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Sample records for activity level-dependent synapse-specific

  1. Synapse-specific stabilization of plasticity processes: the synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis revisited 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Angel; Lopez de Armentia, Mikel; Alarcon, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, the synaptic tagging hypothesis was proposed to explain how newly synthesized plasticity products can be specifically targeted to active synapses. A growing number of studies have validated the seminal findings that gave rise to this model, as well as contributed to unveil and expand the range of mechanisms underlying late-associativity and neuronal computation. Here, we will review what it was learnt during this past decade regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic tagging and synaptic capture. The accumulated experimental evidence has widened the theoretical framework set by the synaptic tagging and capture (STC) model and introduced concepts that were originally considered part of alternative models for explaining synapse-specific long-term potentiation (LTP). As a result, we believe that the STC model, now improved and expanded with these new ideas and concepts, still represents the most compelling hypothesis to explain late-associativity in synapse-specific plasticity processes. We will also discuss the impact of this model in our view of the integrative capability of neurons and associative learning. PMID:18281094

  2. Synapse-specific inhibitory control of hippocampal feedback inhibitory circuit

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    Simon eChamberland

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Local circuit and long-range GABAergic projections provide powerful inhibitory control over the operation of hippocampal inhibitory circuits, yet little is known about the input- and target-specific organization of interacting inhibitory networks in relation to their specific functions. Using a combination of two-photon laser scanning photostimulation and whole-cell patch clamp recordings in mice hippocampal slices, we examined the properties of transmission at GABAergic synapses formed onto hippocampal CA1 stratum oriens – lacunosum moleculare (O–LM interneurons by two major inhibitory inputs: local projection originating from stratum radiatum interneurons and septohippocampal GABAergic terminals. Optical mapping of local inhibitory inputs to O–LM interneurons revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide- and calretinine-positive neurons, with anatomical properties typical of type III interneuron-specific interneurons, provided the major local source of inhibition to O–LM cells. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents evoked by minimal stimulation of this input exhibited small amplitude and significant paired-pulse and multiple-pulse depression during repetitive activity. Moreover, these synapses failed to show any form of long-term synaptic plasticity. In contrast, synapses formed by septohippocampal projection produced higher amplitude and persistent inhibition and exhibited long-term potentiation induced by theta-like activity. These results indicate the input and target-specific segregation in inhibitory control, exerted by two types of GABAergic projections and responsible for distinct dynamics of inhibition in O–LM interneurons. The two inputs are therefore likely to support the differential activity- and brain state-dependent recruitment of hippocampal feedback inhibitory circuits in vivo, crucial for dendritic disinhibition and computations in CA1 pyramidal cells.

  3. Multi-regional investigation of the relationship between functional MRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation and GABA concentration.

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    Ashley D Harris

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought.

  4. GA-Binding Protein Is Dispensable for Neuromuscular Synapse Formation and Synapse-Specific Gene Expression▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jaworski, Alexander; Smith, Cynthia L.; Burden, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    The mRNAs encoding postsynaptic components at the neuromuscular junction are concentrated in the synaptic region of muscle fibers. Accumulation of these RNAs in the synaptic region is mediated, at least in part, by selective transcription of the corresponding genes in synaptic myofiber nuclei. The transcriptional mechanisms that are responsible for synapse-specific gene expression are largely unknown, but an Ets site in the promoter regions of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit genes and o...

  5. A neural measure of behavioral engagement: task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent activity in the precuneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan Ray

    2010-01-15

    Brain imaging has provided a useful tool to examine the neural processes underlying human cognition. A critical question is whether and how task engagement influences the observed regional brain activations. Here we highlighted this issue and derived a neural measure of task engagement from the task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the precuneus. Using independent component analysis, we identified brain regions in the default circuit - including the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) - showing greater activation during resting as compared to task residuals in 33 individuals. Time series correlations with the posterior cingulate cortex as the seed region showed that connectivity with the precuneus was significantly stronger during resting as compared to task residuals. We hypothesized that if the task-residual BOLD activity in the precuneus reflects engagement, it should account for a certain amount of variance in task-related regional brain activation. In an additional experiment of 59 individuals performing a stop signal task, we observed that the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of the precuneus but not the mPFC accounted for approximately 10% of the variance in prefrontal activation related to attentional monitoring and response inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that task-residual fALFF in the precuneus may be a potential indicator of task engagement. This measurement may serve as a useful covariate in identifying motivation-independent neural processes that underlie the pathogenesis of a psychiatric or neurological condition.

  6. Blood oxygenation-level dependent functional MRI in evaluating the selective activation of motor cortexes associated with recovery of motor function in hemiplegic patients with ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuechun Li; Xiaoyan Liu; Guorong Liu; Ying He; Baojun Wang; Furu Liang; Li Wang; Hui Zhang; Jingfen Zhang; Ruiming Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies about blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) have indicated that the poststroke recovery of motor function is accompanied by the selective activation of motor cor texes with high correlation.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term outcomes after rehabilitative interventions with BOLD fMRI in hemi plegic patients with acute stroke, and analyze the correlation of the excitement of brain function in the passive and active movements of the affected limb with the recovery of motor function. DESIGN : A case observation. SETTING: Department of Neurology, Baotou Central Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty hemiplegic inpatients with ischemic stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, Baotou Central Hospital from January to December in 2005, including 16 males and 14 females, aging 44-71 years with an average age of (56±5) years, and the disease course ranged from 12 to 72 hours. Inclusive criteria: In accordance with the diagnostic standard of ischemic stroke revised by the Fourth National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease; Confirmed by cranial CT or MRI. They were all informed agreed with the detected items.METHODS: ① The Bobath technique was adopted in the rehabilitative interventions of the 30 patients, 30 minutes for each time, twice a day for three weeks continuously. ② The hand motor recovery of the stroke patients was graded by the Brunnstrom,stages ( Ⅰ -Ⅵ), and be able to grasp various objects and extend for the whole range was taken as grade Ⅵ. ③ The patients were examined with fMRI BOLD before rehabilitation and 3 weeks after rehabilitation. All the patients were trained with finger movements, the distracting thoughts should be eliminated as much as possible especially during the movement phase, the patients should highly concentrate on the hand movements. The range for the finger movements should be as large as possible with moderate frequency. The hand movements should be 10 s with

  7. Temporally shifted hemodynamic response model helps to extract acupuncture-induced functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation-level dependent activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-Jung Ho; Jeng-Ren Duann; Chun-Ming Chen; Jeon-Hor Chen; Wu-Chung Shen; Tung-Wu Lu; Jan-Ray Liao; Zen-Pin Lin; Kuo-Ning Shaw; Jaung-Geng Lin

    2009-01-01

    Background The onsets of needling sensation introduced by acupuncture stimulus can vary widely from subject to subject.This should be explicitly accounted for by the model blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) time course used in general linear model (GLM) analysis to obtain more consistent across-subject group results.However,in standard GLM analysis,the model BOLD time course obtained by convolving a canonical hemodynamic response function with an experimental paradigm time course is assumed identical across subjects.Although some added-on properties to the model BOLD time course,such as temporal and dispersion derivatives,may be used to account for different BOLD response onsets,they can only account for the BOLD onset deviations to the extent of less than one repetition time (TR).Methods In this study,we explicitly manipulated the onsets of model BOLD time course by shifting it with-2,-1,or 1 TR and used these temporally shifted BOLD model to analyze the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained from three acupuncture fMRI experiments with GLM analysis.One involved acupuncture stimulus on left ST42acupoint and the other two on left GB40 and left BL64 acupoints.Results The model BOLD time course with temporal shifts,in addition to temporal and dispersion derivatives,could result in better statistical power of the data analysis in terms of the average correlation coefficients between the used BOLD models and extracted BOLD responses from individual subject data and the T-values of the activation clusters in the grouped random effects.Conclusions The GLM analysis with ordinary BOLD model failed to catch the large variability of the onsets of the BOLD responses associated with the acupuncture needling sensation.Shifts in time with more than a TR on model BOLD time course might be required to better extract the acupuncture stimulus-induced BOLD activities from individual fMRI data.

  8. Synapse-Specific Metaplasticity: To Be Silenced Is Not to Silence 2B

    OpenAIRE

    Philpot, Benjamin D.; Zukin, R. Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    What happens to a single, presynaptically quiescent synapse among a population of active synapses? In this issue of Neuron, Ehlers and colleagues show that, far from being eliminated, these inactive synapses are primed for potentiation and incorporation into a new neural circuit through an upregulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors.

  9. Interactions between innexins UNC-7 and UNC-9 mediate electrical synapse specificity in the Caenorhabditis elegans locomotory nervous system

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    Nicholson Bruce J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 10% of Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system synapses are electrical, that is, gap junctions composed of innexins. The locomotory nervous system consists of several pairs of interneurons and three major classes of motor neurons, all with stereotypical patterns of connectivity that include gap junctions. Mutations in the two innexin genes unc-7 and unc-9 result in identical uncoordinated movement phenotypes, and their respective gene products were investigated for their contribution to electrical synapse connectivity. Results unc-7 encodes three innexin isoforms. Two of these, UNC-7S and UNC-7SR, are functionally equivalent and play an essential role in coordinated locomotion. UNC-7S and UNC-7SR are widely expressed and co-localize extensively with green fluorescent protein-tagged innexin UNC-9 in the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. A subset of UNC-7S/SR expression visualizes gap junctions formed between the AVB forward command interneurons and their B class motor neuron partners. Experiments indicate that expression of UNC-7S/SR in AVB and expression of UNC-9 in B motor neurons is necessary for these gap junctions to form. In Xenopus oocyte pairs, both UNC-7S and UNC-9 form homomeric gap junctions, and together they form heterotypic channels. Xenopus oocyte studies and co-localization studies in C. elegans suggest that UNC-7S and UNC-9 do not heteromerize in the same hemichannel, leading to the model that hemichannels in AVB:B motor neuron gap junctions are homomeric and heterotypic. Conclusion UNC-7S and UNC-9 are widely expressed and contribute to a large number of the gap junctions identified in the locomotory nervous system. Proper AVB:B gap junction formation requires UNC-7S expression in AVB interneurons and UNC-9 expression in B motor neurons. More broadly, this illustrates that innexin identity is critical for electrical synapse specificity, but differential (compartmentalized innexin expression cannot

  10. The synapse-specific phosphoprotein F1-20 is identical to the clathrin assembly protein AP-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Tannery, N H; Yang, J; Puszkin, S; Lafer, E M

    1993-06-15

    F1-20 and AP-3 are independently described, synapse-associated, developmentally regulated phosphoproteins with similar apparent molecular masses on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). F1-20 was cloned and characterized because of its synapse specificity. AP-3 was purified and studied biochemically because of its function as a clathrin assembly protein. Here we present evidence that establishes the identity of F1-20 and AP-3. Monoclonal antibodies against F1-20 and AP-3 both specifically recognize a single protein from mouse brain with an apparent molecular mass of 190 kDa on SDS-PAGE. These monoclonal antibodies also specifically recognize the cloned F1-20 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. The anti-F1-20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) stains a bovine protein with an apparent molecular mass on SDS-PAGE of 190 kDa that copurifies with brain clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and that can be extracted from the brain CCVs under conditions that extract AP-3. The anti-F1-20 and anti-AP-3 mAbs specifically recognize the same spot on a two-dimensional gel run on a bovine brain clathrin-coated vesicle extract. AP-3 purified from bovine brain CCVs is recognized by both the anti-F1-20 and anti-AP-3 mAbs. Purified preparations of bovine AP-3 and bacterially expressed mouse F1-20 give identical patterns of protease digestion with bromelain and subtilisin. Sequence analyses reveal that F1-20 has an essentially neutral 30-kDa NH2-terminal domain with an amino acid composition typical of a globular structure and an acidic COOH-terminal domain rich in proline, serine, threonine, and alanine. This is consistent with proteolysis experiments that suggested that AP-3 could be divided into a 30-kDa globular uncharged clathrin-binding domain and an acidic, anomalously migrating domain.

  11. Pricing of options on assets with level dependent stochastic volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skabelin, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    Many asset classes, such as interest rates, exchange rates, commodities, and equities, often exhibit a strong relationship between asset prices and asset volatilities. This paper examines an analytical model that takes into account this level dependence of volatility. We demonstrate how prices of European options under stochastic volatility can be calculated analytically via inverse Laplace transformations. We also examine a Hull-White stochastic volatility expansion. While a success of this expansion in approximate computation of option prices has already been established empirically, the question of convergence has been left unanswered. We demonstrate, in this paper, that this expansion diverges essentially for all possible stochastic volatility processes. In contrast to a majority of volatility expansion models reported in the literature, we construct expansions that explicitly show the contribution of all of the variance moments. Such complete expansions are very useful in analyzing properties of option prices, as we demonstrate by examining why empirical volatility surfaces plotted as a function of the rescaled strike can sometimes exhibit striking time invariance.

  12. Busy period analysis of the level dependent PH/PH/1/K queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the transient behavior of a level dependent single server queuing system with a waiting room of finite size during the busy period. The focus is on the level dependent PH/PH/1/K queue. We derive in closed form the joint transform of the length of the busy period, the number o

  13. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 ± 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 ± 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences (ρ < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed

  14. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jong Chul [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 {+-} 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 {+-} 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences ({rho} < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed.

  15. Evaluation by industrial workers of passive and level-dependent hearing protection devices

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    Jennifer B Tufts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Level-dependent hearing protection devices (HPDs provide protection from intense sound, while offering amplification for speech and other signals in lower levels of noise. These HPDs have been developed in response to the communication and operational needs of noise-exposed persons in industry and the military. This study was conducted to examine industrial workers′ perceptions of the performance of two level-dependent HPDs (one with integrated radio communication capability and one without it and their customary passive HPDs. This research took place at a plastic film manufacturing plant in Rhode Island, USA, following a mixed-measures design. Fifteen maintenance technicians at the plant evaluated the two level-dependent HPDs, plus their customary passive HPDs, in three separate trial periods. Data were collected via a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Mixed-model analyses of variance were performed on all dependent measures. Linear and quadratic effect sizes were assessed with eta. Results revealed that the two level-dependent HPDs offered better perceived communication and situational awareness than the workers′ customary passive HPDs. However, the level-dependent HPDs were rated lower than the passive HPDs in terms of usability and comfort. To increase workers′ acceptance of level-dependent HPDs, usability issues must be addressed by the HPD manufacturers.

  16. On the level-dependence of Wess-Zumino-Witten three-point functions

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Jørgen; Walton, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Three-point functions of Wess-Zumino-Witten models are investigated. In particular, we study the level-dependence of three-point functions in the models based on algebras $su(3)$ and $su(4)$. We find a correspondence with Berenstein-Zelevinsky triangles. Using previous work connecting those triangles to the fusion multiplicities, and the Gepner-Witten depth rule, we explain how to construct the full three-point functions. We show how their level-dependence is similar to that of the related fu...

  17. Application of language blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI in the navigating operation of neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To verify the accuracy of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD)-based activation using electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM) and explore the value of language fMRI in the navigating operation of neurosurgery. Methods: In 8 cases with brain tumors, BOLD-fMRI examinations were done before the operations. Under the state of awake anesthesia,the patients were aroused and ESM was conducted. Point-to-point comparison between the BOLD signal activations and the ESM was carried out under the surveillance of the neuro-navigation technology. In order to observe the sensibility and specificity of BOLD activations, the location of BOLD activations and the point of ESM was compared to calculate the stimulating positive points inside the regions of BOLD signals (real positive), outside BOLD regions (pseudo- negative), the stimulating negative points inside the regions of BOLD signals (pseudo-positive), and outside BOLD region (real negative). Two kinds of criteria for assessment were used. One was that the positive stimulating points were located in BOLD regions, and the other was that the positive stimulating points were located within 1 cm around the range of BOLD regions. Removal of the lesions were conducted with the tissue 1 cm around the language region preserved, and the cortex inside 0.5-1.0 cm distance from the positive points were retained. Results: Of the 8 cases, only 6 finished the tasks. Among them, 3 cases were with astrocytoma of grade 2, 2 were with astrocytoma of grade 3, and one with glioblastoma. The total number of stimulating points was 48, among which the positive points were 11. When the first criteria was applied, the sensitivity was 72.7% (8/11), and the specificity was 81.8% (30/37). When the second criteria was applied, the sensitivity was 82.0% (9/11), and the specificity was 75.6% (28/37). Follow-up after operation showed no aphasia occurred. Conclusions: BOLD-fMRI had a high sensitivity and specificity in displaying the language

  18. Modelling the level-dependent latency of the auditory brainstem response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James;

    2011-01-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) are used for both clinical and research purposes to objectively assess human hearing. A prominent feature of the transient evoked ABR is the level-dependent latency of the distinct peaks in its waveform. The latency of the most prominent peak, wave-V, is about 8...

  19. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). Renal imaging. Concepts and applications; Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD). Bildgebung der Nieren. Konzepte und Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, Johanna C.; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Mie, Moritz B.; Zoellner, Frank G. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (DE). Inst. fuer Computerunterstuetzte Klinische Medizin (CKM)

    2010-07-01

    Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2{sup *}-weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)

  20. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for assessment of renal oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Neugarten J; Golestaneh L

    2014-01-01

    Joel Neugarten, Ladan Golestaneh Renal Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) has recently emerged as an important noninvasive technique to assess intrarenal oxygenation under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Although this tool represents a major addition to our armamentarium of methodologies to investigate the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of acute...

  1. Increased regional homogeneity of blood oxygen level-dependent signals in occipital cortex of early blind individuals.

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    Liu, Chong; Liu, Yong; Li, Weilan; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

    2011-03-01

    Although resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has shown altered functional connectivity between visual and other brain areas in the early blind individuals, it cannot answer which brain area's local activities are changed. In this study, regional homogeneity, a measure of the homogeneity of the local blood oxygen level-dependent signals, was used for the first time to investigate the changes in the resting-state brain activity in the early blind individuals. Compared with age-matched and sex-matched sighted individuals, the early blind individuals showed increased regional homogeneity only in the occipital areas, which might be explained by the abnormal cortical development and/or experience-dependent plasticity, resulted from an early visual deprivation. PMID:21304328

  2. Optimal production policy for multi-product with inventory-level-dependent demand in segmented market

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    Singh Yogender

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation has emerged as the primary means by which firms achieve optimal production policy. In this paper, we use market segmentation approach in multi-product inventory system with inventory-level-dependent demand. The objective is to make use of optimal control theory to solve the inventory-production problem and develop an optimal production policy that minimizes the total cost associated with inventory and production rate in segmented market. First, we consider a single production and inventory problem with multi-destination demand that vary from segment to segment. Further, we describe a single source production and multi destination inventory and demand problem under the assumption that firm may choose independently the inventory directed to each segment. The optimal control is applied to study and solve the proposed problem.

  3. Preoperative 3T high field blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging for glioma involving sensory cortical areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-wu; WANG Jiang-fei; JIANG Tao; LI Shou-wei; ZHANG Wen-bo; LI Zi-xiao; ZHANG Zhong; DAI Jian-ping; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Localization of sensory cortical areas during the operation is essential to preserve the sensory function.Intraoperative direct electrostimulation under awake anesthesia is the golden standard but time-consuming. We applied 3T high field blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the relationship between glioma and cortical sensory areas preoperatively and to guide intraoperative direct electrostimulation for quick and precise localization.Methods Five glioma patients with sensory cortex involvement by or next to the lesion had preoperative BOLD fMRI to determine the spatial relationship of cortical sensory areas to the tumours. Bilateral hand opposite movement was performed by these patients for fMRI. Precentral and postcentral gyri were identified by electrical stimulation during the operation. Karnofsky Performance Status scores of the patients' pre- and postoperative and the role of BOLD fMRI were evaluated.Results The cortical sensory areas were all activated in five glioma patients involving postcentral gyrus areas by BOLDf MRI with bilateral hand opposite movement. The detected activation areas corresponded with the results from cortical electrical stimulation.Conclusions The relationship between cortical sensory areas and tumour can be accurately shown by BOLD fMRI before operation. And the information used to make the tumour resection could obtain good clinical results.

  4. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for assessment of renal oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neugarten J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Joel Neugarten, Ladan Golestaneh Renal Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI has recently emerged as an important noninvasive technique to assess intrarenal oxygenation under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Although this tool represents a major addition to our armamentarium of methodologies to investigate the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury and progressive chronic kidney disease, numerous technical limitations confound interpretation of data derived from this approach. BOLD MRI has been utilized to assess intrarenal oxygenation in numerous experimental models of kidney disease and in human subjects with diabetic and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, renal allograft rejection, contrast-associated nephropathy, and obstructive uropathy. However, confidence in conclusions based on data derived from BOLD MRI measurements will require continuing advances and technical refinements in the use of this technique. Keywords: kidney, hypoxia, oxygenation, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, contrast-associated nephropathy, BOLD MRI

  5. Hedgehog signalling controls zebrafish neural keel morphogenesis via its level-dependent effects on neurogenesis.

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    Takamiya, Masanari; Campos-Ortega, Jose A

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the role of hedgehog (Hh) signalling on zebrafish neurulation, focusing on the intimate relationship between neurogenesis and morphogenesis during the neural keel stage. Through the analyses of Hh loss- and gain-of-function phenotypes, we found that Hh signalling controls the neural keel morphogenesis. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we examined cellular elongation polarity in the neural keel of Hh loss- and gain-of-function phenotypes and compared this with the deficient phenotype of a planar cell polarity (PCP) molecule, Trilobite/Strabismus. We found that Hh signalling controls cell elongation polarity of the neuroepithelium at least in part by means of PCP pathway; however, its effects are not strong enough per se to affect keel morphogenesis; instead Hh signalling mainly controls keel morphogenesis by means of affecting both medial and lateral neurogenesis. We devised a method for precise evaluation of neurogenesis in loss- and gain-of-Hh phenotypes that compensates for its delay caused by disturbed morphogenesis. We present a model that Hh signalling exerts level-dependent and binary-opposite effects on medial neurogenesis, whose modification to explain lateral neurogenesis reveals regional differences of underlying mechanisms between the two proneural domains. Such differences seem to be created in part by regional effector signalling; the effects of high Hh-signalling on medial neurogenesis can be reversed in accordance to medial Tri/Stbm level, in a polarity independent manner.

  6. Axial level-dependent molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the genesis of the embryonic neural plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Hisato; Takada, Shinji; Takemoto, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    The transcription factor gene Sox2, centrally involved in neural primordial regulation, is activated by many enhancers. During the early stages of embryonic development, Sox2 is regulated by the enhancers N2 and N1 in the anterior neural plate (ANP) and posterior neural plate (PNP), respectively. This differential use of the enhancers reflects distinct regulatory mechanisms underlying the genesis of ANP and PNP. The ANP develops directly from the epiblast, triggered by nodal signal inhibition, and via the combined action of TFs SOX2, OTX2, POU3F1, and ZIC2, which promotes the the ANP development and inhibits other cell lineages. In contrast, the PNP is derived from neuromesodermal bipotential axial stem cells that develop into the neural plate when Sox2 is activated by the N1 enhancer, whereas they develop into the paraxial mesoderm when the N1 enhancer is repressed by the action of TBX6. The axial stem cells are maintained by the activity of WNT3a and T (Brachyury). However, at axial levels more anterior to the 8th somites (cervical levels), the development of both the neural plate and somite proceeds in the absence of WNT3a, T, or TBX6. These observations indicate that distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms determine neural plate genesis based on the axial level, and contradict the classical concept of the term "neural induction," which assumes a pan-neural plate mechanism. PMID:27279156

  7. Axial level-dependent molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the genesis of the embryonic neural plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Hisato; Takada, Shinji; Takemoto, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    The transcription factor gene Sox2, centrally involved in neural primordial regulation, is activated by many enhancers. During the early stages of embryonic development, Sox2 is regulated by the enhancers N2 and N1 in the anterior neural plate (ANP) and posterior neural plate (PNP), respectively. This differential use of the enhancers reflects distinct regulatory mechanisms underlying the genesis of ANP and PNP. The ANP develops directly from the epiblast, triggered by nodal signal inhibition, and via the combined action of TFs SOX2, OTX2, POU3F1, and ZIC2, which promotes the the ANP development and inhibits other cell lineages. In contrast, the PNP is derived from neuromesodermal bipotential axial stem cells that develop into the neural plate when Sox2 is activated by the N1 enhancer, whereas they develop into the paraxial mesoderm when the N1 enhancer is repressed by the action of TBX6. The axial stem cells are maintained by the activity of WNT3a and T (Brachyury). However, at axial levels more anterior to the 8th somites (cervical levels), the development of both the neural plate and somite proceeds in the absence of WNT3a, T, or TBX6. These observations indicate that distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms determine neural plate genesis based on the axial level, and contradict the classical concept of the term "neural induction," which assumes a pan-neural plate mechanism.

  8. Stimulus Ratio and Level Dependence of Low- and Mid-Frequency Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Active amplifiers within the cochlea generate, as a by-product of their function, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in response to carefully chosen two-tone stimuli. Focus has been on invoking emissions in a mid-frequency range from 500 to 4000 Hz. Below 500 Hz, physiological noise...... audiometrically normal hearing for inclusion in our experiment. DPOAEs were measured with pure-tone stimuli in four configurations: f2 fixed around a mid-frequency (2050-2180 Hz), f2 fixed around a low frequency (512-545 Hz), fdp fixed at a mid-frequency (1231 Hz) and fdp low frequency (246 Hz). Eight stimulus...

  9. How bold is blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney? Opportunities, challenges and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Niendorf, T; Pohlmann, A.; Arakelyan, K.; Flemming, B; Cantow, K.; Hentschel, J.; Grosenick, D; Ladwig, M.; Reimann, H; Klix, S.; Waiczies, S; Seeliger, E.

    2015-01-01

    Renal tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia are key elements in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury and its progression to chronic kidney disease. Yet, in vivo assessment of renal haemodynamics and tissue oxygenation remains a challenge. Many of the established approaches are invasive, hence not applicable in humans. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers an alternative. BOLD-MRI is non-invasive and indicative of renal tissue oxygenation. Nonetheles...

  10. CO2-level Dependent Effects of Ocean Acidification on Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, Early Life History

    KAUST Repository

    Zakroff, Casey J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to lead to global oceanic decreases in pH of up to 0.3 units within the next 100 years. However, those levels are already being reached currently in coastal regions due to natural CO2 variability. Squid are a vital component of the pelagic ecosystem, holding a unique niche as a highly active predatory invertebrate and major prey stock for upper trophic levels. This study examined the effects of a range of ocean acidification regimes on the early life history of a coastal squid species, the Atlantic longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. Eggs were raised in a flow-through ocean acidification system at CO2 levels ranging from ambient (400ppm) to 2200ppm. Time to hatching, hatching efficiency, and hatchling mantle lengths, yolk sac sizes, and statoliths were all examined to elucidate stress effects. Delays in hatching time of at least a day were seen at exposures above 1300ppm in all trials under controlled conditions. Mantle lengths were significantly reduced at exposures above 1300 ppm. Yolk sac sizes varied between CO2 treatments, but no distinct pattern emerged. Statoliths were increasingly porous and malformed as CO2 exposures increased, and were significantly reduced in surface area at exposures above 1300ppm. Doryteuthis pealeii appears to be able to withstand acidosis stress without major effects up to 1300ppm, but is strongly impacted past that threshold. Since yolk consumption did not vary among treatments, it appears that during its early life stages, D. pealeii reallocates its available energy budget away from somatic growth and system development in order to mitigate the stress of acidosis.

  11. Megalophallus as a sequela of priapism in sickle cell anemia: use of blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, A A; Umans, H; Nagel, R L; Fabry, M E

    2000-09-01

    Priapism is a common complication of sickle cell anemia. We report a little known sequela of priapism: painless megalophallus, with significant penile enlargement. The patient had had an intense episode of priapism 9 years previously and his penis remained enlarged. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging revealed enlarged, hypoxic corpora cavernosa. Megalophallus probably resulted from permanent loss of elasticity of the tunica albuginea due to severe engorgement during the episode of priapism. This sequela needs to be recognized by physicians because no intervention is necessary and sexual function seems to remain intact. PMID:10962334

  12. Cerebral misery perfusion diagnosed using hypercapnic blood-oxygenation-level-dependent contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Souza Olympio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cerebral misery perfusion represents a failure of cerebral autoregulation. It is an important differential diagnosis in post-stroke patients presenting with collapses in the presence of haemodynamically significant cerebrovascular stenosis. This is particularly the case when cortical or internal watershed infarcts are present. When this condition occurs, further investigation should be done immediately. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian man presented with a stroke secondary to complete occlusion of his left internal carotid artery. He went on to suffer recurrent seizures. Neuroimaging demonstrated numerous new watershed-territory cerebral infarcts. No source of arterial thromboembolism was demonstrable. Hypercapnic blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure his cerebrovascular reserve capacity. The findings were suggestive of cerebral misery perfusion. Conclusions Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging allows the inference of cerebral misery perfusion. This procedure is cheaper and more readily available than positron emission tomography imaging, which is the current gold standard diagnostic test. The most evaluated treatment for cerebral misery perfusion is extracranial-intracranial bypass. Although previous trials of this have been unfavourable, the results of new studies involving extracranial-intracranial bypass in high-risk patients identified during cerebral perfusion imaging are awaited. Cerebral misery perfusion is an important and under-recognized condition in which emerging imaging and treatment modalities present the possibility of practical and evidence-based management in the near future. Physicians should thus be aware of this disorder and of recent developments in diagnostic tests that allow its detection.

  13. Characterization of the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in cat auditory cortex using high-field fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trecia A; Joanisse, Marc F; Gati, Joseph S; Hughes, Sarah M; Nixon, Pam L; Menon, Ravi S; Lomber, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Much of what is known about the cortical organization for audition in humans draws from studies of auditory cortex in the cat. However, these data build largely on electrophysiological recordings that are both highly invasive and provide less evidence concerning macroscopic patterns of brain activation. Optical imaging, using intrinsic signals or dyes, allows visualization of surface-based activity but is also quite invasive. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) overcomes these limitations by providing a large-scale perspective of distributed activity across the brain in a non-invasive manner. The present study used fMRI to characterize stimulus-evoked activity in auditory cortex of an anesthetized (ketamine/isoflurane) cat, focusing specifically on the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal time course. Functional images were acquired for adult cats in a 7 T MRI scanner. To determine the BOLD signal time course, we presented 1s broadband noise bursts between widely spaced scan acquisitions at randomized delays (1-12 s in 1s increments) prior to each scan. Baseline trials in which no stimulus was presented were also acquired. Our results indicate that the BOLD response peaks at about 3.5s in primary auditory cortex (AI) and at about 4.5 s in non-primary areas (AII, PAF) of cat auditory cortex. The observed peak latency is within the range reported for humans and non-human primates (3-4 s). The time course of hemodynamic activity in cat auditory cortex also occurs on a comparatively shorter scale than in cat visual cortex. The results of this study will provide a foundation for future auditory fMRI studies in the cat to incorporate these hemodynamic response properties into appropriate analyses of cat auditory cortex. PMID:23000258

  14. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI of the skeletal muscle during ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potthast, Silke [Unispital Basel, Inst. fuer Radiologie (Switzerland); Schulte, A. [Univ. Hospital Ulm (Germany). Clinic for Radiation Therapy and Radiooncology; Kos, S.; Bilecen, D. [Unispital Basel, Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Aschwanden, M. [Unispital Basel (Switzerland). Angiologie

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: to compare calf muscle Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) response during ischemia in patients suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and age-matched non-PAOD subjects. Materials and methods: PAOD patients with symptoms of intermittent calf claudication and an age-matched control group underwent T2*-weighted single-shot multi-echo planar imaging on a whole-body MR scanner at 1.5 T. The muscle BOLD signal in the calf was acquired during 60 sec of baseline and 240 sec of ischemia induced by cuff compression. T2* time courses in four calf muscles were evaluated. Results: significant differences in the mean T2* values were noted after 150 sec of measurement (p < 0.05). Patients with PAOD revealed a significantly reduced BOLD signal decrease compared to an age-matched control group. Conclusion: potential cause for this observation may be changes in the structure and/or the metabolic turnover of the muscle in PAOD patients. (orig.)

