WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity indicator model

  1. Modelling Dynamics of Main Indicators of Economic Activity of Households of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuk Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study of the structure of the system of economic activity of households in Ukraine and dynamics of interconnections between the main indicators of its functioning. In order to study dynamics of main indicators of the system of economic activity of households, the article uses tools of econometric vector-autoregression modelling (VAR models. Based on the existing statistical data and a developed VAR model, the article studies individual and aggregate influence of lag values of indicators upon their current values, system reaction on main indicators impulses, analyses dynamics of change of explanation of dispersion of some indicators with others, and conducts two types of forecasts that reflect a general tendency of development of economic activity of households in Ukraine. High accuracy of forecasts obtained with the help of the proposed econometric model testifies to a possibility of its practical application for assessment of the state of main indicators of economic activity of households of Ukraine. The article applies for the first time the tools of VAR modelling for the study of economic activity of households in Ukraine, which expands possibilities of use of mathematical and statistical methods and models in this field of economy.

  2. Improving Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome Indicators in Women: A Transtheoretical Model-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat; Pirzadeh, Asiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at investigating the impact of an educational intervention based on transtheoretical model to increase physical activity and improve metabolic syndrome indicators in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 142 women with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to the case and control group (each group 71 participants). SECQ (Marcus), processes of change (Marcus), decisional balance (Bandura) and self-efficacy (Nigg) questionnaires and International Physical Activities Standard Questionnaire in preintervention, 3 and 6 months after intervention were completed. Furthermore, abdominal obesity, triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured. Physical activity intervention based on transtheoretical model (TTM) was performed in the case group. Finally, data were analyzed by SPSS (16) (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and repeated measure ANOVA, independent t-test and Freidman was used. A two-tailed P value, lower than 0.05, was considered to be statistically significant. Results: After the intervention, physical activity level increased in the intervention group, and they also progressed in stages of change, but the people in the control group had regressed. All changes in TTM constructs were significant in the intervention group during the time and differences in pros and cons were not significant in the control group. Abdominal obesity and TG has significantly reduced, and HDL has increased in the intervention group. In the control group, there was a significant increase in TGs and a decrease in HDL. Conclusions: Physical activity training based on TTM can improve physical activity and metabolic syndrome indicators in women. PMID:25949778

  3. Metal ion site engineering indicates a global toggle switch model for seven-transmembrane receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Christian E; Frimurer, Thomas M; Gerlach, Lars-Ole;

    2006-01-01

    Much evidence indicates that, during activation of seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors, the intracellular segments of the transmembrane helices (TMs) move apart with large amplitude, rigid body movements of especially TM-VI and TM-VII. In this study, AspIII:08 (Asp113), the anchor point for monoa...... that the pivots for these vertical seesaw movements are the highly conserved proline bends of the involved helices....

  4. UV activity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    In Order to continue the work displayed in Buccino & Mauas(2003) and Buccino (2003), we have calculated the index Mg II (Xhk) on 1640 high resolution IUE spectra of 269 main sequence stars of spectral classes F, G and K. From this set of observations, we found an exponential relation between the continuum UV flux and the color (B-V). Contrary to Schrijver et al (1989), who assumed that the continuum UV flux depended on the color following the relation found by Rutten (1984) for the visible one, i.e. the logarithm of the flux is proportional to a polynomial of third order with the color. Nevertheless, the exponential relation flux in the continuous UV and the color (B-V) fits far better to our data that the given one by Rutten (1984). Obtained this dependency for the ultraviolet continuum flux, the index Xhk can be obtained from the single flux in the lines core, allowing to calculate the index of Mg II for those spectra where the continuum is very dark and so the relation signal noise is very low. As it were already reported in previous works (Rutten (1991), Schrijver (1992)), we found a minimum basal flux in the Mg II h and k lines core due to the cromospheric heating by disipation of acustics waves. From this minimum flux, we calculated minimum index of activity that satisfactorily fits to the minimum values of the indexes calculated on the 1640 spectra like quotient between the flux in the line core and the continuous one.

  5. FORMALIZATION OF LOCOMOTIVE DRIVER ACTIVITY TENSION INDICATOR BASED ON THE ERGONOMIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Horobchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A key factor contributing to the safety and quality of ergatic system "train-driver" is the intensity of the locomotive crew’s work. The aim of this work is formalization of locomotive driver activity tension indicator. Methodology. One of the characteristics of driver activity tension is the difference between the time allotted to complete the task, and the necessary (external reserve or deficiency time. The sets of major and minor operations in the management of the train locomotive in different train situations were identified. Using the methods of fuzzy logic, the concept of "materiality of the operation of the locomotive control" is presented in the form of a set of linguistic variables. To determine the function membership of the elements of the set "the importance of the operation of the locomotive control" the method of expert evaluations was used. Coefficient of temporary tension is presented in the form of fuzzy number L-R-type. Findings. It was found the value of the relative number of operations of locomotive control according to the distribution using the parameter of operation "importance". To determine the most tensioned mode of the driver ranking the traffic condition according to the parameter of relative amounts of the important management operations was conducted. The most difficult modes are the "front hindrance", "movement in unfavorable weather conditions" and "departure from the station to the running line". Originality. The introduction of the value "conventional importance of the operation" allowed us to more accurately describe the terms of train driving. For the first time the work presents determination of tension of the driver’s work in the form of a unimodal fuzzy number, which will make it possible to use the methods of the theory of artificial intelligence to simulate activity of the locomotive driver and develop intelligent control systems. Practical value. There were obtained the opportunity to

  6. Uncertainty in magnetic activity indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic activity indices are widely used in theoretical studies of solar-terrestrial coupling and space weather prediction. However, the indices suffer from various uncertainties, which limit their application and even mislead to incorrect conclu-sion. In this paper we analyze three most popular indices, Kp, AE and Dst. Three categories of uncertainties in magnetic indices are discussed: "data uncertainty" originating from inadequate data processing, "station uncertainty" caused by in-complete station covering, and "physical uncertainty" stemming from unclear physical mechanism. A comparison between magnetic disturbances and related indices indicate that the residual Sq will cause an uncertainty of 1―2 in K meas-urement, the uncertainty in saturated AE is as much as 50%, and the uncertainty in Dst index caused by the partial ring currents is about a half of the partial ring cur-rent.

  7. Uncertainty in magnetic activity indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU WenYao

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic activity indices are widely used in theoretical studies of solar-terrestrial coupling and space weather prediction. However, the indices suffer from various uncertainties, which limit their application and even mislead to incorrect conclu-sion. In this paper we analyze three most popular indices, Kp, AE and Dst. Three categories of uncertainties in magnetic indices are discussed: "data uncertainty" originating from inadequate data processing, "station uncertainty" caused by in-complete station covering, and "physical uncertainty" stemming from unclear physical mechanism. A comparison between magnetic disturbances and related indices indicate that the residual Sq will cause an uncertainty of 1-2 in K meas-urement, the uncertainty in saturated AE is as much as 50%, and the uncertainty in Dst index caused by the partial ring currents is about a half of the partial ring cur-rent.

  8. Chromospheric activity as age indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Chromospheric activity has been calibrated and widely used as age indicator. However, it has been suggested that the viability of such an age indicator is, in the best case, limited to stars younger than about 1.5 Gyr. I aim to define the age range for which chromospheric activity is a robust astrophysical clock. I collected literature measurements of the S-index in field stars, which is a measure of the strength of the H and K lines of the Ca II and a proxy for chromospheric activity, and exploited the homogeneous database of temperature and age determinations for field stars provided by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Field data, inclusive data previously used to calibrate chromospheric ages, confirm the result found using open cluster data, i.e. there is no decay of chromospheric activity after about 2 Gyr. The only existing indication supporting the viability of chromospheric ages larger than 2 Gyr, is the similarity of chromospheric activity levels in the components of 35 dwarf b...

  9. Multiscale Modeling Indicates That Temperature Dependent [Ca2+]i Spiking in Astrocytes Is Quantitatively Consistent with Modulated SERCA Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komin, Niko; Moein, Mahsa; Ellisman, Mark H; Skupin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) are the most predominant active signaling mechanism in astrocytes that can modulate neuronal activity and is assumed to influence neuronal plasticity. Although Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes has been intensively studied in the past, our understanding of the signaling mechanism and its impact on tissue level is still incomplete. Here we revisit our previously published data on the strong temperature dependence of Ca(2+) signals in both cultured primary astrocytes and astrocytes in acute brain slices of mice. We apply multiscale modeling to test the hypothesis that the temperature dependent [Ca(2+)]i spiking is mainly caused by the increased activity of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum ATPases (SERCAs) that remove Ca(2+) from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum. Quantitative comparison of experimental data with multiscale simulations supports the SERCA activity hypothesis. Further analysis of multiscale modeling and traditional rate equations indicates that the experimental observations are a spatial phenomenon where increasing pump strength leads to a decoupling of Ca(2+) release sites and subsequently to vanishing [Ca(2+)]i spikes.

  10. Pollen indicators of human activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YiYin; ZHOU LiPing; CUI HaiTing

    2008-01-01

    The study of past human activities and their environmental effect is high in the agenda of global change research. A record of pollen assemblages is one of the most common proxies employed for detecting the impact of human activities on the landscape. In this review, we provide a summary and discussion on the recent progress on the use of pollen as indicators of human activity. For most of the studies related to human impact, the following features have been focused on: (1) decline of certain tree pollen; (2) flourishing of pioneer plant pollen; (3) concomitant occurrence of cereal-type pollen and cropland weed pollen; (4) abrupt changes in pollen concentration and richness; and (5) occurrence of nitrophilous plants and pastoral weed. Pollen of anthropogenic plants (weeds and cereal-type plants) is ideal indicators of human activities. Different types of human activities will result in different pollen assem-blages. Patterns of human-impacted pollen spectra would vary between forested areas and grassland. In the study of human impact with pollen data, high resolution in both time and space must be consid-ered. High resolution in space will help to inform the complexity of the landscape. More importantly, it can help to reveal the interference of human activities on the landscape, hence avoiding the bias cre-ated by the limited data points. Fine resolution in time will make accurate recording of short-lived events possible, hence avoiding the exclusion of events related to human activities. The combination of palynology with other proxies will help to decipher more accurately landscape changes through time. Charcoal is a particularly useful proxy for recording the disturbance of humans on vegetation. Its peak values usually occur with pronounced drop of tree pollen and significant rise of anthropogenic pollen.

  11. West African monsoon intraseasonal activity and its daily precipitation indices in regional climate models: diagnostics and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poan, E. D.; Gachon, P.; Dueymes, G.; Diaconescu, E.; Laprise, R.; Seidou Sanda, I.

    2016-11-01

    The West African monsoon intraseasonal variability has huge socio-economic impacts on local populations but understanding and predicting it still remains a challenge for the weather prediction and climate scientific community. This paper analyses an ensemble of simulations from six regional climate models (RCMs) taking part in the coordinated regional downscaling experiment, the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis (ERAI) and three satellite-based and observationally-constrained daily precipitation datasets, to assess the performance of the RCMs with regard to the intraseasonal variability. A joint analysis of seasonal-mean precipitation and the total column water vapor (also called precipitable water— PW) suggests the existence of important links at different timescales between these two variables over the Sahel and highlights the relevance of using PW to follow the monsoon seasonal cycle. RCMs that fail to represent the seasonal-mean position and amplitude of the meridional gradient of PW show the largest discrepancies with respect to seasonal-mean observed precipitation. For both ERAI and RCMs, spectral decompositions of daily PW as well as rainfall show an overestimation of low-frequency activity (at timescales longer than 10 days) at the expense of the synoptic (timescales shorter than 10 days) activity. Consequently, the effects of the African Easterly Waves and the associated mesoscale convective systems are substantially underestimated, especially over continental regions. Finally, the study investigates the skill of the models with respect to hydro-climatic indices related to the occurrence, intensity and frequency of precipitation events at the intraseasonal scale. Although most of these indices are generally better reproduced with RCMs than reanalysis products, this study indicates that RCMs still need to be improved (especially with respect to their subgrid-scale parameterization schemes) to be able to reproduce the intraseasonal variance spectrum adequately.

  12. Expression of lux-genes as an indicator of metabolic activity of cells in model ecosystem studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyandin, A. N.; Popova, L. Yu.

    Quick response to different impacts and easy measurement make the luminescent systems of luminous bacteria an object convenient for application in various fields. Cloning of gene luminescence in different organisms is currently used to study both the survival of microbial cells and the effect of different factors on their metabolic activity, including the environment. A primary test-object in estimating bacteriological contamination of water bodies, Escherichia coli, can be conveniently used as an indicator of bactericidal properties of aquatic ecosystems. The application of Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 (lux +) as a marker microorganism can facilitate monitoring the microbiological status of closed biocenoses, including systems with higher organisms. The investigation of various parameters of microecosystems (carbon nutrition type, concentrations of inorganic ions and toxic compounds) shows that the recombinant strain E. coli Z905/pPHL7 can be effectively used as a marker.

