at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NAA measurements are performed on NIF post-shot debris collected on witness plates in the NIF chamber. In this application NAA is used to detect and quantify the amount of trace amounts of gold from the hohlraum and germanium from the pellet present in the debris collected after a NIF shot. The design of a solid debris collector based on material x-ray ablation properties is given, and calculations are done to predict performance and results for the collection and measurements of trace amounts of gold and germanium from dissociated hohlraum debris.

  15. Measuring brain activity cycling (BAC) in long term EEG monitoring of preterm babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Nathan J; Palmu, Kirsi; Wikström, Sverre; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    Measuring fluctuation of vigilance states in early preterm infants undergoing long term intensive care holds promise for monitoring their neurological well-being. There is currently, however, neither objective nor quantitative methods available for this purpose in a research or clinical environment. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was, therefore, to develop quantitative measures of the fluctuation in vigilance states or brain activity cycling (BAC) in early preterm infants. The proposed measures of BAC were summary statistics computed on a frequency domain representation of the proportional duration of spontaneous activity transients (SAT%) calculated from electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings. Eighteen combinations of three statistics and six frequency domain representations were compared to a visual interpretation of cycling in the SAT% signal. Three high performing measures (band energy/periodogram: R = 0.809, relative band energy/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.711, g-statistic/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.638) were then compared to a grading of sleep wake cycling based on the visual interpretation of the amplitude-integrated EEG trend. These measures of BAC are conceptually straightforward, correlate well with the visual scores of BAC and sleep wake cycling, are robust enough to cope with the technically compromised monitoring data available in intensive care units, and are recommended for further validation in prospective studies. (paper)

  16. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyun, Woong Beom; Lee, Hyun Koo; Lee, Hai Yong; Park, Tae Soon

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4π γ ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4π γ ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054±0.024 pA. this 4π γ ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4π γ ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement

  17. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pyun, W B; Lee, H Y; Park, T S

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4 pi gamma ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054+-0.024 pA. this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement.

  18. Laser Polarimeter for Measurement of Optical Activity of Biological Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasov, E. A.; Protasov, D. E.; Ryzhkova, A. V.

    In this paper has been described the polarimetric device for measurement of optical activity of biological tissues, where the source of radiation is an infrared laser with a wave λ=0.808 micron. The polarizers used are polarizing prisms of Glan - Taylor. To obtain required angular resolution (0.180/cm) has been developed a device that converts the angle of rotation of the analyzer into electrical signal, which is fed to the appropriate scan digital oscilloscope. The passage of the polarized light through the fingers of the hand was established and the angles of rotation of the polarization vector of the transmitted radiation were measured, the values of which may be determined by the content of hemoglobin in the blood.

  19. Measurement of the activity size distribution of the polonium-218 under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Chul; Ha, Chung Woo

    1992-01-01

    A number of investigators have reported the formation of the radiolytic ultrafine particles produced by the interaction of ionizing radiation with water vapor. Previous studies have suggested that a very high localized concentration of the OH radical produced by the radiolysis of water can react with trace gas like organic vapors and produce lower vapor pressure compounds that can then nucleate. In order to determine water vapor and trace gas dependence of the active, positive-charged, first radon daughter, an experiment was conducted using a radon chamber. The activity size distribution of the radon daughter in the range of 0.5 - 100 nm was measured using the stacked wire screens sampler. Measurements were taken for different relative humidity. The resultant activity size distributions were analyzed. The addition of water vapor to the radon carrier gases resulted in the formation of ultrafine particles by OH radicals formed radon radiolysis. It may be due to the neutralization of charged Po-218 ion with water vapor through the radiolysis

  20. Enzymatic activity measured by microcalorimetry in soil amended with organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cenciani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity is an important property for soil quality evaluation. Two sequences of experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the enzymatic activity in a soil (Rhodic Eutrudox amended with cattle manure, earthworm casts, or sewage sludges from the municipalities of Barueri and Franca. The activity of commercial enzymes was measured by microcalorimetry in the same soil samples after sterilization. In the first experiment, the enzyme activities of cellulase, protease, and urease were determined in the soil samples during a three month period. In the second sequence of experiments, the thermal effect of the commercial enzymes cellulase, protease, and urease on sterilized soil samples under the same tretaments was monitored for a period of 46 days. The experimental design was randomized and arranged as factorial scheme in five treatments x seven samplings with five replications. The treatment effects were statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance. Tukey´s test was used to compare means at p < 0.05. The presence of different sources of organic residues increased the enzymatic activity in the sampling period. Cattle manure induced the highest enzymatic activity, followed by municipal sewage sludge, whereas earthworm casts induced the lowest activity, but differed from control treatment. The thermal effect on the enzyme activity of commercial cellulase, protease, and urease showed a variety of time peaks. These values probably oscillated due to soil physical-chemical factors affecting the enzyme activity on the residues.