  15. Renal Blood Oxygenation Level-dependent Imaging in Longitudinal Follow-up of Donated and Remaining Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Maryam; Eisenberger, Ute; Binser, Tobias; Thoeny, Harriet C; Krauer, Fabienne; Rusch, Aurelia; Boesch, Chris; Vogt, Bruno; Vermathen, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine renal oxygenation changes associated with uninephrectomy and transplantation in both native donor kidneys and transplanted kidneys by using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging. Materials and Methods The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirteen healthy kidney donors and their corresponding recipients underwent kidney BOLD MR imaging with a 3-T imager. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject. BOLD MR imaging was performed in donors before uninephrectomy and in donors and recipients 8 days, 3 months, and 12 months after transplantation. R2* values, which are inversely related to tissue partial pressure of oxygen, were determined in the cortex and medulla. Longitudinal R2* changes were statistically analyzed by using repeated measures one-way analysis of variance with post hoc pair-wise comparisons. Results R2* values in the remaining kidneys significantly decreased early after uninephrectomy in both the medulla and cortex (P oxygen content. In donors, R2* remained significantly decreased in both the medulla and cortex at 3 (P < .01) and 12 (P < .01) months. In transplanted kidneys, R2* remained stable during the first year after transplantation, with no significant change. Among donors, cortical R2* was found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (R = -0.47, P < .001). Conclusion The results suggest that BOLD MR imaging may potentially be used to monitor renal functional changes in both remaining and corresponding transplanted kidneys. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26744926

  16. Preoperative blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with gliomas involving the motor cortical areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian; CHEN Xu-zhu; JIANG Tao; LI Shou-wei; LI Zi-xiao; ZHANG Zhong; DAI Jian-ping; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Blood oxygen level-dependent(BOLD)functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)plays an important role in identifying functional cortical areas of the brain.especially In patients with gliomas.This study aimed to assess the value of fMRI in presurgical planning and functional outcome of patients with gliomas in the motor cortical areas.Methods Twenty-six patients with gliomas in the motor cortex were recruited in the study.Before operation.fMRI was performed in each patient to obtain the mapping of bilateral hands area on the primary sensorimotor cortex.This examination was performed on a 3.0T scanner with a bilateral hands movement paradigm.During microsurgery under awake anesthesia,the motor area was identified using direct electrical stimulation and compared with preoperative mapping.Finally the tumor was resected as much as possible with the motor cortex preserved in each patlent.Karnofsky performance status(KPS)was evaluated in all patients before and after operation.Results Twenty-three patients showed a successful fMRI mapping.Among them,19 were calssified to be grade Ⅲ;4,grade Ⅱ;3,grade Ⅰ.The operation time was about 7 hours in the 23 patients,8.5 hours in the other 3.The pre- and pOstODerative KPS score was 82.3±8.6 and 94.2±8.1,respectively.Conclusions Preoperative fMRI of the hand motor area shows a high consistency with intraoperative cortical electronic stimulation.Combined use of the two methods shows a maximum benefit in surgical treatment.

  17. Assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction with blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Yoon [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Kyo, E-mail: chankyokim@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Kwan [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Sanghoon [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Wooseong [Department of Nephrology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • R2* and ADC in renal allografts are moderately correlated with eGFR. • R2* and ADC are lower in early allograft dysfunction than normal allograft function. • No significant difference between AR and ATN was found in both R2* and ADC. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T for assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction. Materials and methods: 34 patients with a renal allograft (early dysfunction, 24; normal, 10) were prospectively enrolled. BOLD MRI and DWI were performed at 3 T. R2* and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in cortex and medulla of the allografts. Correlation between R2* or ADC values and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated. R2* or ADC values were compared among acute rejection (AR), acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and normal function. Results: In all renal allografts, cortical or medullary R2* and ADC values were moderately correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05). Early dysfunction group showed lower R2* and ADC values than normal function group (P < 0.05). AR or ATN had lower R2* values than normal allografts (P < 0.05), and ARs had lower cortical ADC values than normal allografts (P < 0.05). No significant difference of R2* or ADC values was found between AR and ATN (P > 0.05). Conclusion: BOLD MRI and DWI at 3 T may demonstrate early functional state of renal allografts, but may be limited in characterizing a cause of early renal allograft dysfunction. Further studies are needed.

  18. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  19. Cadherin-9 Regulates Synapse-Specific Differentiation in the Developing Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Megan E.; Wilke, Scott A.; Daggett, Anthony; Davis, Elizabeth; Otto, Stefanie; Ravi, Deepak; Ripley, Beth; Bushong, Eric A.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Klein, Gerd; Ghosh, Anirvan

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of mechanisms that regulate the differentiation of specific classes of synapses is limited. Here, we investigate the formation of synapses between hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurons and their target CA3 neurons and find that DG neurons preferentially form synapses with CA3 rather than DG or CA1 neurons in culture, suggesting that specific interactions between DG and CA3 neurons drive synapse formation. Cadherin-9 is expressed selectively in DG and CA3 neurons, and downre...

  20. Synapse Specificity of Long-Term Potentiation Breaks Down with Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ris, Laurence; Godaux, Emile

    2007-01-01

    Memory shows age-related decline. According to the current prevailing theoretical model, encoding of memories relies on modifications in the strength of the synapses connecting the different cells within a neuronal network. The selective increases in synaptic weight are thought to be biologically implemented by long-term potentiation (LTP). Here,…

  1. Line-of-Credit Payment Scheme and Its Impact on the Retailer’s Ordering Policy with Inventory-Level-Dependent Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Practically, the supplier frequently offers the retailer credit period to stimulate his/her ordering quantity. However, such credit-period-only policy may lead to the dilemma that the supplier’s account receivable increases with sale volume during delay period, especially for the item with inventory-level-dependent demand. Thus, a line-of-credit (LOC payment scheme is usually adopted by the supplier for better controlling account receivables. In this paper, the two-parameter LOC clause is firstly applied to develop an economic order quantity (EOQ model with inventory-level-dependent demand, aiming to explore its influences on the retailer’s ordering policy. Under this new policy, the retailer will be granted full delay payment if his/her order quantity is below a predetermined quantity. Otherwise, the retailer should make immediate payment for the excess part. After analyzing the relationships among parameters, two distinct cases and several theoretical results can be derived. From numerical examples, two incentives, a longer credit period and a lower rate of the retailer’s capital opportunity cost, should account for the retailer’s excessive ordering policy. And a well-designed LOC clause can be applied to induce the retailer to place an appropriate ordering quantity and ensure the supplier maintains a reasonable account receivable.

  2. Angioplasty and stenting for severe vertebral artery oriifce stenosis:effects on cerebellar function remodeling veriifed by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Zhiwei Li; Peng Xie

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery oriifce stenting may improve blood supply of the posterior circulation of the brain to regions such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, previous studies have mainly focused on recovery of cerebral blood lfow and perfusion in the posterior circulation after inter-ventional therapy. This study examined the effects of functional recovery of local brain tissue on cerebellar function remodeling using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic reso-nance imaging before and after interventional therapy. A total of 40 Chinese patients with severe unilateral vertebral artery oriifce stenosis were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received drug treat-ment only. The intervention group received vertebral artery oriifce angioplasty and stenting+identical drug treatment to the control group. At 13 days after treatment, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was compared between the intervention and control groups. Cerebellar function remodeling was observed between the two groups using blood oxygen level-dependent function-al magnetic resonance imaging. The improvement in dizziness handicap and cerebellar function was more obvious in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventional therapy for severe vertebral artery oriifce stenosis may effectively promote cerebellar function remodeling and exert neuroprotective effects.

  3. Prognostic Significance of Transverse Relaxation Rate (R2*) in Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Young; Ko, Eun Sook; Han, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Sun Mi; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Rock Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between magnetic resonance transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and prognostic factors. Materials and Methods A total of 159 women with invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) sequence at 3 T. The distribution of the measured R2* values were analyzed, and the correlation between R2* and various prognostic factors (age, tumor size, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, and axillary lymph node status, as well as expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, p53, and Ki-67) were retrospectively assessed using patient medical records. Results The baseline R2* values of the IDCs were very heterogeneous with wide range among the patients. The mean R2* value was (32.8 ± 14.0) Hz with a median of 29.3 Hz (range 13.5–109.4 Hz). In multivariate analysis, older age was associated with decreased R2* value (P = 0.011) and IDCs with p53-overexpression showed higher R2* values than those without p53-overexpression group (P = 0.031). Other prognostic factors were not significantly correlated with R2* value. Conclusion In this study, R2* values were significantly correlated with age and expression of p53. Further studies are necessary to determine the prognostic value of BOLD-MRI. PMID:27384310

  4. Blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging during carbogen breathing: differentiation between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia and correlation with vessel maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Ningning; Mao, Ning; Cheng, Wenna; Pang, Haopeng; Ren, Yan; Wang, Ning; Liu, Xinjiang; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can evaluate tumor maturity and preoperatively differentiate prostate cancer (PCa) from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Patients and methods BOLD MRI based on transverse relaxation time*-weighted echo planar imaging was performed to assess PCa (19) and BPH (22) responses to carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2). The average signal values of PCa and BPH before and after carbogen breathing and the relative increased signal values were computed, respectively. The endothelial-cell marker, CD31, and the pericyte marker, α-smooth muscle actin (mature vessels), were detected with immunofluorescence, and were assessed by microvessel density (MVD) and microvessel pericyte density (MPD). The microvessel pericyte coverage index (MPI) was used to evaluate the degree of vascular maturity. The changed signal from BOLD MRI was correlated with MVD, MPD, and MPI. Results After inhaling carbogen, both PCa and BPH showed an increased signal, but a lower slope was found in PCa than that in BPH (PMPI than BPH. The increased signal intensity was positively correlated with MPI in PCa and that in BPH (r=0.616, P=0.011; r=0.658, P=0.002); however, there was no correlation between the increased signal intensity and MPD or MVD in PCa than that in BPH (P>0.05). Conclusion Our results confirmed that the increased signal values induced by BOLD MRI well differentiated PCa from BPH and had a positive correlation with vessel maturity in both of them. BOLD MRI can be utilized as a surrogate marker for the noninvasive assessment of the degree of vessel maturity. PMID:27462169

  5. Mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen using dynamic susceptibility contrast and blood oxygen level dependent MR imaging in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersing, Alexandra S.; Schwaiger, Benedikt J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ankenbrank, Monika; Toth, Vivien; Bauer, Jan S.; Zimmer, Claus [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Insa [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Kooijman, Hendrik [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Wunderlich, Silke [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Preibisch, Christine [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    MR-derived cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization (CMRO{sub 2}) has been suggested to be analogous to PET-derived CMRO{sub 2} and therefore may be used for detection of viable tissue at risk for infarction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} mapping in acute ischemic stroke in relation to established diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging. In 23 patients (mean age 63 ± 18.7 years, 11 women) with imaging findings for acute ischemic stroke, relative oxygen extraction fraction was calculated from quantitative transverse relaxation times (T2, T2*) and relative cerebral blood volume using a quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) approach in order to detect a local increase of deoxyhemoglobin. Relative CMRO{sub 2} (rCMRO{sub 2}) maps were calculated by multiplying relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) by cerebral blood flow, derived from PWI. After co-registration, rCMRO{sub 2} maps were evaluated in comparison with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and time-to-peak (TTP) maps. Mean rCMRO{sub 2} values in areas with diffusion-restriction or TTP/ADC mismatch were compared with rCMRO{sub 2} values in the contralateral tissue. In tissue with diffusion restriction, mean rCMRO{sub 2} values were significantly decreased compared to perfusion-impaired (17.9 [95 % confidence interval 10.3, 25.0] vs. 58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3]; P < 0.001) and tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (68.2 [95 % confidence interval 61.4, 75.0]; P < 0.001). rCMRO{sub 2} in perfusion-impaired tissue showed no significant change compared to tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3] vs. 66.7 [95 % confidence interval 53.4, 73.4]; P = 0.34). MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} was decreased within diffusion-restricted tissue and stable within perfusion-impaired tissue, suggesting that this technique may be adequate to reveal different pathophysiological stages in acute stroke. (orig.)

  6. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-based techniques for the quantification of brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties - theoretical models and experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A; Sukstanskii, Alexander L; He, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    The quantitative evaluation of brain hemodynamics and metabolism, particularly the relationship between brain function and oxygen utilization, is important for the understanding of normal human brain operation, as well as the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. It can also be of great importance for the evaluation of hypoxia within tumors of the brain and other organs. A fundamental discovery by Ogawa and coworkers of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast opened up the possibility to use this effect to study brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties by means of MRI measurements. Such measurements require the development of theoretical models connecting the MRI signal to brain structure and function, and the design of experimental techniques allowing MR measurements to be made of the salient features of theoretical models. In this review, we discuss several such theoretical models and experimental methods for the quantification of brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties. The review's main focus is on methods for the evaluation of the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) based on the measurement of the blood oxygenation level. A combination of the measurement of OEF and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) allows an evaluation to be made of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2 ). We first consider in detail the magnetic properties of blood - magnetic susceptibility, MR relaxation and theoretical models of the intravascular contribution to the MR signal under different experimental conditions. We then describe a 'through-space' effect - the influence of inhomogeneous magnetic fields, created in the extravascular space by intravascular deoxygenated blood, on the formation of the MR signal. Further, we describe several experimental techniques taking advantage of these theoretical models. Some of these techniques - MR susceptometry and T2 -based quantification of OEF - utilize the intravascular MR signal. Another technique

  7. 共济失调患者手运动时脑激活区域的定量分析%Quantitative analysis of the hand motor cortex in ataxia patients using blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元小冬; 王小洁; 王德; 赵丽君; 王守红

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of the hand motor cortex in ataxia patients during active and passive finger-to-thumb opposition movements using bold oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI). Methods Ten right-handed healthy volunteers and 16 ataxia patients with motor cortex lesions were selected, and whole-brain BOLD-fMRI examinations were made while the subjects were performing the active and passive movements. Activated volume and intensity were recorded from the corresponding motor cortex and analyzed quantitatively. Meanwhile, the patients' coordination was evaluated using the international cooperative ataxia rating scale (ICARS). Results During passive movement of the ataxia patient's affected hands, the ipsilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) activated volume was larger than that during normal ipsilateral hand movement, and the activation intensity was also higher than that in the healthy controls. The ipsilateral cerebellum activated volume and intensity were significantly lower than those in the control group, and the frequency of appearance of the cerebellum was also less. The patients' activated volume and intensity in the ipsilateral cerebellum showed no correlation with ICARS scores. Conclusions When the ataxia patients' affected side cerebellum was dysfunctional, the ipsilateral SMA could compensate for the weak cerebellum function. The ICARS does not reflect cerebellum function.%目的 利用血氧水平依赖性功能性磁共振成像(BOLD-fMRI)技术,探讨共济失调患者在主动与被动复杂对指运动模式下关键脑功能区激活体积和强度的变化.方法 选取共济失调患者16例作为病例组,另选10名健康志愿者作为正常组.入选者均进行主动与被动复杂对指运动,在这两种运动模式下进行BOLD-fMRl检查,记录相应脑运动功能区的激活体积和强度并进行定量分析.采用共济失调量表(ICARS)对共济失调患者的

  8. Longitudial observation of dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is initially used for visual cortex location.However, the application of fMRI in investigating the development of visual pathway lesions needs to be further observed.OBJECTIVE: This study is to longitudially observe the dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to analyze the characteristics of brain function and structural recombination at convalescent period of lesions.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients with unilateral or bilateral visual disorder caused by visual pathway lesions,who admitted to Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January to September 2006 were involved, and served as experimental subjects. The patients, 6 males and 2 females, were aged 16 - 67 years. They had visual disorder confirmed by clinical examination, i.e. visual pathway lesion, which was further diagnosed by MR or CT. Another 12 subjects generally matching to those patients of experimental group in gender, age and sight, who received health examination in synchronization were involved and served as controls. The subjects had no history of eye diseases. Their binocular visual acuity (or corrected visual acuity) was over 1.0. Both routine examination of ophthalmology and examination of fundus were normal. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: Signa Excite HD 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging system with 16 passages (GE Company,USA) and coil with 8 passages were used; brain functional stimulus apparatus (SAV-8800. Meide Company) was used for showing experimental mission. At the early stage

  9. COCAINE-ASSOCIATED ODOR CUE RE-EXPOSURE INCREASES BLOOD OXYGENATION LEVEL DEPENDENT SIGNAL IN MEMORY AND REWARD REGIONS OF THE MATERNAL RAT BRAIN*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Martha K.; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cue triggered relapse during the postpartum period can negatively impact maternal care. Given the high reward value of pups in maternal rats, we designed an fMRI experiment to test whether offspring presence reduces the neural response to a cocaine associated olfactory cue. METHODS Cocaine conditioned place preference was carried out before pregnancy in the presence of two distinct odors that were paired with cocaine or saline (+Cue and −Cue). The BOLD response to +Cue and −Cue was measured in dams on postpartum days 2–4. Odor cues were delivered to dams in the absence and then the presence of pups. RESULTS Our data indicate that several limbic and cognitive regions of the maternal rat brain show a greater BOLD signal response to a +Cue versus −Cue. These include dorsal striatum, prelimbic cortex, parietal cortex, habenula, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, lateral septum and the mediodorsal and the anterior thalamic nucleus. Of the aforementioned brain regions, only the parietal cortex of cocaine treated dams showed a significant modulatory effect of pup presence. In this area of the cortex, cocaine exposed maternal rats showed a greater BOLD activation in response to the +Cue in the presence than in the absence of pups. CONCLUSIONS Specific regions of the cocaine exposed maternal rat brain are strongly reactive to drug associated cues. The regions implicated in cue reactivity have been previously reported in clinical imaging work, and previous work supports their role in various motivational and cognitive functions. PMID:24183499

  10. Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  11. Application of blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging in chronic kidney disease%血氧水平依赖磁共振成像在慢性肾病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 郭燕; 李竹浩; 蔡华崧; 史瑶平; 杨栋

    2012-01-01

    背景:血氧水平依赖的磁共振成像是目前惟一能无创性地监测肾血氧含量的方法.目的:探讨血氧水平依赖的磁共振成像在评价慢性肾病患者肾血氧水平、反映肾功能状态方面的价值.方法:对20名健康志愿者和24名慢性肾病患者行肾脏血氧水平依赖的磁共振成像,测量各组肾皮质及髓质的R2*值,并进行统计学分析.结果与结论:正常肾髓质的R2*值高于皮质(P 0.05).慢性肾病患者皮质及髓质的R2*值均高于正常人(P 0.05). Patients with chronic kidney disease had higher cortical and medullary R2*than normal health (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between serum creatinine and renal R2* (r=0.564, P =0.004;r=0.588, P =0.003). This research shows that blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging can reflect renal bloodoxygen levels, and has certain value in evaluate the renal function.

  12. Clinical application of blood oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging of kidney: A preliminary Study%肾脏血氧水平依赖MRI的初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐学勤; 陈楠; 李晓; 林晓珠; 朱晓雷; 倪根雄; 陈克敏; 严福华; 方文强; 徐耀文

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨肾脏血氧水平依赖(blood oxygenation level-dependent,BOLD) MRI的临床应用价值.方法:对正常志愿者70例(无原发性和继发性肾病病史及肾功能损害危险因素)和57例慢性肾病患者进行GE 1.5THDMRI冠状面BOLD成像,分别测量其肾脏皮质及髓质的自旋弛豫率(R2*)值,并作对比分析.其中10例正常志愿者在1~6个月内进行了相同参数的冠状面BOLD成像检查.结果:T2*图像上,正常肾脏的结构清晰,皮质和髓质分界清,皮质和髓质R2*值分别为(12.63±1.40)/s和(18.14±2.51)/s,双侧肾脏皮质间(t=-1.333,P=0.186)、髓质间(t=0.958,P=0.341)的R2*值差异均无统计学意义.不同年龄及性别的志愿者间肾脏皮质、髓质R2*值亦均无统计学差异(P>0.05).10例志愿者重复BOLD成像肾脏R2*值无统计学差异.T2*图像上,慢性肾病患者的皮髓质分界不清.正常志愿者与慢性肾病患者间肾髓质R2*值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:肾脏BOLD MRI可清晰显示正常肾脏结构,有较好的可重复性,对慢性肾病患者肾髓质缺氧诊断较灵敏,具有较好的科研及临床应用前景.%Objective To evaluate the clinical application of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging of kidney. Methods: Seventy healthy volunteers and 57 chronic kidney disease (CKD)patients underwent the BOLD MR imaging of the kidney with a 1.5-T MR imager (GE Signa Excite HD Twin-Speed 1.5T) . R2* of cortical and medullar portion of the kidney were calculated and compared. Reproducibility was assessed by repeating the same protocol in 10 randomly selected healthy volunteers after 1-6 months. R2* between patients and heallhy volunteers were compared. Results: In all healthy volunteers,there was a clear demarcation between cortex and medulla on T2* map. Medullary R2* were higher than cortical R2* (18.l4±2.51)/s,(12.63±1.40)/s. There was no difference in renal R2* between right and left kidney (Z.0.05),and no difference in

  13. Assessment of renal injury in diabetic nephropathy using blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI%血氧水平依赖MRI评估糖尿病肾病肾功能损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋振兴; 王毓; 丁玖乐; 周华; 狄佳; 万慧; 陈杰; 邢伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血氧水平依赖MRI评价糖尿病肾病(DN)的临床应用价值。材料与方法对11例健康志愿者、19例早期DN患者以及15例中晚期DN患者行肾脏血氧水平依赖MRI,分别测量计算三组皮质R2*(CR2*)、髓质R2*(MR2*)及髓质/皮质R2*比值(MCR),并作统计学对比分析。结果各组MR2*均高于CR2*(P<0.01)。正常对照组与早期DN组间MR2*有显著性统计学差异(P<0.01),有诊断价值,曲线下面积为0.940。早期DN组与中晚期DN组间CR2*、MCR有显著性统计学差异(P<0.01),有诊断价值,曲线下面积分别为0.884和0.764,两参数间无统计学差异(P>0.05)。CR2*与eGFR呈负相关(P<0.01),MCR与eGFR呈正相关(P<0.05)。三个指标均与HbA1c无相关性(P>0.05)。结论血氧水平依赖MRI可以反映糖尿病肾病的肾脏功能损伤,具有潜在的临床应用价值。%Objective: To explore the clinical application of blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for the assessment of diabetic nephropathy (DN).Materials and Methods:Eleven cases of healthy volunteers (control group), 19 cases with early-stage DN and 15 cases with moderate- to severe-stage (MS-stage) DN were scanned by BOLD-MRI. The three parameters, including cortical R2* value (CR2*), medullary R2* value (MR2*) and R2* ratio of the medullary R2* value to cortical R2* value (MCR), were measured and calculated.Results: The MR2* was higher than CR2*in each group (P0.05). CR2* correlated inversely with eGFR (P0.05).Conclusions:BOLD-MRI could relfect renal injury in diabetic nephropathy and had a potential value for clinical application.

  14. Effect of Electrical Filtering on Level Dependent ASE Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Witzens, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    We derive an analytical model describing the effect of filtering on amplified spontaneous emission noise during or after opto-electronic conversion. In particular, we show that electrical filtering results in a further reduction of the signal quality factor associated with an effective increase of the noise levels and can lead to counter-intuitive dependencies of the measured signal quality on the characteristics of the test setup. Closed form equations are compared with numerical models and experiments, showing excellent agreement.

  15. Architecture Level Dependency Analysis of SOA Based System through ?-Adl

    OpenAIRE

    Pawan Kumar; Ratneshwer

    2016-01-01

    A formal Architecture Description Language (ADL) provides an effective way to dependency analysis at early stage of development. ?-ADL is an ADL that represents the static and dynamic features of software services. In this paper, we describe an approach of dependency analysis of SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) based system, at architecture level, through ?-ADL. A set of algorithms are also proposed for identification of dependency relationships from a SOA based system. The proposed algori...

  16. Negative regulation of active zone assembly by a newly identified SR protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin L Johnson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Presynaptic, electron-dense, cytoplasmic protrusions such as the T-bar (Drosophila or ribbon (vertebrates are believed to facilitate vesicle movement to the active zone (AZ of synapses throughout the nervous system. The molecular composition of these structures including the T-bar and ribbon are largely unknown, as are the mechanisms that specify their synapse-specific assembly and distribution. In a large-scale, forward genetic screen, we have identified a mutation termed air traffic controller (atc that causes T-bar-like protein aggregates to form abnormally in motoneuron axons. This mutation disrupts a gene that encodes for a serine-arginine protein kinase (SRPK79D. This mutant phenotype is specific to SRPK79D and is not secondary to impaired kinesin-dependent axonal transport. The srpk79D gene is neuronally expressed, and transgenic rescue experiments are consistent with SRPK79D kinase activity being necessary in neurons. The SRPK79D protein colocalizes with the T-bar-associated protein Bruchpilot (Brp in both the axon and synapse. We propose that SRPK79D is a novel T-bar-associated protein kinase that represses T-bar assembly in peripheral axons, and that SRPK79D-dependent repression must be relieved to facilitate site-specific AZ assembly. Consistent with this model, overexpression of SRPK79D disrupts AZ-specific Brp organization and significantly impairs presynaptic neurotransmitter release. These data identify a novel AZ-associated protein kinase and reveal a new mechanism of negative regulation involved in AZ assembly. This mechanism could contribute to the speed and specificity with which AZs are assembled throughout the nervous system.

  17. Oral glucose intake inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity more effectively than glucose infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Vidarsdottir, S.; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P. van; Viergever, M.A.; Pijl, H.; Grond, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    We previously showed that hypothalamic neuronal activity, as measured by the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI signal, declines in response to oral glucose intake. To further explore the mechanism driving changes in hypothalamic neuronal activity in response to an oral glucose load,

  18. The research progress of blood-oxygen-level dependent MR imaging in breast cancer:oxygen metabolism under hypoxic status and curative effect evaluation%血氧水平依赖MR成像对乳腺癌乏氧代谢和疗效评估的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓瑜; 汤光宇

    2015-01-01

    评估乳腺癌乏氧代谢情况和微血管成熟度对临床治疗有指导作用。广泛应用于脑功能研究的血氧水平依赖功能MRI(BOLD-fMRI)可通过静息状态下基线R2*值及任务状态下△R2*值变化评估病灶内部的氧合作用及新生血管成熟度,以监测肿瘤微环境内的乏氧程度,进而制定具有针对性的个体化治疗方案,提高乳腺癌治愈率,降低病死率。就BOLD-fMRI 对乳腺癌乏氧代谢、血管成熟度和疗效评估的应用现状进行综述。%It has a clinical relevance to assess hypoxic metabolism and microvascular maturity in breast cancer. Being widely used in functional studies of brain blood-oxygen-level dependent contract functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) can assess the oxygenation and the maturity of the neovascularization within the lesions through the changes in the R2*value under the resting state and the△R2*value under the task state. We may also monitor the hypoxia status within the microenvironment of a tumour and develop a specialised and individualized treatment program to improve the cure rate of breast cancer and reduce mortality rate. Here, we summarized the BOLD-fMRI application status on assessment of oxygen metabolism under hypoxic status in breast cancer, vascular maturity and curative efficacy assessments.

  19. Application of Diffusion - weighted Imaging and Blood Oxygen Level - dependent MRI in the Evaluation of Renal Func-tion of Chronic Kidney Disease%磁共振扩散加权成像联合血氧水平依赖成像在慢性肾脏病肾功能评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 房向东; 罗丹丹; 龚良庚; 连珞; 曾磊; 周国盛; 樊烨; 徐高四; 涂卫平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of diffusion - weighted imaging(DWI)and blood oxygen level -dependent MRI(BOLD MRI)in the evaluation of renal function of chronic kidney disease(CKD), Methods A total of 50 pa-tients with CKD who went to Department of Nephrology,the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from February to December in 2012,were included in CKD group,20 healthy volunteers were included in control group, The ADC and R2 * values of bilateral cortex and medulla were measured by DWI and BOLD MRI among two groups, According to GFR measured by 99 Tcm -DTPA scintigraphy,CKD group were divided into 3 groups:CKD1 stage group(16 cases);CKD2 stage group(13 cases);CKD3 stage group(21 cases), The changes of ADC and R2 * values among patients with different CKD stages were analyzed, A total of 18 patients received renal biopsy,the correlation between pathological lesion degree and ADC and R2 * values of cortex and medulla was analysed, Results The ADC and R2 * values of bilateral cortex and medulla in CKD1 group,CKD2 group and CKD3 group were significantly lower than those in control group(P 0, 05), The medullary R2 * values were correlated negatively with pathological lesion degree(r = - 0, 659,P 0,05);髓质 R2*值与病理损害积分呈负相关(r =-0,659,P <0,05)。结论肾实质 ADC 值可无创性反映 CKD 肾功能水平及肾脏病理状态的改变。R2*值可以评价 CKD 肾脏髓质的氧代谢的改变,且对于判断 CKD 肾脏病理损伤的程度有一定意义。

  20. Linking human brain local activity fluctuations to structural and functional network architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Baria, A.T.; Mansour, A; Huang, L.; Baliki, M. N.; Cecchi, G. A.; Mesulam, M M; A. V. Apkarian

    2013-01-01

    Activity of cortical local neuronal populations fluctuates continuously, and a large proportion of these fluctuations are shared across populations of neurons. Here we seek organizational rules that link these two phenomena. Using neuronal activity, as identified by functional MRI (fMRI) and for a given voxel or brain region, we derive a single measure of full bandwidth brain-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations by calculating the slope, α, for the log-linear power spectrum. For th...

  1. 正常肾脏血氧依赖磁共振成像特点及与生理指标相关性研究%Blood Oxygen Level Dependent MRI of Normal Kidney and Its Correlation with Physiological Indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石会兰; 郑振峰; 马慧; 李峰坦; 张敬; 张云亭

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨正常肾脏的血氧水平依赖磁共振(BOLD-MRI)成像特点,以及与部分生理指标之间的相关性。方法纳入90例行腹部磁共振检查的非肾脏病患者。使用GE 3.0 T磁共振扫描仪和Torsopa相控阵线圈,行肾脏冠状面T1WI及BOLD成像,BOLD-MRI成像扫描采用T2*自旋梯度回波(T2*SPGR)序列,BOLD影像分析采用R2*map后处理软件,分别从肾脏皮质和髓质区选取感兴趣区(ROI)测量表观自旋-自旋弛豫率(R2*)值。分析R2*值与患者年龄、性别、身高、体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、体表面积(BSA)和估算的肾小球滤过率(eGFR)之间的相关性。结果两侧肾脏皮质区R2*值[左侧(16.56±1.40)Hz和右侧(16.66±1.28)Hz]均低于相应髓质区[左侧(28.82±3.71)Hz和右侧(28.36±3.72)Hz];女性和男性患者皮质R2*值[女性(16.55±1.30)Hz和男性(16.66±1.38Hz)]也低于相应的髓质区[女性(28.46±3.64)Hz和男性(28.70±3.78)Hz]。双侧肾脏髓质区肾脏下极R2*值[(27.29±3.05)]Hz低于中极[(29.32±3.47)Hz]和上极[(29.16±4.21)Hz];差异均有统计学意义。髓质R2*值与年龄呈正相关,与eGFR呈负相关(r分别为0.284、-0.232,均P<0.05)。结论 R2*值可反映肾脏皮髓质氧分压的水平,判断其缺血缺氧程度。BOLD-MRI提供了一种简单、易行且无创性检测肾脏皮髓质氧代谢的方法。%Objective To explore the characteristics of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy native kidneys. To investigate the relationship between BOLD-MRI and common physiological in-dexes. Methods GE 3.0T MRI scanner and Torsopa phased-array coil were employed to acquire renal coronal T1WI and BOLD image. Ninety patients who were ruled out chronic kidney diseases underwent BOLD-MRI with T2*-spoiled gradient recalled echo (T2*SPGR) sequence. BOLD images were analyzed on R2*map software. Cortical and

  2. 3.0 T血氧水平依赖功能MRI技术对注入碘对比剂后肾脏损害评价的实验研究%Experimental study of renal damage assessment after injection of iodine contrast medium: the role of blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI with a 3.0 T system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉品; 梁长虹; 张水兴; 刘波; 冉鹏程

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨3.0 T血氧水平依赖功能MRI(fMRI-BOLD)技术在碘对比剂大鼠肾脏损害评价中的应用价值.方法 29只SD大鼠分别于注入碘对比剂前、注入碘对比剂碘普胺后20 min、24 h、48 h、72 h不同时间点进行常规MR序列及BOLD序列扫描;注入碘对比剂前作为对照组.BOLD序列扫描图像在工作站处理后,测量大鼠肾脏皮质、外髓及内髓的T2*值,计算表观自旋-自旋弛豫率(R2*值)(R2*值=1/T2 *值).对照组大鼠双肾不同部位R2*值的比较采用方差分析,对照组和实验组不同时间、不同部位右肾和左肾R2*值的比较采用t检验.结果 对照组大鼠左、右肾脏外髓R2*值[分别为(31.76±2.73)/s和(32.77±3.07)/s]均高于相应皮质[分别为(30.20±3.48)/s和(28.84±3.11)/s]及内髓[分别为(29.54±2.42)/s和(28.37±2.80)/s],F值分别为3.357和14.961,P值均<0.05.左肾和右肾内髓、外髓和皮质的R2*值差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).注入碘对比剂后不同时间点,以外髓R2*值变化明显.在注射对比剂20 min时,肾脏外髓R2*值最高[右肾和左肾分别为(44.58±3.13)/s和(43.57±3.84)/s],24 h后R2*值逐渐降低[右肾和左肾分别为(42.89±3.40)/s和(42.07±4.82)/s].内髓及皮质R2*值仅表现为轻微改变.结论 R2*值能反映出大鼠肾脏皮、髓质氧分压的变化,判断髓质缺血缺氧程度.BOLD成像技术能反映肾脏皮髓质氧代谢情况,评估肾脏损害程度,是一种简单、可行及重复性较好的方法.%Objective To evaluate blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI on assessing renal damage after injection of iodine contrast medium with a 3.0 T system. Methods Routine MRI examination,including T1WI and T2WI, and BOLD MRI were performed in 29 SD rats with a 3.0 T system before the injection of iodine contrast agent and 20 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after the injection, respectively. T2 * and R2 * ( = 1/T2 * ) measurements were obtained in the cortex, inner and outer medulla

  3. Alcohol Attenuates Activation in the Bilateral Anterior Insula during an Emotional Processing Task: A Pilot Study †

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, Claudia B.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C; Robinson, Shannon K.; Tapert, Susan F.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol acutely reduces agitation and is widely used in social situations, but the neural substrates of emotion processing during its intoxication are not well understood. We examine whether alcohol's social stress dampening effect may be via reduced activity in the cortical systems that subserve awareness of bodily sensations, and are associated with affective distress. Methods: Blood oxygen level-dependent activation was measured through 24 functional magnetic resonance imaging sessio...