  13. Modeling and visualization of the activation wavefront propagation to improve understanding the QRS complex changes indicating left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehlikova, Jana; Zelinka, Jan; Bacharova, Ljuba; Tysler, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Activation wavefront propagation was computed and visualized in a geometrical heart model for pathological cases of reduced velocity of propagation, left ventricular hypertrophy and their combination. Selected parameters of a multiple dipole equivalent heart generator were computed and compared for three heart geometries and several degrees and extents of reduction of propagation velocity. First, the influence of geometrical changes modeling the left ventricular hypertrophy at reference propagation velocity was compared with reduction of the propagation velocity in the reference heart geometry. Reduced propagation velocity yielded similar or greater changes of the magnitude of the (electrical) heart vector representing the activation wavefront than the geometrical changes. Observations of the wavefront propagation with reduced velocity revealed longer presence of a large extent of the wavefront during depolarization which resulted in increased magnitude of the heart vector. The duration of depolarization was significantly prolonged only when the propagation velocity was decreased to 25% of its normal value. Changes of the direction of the maximal heart vector were dependent on the position of the region where the propagation velocity was reduced. Then the combination of the left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced propagation velocity was studied. Such combination enhanced the enlargement of the electrical heart vector and significantly prolonged the duration of depolarization. The influence of reduced activation velocity on the observed parameters was greater than the effect of the enlargement of the left ventricular mass. The presented study showed that intramyocardial conduction disturbances might cause increase of the actual surface area of propagation wavefront leading to changes of the amplitudes of ECG signals comparable with the changes resulting from the left ventricular hypertrophy. Intramyocardial conduction disturbances, as well as the modeled 50

  14. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  15. Patch-occupancy models indicate human activity as major determinant of forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis seasonal distribution in an industrial corridor in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buij, R.; McShea, W.J.; Campbell, P.; Lee, M.E.; Dallmeier, F.; Guimondou, S.; Mackaga, L.; Guisseougou, N.; Mboumba, S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Alonso, A.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of human activity and ecological features in influencing African forest elephant ranging behaviour was investigated in the Rabi-Ndogo corridor of the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas in southwest Gabon. Locations in a wide geographical area with a range of environmental variables were selected for patch-occupancy surveys using elephant dung to assess seasonal presence and absence of elephants. Patch-occupancy procedures allowed for covariate modelling evaluating hypotheses for both occupancy in relation to human activity and ecological features, and detection probability in relation to vegetation density. The best fitting models for old and fresh dung data sets indicate that (1) detection probability for elephant dung is negatively related to the relative density of the vegetation, and (2) human activity, such as presence and infrastructure, are more closely associated with elephant distribution patterns than are ecological features, such as the presence of wetlands and preferred fresh fruit. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of elephants to human disturbance, in this case infrastructure development associated with gas and oil production. Patch-occupancy methodology offers a viable alternative to current transect protocols for monitoring programs with multiple covariates.

  16. Modeling Chaotic Behavior of Chittagong Stock Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Banik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock market prediction is an important area of financial forecasting, which attracts great interest to stock buyers and sellers, stock investors, policy makers, applied researchers, and many others who are involved in the capital market. In this paper, a comparative study has been conducted to predict stock index values using soft computing models and time series model. Paying attention to the applied econometric noises because our considered series are time series, we predict Chittagong stock indices for the period from January 1, 2005 to May 5, 2011. We have used well-known models such as, the genetic algorithm (GA model and the adaptive network fuzzy integrated system (ANFIS model as soft computing forecasting models. Very widely used forecasting models in applied time series econometrics, namely, the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH model is considered as time series model. Our findings have revealed that the use of soft computing models is more successful than the considered time series model.

  17. Density contrast indicators in cosmological dust models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Filipe C Mena; Reza Tavakol

    2000-10-01

    We discuss ways of quantifying structuration in relativistic cosmological settings, by employing a family of covariant density constrast indicators. We study the evolution of these indicators with time in the context of inhomogeneous Szekeres models. We find that different observers (having either different spatial locations or different indicators) see different evolutions for the density contrast, which may or may not be monotonically increasing with time. We also find that monotonicity seems to be related to the initial conditions of the model, which may be of potential interest in connection with debates regarding gravitational entropy and the arrow of time.

  18. The braking indices in pulsar emission models

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, F; Gil, J; Gil, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    Using the method proposed in a previous paper, we calculate pulsar braking indices in the models with torque contributions from both inner and outer accelerating regions, assuming that the interaction between them is negligible. We suggest that it is likely that the inverse Compton scattering induced polar vacuum gap and the outer gap coexist in the pulsar magnetosphere. We include the new near threshold vacuum gap models with curvature-radiation and inverse Compton scattering induced cascades, respectively; and find that these models can well reproduce the measured values of the braking indices.

  19. An Entangled Model for Sustainability Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedano, Karla G.; Martínez, Manuel; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the challenge for humanity is to find pathways towards sustainable development. Decision makers require a set of sustainability indicators to know if the sustainability strategies are following those pathways. There are more than one hundred sustainability indicators but they differ on their relative importance according to the size of the locality and change on time. The resources needed to follow these sustainability indicators are scarce and in some instances finite, especially in smaller regions. Therefore strategies to select set of these indicators are useful for decision makers responsible for monitoring sustainability. In this paper we propose a model for the identification and selection of a set of sustainability indicators that adequately represents human systems. In developing this model, we applied evolutionary dynamics in a space where sustainability indicators are fundamental entities interconnected by an interaction matrix. we used a fixed interaction that simulates the current context for the city of Cuernavaca, México as an example. We were able to identify and define relevant sets indicators for the system by using the Pareto principle. In this case we identified a set of sixteen sustainability indicators with more than 80% of the total strength. This set presents resilience to perturbations. For the Tangled Nature framework we provided a manner of treating different contexts (i.e., cities, counties, states, regions, countries, continents or the whole planet), dealing with small dimensions. This model provides decision makers with a valuable tool to select sustainability indicators set for towns, cities, regions, countries, continents or the entire planet according to a coevolutionary framework. The social legitimacy can arise from the fact that each individual indicator must be selected from those that are most important for the subject community. PMID:26295948

  20. An Entangled Model for Sustainability Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Pável; Del Río, Jesús A; Cedano, Karla G; Martínez, Manuel; Jensen, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the challenge for humanity is to find pathways towards sustainable development. Decision makers require a set of sustainability indicators to know if the sustainability strategies are following those pathways. There are more than one hundred sustainability indicators but they differ on their relative importance according to the size of the locality and change on time. The resources needed to follow these sustainability indicators are scarce and in some instances finite, especially in smaller regions. Therefore strategies to select set of these indicators are useful for decision makers responsible for monitoring sustainability. In this paper we propose a model for the identification and selection of a set of sustainability indicators that adequately represents human systems. In developing this model, we applied evolutionary dynamics in a space where sustainability indicators are fundamental entities interconnected by an interaction matrix. we used a fixed interaction that simulates the current context for the city of Cuernavaca, México as an example. We were able to identify and define relevant sets indicators for the system by using the Pareto principle. In this case we identified a set of sixteen sustainability indicators with more than 80% of the total strength. This set presents resilience to perturbations. For the Tangled Nature framework we provided a manner of treating different contexts (i.e., cities, counties, states, regions, countries, continents or the whole planet), dealing with small dimensions. This model provides decision makers with a valuable tool to select sustainability indicators set for towns, cities, regions, countries, continents or the entire planet according to a coevolutionary framework. The social legitimacy can arise from the fact that each individual indicator must be selected from those that are most important for the subject community.

  1. Econometric Models for Forecasting of Macroeconomic Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanova, Elena I.; Shirnaeva, Svetlana Y.; Mokronosov, Aleksandr G.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the research topic was stipulated by the necessity to carry out an effective controlled process by the economic system which can hardly be imagined without indices forecasting characteristic of this system. An econometric model is a safe tool of forecasting which makes it possible to take into consideration the trend of indices…

  2. MODELING OF INDICATORS OF LIVESTOCK IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Darda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of livestock in food without dangerous country. The analysis of the dynamics of production indicators waspsmainly livestock products. The problems offorecasting-ing performance of LivestockDevelopment of the Russian Federationon the basis of the a-analytical models ofalignment and connected series.

  3. Gold resource modeling using pod indicator kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Rauf, Abdul; Amri, Nur Ali

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes an implementation of the pod indicator kriging method used to gold resource modeling. Method such as ordinary kriging estimate the mean grade of a block that is fairly large. The usual outcome is that large blocks rarely turn out to be all ore or all waste, thus making reserve estimates an incorrect estimate of what will be mined. Pod indicator kriging offers a solution to this problem by estimating the distribution of grade values within a large block, rather than just estimating the mean grade of the block. Knowing the distribution of grade value within the block, it is then easy to calculate the proportion of the block that is above cutoff grade and the grade of the ore above cutoff grade. This research shows that the pod indicator kriging model is quite applicable and reliable in gold resourcemodeling.

  4. Stock Market Indicators and Economic Activity. Some Evidence for Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Luis N. Lanteri

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term relationships between the main indicators of stock market and economic activity, in the case of Argentina. The paper employ Granger causality and exogeneity tests based on VEC models (vector error correction), with monthly data covering the period 1993:1-2010:8. The results show that the main stock indexes of Buenos Aires Stock Exchange Market (MERVAL25 and BURCAP) Granger cause to the estimator of economic activity (EMAE) and that these indexes could be cons...

  5. Power law models of stock indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Man Kit

    Viewing the stock market as a self-organized system, Sornette and Johansen introduced physics-based models to study the dynamics of stock market crashes from the perspective of complex systems. This involved modeling stock market Indices using a mathematical power law exhibiting log-periodicity as the system approaches a market crash, which acts like a critical point in a thermodynamic system. In this dissertation, I aim to investigate stock indices to determine whether or not they exhibit log-periodic oscillations, according to the models proposed by Sornette, as they approach a crash. In addition to analyzing stock market crashes in the frequency domain using the discrete Fourier transform and the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, I perform a detailed analysis of the stock market crash models through parameter estimation and model testing. I find that the probability landscapes have a complex topography and that there is very little evidence that these phase transition-based models accurately describe stock market crashes.

  6. From phenology models to risk indicator analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Ladányi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline a phenology model for estimating budbreak and full bloom starting dates of sour cherry on the effective heat sums with reasonable accuracy. With the help of RegCM3.1 model the possible trends of the phenology timing in the middle of the 21st century the shift of 12-13 days earlier budbreak and 6-7 days earlier of full bloom due to the warmer weather conditions can be clearly indicated. For the climatic characterization of sour cherry bloom period in between 1984-2010 and for the description of the expected changes in this very sensitive period of sour cherry withrespect to the time slice 2021-2050, we introduce seven climatic indicators as artificial weather parameters such as the numbers of days when the temperature was under 0°C and above 10 °C, the numbers of days when there was no and more than 5 mm precipitation as well as the absolute minimum, the mean of minimum and the mean of maximum daily temperatures. We survey the changes of the indicators in the examined period (1984-2010 and, regarding the full bloom start model results, we formulate the expectations forthe future and make comparisons.

  7. Hydrogen release: new indicator of fault activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, H; Nakamura, Y; Kita, I; Fujii, N; Notsu, K

    1980-10-10

    The hydrogen concentration in soil gas has been measured in the area around the Yamasaki Fault, one of the active faults in southwestern Japan. Degassing of a significant amount of hydrogen (up to more than 3 percent by volume) has been observed for sites along the fault zone. The hydrogen concentration in soil gas at sites away from the fault zone was about 0.5 part per million, almost the same as that found in the atmosphere. The spatial distribution of sites with high hydrogen concentrations is quite systematic. A hypothesis on the production of hydrogen by fault movements is postulated.

  8. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-05-19

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the fronto-parietal network for relational integration during rule identification in numerical inductive reasoning. The current question of interest is whether numerical inductive reasoning exclusively corresponds to calculation or operates beyond calculation, and whether it is possible to distinguish between them based on the activity pattern in the fronto-parietal network. To directly address this issue, three types of problems were created: numerical inductive reasoning, calculation, and perceptual judgment. Our results showed that the fronto-parietal network was more active in numerical inductive reasoning which requires more exchanges between intermediate representations and long-term declarative knowledge during rule identification. These results survived even after controlling for the covariates of response time and error rate. A computational cognitive model was developed using the cognitive architecture ACT-R to account for the behavioral results and brain activity in the fronto-parietal network.

  9. Thermal Indices and Thermophysiological Modeling for Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, George; Fiala, Dusan

    2015-12-15

    The assessment of the risk of human exposure to heat is a topic as relevant today as a century ago. The introduction and use of heat stress indices and models to predict and quantify heat stress and heat strain has helped to reduce morbidity and mortality in industrial, military, sports, and leisure activities dramatically. Models used range from simple instruments that attempt to mimic the human-environment heat exchange to complex thermophysiological models that simulate both internal and external heat and mass transfer, including related processes through (protective) clothing. This article discusses the most commonly used indices and models and looks at how these are deployed in the different contexts of industrial, military, and biometeorological applications, with focus on use to predict related thermal sensations, acute risk of heat illness, and epidemiological analysis of morbidity and mortality. A critical assessment is made of tendencies to use simple indices such as WBGT in more complex conditions (e.g., while wearing protective clothing), or when employed in conjunction with inappropriate sensors. Regarding the more complex thermophysiological models, the article discusses more recent developments including model individualization approaches and advanced systems that combine simulation models with (body worn) sensors to provide real-time risk assessment. The models discussed in the article range from historical indices to recent developments in using thermophysiological models in (bio) meteorological applications as an indicator of the combined effect of outdoor weather settings on humans.

  10. Extracellular enzyme activity assay as indicator of soil microbial functional diversity and activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Winding, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular enzyme activity assay as indicator of soil microbial functional diversity and activity Niels Bohse Hendriksen, Anne Winding. Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark Soils provide numerous essential ecosystem services such as carbon cycling...... the functional diversity and activity of the microorganisms involved in decomposition processes. Their activity has been measured by the use of fluorogenic model substrates e.g. methylumbelliferyl (MUF) substrates for a number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polysacharides as cellulose, hemicellulose...