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  2. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Syväoja

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls, who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose

  3. Actively stabilized optical fiber interferometry technique for online/in-process surface measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaiwei; Martin, Haydn; Jiang Xiangqian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report the recent progress in optical-beam scanning fiber interferometry for potential online nanoscale surface measurement based on the previous research. It attempts to generate a robust and miniature measurement device for future development into a multiprobe array measurement system. In this research, both fiber-optic-interferometry and the wavelength-division-multiplexing techniques have been used, so that the optical probe and the optical interferometer are well spaced and fast surface scanning can be carried out, allowing flexibility for online measurement. In addition, this system provides a self-reference signal to stabilize the optical detection with high common-mode noise suppression by adopting an active phase tracking and stabilization technique. Low-frequency noise was significantly reduced compared with unstabilized result. The measurement of a sample surface shows an attained repeatability of 3.3 nm

  4. Assessment of Intercomparison of Radionuclide Activity Measurement between P3KRBiN-BATAN and NMIJ/AIST-JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroh; Pujadi; Hermawan Candra; Ermi Juita; Holnisar

    2003-01-01

    On every radionuclide activity measurements or any measurements always contain uncertainties. The uncertainties come from standard source, equipment to be used, condition of measurements (background) and sample (measurement). Those elements should be taken into account in the measurement result evaluation. To know the result of activity measurement was in a good agreement or not, it can be done by intercomparison. A good result of a measurement if it was nearly with the result of international/primary laboratories measurements such as System Internationale de Reference (SIR)-Franch, National Metrology Institute of Japan- Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST or Physikalisch Technische Bundes-anstalt (PTB) and the absolute value of E n should be less than 1. The result of intercomparison between Center for Research and Development of Radiation Safety and Nuclear Biomedicine (P3KRBiN) -BATAN and NMIJ/AIST were in a good agreement for activity measurement of 125 I (E n =0.193), 58 Co(E n =0.503), 88 Y(E n =0.035) and 59 Fe(E n =0.632), by using gamma spectrometry counting system (HPGe detector) and 166m Ho(E n =0.492), by using Merlin Gerin Ionization chamber. (author)

  5. Absorption and activation techniques in measurements of fast-neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1982-01-01

    The absorption and activation methods have been applied for a long time to systematic studies of fast neutron capture cross sections. Both methods are simple in principle but difficult in practice. The simplicity should ensure a wider use of the methods in particular for problems which may be complicated to approach with other methods. The difficulties encountered in absorption measurements are related to multiple scattering and resonance shielding effects. In activation experiments the influence of secondary low-energy neutrons causes the main problems

  6. An examination of presenteeism measures: the association of three scoring methods with health, work life, and consumer activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E; Xi, Min

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of 3 scoring techniques for presenteeism measures by exploring their relationship with patient activation, health, job satisfaction, and socioeconomic characteristics. The sample consisted of 631 employees from 2 predominantly white-collar employee groups in the northern Midwest. Employees completed the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, a wellness profile, and the Patient Activation Measure. Absolute measures reflect self-rated performance, while relative and stratified measures compare self-rated performance to that of co-workers. Multivariate analyses were used to validate scoring measures. All measures of presenteeism were positively correlated with being nonwhite, income, and smoking. The significance of age, employment, mental health, and patient activation depends on how presenteeism is defined. Practitioners must carefully consider which scoring method best addresses their program goals and objectives. Clearer measurement guidelines are needed.

  7. Sympathetic nervous system activity measured by skin conductance quantifies the challenge of walking adaptability tasks after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J; Chatterjee, Sudeshna A; McGuirk, Theresa E; Porges, Eric C; Fox, Emily J; Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K

    2018-02-01

    Walking adaptability tasks are challenging for people with motor impairments. The construct of perceived challenge is typically measured by self-report assessments, which are susceptible to subjective measurement error. The development of an objective physiologically-based measure of challenge may help to improve the ability to assess this important aspect of mobility function. The objective of this study to investigate the use of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity measured by skin conductance to gauge the physiological stress response to challenging walking adaptability tasks in people post-stroke. Thirty adults with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis performed a battery of seventeen walking adaptability tasks. SNS activity was measured by skin conductance from the palmar surface of each hand. The primary outcome variable was the percent change in skin conductance level (ΔSCL) between the baseline resting and walking phases of each task. Task difficulty was measured by performance speed and by physical therapist scoring of performance. Walking function and balance confidence were measured by preferred walking speed and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, respectively. There was a statistically significant negative association between ΔSCL and task performance speed and between ΔSCL and clinical score, indicating that tasks with greater SNS activity had slower performance speed and poorer clinical scores. ΔSCL was significantly greater for low functioning participants versus high functioning participants, particularly during the most challenging walking adaptability tasks. This study supports the use of SNS activity measured by skin conductance as a valuable approach for objectively quantifying the perceived challenge of walking adaptability tasks in people post-stroke. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  9. Measurement of Antioxidant Activity Towards Superoxide in Natural Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Whitney King

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are a class of molecules that provide a protective function against reactive oxygen species (ROS in biological systems by out competing physiologically important molecules for ROS oxidation. In natural waters, the reactivity of antioxidants gives an estimate of oxidative stress and may determine the reactivity and distribution of reactive oxidants. We present an analytical method to measure antioxidant activity in natural waters through the competition between ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, and MCLA, a chemiluminescent probe for superoxide. A numerical kinetic model of the analytical method has been developed to optimize analytical performance. Measurements of antioxidant concentrations in pure and seawater are possible with detection limits below 0.1 nM. Surface seawater samples collected at solar noon contained over 0.4 nM of antioxidants and exhibited first-order decay with a half-life of 3-7 minutes, consistent with a reactive species capable of scavenging photochemically produced superoxide.

  10. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  11. Physical activity and sedentary behavior during pregnancy and postpartum, measured using hip and wrist-worn accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn R. Hesketh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity in pregnancy and postpartum is beneficial to mothers and infants. To advance knowledge of objective physical activity measurement during these periods, this study compares hip to wrist accelerometer compliance; assesses convergent validity (correlation between hip- and wrist-worn accelerometry; and assesses change in physical activity from pregnancy to postpartum. Methods: We recruited women during pregnancy (n = 100; 2014–2015, asking them to wear hip and wrist accelerometers for 7 days during Trimester 2 (T2, Trimester 3 (T3, and 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-months postpartum. We assessed average wear-time and correlations (axis-specific counts/minute, vector magnitude counts/day and step counts/day at T2, T3, and postpartum. Results: Compliance was higher for wrist-