  4. 原发性失眠伴认知功能障碍患者静息态功能MRI的局部一致性研究%Regional homogeneity of primary insomnia with cognitive impairment:a blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏歆; 李传明; 周振华; 王健

    2016-01-01

    Ho下降能反映睡眠障碍和认知功能下降程度,左侧海马旁回的ReHo升高可能与睡眠障碍脑功能代偿有关。%Objective To investigate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes of primary insomnia (PI) with cognitive impairment using resting⁃state fMRI. Methods Twenty-one patients with primary insomnia and cognitive impairment and 25 healthy volunteers matched with age, gender and education level were collected from Southwest Hospital of China from November 2014 to June 2015. Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Activity of Daily Living Scale (ADL), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) were conducted to evaluate the sleep and cognitive conditions of all subjects. Independent sample t⁃test was performed to evaluate the significant difference of neuropsychology scores of two groups. ReHo of rs⁃fMRI were evaluated and compared between two groups using independent sample T⁃test, meanwhile, the partial correlation analysis was conducted in ReHo values of different brain regions and neuropsychology scores (age, gender and education level were regarded as covariates). Results Compared with normal controls, patients with primary insomnia and cognitive impairment showed significant higher PSQI score and lower MoCA and MMSE scores(P<0.05). The patient group also showed significant increased ReHo in the left medial temporal gyrus(54 voxels, t=3.14), left inferior temporal gyrus(76 voxels, t=4.80), right inferior temporal gyrus(84 voxels, t=4.30) and left parahippocampal gyrus(301 voxels, t=4.44) (P<0.05) and decreased ReHo in the left superior temporal lobe(79 voxels, t=-3.38), right fusiform gyrus(50 voxels, t=-3.17), right superior temporal gyrus(283 voxels, t=-5.34), right inferior frontal gyrus(56 voxels, t=-3.98), right anterior cingulate(233 voxels, t=-3.91), left parietal lobe angular gyrus(67 voxels, t=-3.27) and superior parietal

  5. How networks communicate: propagation patterns in spontaneous brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anish; Raichle, Marcus E

    2016-10-01

    Initially regarded as 'noise', spontaneous (intrinsic) activity accounts for a large portion of the brain's metabolic cost. Moreover, it is now widely known that infra-slow (less than 0.1 Hz) spontaneous activity, measured using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, is correlated within functionally defined resting state networks (RSNs). However, despite these advances, the temporal organization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations has remained elusive. By studying temporal lags in the resting state BOLD signal, we have recently shown that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations consist of remarkably reproducible patterns of whole brain propagation. Embedded in these propagation patterns are unidirectional 'motifs' which, in turn, give rise to RSNs. Additionally, propagation patterns are markedly altered as a function of state, whether physiological or pathological. Understanding such propagation patterns will likely yield deeper insights into the role of spontaneous activity in brain function in health and disease.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting blood oxygen level-dependent: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574315

  6. Decoupling the level dependence of the basilar membrane gain and phase in nonlinear cochlea models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; Altoè, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    In animal experiments, the strong dependence on stimulus level of the basilar membrane gain and tuning is not matched by a corresponding change in the phase slope in the resonant region. Linear models, in which the gain dependence on the stimulus level has to be schematized by explicitly changing the tuning parameters of the resonant model, do not easily match this feature of the experimental data. Nonlinear models predict a phase slope that is relatively decoupled from tuning. In addition, delayed-stiffness and feed-forward models also show a significant intrinsic decoupling between gain and tuning, which helps in matching the experimental data. PMID:26328742

  7. Optimal dynamic pricing and replenishment policy for perishable items with inventory-level-dependent demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lihao; Zhang, Jianxiong; Tang, Wansheng

    2016-04-01

    An inventory system for perishable items with limited replenishment capacity is introduced in this paper. The demand rate depends on the stock quantity displayed in the store as well as the sales price. With the goal to realise profit maximisation, an optimisation problem is addressed to seek for the optimal joint dynamic pricing and replenishment policy which is obtained by solving the optimisation problem with Pontryagin's maximum principle. A joint mixed policy, in which the sales price is a static decision variable and the replenishment rate remains to be a dynamic decision variable, is presented to compare with the joint dynamic policy. Numerical results demonstrate the advantages of the joint dynamic one, and further show the effects of different system parameters on the optimal joint dynamic policy and the maximal total profit.

  8. Advances of blood oxygen-level dependent MRI in muscular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOLD-fMRI has been applied to muscular system to observe muscular pathophysiological change after performing a task and show the characteristics of muscle perfusion. This paper mainly introduces the scanning sequence, common tasking methods, such as cuff compression, excise, oxygen and drug, etc. It also introduces clinical study of perfusion reserve of muscular tissue with abnormal blood vessels. (authors)

  9. Study on Supply Chain Disruption Management under Service Level Dependent Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boqi Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied pricing, service level, and production quantity decision problems in a supply chain with one manufacturer and one retailer under demand and production cost disruptions. The joint impact of demand and production cost disruptions on optimal pricing, service level, and production decisions in centralized and decentralized supply chain was analyzed, respectively. By solving the optimization problem, the optimal decisions of the supply chain were obtained under different demand and production cost disruptions scenarios. It is found that the original production quantity and demand-stimulating service level exhibit some robustness under disruptions in both centralized and decentralized supply chains, while the original optimal pricing does not. In centralized supply chains, it is always beneficial for the central decision-maker to knowing of the accurate information of disruptions. However, sharing disruption information is not always beneficial for both the manufacturer and retailer in decentralized supply chain.

  10. Functional MRI activity in the thalamus and occipital cortex of anesthetized dogs induced by monocular and binocular stimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, C K; Quinn, R P; McDonell, W M; Gati, J; Partlow, G; Vilis, T.

    2001-01-01

    The neuroanatomy of the mammalian visual system has received considerable attention through electrophysiological study of cats and non-human primates, and through neuroimaging of humans. Canine neuroanatomy, however, has received much less attention, limiting our understanding of canine vision and visual pathways. As an early step in applying blood oxygenation level dependant (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for veterinary use, we compared visual activity in the thalamus an...

  11. Activation of the hippocampal complex during tactile maze solving in congenitally blind subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Schneider, Fabien C; Siebner, Hartwig R;

    2012-01-01

    for their lack of vision. Little is known, however, about the neural mechanisms underlying spatial navigation in blind individuals in settings where these cues are absent. We therefore measured behavioural performance and blood oxygenation-level dependant (BOLD) responses using functional magnetic resonance...... and parahippocampus, occipital cortex and fusiform gyrus. Blindfolded sighted controls did not show increased BOLD responses in these areas; instead they activated the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Both groups activated the precuneus during tactile maze navigation. We conclude that cross-modal plastic processes allow...

  12. Physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001941.htm Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  13. Limbic Activity Modulation Guided by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Inspired Electroencephalography Improves Implicit Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynan, Jackob N; Meir-Hasson, Yehudit; Gilam, Gadi; Cohen, Avihay; Jackont, Gilan; Kinreich, Sivan; Ikar, Limor; Or-Borichev, Ayelet; Etkin, Amit; Gyurak, Anett; Klovatch, Ilana; Intrator, Nathan; Hendler, Talma

    2016-09-15

    The amygdala has a pivotal role in processing traumatic stress; hence, gaining control over its activity could facilitate adaptive mechanism and recovery. To date, amygdala volitional regulation could be obtained only via real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a highly inaccessible procedure. The current article presents high-impact neurobehavioral implications of a novel imaging approach that enables bedside monitoring of amygdala activity using fMRI-inspired electroencephalography (EEG), hereafter termed amygdala-electrical fingerprint (amyg-EFP). Simultaneous EEG/fMRI indicated that the amyg-EFP reliably predicts amygdala-blood oxygen level-dependent activity. Implementing the amyg-EFP in neurofeedback demonstrated that learned downregulation of the amyg-EFP facilitated volitional downregulation of amygdala-blood oxygen level-dependent activity via real-time fMRI and manifested as reduced amygdala reactivity to visual stimuli. Behavioral evidence further emphasized the therapeutic potential of this approach by showing improved implicit emotion regulation following amyg-EFP neurofeedback. Additional EFP models denoting different brain regions could provide a library of localized activity for low-cost and highly accessible brain-based diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26996601

  14. Activation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material lacking a photoluminescent material and generating a by-product of a radioactive decay due to the activator impinging the reeptor material. The method further including, generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect and identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the light.

  15. Active turbulence in active nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, S. P.; Yeomans, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Dense, active systems show active turbulence, a state characterised by flow fields that are chaotic, with continually changing velocity jets and swirls. Here we review our current understanding of active turbulence. The development is primarily based on the theory and simulations of active liquid crystals, but with accompanying summaries of related literature.

  16. Cortical and brain stem changes in neural activity during static handgrip and postexercise ischemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Mikael; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A

    2010-01-01

    , and to differentiate between central command and reflex inputs, we used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) of the whole brain (3 T). Subjects performed submaximal static handgrip exercise for 2 min followed by 6 min of PEI; MSNA was recorded on a separate day. During the contraction phase......Static isometric exercise increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and mean arterial pressure, both of which can be maintained at the conclusion of the exercise by occlusion of the arterial supply [postexercise ischemia (PEI)]. To identify the cortical and subcortical sites involved...

  17. Recent development in noninvasive brain activity measurement by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) is a non-invasive brain imaging technique with which the distribution of neural activity is estimated by measuring local blood flow changes. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) method measures changes in the density of deoxidized hemoglobin in blood caused by blood flow changes, while other methods have been developed to measure the blood flow changes directly. Effort has been expended to realize a submillimeter spatial resolution by using higher static magnetic field. fMRI has been carried out with various mental tasks, and many important findings have been made on the localization of higher brain functions. (author)

  18. Get Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeling the benefits of getting active, such as sleeping better or getting toned. Here are 2 ways to add more activity to your life. Be active for longer each time. If you are walking 3 days a week for 30 minutes, try ...

  19. Estimation of the neuronal activation using fMRI data: An observer-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the neuronal activation and some unmeasured physiological information using the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). We propose to use an observer-based approach applied to the balloon hemodynamic model. The latter describes the relation between the neural activity and the BOLD signal. The balloon model can be expressed in a nonlinear state-space representation where the states, the parameters and the input (neuronal activation), are unknown. This study focuses only on the estimation of the hidden states and the neuronal activation. The model is first linearized around the equilibrium and an observer is applied to this linearized version. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are presented.

  20. Activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  1. Active ratchets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelani, L.; Costanzo, A.; Di Leonardo, R.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze self-propelling organisms, or active particles, in a periodic asymmetric potential. Unlike standard ratchet effect for Brownian particles requiring external forcing, in the case of active particles asymmetric potential alone produces a net drift speed (active ratchet effect). By using theoretical models and numerical simulations we demonstrate the emergence of the rectification process in the presence of an asymmetric piecewise periodic potential. The broken spatial symmetry (external potential) and time symmetry (active particles) are sufficient ingredients to sustain unidirectional transport. Our findings open the way to new mechanisms to move in directional manner motile organisms by using external periodic static fields.

  2. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik;

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  3. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry (IFM) presents every year a progress report containing a brief description of activities in research and education within the department. The report is intended as an information for colleagues and institutions. The present report contains activities for the academic year July 1989 to June 1990

  4. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile flow problems (cholestasis) during pregnancy. ... pregnancy, according to some early research reports. Preventing hangover. Activated charcoal is included in some hangover remedies, ...

  5. ELKS controls the pool of readily releasable vesicles at excitatory synapses through its N-terminal coiled-coil domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Richard G; Liu, Changliang; Kaeser, Pascal S

    2016-06-02

    In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic strength is determined by the pool of readily releasable vesicles (RRP) and the probability of release (P) of each RRP vesicle. These parameters are controlled at the active zone and vary across synapses, but how such synapse specific control is achieved is not understood. ELKS proteins are enriched at vertebrate active zones and enhance P at inhibitory hippocampal synapses, but ELKS functions at excitatory synapses are not known. Studying conditional knockout mice for ELKS, we find that ELKS enhances the RRP at excitatory synapses without affecting P. Surprisingly, ELKS C-terminal sequences, which interact with RIM, are dispensable for RRP enhancement. Instead, the N-terminal ELKS coiled-coil domains that bind to Liprin-α and Bassoon are necessary to control RRP. Thus, ELKS removal has differential, synapse-specific effects on RRP and P, and our findings establish important roles for ELKS N-terminal domains in synaptic vesicle priming.

  6. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  7. Heterosynaptic plasticity in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Haslehurst, P.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) is an adjustment of synaptic strength which compensates for chronically altered activity levels in a neuron’s inputs. It is proposed that HSP allows the neuron to retain its ability to discriminate between different inputs in a changing environment. HSP has been demonstrated at several levels: the network, the individual neuron, and the synapse. Synapse-specific HSP involves a paradox: if intense transmission strengthens a synapse, HSP will act in a compe...

  8. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  9. Active Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    ActivePower,Inc.(NASDAQ股票代号:ACPW)成立于1992年,是一家久负盛誉的不间断电源解决方案供应商。Active Power凭借其卓越的飞轮储能技术,Cleansouce UPS系统和全系列的电源解决方案,为客户提供高效,可靠且环保的电源系统,以确保在发生电源波动时实现业务连续。

  10. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  11. Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Platelet serotonin transporter function predicts default-mode network activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scharinger

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence.A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activity and platelet Vmax.The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity.This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation.

  13. A deterministic model for deteriorating items with displayed inventory level dependent demand rate incorporating marketing decisions with transportation cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Bhunia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an inventory model, which considers the impact of marketing strategies such as pricing and advertising as well as the displayed inventory level on the demand rate of the system. In addition, the demand rate during the stock-out period differs from that during the stock-in period by a function varied on the waiting time up to the beginning of the next cycle. Shortage are allowed and partially backlogged. Here, the deterioration rate is assumed to follow the Weibull distribution. Considering all these factors with others, different scenarios of the system are investigated. To obtain the solutions of these cases and to illustrate the model, an example is considered. Finally, to study the effects of changes of different parameters of the system, sensitivity analyses have been carried out with respect to the different parameters of the system.

  14. On the Accuracy of Fluid Approximations to a Class of Inventory-Level-Dependent EOQ and EPQ Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Piunovskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterministic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ models have been studied intensively in the literature, where the demand process is described by an ordinary differential equation, and the objective is to obtain an EOQ, which minimizes the total cost per unit time. The total cost per unit time consists of a “discrete” part, the setup cost, which is incurred at the time of ordering, and a “continuous” part, the holding cost, which is continuously accumulated over time. Quite formally, such deterministic EOQ models can be viewed as fluid approximations to the corresponding stochastic EOQ models, where the demand process is taken as a stochastic jump process. Suppose now an EOQ is obtained from a deterministic model. The question is how well does this quantity work in the corresponding stochastic model. In the present paper we justify a translation of EOQs obtained from deterministic models, under which the resulting order quantities are asymptotically optimal for the stochastic models, by showing that the difference between the performance measures and the optimal values converges to zero with respect to a scaling parameter. Moreover, we provide an estimate for the rate of convergence. The same issue regarding specific Economic Production Quantity (EPQ models is studied, too.

  15. A multi-item inventory system with expected shortage level-dependent backorder rate with working capital and space restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzazadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available |In this paper, a new multi-item inventory system is considered with random demand and random lead time including m working capital and space constraints with three decision variables: order quantity, safety factor and backorder rate. The demand rate during lead time is stochastic with unknown distribution function and known mean and variance. Random constraints are transformed to crisp constraints with using the chance-constrained method. The Minimax distribution free procedure has been used to lead proposed model to the optimal solution. The shortage is allowed and the backlogging rate is dependent on the expected shortage quantity at the end of cycle. Two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed solution method.

  16. Visual perception from the perspective of a representational, non-reductionistic, level-dependent account of perception and conscious awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a new model to interpret seemingly conflicting evidence concerning the correlation of consciousness and neural processes. Based on an analysis of research of blindsight and subliminal perception, the reorganization of elementary functions and consciousness framework suggests...

  17. Activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  18. Hepatoprotective Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The liver performs a vital role in metabolism, secretion, storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances. Oxidative stress and free radicals enhance the severity of hepatic damage, which can be overcome by the antioxidant mechanism. Plant extracts can be the best source of such antioxidants and mediate hepatoprotective activity. In this chapter, high-dose paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat model is discussed with explanations of biochemical and histopathological studies. PMID:26939279

  19. Glucokinase activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipski, Kevin J; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Stevens, Benjamin D

    2012-07-01

    In this review we highlight recently disclosed progress in the field of small-molecule activators of the human glucokinase enzyme. Several of the reported chemotypes possess structural features that diverge from known leads; some of these modifications appear to be specifically designed to modulate tissue selectivity or discrete parameters of enzyme function (e.g., S0.5 v Vmax). This review will inform the reader of the extent of continued effort being directed toward discovery of a first-in-class drug for Type II diabetes mellitus that functions through this target. Patents were selected from those published in December 2009 up to November 2011; foreign filings were translated where possible to understand the claims and biological techniques utilized to characterize the reported glucokinase activators. Overall, there appears to be a recent trend leading to reduced patent filings for small-molecule glucokinase activators. There are many possible explanations for this trend; however, it is likely that the field has reached maturity and that the downturn of new disclosures represents the transition of many of these programs to the clinic.

  20. Amygdala activity can be modulated by unexpected chord functions during music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fritz, Thomas; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2008-12-01

    Numerous earlier studies have investigated the cognitive processing of musical syntax with regular and irregular chord sequences. However, irregular sequences may also be perceived as unexpected, and therefore have a different emotional valence than regular sequences. We provide behavioral data showing that irregular chord functions presented in chord sequence paradigms are perceived as less pleasant than regular sequences. A reanalysis of functional MRI data showed increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes bilaterally in the amygdala in response to music-syntactically irregular (compared with regular) chord functions. The combined data indicate that music-syntactically irregular events elicit brain activity related to emotional processes, and that, in addition to intensely pleasurable music or highly unpleasant music, single chord functions can also modulate amygdala activity. PMID:19050462

  1. Secondary hyperalgesia phenotypes exhibit differences in brain activation during noxious stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Pereira, Manuel Pedro; Werner, Mads Utke;

    2015-01-01

    Noxious stimulation of the skin with either chemical, electrical or heat stimuli leads to the development of primary hyperalgesia at the site of injury, and to secondary hyperalgesia in normal skin surrounding the injury. Secondary hyperalgesia is inducible in most individuals and is attributed....... To study differences in the propensity to develop central sensitization we examined differences in brain activity and anatomy according to individual phenotypical expression of secondary hyperalgesia by magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers received a first-degree burn-injury (47 °C, 7 min......, 9 cm(2)) on the non-dominant lower-leg. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were assessed 100 min after the injury. We measured neuronal activation by recording blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals (BOLD-signals) during mechanical noxious stimulation before burn injury and in both primary and secondary...

  2. Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Micah Galen

    Mindfulness meditation is a set of attention-based, regulatory and self-inquiry training regimes. Although the impact of mindfulness meditation training (MT) on self-regulation is well established, the neural mechanisms supporting such plasticity are poorly understood. MT is thought to act through...... for cognitive and treatment effects with an active control group. We measured behavioral metacognition and whole-brain Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signals using functional MRI during an affective Stroop task before and after intervention in healthy human subjects. Although both groups improved...... prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and right anterior insula during negative valence processing. Our findings highlight the importance of active control in MT research, indicate unique neural mechanisms for progressive stages of mindfulness training, and suggest that optimal application of MT may differ depending...

  3. Activating schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf;

    2015-01-01

    objectively determine where and how active the students are in the schoolyard, before and after the intervention. This provides a type of data that, to our knowledge, has not been used before in schoolyard interventions. Exploring the change in behavior in relation to specific intervention elements in the...... accelerometer, GPS and GIS; 3) a process evaluation facilitating the intervention development process and identifying barriers and facilitators in the implementation process; 4) a post-intervention end-user evaluation aimed at exploring who uses the schoolyards and how the schoolyards are used. The seven...

  4. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  5. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  6. Investigating the physiology of brain activation with MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Richard B.; Uludag, Kamil; Dubowitz, David J.

    2004-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a powerful tool for investigating the working human brain based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect on the MR signal. However, despite the widespread use of fMRI techniques for mapping brain activation, the basic physiological mechanisms underlying the observed signal changes are still poorly understood. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques, which measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the BOLD effect simultaneously, provide a useful tool for investigating these physiological questions. In this paper, recent results of studies manipulating the baseline CBF both pharmacologically and physiologically will be discussed. These data are consistent with a feed-forward mechanism of neurovascular coupling, and suggest that the CBF change itself may be a more robust reflection of neural activity changes than the BOLD effect. Consistent with these data, a new thermodynamic hypothesis is proposed for the physiological function of CBF regulation: maintenance of the [O2]/[CO2] concentration ratio at the mitochondria in order to preserve the free energy available from oxidative metabolism. A kinetic model based on this hypothesis provides a reasonable quantitative description of the CBF changes associated with neural activity and altered blood gases (CO2 and O2).

  7. Comparison of brain activation to purposefully activate a tool in healthy subjects and brain tumor patients using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the functional organization of the human brain involved in tool-manipulation. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in seventeen right-handed healthy volunteers and two brain tumor patients during two tool-manipulation tasks: simulated tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Simulation), and tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Real). Subjects performed the experiment without watching the tasks. Bilateral pre-supplementary motor areas, bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes, right ventral premotor area, right calcarine sulcus, and cerebellar vermis were activated during Real but not during Simulation tasks in healthy volunteers. In addition, brain tumor patients activated the prefrontal areas. Our results suggest that the human brain mechanisms for tool-manipulation have a neural-network comprised of presupplementary motor area, ventral premotor area, and bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes. In the patients with brain dusfurction diee to tumors, activation at the prefrontal area provided function compensation without motor paralysis. (author)

  8. Halal Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... zones between new forms of Islamic revivalism, the ethnicised state and Muslim consumer culture. Organisations such as the Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia play an important role in pushing and protecting halal in Malaysia, that is, halal activists constantly call on the state to tighten halal...... in particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  9. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  10. DAVIC activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    DAVIC (Digital Audio Visual Council) is the defacto standardization organization established in Mar. 1994, based on international consensus for digital audio visual services. After completion of MPEG2 standardization, the broadcasting industry, the communication industry, the computer industry, and consumer electronics industry have started development of concrete services and products. Especially the interactive digital audio visual services, such as Video On Demand (VOD) or Near Video On Demand (NVOD), have become hot topics all over the world. Such interactive digital audio visual services are combined technologies of multi-media coding, digital transmission and computer networking. Therefore more than 150 organizations from all industry sectors have participated in DAVIC and are contributing from their own industrial contexts. DAVIC's basic policy is to use the available technologies specified by the other standards bodies as much as possible. So DAVIC's standardization activities have close relationship with ISO IEC/JTC1/SC29, ITU-T SG 9, ATM-Forum, IETF, IMA, DVB, etc. DAVIC is trying to specify Applications, Reference Models, Security, Usage Information Control, and the interfaces and protocols among the Content Provider, the Server, the core network, the access network, and the Set Top Unit. DAVIC's first goal is to specify DAVIC1.0 based on CFP1 (Call for Proposal) and CFP2 by Dec. 1995, and the next direction is under preparation for further progress based on CFP3 and CFP4.

  11. IASS Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  12. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve ... Have had recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), ...

  13. Spatiotemporal characteristics of electrocortical brain activity during mental calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteensel, Mariska J; Bleichner, Martin G; Freudenburg, Zac V; Hermes, Dora; Aarnoutse, Erik J; Leijten, Frans S S; Ferrier, Cyrille H; Jansma, Johan Martijn; Ramsey, Nick F

    2014-12-01

    Mental calculation is a complex mental procedure involving a frontoparietal network of brain regions. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have revealed interesting characteristics of these regions, but the precise function of some areas remains elusive. In the present study, we used electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings to chronometrically assess the neuronal processes during mental arithmetic. A calculation task was performed during presurgical 3T fMRI scanning and subsequent ECoG monitoring. Mental calculation induced an increase in fMRI blood oxygen level dependent signal in prefrontal, parietal and lower temporo-occipital regions. The group-fMRI result was subsequently used to cluster the implanted electrodes into anatomically defined regions of interest (ROIs). We observed remarkable differences in high frequency power profiles between ROIs, some of which were closely associated with stimulus presentation and others with the response. Upon stimulus presentation, occipital areas were the first to respond, followed by parietal and frontal areas, and finally by motor areas. Notably, we demonstrate that the fMRI activation in the middle frontal gyrus/precentral gyrus is associated with two subfunctions during mental calculation. This finding reveals the significance of the temporal dynamics of neural ensembles within regions with an apparent uniform function. In conclusion, our results shed more light on the spatiotemporal aspects of brain activation during a mental calculation task, and demonstrate that the use of fMRI data to cluster ECoG electrodes is a useful approach for ECoG group analysis. PMID:25044370

  14. Parametric modulation of neural activity by emotion in youth with bipolar disorder, youth with severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; Brotman, Melissa A; Muhrer, Eli J; Rosen, Brooke H; Bones, Brian L; Reynolds, Richard C; Deveney, Christen M; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-12-01

    CONTEXT Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, nonepisodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation [SMD]) exhibit amygdala dysfunction during facial emotion processing. However, studies have not compared such patients with each other and with comparison individuals in neural responsiveness to subtle changes in facial emotion; the ability to process such changes is important for social cognition. To evaluate this, we used a novel, parametrically designed faces paradigm. OBJECTIVE To compare activation in the amygdala and across the brain in BD patients, SMD patients, and healthy volunteers (HVs). DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Government research institute. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-seven youths (19 BD, 15 SMD, and 23 HVs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Blood oxygenation level-dependent data. Neutral faces were morphed with angry and happy faces in 25% intervals; static facial stimuli appeared for 3000 milliseconds. Participants performed hostility or nonemotional facial feature (ie, nose width) ratings. The slope of blood oxygenation level-dependent activity was calculated across neutral-to-angry and neutral-to-happy facial stimuli. RESULTS In HVs, but not BD or SMD participants, there was a positive association between left amygdala activity and anger on the face. In the neutral-to-happy whole-brain analysis, BD and SMD participants modulated parietal, temporal, and medial-frontal areas differently from each other and from that in HVs; with increasing facial happiness, SMD patients demonstrated increased, and BD patients decreased, activity in the parietal, temporal, and frontal regions. CONCLUSIONS Youth with BD or SMD differ from HVs in modulation of amygdala activity in response to small changes in facial anger displays. In contrast, individuals with BD or SMD show distinct perturbations in regions mediating attention and face processing in association with changes in the emotional intensity of facial happiness displays. These findings demonstrate

  15. Increased BOLD activation to predator stressor in subiculum and midbrain of amphetamine-sensitized maternal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo, Marcelo; Pira, Ashley S

    2011-03-25

    Amphetamine, which is known to cause sensitization, potentiates the hormonal and neurobiological signatures of stress and may also increase sensitivity to stress-inducing stimuli in limbic areas. Trimethylthiazoline (5μL TMT) is a chemical constituent of fox feces that evokes innate fear and activates the neuronal and hormonal signatures of stress in rats. We used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI to test whether amphetamine sensitization (1mg/kg, i.p. ×3days) in female rats has a lasting effect on the neural response to a stress-evoking stimulus, the scent of a predator, during the postpartum period. The subiculum and dopamine-enriched midbrain VTA/SN of amphetamine-sensitized but not control mothers showed a greater BOLD signal response to predator odor than a control putrid scent. The greater responsiveness of these two brain regions following stimulant sensitization might impact neural processing in response to stressors in the maternal brain. PMID:21134359

  16. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia.

  17. Tension-related activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala: an fMRI study with music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehne, Moritz; Rohrmeier, Martin; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Tonal music is characterized by a continuous flow of tension and resolution. This flow of tension and resolution is closely related to processes of expectancy and prediction and is a key mediator of music-evoked emotions. However, the neural correlates of subjectively experienced tension and resolution have not yet been investigated. We acquired continuous ratings of musical tension for four piano pieces. In a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, we identified blood oxygen level-dependent signal increases related to musical tension in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus). In addition, a region of interest analysis in bilateral amygdala showed activation in the right superficial amygdala during periods of increasing tension (compared with decreasing tension). This is the first neuroimaging study investigating the time-varying changes of the emotional experience of musical tension, revealing brain activity in key areas of affective processing.

  18. Tension-related activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala: an fMRI study with music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehne, Moritz; Rohrmeier, Martin; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Tonal music is characterized by a continuous flow of tension and resolution. This flow of tension and resolution is closely related to processes of expectancy and prediction and is a key mediator of music-evoked emotions. However, the neural correlates of subjectively experienced tension and resolution have not yet been investigated. We acquired continuous ratings of musical tension for four piano pieces. In a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, we identified blood oxygen level-dependent signal increases related to musical tension in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus). In addition, a region of interest analysis in bilateral amygdala showed activation in the right superficial amygdala during periods of increasing tension (compared with decreasing tension). This is the first neuroimaging study investigating the time-varying changes of the emotional experience of musical tension, revealing brain activity in key areas of affective processing. PMID:23974947

  19. Pain facilitation brain regions activated by nalbuphine are revealed by pharmacological fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gear

    Full Text Available Nalbuphine, an agonist-antagonist kappa-opioid, produces brief analgesia followed by enhanced pain/hyperalgesia in male postsurgical patients. However, it produces profound analgesia without pain enhancement when co-administration with low dose naloxone. To examine the effect of nalbuphine or nalbuphine plus naloxone on activity in brain regions that may explain these differences, we employed pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI in a double blind cross-over study with 13 healthy male volunteers. In separate imaging sessions subjects were administered nalbuphine (5 mg/70 kg preceded by either saline (Sal-Nalb or naloxone 0.4 mg (Nalox-Nalb. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD activation maps followed by contrast and connectivity analyses revealed marked differences. Sal-Nalb produced significantly increased activity in 60 brain regions and decreased activity in 9; in contrast, Nalox-Nalb activated only 14 regions and deactivated only 3. Nalbuphine, like morphine in a previous study, attenuated activity in the inferior orbital cortex, and, like noxious stimulation, increased activity in temporal cortex, insula, pulvinar, caudate, and pons. Co-administration/pretreatment of naloxone selectively blocked activity in pulvinar, pons and posterior insula. Nalbuphine induced functional connectivity between caudate and regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal, insular, middle cingulate cortices, and putamen; naloxone co-admistration reduced all connectivity to non-significant levels, and, like phMRI measures of morphine, increased activation in other areas (e.g., putamen. Naloxone pretreatment to nalbuphine produced changes in brain activity possess characteristics of both analgesia and algesia; naloxone selectively blocks activity in areas associated with algesia. Given these findings, we suggest that nalbuphine interacts with a pain salience system, which can modulate perceived pain intensity.

  20. Brain oscillatory activity during motor imagery in EEG-fMRI coregistration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaggio, Emanuela; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Cerini, Roberto; Fiaschi, Antonio; Manganotti, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the correlation between topographical changes in brain oscillatory activity and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during a motor imagery (MI) task using electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) coregistration. EEG was recorded in 7 healthy subjects inside a 1.5 T MR scanner during the imagination of the kinesthetic experience of movement. A Fast Fourier Transform was applied to EEG signal in the rest and active conditions. We used the event-related-synchronization (ERS)/desynchronization (ERD) approach to characterize where the imagination of movement produces a decrease in alpha and beta power. The mean alpha map showed ERD decrease localized over the contralateral sensory motor area (SM1c) and a light desynchronization in the ipsilateral sensory motor area (SM1i); whereas the mean beta map showed ERD decrease over the supplementary motor area (SMA). fMRI showed significant activation in SMA, SM1c, SM1i. The correlation is negative in the contralateral side and positive in the ipsilateral side. Using combined EEG-fMRI signals we obtained useful new information on the description of the changes in oscillatory activity in alpha and beta bands during MI and on the investigation of the sites of BOLD activity as possible sources in generating these rhythms. By correlating BOLD and ERD/ERS we may identify more accurately which regions contribute to changes of the electrical response. PMID:20850237

  1. Carbamazepine reduces memory induced activation of mesial temporal lobe structures: a pharmacological fMRI-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okujava Michael

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose It is not known whether carbamazepine (CBZ; a drug widely used in neurology and psychiatry influences the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast changes induced by neuronal activation and measured by functional MRI (fMRI. We aimed to investigate the influence of CBZ on memory induced activation of the mesial temporal lobes in patients with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Material and Methods Twenty-one individual patients with refractory symptomatic TLE with different CBZ serum levels and 20 healthy controls were studied using BOLD fMRI. Mesial temporal lobe (MTL activation was induced by a task that is based on the retrieval of individually familiar visuo-spatial knowledge. The extent of significant MTL fMRI activation was measured and correlated with the CBZ serum level. Results In TLE patients, the extent of significant fMRI activation over both MTL was negatively correlated to the CBZ serum level (Spearman r = -0.654, P Conclusions In TLE patients, carbamazepine reduces the fMRI-detectable changes within the mesial temporal lobes as induced by effortful memory retrieval. FMRI appears to be suitable to study the effects of chronic drug treatment in patients with epilepsy.