  11. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation : An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may corr

  12. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model

    OpenAIRE

    Peipeng Liang; Xiuqin Jia; Niels A Taatgen; Borst, Jelmer P.; Kuncheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the front...

  13. Modelling Dynamics of Main Economic Indicators of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherstennykov Yurii V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article develops an economic and mathematical model of dynamics of main economic indicators of an enterprise, reflected in six book-keeping accounts with consideration of logistics and interrelation with current market characteristics and needs of products consumers. It applies this model for a quantitative study of influence of an advertising campaign and seasonality upon quantitative indicators of economic activity of the enterprise. The enterprise operation programme includes internal financial and economic procedures, which ensure the production process, and also connection with suppliers and buyers (customers. When setting different initial conditions, it is possible to trace transitional processes and enterprise entering (under favourable conditions the stationary mode of operation or its laying-off (in case of insufficiency of circulating funds. The developed model contains many parameters, which allow not only study of dependence of enterprise operation on alteration of one of them but also optimisation of economic conditions of functioning.

  14. Relations of PC indices to further geophysical activity parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices, PCN for the index values derived from Thule magnetic data and PCS derived from Vostok data, relate to the polar cap ionospheric plasma convection driven mainly by the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. Thus, the PC indices serve to monitor the input power from the solar wind which drives a range of geophysical disturbances such as magnetic storms and substorms, energization of the plasma trapped in the Earth's near space, auroral activity, and heating of the upper atmosphere. The presentation will demonstrate the relations between the PC indices and further parameters and indices used to describe geophysical activity such as polar cap potentials, auroral electrojet activity, Joule and particle heating of the upper atmosphere, mid-latitude magnetic variations, and ring current indices Dst, SYM-H and ASY-H.

  15. New data sources to indicate levels of active citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosales Sanchez, C.; Craglia, M.; Bregt, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Data availability is a general constraint in the generation of indicators for decision-making processes. Web 2.0 technologies offer new potentials of data sources (also considered as big data sources) that needs to be investigated. In our research we focus on indicators of active citizenship as a re

  16. Linear indices in nonlinear structural equation models : best fitting proper indices and other composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.K.; Henseler, J.

    2011-01-01

    The recent advent of nonlinear structural equation models with indices poses a new challenge to the measurement of scientific constructs. We discuss, exemplify and add to a family of statistical methods aimed at creating linear indices, and compare their suitability in a complex path model with line

  17. Physical Activity, Dietary Intake and Anthropometric Indices of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moruf

    indices of some pre-clinical undergraduates in a university in southeastern Nigeria. One hundred and ... Physical activity (PA) levels are decreasing among young people in ..... Considering these levels of physical performance, one may expect a ..... distribution with dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking in ...

  18. UV-Activated Luminescence/Colourimetric O2 Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mills

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An oxygen indicator is described, comprising nanoparticles of titania dispersed in hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC polymer film containing a sacrificial electron donor, glycerol, and the redox indicator, indigo-tetrasulfonate (ITS. The indicator is blue- coloured in the absence of UV light, however upon exposure to UV light it not only loses its colour but also luminesces, unless and until it is exposed to oxygen, whereupon its original colour is restored. The initial photobleaching spectral (absorbance and luminescence response characteristics in air and in vacuum are described and discussed in terms of a simple reaction scheme involving UV activation of the titania photocatalyst particles, which are used to reduce the redox dye, ITS, to its leuco form, whilst simultaneously oxidising the glycerol to glyceraldehye. The response characteristics of the activated, that is, UV photobleached, form of the indicator to oxygen are also reported and the possible uses of such an indicator to measure ambient O2 levels are discussed.

  19. Cochlear power flux as an indicator of mechanical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diependaal, R J; de Boer, E; Viergever, M A

    1987-09-01

    The question of whether one can conclude just from basilar membrane (BM) vibration data that the cochlea is an active mechanical system is addressed. To this end, a method is developed which computes the power flux through a channel cross section of a short-wave cochlear model from a given BM vibration pattern. The power flux is an important indicator of mechanical activity because a rise in this function corresponds to creation of mechanical energy. The power flux method is applied to BM velocity patterns as measured by Johnstone and Yates [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55, 584-587 (1974)] and by Sellick et al. [Hear. Res. 10, 101-108 (1983)] in the guinea pig and by Robles et al. [Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms, edited by J.B. Allen, J.L. Hall, A.E. Hubbard, S.T. Neely, and A. Tubis (Springer, New York, 1986a), pp. 121-128, and J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 80, 1364-1374 (1986b)] in the chinchilla. Before the calculations are performed, the BM data are interpolated and smoothed in order to avoid numerical errors as a result of too few and noisy data points. The choice of the smoothing method influences the computed power flux function considerably. Nevertheless, the calculations appear to make a clear distinction between the "old" data, showing broad BM tuning (Johnstone and Yates, 1974), and the "new" data, in which the response is much more peaked (Sellick et al., 1983; Robles et al., 1986a, b). The former do not give rise to a significant increase of the power flux; the latter do, although less convincingly for the Sellick et al. (1983) data than for the Robles et al. (1986a,b) data. It is thus concluded that the recently obtained, sharply tuned BM responses reflect the presence of mechanical activity in the cochlea.

  20. Design of a leading indicator for Costa Rican economic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chaverri Morales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimating three leading indicators for the turning points of the economic activity in Costa Rica. This was done following the methodology proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The Monthly Economic Activity Index (IMAE in Spanish was selected as the reference variable.  A total of 270 data series were analyzed including monetary, real and job market variables, as well as price indices, external sector indicators and fiscal sector variables. The real sector information was disaggregated into three levels, which included the classification of data at an industrial level using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC with two digits, information from the agricultural sector based on the Central Product Classification (CPC and information from the manufacturing sector.  A leading indicator was developed for each level of aggregation, resulting in average leads of 7 to 12 months compared to the reference variable.

  1. Platelet activation indices and apolipoproteins in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, M; Belletti, S; Russo, U; Aronica, A; Carzaniga, G; Seregni, R; Libretti, A

    1988-10-01

    We have studied the platelet activation indices beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG and platelet factor 4(PF4), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and apolipoprotein (A1, A2, B, C2, C3, E) profiles of 22 untreated essential hypertensive subjects (WHO stages 1 and 2) and 22 controls, to see if there might be some causal relationship between lipoprotein abnormalities and greater platelet activation. The results showed the patients had both greater platelet activation than the controls, as demonstrated by higher plasma beta-TG levels (P less than 0.01) and lower apolipoprotein A2 levels (P less than 0.05). However there were no significant correlations between the platelet activation indices and the plasma levels of apolipoproteins, lipoproteins or lipids in either group.

  2. Formation algorithm indicative planning of the food industry production activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bukreev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current process of planning production activities in the food industry in Russia is very different interpretations of both the characteristics of the different stages, and maintaining them in a single scheduling algorithm. In this article, we attempt to form an algorithm indicative planning of production activities with general theoretical positions by considering the process of determining the overall purpose, objectives and consistency of production planning.

  3. Microbial Activity Indices: Sensitive Soil Quality Indicators for Trace Metal Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-Tao; T.BECQUER; C.QUANTIN; M.BENEDETTI; P.LAVELLE; DAI Jun

    2005-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, total and DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-extractable Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd contents, microbial biomass carbon (C) content and the organic C mineralization rate of the soils in a long-term trace metal-contaminated paddy region of Guangdong, China were determined to assess the sensitivity of microbial indices to moderately metal-contaminated paddy soils. The mean contents of total Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 251,250, 171, and 2.4mg kg-1 respectively. DTPA-extractable metals were correlated positively and significantly with total metals, CEC, and organic C (except for DTPA-extractable Cd), while they were negatively and highly significantly correlated with pH, total Fe and Mn. Metal stress resulted in relatively low ratios of microbial biomass C to organic C and in remarkable inhibition of the microbial metabolic quotient and C mineralization rate, which eventually led to increases in soil organic C and C/N. Moreover, microbial respiratory activity showed a stronger correlation to DTPA-extractable metals than to total metal content. Likewise, in the acid paddy soils some "linked" microbial activity indices, such as metabolic quotient and ratios of basal respiration to organic C, especially during initial incubation, were found to be more sensitive indicators of soil trace metal contamination than microbial biomass C or basal respiration alone.

  4. Monitoring activity in neural circuits with genetically encoded indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Joseph Broussard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in genetically encoded indicators of neural activity (GINAs have greatly advanced the field of systems neuroscience. As they are encoded by DNA, GINAs can be targeted to genetically defined cellular populations. Combined with fluorescence microscopy, most notably multi-photon imaging, GINAs allow chronic simultaneous optical recordings from large populations of neurons or glial cells in awake, behaving mammals, particularly rodents. This large-scale recording of neural activity at multiple temporal and spatial scales has greatly advanced our understanding of the dynamics of neural circuitry underlying behavior—a critical first step toward understanding the complexities of brain function, such as sensorimotor integration and learning.Here, we summarize the recent development and applications of the major classes of GINAs. In particular, we take an in-depth look at the design of available GINA families with a particular focus on genetically encoded calcium indicators, sensors probing synaptic activity, and genetically encoded voltage indicators. Using the family of the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP as an example, we review established sensor optimization pipelines. We also discuss practical considerations for end users of GINAs about experimental methods including approaches for gene delivery, imaging system requirements, and data analysis techniques. With the growing toolbox of GINAs and with new microscopy techniques pushing beyond their current limits, the age of light can finally achieve the goal of broad and dense sampling of neuronal activity across time and brain structures to obtain a dynamic picture of brain function.

  5. Physical Activity, Dietary Intake and Anthropometric Indices of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Activity, Dietary Intake and Anthropometric Indices of a Group of Nigerian ... Also fewer males (24.1%) tended to have a high fat intake than females (30.9%). ... Although the prevalence of general obesity is not alarming in this sample, ...

  6. Enzyme activities by indicator of quality in organic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigon Jiménez, Mo; Fita, Ana Delores; Rodriguez Burruezo, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The analytical determination of biochemical parameters, as soil enzyme activities and those related to the microbial biomass is growing importance by biological indicator in soil science studies. The metabolic activity in soil is responsible of important processes such as mineralization and humification of organic matter. These biological reactions will affect other key processes involved with elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus , and all transformations related in soil microbial biomass. The determination of biochemical parameters is useful in studies carried out on organic soil where microbial processes that are key to their conservation can be analyzed through parameters of the metabolic activity of these soils. The main objective of this work is to apply analytical methodologies of enzyme activities in soil collections of different physicochemical characteristics. There have been selective sampling of natural soils, organic farming soils, conventional farming soils and urban soils. The soils have been properly identified conserved at 4 ° C until analysis. The enzyme activities determinations have been: catalase, urease, cellulase, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, which bring together a representative group of biological transformations that occur in the soil environment. The results indicate that for natural and agronomic soil collections, the values of the enzymatic activities are within the ranges established for forestry and agricultural soils. Organic soils are generally higher level of enzymatic, regardless activity of the enzyme involved. Soil near an urban area, levels of activities have been significantly reduced. The vegetation cover applied to organic soils, results in greater enzymatic activity. So the quality of these soils, defined as the ability to maintain their biological productivity is increased with the use of cover crops, whether or spontaneous species. The practice of cover based on legumes could be used as an ideal choice

  7. Indications and candidacy for active middle ear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F; Todt, I; Wagner, J; Ernst, A

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are two active middle ear implants available commercially: the Vibrant Soundbridge system and the Carina system. A third active middle ear implant, the Esteem, is under clinical evaluation. All devices are indicated for patients with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Because active middle ear implants are directly coupled to middle ear structures, many of the problems that patients with conventional hearing aids report, such as acoustic feedback, occlusion, and irritation of the outer ear canal, are avoided. In addition, AMEI patients perform well in background noise. However, indications for AMEIs are selective and candidates should be carefully evaluated before surgery. Before considering an AMEI, patients should be provided with conventional hearing aids. Only when benefit is insufficient and audiological selection criteria are met is further candidacy evaluation indicated. Since Colletti described coupling the Vibrant Soundbridge directly onto the round window membrane in 2006, the indications for the Vibrant Soundbridge have expanded and the VSB is implanted in patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. Patients have often undergone middle ear surgery before. Especially mixed hearing loss cases with 30-60 dB HL sensorineural hearing impairment and 30-40 dB HL air-bone gaps may be helped by this new application.

  8. Major indicators of analysis of insurers’ investment activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Poplavskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to topical issues of economic nature, selection and use of economic indicators in analysis of insurers’ investment activity. The author determines the main criteria of permissible investment activity, such as different assets covering the insurance reserves and share of various types of investments in assets and capital on the base of the results of summarizing recent public requirements of key banks to insurance companies in Ukraine. The recommendations of the insurers’ analysis approved by the regulatory bodies in Ukraine (the State Commission for Regulation of Financial Services Markets, Belarus (the Ministry of Finance and Poland (the Financial Supervision Authority are not left without author’s attention. According to the results of comparing using of different indicators, like the return on equity and investment, their strength and weaknesses are identified and the improving the scales of their assessment are proposed. The article singles out the main indicators which can be adapted to national features+ and used for management decisions and regulation of investment activities of insurers.