  2. Decreased ventral striatal activity with impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hengyi; Mamikonyan, Eugenia; Detre, John A; Siderowf, Andrew D; Stern, Matthew B; Potenza, Marc N; Weintraub, Daniel

    2010-08-15

    A range of impulse control disorders (ICDs) are reported to occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, alterations in brain activity at rest and during risk taking occurring with ICDs in PD are not well understood. We used both arterial spin labeling perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to directly quantify resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI to measure neural responses to risk taking during performance on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Eighteen PD patients, either with a diagnosis of one or more ICDs (N = 9) or no lifetime ICD history (N = 9), participated. BOLD fMRI data demonstrated that PD patients without an ICD activate the mesocorticolimbic pathway during risk taking. Compared with non-ICD patients, ICD patients demonstrated significantly diminished BOLD activity in the right ventral striatum during risk taking and significantly reduced resting CBF in the right ventral striatum. ICDs in PD are associated with reduced right ventral striatal activity at rest and diminished striatal activation during risk taking, suggesting that a common neural mechanism may underlie ICDs in individuals with PD and those without PD. Thus, treatments for ICDs in non-PD patients warrant consideration in PD patients with ICDs. PMID:20589879

  3. Relation of obesity to neural activation in response to food commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Yokum, Sonja; Stice, Eric; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2014-07-01

    Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but the neural response to food advertising and its association with obesity is largely unknown. This study is the first to examine how neural response to food commercials differs from other stimuli (e.g. non-food commercials and television show) and to explore how this response may differ by weight status. The blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging activation was measured in 30 adolescents ranging from lean to obese in response to food and non-food commercials imbedded in a television show. Adolescents exhibited greater activation in regions implicated in visual processing (e.g. occipital gyrus), attention (e.g. parietal lobes), cognition (e.g. temporal gyrus and posterior cerebellar lobe), movement (e.g. anterior cerebellar cortex), somatosensory response (e.g. postcentral gyrus) and reward [e.g. orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] during food commercials. Obese participants exhibited less activation during food relative to non-food commercials in neural regions implicated in visual processing (e.g. cuneus), attention (e.g. posterior cerebellar lobe), reward (e.g. ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ACC) and salience detection (e.g. precuneus). Obese participants did exhibit greater activation in a region implicated in semantic control (e.g. medial temporal gyrus). These findings may inform current policy debates regarding the impact of food advertising to minors. PMID:23576811

  4. Right hemisphere neural activations in the recall of waking fantasies and of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Ranieri, Rebecca; Genduso, Valeria; Cavallotti, Simone; Castelnovo, Anna; Smeraldi, Enrico; Scarone, Silvio; D'Agostino, Armando

    2015-10-01

    The story-like organization of dreams is characterized by a pervasive bizarreness of events and actions that resembles psychotic thought, and largely exceeds that observed in normal waking fantasies. Little is known about the neural correlates of the confabulatory narrative construction of dreams. In this study, dreams, fantasies elicited by ambiguous pictorial stimuli, and non-imaginative first- and third-person narratives from healthy participants were recorded, and were then studied for brain blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3.0-Tesla scanner while listening to their own narrative reports and attempting a retrieval of the corresponding experience. In respect to non-bizarre reports of daytime activities, the script-driven recall of dreams and fantasies differentially activated a right hemisphere network including areas in the inferior frontal gyrus, and superior and middle temporal gyrus. Neural responses were significantly greater for fantasies than for dreams in all regions, and inversely proportional to the degree of bizarreness observed in narrative reports. The inferior frontal gyrus, superior and middle temporal gyrus have been implicated in the semantic activation, integration and selection needed to build a coherent story representation and to resolve semantic ambiguities; in deductive and inferential reasoning; in self- and other-perspective taking, theory of mind, moral and autobiographical reasoning. Their degree of activation could parallel the level of logical robustness or inconsistency experienced when integrating information and mental representations in the process of building fantasy and dream narratives.

  5. Right hemisphere neural activations in the recall of waking fantasies and of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Ranieri, Rebecca; Genduso, Valeria; Cavallotti, Simone; Castelnovo, Anna; Smeraldi, Enrico; Scarone, Silvio; D'Agostino, Armando

    2015-10-01

    The story-like organization of dreams is characterized by a pervasive bizarreness of events and actions that resembles psychotic thought, and largely exceeds that observed in normal waking fantasies. Little is known about the neural correlates of the confabulatory narrative construction of dreams. In this study, dreams, fantasies elicited by ambiguous pictorial stimuli, and non-imaginative first- and third-person narratives from healthy participants were recorded, and were then studied for brain blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3.0-Tesla scanner while listening to their own narrative reports and attempting a retrieval of the corresponding experience. In respect to non-bizarre reports of daytime activities, the script-driven recall of dreams and fantasies differentially activated a right hemisphere network including areas in the inferior frontal gyrus, and superior and middle temporal gyrus. Neural responses were significantly greater for fantasies than for dreams in all regions, and inversely proportional to the degree of bizarreness observed in narrative reports. The inferior frontal gyrus, superior and middle temporal gyrus have been implicated in the semantic activation, integration and selection needed to build a coherent story representation and to resolve semantic ambiguities; in deductive and inferential reasoning; in self- and other-perspective taking, theory of mind, moral and autobiographical reasoning. Their degree of activation could parallel the level of logical robustness or inconsistency experienced when integrating information and mental representations in the process of building fantasy and dream narratives. PMID:25871325

  6. Charitable activities in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Ismailova Sevil Aydin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, found its proper reflection questions related to the issue of charitable activities in Azerbaijan. Briefly described the history of charitable activities in Azerbaijan. Also shown is the legal framework of charitable activities in Azerbaijan.

  7. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  8. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  9. The fMRI study on the front-parietal activation in abacus mental calculation trained children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the difference in front-parietal activation between the trained and untrained children engaged in addition and multiplication with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and to explore the role of abacus mental calculation in brain development. Methods: Twenty-four children trained with abacus mental calculation and twelve untrained children performed mental calculation tasks including addition, multiplication and number-object control judging tasks. Blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) fMRI was performed when they were calculating. All data were analyzed by SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping 2) to generate the brain activation map. Results: The performance of the trained group had better correctness and shorter reaction time than that of the untrained group. The front-parietal activation between two groups had obvious difference. The activation involved less prefrontal cortex in the trained group than in the untrained group (P<0.05). The parietal activation in the trained group was mainly in the posterior superior parietal lobe/ precuneus, whereas the activation areas focused on the inferior parietal lobule in the untrained group. Conclusion: Abacus mental calculation involves multiple functional areas. and these areas may work together as a whole in processing arithmetic problems. Abacus mental calculation not only enhances the information processing in some brain areas and improves the utilization efficiency of neural resources, but also plays an important role in developing brain. (authors)

  10. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amun Qa-t-a

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental

  11. Active commuting to school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  12. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  13. Persistent active longitudes in sunspot activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S.; Usoskin, I.

    It has been recently shown that spot activity of cool stars including solar analogues, is grouped in two clearly distinguished active longitudes which are persistent within at least one starspot cycle. Solar data including positional information of individual sunspots / groups extends back for about 130 years covering 12 solar cycles. Here we present the results of our research of longitudinal distribution of sunspot activity using an analysis similar to that applied to the stars. First, we synthesized, from the actual sunspot data, the sun's light curve as if it was defined only by spots. Then solar images were calculated from this light curve, giving a natural smoothing of the spot pattern. For each Carrington rotation, longitudinal position of these smoothed spot regions was calculated. The analysis reveals the following main features: - Sunspot activity is grouped in two active longitudes (with the differential rotation taken into account) 180o apart from each other which are persistent through the entire studied period of 12 cycles, similarly to stars. - The longitude migration is determined by changing the mean latitude of sunspot activity (the Maunder butterfly) and differential rotation. - The two longitudes periodically alternate the dominant activity with about 3.7 year period implying for the existence of the Sflip-flopT phenomenon known in - starspot activity.

  14. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  15. Brain region and activity-dependent properties of M for calibrated fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Christina Y; Herman, Peter; Coman, Daniel; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Wang, Helen; Juchem, Christoph; Rothman, Douglas L; de Graaf, Robin A; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2016-01-15

    Calibrated fMRI extracts changes in oxidative energy demanded by neural activity based on hemodynamic and metabolic dependencies of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response. This procedure requires the parameter M, which is determined from the dynamic range of the BOLD signal between deoxyhemoglobin (paramagnetic) and oxyhemoglobin (diamagnetic). Since it is unclear if the range of M-values in human calibrated fMRI is due to regional/state differences, we conducted a 9.4T study to measure M-values across brain regions in deep (α-chloralose) and light (medetomidine) anesthetized rats, as verified by electrophysiology. Because BOLD signal is captured differentially by gradient-echo (R2*) and spin-echo (R2) relaxation rates, we measured M-values by the product of the fMRI echo time and R2' (i.e., the reversible magnetic susceptibility component), which is given by the absolute difference between R2* and R2. While R2' mapping was shown to be dependent on the k-space sampling method used, at nominal spatial resolutions achieved at high magnetic field of 9.4T the M-values were quite homogenous across cortical gray matter. However cortical M-values varied in relation to neural activity between brain states. The findings from this study could improve precision of future calibrated fMRI studies by focusing on the global uniformity of M-values in gray matter across different resting activity levels. PMID:26529646

  16. Biophysical model for integrating neuronal activity, EEG, fMRI and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero, Roberto C; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J

    2008-01-01

    Our goal is to model the coupling between neuronal activity, cerebral metabolic rates of glucose and oxygen consumption, cerebral blood flow (CBF), electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses. In order to accomplish this, two previous models are coupled: a metabolic/hemodynamic model (MHM) for a voxel, linking BOLD signals and neuronal activity, and a neural mass model describing the neuronal dynamics within a voxel and its interactions with voxels of the same area (short-range interactions) and other areas (long-range interactions). For coupling both models, we take as the input to the BOLD model, the number of active synapses within the voxel, that is, the average number of synapses that will receive an action potential within the time unit. This is obtained by considering the action potentials transmitted between neuronal populations within the voxel, as well as those arriving from other voxels. Simulations are carried out for testing the integrated model. Results show that realistic evoked potentials (EP) at electrodes on the scalp surface and the corresponding BOLD signals for each voxel are produced by the model. In another simulation, the alpha rhythm was reproduced and reasonable similarities with experimental data were obtained when calculating correlations between BOLD signals and the alpha power curve. The origin of negative BOLD responses and the characteristics of EEG, PET and BOLD signals in Alzheimer's disease were also studied. PMID:17919931

  17. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R; Farnell, Les; Gibson, William G; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular) connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular) connections.

  18. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell R Bennett

    Full Text Available Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular connections.

  19. Decoding the Semantic Content of Natural Movies from Human Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Alexander G.; Lee, Tyler; Nishimoto, Shinji; Bilenko, Natalia Y.; Vu, An T.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    One crucial test for any quantitative model of the brain is to show that the model can be used to accurately decode information from evoked brain activity. Several recent neuroimaging studies have decoded the structure or semantic content of static visual images from human brain activity. Here we present a decoding algorithm that makes it possible to decode detailed information about the object and action categories present in natural movies from human brain activity signals measured by functional MRI. Decoding is accomplished using a hierarchical logistic regression (HLR) model that is based on labels that were manually assigned from the WordNet semantic taxonomy. This model makes it possible to simultaneously decode information about both specific and general categories, while respecting the relationships between them. Our results show that we can decode the presence of many object and action categories from averaged blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses with a high degree of accuracy (area under the ROC curve > 0.9). Furthermore, we used this framework to test whether semantic relationships defined in the WordNet taxonomy are represented the same way in the human brain. This analysis showed that hierarchical relationships between general categories and atypical examples, such as organism and plant, did not seem to be reflected in representations measured by BOLD fMRI. PMID:27781035

  20. Lectures Abandoned: Active Learning by Active Seminars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Corry, Aino Vonge

    2012-01-01

    Traditional lecture-based courses are widely criticised for be- ing less eective in teaching. The question is of course what should replace the lectures and various active learning tech- niques have been suggested and studied. In this paper, we report on our experiences of redesigning a software ......- tive seminars as a replacement of traditional lectures, an activity template for the contents of active seminars, an ac- count on how storytelling supported the seminars, as well as reports on our and the students' experiences....

  1. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...

  2. Antifeedant activity of quassinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, V; Polonsky, J; Bhatnagar, S

    1984-10-01

    The antifeedant activity of 13 quassinoids of different structural types has been studied against the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) 4th instar larvae and the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Crawer) 5th instar larvae. All quassinoids tested displayed significant activity against the Mexican bean beetle and, thus, do not reveal a simple structure-activity relationship. Five quassinoids were active against the southern armyworm. Interestingly, four of these-bruceantin (I), glaucarubinone (VI), isobruceine A (VIII), and simalikalactone D (XI)-possess the required structural features for antineoplastic activity. The noncytotoxic quassin (X) is an exception; it is active against both pests. PMID:24318349

  3. Functional MRI activity in the thalamus and occipital cortex of anesthetized dogs induced by monocular and binocular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C K; Quinn, R P; McDonell, W M; Gati, J; Partlow, G; Vilis, T

    2001-07-01

    The neuroanatomy of the mammalian visual system has received considerable attention through electrophysiological study of cats and non-human primates, and through neuroimaging of humans. Canine neuroanatomy, however, has received much less attention, limiting our understanding of canine vision and visual pathways. As an early step in applying blood oxygenation level dependant (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for veterinary use, we compared visual activity in the thalamus and occipital cortex of anesthetized dogs presented with binocular and monocular visual stimuli. Activity in the left and right thalamus and occipital cortex during monocular stimulation was also compared. Six beagles were presented with a vertical grating visual stimulus and scanned at 4 Tesla. Each dog was scanned twice under each of 3 anesthetic protocols (isoflurane, propofol, and fentanyl/midazolam). We found: 1) significant BOLD activation in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus and the occipital cortex; 2) a significantly larger area of activation in the LGN during monocular stimulation than during binocular stimulation; and 3) that activity in the hemisphere contralateral to the stimulus was not significantly greater than that ipsilateral to it. PMID:11480525

  4. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  5. Forensic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of neutron activation analysis are outlined. Examples of its use in police science include analysis for gunshot residues, toxic element determinations and multielement comparisons. Advantages of neutron activation analysis over other techniques are described. (R.L.)

  6. USAID Activity Locatons

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  7. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    of physical and productive activity; e.g. that a game of billiards is a technology of active aging. Thus, active aging is enacted in the socio-material practices of the technologies in this paper. The paper contributes with a strengthening of the concept of active aging, by focusing on entangled practices......In the recent decade the concept of active aging has become important in the Western hemisphere. The World Health Organization and The European Union have staged active aging as a core policy area and initiated programs of physical activity, independence and prolonged working lives among...... the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...

  8. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  9. Active magnetic regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  10. Physical Activity and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food and Beverage Toolkit The AHA's Recommendations for Physical Activity in Children Updated:Jul 21,2016 Click image ... Inactive children are likely to become inactive adults. Physical activity helps with: controlling weight reducing blood pressure raising ...

  11. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  12. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  13. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  14. Canonical active Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Gluck, Alexander; Huffel, Helmuth; Ilijic, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    Active Brownian motion is the complex motion of active Brownian particles. They are active in the sense that they can transform their internal energy into energy of motion and thus create complex motion patterns. Theories of active Brownian motion so far imposed couplings between the internal energy and the kinetic energy of the system. We investigate how this idea can be naturally taken further to include also couplings to the potential energy, which finally leads to a general theory of cano...

  15. Woodsy Owl Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide offers teachers and after-school group leaders 12 fun and engaging activities. Activities feature lessons on trees, water, wind, the earth, food, and waste. The activities are designed to help children aged 5-8 become more aware of the natural environment and fundamental conservation principles. Titles of children's books are embedded…

  16. Activity Theory and Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  17. Ras activation by SOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen;

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual ...

  18. Repeatability of Detecting Visual Cortex Activity in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Ma'soumbeigi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is too expensive and time consuming, its frequent implementation is difficult. The aim of this study is to evaluate repeatability of detecting visual cortex activity in fMRI. Materials and Methods In this study, 15 normal volunteers (10 female, 5 male; Mean age±SD: 24.7±3.8 years attended. Functional magnetic resonance images were obtained during a visual task of sine-wave with spatial frequency of 1.84 cpd and temporal frequency of 8 Hz in three scan runs. Two runs of functional images were provided consecutively in a session, and the third run was provided 1-6 weeks later. The activation map was created using the data obtained from the block-designed fMRI study. Voxels whose Z value was above a threshold of 2.3, at a significance level p=0.05, were considered activated. After image processing, the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal changes and the number of activated voxels in response to visual stimuli were compared in different runs. Results The results of this study demonstrate no significant difference between the number of activated voxels and BOLD signal in first and second runs in one session (Paired t-test, p>0.05. Moreover, there is a considerable correlation between first and second scan runs (rsignal=0.74, p=0.006 and rvoxel=0.62, p=0.03, while the correlation between the runs in separate sessions is weak (rsignal=0.28, p=0.38 and rvoxel=0.32, p=0.31. Conclusion Since the repeatability of BOLD signal and number of activated voxels in one session is considerably better than that in the separate sessions, it is suggested that in fMRI visual studies that need repeated scanning, scans should be acquired during a single session.

  19. Recurrent radio activity in active galactic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamrozy M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing body of persuasive evidence to indicate that AGN activity, powered by mass accretion onto a supermassive black hole, can involve multiple episodes. Thus thinking of jet activity as occurring within a unique brief period in the life of a galaxy is no longer valid. The most striking examples of AGNs with recurrent jet activity are the double-double radio sources, which contain two or more pairs of distinct lobes on the opposite sides of a parent optical object. On the other hand, we have now conclusive arguments that galaxy mergers and interactions are principal triggers for AGNs. Quite a number of examples of powerful radio sources hosted by galaxies with peculiar optical morphologies (tails, shells, dust-lanes, etc. can be cited to support such a scenario. The structure and spectra of extended radio emission from radio galaxies, with sizes ranging up to a few Mpc, can provide a lot of information on the history of the central AGN activity, while the spectral and dynamical ages of these extended radio lobes could be used to constrain the time scales of recurrent AGN activity.

  20. Neural Changes following Behavioral Activation for a Depressed Breast Cancer Patient: A Functional MRI Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Gawrysiak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging is an innovative but at this stage underutilized method to assess the efficacy of psychotherapy for depression. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used in this case study to examine changes in brain activity in a depressed breast cancer patient receiving an 8-session Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD, based on the work of Hopko and Lejuez (2007. A music listening paradigm was used during fMRI brain scans to assess reward responsiveness at pre- and posttreatment. Following treatment, the patient exhibited attenuated depression and changes in blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD response in regions of the prefrontal cortex and the subgenual cingulate cortex. These preliminary findings outline a novel means to assess psychotherapy efficacy and suggest that BATD elicits functional brain changes in areas implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Further research is necessary to explore neurobiological mechanisms of change in BATD, particularly the potential mediating effects of reward responsiveness and associated brain functioning.

  1. Impaired Activation in Cognitive Control Regions Predicts Reversal Learning in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbreth, Adam J; Gold, James M; Cools, Roshan; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-03-01

    Reinforcement learning deficits have been associated with schizophrenia (SZ). However, the pathophysiology that gives rise to these abnormalities remains unclear. To address this question, SZ patients (N = 58) and controls (CN; N = 36) completed a probabilistic reversal-learning paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. During the task, participants choose between 2 stimuli. Initially, 1 stimulus was frequently rewarded (80%); the other was infrequently rewarded (20%). The reward contingencies reversed periodically because the participant learned the more rewarded stimulus. The results indicated that SZ patients achieved fewer reversals than CN, and demonstrated decreased winstay-loseshift decision-making behavior. On loseshift compared to winstay trials, SZ patients showed reduced Blood Oxygen Level Dependent activation compared to CN in a network of brain regions widely associated with cognitive control, and striatal regions. Importantly, relationships between group membership and behavior were mediated by alterations in the activity of cognitive control regions, but not striatum. These findings indicate an important role for the cognitive control network in mediating the use and updating of value representations in SZ. Such results provide biological targets for further inquiry because researchers attempt to better characterize decision-making neural circuitry in SZ as a means to discover new pathways for interventions. PMID:26049083

  2. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF ACTIVITY OF SERINE PROTEASES ACCOMPANY THE EXPOSURE OF COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. TO WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Budič

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of proteolytic enzymes exist in plants. On their levels depends protein turnover, a fundamental component in plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Cysteine proteases have frequently been reported to be influenced by drought, but only a few serine proteases (SP, among them the trypsin-like enzyme and two aminopeptidases from bean leaves (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Hieng et al., 2004. Our starting point was to identify proteolytic activities assigned to SPs that change with drought and then to characterize the corresponding proteases. A quantitative, analytical one-step method was used to separate endopeptidases and aminopeptidases active against a range of substrates in leaf extracts of plants grown in the field (FC. The influence of drought was determined for those of these activities which were confirmed as SPs, based on their inhibition by specific inhibitors. Under water deficit in plants grown under controlled conditions (CC their levels changed in different ways. The levels of SP activities in FC plants, observed during a period of relative drought, were similar to those measured in mildly stressed CC plants. The partial characterisations of some of these SPs will be presented. Our results point to a number of roles for different SPs in the plant response to water stress, which could range from enhanced protein turnover to limited proteolysis at specific sites.

  3. Altered baseline brain activities before food intake in obese men: a resting state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Derun; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Jing; Tian, Xiao; von Deneen, Karen M; Zang, Yufeng; Walter, Martin; Liu, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity as a chronic disease has become a global epidemic. However, why obese individuals eat more still remains unclear. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have found abnormal brain activations in obese people. In the present study, we used resting state functional MRI to observe spontaneous blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations during both hunger and satiety states in 20 lean and 20 obese men. Using a regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis method, we measured temporal homogeneity of the regional BOLD signals. We found that, before food intake, obese men had significantly increased synchronicity of activity in the left putamen relative to lean men. Decreased synchronicity of activity was found in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial prefrontal cortex(MPFC) in the obese subjects. And, the ratings of hunger of the obese subjects were higher than those of the lean subjects before food intake. After food intake, we did not find the significant differences between the obese men and the lean men. In all participations, synchronicity of activity increased from the fasted to the satiated state in the OFC. The results indicated that OFC plays an important role in feeding behavior, and OFC signaling may be disordered in obesity. Obese men show less inhibitory control during fasting state. This study has provided strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is a hypo-functioning reward circuitry in obese individuals, in which the frontal cortex may fail to inhibit the striatum, and consequently lead to overeating and obesity. PMID:25459293

  4. Physiologic activities of the contact activation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, Alvin H

    2014-05-01

    The plasma contact activation (CAS) and kallikrein/kinin (KKS) systems consist of 4 proteins: factor XII, prekallikrein, high molecular weight kininogen, and the bradykinin B2 receptor. Murine genetic deletion of factor XII (F12(-/-)), prekallikrein (Klkb1(-/-)), high molecular weight kininogen (Kgn1(-/-)) and the bradykinin B2 receptor (Bdkrb2(-/-)) yield animals protected from thrombosis. With possible exception of F12(-/-) and Kgn1(-/-) mice, the mechanism(s) for thrombosis protection is not reduced contact activation. Bdkrb2(-/-) mice are best characterized and they are protected from thrombosis through over expression of components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) leading to elevated prostacyclin with vascular and platelet inhibition. Alternatively, prolylcarboxypeptidase, a PK activator and degrader of angiotensin II, when deficient in the mouse leads to a prothrombotic state. Its mechanism for increased thrombosis also is mediated in part by components of the RAS. These observations suggest that thrombosis in mice of the CAS and KKS are mediated in part through the RAS and independent of reduced contact activation. PMID:24759141

  5. NEA activities in 1980. 9. Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1980 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  6. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E;

    1999-01-01

    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly...

  7. Differences in neural activity when processing emotional arousal and valence in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Angela; Wang, Zhishun; Huo, Yuankai; Goh, Suzanne; Russell, James A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have difficulty recognizing and interpreting facial expressions of emotion, which may impair their ability to navigate and communicate successfully in their social, interpersonal environments. Characterizing specific differences between individuals with ASD and their typically developing (TD) counterparts in the neural activity subserving their experience of emotional faces may provide distinct targets for ASD interventions. Thus we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a parametric experimental design to identify brain regions in which neural activity correlated with ratings of arousal and valence for a broad range of emotional faces. Participants (51 ASD, 84 TD) were group-matched by age, sex, IQ, race, and socioeconomic status. Using task-related change in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal as a measure, and covarying for age, sex, FSIQ, and ADOS scores, we detected significant differences across diagnostic groups in the neural activity subserving the dimension of arousal but not valence. BOLD-signal in TD participants correlated inversely with ratings of arousal in regions associated primarily with attentional functions, whereas BOLD-signal in ASD participants correlated positively with arousal ratings in regions commonly associated with impulse control and default-mode activity. Only minor differences were detected between groups in the BOLD signal correlates of valence ratings. Our findings provide unique insight into the emotional experiences of individuals with ASD. Although behavioral responses to face-stimuli were comparable across diagnostic groups, the corresponding neural activity for our ASD and TD groups differed dramatically. The near absence of group differences for valence correlates and the presence of strong group differences for arousal correlates suggest that individuals with ASD are not atypical in all aspects of emotion-processing. Studying these similarities

  8. Distinct BOLD activation profiles following central and peripheral oxytocin administration in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F Ferris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain-barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg/kg during functional magnetic resonance (fMRI in awake rats imaged at 7.0 tesla. These data were compared to OT (1ug/5 µl given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  9. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

    and instrumental actions, between human and non-human participants, and between an activity and its spatio-temporal context. The advent of pervasive technologies, where active or passive systems become embedded in our working and living spaces, from where they offer their services to us, puts the need...... and automatic machinery can replace one another in an activity. It also gives an example of how to use the framework for design....

  10. Active Travel - Healthy Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2011-01-01

    Across Ireland, there is considerable scope to replace many short car journeys with walking and cycling which would bring about a range of benefits to health as well as saving money for individuals and society.'Active travel, healthy lives' presents a summary of international evidence on the health and economic benefits of active travel and makes recommendations on how active travel can become a viable, safe and attractive alternative to car use.

  11. Active unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, J G; de Rezende, J R; de Araújo, V C; Chilvarquer, I

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of active unilateral condylar hyperplasia which were treated with condylectomy alone are presented. The first case was an adult form and the other a juvenile form. Both were classified as active by using 99Tc bone scintigraphy. Clinical and radiographic features of both cases conformed to the hemimandibular hypertrophy type. Satisfactory facial symmetry and dental occlusion were achieved. Histopathological data confirmed the activity of the articular cartilage layers. PMID:8181091

  12. Poverty And Civic Activism

    OpenAIRE

    William R. DiPietro

    2013-01-01

    This paper hypothesizes that country poverty is negatively associated with the civic activism of its citizens. It employs cross country regression analysis to test the proposition. In general, the findings of the paper lend support to the contention that greater civic activism leads to reduced poverty.Poverty is a worldwide problem. One of the possible ways that pressure can be brought to bear to change a countrys policies, institutions, attitudes, and beliefs is through civic activism and pr...

  13. Lupus Activity in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Clowse, Megan E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy in a woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) can be complicated by both lupus activity and pregnancy mishaps. The majority of recent studies demonstrate an increase in lupus activity during pregnancy, perhaps exacerbated by hormonal shifts required to maintain pregnancy. Increased lupus activity, in turn, prompts an elevated risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclamspsia. Fortunately, the majority of pregnancies in wo...

  14. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  15. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers,...

  16. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling,...

  17. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  18. NEA activities in 1983. 12. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1983 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, nuclear development and the fuel cycles nuclear safety technology and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings and other NEA joint projects, organisation and administration are reviewed

  19. An fMRI study on cortical responses during active self-touch and passive touch from others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle eAckerley

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Active, self-touch and the passive touch from an external source engage comparable afferent mechanoreceptors on the touched skin site. However, touch directed to glabrous skin compared to hairy skin will activate different types of afferent mechanoreceptors. Despite perceptual similarities between touch to different body sites, it is likely that the touch information is processed differently. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to elucidate the cortical differences in the neural signal of touch representations during active, self-touch and passive touch from another, to both glabrous (palm and hairy (arm skin, where a soft brush was used as the stimulus. There were two active touch conditions, where the participant used the brush in their right hand to stroke either their left palm or arm. There were two similar passive, touch conditions where the experimenter used an identical brush to stroke the same palm and arm areas on the participant. Touch on the left palm elicited a large, significant, positive blood-oxygenation level dependence (BOLD signal in right sensorimotor areas. Less extensive activity was found for touch to the arm. Separate somatotopical palm and arm representations were found in Brodmann area 3 of the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI and in both these areas, active stroking gave significantly higher signals than passive stroking. Active, self-touch elicited a positive BOLD signal in a network of sensorimotor cortical areas in the left hemisphere, compared to the resting baseline. In contrast, during passive touch, a significant negative BOLD signal was found in the left SI. Thus, each of the four conditions had a unique cortical signature despite similarities in afferent signalling or evoked perception. It is hypothesized that attentional mechanisms play a role in the modulation of the touch signal in the right SI, accounting for the differences found between active and passive touch.

  20. Does functional MRI detect activation in white matter?A review of emerging evidence, issues, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie Reanna Gawryluk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a non-invasive technique that allows for visualization of activated brain regions. Until recently, fMRI studies have focused on gray matter. There are two main reasons white matter fMRI remains controversial: 1 the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD fMRI signal depends on cerebral blood flow and volume, which are lower in white matter than gray matter and 2 fMRI signal has been associated with post-synaptic potentials (mainly localized in gray matter as opposed to action potentials (the primary type of neural activity in white matter. Despite these observations, there is no direct evidence against measuring fMRI activation in white matter and reports of fMRI activation in white matter continue to increase. The questions underlying white matter fMRI activation are important. White matter fMRI activation has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of brain connectivity research, as well as improve the assessment and diagnosis of white matter and connectivity disorders. The current review provides an overview of the motivation to investigate white matter fMRI activation, as well as the published evidence of this phenomenon. We speculate on possible neurophysiologic bases of white matter fMRI signals, and discuss potential explanations for why reports of white matter fMRI activation are relatively scarce. We end with a discussion of future basic and clinical research directions in the study of white matter fMRI.

  1. Mycorrhizal dependency of mangaba tree under increasing phosphorus levels Dependência micorrízica de mangabeira em doses crescentes de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Alves Cardoso Filho

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the mycorrhizal dependency of mangaba tree (Hancornia speciosa plantlets, under increasing levels of phosphorus fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4×5 factorial arrangement with three mycorrhizal fungi inocula - Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum, or a pool of native mycorrhizal fungi (Acaulospora longula, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora albida, Paraglomus sp. -, and a nonmycorrhizal control, in combination with five levels of phosphorus applied to the substrate: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg kg-1. After 180 days of growth, plantlets with inoculation of native mycorrhizal pool produced more shoot and root dry biomass and had higher shoot phosphorus content and accumulation. The noninoculated control showed the lowest values, independently of the phosphorus level. The highest relative mycorrhizal dependency occurred with the inoculation of native mycorrhizal fungi. Plants with mycorrhizal fungi did not respond to phosphorus addition above 50 mg kg-1. Mangaba tree is highly dependent on mycorrhiza, but the degree of dependency varies according to phosphorus levels and fungal inocula. In general, mangaba tree is more responsive to mycorrhizal fungi inoculation than to phosphorus addition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dependência micorrízica de mudas de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa, em doses crescentes de fósforo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4´5 com três inóculos de fungos micorrízicos - Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum, ou uma mistura de espécies de fungos micorrízicos nativos (Acaulospora longula, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora albida e Paraglomus sp. -, e um controle não micorrízico, combinados a cinco doses de fósforo no substrato: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mg kg-1. Após 180 dias, as mudas com inoculação dos fungos micorrízicos nativos produziram mais biomassa seca de parte aérea e raízes e apresentaram maior concentração e acúmulo de fósforo na parte aérea. O controle sem inóculo apresentou os menores valores, independentemente da dose de fósforo. A maior dependência micorrízica relativa ocorreu com a inoculação de fungos micorrízicos nativos. Plantas com inoculação micorrízica não responderam à adição de fósforo, em doses acima de 50 mg kg-1. A mangabeira é altamente dependente de micorrizas, mas o grau de dependência varia de acordo com os níveis de fósforo e com os inóculos fúngicos. Em geral, a mangabeira é mais responsiva à inoculação com fungos micorrízicos do que à adição de fósforo.

  2. Blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging during carbogen breathing: differentiation between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia and correlation with vessel maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ningning Di,1,2,* Ning Mao,3,* Wenna Cheng,4 Haopeng Pang,1 Yan Ren,1 Ning Wang,2 Xinjiang Liu,2 Bin Wang5 1Department of Radiology, Affiliated Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Radiology, Binzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Binzhou, 3Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhangding Hospital, Yantai, 4Department of Pharmacy, Binzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Binzhou, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Binzhou Medical Universi...

  3. Doping-level dependences of switching speeds and the retention characteristics of resistive switching Pt/SrTiO{sub 3} junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Minji; Lee, Eunsongyi; Sohn, Ahrum; Bourim, El Mostafa; Kim, Dong-Wook [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    We investigated the resistive switching behaviors of metal/oxide junctions consisting of Pt electrodes and Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3}(001) single crystals. The doping level affected the resistive switching ratio and the transport mechanism (thermionic emission for low doping and thermionic field emission for high doping). Pulse-mode switching experiments showed that an increase in the interface electric field by several times could enhance the switching speed by hundreds of times. The dependence of the retention time on the doping ratio was also examined. All the results suggested that ionic migration and carrier trapping could explain the resistive switching characteristics.

  4. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  5. 库存影响需求率的供应链EOQ模型%A supply chain EOQ model with inventory-level-dependent demand rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭万; 钟波

    2007-01-01

    研究具有一个供应商、一个生产商和一个销售商的供应链EOQ模型,假设商品的需求率是库存量的函数,建立起平均利润最大化的供应链库存模型;为了更好地优化库存,提高供应链的利润,利用整数因子法对模型的周期时间作了进一步的协调;给出了一个实例,数值结果表明:协调后的模型能够有效地提高供应链的整体利润.

  6. Early host responses to avian influenza A virus are prolonged and enhanced at transcriptional level depending on maturation of the immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemers, Sylvia S.; van Leenen, Dik; Koerkamp, Marian J. Groot; van Haarlem, Daphne; van de Haar, Peter; van Eden, Willem; Vervelde, Lonneke

    2010-01-01

    Newly hatched chickens are more susceptible to infectious diseases than older birds because of an immature immune system. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent host responses to avian influenza virus (AIV) inoculation are affected by age. Therefore, 1- and 4-week (wk) old birds were

  7. Correlation between single-trial visual evoked potentials and the blood oxygenation level dependent response in simultaneously recorded electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglø, Dan; Pedersen, Henrik; Rostrup, Egill;

    2012-01-01

    in different occipital and extraoccipital cortical areas not explained by the boxcar regressor. The results suggest that the P1-N2 regressor is the best EEG-based regressor to model the visual paradigm, but when looking for additional effects like habituation or attention modulation that cannot be modeled...

  8. The Dopants and Doping Level Dependence of the Structure and Magnetic Properties of the Eu (BA1-xLRx)2Cu3O7+Theta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lin

    2002-12-31

    Eu(Ba{sub 1-x}Nd{sub x}){sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7+{delta}} were systematically studied in order to understand how the valence of the rear earth elements, ionic sizes and magnetic moment affect the crystal structure and magnetic and electrical properties. Differential thermal analyses were carried out to check the phase purity, X-ray data were least-squares fitted to determine the lattice parameters, and DC-SQUID magnetometry was used to characterize the superconducting properties. These results showed that the crystallography is consistent with other EuLR123ss series, LR = La, Pr, Eu. The lattice parameters vary with the ionic radii of the rare earth ions. Unlike the uniform change in lattice parameter, the superconducting transition did not vary systematically with the ionic size of the dopants. Although the general trend was for T{sub c} to decrease with decreasing ionic size of the dopant, for the same doping level, Pr was anomalous, depressing T{sub c} faster. Although the exact mechanism is not clear, this result is consistent with the depression of T{sub c} for Pr substitution for the rare earth in R123. The critical current J{sub c} was determined using the Bean model from magnetization versus field measurements as a function of temperature and field. The effect of the dopants on J{sub c} with the increasing of temperature or applied field was determined. For T < 77 K and small values of x, the value of J{sub c} was increased over that of the x = 0 sample. In addition, the smaller the substituting atom, the higher the J{sub c} becomes. For instance, at x = 0.025, Eu123 < EuLa.025 < EuPr.025 < EuNd.025 < EuEu.025. The enhancement of J{sub c} disappears for x > 0.05 and T > 0.5T{sub c}.

  9. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent-(BOLD- Based R2′ MRI Study in Monkey Model of Reversible Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the value of BOLD-based reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2′ MRI in detecting ischemic penumbra (IP in a monkey model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and time evolution of relative R2′ (rR2′ in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia. Materials and Methods. 6 monkeys were used to make MCAO by the microcatheter method. MR scans were performed at 0 h (1 h after MCAO, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after reperfusion. R2′ was calculated using quantitative T2 and T2∗ maps. Ischemic area was subdivided into infracted core, IP and oligemia. rR2′ was calculated respectively. Results. Reversible MCAO model for 4/6 monkeys was made successfully. rR2′ values were significantly different at each time point, being highest in oligemia followed by IP and infarcted core (<.05. With reperfusion time evolution, rR2′ in infarcted core showed a decreased trend: sharply decreased within 6 hours and maintained at 0 during 6–48 hours (<.05. rR2′ values in IP and oligemia showed similar increased trend: sharply increased within 6 hours, maintained a plateau during 6–24 hours, and slightly increased until 48 hours. Conclusion. BOLD-based R2′ MRI can be used to describe changes of cerebral oxygen extract in acute ischemic stroke, and it can provide additional information in detecting IP. The time evolution rR2′ in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia is in accordance with the underlying pathophysiology.

  10. NEA activities in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an account of the activities of the Nuclear Energy Agency. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  11. Activities of the ILO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Seven articles on International Labour Organization (ILO) activities cover study groups at ILO headquarters, a Philippine rural workers seminar, women's participation in Central American union activities, worksite courses in India, and seminars and symposia in Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Sierra Leone. (SK)

  12. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  13. Plasminogen activation in cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijerkerk, Arie

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this thesis focusses on the role of the plasminogen activation system in angiogenesis and cancer. The plasminogen activation system regulates fibrinolysis and controls cell migration and invasion by plasmin-mediated matrix proteolysis. Plasmin is formed upon cleavage of the zymogen pl

  14. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotlieb, K.F.; Schijndel, van R.J.G.; Soest, van J.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispers

  15. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van J.J.G.; Schijndel, van R.J.G.; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispers

  16. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van J.J.G.; Schijndel, van R.J.G.; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2002-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispers

  17. HYDRATION AND ENZYME ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydration induced conformation and dynamic changes are followed using a variety of experimental techniques applied to hen egg white lysozyme. These changes are completed just before the onset of enzyme activity, which occurs before all polar groups are hydrated, and before monolayer coverage is attained. We suggest that these hydration induced changes are necessary for the return of enzyme activity.

  18. RTE activity report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RTE (electric power transport network) is the french manger of the electric power transport. This activity report provides information on the company results for the year 2005: panorama of the year, management and organization, the place of RTE in the european market, the customers, the industrial tool, the environment the human resources, the international activity and the management report. (A.L.B.)

  19. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  20. Active Students in Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolås, Line; Nordseth, Hugo; Yri, Jørgen Sørlie

    2015-01-01

    To ensure student activity in webinars we have defined 10 learning tasks focusing on production and communication e.g. collaborative writing, discussion and polling, and investigated how the technology supports the learning activities. The three project partners in the VisPed-project use different video-conferencing systems, and we analyzed how it…

  1. Activity report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report deals with the activities, the program management and the financial aspects of the ANDRA (National Agency for the radioactive wastes management) during 2002. After a presentation of the activities during the year 2002, it provides the financial accounting, data on company cash, the ANDRA missions and publications. (A.L.B.)

  2. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  3. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  4. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  5. [Field Learning Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  6. Activation Force Splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  7. Rainy Day Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  8. GOVERNOR ORGANIZATIONS ACTIVITY LICENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslennikova L. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the licensing of governor organizations activity in connection with amendments to the Housing Code of the Russian Federation by adoption of a Federal law of 21.07.2014 N 255-FZ «On amendments to the Housing Code of the Russian Federation, some legislative acts of the Russian Federation and on declare force Certain Provisions of Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation void » and the Government Resolution adoption of the of 28.10.2014г. N 1110 «On entrepreneur activity in apartment buildings’ government licensing». The urgency of the issue of the apartment buildings licensing activity is associated with the modernization of housing and communal services and legal regulation in this area. Introduction of the governor organizations activity licensing without securing in law the concept of "governor organizations" is a significant flaw of the legislator. As a result, the author gives the concept of governor organizations based on the analysis of scientific papers and current legislation. In addition, the article analyzes the introduction of licensing control, assesses the established order of the three registers on the governor organizations activity. The presented paper examines the experience of foreign countries associated with the activities on the apartment building common property management as well, and the state control over such activity. The authors examine violations of housing legislation that may cause the governor organizations and their officials’ administrative responsibility

  9. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  10. No difference in frontal cortical activity during an executive functioning task after acute doses of aripiprazole and haloperidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg eBolstad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is characterized by partial dopamine D2 receptor agonism. Its pharmacodynamic profile is proposed to be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive impairment, which is prevalent in psychotic disorders. This study compared brain activation characteristics produced by aripiprazole with that of haloperidol, a typical D2 receptor antagonist, during a task targeting executive functioning.Methods: Healthy participants received an acute oral dose of haloperidol, aripiprazole or placebo before performing an executive functioning task while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was carried out. Results: There was a tendency towards reduced performance in the aripiprazole group compared to the two other groups. The image analysis yielded a strong task-related BOLD-fMRI response within each group. An uncorrected between-group analysis showed that aripiprazole challenge resulted in stronger activation in the frontal and temporal gyri and the putamen compared with haloperidol challenge, but after correcting for multiple testing there was no significant group difference. Conclusion: No significant group differences between aripiprazole and haloperidol in frontal cortical activation were obtained when corrected for multiple comparisons.This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: 2009-016222-14; https://clinicaltrials.gov/.

  11. Towards quantification of blood-flow changes during cognitive task activation using perfusion-based fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildner, Toralf; Zysset, Stefan; Trampel, Robert; Driesel, Wolfgang; Möller, Harald E

    2005-10-01

    Multi-slice perfusion-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (p-fMRI) is demonstrated with a color-word Stroop task as an established cognitive paradigm. Continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) of the blood in the left common carotid artery was applied for all repetitions of the functional run in a quasi-continuous fashion, i.e., it was interrupted only during image acquisition. For comparison, blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast was detected using conventional gradient-recalled echo (GE) echo planar imaging (EPI). Positive activations in BOLD imaging appeared in p-fMRI as negative signal changes corresponding to an enhanced transport of inverted water spins into the region of interest, i.e., increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). Regional differences between the localization of activations and the sensitivity of p-fMRI and BOLD-fMRI were observed as, for example, in the inferior frontal sulcus and in the intraparietal sulcus. Quantification of CBF changes during cognitive task activation was performed on a multi-subject basis and yielded CBF increases of the order of 20-30%.

  12. A Preliminary Study of Functional Brain Activation among Marijuana Users during Performance of a Virtual Water Maze Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tropp Sneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ users compared to 18 nonusing (NU comparison subjects. Imaging data were acquired using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla during retrieval (hidden platform and motor control (visible platform conditions. While task performance on learning trials was similar between groups, MJ users demonstrated a deficit in memory retrieval. For BOLD fMRI data, NU subjects exhibited greater activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus compared to the MJ group for the Retrieval-Motor Control contrast (NU > MJ. These findings suggest that hypoactivation in MJ users may be due to differences in the efficient utilization of neuronal resources during the retrieval of memory. Given the paucity of data on visuospatial memory function in MJ users, these findings may help elucidate the neurobiological effects of marijuana on brain activation during memory retrieval.

  13. A preliminary study of functional brain activation among marijuana users during performance of a virtual water maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Gruber, Staci A; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Silveri, Marisa M; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ) users compared to 18 non-using (NU) comparison subjects. Imaging data were acquired using blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla during retrieval (hidden platform) and motor control (visible platform) conditions. While task performance on learning trials was similar between groups, MJ users demonstrated a deficit in memory retrieval. For BOLD fMRI data, NU subjects exhibited greater activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus compared to the MJ group for the Retrieval - Motor control contrast (NU > MJ). These findings suggest that hypoactivation in MJ users may be due to differences in the efficient utilization of neuronal resources during the retrieval of memory. Given the paucity of data on visuospatial memory function in MJ users, these findings may help elucidate the neurobiological effects of marijuana on brain activation during memory retrieval. PMID:23951549

  14. IPSN's 2001 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the 2001 activities and operation of the French institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN) which has become the institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) after its merging with the office of protection against ionizing radiations (OPRI). IPSN's activities cover: the safety of nuclear facilities, the safety of nuclear wastes, the management of emergencies, the management of sensible materials, the protection of the environment and of the public health, some research activities with foreign partners (central and eastern Europe, Asia..), and a partnership with the GRS, the German homologue of IPSN. (J.S.)

  15. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Soest, van, A.J.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2002-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  16. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  17. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  18. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  19. 1985. Activity progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program of the Laboratory of nuclear and high energy physics (LPNHE) of the Institute of nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) presents the research activities of its groups: principally, the Delphi group which constructs the outer detector of Delphi at LEP, the neutrino group which studies the neutrino mass, the Hera group whose work is collaboration to the construction of a detector for Hera collisioner; in parallel to these activities, other more little groups continue analysis of activities which are going to be finished: they are the CELLO group, the EHS group, the omega prime group and the nuclear emulsion group

  20. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Research and Development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during the year 1977 are reported. The report is presented in the form of individual summaries of R and D activities most of which are connected with the FBTR project. These R and D activities deal with various aspects of the FBTR project such as reactor physics, reactor design, reactor engineering, fabrication, testing and quality assurance of reactor materials and components, reactor chemistry, reactor safety, reprocessing, systems analysis and instrumentation. (M.G.B.)

  1. Scientific activities 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritus for the year 1979 are presented in the form of a list of 78 projects giving title, objectives, commencement year, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 15 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritus NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications and Training. (T.A.)

  2. Active Directory cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Laura

    2008-01-01

    When you need practical hands-on support for Active Directory, the updated edition of this extremely popular Cookbook provides quick solutions to more than 300 common (and uncommon) problems you might encounter when deploying, administering, and automating Microsoft's network directory service. For the third edition, Active Directory expert Laura E. Hunter offers troubleshooting recipes based on valuable input from Windows administrators, in addition to her own experience. You'll find solutions for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), ADAM (Active Directory Application Mode), m

  3. Forecast of auroral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique is developed to predict auroral activity based on a sample of over 9000 auroral sites identified in global auroral images obtained by an ultraviolet imager on the NASA Polar satellite during a 6-month period. Four attributes of auroral activity sites are utilized in forecasting, namely, the area, the power, and the rates of change in area and power. This new technique is quite accurate, as indicated by the high true skill scores for forecasting three different levels of auroral dissipation during the activity lifetime. The corresponding advanced warning time ranges from 22 to 79 min from low to high dissipation levels

  4. Mnemonic activation by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data of literature show that SPECT is able to detect cerebral activations induced by sensory-motor stimuli. The facts are not clearly established in what concerns the cognitive activations the amplitude of which is lower. We have studied an activation paradigm such as the Grober and Bruschke test which implies the long term explicit memory. It comprises a visual presentation of words followed by their indexed recall. By using a two-day protocol, 2 SPECTs were achieved in 4 healthy right-handed voluntaries as follows: one of activation (A) and one of control (B). The fifth subject benefited by a SPECT B and of an MRI. The injection for the examination A has been done during the indexed recall stage and for the examination B at the moment when the patient repeated several times the same 3 words. The SPECT data were collected 1 hour after the injection of 370 MBq of ECD making use of a 3-head camera equipped with UHR fan collimators and ending by a LMH on the reconstructed images of 8 mm. The MRI has been achieved by means of a Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet. The SPECT A and B of the subjects 1 to 4 were matched elastically to that of the subject 5 and that of the subject 5 was rigidly matched on its MRI. In this way the individual activation cards of the 4 subjects could be averaged and superimposed on the MRI of the 5. subject. One observes an internal temporal activation (maximal activation of left tonsil, +25% and right uncus, +23%) and a right cingulum activation (maximal activation, +25%), in agreement with the neuro-physiological data. The elastic matching makes possible the inter-subject averaging, what increases the signal-to-noise ratio of activation. The inter-modality rigid matching facilitates the anatomical localisation of the activation site. With these adapted tools, the cognitive activation is thus possible by SPECT and opens perspectives for early diagnosis of neurological troubles, namely of Alzheimer's disease

  5. China's Space Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China National Space Administration

    2004-01-01

    @@ Currently, space activities are very active around the world. Space technologies continuously expand to various areas of human activities, and space technology and applications are becoming an indispensable part of modern information society,while the development of space science brings a brand-new view to the development of science and technology. The development of space law is not only an important approach to improving people' s quality of lives, expanding the living space of human being, and exploiting new resources, but also an important symbol of the comprehensive strength and civilization of a nation.

  6. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  7. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), improving the immune response ; and assisting with ... studies have started examining the factors related to long-term behavior change and increases in physical activity. ...

  8. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  9. OTI Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  10. Creating Art Appreciation Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt, Ann H.

    1986-01-01

    The experiences of college students enrolled as majors in elementary education in designing art appreciation activities for use in elementary classrooms are described. The college students had no art background. (RM)

  11. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, and some cancers. Physical activity can also help with weight control, and may improve academic achievement in students. There's more . Inactive adults have a ...

  12. Home Activities Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet, broken up by state. PJs can use this report to view activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS, including;...

  13. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  14. Vessel Activity Record

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Activity Record is a bi-weekly spreadsheet that shows the status of fishing vessels. It records whether fishing vessels are fishing without an observer...

  15. Homebuyer Activities Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet. PJs can use this report to view homebuyer activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS that are in final draw,...

  16. DPHPE activities during 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1978

  17. 13. seminar 'Activation analysis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of the abstracts of contributions to the seminar covering broad ranges of application of activation analysis and improvements of systems and process steps. Most of them have been prepared separately for the energy data bases. (RB)

  18. Active at Any Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coordinating Committees NIDDK Advisory Council, Board of Scientific Advisors, and committees that coordinate research activities Research Areas ... the rest of the way. Even a shopping trip can be exercise because it provides a chance ...

  19. Active flows on trees

    CERN Document Server

    Forrow, Aden; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection interacts with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages $\\sim 1/4$ the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macrosco...

  20. The Active Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Jewitt, David; Agarwal, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Some asteroids eject dust, producing transient, comet-like comae and tails; these are the active asteroids. The causes of activity in this newly-identified population are many and varied. They include impact ejection and disruption, rotational instabilities, electrostatic repulsion, radiation pressure sweeping, dehydration stresses and thermal fracture, in addition to the sublimation of asteroidal ice. These processes were either unsuspected or thought to lie beyond the realm of observation before the discovery of asteroid activity. Scientific interest in the active asteroids lies in their promise to open new avenues into the direct study of asteroid destruction, the production of interplanetary debris, the abundance of asteroid ice and the origin of terrestrial planet volatiles.

  1. Activities in Teaching Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  2. Designing for Design Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sunghyun

    2009-01-01

    The area of graphic design has expanded since digital media was introduced, and it requires new creative thinking skills in the design process. This paper proposes a design process for a graphic design graduate class using activity theory as a theoretical background. This design process consists of three phases to solve the design problems within diverse design projects. Each phase was examined in terms of how the elements of activity theory could apply to the design process. As a research me...

  3. Creative activity and inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shemanov A.Yu.; Vostrov I.M.; Yegorova V.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being...

  4. ACTIVITY - BASED COSTING DESIGNING

    OpenAIRE

    Wioletta Skibiñska; Marta Kad³ubek

    2010-01-01

    The traditional costing system sometimes does not give accurate information about the consumption of different resources and the activities of the organisation. The activity-based costing system is an information-rich costing system which is more and more necessary for the success of many European companies. Base of designing and implementation of an ABC system in the enterprises are presented in the article.

  5. TPR And TPR Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽萍

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the definition of Total Physical Response(TPR),elaborates the process and the principles of it 80 that more and more TPR activities can be created according to them.The use of TPR shows us an interesting and effective way of teaching and learning English.TPR activities are interesting,challenging and motivating that almost all the students enjoy them.

  6. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Karoff, C.

    2014-01-01

    In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity i...

  7. Activation Energy for Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1952-08-29

    The experimentally determined exponential dependence of spontaneous fission rate on Z{sup 2}/A has been used to derive an expression for the dependence of the fission activation energy on Z{sup 2}/A. This expression has been used to calculate the activation energy for slow neutron induced fission and photofission. The correlation with the experimental data on these types of fission seems to be quite good.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Grepafloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedemann, B; Heisig, P

    1998-01-01

    Grepafloxin has an extremely broad spectrum of activity. Its activity against Gram-positive bacteria exceeds that of currently available quinolones. Grepafloxacin-resistant mutants seem to occur less frequently than ciprofloxacin - or ofloxacin-resistant mutants, and the increase in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the former mutants is less than that of the latter. This applies only to the relative differences (in dilution steps); the absolute values are similar. Grepafloxacin ...

  9. Enzyme with rhamnogalacturonase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kofod, L.V.; Andersen, L N; Dalboge, H; Kauppinen, M.S.; Christgau, S; Heldt-Hansen, H.P.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.M.; Voragen, A. G. J.; Schols, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme exhibiting rhamnogalacturonase activity, capable of cleaving a rhamnogalacturonan backbone in such a manner that galacturonic acids are left as the non-reducing ends, and which exhibits activity on hairy regions from a soy bean material and/or on saponified hairy regions from a sugar beet material. The enzyme has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 and is encoded by the DNA sequence of SEQ ID NO:1

  10. Liquidity and Shareholder Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Norli, Øyvind; Østergaard, Charlotte; Schindele, Ibolya

    2009-01-01

    Blockholders' incentives to intervene in corporate governance are weakened by free-rider problems and high costs of activism. Theory suggests activists may recoup expenses through informed trading of target rms' stock when stocks are liquid. We show that stock liquidity increases the probability of activism but does less so for potentially overvalued rms for which privately informed blockholders may have greater incentives to sell their stake than to intervene. We also document ...

  11. Antitrypanosomal Activity of Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Nenortas, Elizabeth; Burri, Christian; Shapiro, Theresa A.

    1999-01-01

    Six fluoroquinolones presently in clinical use and four investigational tetracyclic fluoroquinolones were tested for in vitro activity against bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei brucei. All compounds had measurable activity, but the tetracyclic analogs were most potent, with 50% effective concentrations in the low micromolar range. In general, trypanosomes were more susceptible than L1210 leukemia cells. Consistent with the notion that they target type II topoisomerase in trypanosomes, the f...

  12. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  13. Habitats, activities, and signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational......, and pragmatic, 2) proposes a notation, and 3) sketches a method and exemplifies areas of application using authentic cases from hospital work, primary school education, the maritime domain, and other areas...

  14. Active Noice Reduction headset

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Conventional (passive) headsets used in propeller aircrafts are reasonably good at attenuating mid to high frequency noise, but fail to achieve good attenuation in the low frequency region (below approximately 300 Hz). Active Noise Reduction (ANR) improves the low frequency attenuation by introducing an anti-noise signal creating destructive interference thus decreasing the residual noise level. The aim of this thesis is to develop and implement a digital narrowband active noise reduction hea...

  15. Active social insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Røed, Knut

    2012-01-01

    The paper argues that a comprehensive activation strategy is called for - in both unemployment and disability insurance - to minimize the conflict between income insurance and work incentives and to prevent the economic crisis from causing a long-lasting decline in labor force participation. A review of recent empirical evidence, particularly from the Scandinavian countries, indicates that 'mild' activation requirements effectively counteract moral hazard problems in social insurance. The pap...

  16. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  17. Activity report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during 1976 are reported. The main thrust of the R and D activities is directed towards the FBTR Project and they deal with the various aspects of the project such as reactor physics, reactor design, fuel handling, reactor instrumentation, reactor operation, reactor construction, reactor safety, reactor materials, reactor chemistry and fuel reprocessing. (M.G.B.)

  18. Fraudulent activities in accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Fábriová, Kristína

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focused on fraudulent activities in accounting. The aim of this thesis is to analyze current cases of accounting fraud and examine motives for committing accounting fraud, identify methods used by companies to commit accounting fraud and reasons why these fraud cases were not revealed sooner. The thesis is divided into two parts -- theoretical and practical. First part provides theoretical introduction to the topic of fraudulent activities in accounting and describes various me...

  19. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  20. Activity report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activites of the Eurochemic (European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels) at Mol is summarized under the following headings: the decontamination and intervention in the Fuel Reception and Storage Building, the active operation of the bituminization facility, the construction of two additional storage bunkers, the full active operation of the section for the handling of solid waste and the construction of various units for the conditioning of organic liquid waste and plutonium hearing solid wastes. (AF)

  1. Active Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Burbidge, Shaunna K; Goulias, Konstadinos G.

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity has become a dominant feature of most American’s lives over the past quarter century. This has spurred an entire research domain straddling several different disciplines. Although model development within the field of travel behavior as a whole continues today with more momentum than ever, the focus on active mode choice has largely been overlooked and left to a small fragment of transportation and public health researchers. Research regarding active mode choice has been...

  2. ABB: active bandwidth broker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kason; Law, Eddie

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we shall discuss a novel design on the policy-based management for the Internet. This design deploys the concept of active networking. As opposed to the traditional network design, active network empowers network node with the ability to manipulate data and program code in packets, and configure the network properties according to the needs of different applications. The policy-based management can control network routers in order to realize end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS), such as differentiated and integrated services, across the Internet. For the moment, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined the framework of the policy-based management. It employs a simple client/server model that uses Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol to facilitate policy management and control. Our design of Active Bandwidth Broker (ABB) belongs to an active application. Our goals are to distribute centralized workload of the policy-based management over multiple active nodes in the active networks, introduce mobility of the bandwidth brokers, and allows load sharing to the policy-based management. This results a network-wide intelligent, highly available, and consistent QoS control that allows performance protection for voice, video and Internet business application while reducing costs for growing networks.

  3. Psychomotor activities with seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kopřivová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  4. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Wei; Xu, Meirong; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2004-01-01

    The antimutagenic activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata), a popular food flavoring agent, was studied in the Salmonella assay. Spearmint leaves were brewed in hot water for 5 min at concentrations up to 5% (w/v), and the water extracts were tested against the direct-acting mutagens 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-hydroxyamino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-OH-IQ) using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Nontoxic concentrations of spearmint extract inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-OH-IQ in a concentration-dependent fashion, but had no effect against NPD. These experiments by design focused on the water extract consumed commonly as an herbal tea, but chloroform and methanol extracts of spearmint also possessed antimutagenic activity against N-OH-IQ. Water extract of spearmint inhibited the mutagenic activity of the parent compound, 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in the presence of rat liver S9; however, the concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) against IQ was approximately 10-fold higher than in assays with N-OH-IQ minus S9. At concentrations similar to those used in the Salmonella assays, spearmint extract inhibited two of the major enzymes that play a role in the metabolic activation of IQ, namely, cytochromes P4501A1 and 1A2, based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase assays in vitro. In vivo, rats were given spearmint water extract (2%; w/v) as the sole source of drinking fluid before, during, and after 2-week treatment with IQ; colonic aberrant crypt foci were inhibited significantly at 8 weeks (P < 0.05, compared with rats given IQ alone). Collectively, these findings suggest that spearmint tea protects against IQ and possibly other heterocyclic amines through inhibition of carcinogen activation and via direct effects on the activated metabolite(s).

  5. ACTIVATION ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF DIBENZOFURAN ON ACTIVATED CARBONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; LUO Lingai

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of commercial activated carbons, such as Norit RB1, Monolith and Chemviron activated carbons, were used as adsorbents for adsorption of dibenzofuran. The average pore size and specific surface area of these activated carbons were measured. Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons, and then the activation energy for desorption of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons was estimated. The results showed that the Chemviron and the Norit RB1 activated carbon maintained higher specific surface area and larger micropore pore volume in comparison with the Monolith activated carbon, and the activation energy for the desorption of dibenzofuran on these two activated carbons was higher than that on the Monolith activated carbon. The smaller the pore of the activated carbon was, the higher the activated energy of dibenzofuran desorption was.

  6. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  7. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality. PMID:26390078

  8. Software Activation Using Multithreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrui Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Software activation is an anti-piracy technology designed to verify that software products have been legitimately licensed. Activation should be quick and simple while simultaneously being secure and protecting customer privacy. The most common form of software activation is for the user to enter a legitimate product serial number. However, software activation based on serial numbers appears to be weak, since cracks for many programs are readily available on the Internet. Users can employ such cracks to bypass software activation.Serial number verification logic usually executes sequentially in a single thread. Such an approach is relatively easy to break since attackers can trace the code to understand how the logic works. In this paper, we develop a practical multi-threaded verification design. Our results show that by proper use of multi-threading, the amount of traceable code in a debugger can be reduced to a low percentage of the total and the traceable code in each run can differ as well. This makes it significantly more difficult for an attacker to reverse engineer the code as a means of bypassing a security check. Finally, we attempt to quantify the increased effort needed to break our verification logic.

  9. Active noise control primer

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott D

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  10. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C;

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  11. CEREM activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1997 issue of the activity report of the CEREM (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEREM organization, activities and human resources with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the materials fabrication for the nuclear and automotive industries, the powders metallurgy (molding by injection, cold pressing modelling), the simulation of the hot and cold working processes, the surface treatments, the joining (brazed joints, sintering, welding), the electrochemical storage of the energy (fuel cells, lithium accumulators), the corrosion and the physico-chemistry of fluids, the mechanical properties and the cracks, the robots for nuclear units dismantlement, the alteration mechanisms of properties under different solicitations (thermal, mechanical, chemical, irradiation) and the solidification-crystallogenesis. (O.M.)

  12. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R(w)), as there are...... response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee. The...... literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination of...

  13. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  14. Active Elbow Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ripel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the design of a motorized rehabilitation device – active elbow orthosis (AEO – inspired by the principles of robotic exoskeletons. The device is currently designed for the elbow joint, but can be easily modified for other joints as well. AEO determines the motion activity of the patient using a strain gauge and utilizes this measurement to control the actuator that drives the forearm part of the orthosis. Patient activity level is related to a free arm measurement obtained via a calibration procedure prior to the exercise. A high-level control module offers several types of exercises mimicking the physiotherapist. The device was successfully verified by tests on a number of patients, resulting in extended range of elbow-joint motion.

  15. Physical activity & depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiantoula E.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of performance are of special importance. Research has identified neurobiological and psychological paths that can develop between physical activity and well being. More studies although are needed in order to standardize the use of physical activity as a treatment option, mainly in the groups of children and teenagers.

  16. Prenucleosomes and Active Chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Mai T.; Fei, Jia; Ishii, Haruhiko; Kadonaga, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin consists of nucleosomes as well as nonnucleosomal histone-containing particles. Here we describe the prenucleosome, which is a stable conformational isomer of the nucleosome that associates with ~80 bp DNA. Prenucleosomes are formed rapidly upon the deposition of histones onto DNA and can be converted into canonical nucleosomes by an ATP-driven chromatin assembly factor such as ACF. Different lines of evidence reveal that there are prenucleosome-sized DNA-containing particles with histones in the upstream region of active promoters. Moreover, p300 acetylates histone H3K56 in prenucleosomes but not in nucleosomes, and H3K56 acetylation is found at active promoters and enhancers. These findings therefore suggest that there may be prenucleosomes or prenucleosome-like particles in the upstream region of active promoters. More generally, we postulate that prenucleosomes or prenucleosome-like particles are present at dynamic chromatin, whereas canonical nucleosomes are at static chromatin. PMID:26767995

  17. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal activities of Eurochemic plant in the fields of reprocessing and the solidification and conditioning of liquid wastes are presented in this report that covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1977. Works in the plant are closely related to the handling of fuel element and the treatment of solid wastes as well as the management of liquid wastes. Industrial development activities have been primarily devoted to the solidification of HEWC (highly enriched waste concentrate) by means of the Lotes process; the treatment of spent solvent by means of the Eurowatt process; the treatment of the plutonium-bearing solid wastes by the Eurowetcomb process and the conditioning of highly activity non-combustible solid wastes by incorporation into polymer-concrete matrix . (AF)

  18. Activity report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal activities of Eurochemic plant in the fields of reprocessing and the solidification and conditioning of liquid and solid wastes are presented in this report that covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1978. Works in the plant are closely related to the decontamination in cooperation with specialized firms. Active operation of bituminization facility was started in June, and a total of 66 m3 of medium level waste was incorporated into bitumen by the end of 1978. The associated storage facility was in active operation since June and preliminary studies for its extension were completed. A facility was completed for the conditioning of solid wastes arising from the decontamination operation of solid wastes whch were stored under water during plant operation. (AF)

  19. Accounting for movement increases sensitivity in detecting brain activity in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Holiga

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is manifested by motor impairment, which may impede the ability to accurately perform motor tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Both temporal and amplitude deviations of movement performance affect the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD response. We present a general approach for assessing PD patients' movement control employing simultaneously recorded fMRI time series and behavioral data of the patients' kinematics using MR-compatible gloves. Twelve male patients with advanced PD were examined with fMRI at 1.5T during epoch-based visually paced finger tapping. MR-compatible gloves were utilized online to quantify motor outcome in two conditions with or without dopaminergic medication. Modeling of individual-level brain activity included (i a predictor consisting of a condition-specific, constant-amplitude boxcar function convolved with the canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF as commonly used in fMRI statistics (standard model, or (ii a custom-made predictor computed from glove time series convolved with the HRF (kinematic model. Factorial statistics yielded a parametric map for each modeling technique, showing the medication effect on the group level. Patients showed bilateral response to levodopa in putamen and globus pallidus during the motor experiment. Interestingly, kinematic modeling produced significantly higher activation in terms of both the extent and amplitude of activity. Our results appear to account for movement performance in fMRI motor experiments with PD and increase sensitivity in detecting brain response to levodopa. We strongly advocate quantitatively controlling for motor performance to reach more reliable and robust analyses in fMRI with PD patients.