  9. Synthetic activity indicators for M-type dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wedemeyer, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a set of time-dependent 3D RMHD simulations of a M-dwarf star representative of AD Leo, which extend from the upper convection zone into the chromosphere. The 3D model atmospheres are characterized by a very dynamic and intermittent structure on small spatial and temporal scales and a wealth of physical processes, which by nature cannot be described by means of 1D static model atmospheres. Artificial observations of these models imply that a combination of complementary diagnostics such as Ca II lines and the continuum intensity from UV to millimeter wavelengths, probe various properties of the dynamics, thermal and magnetic structure of the photosphere and the chromosphere and thus provide measures of stellar activity, which can be compared to observations. The complicated magnetic field structure and its imprint in synthetic diagnostics may have important implications for the understanding and characterization of stellar activity and with it possibly for the evaluation of planetary habitabi...

  10. Bayesian geostatistical modeling of Malaria Indicator Survey data in Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gosoniu

    Full Text Available The 2006-2007 Angola Malaria Indicator Survey (AMIS is the first nationally representative household survey in the country assessing coverage of the key malaria control interventions and measuring malaria-related burden among children under 5 years of age. In this paper, the Angolan MIS data were analyzed to produce the first smooth map of parasitaemia prevalence based on contemporary nationwide empirical data in the country. Bayesian geostatistical models were fitted to assess the effect of interventions after adjusting for environmental, climatic and socio-economic factors. Non-linear relationships between parasitaemia risk and environmental predictors were modeled by categorizing the covariates and by employing two non-parametric approaches, the B-splines and the P-splines. The results of the model validation showed that the categorical model was able to better capture the relationship between parasitaemia prevalence and the environmental factors. Model fit and prediction were handled within a Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulations. Combining estimates of parasitaemia prevalence with the number of children under we obtained estimates of the number of infected children in the country. The population-adjusted prevalence ranges from in Namibe province to in Malanje province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least ITNs per person was by 41% lower (CI: 14%, 60% than in those with fewer ITNs. The estimates of the number of parasitaemic children produced in this paper are important for planning and implementing malaria control interventions and for monitoring the impact of prevention and control activities.

  11. Are 't Hooft indices constrained in preon models with complementarity\\?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yuko

    1989-03-01

    We present a counterexample to the conjecture that the 't Hooft indices for composite models satisfying complementarity are bounded in magnitude by 1. The model is based on the metacolor group SU(9)MC with two preons in the representation 36 and two preons in the representation 126¯. We obtain the 't Hooft index 12 for this model.

  12. Diagnostic indicators for integrated assessment models of climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Petermann, Nils; Krey, Volker; Schwanitz, Jana; Luderer, Gunnar; Ashina, Shuichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Eom, Jiyong; Kitous, Alban; Mejean, Aurelie; Paroussos, Leonidas; Sano, Fuminori; Turton, Hal; Wilson, Charlie; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Integrated assessments of how climate policy interacts with energy-economic systems can be performed by a variety of models with different functional structures. This article proposes a diagnostic scheme that can be applied to a wide range of integrated assessment models to classify differences among models based on their carbon price responses. Model diagnostics can uncover patterns and provide insights into why, under a given scenario, certain types of models behave in observed ways. Such insights are informative since model behavior can have a significant impact on projections of climate change mitigation costs and other policy-relevant information. The authors propose diagnostic indicators to characterize model responses to carbon price signals and test these in a diagnostic study with 11 global models. Indicators describe the magnitude of emission abatement and the associated costs relative to a harmonized baseline, the relative changes in carbon intensity and energy intensity and the extent of transformation in the energy system. This study shows a correlation among indicators suggesting that models can be classified into groups based on common patterns of behavior in response to carbon pricing. Such a classification can help to more easily explain variations among policy-relevant model results.

  13. Optogenetic Monitoring of Synaptic Activity with Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryuichi; Jung, Arong; Yoon, Bong-June; Baker, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    The age of genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) has matured to the point that changes in membrane potential can now be observed optically in vivo. Improving the signal size and speed of these voltage sensors has been the primary driving forces during this maturation process. As a result, there is a wide range of probes using different voltage detecting mechanisms and fluorescent reporters. As the use of these probes transitions from optically reporting membrane potential in single, cultured cells to imaging populations of cells in slice and/or in vivo, a new challenge emerges—optically resolving the different types of neuronal activity. While improvements in speed and signal size are still needed, optimizing the voltage range and the subcellular expression (i.e., soma only) of the probe are becoming more important. In this review, we will examine the ability of recently developed probes to report synaptic activity in slice and in vivo. The voltage-sensing fluorescent protein (VSFP) family of voltage sensors, ArcLight, ASAP-1, and the rhodopsin family of probes are all good at reporting changes in membrane potential, but all have difficulty distinguishing subthreshold depolarizations from action potentials and detecting neuronal inhibition when imaging populations of cells. Finally, we will offer a few possible ways to improve the optical resolution of the various types of neuronal activities. PMID:27547183

  14. Regionalized rainfall-runoff model to estimate low flow indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Florine; Folton, Nathalie; Oudin, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Estimating low flow indices is of paramount importance to manage water resources and risk assessments. These indices are derived from river discharges which are measured at gauged stations. However, the lack of observations at ungauged sites bring the necessity of developing methods to estimate these low flow indices from observed discharges in neighboring catchments and from catchment characteristics. Different estimation methods exist. Regression or geostatistical methods performed on the low flow indices are the most common types of methods. Another less common method consists in regionalizing rainfall-runoff model parameters, from catchment characteristics or by spatial proximity, to estimate low flow indices from simulated hydrographs. Irstea developed GR2M-LoiEau, a conceptual monthly rainfall-runoff model, combined with a regionalized model of snow storage and melt. GR2M-LoiEau relies on only two parameters, which are regionalized and mapped throughout France. This model allows to cartography monthly reference low flow indices. The inputs data come from SAFRAN, the distributed mesoscale atmospheric analysis system, which provides daily solid and liquid precipitation and temperature data from everywhere in the French territory. To exploit fully these data and to estimate daily low flow indices, a new version of GR-LoiEau has been developed at a daily time step. The aim of this work is to develop and regionalize a GR-LoiEau model that can provide any daily, monthly or annual estimations of low flow indices, yet keeping only a few parameters, which is a major advantage to regionalize them. This work includes two parts. On the one hand, a daily conceptual rainfall-runoff model is developed with only three parameters in order to simulate daily and monthly low flow indices, mean annual runoff and seasonality. On the other hand, different regionalization methods, based on spatial proximity and similarity, are tested to estimate the model parameters and to simulate

  15. Regional knowledge economy development indicative planning system conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Davidovna Vaisman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the processes of Russian knowledge economy development, its progress on the regional level is taken as a theme, which determined the purpose of research: development of the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model. The methodological base of the research is the knowledge economy concept and supply and demand theory, the methods of comparative and system analysis and theoretical modeling; common generalization and classification methods and regression models are used in the work. As a result, we managed to create the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model, which includes the choice of the types of indicative plans and the justification for the complex of indicators according to the stated requirements to this complex. The model of supply and demand for knowledge dependency from the knowledge cost, allowing to determine the acceptable range for the indicators proceeding from the demand and supply levels and their interrelation, is developed. The obtained results may be used by the regional government authorities while planning the regional innovative development and consulting companies while making the proposals for this development

  16. Relationship between ionospheric electric fields and magnetic activity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirapov, D. Sh.

    2012-02-01

    The relations between electric fields in the daytime and nighttime sectors of the polar ionosphere and magnetic activity indices of auroral region (AL) and northern polar cap (PCN) are studied. It is found that the above relations do exist and are described by: a) equations U {pc/(1)} (kV) = 27.62 + 21.43PCN with a correlation coefficient R = 0.87 and U {pc/(1)} (kV) = 4.06 + 49.21PCN - 6.24 PCN2 between the difference in the electric potentials across the polar cap in the daytime sector U {pc/(1)} and PCN and b) regression equation U {pc/(2)} (kV) = 23.33 + 0.08|AL| with R = 0.86 between the difference in the electric potentials across the polar cap in the nighttime sector U {pc/(2)} and |AL|. It is shown that: a) it is possible to use the AL and PCN indices for real-time diagnostics of instantaneous values of the electric fields in the daytime and nighttime sectors of the polar ionosphere in the process of a substorm development; b) at the expansion phase of a substorm, due to calibration of PCN values by the values of the solar wind electric field E sw, the PCN index does not feel the contribution of the western electrojet and, accordingly, the contribution of the nighttime ionospheric electric field U {pc/(2)}, governed by the reconnection in the magnetospheric tail.

  17. Model-based evaluation of scientific impact indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Medo, Matus

    2016-01-01

    Using bibliometric data artificially generated through a model of citation dynamics calibrated on empirical data, we compare several indicators for the scientific impact of individual researchers. The use of such a controlled setup has the advantage of avoiding the biases present in real databases, and allows us to assess which aspects of the model dynamics and which traits of individual researchers a particular indicator actually reflects. We find that the simple citation average performs well in capturing the intrinsic scientific ability of researchers, whatever the length of their career. On the other hand, when productivity complements ability in the evaluation process, the notorious $h$ and $g$ indices reveal their potential, yet their normalized variants do not always yield a fair comparison between researchers at different career stages. Notably, the use of logarithmic units for citation counts allows us to build simple indicators with performance equal to that of $h$ and $g$. Our analysis may provide ...

  18. Adapted Active Appearance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Séguier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Appearance Models (AAMs are able to align efficiently known faces under duress, when face pose and illumination are controlled. We propose Adapted Active Appearance Models to align unknown faces in unknown poses and illuminations. Our proposal is based on the one hand on a specific transformation of the active model texture in an oriented map, which changes the AAM normalization process; on the other hand on the research made in a set of different precomputed models related to the most adapted AAM for an unknown face. Tests on public and private databases show the interest of our approach. It becomes possible to align unknown faces in real-time situations, in which light and pose are not controlled.

  19. Evaluation of ozone exposure indices in exposure-response modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E H; Tingey, D T; Hogsett, W E

    1988-01-01

    In exposure-response modeling, a major concern is the numerical definition of exposure in relating crop loss to O3, yet few indices have been considered. This paper addresses research in which plant growth was regressed for soybean, wheat, cotton, corn, and sorghum against 613 numerical exposure indices using the Box-Tidwell model. When the minimum sum of squared errors criterion was used, optimum performance was not attained for any single index; however, near optimum performances were achieved by two censored cumulative indices and from a class of indices called the generalized, phenologically weighted, cumulative impact indices (GPWCIs). The top-performing GPWCIs accumulated concentrations, used sigmoid weighting schemes emphasizing O3 concentrations of 0.06 ppm (118 microg m(-3)) or higher, and had phenological weighting schemes with greatest weight occurring 20 to 40 days prior to crop maturity. These findings indicate that (1) peak concentrations are important, but lower concentrations should be included in the calculations, (2) increased plant sensitivity occurs between flowering and maturity, and (3) plants respond to cumulative exposure impact.

  20. RECEIVED SIGNAL STRENGTH INDICATION MODELING IN INDOOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Taira Procopio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify mathematical models that represent the relation between Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI and objects in an indoor Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Using the Least Squares Method, four linear models have been identified: The first one relates uplink RSSI and objects; the second one relates downlink RSSI and objects; the third one relates uplink RSSI and obstacles and the fourth one relates downlink RSSI and obstacles. The obtained results, characterized by small residual values, attest the validation of all four models.

  1. Development of stochastic indicator models of lithology, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Indicator geostatistical techniques have been used to produce a number of fully three-dimensional stochastic simulations of large-scale lithologic categories at the Yucca Mountain site. Each realization reproduces the available drill hole data used to condition the simulation. Information is propagated away from each point of observation in accordance with a mathematical model of spatial continuity inferred through soft data taken from published geologic cross sections. Variations among the simulated models collectively represent uncertainty in the lithology at unsampled locations. These stochastic models succeed in capturing many major features of welded-nonwelded lithologic framework of Yucca Mountain. However, contacts between welded and nonwelded rock types for individual simulations appear more complex than suggested by field observation, and a number of probable numerical artifacts exist in these models. Many of the apparent discrepancies between the simulated models and the general geology of Yucca Mountain represent characterization uncertainty, and can be traced to the sparse site data used to condition the simulations. Several vertical stratigraphic columns have been extracted from the three-dimensional stochastic models for use in simplified total-system performance assessment exercises. Simple, manual adjustments are required to eliminate the more obvious simulation artifacts and to impose stratigraphic framework provided by the indicator models.

  2. Safety models incorporating graph theory based transit indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Liliana; Sayed, Tarek; Wahba, Mohamed M

    2013-01-01

    There is a considerable need for tools to enable the evaluation of the safety of transit networks at the planning stage. One interesting approach for the planning of public transportation systems is the study of networks. Network techniques involve the analysis of systems by viewing them as a graph composed of a set of vertices (nodes) and edges (links). Once the transport system is visualized as a graph, various network properties can be evaluated based on the relationships between the network elements. Several indicators can be calculated including connectivity, coverage, directness and complexity, among others. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between network-based transit indicators and safety. The study develops macro-level collision prediction models that explicitly incorporate transit physical and operational elements and transit network indicators as explanatory variables. Several macro-level (zonal) collision prediction models were developed using a generalized linear regression technique, assuming a negative binomial error structure. The models were grouped into four main themes: transit infrastructure, transit network topology, transit route design, and transit performance and operations. The safety models showed that collisions were significantly associated with transit network properties such as: connectivity, coverage, overlapping degree and the Local Index of Transit Availability. As well, the models showed a significant relationship between collisions and some transit physical and operational attributes such as the number of routes, frequency of routes, bus density, length of bus and 3+ priority lanes.