  20. Activity report CEREM 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEREM (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Materiaux) is one of the departments in CEA. The aim of this report is to outline the main developments in the department activities. It si divide din three main chapters. The first one presents the material design and processing, the researches on the energy electrochemical storage and a presentation of the robotic activities. The chapter 2 deals with the material characterization and testing. The last chapter presents the works of simulation on Material Science. The report is completed by some data on the budget and the staff. (A.L.B.)

  1. SCOR announces new activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Edward R., Jr.

    Roger Revelle had many good ideas during his long and productive career. One of them came to fruition in 1957 in the form of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), which the International Council for Science created as its first interdisciplinary body, to promote international activities in oceanography. Revelle served as SCOR's first president from 1957 to 1960. SCOR offers opportunities for scientists from different countries to cooperate in planning and executing international programs in ocean sciences. Over its 44 years in existence, SCOR has sponsored 120 working groups and has actively participated in many of the major international oceanographic projects. Thirty-six nations presently participate as SCOR members.

  2. Activity report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the fiscal year 1984, the technical activities of Eurochemic were: a) the cleaning of the vessels having contained medium level liquid wastes and the incorporation into bitumen of the resulting solution, b) the conditioning of plutonium contaminated solid waste, c) the civil engineering works of Building 29 were completed and the mounting of equipment was begun. The installation will assure the surface storage of the blocks resulting from vitrification, by means of Pamela installation of the high-level liquid wastes. The report includes administrative matters as well as health and safety activity. (AF)

  3. IPSN activity report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) carries out for the Government, studies and inspections on nuclear installations at many life steps (design, realisation, exploitation, shutdown and dismantling). To obtain quality researches, the Institut performs studies in all domains concerned by the safety and its improvement. The main projects of the year 1999, in the following topics are presented: the nuclear installations and the radioactive wastes safety, the crisis and nuclear materials management, the human and the environment protection, the international activities and cooperation, the quality insurance. It provides also information on the cooperation, the budget, the human resource policy and the communication activities. (A.L.B.)

  4. Andra 1997 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This activity report comprises two parts. The first part describes the missions and activities of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes): quality control of wastes produced by EdF, CEA, Cogema and the 1100 other small producers, design, construction and management of storage centres, anticipation and development of new management solutions, research and evaluation studies on deep storage facilities, inventory and control of all radioactive materials present in the French territory. The second part is a presentation of financial data. (J.S.)

  5. Reference neutron activation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,α), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n,3He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10-5 eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain almost all the

  6. Dynamic Activity-Related Incentives for Physical Activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Schüler, Julia; Brunner, Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    The present studies adopted the theoretical framework of activity- and purpose-related incentives (Rheinberg, 2008) to explain the maintenance of physical activity. We hypothesized that activity-related incentives (e.g., “fun”) increase more than purpose-related incentives (e.g., “health”) between the initiation and maintenance phase of physical activity. Additionally, change in activity-related incentives was hypothesized to be a better predictor of maintenance of physical activity than chan...

  7. Reward-related dorsal striatal activity differences between former and current cocaine dependent individuals during an interactive competitive game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hyatt

    Full Text Available Cocaine addiction is characterized by impulsivity, impaired social relationships, and abnormal mesocorticolimbic reward processing, but their interrelationships relative to stages of cocaine addiction are unclear. We assessed blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD signal in ventral and dorsal striatum during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in current (CCD; n = 30 and former (FCD; n = 28 cocaine dependent subjects as well as healthy control (HC; n = 31 subjects while playing an interactive competitive Domino game involving risk-taking and reward/punishment processing. Out-of-scanner impulsivity-related measures were also collected. Although both FCD and CCD subjects scored significantly higher on impulsivity-related measures than did HC subjects, only FCD subjects had differences in striatal activation, specifically showing hypoactivation during their response to gains versus losses in right dorsal caudate, a brain region linked to habituation, cocaine craving and addiction maintenance. Right caudate activity in FCD subjects also correlated negatively with impulsivity-related measures of self-reported compulsivity and sensitivity to reward. These findings suggest that remitted cocaine dependence is associated with striatal dysfunction during social reward processing in a manner linked to compulsivity and reward sensitivity measures. Future research should investigate the extent to which such differences might reflect underlying vulnerabilities linked to cocaine-using propensities (e.g., relapses.

  8. Face-identity change activation outside the face system: "release from adaptation" may not always indicate neuronal selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, Marieke; Ruff, Douglas A; Bodurka, Jerzy; Bandettini, Peter A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2010-09-01

    Face recognition is a complex cognitive process that requires distinguishable neuronal representations of individual faces. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using the "fMRI-adaptation" technique have suggested the existence of face-identity representations in face-selective regions, including the fusiform face area (FFA). Here, we present face-identity adaptation findings that are not well explained in terms of face-identity representations. We performed blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements, while participants viewed familiar faces that were shown repeatedly throughout the experiment. We found decreased activation for repeated faces in face-selective regions, as expected based on previous studies. However, we found similar effects in regions that are not face-selective, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and early visual cortex (EVC). These effects were present for exact-image (same view and lighting) as well as different-image (different view and/or lighting) repetition, but more widespread for exact-image repetition. Given the known functional properties of PPA and EVC, it appears unlikely that they contain domain-specific face-identity representations. Alternative interpretations include general attentional effects and carryover of activation from connected regions. These results remind us that fMRI stimulus-change effects can have a range of causes and do not provide conclusive evidence for a neuronal representation of the changed stimulus property.

  9. Risk patterns and correlated brain activities. Multidimensional statistical analysis of FMRI data in economic decision making study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bömmel, Alena; Song, Song; Majer, Piotr; Mohr, Peter N C; Heekeren, Hauke R; Härdle, Wolfgang K

    2014-07-01

    Decision making usually involves uncertainty and risk. Understanding which parts of the human brain are activated during decisions under risk and which neural processes underly (risky) investment decisions are important goals in neuroeconomics. Here, we analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data on 17 subjects who were exposed to an investment decision task from Mohr, Biele, Krugel, Li, and Heekeren (in NeuroImage 49, 2556-2563, 2010b). We obtain a time series of three-dimensional images of the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signals. We apply a panel version of the dynamic semiparametric factor model (DSFM) presented in Park, Mammen, Wolfgang, and Borak (in Journal of the American Statistical Association 104(485), 284-298, 2009) and identify task-related activations in space and dynamics in time. With the panel DSFM (PDSFM) we can capture the dynamic behavior of the specific brain regions common for all subjects and represent the high-dimensional time-series data in easily interpretable low-dimensional dynamic factors without large loss of variability. Further, we classify the risk attitudes of all subjects based on the estimated low-dimensional time series. Our classification analysis successfully confirms the estimated risk attitudes derived directly from subjects' decision behavior. PMID:25205006

  10. Low activity aluminum blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenati, R.; Tichler, P.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    The basic design of the breeding blanket consists of cylindrical aluminium canisters filled with a ceramic bed of moderating, shielding, and breeding materials all suitably cooled. A technical analysis of the blanket for an EPR design is given. Activation studies are presented. The effect of pulsed magnetic fields on module structure is investigated. (MOW)

  11. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, A; Karoff, C

    2014-01-01

    In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by ...

  12. NEA activities in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1981 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  13. 'Active' Thin Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, M.R.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Optical microscopy using thin sections has become more and more important over the last decade to study concrete. Unfortunately, this technique is not capable of studying actually hydrating cement paste. At Delft University of Technology a new technique has been developed using 'active' thin section

  14. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F;

    2012-01-01

    , such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  15. Physical Education Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Letty P.

    1978-01-01

    Described are three physical activity games designed to help young children develop a sense of mastery over their bodies: (which will in turn improve their self concepts): a poem to be acted out, Simon Says, and a story play to be acted out. (DLS)

  16. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  17. Diagramming Complex Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    We increasingly live in heterogeneous ever-changing webs of activities where human actions are intertwined with events created by automatic machines.  In order to make such webs understandable to its human participants, their structure should be represented by displays emphasizing their action as...

  18. An electrochemical active valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neagu, C.R.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Elwenspoek, M.; Kelly, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    A novel electrochemical microactuator was developed, which operates as an active valve. The microactuator consists of an electrochemical cell and a membrane that deflects because of the pressure of oxygen gas generated by electrolysis. Relatively large pressures (up to tens of bars) can be reached w

  19. Nursing activities score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and cost-ef

  20. Elusive active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maiolino, R; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Nagar, NM; Bianchi, S; Boker, T; Colbert, E; Krabbe, A; Marconi, A; Matt, G; Salvati, M

    2003-01-01

    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically 'elusive'. X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtai

  1. Active Math Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equatio...

  2. Mechanism of charity activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman B. Golovkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to establish the essential properties of the mechanism of charitable activities and to formulate the concept of quotmechanism of charitable activityquot. Methods the objective of the study is achieved using the complex of methods which are based on the interaction of dialectical and metaphysical analysis the epistemological properties of which allowed to reveal various aspects of the charitable activities mechanism functioning taking into account the principles of comprehensiveness complexity specificity and objectivity of the research. Results the rules are stated of using the term quotmechanismquot to characterize actions of state and law the essence of the charity mechanism is defined the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activity quot is formulated. Scientific novelty for the first time at theoretical level in legal science the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activityquot is formulated and its essential properties are set. Practical significance the research will contribute to improving the legal regulation in the field of philanthropy as well as to improving the efficiency and quality of charitable activity in the Russian Federation. nbsp

  3. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  4. Antifungal activity of diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Reisinger, E C; Söldner, B; Dierich, M P

    1989-10-01

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC) was evaluated for its ability to combat four different species of fungi in vitro. Using a microtiter-broth-dilution method we were able to demonstrate an antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor mucedo in doses achievable by intravenous administration in man.

  5. Shark Tagging Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    In this group activity, children learn about the purpose of tagging and how scientists tag a shark. Using a cut-out of a shark, students identify, measure, record data, read coordinates, and tag a shark. Includes introductory information about the purpose of tagging and the procedure, a data sheet showing original tagging data from Tampa Bay, and…

  6. CMMs Development Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; HU Yefa; HUANG Anyi

    2006-01-01

    The coordinate measuring machine (CMM) has been an important role in the digital manufacturing. This paper reviews CMM early stage development history and current activities. The authors provide some ideas about the areas that academic research can help to the CMMs development.

  7. Activity report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This activity report of the DSIN ( Direction of Nuclear Installations Safety) is divided into 4 parts bearing on: (1) Organisation, Safety principles, Regulations (2) Nuclear basis installations following (3) Surveillance by the regional directions of the Ministry of Industry, Research and Environment (4) Other missions of the DSIN

  8. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures affecting…

  9. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  10. Active Optical Lattice Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Evans; MacFarlane, Duncan L.; Govind Kannan; Jian Tong; Issa Panahi; Vishnupriya Govindan; L. Roberts Hunt

    2005-01-01

    Optical lattice filter structures including gains are introduced and analyzed. The photonic realization of the active, adaptive lattice filter is described. The algorithms which map between gains space and filter coefficients space are presented and studied. The sensitivities of filter parameters with respect to gains are derived and calculated. An example which is relevant to adaptive signal processing is also provided.

  11. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  12. Antimalarial activity of cedronin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, C; Deharo, E; Sauvain, M; Jardel, C; David, P T; Gasquet, M

    1994-06-01

    Cedronin was isolated from Simaba cedron Planchon (Simaroubaceae), a species popularly believed in South America to have antimalarial properties. It was examined for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activities and for cytotoxicity against KB cells. Experimental results showed that cedronin was active against chloroquine-sensitive and resistant strain, with an IC50 of 0.25 micrograms/ml (0.65 mumol/ml). It was also found to be active in vivo against Plasmodium vinkei with an IC50 of 1.8 mg/kg (4.7 nM/kg) in the classic 4-day test. Cedronin belongs to the small group of quassinoids with a C19 basic skeleton and shows a rather low cytotoxicity against KB cells (IC50 = 4 micrograms/ml, 10.4 microM) as compared with C20 biologically active quassinoids; however its toxic/therapeutic ratio (10/1.8) remains lower than chloroquine (10/0.5).

  13. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  14. Integration of Active Video Games in Extracurricular Activity at Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…

  15. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  16. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  17. Planets around active stars

    CERN Document Server

    Setiawan, J; Henning, T; Hatzes, A P; Pasquini, L; da Silva, L; Girardi, L; Von der Lühe, O; Dollinger, M P; Weiss, A; Biazzo, K

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of radial velocity measurements of two samples of active stars. The first sample contains field G and K giants across the Red Giant Branch, whereas the second sample consists of nearby young stars (d < 150 pc) with ages between 10 - 300 Myrs. The radial velocity monitoring program has been carried out with FEROS at 1.52 m ESO telescope (1999 - 2002) and continued since 2003 at 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope. We observed stellar radial velocity variations which originate either from the stellar activity or the presence of stellar/substellar companions. By means of a bisector technique we are able to distinguish the sources of the radial velocity variation. Among them we found few candidates of planetary companions, both of young stars and G-K giants sample.

  18. Study on activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity aluminum has been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The determination of copper contents is aluminum has been used to evaluate its purity level. A new sensitive method has been developed by using graphite thermal column to reduce or eliminate the interference of 24Na which is generated from 27Al (n,α) 24Na reaction by fast neutron. Influence for activity of 24Na due to above reaction is found to be between 2.3 - 2.8 %. Copper contents in the high purity aluminum come out 0.542±0.084 ppm. In addition, contents of 23 other impurity elements (<0.1 - 0.01 ppm) are measured using general method after detection limit and optimum conditions are established. (author)

  19. Industrial Activity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalik, G

    2000-01-01

    The decrease in the number of CERN staff creates the need for optimization of the non-core, infrastructure-related activities. An industrial, service-orientated approach has long been considered as an appropriate way to cope with the problem of diminishing resources. This paper presents industrial and service activity issues at CERN based on the experience of the exploitation of the power network. The most important problems linked to the application of the industrial approach to the exploitation of equipment in the CERN research environment are covered. These include the interface between accelerators and electrical exploitation services, external and internal regulations, sharing of responsibility between CERN staff and external contractors, continuous modification of clients' requirements, the balance between the cost of accelerator downtime versus the cost of infrastructure upgrade. A benchmarking through a comparison with a big industrial manufacturer is followed by recommendations for possible improveme...

  20. IPSN activity report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire'' (IPSN), carries out researches and expert studies needed to manage nuclear risks and their consequences on people and environment. These activities cover the installation safety, the radioactive matter transport, the public health and environmental control, the nuclear matters safety and control and the crisis situation management. The IPSN have got also a mission of public information and participates to international actions in the domain of scientific researches or expert's report. This annual report presents the highlights of the year 1999, information on staff, budgets and geographical situation. Then technical and scientific papers gathers the activities of the year covered by the IPSN: the ''Free Tribune'', installations and radioactive wastes safety, crisis and nuclear matter management, public health and environment control, international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  1. Stellar Chromospheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Jeffrey C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sun, stars similar to it, and many rather dissimilar to it, have chromospheres, regions classically viewed as lying above the brilliant photosphere and characterized by a positive temperature gradient and a marked departure from radiative equilibrium. Stellar chromospheres exhibit a wide range of phenomena collectively called activity, stemming largely from the time evolution of their magnetic fields and the mass flux and transfer of radiation through the complex magnetic topology and the increasingly optically thin plasma of the outer stellar atmosphere. In this review, I will (1 outline the development of our understanding of chromospheric structure from 1960 to the present, (2 discuss the major observational programs and theoretical lines of inquiry, (3 review the origin and nature of both solar and stellar chromospheric activity and its relationship to, and effect on, stellar parameters including total energy output, and (4 summarize the outstanding problems today.

  2. Active optical clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JingBiao

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the principles and techniques of active optical clock, a special laser combining the laser physics of one-atom laser, bad-cavity gas laser, super-cavity stabilized laser and optical atomic clock together. As a simple example, an active optical clock based on thermal strontium atomic beam shows a quantum-limited linewidth of 0.51 Hz, which is insensitive to laser cavity-length noise, and may surpass the recorded narrowest 6.7 Hz of Hg ion optical clock and 1.5 Hz of very recent optical lattice clock. The estimated 0.1 Hz one-second instability and 0.27 Hz uncertainty are limited only by the rela-tivistic Doppler effect, and can be improved by cold atoms.

  3. Apheresis activity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Christiane

    2005-07-01

    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma. PMID:15880361

  4. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  5. LANSCE Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Robinson; Audrey Archuleta; Barbara Maes; Dan Strottman; Earl Hoffman; Garth Tietjen; Gene Farnum; Geoff Greene; Joyce Roberts; Ken Johnson; Paul Lewis; Roger Pynn; Stan Schriber; Steve Sterbenz; Steve Wender; Sue Harper

    1999-02-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Activity Report describes scientific and technological progress and achievements in LANSCE Division during the period of 1995 to 1998. This report includes a message from the Division Director, an overview of LANSCE, sponsor overviews, research highlights, advanced projects and facility upgrades achievements, experimental and user program accomplishments, news and events, and a list of publications. The research highlights cover the areas of condensed-matter science and engineering, accelerator science, nuclear science, and radiography. This report also contains a compact disk that includes an overview, the Activity Report itself, LANSCE operations progress reports for 1996 and 1997, experiment reports from LANSCE users, as well as a search capability.

  6. Physical activity & depression

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiantoula E.; Tsiadoula L.; Patsiaouras A.; Kokaridas D.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of pe...

  7. Activity report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This activity report of the DSIN (Direction of Nuclear Installations Safety) is divided into 13 chapters bearing on: (1)Nuclear safety (2) Nuclear safety organisation (3) Regulations (4) Nuclear installations inspections (5) Crisis organisation (6) Information and communication (7) International relations (8) PWR (9)Other reactors (10) Experimental reactors, laboratories and other installations (11) Fuel cycle centers (12) Radioactive wastes storages (13) Nuclear installations definitively stopped

  8. Social media and activism

    OpenAIRE

    Cammaerts, Bart

    2015-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of the ways in which social media and digital networks are contextualized and examined in relation to social movements and activism. A number of communicative practices that activists deploy are identified and the ways in which information and communication technology (ICT)-mediated practices are embedded in roles and functions relevant to activists and social movements are addressed giving attention to the importance of social ties and networks online and offl...

  9. Business Activity Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Frühauf, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Main focus of the thesis lies in the corporate management decision support deploying and using IT / ICT. Specific technology described is Business Activity Monitoring. The contribution of the work lies primarily in two planes. The first plane is to create as far as the most comprehensive view of the BAM. The findings are collected from different directions and areas. The first direction of research is focused on the development of Business Intelligence and description of BAM as a trend of BI,...

  10. NPPCI activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in the control and instrumentation field have been directed both towards immediate needs and towards long term goals. The immediate needs have been connected to different ongoing investigations and to development projects in connection with process industry. Of the more long term projects the following can be explicitly mentioned: the Nordic project on human reliability; work on software reliability; design guides for digital CI systems; simulation of technical processes; artificial intelligence in nuclear power

  11. Diamond dipole active antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Bubnov, I. N.; Falkovych, I. S.; Gridin, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Reznik, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Advantages of the diamond dipole antenna as an active antenna are presented. Such an antenna is like an inverted bow-tie antenna, but the former has some advantages over the ordinary bow-tie antenna. It is shown that the diamond dipole antenna may be an effective element of a new antenna array for low-frequency radio astronomy as well as a communication antenna.

  12. Human telomerase activity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtyla, Aneta; Gladych, Marta; Rubis, Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase has been recognized as a relevant factor distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells. Thus, it has become a very promising target for anticancer therapy. The cell proliferative potential can be limited by replication end problem, due to telomeres shortening, which is overcome in cancer cells by telomerase activity or by alternative telomeres lengthening (ALT) mechanism. However, this multisubunit enzymatic complex can be regulated at various levels, including expression control b...

  13. Activity report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADEME means agency for defence of environment and for mastery of energy, these two aims are ADEME's mission; to serve its mission, this agency has to mobilize managers able to reduce tensions on natural resources and to limit impacts on environment; the concerned areas are transport, building, industry because of their weight in energy consumption, in pollutants emission and waste recovery. Here is the report of its activity for the year 1992

  14. Quality Of Construction Activity

    OpenAIRE

    LOREDANA VALENTINA HEDRE

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the quality works of building has a different importance because, as opposed to another activities of material productions here are not admitted bear of the quality in respect resistances, stability, durability, safeties in exploitation. The responsibility concerning assurance quality is not summed up just to the level of builders or beneficiaries, they became a national problem and last recently, European and even global issues. Implications are considered factors contributing...

  15. NEA activities in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the activities in 1994 of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency including : trends in nuclear power, nuclear development and fuel cycle (data, tools, methodologies, nuclear industry and its context, fuel cycle policy, energy policy reviews), reactor safety and regulation (exchange of operating experience and human factors, accident prevention activities, severe-accident phenomenology and management, structural integrity, probabilistic safety assessment, fuel cycle safety, regulatory approaches to severe-accident issues, inspection practices), radiation protection (radiation protection today and tomorrow, application of radiation protection standards, protection of workers, international emergency exercises), radioactive waste management (the philosophical and ethical basis of disposal, safety assessment and site investigations, other radiation waste management activities), nuclear science (scientific studies, validation of working methods, the NEA data bank, projects in support of other NEA programmes), joint projects (the Rasplav project, the Halden reactor project, information system on occupational exposure, decommissioning of nuclear facilities), legal affairs (liability and nuclear safety assistance to Eastern Europe, training seminar on nuclear law, information on nuclear law), information programme (review of Nea information programme, publications programme, a major information forum), and relations with nonmember countries (NEA relations with non-members countries, the Central and Eastern European Countries and New Independent States of the former Soviet Union programme of co-operation and assistance). (O.L.). 22 figs

  16. Sesterterpenoids with Anticancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Dasari, Ramesh; Evidente, Marco; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes have received a great deal of attention in the scientific literature due to complex, synthetically challenging structures and diverse biological activities associated with this class of natural products. Based on the number of C5 isoprene units they are generated from, terpenes are classified as hemi- (C5), mono- (C10), sesqui- (C15), di- (C20), sester- (C25), tri (C30), and tetraterpenes (C40). Among these, sesterterpenes and their derivatives known as sesterterpenoids, are ubiquitous secondary metabolites in fungi, marine organisms, and plants. Their structural diversity encompasses carbotricyclic ophiobolanes, polycyclic anthracenones, polycyclic furan-2-ones, polycyclic hydroquinones, among many other carbon skeletons. Furthermore, many of them possess promising biological activities including cytotoxicity and the associated potential as anticancer agents. This review discusses the natural sources that produce sesterterpenoids, provides sesterterpenoid names and their chemical structures, biological properties with the focus on anticancer activities and literature references associated with these metabolites. A critical summary of the potential of various sesterterpenoids as anticancer agents concludes the review. PMID:26295461

  17. Active inference and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity. PMID:27375276

  18. Antimicrobial activity of antiproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave, J M

    2002-04-01

    Low-molecular-mass neutrophil elastase inhibitors have been shown to be important in the control of lung inflammation. In addition to inhibiting the enzyme neutrophil elastase, these low-molecular-mass compounds (10 kDa) have been shown to have other activities. For example, secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and elastase-specific inhibitor/SKALP (skin-derived antileucoproteinase)/elafin have also been shown to have "defensin"-like antimicrobial activities. Indeed, these inhibitors have antimicrobial properties in vitro against bacteria, fungi and, potentially, HIV. In addition, we have shown, using an adenovirus-mediated gene transfer overexpression strategy, that elafin is also active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice in vivo. The mechanism of action is currently under investigation. In addition to these direct or indirect effects on microbes, it has been shown that lipopolysaccharide is able to up-regulate SPLI production in macrophages in vitro, and that the addition of recombinant SLPI to human monocytes or the transfection of macrophages with SPLI can down-regulate pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor, presumably to limit self-damaging excessive inflammation. Using viral gene transfer vectors, we are currently investigating the potential of these inhibitors in various models of inflammation in vivo. PMID:12023836

  19. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  20. Active quantum plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinica, Dana Codruta; Zapata, Mario; Nordlander, Peter; Kazansky, Andrey K; M Echenique, Pedro; Aizpurua, Javier; Borisov, Andrei G

    2015-12-01

    The ability of localized surface plasmons to squeeze light and engineer nanoscale electromagnetic fields through electron-photon coupling at dimensions below the wavelength has turned plasmonics into a driving tool in a variety of technological applications, targeting novel and more efficient optoelectronic processes. In this context, the development of active control of plasmon excitations is a major fundamental and practical challenge. We propose a mechanism for fast and active control of the optical response of metallic nanostructures based on exploiting quantum effects in subnanometric plasmonic gaps. By applying an external dc bias across a narrow gap, a substantial change in the tunneling conductance across the junction can be induced at optical frequencies, which modifies the plasmonic resonances of the system in a reversible manner. We demonstrate the feasibility of the concept using time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Thus, along with two-dimensional structures, metal nanoparticle plasmonics can benefit from the reversibility, fast response time, and versatility of an active control strategy based on applied bias. The proposed electrical manipulation of light using quantum plasmonics establishes a new platform for many practical applications in optoelectronics. PMID:26824066

  1. Adaptable typologies for active roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Zeiler, W.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this part of the 6th framework Pan-European EUR-ACTIVE ROOF-er project is to improve the interaction between design participants of dynamic adaptable Active Roofs in product development and Active Roofs from an architects/ customers perspective. Improvements in Active Roof desi

  2. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Usami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  3. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...... measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed...

  4. Advances in Activity Cliff Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications.

  5. Asthma and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration. PMID:6958045

  6. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    a detailed ethnographic description of five different fishing operations and then compare them on a number of different fronts. This will direct us to some general differences in their modes of operation in relation to the vessel quota share (VQS) system and lead us to the next chapter, where the principal......In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...

  7. Crew Activity Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  8. Reuse of activated alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobensack, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  9. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  10. Flipped Classroom, active Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Levinsen, Henrik; Philipps, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    Action research is conducted in three physics classes over a period of eighteen weeks with the aim of studying the effect of flipped classroom on the pupils agency and learning processes. The hypothesis is that flipped classroom teaching will potentially allocate more time to work actively...... are conducted in three different phases corresponding to different teaching sequences During the first phase the classes are taught as they are usually taught. During the next two phases classes are taught on the basis of a common understanding of the flipped classroom teaching model obtained during a 4 day...

  11. Agrice 2002. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable raw materials derived from agricultural crops are used to manufacture bio-products in energy, chemicals and materials industries. Renewable feedstocks address a double need. On the one hand, they offer alternatives to fossil resources, and on the other hand, they are a response to today's environmental challenges: mitigation of the greenhouse affect, reduction of air, soil and water pollution, innocuousness and biodegradability of products. A new chemistry must be created. Large-scale and ongoing research work must be committed to this goal. The research effort implies active coordination of all the various actors involved - multidisciplinary research teams, agro-industrial enterprises, user industries (petrochemicals, chemicals, materials), and specific agricultural branches. With these ends in mind the scientific interest group AGRICE - Agriculture for Chemicals and Energy - was established by public authorities and eight partners in France in 1994. The AGRICE consortium was renewed for six years in 2001, with a broader membership base. AGRICE now includes the following partners: - the research arms of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), and the Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA), - professional organisations representing producers of oilseeds (ONIDOL), grains (AGPB) and beets (CGB), - corporate members ATOFINA, AUTOBAR PACKAGING France, BAYER CROP SCIENCE, CERESTAR France, LIMAGRAIN Agro-Industrie, RHODIA, TOTAL FINA ELF, - the French ministries of Agriculture, Industry, Research, and the Environment, - the French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management (ADEME), - the French Agency for Innovation (ANVAR). ADEME is responsible for managing AGRICE. The consortium is involved in major international undertakings, notably through the European Renewable Resources and Materials Association (ERRMA). This report presents: 1 - the AGRICE profile, scope of activity, structure and Operations

  12. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  13. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  14. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Blandford, RD; Woltjer, L

    1990-01-01

    Starting with this volume, the Lecture Notes of the renowned Advanced Courses of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy will be published annually. In each course, three extensive lectures given by leading experts in their respective fields cover different and essential aspects of the subject. The 20th course, held at Les Diablerets in April 1990, dealt with current research on active galactic nuclei; it represents the most up-to-date views on the subject, presented with particular regard for clarity. The previous courses considered a wide variety of subjects, beginning with ""Theory

  15. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    pharmacological effect of elevating serotonin levels in anxiety regulation. Recent animal and human functional magnetic resonance studies have pointed to a specific involvement of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A serotonin receptor in the PFC feedback regulatory projection onto the amygdala. This receptor...... of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings...... of a regulatory effect of the PFC on the emotional control of our actions....

  16. WFIRST Project Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The WFIRST Project is a joint effort between GSFC and JPL. The project scientists and engineers are working with the community Science Definition Team to define the requirements and initial design of the mission. The objective is to design an observatory that meets the WFIRST science goals of the Astr02010 Decadal Survey for minimum cost. This talk will be a report of recent project activities including requirements flowdown, detector array development, science simulations, mission costing and science outreach. Details of the interim mission design relevant to scientific capabilities will be presented.

  17. Direct Activation Of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2013-07-15

    Heteropolyacids (HPAs) can activate methane at ambient temperature (e.g., 20.degree. C.) and atmospheric pressure, and transform methane to acetic acid, in the absence of any noble metal such as Pd). The HPAs can be, for example, those with Keggin structure: H.sub.4SiW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.3PW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.4SiMo.sub.12O.sub.40, or H.sub.3PMo.sub.12O.sub.40, can be when supported on silica.

  18. COMPANY ACTIVITY FINANCIAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruntu Genu Alexandru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In economic and financial activity, risk is an inherent financial decisions, encountered in daily agenda of managers of companies. Unexpected changes in the price of a product development not only affect the financial results of a company, but can cause even bankruptcy. In fact, the nature of financial decisions involve uncertainty. Financial decisions are made based on cash flows under future contracts, which are par excellence incerte.Activitatea an enterprise that holds any weight in the industry is subject to risks, since it can not predict with certainty different components of its outcome (cost, quantity, price and operating cycle (purchase, processing, sales.

  19. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Volker

    2012-01-01

    This AGN textbook includes phenomena based on new results in the X-Ray domain from new telescopes such as Chandra and XMM Newton not mentioned in any other book. Furthermore, it considers also the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope with its revolutionary advances of unprecedented sensitivity, field of view and all-sky monitoring. Those and other new developments as well as simulations of AGN merging events and formations, enabled through latest super-computing capabilities. The book gives an overview on the current knowledge of the Active Galacitc Nuclei phenomenon. The spectral energy d

  20. FY 1996 activity summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety provides nuclear safety policy, independent technical evaluation, and technical support. A summary of these activities is provided in this report. These include: (1) changing the mission of the former production facilities to storage and waste management; (2) stabilizing nuclear materials not recycled due to production cessation or interruptions; (3) reformulating the authorization basis for existing facilities to convert to a standards based approach for operations consistent with modern expectations; and (4) implementing a modern regulatory framework for nuclear facilities. Enforcement of the Price-Anderson Amendments Act is also reported

  1. Activity report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development (R and D) work of the Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam for the calendar year 1978 is reported in the form of individual summaries under the headings: reactor physics, reactor engineering, FBTR construction/commissioning, reprocessing, reactor chemistry, metallurgy of reactor materials, materials science, instrumentation. The major thrust of the R and D activities is on reactor technology of fast breeders, and at present, primarily directed to the problems associated with the Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is under construction. (M.G.B.)

  2. LeActiveMath

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Christian

    2005-01-01

    LeActiveMath (Language-Enhanced, User-Adaptive, Interactive e-Learning for Mathematics) ist ein von der EU finanziertes dreijähriges Projekt (2004 - 2006), an dem sich britische, spanische, niederländische und deutsche Universitäten, Firmen und Institute beteiligen, zum Zwecke der Entwicklung und Evaluation einer innovativen Mathematik-Lernsoftware für Differentialrechnung. Diese soll sich für die Oberstufe wie auch für die ersten Semester mathematisch ausgerichteter Studiengänge eignen und s...