  3. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... of the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also indicate...

  4. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... of the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also indicate...

  5. Key performance indicators in hospital based on balanced scorecard model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Performance measurement is receiving increasing verification all over the world. Nowadays in a lot of organizations, irrespective of their type or size, performance evaluation is the main concern and a key issue for top administrators. The purpose of this study is to organize suitable key performance indicators (KPIs for hospitals’ performance evaluation based on the balanced scorecard (BSC. Method: This is a mixed method study. In order to identify the hospital’s performance indicators (HPI, first related literature was reviewed and then the experts’ panel and Delphi method were used. In this study, two rounds were needed for the desired level of consensus. The experts rated the importance of the indicators, on a five-point Likert scale. In the consensus calculation, the consensus percentage was calculated by classifying the values 1-3 as not important (0 and 4-5 to (1 as important. Simple additive weighting technique was used to rank the indicators and select hospital’s KPIs. The data were analyzed by Excel 2010 software. Results: About 218 indicators were obtained from a review of selected literature. Through internal expert panel, 77 indicators were selected. Finally, 22 were selected for KPIs of hospitals. Ten indicators were selected in internal process perspective and 5, 4, and 3 indicators in finance, learning and growth, and customer, respectively. Conclusion: This model can be a useful tool for evaluating and comparing the performance of hospitals. However, this model is flexible and can be adjusted according to differences in the target hospitals. This study can be beneficial for hospital administrators and it can help them to change their perspective about performance evaluation.

  6. Model-based evaluation of scientific impact indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medo, Matúš; Cimini, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    Using bibliometric data artificially generated through a model of citation dynamics calibrated on empirical data, we compare several indicators for the scientific impact of individual researchers. The use of such a controlled setup has the advantage of avoiding the biases present in real databases, and it allows us to assess which aspects of the model dynamics and which traits of individual researchers a particular indicator actually reflects. We find that the simple average citation count of the authored papers performs well in capturing the intrinsic scientific ability of researchers, regardless of the length of their career. On the other hand, when productivity complements ability in the evaluation process, the notorious h and g indices reveal their potential, yet their normalized variants do not always yield a fair comparison between researchers at different career stages. Notably, the use of logarithmic units for citation counts allows us to build simple indicators with performance equal to that of h and g . Our analysis may provide useful hints for a proper use of bibliometric indicators. Additionally, our framework can be extended by including other aspects of the scientific production process and citation dynamics, with the potential to become a standard tool for the assessment of impact metrics.

  7. Ecotoxicity Effect Indicator for use in the OMNIITOX Base Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Payet, Jerome; Molander, S

    2004-01-01

    The ecotoxicity effect indicator (EFI) is used together with the input results from the fate modelling when calculating characterisation factors for ecotoxicity within life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA). A number of methods have been proposed and used in recent years involving different approaches...... focusing on their statistical robustness. Considerations about the possibility to relate the effect indicator to damage on the endpoint, the ecosystem, are also included. The effect-based approaches are tested for their robustness in estimating an HC50 in a practical test on datasets from eleven different...

  8. Evaluation of empirical models and competition indices in ranking canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S Safahani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the competitive ability (CA of canola cultivars against wild mustard, two experiments were conducted at the Gorgan Institute in Iran during the 2005-2007 cropping seasons. The experimental factors were canola cultivars (1st year: Zarfam, Option500, Hayola330, Hayola401, Talayh, RGS003 and Sarigol; 2nd year: Zarfam, Hayola330, RGS003 and Option500 and weed density (1st year: control and 30 plants m-2; 2nd year: control, 4, 8 and 16 plants m-2. The result of the first year is experiment indicated that the grain yield and competitive indices differed significantly between the cultivars. Cultivar Zarfam showed a high ability to withstand competition (AWC = 47 %, high competitive indices (CI=1.79 and CI2 = 1.83 and low grain yield in the weed- free plots (1729 kg ha-1. The cultivar Option500, a less competitive cultivar had the lowest ability to withstand competition (AWC = 4 % and the lowest competitive indices (CI = 0.09 and CI2= 0.11 amongst the cultivars. However, the cultivar Option500 showed more grain yield in the weed- free plots (2333 kg ha-1 than cultivar Zarfam. In the second year of the experiment, the result of the yield loss models showed that the lowest and highest yield loss belonged to cultivars Zarfam and Option500 (50 and 95 % respectively. A comparison of different empirical models revealed that the empirical yield loss model based on weed relative leaf area was more reliable for predicting canola yield loss according to a high coefficient of determination (R2=0.99. The relative damage coefficient (q of the weed relative leaf area model showed that wild mustard was more competitive than canola (q>1.

  9. Development of stochastic indicator models of lithology, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Indicator geostatistical techniques have been used to produce a number of fully three-dimensional stochastic simulations of large-scale lithologic categories at the Yucca Mountain site. Each realization reproduces the available drill hole data used to condition the simulation. Information is propagated away from each point of observation in accordance with a mathematical model of spatial continuity inferred through soft data taken from published geologic cross sections. Variations among the simulated models collectively represent uncertainty in the lithology at unsampled locations. These stochastic models succeed in capturing many major features of welded-nonwelded lithologic framework of Yucca Mountain. However, contacts between welded and nonwelded rock types for individual simulations appear more complex than suggested by field observation, and a number of probable numerical artifacts exist in these models. Many of the apparent discrepancies between the simulated models and the general geology of Yucca Mountain represent characterization uncertainty, and can be traced to the sparse site data used to condition the simulations. Several vertical stratigraphic columns have been extracted from the three-dimensional stochastic models for use in simplified total-system performance assessment exercises. Simple, manual adjustments are required to eliminate the more obvious simulation artifacts and to impose a secondary set of deterministic geologic features on the overall stratigraphic framework provided by the indictor models.

  10. Model-Free importance indicators for dependent input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltelli, A.; Ratto, M.; Tarantola, S

    2001-07-01

    A number of methods are available to asses uncertainty importance in the predictions of a simulation model for orthogonal sets of uncertain input factors. However, in many practical cases input factors are correlated. Even for these cases it is still possible to compute the correlation ratio and the partial (or incremental) importance measure, two popular sensitivity measures proposed in the recent literature on the subject. Unfortunately, the existing indicators of importance have limitations in terms of their use in sensitivity analysis of model output. Correlation ratios are indeed effective for priority setting (i.e. to find out what input factor needs better determination) but not, for instance, for the identification of the subset of the most important input factors, or for model simplification. In such cases other types of indicators are required that can cope with the simultaneous occurrence of correlation and interaction (a property of the model) among the input factors. In (1) the limitations of current measures of importance were discussed and a general approach was identified to quantify uncertainty importance for correlated inputs in terms of different betting contexts. This work was later submitted to the Journal of the American Statistical Association. However, the computational cost of such approach is still high, as it happens when dealing with correlated input factors. In this paper we explore how suitable designs could reduce the numerical load of the analysis. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. DRAFT MODEL FOR CREATING A FINANCIAL INDICATORS OF BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Strelcova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a problem of developing, defining and applying budgetary indicators of engineering constructions, and particularly bridges. It is a draft of a Model for development of budgetary indicators of bridge construction in the pre-investment phase of a project. It could, according to classification and evaluation in terms of criteria and search for the most accurate valuation unit of complex structures such as bridge construction, serve investors and public administration authorities for rapid investment planning and professional control of completed buildings. Such a unique tool has never been developed in the Czech Republic so far. Bridges as buildings complement any landscape and in the outer parts of cities, they often establish a viewpoint. They belong among important parts of any highway or expressway. Without them, it would be impossible to establish grade-separated crossings with other roads - roads, railway lines or sections of rivers. They are also important in overcoming obstacles of natural and artificial character such as deep valleys, lakes, or steep mountainsides. The aim of the paper is to analyse a current state of the valuation of bridges and the subsequent establishment and validation of the Model for the development of budgetary indicators of the bridge construction.

  12. Erythrocyte arginase activity as an indicator of lead exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumoto, K.; Karai, I; NISHIKAWA, Y.; Horiguchi, S

    1983-01-01

    ABSTRACT A semi-automated method has been developed for the determination of the arginase activity of erythrocytes using dried blood spots, which are easy to prepare on site in a factory for later laboratory analysis. The mean arginase activity of erythrocytes in 49 men occupationally exposed to lead was 62·9 IU/g·Hb (SD, 14·4 IU/g·Hb); in 45 men not exposed to lead the mean was 44·6 IU/g·Hb (SD, 11·6 IU/g·Hb). A significantly higher mean arginase activity was found in the specimens from lead...

  13. Generic Modelling of Faecal Indicator Organism Concentrations in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl M. Stapleton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To meet European Water Framework Directive requirements, data are needed on faecal indicator organism (FIO concentrations in rivers to enable the more heavily polluted to be targeted for remedial action. Due to the paucity of FIO data for the UK, especially under high-flow hydrograph event conditions, there is an urgent need by the policy community for generic models that can accurately predict FIO concentrations, thus informing integrated catchment management programmes. This paper reports the development of regression models to predict base- and high-flow faecal coliform (FC and enterococci (EN concentrations for 153 monitoring points across 14 UK catchments, using land cover, population (human and livestock density and other variables that may affect FIO source strength, transport and die-off. Statistically significant models were developed for both FC and EN, with greater explained variance achieved in the high-flow models. Both land cover and, in particular, population variables are significant predictors of FIO concentrations, with r2 maxima for EN of 0.571 and 0.624, respectively. It is argued that the resulting models can be applied, with confidence, to other UK catchments, both to predict FIO concentrations in unmonitored watercourses and evaluate the likely impact of different land use/stocking level and human population change scenarios.

  14. Adequacy indices for dialysis in acute renal failure: kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Malgorzata; Lindholm, Bengt; Waniewski, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    Many aspects of the management of renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure (ARF), including the appropriate assessment of dialysis adequacy, remain unresolved, because ARF patients often are not in a metabolic steady state. The aim of this study was to evaluate a system of adequacy indices for dialysis in ARF patients using urea and creatinine kinetic modeling. Kinetic modeling was performed for two different fictitious patients (A and B) with characteristics described by the average parameters for two patient groups and for two blood purification treatments: sustained low efficiency daily dialysis (SLEDD) in Patient A and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) in Patient B, based on data from a clinical report. Urea and creatinine generation rates were estimated according to the clinical data on the solute concentrations in blood. Then, using estimated generation rates, two hypothetical treatments were simulated, CVVH in Patient A and SLEDD in Patient B. KT/V, fractional solute removal (FSR) and equivalent renal clearance (EKR) were calculated according to the definitions developed for metabolically unstable patients. CVVH appeared as being more effective than SLEDD because KT/V, FSR, and EKR were higher for CVVH than SLEDD in Patients A and B. Creatinine KT/V, FSR, and EKR were lower and well correlated to the respective indices for urea. Urea and creatinine generation rates were overestimated more than twice in Patient A and by 30-40% in Patient B if calculated assuming the metabolically stable state than if estimated by kinetic modeling. Adequacy indices and solute generation rates for ARF patients should be estimated using the definition for unsteady metabolic state. EKR and FSR were higher for urea and creatinine with CVVH than with SLEDD, because of higher K.T and minimized compartmental effects for CVVH.

  15. Monitoring population disability: Evaluation of a new Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyen, H. van; Heyden, J.; Perenboom, R.; Jagger, C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a single item instrument, the Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI), to measure long-standing health related activity limitations, against several health indicators: a composite morbidity indicator, instruments measuring mental health (SCL-90R, GHQ-12), physical

  16. Extracellular Enzyme Activity assay as indicator of soil microbial functional diversity and activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Winding, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular Enzyme Activity assay as indicator of soil microbial functional diversity and activity Niels Bohse Hendriksen, Anne Winding. Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark Soil enzymes originate from a variety of organisms, notably fungi and bacteria...... and especially hydrolytic extracellular enzymes are of pivotal importance for decomposition of organic substrates and biogeochemical cycling. Their activity reflects the functional diversity and activity of the microorganisms involved in decomposition processes which are essential processes for soil functioning......, experimental conditions of extraction of enzymes from soils, buffer and pH, substrate concentration, temperature and the necessary controls were optimized and standardized. This has resulted in an optimized standard operating procedure of EEA, which are being tested as an indicator of soil functional diversity...

  17. The Prediction of Biological Activity Using Molecular Connectivity Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-23

    correlations of their toxicity to a variety or organisms, including rats and guppies , with connectivity indices. The best result was from the correlation...of the LC5 0 concentration of chlorophenols using guppies : log LC5 0 3.257 - 0.6719 lxv L S&. (r 0.982, n = 10). The general conclusion reached was...toxicity toward axenic cultures of the freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. A better correlation with xv * - - -. . -. - -, .*’,-.’ . S. -17- was

  18. Cardiovascular indices of peripheral and central sympathetic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schächinger, H; Weinbacher, M; Kiss, A; Ritz, R; Langewitz, W

    2001-01-01

    A number of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) parameters have been used in cardiovascular psychophysiology. This study aimed to describe the pattern and redundancy of a set of SNS parameters during peripherally induced changes of cardiac sympathetic activation and reflex modulation of central SNS control. Preejection period (PEP) was assessed as a marker of peripheral sympathetic activation. Low-frequency blood pressure variability (BPV) was assessed as an estimate of central SNS control. Peripheral beta-sympathetic stimulation and blockade were achieved with epinephrine and esmolol hydrochloride (beta1-blockade), respectively. Changes in central SNS output were induced by loading and unloading arterial baroreceptors with norepinephrine and nitroprusside sodium, respectively. This single-blinded, crossover study in 24 healthy men also included two placebo control periods. PEP was derived from impedance cardiography and adjusted individually for heart rate. BPV was calculated by power spectral analyses of beat-to-beat heart rate and systolic blood pressure (Finapres system) data. PEP decreased during epinephrine infusion (-40.1 +/- 3.8 ms, p SNS activation by nitroprusside (-16.8 +/- 2.9 ms, p information on both central SNS control and the level of sympathetic cardiac activation achieved.

  19. SFC - The Solar activity and geomagnetic indices Forecast Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, Jean-Jacques; Nicolas, Fuller; Philippe, Yaya

    CLS which operates SFC still maintains close collaboration with scientific laboratories or the Space Agencies in order to improve the prediction service performances and to extend the range of its applications. SFC also participates to ISES activities as an Associate Regional Warning Center.

  20. Active Epilepsy as Indicator of Neurocysticercosis in Rural Northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the contribution of neurocysticercosis as a cause for active epilepsy and to establish Neurocysticercosis as major definable risk of epilepsy in our setup. Methods. We conducted a door-to-door survey of 2,209 individuals of Bhore Pind and Bhore Kullian villages in Chattah zone of district Jammu (Jumma and Kashmir, Northwest India to identify patients with symptomatic epilepsy. Patients with active epilepsy were investigated with neuroimaging techniques to establish diagnosis of NCC (neurocysticercosis. Results. Among 25 patients with epilepsy 10(40% had CT/MR evidence of past or recent NCC infection. This gave us the point prevalence of 4.5/1000 for Neurocysticercosis in our study population. Interpretation. The study shows a high prevalence of NCC accounting for symptomatic epilepsy in our part of India.

  1. Active and Intelligent Packaging: The Indication of Quality and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Suppakul, Panuwat

    2016-09-19

    The food industry has been under growing pressure to feed an exponentially increasing world population and challenged to meet rigorous food safety law and regulation. The plethora of media consumption has provoked consumer demand for safe, sustainable, organic, and wholesome products with "clean" labels. The application of active and intelligent packaging has been commercially adopted by food and pharmaceutical industries as a solution for the future for extending shelf life and simplifying production processes; facilitating complex distribution logistics; reducing, if not eliminating the need for preservatives in food formulations; enabling restricted food packaging applications; providing convenience, improving quality, variety and marketing features; as well as providing essential information to ensure consumer safety. This chapter reviews innovations of active and intelligent packaging which advance packaging technology through both scavenging and releasing systems for shelf life extension, and through diagnostic and identification systems for communicating quality, tracking and brand protection.

  2. On Activity modelling in process modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Aiordachioaie

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is looking to the dynamic feature of the meta-models of the process modelling process, the time. Some principles are considered and discussed as main dimensions of any modelling activity: the compatibility of the substances, the equipresence of phenomena and the solvability of the model. The activity models are considered and represented at meta-level.

  3. Aqueous humor tyrosinase activity is indicative of iris melanocyte toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL. Iris pigments are synthesized by the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) and can be detected but not quantified by using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between dispersed pigments in the aqueous and the extent of melanocyte toxicity due to topical antibiotics in vivo is not well studied. Here, we aimed to study the effect of topical FQLs on iris tissue, the pigment release in the aqueous humor and the development of clinically evident iris atrophic changes. We evaluated this process by measuring the activity of TYR in the aqueous humor of 82 healthy eyes undergoing cataract surgery following topical application of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin (27 eyes, preservative-free) or Ciprofloxacin (29 eyes, with preservative) or the application of non-FQL Tobramycin (26 eyes, with preservative) as a control. In addition, the patients were questioned and examined for ocular side effects in pre- and post-operative periods. Our data showed a significantly higher mean TYR activity in the aqueous humor of Ciprofloxacin-treated eyes compared to Moxifloxacin- (preservative free, p humor from both Ciprofloxacin- and Moxifloxacin-treated eyes showed the presence of soluble TYR enzyme, thus reflecting its toxicity to iris melanocytes and corresponding to its activity in the aqueous humor. Intriguingly, none of these patients developed any clinically appreciable ocular side effects characteristic of BAIT or BADI

  4. Indications of nonlinear structures in brain electrical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautama, Temujin; Mandic, Danilo P.; van Hulle, Marc M.

    2003-04-01

    The dynamical properties of electroencephalogram (EEG) segments have recently been analyzed by Andrzejak and co-workers for different recording regions and for different brain states, using the nonlinear prediction error and an estimate of the correlation dimension. In this paper, we further investigate the nonlinear properties of the EEG signals using two established nonlinear analysis methods, and introduce a “delay vector variance” (DVV) method for better characterizing a time series. The proposed DVV method is shown to enable a comprehensive characterization of the time series, allowing for a much improved classification of signal modes. This way, the analysis of Andrzejak and co-workers can be extended toward classification of different brain states. The obtained results comply with those described by Andrzejak et al., and provide complementary indications of nonlinearity in the signals.

  5. Ecotoxicity Effect Indicator for use in the OMNIITOX Base Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Payet, Jerome; Molander, S

    2004-01-01

    for the estimation of the EFI. However none of these methods are found to be adequately robust and/or able to work on the low data input defined by the OMNIITOX Base Model (BM), i.e. a minimum of three acute EC50 values. Given the fact that the BM should be applicable to a significant number of chemicals......, this requirement follows from the current and the most likely future data availability as defined by the proposed EU chemicals policy REACH. In this paper, a theoretical elaboration of effect-based average approaches (arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median) and the non-effect based approach (PNEC) is made...... focusing on their statistical robustness. Considerations about the possibility to relate the effect indicator to damage on the endpoint, the ecosystem, are also included. The effect-based approaches are tested for their robustness in estimating an HC50 in a practical test on datasets from eleven different...

  6. Indicators technology competitive activities of varying skill karate style «kyokushin»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Boychenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the main indicators of the art of competitive activity karate different qualifications style «kyokushin» and identify their differences. Material and Methods: analysis of video recordings of highly competitive activity karate; teacher observations; methods of mathematical statistics. Results: based on the analysis of video recordings of competitive activity created a model of technical preparedness karate qualifications. The differences in the technique of competitive activity karate different qualifications. Conclusions: it was found a series of karate techniques with different skills, their frequency of use and effectiveness. Confirmed that in the competitive fight karate qualifications dominated series techniques. It is found that the technique of competitive activity highly skilled athletes is very varied combinations strikes in series of two or three strikes and more.

  7. Environmental problems indicator under environmental modeling toward sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sutthichaimethee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to apply a model to the study and analysis of environmental and natural resource costs created in supply chains of goods and services produced in Thailand, and propose indicators for environmental problem management, caused by goods and services production, based on concepts of sustainable production and consumer behavior. The research showed that the highest environmental cost in terms of Natural Resource Materials was from pipelines and gas distribution, while the lowest was for farming coconuts. The highest environmental cost in terms of Energy and Transportation was for iron and steel. The highest environmental cost in the category of Fertilizer and Pesticides was for oil palm. For Sanitation Services, the highest environmental cost was movie theaters. Overall, the lowest environmental cost for all categories, except Natural Resource Materials, was for petroleum and refineries. Based on the cost index, coconut farming gained the highest Real Benefit to the farm owner, while pipelines and gas distribution had the lowest Real Benefit. If Thailand were to use a similar environmental problem indicator, it could be applied to formulate efficient policy and strategy for the country in three areas, namely social, economic, and environmental development.

  8. Chromospheric activity as age indicator. An L-shaped chromospheric-activity versus age diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, G.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Chromospheric activity has been calibrated and widely used as an age indicator. However, it has been suggested that the viability of this age indicator is, in the best case, limited to stars younger than about 1.5 Gyr. Aims: I aim to define the age range for which chromospheric activity is a robust astrophysical clock. Methods: I collected literature measurements of the S-index in field stars, which is a measure of the strength of the H and K lines of the Ca II and a proxy for chromospheric activity, and exploited the homogeneous database of temperature and age determinations for field stars provided by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the solar neighbourhood. Results: Field data, inclusive data previously used to calibrate chromospheric ages, confirm the result found using open cluster data, i.e. there is no decay of chromospheric activity after about 2 Gyr. Conclusions: The only existing indication supporting the viability of chromospheric ages older than 2 Gyr is the similarity of chromospheric activity levels in the components of 35 dwarf binaries. However, even in the most optimistic scenario, uncertainty in age determination for field stars and lack of sufficient data in open clusters make any attempt of calibrating an age activity relationship for old stars premature. The hypothesis that chromospheric activity follows the Skumanich law, i.e. that it is proportional to t- 1/2, should be relaxed. The data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/L8

  9. Using geochemical indicators to distinguish high biogeochemical activity in floodplain soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenwell, Amy [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis, E-mail: asitchle@mines.edu [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Prugue, Rodrigo [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Spear, John R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hering, Amanda S. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Maxwell, Reed M. [Hydrologic Sciences and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Carroll, Rosemary W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512 (United States); Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of how microbial communities interact with their surroundings in physically and chemically heterogeneous subsurface environments will lead to improved quantification of biogeochemical reactions and associated nutrient cycling. This study develops a methodology to predict potential elevated rates of biogeochemical activity (microbial “hotspots”) in subsurface environments by correlating microbial DNA and aspects of the community structure with the spatial distribution of geochemical indicators in subsurface sediments. Multiple linear regression models of simulated precipitation leachate, HCl and hydroxylamine extractable iron and manganese, total organic carbon (TOC), and microbial community structure were used to identify sample characteristics indicative of biogeochemical hotspots within fluvially-derived aquifer sediments and overlying soils. The method has been applied to (a) alluvial materials collected at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado and (b) relatively undisturbed floodplain deposits (soils and sediments) collected along the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado. At Rifle, 16 alluvial samples were taken from 8 sediment cores, and at the East River, 46 soil/sediment samples were collected across and perpendicular to 3 active meanders and an oxbow meander. Regression models using TOC and TOC combined with extractable iron and manganese results were determined to be the best fitting statistical models of microbial DNA (via 16S rRNA gene analysis). Fitting these models to observations in both contaminated and natural floodplain deposits, and their associated alluvial aquifers, demonstrates the broad applicability of the geochemical indicator based approach. - Highlights: • Biogeochemical characterization of alluvial floodplain soils and sediments was performed to investigate parameters that may indicate microbial hot spot formation. • A correlation between geochemical parameters (total organic carbon and

  10. On the Usage of Geomagnetic Indices for Data Selection in Internal Field Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauristie, K.; Morschhauser, A.; Olsen, N.; Finlay, C. C.; McPherron, R. L.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a review on geomagnetic indices describing global geomagnetic storm activity (Kp, am, Dst and dDst/dt) and on indices designed to characterize high latitude currents and substorms (PC and AE-indices and their variants). The focus in our discussion is in main field modelling, where indices are primarily used in data selection criteria for weak magnetic activity. The publicly available extensive data bases of index values are used to derive joint conditional Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) for different pairs of indices in order to investigate their mutual consistency in describing quiet conditions. This exercise reveals that Dst and its time derivative yield a similar picture as Kp on quiet conditions as determined with the conditions typically used in internal field modelling. Magnetic quiescence at high latitudes is typically searched with the help of Merging Electric Field (MEF) as derived from solar wind observations. We use in our PDF analysis the PC-index as a proxy for MEF and estimate the magnetic activity level at auroral latitudes with the AL-index. With these boundary conditions we conclude that the quiet time conditions that are typically used in main field modelling ( PC-300 nT) can take place, when these criteria prevail. Although AE-indices have been designed to probe electrojet activity only in average conditions and thus their performance is not optimal during weak activity, we note that careful data selection with advanced AE-variants may appear to be the most practical way to lower the elevated RMS-values which still exist in the residuals between modeled and observed values at high latitudes. Recent initiatives to upgrade the AE-indices, either with a better coverage of observing stations and improved baseline corrections (the SuperMAG concept) or with higher accuracy in pinpointing substorm activity (the Midlatitude Positive Bay-index) will most likely be helpful in these efforts.

  11. Innovative techniques to analyze time series of geomagnetic activity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Potirakis, Stelios M.; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic storms are undoubtedly among the most important phenomena in space physics and also a central subject of space weather. The non-extensive Tsallis entropy has been recently introduced, as an effective complexity measure for the analysis of the geomagnetic activity Dst index. The Tsallis entropy sensitively shows the complexity dissimilarity among different "physiological" (normal) and "pathological" states (intense magnetic storms). More precisely, the Tsallis entropy implies the emergence of two distinct patterns: (i) a pattern associated with the intense magnetic storms, which is characterized by a higher degree of organization, and (ii) a pattern associated with normal periods, which is characterized by a lower degree of organization. Other entropy measures such as Block Entropy, T-Complexity, Approximate Entropy, Sample Entropy and Fuzzy Entropy verify the above mentioned result. Importantly, the wavelet spectral analysis in terms of Hurst exponent, H, also shows the existence of two different patterns: (i) a pattern associated with the intense magnetic storms, which is characterized by a fractional Brownian persistent behavior (ii) a pattern associated with normal periods, which is characterized by a fractional Brownian anti-persistent behavior. Finally, we observe universality in the magnetic storm and earthquake dynamics, on a basis of a modified form of the Gutenberg-Richter law for the Tsallis statistics. This finding suggests a common approach to the interpretation of both phenomena in terms of the same driving physical mechanism. Signatures of discrete scale invariance in Dst time series further supports the aforementioned proposal.