  3. Local activity determines functional connectivity in the resting human brain: a simultaneous FDG-PET/fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Valentin; Bienkowska, Katarzyna; Strobel, Carola; Tahmasian, Masoud; Grimmer, Timo; Förster, Stefan; Friston, Karl J; Sorg, Christian; Drzezga, Alexander

    2014-04-30

    Over the last decade, synchronized resting-state fluctuations of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals between remote brain areas [so-called BOLD resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC)] have gained enormous relevance in systems and clinical neuroscience. However, the neural underpinnings of rs-FC are still incompletely understood. Using simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging we here directly investigated the relationship between rs-FC and local neuronal activity in humans. Computational models suggest a mechanistic link between the dynamics of local neuronal activity and the functional coupling among distributed brain regions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the local activity (LA) of a region at rest determines its rs-FC. To test this hypothesis, we simultaneously measured both LA (glucose metabolism) and rs-FC (via synchronized BOLD fluctuations) during conditions of eyes closed or eyes open. During eyes open, LA increased in the visual system, and the salience network (i.e., cingulate and insular cortices) and the pattern of elevated LA coincided almost exactly with the spatial pattern of increased rs-FC. Specifically, the voxelwise regional profile of LA in these areas strongly correlated with the regional pattern of rs-FC among the same regions (e.g., LA in primary visual cortex accounts for ∼ 50%, and LA in anterior cingulate accounts for ∼ 20% of rs-FC with the visual system). These data provide the first direct evidence in humans that local neuronal activity determines BOLD FC at rest. Beyond its relevance for the neuronal basis of coherent BOLD signal fluctuations, our procedure may translate into clinical research particularly to investigate potentially aberrant links between local dynamics and remote functional coupling in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24790196

  4. Stellar magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stellar emission in the chromospheric Ca II H+K lines is compared with the coronal soft X-ray emission, measuring the effects of non-radiative heating in the outer atmosphere at temperatures differing two orders of magnitude. The comparison of stellar flux densities in Ca II H+K and X-rays is extended to fluxes from the transition-region and the high-temperature chromosphere. The stellar magnetic field is probably generated in the differentially rotating convective envelope. The relation between rotation rate and the stellar level of activity measured in chromospheric, transition-region, and coronal radiative diagnostics is discovered. X-ray observations of the binary λ Andromedae are discussed. The departure of M-type dwarfs from the main relations, and the implications for the structure of the chromospheres of these stars are discussed. Variations of the average surface flux densities of the Sun during the 11-year activity cycle agree with flux-flux relations derived for other cool stars, suggesting that the interpretation of the stellar relations may be furthered by studying the solar analogue in more detail. (Auth.)

  5. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  6. Active Astronomy Roadshow Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Alabre, Dayana; Douyon, Ralph; UMass Lowell Haiti Development Studies Center

    2016-01-01

    College-age Haitian students working with advisors and volunteers from UMass Lowell in 2015 developed and tested an activity-based K-8 curriculum in astronomy, space, and earth science. Our partner school is located in Les Cayes, Haiti a city where only 65% of children attend school, and only half of those will complete 6th grade. Astronomy provides an accessible and non-intimidating entry into science, and activity-based learning contrasts with the predominant traditional teaching techniques in use in Haiti, to reach and inspire a different cohort of learners. Teachers are predominantly women in Haiti, so part of the effort involves connecting them with scientists, engineers and teacher peers in the US. As a developing nation, it is vital for Haitian (as for all) children to grow up viewing women as leaders in science. Meanwhile in the US, few are aware of the reality of getting an education in a 3rd world nation (i.e. most of the world), so we also joined with teachers in Massachusetts to give US school children a peek at what daily life is like for their peers living in our vibrant but impoverished neighbor. Our Haitian partners are committed to helping their sister-schools with curriculum and educator workshops, so that the overall quality of education can rise, and not be limited to the very few schools with access to resources. We will describe the activites, motivation, and and the lessons learned from our first year of the project.

  7. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  8. The Active Solid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  9. Agrice 2001. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AGRICE was created in 1994 to support research on new renewable plant-based products other than foodstuffs, to open up new markets for agriculture, and to take action on today's environmental challenges: fighting the greenhouse effect, curbing pollution (VOCs, effluents, etc.), eco-toxics, preservation of health, and depletion of fossil energy supplies. The scope of AGRICE's activity covers primarily the industrial conversion of crop production to chemicals (lubricants, surfactants, solvents, etc.), energy (liquid and solid biofuels) and materials (agro-materials, biopolymers). AGRICE's brief is to stimulate applied technological research. The consortium first tackled work aimed at substituting plant-based products for products derived from fossil resources. This strategy has been progressively widened to take into account the inherent characteristics of plant-based products in order to meet new needs. In addition to research focusing on industrial products and processes, this action spans the study of agronomic improvements, project economics, markets, and energy and environmental assessments. This report presents: 1 - the AGRICE profile, scope of activity (Biofuels (vehicles and non-vehicles), Biomolecules, Biomaterials), structure and Operations, and sectors of focus; 2 - the year 2001: Toward a new golden age of renewable plant based resources?, Financial Report and Applications, Noteworthy Achievements in 2001, Events in 2001, European Joint Undertakings; 3 - appendixes: Breakdown of AGRICE grants by sector 1994-2001, Financial report 1994-2001, Partners, The ADEME / AGRICE team, Projects initiated and completed in 2001

  10. Forensic Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high sensitivity of high-flux (reactor) thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the detection and quantitative measurement of a large number of elements has led, in recent years, to a considerable degree of application of the method in the area of scientific crime investigation (criminalistics). Thus, in a Forensic Activation Analysis Bibliography recently compiled by the author, some 135 publications in this field are listed - and more are appearing quite rapidly. The nondestructive character of the purely-instrumental form of the method is an added advantage in forensic work, since evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases are not destroyed during analysis, but are preserved intact for possible presentation in court. Quite aside from, or in addition to, use in court, NAA results can be very helpful in the investigative stage of particular criminal cases. The ultra sensitivity of the method often enables one to analyze evidence specimens that are too tiny for meaningful analysis by more conventional elemental analysis methods. Also, this high sensitivity often enables one to characterize, or individualize, evidence specimens as to the possibility of common origin - via the principle of multi-element trace-constituent characterization

  11. Leadership Development Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikeh Beheshtifar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, human resource development is considered as a developed concept in HR field. It is a process for helping personnel to conduct their duties better. Most organizations tend to leadership development as a separable subject and as areas of responsibility within organization. Whereas the leadership development plans have been unsuccessful. This article aim to draw attention to the fact that leadership development is crucial in organizations. A literature review was conducted by searching journal databases, textbooks, and relevant reports. A categorization of the evidence allowed informed discussions on the key themes surrounding leadership development activities. Leadership development is caused to employees' promotion and progress via nurture of new talents, stimulus in employees by persuade to do individual development, save time and cost, and increase customers' satisfaction by relations improvement. Accordingly, the development systems can cover a wide scope in organization. They are effective to career management, training and development, performance management, strategic human resource planning, recruitment and selection, and succession planning activities. Despite the need for further scientific and validated studies, organizations should be urged to devote sufficient resources and attention towards leadership development for promoting long-term survival and prosperity.

  12. Active Optics in LAMOST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding-Qiang Su; Xiang-Qun Cui

    2004-01-01

    Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)is one of the major national projects under construction in China. Active optics is one of the most important technologies for new large telescopes. It is used for correcting telescope errors generated by gravitational and thermal changes. Here,however, we use this technology to realize the configuration of LAMOST, -a task that cannot be done in the traditional way. A comprehensive and intensive research on the active optics used in LAMOST is also reported, including an open-loop control method and an auxiliary closed-loop control method. Another important development is in our pre-calibration method of open-loop control, which is with some new features: simultaneous calculation of the forces and displacements of force actuators and displacement actuators; the profile of mirror can be arbitrary;the mirror surface shape is not expressed by a fitting polynomial, but is derived from the mirror surface shape formula which is highly accurate; a proof is given that the solution of the pre-calibration method is the same as the least squares solution.

  13. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following Intergovernmental organisation activities: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Non-legally binding instruments - Communication from the European Commission 'Towards an Integrated Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan: Accelerating the European Energy System Transformation'; 2014 Annual Report of the Euratom Supply Agency; Report of June 2015 from the Euratom Supply Agency to the European Commission on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS); 59. regular session of the IAEA General Conference (Resolutions of the Conference, Measures to Strengthen International Cooperation in Nuclear, Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety (GC(59)/RES/9): conventions, regulatory frameworks and supporting non-legally-binding instruments for safety, Nuclear liability, National infrastructures, Nuclear installation safety, Safe management of radioactive sources, Nuclear and radiological incident and emergency preparedness and response); Nuclear Security (GC(59)/RES/10); IAEA Treaty Event; Legislative assistance activities; Nuclear Law Institute; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA): European Nuclear Energy Tribunal (ENET) Inaugural Session for the 9. mandate; New signatories to the extension of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Framework Agreement; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes; International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC); 15. session of the International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL); 2016 session of the International Nuclear Law Essentials (INLE)

  14. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S. [Unite de Neurobiologie Integrative du Systeme Cholinergique, URA CNRS 2182, Institut Pasteur, Departement de Neuroscience, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris (France); Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, 4 place du general Leclerc, 91400 Orsay (France); Wiklund, A. [Section of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity {beta}2-containing nicotinic receptors ({beta}2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the {beta}2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and {beta}2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, {beta}2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via {alpha}7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on {beta}2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  15. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  16. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  17. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J;

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  18. Negotiating active ageing at a Danish activity centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    aging means in the everyday live of the elderly. Active aging is formed in many arenas and takes a variety of forms with different actors focusing on physical, occupational, social and mental activity. This paper focuses on how the elderly takes part in this forming, by asking how the elderly negotiates...... produced by the EU and a Danish municipality, as well as reports and articles published by mainstream media. Results: The elderly at the activity centres perceives of active ageing differently than how it is formed in the documents explored. Active ageing is situated and contextualised in practice......, and becomes a subject of dispute when the elderly feel subjected to specific activities. In this way active ageing is negotiable, and is simultaneously internalized and rejected in the practice of the elderly at the activity centre....

  19. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  20. Antibacterial activity of Pterocarpus santalinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of leaf and stem bark of Pterocarpus santalinus (Fabaceae was investigated. The antibacterial activity was tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Among the two extracts tested, stem bark extract exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against the tested organisms. The stem bark extract showed maximum activity against Enterobacter aerogenes, Alcaligenes faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus . The leaf extract showed maximum activity against Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Both extracts exhibited concentration dependent activity.

  1. How Active Are Older Americans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger, PhD

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity can reduce age-related functional decline, as well people’s risk for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of participation in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and flexibility activities among Americans aged 50 years or older.MethodsUsing population-based data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, we classified qualified respondents (N = 11,969 according to whether they met the activity criteria used in Healthy People 2010 goals for leisure-time participation in regular aerobic physical activity, vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, strength-training activity, and flexibility activity. We also classified respondents according to their level of aerobic activity (i.e., inactive, insufficiently active, and regularly active.ResultsWe estimated that 46.4% of older Americans engaged in no leisure-time aerobic activity; that 26.1% were regularly active (participated in light- to moderate-intensity aerobic activities at least 5 days per week for at least 30 minutes or vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 16.2% participated in vigorous-intensity aerobic activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 13.7% participated in strength-training activities at least 2 days per week; and that 24.5% participated in flexibility activities at least 1 day per week. Among the 26.1% of older Americans who were regularly active, 30.5% engaged in strengthen-training activities at least 2 days per week. Overall, only 8.2% of older Americans met the criteria for both aerobic and strength-training activity.ConclusionAs of 2001, the percentage of older Americans who met recommended activity levels of physical activity were well below the goals for U.S. adults in Healthy People 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage older Americans to engage in

  2. RELAXIN ACTIVATES PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sudhir; Bennett, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone that triggers multiple signaling pathways through its receptor RXFP1. Many of relaxin’s functions, including vascular and antifibrotic effects, are similar to those induced by activation of PPARγ. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that relaxin signaling through RXFP1 would activate PPARγ activity. In cells overexpressing RXFP1 (HEK-RXFP1), relaxin increased transcriptional activity through a PPAR response element (PPRE) in a concentration-dependent manne...

  3. Denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Susana; Teixeira, P.; Oliveira, Rosário; Mota, M.

    2008-01-01

    A method based on measuring substrate depletion rate was developed to evaluate the denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm form in anoxic serum flasks. The adapted activated sludge inoculum was grown as biofilm in an anoxic rotating biological contactor (RBC). Acetate was used as external carbon source to obtain a carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 2. The results showed that the specific activity of cells in biofilm form was higher than in planktonic for...

  4. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling...... and filtration). It therefore is an important property related to process performance, including process economics. To account for this, rheological behaviour is being included in process design, necessitating its measurement. However, measurements and corresponding protocols in literature are quite diverse...... rheological measurements. Moreover, the rheological models are not very trustworthy and remain very “black box”. More insight in the physical background needs 30 to be gained. A model-based approach with dedicated experimental data collection is the key to address this....

  5. RTE - Activity report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This publication gathers in a single document the 2011 Activity and Sustainable development report of RTE, the Management report with the consolidated financial statements, and the Report from the chairman of the supervisory board

  6. Activity report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constituted by a public and commercial establishment, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible for the long term management of radioactive waste. This activity report presents the three missions of the ANDRA during the year 2004. The industrial mission deals with the Aube center disposal and the Manche center disposal facilities and the collection effort concerning the diffuse nuclear waste. The research mission focuses on the presentation of several topics: the repository design by studying various potential architectures, the reversibility and the safety assessment under operating conditions and the description of the behavior of repository at various space and time scales. The last mission concerns the information and the communication program. (A.L.B.)

  7. Plasminogen activation and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Keld; Behrendt, N.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.;

    2005-01-01

    Breakdown of the extracellular matrix is crucial for cancer invasion and metastasis. It is accomplished by the concerted action of several proteases, including the serine protease plasmin and a number of matrix metalloproteases.The activity of each of these proteases is regulated by an array......, the regulation of extracellular proteolysis in cancer involves a complex interplay between cancer cells and non-malignant stromal cells in the expression of the molecular components involved. For some types of cancer, this cellular interplay mimics that observed in the tissue of ori- gin during non......-neoplastic tissue remodelling processes.We propose that cancer invasion can be considered as uncontrolled tissue remodelling. Inhibition of extracellular proteases is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. Because proteases have many different functions in the normal organism, efficient inhibition will have...

  8. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M;

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order...... came from the Aarhus School Survey that included 2100 schoolchildren at 11, 13, and 15 years of age. Parental social support for PA was measured by items about encouragement to do PA, doing joint PA, parents watching PA, and talking about PA. PA was measured as at least 4 h of vigorous PA per week...

  9. Uranium management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the missions of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) has been the management of the Department's uranium materials. This mission has been accomplished through successful integration of ORO's uranium activities with the rest of the DOE complex. Beginning in the 1980's, several of the facilities in that complex have been shut down and are in the decommissioning process. With the end of the Cold War, the shutdown of many other facilities is planned. As a result, inventories of uranium need to be removed from the Department facilities. These inventories include highly enriched uranium (HEU), low enriched uranium (LEU), normal uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). The uranium materials exist in different chemical forms, including metals, oxides, solutions, and gases. Much of the uranium in these inventories is not needed to support national priorities and programs. (author)

  10. RTE - Activity report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RTE, an independent subsidiary of EDF, is the French electricity transmission system operator. It is a public service company responsible for operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. RTE transports electricity between electricity suppliers (French and European) and consumers, whether they are electricity distributors or industrial consumers directly connected to the transmission system. The mission of RTE is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This publication gathers in a single document the 2010 Activity and Sustainable development report of RTE, the Management report with the consolidated financial statements, and the Report from the chairman of the supervisory board

  11. DPAL activities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  12. Respiratory active mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Peleato, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Enriquez, Jose Antonio

    2008-11-21

    The structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes as four big independently moving entities connected by the mobile carriers CoQ and cytochrome c has been challenged recently. Blue native gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of high-molecular-weight bands containing several respiratory complexes and suggesting an in vivo assembly status of these structures (respirasomes). However, no functional evidence of the activity of supercomplexes as true respirasomes has been provided yet. We have observed that (1) supercomplexes are not formed when one of their component complexes is absent; (2) there is a temporal gap between the formation of the individual complexes and that of the supercomplexes; (3) some putative respirasomes contain CoQ and cytochrome c; (4) isolated respirasomes can transfer electrons from NADH to O(2), that is, they respire. Therefore, we have demonstrated the existence of a functional respirasome and propose a structural organization model that accommodates these findings.

  13. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  14. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  15. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joy Rainbow

    2013-01-01

    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  16. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Different Genders in the Activation of Brain Emotional Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Podsiadło

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The main aim of this study"nwas to reveal gender differences in the localization"nof brain emotional centers for positive and negative"nstimuli."nPatients and Methods: Forty right-handed young"nvolunteers (age range, 18-36 years, 21 men and 19"nwomen were examined using MR 1.5 T Signa Horizon"n(GEMS. Functional images were acquired using a"nspin-echo echoplanar sequence sensitive to blood"noxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast, with"nthe following parameters: TR=3000 ms, TE= 60 ms,"nFOV=2821 cm, matrix 9696,1 NEX. For emotion induction, affectively negative, positive and neutral"npictures were used. Positive and negative cues were"ntaken from the International Affecive Picture System"n(IAPS. There were two runs, in the first run subjects"nsaw only negatively valenced pictures, during the"nsecond run only positive pictures were shown."nResults: For positive stimuli, the greatest differences"nin activation in women compared to men were"ndetected in the right superior temporal gyrus. For"nnegative stimuli, the greatest differences in activation"nin women compared to men were detected in the left"nthalamus. For positive stimuli, the greatest differences"nin activation in men compared to women were"ndetected in the bilateral occipital lobes as well as the"nbilateral fusiform gyrus. For negative stimuli, the"ngreatest differences in activation in men compared to"nwomen were detected in the left insula."nConclusion: There are statistically significant"ndifferences in activation of the emotional centers"nbetween females and males for the positive and"ndenoised, extracted and visualized. Follow-up CT"nexam and/or clinical pictures confirmed or excluded"nthe diagnosis. Based on preliminary results and"nconcluded efficiency limitations additional postprocessing"nbased on curvelets decomposition and"nimproved segmentation of stroke susceptible regions"nhas been designed and performed later on for selected"nexaminations regarded as

  17. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  18. Report of Activity, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) - IPSN carries out research and expert studies needed in managing nuclear risk and consequences of nuclear events on population and environment, i.e. supervises the safety of installations, the prevention and study of accidents, the human health and environmental conditions, the safety of transport and has also the task of organizing the management of the crisis situations. IPSN has the mission of informing the public and participates in numerous international actions. Thus, since 1989 IPSN and its German counterpart, GRS, co-operate towards improving of the nuclear safety in Europe and developing a common approach of international issues. As acting for public authorities (government departments in charge with industry, environment, health or labor), IPSN grants technical authorizations on request of DSIN exploiters. The IPSN personnel amounts up to 1300 employees of whom around two thirds are engineers, researchers, physicians, agronomists, and veterinarians. This IPSN annual report contains in the 'Free Tribune' section two general papers entitled: 'The federalist role of research at IPSN' by Catherine Lecompte and 'The dose, a central issue in radioprotection debates' by Annie Sugier. Then five sub-reports follow: 1.The safety of nuclear facilities and radioactive wastes; 2.Crisis management; 3. The management of sensitive materials (protection and control of sensitive materials and safety analysis of the radioactive materials transport); 4.Protection of human health; 5.Environment protection. The report also presents the international activities, the cooperation IPSN/GRS, the budget, the staff and the human resource policy and the communication activity

  19. Project origami activities for exploring mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionActivity 1 Folding Equilateral Triangles in a Square Activity 2 Origami Trigonometry Activity 3 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths: Fujimoto Approximation Activity 4 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths Exactly Activity 5 Origami Helix Activity 6 Folding a Parabola Activity 7 Can Origami Trisect an Angle?Activity 8 Solving Cubic Equations Activity 9 Lill's Method Activity 10 Folding Strips into Knots Activity 11 Haga's ""Origamics"" Activity 12 Modular Star Ring Activity 13 Folding a Butterfly Bomb Activity 14 Molly's Hexahedron Activity 15 Business Card Modulars Activity 16 Five Inter

  20. Endogenous GLP-1 mediates postprandial reductions in activation in central reward and satiety areas in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Kulve, Jennifer S; Veltman, Dick J; van Bloemendaal, Liselotte;

    2015-01-01

    that endogenous GLP-1 has effects on CNS reward and satiety circuits. Methods This was a randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention study, performed in a university medical centre in the Netherlands. We included patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy lean control subjects. Individuals were eligible...... if they were 40–65 years. Inclusion criteria for the healthy lean individuals included a BMI patients with type 2 diabetes included BMI >26 kg/m2, HbA1c levels between 42 and 69 mmol/mol (6.0–8.5%) and treatment for diabetes with only oral glucose......-lowering agents. We assessed CNS activation, defined as blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, in response to food pictures in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 20) and healthy lean individuals (n = 20) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was performed in the fasted state...

  1. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  2. Consolidated Human Activities Database (CHAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) contains data obtained from human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is...

  3. [Antibiotic activity of some fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchuk, Ia I; Tsyganenko, K S; Zaĭchenko, O M

    2013-01-01

    Biological activity of pure extracts of cultural filtrates of Aspergillus niveus 2411, Myrothecium cinctum 910, Ulocladium consortiale 960, Penicillium sp. 10-51 concerning wide spectrum of test-organisms was investigated. It was shown that the extracts had high levels of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms, especially against Bacillus genus. But their activity against Gram-negative bacteria was a bit lower. On the other hand, metabolites of M. cinctum 910 and Penicillium sp. 10-51 did show the activity concerning phytopathogenic bacteria. Extracts of fungi showed fungistatic activity against yeasts, but they were not so active concerning fungal test-cultures. Extracts of A. niveus 2411, Penicillium sp. 10-51 suppressed the growth of Phoma betae. The highest level of fungistatic activity was shown by metabolites of M. cinctum 910. They showed activity against Aspergillus genus strains and phytopathogenic isolates of Fusarium lactis, Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea. PMID:24479314

  4. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  5. Physical Activity and Psoriatic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out more! Email * Zipcode Physical Activity and Psoriatic Arthritis Physical activity plays an important role in overall well-being. If you have psoriatic arthritis, moderate exercise may offer specific benefits, including improved ...

  6. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  7. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  8. Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Audrey H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

  9. Antibacterial activity of Pterocarpus santalinus

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunatha B

    2006-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of leaf and stem bark of Pterocarpus santalinus (Fabaceae) was investigated. The antibacterial activity was tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Among the two extracts tested, stem bark extract exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against the tested organisms. The stem bark extract showed maximum activity against Enterobacter aerogenes, Alcaligenes faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cere...

  10. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  11. Audit Activities and Their Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hudcová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with audit activities and assurance engagements. So it deals with similar issues from Czech and international perspective. It describes the types of audit activities and assurance engagements. It also describes related legislation, standards and regulatory authorities. The work contains information about persons, who perform audit activities and assurance engagements. This thesis compares audit activities and assurance engagements. The comparison shows a great similarity. This...

  12. Organic active materials for batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Weng, Wei; Amine, Khalil

    2016-08-16

    A rechargeable battery includes a compound having at least two active sites, R.sup.1 and R.sup.2; wherein the at least two active sites are interconnected by one or more conjugated moieties; each active site is coordinated to one or more metal ions M.sup.a+ or each active site is configured to coordinate to one or more metal ions; and "a" is 1, 2, or 3.

  13. Preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation under vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yang; Ke-Qiang, Qiu

    2009-05-01

    Activated carbons especially used for gaseous adsorption were prepared from Chinesefir sawdust by zinc chloride activation under vacuum condition. The micropore structure, adsorption properties, and surface morphology of activated carbons obtained under atmosphere and vacuum were investigated. The prepared activated carbons were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and nitrogen adsorption. It was found that the structure of the starting material is kept after activation. The activated carbon prepared under vacuum exhibited higher values of the BET surface area (up to 1079 m2 g(-1)) and total pore volume (up to 0.5665 cm3 g(-1)) than those of the activated carbon obtained under atmosphere. This was attributed to the effect of vacuum condition that reduces oxygen in the system and limits the secondary reaction of the organic vapor. The prepared activated carbon has well-developed microstructure and high microporosity. According to the data obtained, Chinese fir sawdust is a suitable precursor for activated carbon preparation. The obtained activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent with favorable surface properties. Compared with the traditional chemical activation, vacuum condition demands less energy consumption, simultaneity, and biomass-oil is collected in the procedure more conveniently. FTIR analysis showed that heat treatment would result in the aromatization of the carbon structure. PMID:19534162

  14. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  15. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that works your muscles ... yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human ...

  16. Hospitality Services. Student Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This student activity book contains pencil-and-paper activities for use in a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The activities are organized into 29 chapters on the following topics: hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization/management structures in…

  17. Water-Related Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Herbert L.; Price, Charles L.

    This publication is designed to provide interested teachers with teaching activities for all grade levels and subject areas that can be used to help students learn about water resources. For each activity, the purpose, level, subject, and concept are given. Activities are organized by grade level. Most of these water related learning activities…

  18. Volitional reduction of anterior cingulate cortex activity produces decreased cue craving in smoking cessation: a preliminary real-time fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingbao; Hartwell, Karen J; Borckardt, Jeffery; Prisciandaro, James J; Saladin, Michael E; Morgan, Paul S; Johnson, Kevin A; Lematty, Todd; Brady, Kathleen T; George, Mark S

    2013-07-01

    Numerous research groups are now using analysis of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results and relaying back information about regional activity in their brains to participants in the scanner in 'real time'. In this study, we explored the feasibility of self-regulation of frontal cortical activation using real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers during exposure to smoking cues. Ten cigarette smokers were shown smoking-related visual cues in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner to induce their nicotine craving. Participants were instructed to modify their craving using rtfMRI feedback with two different approaches. In a 'reduce craving' paradigm, participants were instructed to 'reduce' their craving, and decrease the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity. In a separate 'increase resistance' paradigm, participants were asked to increase their resistance to craving and to increase middle prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity. We found that participants were able to significantly reduce the BOLD signal in the ACC during the 'reduce craving' task (P=0.028). There was a significant correlation between decreased ACC activation and reduced craving ratings during the 'reduce craving' session (P=0.011). In contrast, there was no modulation of the BOLD signal in mPFC during the 'increase resistance' session. These preliminary results suggest that some smokers may be able to use neurofeedback via rtfMRI to voluntarily regulate ACC activation and temporarily reduce smoking cue-induced craving. Further research is needed to determine the optimal parameters of neurofeedback rtfMRI, and whether it might eventually become a therapeutic tool for nicotine dependence.

  19. Report of Activity 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is a report of activity of the Direction of Studies and Research of the France's Electricity Authority (Electricite de France) on 1997. It contains the following six main sections: 1. development; 2. environment; 3. development and managing of production-transport system; 4. production; 5. international relations; 6. future developments. The second section deals with the air and water quality, reduction of energy network impact on environment and the case of renewable energies. The following section is devoted to the research and development problems raised by the management of production-transport system. The section number four reports about the experience obtained in the operation of N4 stage, particularly, in the conception of REP 2000. Also mentioned are progress in the field of virtual reality used in professional formation, robot intervention in case of leaks in reactor vessel, multi-recycling of plutonium in PWR, etc. The fifth section reports about the international collaboration in the field of superconductivity, superconductor cables, combined cycles with integrated gasification of carbon and biomass and energy programs in Morocco and China. Finally, it is mentioned the launching of the Galaxie-server in charge with the documentation management of EDF

  20. Elusive Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Maiolino, R; Gilli, R; Nagar, N M; Bianchi, S; Böker, T; Colbert, E; Krabbe, A; Marconi, A; Matt, G; Salvati, M

    2003-01-01

    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically "elusive". X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtain a first estimate of the fraction of elusive AGN in local galaxies and to constrain their nature. Our results suggest that elusive AGN have a local density comparable to or even higher than optically classified Seyfert nuclei. Most elusive AGN are heavily absorbed in the X-rays, with gas column densities exceeding 10^24 cm^-2, suggesting that their peculiar nature is associated with obscuration. It is likely that in elusive AGN, the nuclear UV source is completely embedded and the ionizing photons cannot escape, which prevents the formation of a classical Narrow Line Region. Elusive AGN may contribute significantly to the 30 keV bump of the X-ray background.

  1. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  2. Recent activity in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The role of Pathfinder grants to recent family planning projects led by business and labor in Turkey is described. Pathfinder funded a major portion of the Turkish Family Planning and Health Foundation, a grant agency set up to complement government programs. One current project is a survey of family planning needs of squatter communities. The Foundation's founder established a factory-based family planning clinic, aided by Pathfinder, now self-supporting. The Turkish TURK-IS Labor Federation has supported several other worksite clinics, and has placed family planning among its top priorities. Pathfinder supported development of their population policy statement. Turkey has only recently passed progressive family planning legislation and permitted significant private sector activities. The population of 52 million is growing at 2.8%. Unemployment is high; per capita income is $1160. The government's goals are to reduce fertility from 4.3 to 2.5 children per woman and increase contraceptive prevalence from 20% to 60% by the year 2000. PMID:12179678

  3. Script activation in lipreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, S; Rönnberg, J

    1991-01-01

    In three experiments the roles of script, basic and low-level contexts in lipreading (Abbott et al., 1985) were studied. Three scripts were used: a restaurant, a railway station, and a clothing store. Presence or absence of script headers constituted a between-subjects factor. Basic and low-level context, as well as test-sentences (referring to basic and low-level of abstraction), were within-subjects factors. Also, different kinds of working memory tests were employed to assess potentially important information-processing skills for lipreading. The results show that (a) lipreaders benefit from a compatibility between context level and sentence type, (b) the directions of inferences were asymmetric such that the basic context prevented inferences at the low-level of abstraction, but not vice versa, (c) low-level context in general was most useful for skilled lipreaders in the script group, (d) skilled lipreaders in the non-script group took most advantage of basic level sentences, and (e) working memory capacity did not prove to be important for lipreading skill. Guessing and pure lipreading control experiments established that each of these potentially confounding factors only accounted for about 5% of the lipreading performance, and thus, can not explain the obtained interactive effects between visual information conveyed by lip movements and context. Theorizing departing from prototypicality vs. script accounts of inference-making was critically evaluated, and a predictive script activation mechanism, relevant to lipreading skill, was suggested. PMID:2068548

  4. [Active management of labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  5. Surface Active Components: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Shafiei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant or surface active components are produced by many different microorganisms. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic (generally hydrocarbon moieties that partition preferentially a within the interface between fluid phases with some other degrees of polarity and hydrogen bonding including oil/water or air/water interfaces. These properties render surfactants able to reducing surface and interfacial tension and forming microemulsion where hydrocarbons can solubilize in water or where water can solubilize in hydrocarbons, the majority of surfactants have gained importance in the fields of enhanced oil recovery, environmental bioremediation, food processing and pharmaceuticals. However, large-scale production of these molecules has not been realized as a result of low yields in production processes and high recovery and purification costs. This review article represents a classification of biosurfactant in addition to their microbial origin and effect of some nutrition and environmental factor for high production of biosurfactant. The nitrogen, carbon sources and environmental factors can make a difference key to the regulating biosurfactants synthesis Fascination with microbial surfactants have been steadily increasing recently because of advantages over the chemical surfactants for example environmentally friendly nature, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, higher selectivity and specific gravity at extreme temperature, pH and salinity. For this reason the demand of biosurfactant are increasing day by day.

  6. Needs assessment activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    As part of a Transportation Management Division task (TMD), the Packaging Programs and Testing Group within Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has assessed the packaging needs of some of the mid- and small-sized US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by visiting them and meeting with their transportation and packaging personnel. To date, ten DOE facilities have been visited. As a result, these sites have been informed of some of the packaging activities that TMD has sponsored and is sponsoring, have been apprised of possible upcoming changes to transportation regulations, have discussed their short-term packaging needs, and have shared unique packaging they have developed which may be of use to other DOE facilities.. This report summarizes the findings from visits to the following sites: Fermi National Laboratory; Argonne National Laboratory; New Brunswick Laboratory; EG and G Mound Applied Technologies; Fernald Environmental Management Project; West Valley Demonstration Project; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Brookhaven National Laboratory; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

  7. RTE - activity report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RTE is a public company that operates, maintains and develops the largest high and very high-voltage electricity network in Europe. With its 100,000 km of lines, its 45 cross-border connections and its central geographical location, at the crossroads of European exchange, RTE has decisive assets for responding to the new economic and environmental challenges related to its activity, and for taking part actively in the construction of the internal electricity market. Since 2000, in the context of the public-service duties entrusted to it by the law, RTE has been the guarantor of the correct functioning and reliability of the French electricity system. It ensures free and equitable access to its network by all users, while respecting the code of good conduct that is checked annually by the Energy Regulatory Commission. Its income (public transmission network usage prices) and its expenditure (annual investment programme) are fixed by this regulatory authority. In accordance with the law, RTE is fully independent within the EDF group. Its status as a limited company with board of directors and supervisory board ensures its neutrality in relation to all players in the electricity market. In 2008: RTE's Turnover: euros 4,221 million, investments: euros 835 million, Employees: 8,536. This activity report presents: 1 - an interview with Dominique Maillard Chairman of the RTE Executive Board; 2 - 2008, a transitional year for RTE: overview and key figures, governance and organisation, significant events; 3 - Investments and clients, the fundamentals of RTE's assets: investing, adapting the network, ensuring the security of the system, dialogue with clients; 4 - RTE's men and women, more effective and higher added value: recruiting, preserving diversity, strengthening team spirit, supporting human resources; 5 - RTE, player and vehicle for sustainable development: a proactive commitment by RTE, participating in regional development, RTE, a socially-responsible company

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Michelia champaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R; Kihara, M; Omoloso, A D

    2002-12-01

    The methanol extracts of leaves, seeds, stem and root barks, stem and root heart-woods of Michelia champaca and the obtained fractions (petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol) exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Fractionation drastically enhanced the level of activity particularly in all fractions of the stem bark and dichloromethane fraction of the root bark. Some fractions of the leaves, stem and root barks demonstrated antifungal activity against some of the tested moulds. Liriodenine was the active constituent of the root bark, with a broader and, in some cases, better level of activity as compared to the standard. PMID:12490248

  9. Perspectives in active liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-11-28

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour.