  12. Extracellular Enzyme Activity assay as indicator of soil microbial functional diversity and activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Winding, Anne

    2012-01-01

    and especially hydrolytic extracellular enzymes are of pivotal importance for decomposition of organic substrates and biogeochemical cycling. Their activity reflects the functional diversity and activity of the microorganisms involved in decomposition processes which are essential processes for soil functioning...... and soil ecosystem services. The soil enzyme activity has been measured by the use of fluorogenic model substrates e.g. methylumbelliferyl (MUF) substrates for a number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polysaccharides as cellulose, hemicellulose and chitin, while degradation of proteins has been...... followed by amino-methyl-coumaric substrates (AMC). The already developed Extracellular Enzyme Activity (EEA) assay was further optimized as a microwell based assay for the activity of enzymes involved in degradation of polysaccharides and proteins. Using specific MUF and AMC substrates on European soils...

  13. Extracellular enzyme activity assay as indicator of soil microbial functional diversity and activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Winding, Anne

    2012-01-01

    of soil microbial functions is still needed. In soil, enzymes originate from a variety of organisms, notably fungi and bacteria and especially hydrolytic extracellular enzymes are of pivotal importance for decomposition of organic substrates and biogeochemical cycling. Their activity will reflect...... the functional diversity and activity of the microorganisms involved in decomposition processes. Their activity has been measured by the use of fluorogenic model substrates e.g. methylumbelliferyl (MUF) substrates for a number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polysacharides as cellulose, hemicellulose...... and chitin, while degradation of proteins has been followed by amino-methyl-coumaric substrates (AMC). Based on these fluorogenic substrates the Extracellular Enzyme Activity assay was optimized as a microwell based standardized assay for the activity of enzymes involved in degradation of polysaccharides...

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR DETERMINING THE INDICATORS OF TRACTIVE VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Golovchuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research paper involves solving of the following tasks: 1 refinement of the mathematical model for determining the traction and dynamic, fuel and economic, environmental indicators of mobile energy facilities; 2 methodology development of theoretical studies of automatic control systems, static and dynamic characteristics automotive-tractor diesel with a gas turbine supercharger and a mobile power facility. Methodology. The work studies the working processes of vehicles and machine-tractor aggregates by mathematical simulation and the development of algorithms and programs for the calculation of these processes in actual operational conditions. The system of equations has been developed for theoretical research. It describes a nonlinear mathematical model of the automatic control system of an automotive-tractor diesel rotating frequency. In addition to the differential equations of the first and second order, equations are used in mathematical simulation of working processes of traction vehicles. These equations describe experimental characteristics of an automatic regulator, a high-pressure fuel pump, a turbocharger and an engine, as well as moments of engine mechanical losses and an external load. Findings. The developed mathematical model allows determining the effectiveness of new design, operational and technological developments, as well as various measures in order to improve the fuel-economic and environmental performances of vehicles and machine-tractor aggregates in operating conditions. Originality. For the first time, the mathematical model "Tractor driver – machine-tractor aggregate – road (field" was developed. It allows conducting research of transport tractor aggregates by driving cycles, taking into account the processes of starting and speeding up the mobile-power sources with gear shift. Practical value. In conditions of a protracted economic crisis, in the absence of the necessary equipment, instruments

  15. Using geochemical indicators to distinguish high biogeochemical activity in floodplain soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwell, Amy; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Prugue, Rodrigo; Spear, John R; Hering, Amanda S; Maxwell, Reed M; Carroll, Rosemary W H; Williams, Kenneth H

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of how microbial communities interact with their surroundings in physically and chemically heterogeneous subsurface environments will lead to improved quantification of biogeochemical reactions and associated nutrient cycling. This study develops a methodology to predict potential elevated rates of biogeochemical activity (microbial "hotspots") in subsurface environments by correlating microbial DNA and aspects of the community structure with the spatial distribution of geochemical indicators in subsurface sediments. Multiple linear regression models of simulated precipitation leachate, HCl and hydroxylamine extractable iron and manganese, total organic carbon (TOC), and microbial community structure were used to identify sample characteristics indicative of biogeochemical hotspots within fluvially-derived aquifer sediments and overlying soils. The method has been applied to (a) alluvial materials collected at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado and (b) relatively undisturbed floodplain deposits (soils and sediments) collected along the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado. At Rifle, 16 alluvial samples were taken from 8 sediment cores, and at the East River, 46 soil/sediment samples were collected across and perpendicular to 3 active meanders and an oxbow meander. Regression models using TOC and TOC combined with extractable iron and manganese results were determined to be the best fitting statistical models of microbial DNA (via 16S rRNA gene analysis). Fitting these models to observations in both contaminated and natural floodplain deposits, and their associated alluvial aquifers, demonstrates the broad applicability of the geochemical indicator based approach.

  16. Evaluation of Atmospheric Electric Field as Increasing Seismic Activity Indicator on the example of Caucasus Region

    CERN Document Server

    Kachakhidze, M K; Kachakhidze, N K

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with reliability of a gradient of atmospheric electric field potential as an indicator of seismic activity increase. With this in view, records of atmospheric electric field potential gradients of Caucasus region for 1953-1992 with respect to periods before average and large earthquakes, which took place in the same time interval, were considered. It is worth to pay attention to the fact that the avalanche-like unstable model of fault formation based on theoretical model of self-generated seismo-electromagnetic oscillations of LAI system explains convincingly spectral succession of electromagnetic emission frequency of the periods preceding earthquakes.

  17. Detection of bias in animal model pedigree indices of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LIDAUER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to test whether the pedigree indices (PI of heifers are biased, and if so, whether the magnitude of the bias varies in different groups of heifers. Therefore, two animal model evaluations with two different data sets were computed. Data with all the records from the national evaluation in December 1994 was used to obtain estimated breeding values (EBV for 305-days' milk yield and protein yield. In the second evaluation, the PIs were estimated for cows calving the first time in 1993 by excluding all their production records from the data. Three different statistics, a simple t-test, the linear regression of EBV on PI, and the polynomial regression of the difference in the predictions (EBV-PI on PI, were computed for three groups of first parity Ayrshire cows: daughters of proven sires, daughters of young sires, and daughters of bull dam candidates. A practically relevant bias was found only in the PIs for the daughters of young sires. On average their PIs were biased upwards by 0.20 standard deviations (78.8 kg for the milk yield and by 0.21 standard deviations (2.2 kg for the protein yield. The polynomial regression analysis showed that the magnitude of the bias in the PIs changed somewhat with the size of the PIs.;

  18. Enzymes/non-enzymes classification model complexity based on composition, sequence, 3D and topological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Cristian Robert; González-Díaz, Humberto; Magalhães, Alexandre L

    2008-09-21

    The huge amount of new proteins that need a fast enzymatic activity characterization creates demands of protein QSAR theoretical models. The protein parameters that can be used for an enzyme/non-enzyme classification includes the simpler indices such as composition, sequence and connectivity, also called topological indices (TIs) and the computationally expensive 3D descriptors. A comparison of the 3D versus lower dimension indices has not been reported with respect to the power of discrimination of proteins according to enzyme action. A set of 966 proteins (enzymes and non-enzymes) whose structural characteristics are provided by PDB/DSSP files was analyzed with Python/Biopython scripts, STATISTICA and Weka. The list of indices includes, but it is not restricted to pure composition indices (residue fractions), DSSP secondary structure protein composition and 3D indices (surface and access). We also used mixed indices such as composition-sequence indices (Chou's pseudo-amino acid compositions or coupling numbers), 3D-composition (surface fractions) and DSSP secondary structure amino acid composition/propensities (obtained with our Prot-2S Web tool). In addition, we extend and test for the first time several classic TIs for the Randic's protein sequence Star graphs using our Sequence to Star Graph (S2SG) Python application. All the indices were processed with general discriminant analysis models (GDA), neural networks (NN) and machine learning (ML) methods and the results are presented versus complexity, average of Shannon's information entropy (Sh) and data/method type. This study compares for the first time all these classes of indices to assess the ratios between model accuracy and indices/model complexity in enzyme/non-enzyme discrimination. The use of different methods and complexity of data shows that one cannot establish a direct relation between the complexity and the accuracy of the model.

  19. Prediction of tyrosinase inhibition activity using atom-based bilinear indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Casañola Martín, Gerardo M; Ather, Arjumand; Sultankhodzhaev, Mukhlis N; Torrens, Francisco; Rotondo, Richard

    2007-04-01

    A set of novel atom-based molecular fingerprints is proposed based on a bilinear map similar to that defined in linear algebra. These molecular descriptors (MDs) are proposed as a new means of molecular parametrization easily calculated from 2D molecular information. The nonstochastic and stochastic molecular indices match molecular structure provided by molecular topology by using the kth nonstochastic and stochastic graph-theoretical electronic-density matrices, M(k) and S(k), respectively. Thus, the kth nonstochastic and stochastic bilinear indices are calculated using M(k) and S(k) as matrix operators of bilinear transformations. Chemical information is coded by using different pair combinations of atomic weightings (mass, polarizability, vdW volume, and electronegativity). The results of QSAR studies of tyrosinase inhibitors using the new MDs and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) demonstrate the ability of the bilinear indices in testing biological properties. A database of 246 structurally diverse tyrosinase inhibitors was assembled. An inactive set of 412 drugs with other clinical uses was used; both active and inactive sets were processed by hierarchical and partitional cluster analyses to design training and predicting sets. Twelve LDA-based QSAR models were obtained, the first six using the nonstochastic total and local bilinear indices and the last six with the stochastic MDs. The discriminant models were applied; globally good classifications of 99.58 and 89.96 % were observed for the best nonstochastic and stochastic bilinear indices models in the training set along with high Matthews correlation coefficients (C) of 0.99 and 0.79, respectively, in the learning set. External prediction sets used to validate the models obtained were correctly classified, with accuracies of 100 and 87.78 %, respectively, yielding C values of 1.00 and 0.73. This subset contains 180 active and inactive compounds not considered to fit the models. A simulated virtual screen

  20. Generic active appearance models revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Alabort-i-Medina, Joan; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Active Orientation Models (AOMs) are gen- erative models of facial shape and appearance. Their main dierences with the well-known paradigm of Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are (i) they use a dierent statistical model of appearance, (ii) they are accompanied by a robust algorithm for m

  1. Assessment of stochastically updated finite element models using reliability indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, X. G.; Wen, Q.; Ni, Y. Q.; Chen, Z. Q.

    2017-01-01

    Finite element (FE) model updating techniques have been a viable approach to correcting an initial mathematical model based on test data. Validation of the updated FE models is usually conducted by comparing model predictions with independent test data that have not been used for model updating. This approach of model validation cannot be readily applied in the case of a stochastically updated FE model. In recognizing that structural reliability is a major decision factor throughout the lifecycle of a structure, this study investigates the use of structural reliability as a measure for assessing the quality of stochastically updated FE models. A recently developed perturbation method for stochastic FE model updating is first applied to attain the stochastically updated models by using the measured modal parameters with uncertainty. The reliability index and failure probability for predefined limit states are computed for the initial and the stochastically updated models, respectively, and are compared with those obtained from the 'true' model to assess the quality of the two models. Numerical simulation of a truss bridge is provided as an example. The simulated modal parameters involving different uncertainty magnitudes are used to update an initial model of the bridge. It is shown that the reliability index obtained from the updated model is much closer to true reliability index than that obtained from the initial model in the case of small uncertainty magnitude; in the case of large uncertainty magnitude, the reliability index computed from the initial model rather than from the updated model is closer to the true value. The present study confirms the usefulness of measurement-calibrated FE models and at the same time also highlights the importance of the uncertainty reduction in test data for reliable model updating and reliability evaluation.

  2. Modeling Battery Behavior for Accurate State-of-Charge Indication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Veld, op het J.H.G.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Danilov, D.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2006-01-01

    Li-ion is the most commonly used battery chemistry in portable applications nowadays. Accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and remaining run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user's convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. A new SOC indication system, combining the ele

  3. A comparison of emission calculations using different modeled indicators with 1-year online measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengers, Bernd; Schiefler, Inga; Büscher, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    The overall measurement of farm level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dairy production is not feasible, from either an engineering or administrative point of view. Instead, computational model systems are used to generate emission inventories, demanding a validation by measurement data. This paper tests the GHG calculation of the dairy farm-level optimization model DAIRYDYN, including methane (CH₄) from enteric fermentation and managed manure. The model involves four emission calculation procedures (indicators), differing in the aggregation level of relevant input variables. The corresponding emission factors used by the indicators range from default per cow (activity level) emissions up to emission factors based on feed intake, manure amount, and milk production intensity. For validation of the CH₄ accounting of the model, 1-year CH₄ measurements of an experimental free-stall dairy farm in Germany are compared to model simulation results. An advantage of this interdisciplinary study is given by the correspondence of the model parameterization and simulation horizon with the experimental farm's characteristics and measurement period. The results clarify that modeled emission inventories (2,898, 4,637, 4,247, and 3,600 kg CO₂-eq. cow(-1) year(-1)) lead to more or less good approximations of online measurements (average 3,845 kg CO₂-eq. cow(-1) year(-1) (±275 owing to manure management)) depending on the indicator utilized. The more farm-specific characteristics are used by the GHG indicator; the lower is the bias of the modeled emissions. Results underline that an accurate emission calculation procedure should capture differences in energy intake, owing to milk production intensity as well as manure storage time. Despite the differences between indicator estimates, the deviation of modeled GHGs using detailed indicators in DAIRYDYN from on-farm measurements is relatively low (between -6.4% and 10.5%), compared with findings from the literature.