  10. Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediated physical activity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodrich David E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging, particularly during the winter months. To promote physical activity at the University of Michigan during the winter months, an eight-week Internet-mediated program (Active U was developed providing participants with an online physical activity log, goal setting, motivational emails, and optional team participation and competition. Methods This study is a program evaluation of Active U. Approximately 47,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students were invited to participate in the online Active U intervention in the winter of 2007. Participants were assigned a physical activity goal and were asked to record each physical activity episode into the activity log for eight weeks. Statistics for program reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation were calculated using the Re-Aim framework. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the decline in rates of data entry and goal attainment during the program, to assess the likelihood of joining a team by demographic characteristics, to test the association between various predictors and the number of weeks an individual met his or her goal, and to analyze server load. Results Overall, 7,483 individuals registered with the Active U website (≈16% of eligible, and 79% participated in the program by logging valid data at least once. Staff members, older participants, and those with a BMI P Conclusion Internet-mediated physical activity interventions that focus on physical activity logging and goal setting while incorporating team competition may help a significant percentage of the target population maintain their physical activity during the winter months.

  11. Resources Management in Active Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In an active network, users can insert customized active codes into active nodes to execute. Thus it needs more resources than those required by conventional networks, and these resources must be effectively monitored and managed. Management policies in existing OSs are too complicated to apply to simple active packets. In this paper, we present new resources management policies that are mainly adoped to manage CPU, storage and transmission bandwidth. Namely, we use SPF algorithm to schedule and process active packets, and import an interval queue method to allocate transmission bandwidth, and use feedback mechanism to control congestion. At the same time, we design some experiments on prototype systems with and without resources management policies respectively. The experiments results show that management policies presented by us can effectively manage resources in active nodes and can improve the performance of active networks.

  12. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  13. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L

    2015-11-01

    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  14. Atmospheric neutrino data Active-Active x Active-Sterile oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Peres, O L G

    1998-01-01

    I summarize here the results of a global fit to the full data set corresponding to 33.0 kt-yr of data of the Super-Kamiokande experiment as well as to all other experiments in order to compare the active-active and active-sterile neutrinos oscillation channels to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly.

  15. Living microbial ecosystems within the active zone of catagenesis: Implications for feeding the deep biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, B.; Schenk, H. J.; Zink, K.; Ondrak, R.; Dieckmann, V.; Kallmeyer, J.; Mangelsdorf, K.; di Primio, R.; Wilkes, H.; Parkes, R. J.; Fry, J.; Cragg, B.

    2006-06-01

    Earth's largest reactive carbon pool, marine sedimentary organic matter, becomes increasingly recalcitrant during burial, making it almost inaccessible as a substrate for microorganisms, and thereby limiting metabolic activity in the deep biosphere. Because elevated temperature acting over geological time leads to the massive thermal breakdown of the organic matter into volatiles, including petroleum, the question arises whether microorganisms can directly utilize these maturation products as a substrate. While migrated thermogenic fluids are known to sustain microbial consortia in shallow sediments, an in situ coupling of abiotic generation and microbial utilization has not been demonstrated. Here we show, using a combination of basin modelling, kinetic modelling, geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry, that microorganisms inhabit the active generation zone in the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. Three sites from ODP Leg 190 have been evaluated, namely 1173, 1174 and 1177, drilled in nearly undeformed Quaternary and Tertiary sedimentary sequences seaward of the Nankai Trough itself. Paleotemperatures were reconstructed based on subsidence profiles, compaction modelling, present-day heat flow, downhole temperature measurements and organic maturity parameters. Today's heat flow distribution can be considered mainly conductive, and is extremely high in places, reaching 180 mW/m 2. The kinetic parameters describing total hydrocarbon generation, determined by laboratory pyrolysis experiments, were utilized by the model in order to predict the timing of generation in time and space. The model predicts that the onset of present day generation lies between 300 and 500 m below sea floor (5100-5300 m below mean sea level), depending on well location. In the case of Site 1174, 5-10% conversion has taken place by a present day temperature of ca. 85 °C. Predictions were largely validated by on-site hydrocarbon gas measurements. Viable organisms in the same depth range have been

  16. Local Activity and Causal Connectivity in Children with Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wu

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to localize the epileptic focus and characterize its causal relation with other brain regions, to understand the cognitive deficits in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was performed in 37 children with BECTS and 25 children matched for age, sex and educational achievement. We identified the potential epileptogenic zone (EZ by comparing the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF of spontaneous blood oxygenation level dependent fMRI signals between the groups. Granger causality analysis was applied to explore the causal effect between EZ and the whole brain. Compared with controls, children with BECTS had significantly increased ALFF in the right postcentral gyrus and bilateral calcarine, and decreased ALFF in the left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral putaman/caudate, and left cerebellum. ALFF values in the putaman/caudate were positively correlated with verbal IQ scores in patients. The ALFF values in cerebellum and performance IQ scores were negatively correlated in patients. These results suggest that ALFF disturbances in the putaman/caudate and cerebellum play an important role in BECTS cognitive dysfunction. Compared with controls, the patients showed increased driving effect from the EZ to the right medial frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex and decreased causal effects from the EZ to left inferior frontal gyrus. The causal effect of the left inferior frontal gyrus negatively correlated with disease duration, which suggests a relation between the epileptiform activity and language impairment. All together, these findings provide additional insight into the neurophysiological mechanisms of epilepitogenisis and cognitive dysfunction associated with BECTS.

  17. Local Activity and Causal Connectivity in Children with Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Ji, Gong-Jun; Zang, Yu-Feng; Liao, Wei; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Ya-Li; Li, Ke; Zeng, Ya-Wei; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to localize the epileptic focus and characterize its causal relation with other brain regions, to understand the cognitive deficits in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in 37 children with BECTS and 25 children matched for age, sex and educational achievement. We identified the potential epileptogenic zone (EZ) by comparing the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of spontaneous blood oxygenation level dependent fMRI signals between the groups. Granger causality analysis was applied to explore the causal effect between EZ and the whole brain. Compared with controls, children with BECTS had significantly increased ALFF in the right postcentral gyrus and bilateral calcarine, and decreased ALFF in the left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral putaman/caudate, and left cerebellum. ALFF values in the putaman/caudate were positively correlated with verbal IQ scores in patients. The ALFF values in cerebellum and performance IQ scores were negatively correlated in patients. These results suggest that ALFF disturbances in the putaman/caudate and cerebellum play an important role in BECTS cognitive dysfunction. Compared with controls, the patients showed increased driving effect from the EZ to the right medial frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex and decreased causal effects from the EZ to left inferior frontal gyrus. The causal effect of the left inferior frontal gyrus negatively correlated with disease duration, which suggests a relation between the epileptiform activity and language impairment. All together, these findings provide additional insight into the neurophysiological mechanisms of epilepitogenisis and cognitive dysfunction associated with BECTS. PMID:26225427

  18. fMRI and brain activation after sport concussion: a tale of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Hutchison

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport-related concussions are now recognized as a major public health concern: The number of participants in sport and recreation is growing, possibly playing their games faster, and there is heightened public awareness of injuries to some high-profile athletes. However, many clinicians still rely on subjective symptom reports for the clinical determination of recovery. Relying on subjective symptom reports can be dangerous, as it has been shown that some concussed athletes may downplay their symptoms. The use of neuropsychological (NP testing tools has enabled clinicians to measure the effects and extent of impairment following concussion more precisely, providing more objective metrics for determining recovery after concussion. Nevertheless, there is a remaining concern that brain abnormalities may exist beyond the point at which individuals achieve recovery in self-reported symptoms and cognition measured by NP testing. Our understanding of brain recovery after concussion is important not only from a neuroscience perspective, but also from the perspective of clinical decision making for safe return-to-play (RTP. A number of advanced neuroimaging tools, including blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, have independently yielded early information on these abnormal brain functions. In the two cases presented in this article, we report contrasting brain activation patterns and recovery profiles using fMRI. Importantly, fMRI was conducted using adapted versions of the most sensitive computerized NP tests administered in current clinical practice to determine impairments and recovery after sport-related concussion. One of the cases is consistent with the concept of lagging brain recovery.

  19. Space activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  20. Strategy as active waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N

    2005-09-01

    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment. PMID:16171216

  1. Photobiological activity of furazolidone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furazolidone, a synthetic nitrofuran, is used in the treatment of cholera and other diseases. The photobiological activity of this drug has been investigated using Vibrio cholerae OGAWA 154 and the cholera phage PL 163/10. The phage suspension was exposed to a fluorescent daylight lamp for photodynamic studies and to a germicidal lamp for U.V.-inactivation studies. When the phage was exposed to U.V. light in the presence of furazolidone, the rate of inactivation was found to decrease with increasing concentrations of the drug, and the inactivation followed first-order reaction kinetics. The drug thus afforded pH-dependent protection for the target of U.V.-light, which was most probably the phage DNA. For any drug concentration a constant dose-reduction factor irrespective of the survival level was obtained. White light, in contrast to U.V., caused an increase in the rate of inactivation with increasing drug concentrations. Kinetic studies of this photodynamic action gave values of 8.88 x 10-5M (in phosphate buffered saline pH 7.0), and 3.97 x 10-5M (in 5 mM tris-HCl buffer pH 7.4), for the dissociation constant (Ksub(a)) of furazolidone phage complex. Varying times of pre-incubation with furazolidone before irradiation demonstrated that less than 5 minutes was required for the saturation of the target with the drug, indicating that the protein coat of the phage is highly permeable to the drug. Furazolidone therefore exhibits both a photodynamic action under visible light and a photoprotective action under U.V.-light. (U.K.)

  2. Waste safety activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety standards develop by the IAEA in the Safety Standard Series and other publication are reviewed. The Waste Safety Action plan includes: Action 1: Develop a common framework for the management and disposal of different types of radioactive waste, paying particular attention to large volumes of waste containing long-lived naturally occurring radionuclides. Action 2: Assess the safety implications of the extended storage of radioactive waste and of any future reconditioning which may be necessary and develop safety standards for the long-term storage of radioactive waste. Action 3: Promptly develop safety standards for geological disposal, addressing inter alia, issues of human intrusion, institutional control, retrievability, the content of the safety case and any implications of nuclear safeguards requirements for the design of the repositories. Action 4: Develop an internationally accepted and harmonized approach for controlling the removal of materials and sites from regulatory control. Action 5: Develop a structured and systematic programme to ensure adequate application of the Agency waste safety standards and facilitate their application in implementation of the Joint Convention. Action 6: Explore ways to ensure that information, knowledge and skills concerning radioactive waste management are made available to future generations. Action 7: Address the broader societal dimensions of radioactive waste management. Action 8: Review the new developments related to policies for the control of radioactive discharges to the environment, taking into account the availability and cost-effectiveness of discharge reduction technologies and the broader implications for radioactive waste management of reducing discharges. Action 9: Explore international mechanisms for facilitating the management of spent sealed radioactive sources. Some other activities as training courses and technical cooperation are also presented

  3. Active Beam Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hellermann, M. G.; Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Biel, W.; Marchuk, O.; Summers, H. P.; Whiteford, A.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2008-03-01

    Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) plays a pivotal role in the diagnostics of hot fusion plasmas and is implemented currently in most of the operating devices. In the present report the main features of CXRS are summarized and supporting software packages encompassing "Spectral Analysis Code CXSFIT", "Charge Exchange Analysis Package CHEAP", and finally "Forward Prediction of Spectral Features" are described. Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) is proposed as indispensable cross-calibration tool for absolute local impurity density measurements and also for the continuous monitoring of the neutral beam power deposition profile. Finally, a full exploitation of the `Motional Stark Effect' pattern is proposed to deduce local pitch angles, total magnetic fields and possibly radial electric fields. For the proposed active beam spectroscopy diagnostic on ITER comprehensive performance studies have been carried out. Estimates of expected spectral signal-to-noise ratios are based on atomic modelling of neutral beam stopping and emissivities for CXRS, BES and background continuum radiation as well as extrapolations from present CXRS diagnostic systems on JET, Tore Supra, TEXTOR and ASDEX-UG. Supplementary to thermal features a further promising application of CXRS has been proposed recently for ITER, that is a study of slowing-down alpha particles in the energy range up to 2 MeV making use of the 100 keV/amu DNB (Diagnostic Neutral Beam) and the 500 keV/amu HNB (Heating Neutral Beam). Synthetic Fast Ion Slowing-Down spectra are evaluated in terms of source rates and slowing-down parameters

  4. Strategy as active waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N

    2005-09-01

    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment.

  5. AMPK activators: mechanisms of action and physiological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joungmok; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Yeji; Kim, Jin; Ha, Joohun

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis, which coordinates metabolic pathways and thus balances nutrient supply with energy demand. Because of the favorable physiological outcomes of AMPK activation on metabolism, AMPK has been considered to be an important therapeutic target for controlling human diseases including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Thus, activators of AMPK may have potential as novel therapeutics for these diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of both indirect and direct AMPK activators and their modes of action in relation to the structure of AMPK. We discuss the functional differences among isoform-specific AMPK complexes and their significance regarding the development of novel AMPK activators and the potential for combining different AMPK activators in the treatment of human disease. PMID:27034026

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF ACTIVE DENITRIFIERS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Le-Quy, Vang; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann;

    and when external carbon sources were supplemented to the activated sludge the composition of the denitrifying communities was significantly affected. Transcriptome profiling provided detailed insight in the metabolic pathways in several of the active denitrifiers in activated sludge. In conclusion...... reactor studies. To obtain better identification of active denitrifying communities in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) we applied DNA-SIP with 13C-labelled substrates, and RT-PCR of expressed denitrification genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) upon various substrate-inductions. To come around...... were determined with quantitative FISH, while their active metabolic pathways were investigated directly in activated sludge with a tag-based metatranscriptomic approach under acetate-utilizing and denitrifying conditions. The different methods revealed a majority of denitrifiers in all WWTPs belonging...

  7. Activity is strength: More active systems are stronger glass formers

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Interplay between activity and passive transport processes in an active system may lead to complex spatio-temporal dynamics offering a rich and fascinating phenomenology compared to their passive counterparts. Understanding the properties of an active system in the dense limit is important both from biological as well as physical point of view. Here, we extend an immensely successful microscopic theory for the glassy dynamics of passive systems in their dense low-temperature limit, namely the Random First-Order Transition (RFOT) theory, for an active system generalizing and unifying the findings of recent simulations on such systems. The qualitative picture of glassy dynamics for a passive system survives when activity is introduced, however, a number interesting properties emerge. For example, activity changes the typical length scale and relaxation times, pushes the thermodynamic and dynamic glass transition points towards higher density or lower temperature and the fragility of the system changes as a func...

  8. Gamma band activity in the reticular activating system (RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Urbano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular activating system (RAS exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf, and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band activity. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this activity. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band activity demonstrates the global nature of sleep-wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem-thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep-wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band activity in the RAS follows recent reports of such activity in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band activity manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable activation state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by preconscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the

  9. Healthy active living: Physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity is rising globally. Although the risk factors for obesity are multifactorial, many are related to lifestyle and may be amenable to intervention. These factors include sedentary time and non-exercise activity thermogenesis, as well as the frequency, intensity, amounts and types of physical activity. Front-line health care practitioners are ideally suited to monitor children, adolescents and their families’ physical activity levels, to evaluate lifestyle choice...

  10. Who Spends More: Sport-Active versus Active Tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Slak Valek; Eva Podovšovnik Axelsson

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically investigated the influences of gender, age and educational level on the main motive for travel, which then explored the relationship of these influences to travel spending. Furthermore, sports-active tourists were compared with other tourists who are interested in active travel. Active traveling, in this present study, includes tourists with other main motives of traveling, but not those whose main motive is “rest and relaxation”. Slovenian tourists traveling within Slo...

  11. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  12. Permanent active longitudes and activity cycles on RS CVn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1998-08-01

    A new analysis of the published long-term photometric observations has revealed permanent active-longitude structures in four RS CVn stars: EI Eri, II Peg, sigma Gem, and HR 7275. Two active longitudes separated by half of the period are found to dominate on the surface during all available seasons. The positions of the longitudes on three stars (EI Eri, II Peg, HR 7275) are migrating in the orbital reference frame, and there is no preferred orientation with respect to the line of centres in the binaries. The rate of migration is approximately constant. In case of sigma Gem the active longitude migration is synchronized with the orbital motion in the direction of the line of centres in the binary. The active region lifetimes can be longer than the time span of the observations (>=15 yr). The periods of the active longitude rotation are determined: for EI Eri 1fd 9510, for II Peg 6fd 7066, for sigma Gem 19fd 604, for HR 7275 28fd 263. Long-term activity cycles of the stars are discovered from the analysis of the relative contribution of the two longitudes to the photometric variability. One longitude is found to be usually more active than the other at a given moment, and the change of the activity level between the longitudes is cyclic with periods of years. The switch of the activity takes a much shorter time, about a few months, similar to the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon found for FK Com stars. Moments of switching are regarded as new tracers of the activity, and total cycles, which return activity to the same longitude, are found to be for EI Eri 9.0 yr, for II Peg 9.3 yr, for sigma Gem 14.9 yr, for HR 7275 17.5 yr.

  13. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  14. Social activity and healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall...... level of physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology. We also found that social activity was significantly and moderately heritable (estimate of .36), raising the possibility that its association with late-life functioning might reflect selection processes. Further, social...... activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin...

  15. Swim pressure of active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Sho; Yan, Wen; Brady, John; Caltech Team

    2014-11-01

    Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique ``swim pressure'' that is entirely athermal in origin. This new source for the active stress exists at all scales in both living and nonliving active systems, and also applies to larger organisms where inertia is important (i.e., the Stokes number is not small). Here we explain the origin of the swim stress and develop a simple thermodynamic model to study the self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria and catalytic nanobots, schools of fish and birds, and molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  16. How physical activity can work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    This review examines how physical activity can work for health during childhood and adolescence. Special emphasis is put on weight control and prevention of obesity-related morbidity. Both low sedentary and high exercise activities contribute to increased energy expenditure, improved weight control and prevention of obesity. Exercise, if intensity is at least moderate, has also a positive effect on fat distribution by decreasing the proportion of abdominal or visceral fat. The prevalence of clustered (multiple) cardiovascular risk factors is lower in children and adolescents, who are physically active or fit. However, the risks of obesity are greater than those from being sedentary, i.e., high physical activity reduces, but does not totally offset risks related to obesity. Good health in youth is easily lost by an unhealthy lifestyle in adulthood. An additional benefit of childhood physical activity is that it increases the likelihood of physical activity later in adulthood. PMID:18278627

  17. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne;

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  18. The Activity-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    McNally, Michael G.; Rindt, Craig

    2008-01-01

    What is the activity-based approach (ABA) and how does it differ from the conventional trip-based model of travel behavior? From where has the activity approach evolved, what is its current status, and what are its potential applications in transportation forecasting and policy analysis. What have been the contributions of activity-based approaches to understanding travel behavior? The conventional trip-based model of travel demand forecasting (see Chapters 2 and 3) has always lacked...

  19. Activating Teaching for Quality Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2013-01-01

    Activating teaching is an educational concept which is based on active participation of students in the study process. It is becoming an alternative to more typical approach where the teacher will just lecture and the students will take notes. The study described in this paper considers student activating teaching methods focusing on those based on knowledge dissemination. The practical aspects of the implemented teaching method are considered, and employed assessment methods and tools are di...

  20. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  1. Active Learning for Matching Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Charlin, Laurent; Zemel, Rich; Boutilier, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Effective learning of user preferences is critical to easing user burden in various types of matching problems. Equally important is active query selection to further reduce the amount of preference information users must provide. We address the problem of active learning of user preferences for matching problems, introducing a novel method for determining probabilistic matchings, and developing several new active learning strategies that are sensitive to the specific matching objective. Expe...

  2. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  3. Template-Based Active Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Mogali, Jayanth Krishna; Pediredla, Adithya Kumar; Seelamantula, Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    We develop a generalized active contour formalism for image segmentation based on shape templates. The shape template is subjected to a restricted affine transformation (RAT) in order to segment the object of interest. RAT allows for translation, rotation, and scaling, which give a total of five degrees of freedom. The proposed active contour comprises an inner and outer contour pair, which are closed and concentric. The active contour energy is a contrast function defined based on the intens...

  4. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    2016-01-01

    physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  5. THERMAL ACTIVATION OF IMMOBILIZED PAPAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Papain (Papainase, EC 3.4.22.2) was immobilized on porous silica beads by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. The thermal activation of this immobilized papain in aqueous system was found at a temperature range from 50 to 90℃. The higher the temperature, the more active the immobilized papain will possess. At the same time,the durability of the immobilized papain on heating was greatly improved. The effect of additives and salts on the activity of the immobilized papain were also studied. The results showed that the additives and some of the salts studied could markedly enhance the activity of the immobilized papain at elevated temperature.

  6. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  7. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  8. Active Combustion Control Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the...

  9. CDBG Activity Funding by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — All CDBG activities in the categories of acquisition, economic development, housing, public improvements, public services, and other summarized by Census Tract.

  10. Microglial control of neuronal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eBéchade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine-tuning of neuronal activity was thought to be a neuron-autonomous mechanism until the discovery that astrocytes are active players of synaptic transmission. The involvement of astrocytes has changed our understanding of the roles of non-neuronal cells and shed new light on the regulation of neuronal activity. Microglial cells are the macrophages of the brain and they have been mostly investigated as immune cells. However recent data discussed in this review support the notion that, similarly to astrocytes, microglia are involved in the regulation of neuronal activity. For instance, in most, if not all, brain pathologies a strong temporal correlation has long been known to exist between the pathological activation of microglia and dysfunction of neuronal activity. Recent studies have convincingly shown that alteration of microglial function is responsible for pathological neuronal activity. This causal relationship has also been demonstrated in mice bearing loss-of-function mutations in genes specifically expressed by microglia. In addition to these long-term regulations of neuronal activity, recent data show that microglia can also rapidly regulate neuronal activity, thereby acting as partners of neurotransmission.

  11. Active Gas Regenerative Liquefier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We offer a novel liquefier that has the potential to simultaneously increase thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduce complexity. The ?active gas...

  12. A prioritization of research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the efforts in prioritizing the activities in the Office of Research. The purpose of this prioritization is to provide a basis on which to make management decisions. The report describes also the methodology and criteria upon which the priority rankings are based. Each activity was evaluated against four attributes. These attributes are: safety assurance, usefulness, appropriateness and resources. This report will be periodically revised to include the prioritization of new activities, deletion of completed activities and to reflect changes in budget allocations and projections. 3 refs., 5 figs

  13. Active Directory Designing, Deploying, and Running Active Directory

    CERN Document Server

    Desmond, Brian

    2008-01-01

    By giving you a thorough grounding in Active Directory, this bestselling book teaches you how to design, manage, and maintain an AD infrastructure, whether it's for a small business network or a multinational enterprise with thousands of resources, services, and users. The fourth edition covers Active Directory from Windows 2000 through Windows Server 2008 in an easy-to-understand narrative style.

  14. Incorporation of Socio-scientific Content into Active Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.

    2014-12-01

    Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to

  15. Active vibration and noise control by hybrid active acoustic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoebener, U.; Gaul, L. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. A fuer Mechanik

    2001-07-01

    In the present paper a hybrid passive and active treatment for vibration and noise reduction of plate type structures is proposed. The treatment is manufactured as sandwich structure and is called hybrid active acoustic panel. The passive component is used to reduce the vibration and sound radiation for high frequencies whereas the active part of the system is designed for the low frequency range. By selecting the thickness of the passive damping layer a certain frequency limit is defined, which divides the high and low frequency range. The actuator and sensor layout of the active component is evaluated by using the mode shapes of the low frequency range. According to the evaluated layout a hybrid active acoustic panel is manufactured and experimentally tested. The experimental results validate the proposed concept. (orig.)

  16. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta K.; Mona R.

    2009-05-01

    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

  17. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). The

  18. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta K.; Mona R.

    2009-05-01

    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

  19. Effects of different activity and inactivity paradigms on myosin heavy chain gene expression in striated muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, K. M.; Haddad, F.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this mini-review is to summarize findings concerning the role that different models of muscular activity and inactivity play in altering gene expression of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) family of motor proteins in mammalian cardiac and skeletal muscle. This was done in the context of examining parallel findings concerning the role that thyroid hormone (T(3), 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine) plays in MHC expression. Findings show that both cardiac and skeletal muscles of experimental animals are initially undifferentiated at birth and then undergo a marked level of growth and differentiation in attaining the adult MHC phenotype in a T(3)/activity level-dependent fashion. Cardiac MHC expression in small mammals is highly sensitive to thyroid deficiency, diabetes, energy deprivation, and hypertension; each of these interventions induces upregulation of the beta-MHC isoform, which functions to economize circulatory function in the face of altered energy demand. In skeletal muscle, hyperthyroidism, as well as interventions that unload or reduce the weight-bearing activity of the muscle, causes slow to fast MHC conversions. Fast to slow conversions, however, are seen under hypothyroidism or when the muscles either become chronically overloaded or subjected to intermittent loading as occurs during resistance training and endurance exercise. The regulation of MHC gene expression by T(3) or mechanical stimuli appears to be strongly regulated by transcriptional events, based on recent findings on transgenic models and animals transfected with promoter-reporter constructs. However, the mechanisms by which T(3) and mechanical stimuli exert their control on transcriptional processes appear to be different. Additional findings show that individual skeletal muscle fibers have the genetic machinery to express simultaneously all of the adult MHCs, e.g., slow type I and fast IIa, IIx, and IIb, in unique combinations under certain experimental conditions. This degree of

  20. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  1. Developing Internal Controls through Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, F. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Life events can include the Tuesday afternoon cooking class with the group worker or the Saturday afternoon football game, but in the sense that Fritz Redl thought of them, these activities are only threads in a fabric of living that includes all the elements of daily life: playing, working, school-based learning, learning through activities,…

  2. Pure spreading activation is pointless

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Berthold; Ulrik Brandes; Tobias Kötter; Martin Mader; Uwe Nagel; Kilian Thiel

    2009-01-01

    Almost every application of spreading activation is accompanied by its own set of often heuristic restrictions on the dynamics. We show that in constraint-free scenarios spreading activation would actually yield query-independent results, so that the specific choice of restrictions is not only a pragmatic computational issue, but crucially determines the outcome.

  3. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  4. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related activit...

  5. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  6. Simultaneous Tracking and Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina Elena; Fleet, David J.; Hamilton, Howard J.;

    2011-01-01

    recognition, our framework performs these two tasks simultaneously. In particular, we adopt a Bayesian standpoint where the system maintains a joint distribution of the positions, the interactions and the possible activities. This turns out to be advantegeous, as information about the ongoing activities can...

  7. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajali, U; Chukwurah, B K C

    2004-11-01

    The folk herbal uses of Securidaca longipedunculata in the treatment of diarrhea, boils, gonorrhea, and cough prompted phytochemical analyses and antimicrobial activity screening of extracts of the root. Some flavonoids isolated showed activity against many micro-organisms. These flavonoids were isolated using chromatographic methods. PMID:15636189

  9. Antibacterial activities of antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodet, C A; Jorgensen, J H; Drutz, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen antineoplastic agents were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 101 aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates representing indigenous human microflora and selected opportunistic pathogens. Only 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, and etoposide demonstrated inhibitory effects at achievable plasma concentrations, while the remaining drugs lacked appreciable antibacterial activities.

  10. Ralleyball: A Tennis Intramural Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Stanley J.; Duncan, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Physical education teachers often look for ways to bring any activity to life and give it meaning with all-out participation from students. To showcase the talents of each sports-enthusiast-students, schools facilitate an intramural activity. The authors of this article present an intramural program titled Ralleyball, which is an ideal way to…

  11. An Interdisciplinary Concept of Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Blunden

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that if Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT is to fulfil its potential as an approach to cultural and historical science in general, then an interdisciplinary concept of activity is needed. Such a concept of activity would provide a common foundation for all the human sciences, underpinning concepts of, for example, state and social movement equally as, for example, learning and personality. For this is needed a clear conception of the ‘unit of analysis’ of activity, i.e., of what constitutes ‘an activity’, and a clear distinction between the unit of analysis and the substance, i.e., ultimate reality underlying all the human sciences: artifact-mediated joint activity. It is claimed that the concept of ‘project collaboration’ – the interaction between two or more persons in pursuit of a common objective – forms such a unit of activity, the single ‘molecule’ in terms of which both sociological and psychological phenomena can be theorised. It is suggested that such a clarification of the notion of activity allows us to see how individual actions and societal activities mutually constitute one another and are each construed in the light of the other.

  12. An Application of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marken, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Activity Theory has often been used in workplace settings to gain new theoretical understandings about work and the humans who engage in work, but rarely has there been sufficient detail in the literature to allow HPT practitioners to do their own activity analysis. The detail presented in this case is sufficient for HPT practitioners to begin to…

  13. E-Division activities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes some of the activities in E (Experimental Physics) Division during the past year. E-Division carries out research and development in areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Many of the activities are in pure and applied atomic and nuclear physics. In addition, this report describes work on accelerators, radiation damage, microwaves, and plasma diagnostics

  14. Physical activity: an unknown concept

    OpenAIRE

    Cloes, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators do not have necesseraly good representations about physical activity and sedentariness. During the presentation, participants will be involved in an interactive process aiming to underline the main concepts that they should use in order to become effective agents of physical activity promotion.

  15. Strategies to Increase Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    One key intervention to prevent preventable diseases and to make health care more affordable is to increase the percentage of Americans who are physically active. No single intervention will increase activity rates, but a group of interventions working together in synergy may be the stimulus needed to get Americans moving.

  16. Motivating Kids to Be Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity, or both. 2. The casual athlete: This child is interested in being active but isn't a star player and is at risk of getting discouraged in a competitive athletic environment. 3. The athlete: This child has athletic ability, is committed to a sport ...

  17. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  18. Whole-brain, time-locked activation with simple tasks revealed using massive averaging and model-free analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Saad, Ziad S.; Handwerker, Daniel A.; Inati, Souheil J.; Brenowitz, Noah; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The brain is the body's largest energy consumer, even in the absence of demanding tasks. Electrophysiologists report on-going neuronal firing during stimulation or task in regions beyond those of primary relationship to the perturbation. Although the biological origin of consciousness remains elusive, it is argued that it emerges from complex, continuous whole-brain neuronal collaboration. Despite converging evidence suggesting the whole brain is continuously working and adapting to anticipate and actuate in response to the environment, over the last 20 y, task-based functional MRI (fMRI) have emphasized a localizationist view of brain function, with fMRI showing only a handful of activated regions in response to task/stimulation. Here, we challenge that view with evidence that under optimal noise conditions, fMRI activations extend well beyond areas of primary relationship to the task; and blood-oxygen level-dependent signal changes correlated with task-timing appear in over 95% of the brain for a simple visual stimulation plus attention control task. Moreover, we show that response shape varies substantially across regions, and that whole-brain parcellations based on those differences produce distributed clusters that are anatomically and functionally meaningful, symmetrical across hemispheres, and reproducible across subjects. These findings highlight the exquisite detail lying in fMRI signals beyond what is normally examined, and emphasize both the pervasiveness of false negatives, and how the sparseness of fMRI maps is not a result of localized brain function, but a consequence of high noise and overly strict predictive response models. PMID:22431587

  19. Overtopping hazards to port activities: Application of a new methodology to risk management (POrt Risk MAnagement Tool)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past 20 years, the need of ports to serve a fleet whose dimensions are continuously increasing due to economies of scale, has derived on a port infrastructures growth with a trend to look for greater drafts at deeper waters and therefore the protection structures built in the last years have been increasingly exposed to severer maritime climate action. Consequently, overtopping phenomenon has been identified as a potential risk factor able to cause structural damages and operative failure modes to vulnerable economic activities located at these port facilities. Port activities must be developed ensuring operative and safety conditions what imply reducing uncertainties of overtopping phenomena by using prediction methods which may allow overtopping risk management. This paper provides a risk assessment methodology which is integrated into an overtopping risk management framework to cope with safety problems in port exploitation. Overtopping risk value is measured by combining probability of occurrence of an undesirable event together with its consequences, estimated in terms of costs or delays and given in base of the vulnerability of the affected port system. The development of this methodology is described and finally applied to a real case study what seems to reinforce the validity of the proposed method to overtopping risk assessment. - Highlights: • Infrastructure risk assessment involves both probabilistic and economic techniques. • Risk equation is posed by the combination of probability, vulnerability and cost. • Port infrastructures' vulnerability level depends on climate agents' action. • Economic value of natural hazards consequences is linked with vulnerability level. • Project planning process should be done taking into account the project's risk distribution

  20. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569