  4. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  5. Comparing phosphorus indices and process models with water quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) indices in the southern United States frequently produce different recommendations for similar conditions. After assembling data from benchmark southern sites (Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas), land treatment information was used in the 12 southern...

  6. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage...

  7. Models of Teaching: Indicators Influencing Teachers' Perception of Pedagogical Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordyke, Alison Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The models of teaching are systematic tools that allow teachers to vary their classroom pedagogical practices to meet the needs of all learners in their classroom. This study was designed to determine key factors that influence teachers' decisions when determining a model of teaching for classroom instruction and to identify how teacher training…

  8. Diagnostic indicators for integrated assessment models of climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Petermann, Nils; Krey, Volker; Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Luderer, Gunnar; Ashina, Shuichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Eom, Jiyong; Kitous, Alban; Méjean, Aurélie; Paroussos, Leonidas; Sano, Fuminori; Turton, Hal; Wilson, Charlie; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated assessments of how climate policy interacts with energy-economy systems can be performed by a variety of models with different functional structures. In order to provide insights into why results differ between models, this article proposes a diagnostic scheme that can be applied to a wid

  9. Models of Teaching: Indicators Influencing Teachers' Perception of Pedagogical Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordyke, Alison Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The models of teaching are systematic tools that allow teachers to vary their classroom pedagogical practices to meet the needs of all learners in their classroom. This study was designed to determine key factors that influence teachers' decisions when determining a model of teaching for classroom instruction and to identify how teacher training…

  10. Approaches to Bioeconomic Modelling in correlation with Consumer Model and Biodiversity Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipate Iudith

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analysed the characteristics of bio-economic models in agricultural systems and agro-biodiversity indicators. The classical bioeconomic models are used to analyze the human consumption of ecosystems for production. The analysis focuses on changes in a limited set of agrobiodiversity indicators that matter to human beings. In existing bioeconomic models incorporate ecological complexities and dynamics is limited. Although bioeconomic model provides useful methods to integrate economic values into environmental analyses, improved the dynamic interrelationships between natural processes and socio-economic systems is needed to allow an integrated assessment of multiple values. The overview will enable a more informed decision about whether and how bio-economic models/modeling can contribute to the development of integrated environmental decision support tools. The bio economic modeling it is important for evaluating the costs and benefits associated with environmental resource use.

  11. Global Indicators Analysis and Consultancy Experience Insights into Correlation between Entrepreneurial Activities and Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Krivokapić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many researches and practical experiences clearly indicate the existence of a strong relationship between entrepreneurial activities and the business environment in which these activities are initiated. Although this topic has been quite ignored until the late twentieth century, a lot of studies and consulting practice have contributed to the fact that there are now a number of theories concerning mentioned correlation. These theories aim to offer a model that would provide better utilization of the possibilities from the business environment which could be very important for the development from both macroeconomic and microeconomic aspects. An increasing number of articles on this topic says enough about its importance, and numerous researches by many reputable globally recognized institutions go in favor of this claim. There are many indicators that observe the economic situation in a country or a region from different aspects, so the analyses of these indicators make it possible to determine the specific relationships between entrepreneurial activities and the local and the global business environment. Given the complexity of these relations, the impact cannot be observed partially, without taking into consideration other important factors, but more detailed analyses, however, result in some useful conclusions, which in the proper context can have a positive impact on many economic factors. It is very important to emphasize the fact that the correlation between the business environment and entrepreneurial activities is bidirectional, since this influence is mutual, so that changes in one of these factors can and usually cause some modifications in the other. Frequent series of such iterations actually lead to changes in the business environment, while entrepreneurial activity changes its shape and affects the economy of a country or a region, which is of particular importance for its competitiveness in the era of globalization.

  12. Causal Indicator Models Have Nothing to Do with Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D.; Breivik, Einar

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Roy Howell, and Einar Breivik, congratulate Aguirre-Urreta, M. I., Rönkkö, M., & Marakas, G. M., for their work (2016) "Omission of Causal Indicators: Consequences and Implications for Measurement," Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 14(3), 75-97. doi:10.1080/15366367.2016.1205935. They call it…

  13. Causal Indicator Models Have Nothing to Do with Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D.; Breivik, Einar

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Roy Howell, and Einar Breivik, congratulate Aguirre-Urreta, M. I., Rönkkö, M., & Marakas, G. M., for their work (2016) "Omission of Causal Indicators: Consequences and Implications for Measurement," Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 14(3), 75-97. doi:10.1080/15366367.2016.1205935. They call it…

  14. The modeling of response indicators of integrated water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on determining the most important intervention in technical and ... Management in the Saf-Safriver basin characterized by the fast growing ... characterize their priorities. 2. .... algorithm was chosen as a model of the system.

  15. The Best Obesity Indices to Use in a Single Factor Model Indicating Metabolic Syndrome: a Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed, Nima; Zamani, Farhad; Rabiee, Behnam; Saeedian, Fatemeh Sima; Maadi, Mansooreh; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Asouri, Mohsen

    2016-02-01

    Although metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major health problem worldwide, there is no universal agreement on its definition. One of the major disagreements is dealing with the issue of obesity in this definition. This study was conducted to determine a preferably better index of obesity which can be interrelated with other components of MetS in a single factor model of MetS. Out of 6140 participants of a cohort study of subjects aged 10-90 years in northern Iran, the baseline data of 5616 participants aged 18-75 was considered.  Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS software to evaluate a single factor model of MetS in which blood pressure, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and obesity measures including waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI),  waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indicators of metabolic syndrome. Four single factor models differing from each other by obesity indices were evaluated. The models were evaluated in all 5616 subjects and 4931 subjects without diabetes mellitus according to sex separately. All single factor models had appropriate fit indices with CFI > 0.95, GFI > 0.95 and RMSEA models obtained the best values of fit indices in men and good fit indices in women. In the general population of men, the single factor models built based on WHR (Chi-square=6.9, df=2, P-value=0.031, RMSEA = 0.028, CI = 0.007-0.052, CFI = 0.994, GFI = 0.999 and AIC = 22.9)  and WHtR (Chi-square = 9.97, df = 2, P-value = 0.007, RMSEA = 0.036, CI = 0.016-0.059, CFI = 0.992, GFI = 0.998 and AIC = 25.97) were fitted properly with data while in th general population of women, the model based on WHR obtained better fit indices (Chi-square = 7.5, df = 2, P-value = 0.023, RMSEA = 0.033, CI = 0.011-0.060, CFI = 0.994, GFI = 0.998 and AIC = 23.5). Models based on WHtR obtained better regression weights than WHR. While single factor validity of MetS was confirmed in

  16. Developing social-ecological system indicators using group model building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugteveen, P.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Stouten, H.J.; Katwijk, M.M. van; Hanssen, L.S.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In many coastal regions, activities of multiple users present a growing strain on the ecological state of the area. The necessity of using integrative system approaches to understand and solve coastal problems has become obvious in the last decades. Integrated management strategies for social-ecolog

  17. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  18. Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a framework for predicting quantitative relationships between molecular initiatin...

  19. Proxima Centauri as a Benchmark for Stellar Activity Indicators in the Near Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Roy, Arpita; Ramsey, Lawrence W

    2016-01-01

    A new generation of dedicated Doppler spectrographs will attempt to detect low-mass exoplanets around mid-late M stars at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths, where those stars are brightest and have the most Doppler information content. A central requirement for the success of these instruments is to properly measure the component of radial velocity (RV) variability contributed by stellar magnetic activity and to account for it in exoplanet models of RV data. The wavelength coverage for many of these new instruments will not include the Ca II H&K or H-alpha lines, the most frequently used absorption-line tracers of magnetic activity. Thus, it is necessary to define and characterize NIR activity indicators for mid-late M stars in order to provide simultaneous activity metrics for NIR RV data. We have used the high-cadence UVES observations of the M5.5 dwarf Proxima Centauri from Fuhrmeister et al. (2011) to compare the activity sensitivity of 8 NIR atomic lines to that of H-alpha. We find that equivalent widt...

  20. Indications for laser therapy in diverse models of periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Erina, Stanislava V.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Pankova, Svetlana N.; Ippolitov, Yu. A.; Lepechina, L. I.; Malinovskaya, L. A.; Chitrina, L. L.

    1996-11-01

    Parodontal diseases have an immunological pathogenic mechanism leading to various manifestations and can not be referred to as a common inflammation. The home and foreign research points at active and immunological reaction with the following distraction surrounding tissues of the tooth. Histochemical and biochemical examinations show metabolic disturbances of parodontal tissues. A total sample size of 604 people suffering from average height of chronic generalized parodontitis was examined in the survey. Immunological and histochemical tests were taken before and after a course of laser therapy with the use of helium-neon laser 'YAGODA', an inhibitory and stimulating dosage irradiations and anti-inflammatory dosage irradiations with infrared laser 'UZOR'. We selected a group of patients with the decreased local immunological status on the ground of immunological tests. Histochemical tests shaped the next group with the passive and active forms of parodontitis pathology. The tests data resulted in a method of laser therapy. The investigations confirm that the chronic generalized parodontitis has a shift in tissue immunity of the oral cavity and cell-bound metabolic disturbance of gum epithelium. It is expedient to use the anti-inflammatory dosage irradiations with infrared laser 'UZOR' to correct immunity, and in case of and active process to realize the DNA and RNA synthesis by means of increasing the irradiation with the apparatus 'YAGODA'. The irradiation decreases in case of a passive process.

  1. Fish Assemblage Indicators for the National Rivers and Streams Assessment: Performance of model-based vs. traditionally constructed multimetric indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of multimetric indices (MMIs) for use in assessing the ecological condition of rivers and streams has advanced in recent years with the use of various types of modeling approaches to factor out the influence of natural variability and improve the performance. Ass...

  2. ARMA-GARCH Model and temporal precedence between stock indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Garcia Angelico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the need for risk valuation of financial assets, investors demand sophisticated methods of modeling that can judge the variability of their investments. At the same time, financial globalization has been characterized by common movements and trends between different international markets. In this context, the main objective of this paper was to model the statistical volatility of the Bovespa Index (Ibovespa and the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index, using ARMA-GARCH adjustments, in addition to checking the existence of a long- -term balance and temporal precedence between these variables, using the Johansen co-integration and Granger causality tests, respectively. The results established a higher heterogeneous variance for Ibovespa and the existence of temporal precedence for the Dow Jones Index, despite the absence of any long-term balance between the series. It is understood that the latter behavior may have been caused by the existing difference between the conditional heteroscedasticity of each index.

  3. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related activit...

  4. Early indices of deviance detection in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sabine; Escera, Carles; Nelken, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Detecting unexpected stimuli in the environment is a critical function of the auditory system. Responses to unexpected "deviant" sounds are enhanced compared to responses to expected stimuli. At the human scalp, deviance detection is reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and in an enhancement of the middle-latency response (MLR). Single neurons often respond more strongly to a stimulus when rare than when common, a phenomenon termed stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). Here we compare stimulus-specific adaptation with scalp-recorded deviance-related responses. We conclude that early markers of deviance detection in the time range of the MLR could be a direct correlate of cortical SSA. Both occur at an early level of cortical activation, both are robust findings with low-probability stimuli, and both show properties of genuine deviance detection. Their causal relation with the later scalp-recorded MMN is a key question in this field.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of behavioral, activity, ferritin, and clinical indicators of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kathy C; Bost, James E; Rogers, Valerie E; Hutchison, Lisa C; Beck, Cornelia K; Bliwise, Donald L; Kovach, Christine R; Cuellar, Norma; Allen, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    Lack of a valid diagnostic measure of restless legs syndrome (RLS) for persons with dementia, who do not have the cognitive ability to report complex symptoms, impedes RLS treatment and research in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a combination of indicators for identifying RLS that could eventually be used to diagnose RLS in persons with dementia. 3-day, prospective instrument validation. Sleep laboratory. Cognitively intact, 107 with RLS, 105 without RLS. N/A. Serial 20-min observations with a new measure, the Behavioral Indicators Test-Restless Legs (BIT-RL); leg movements with 3 nights of the Periodic Activity Monitor-Restless Legs (PAM-RL); ferritin; sleep history; clinical data; polysomnography; Hopkins Telephone Diagnostic Interview of RLS Symptoms. The best-fitting diagnostic model for identifying RLS included previous history of iron deficiency (odds ratio [OR] 7.30), leg discomfort (OR 6.47), daytime fatigue (OR 6.15), difficulty falling asleep (OR 3.25), RLS family history (OR 2.60), BIT-RL (OR 1.49), and absence of diabetes (OR 0.27), with sensitivity 78%, specificity 79%, and 77% correctly classified. This model retained its predictive accuracy even with co-morbid sleep apnea. When compared to those without RLS, persons with RLS have observable behaviors, such as rubbing the legs, that differentiate them, but the behaviors have no circadian and activity-related variability. The final model of clinical and sleep historical data and observation for RLS behaviors using the BIT-RL had good diagnostic accuracy. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Effects of various solar indices on accuracy of Earth’s thermospheric neutral density models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Four kinds of solar indices F10.7, E10.7, S10, Mg10 and four thermospheric neutral density models, i.e., CIRA72, DTM94, NRLMSISE00 and JB2006, are discussed. The CHAMP accelerometer data are used to calculate thermospheric total mass density. Based on the comparison of the model densities with CHAMP observations, the effects of various indices on the model accuracy are detected. It is found that under quiet and moderate solar conditions (F10.7<160), all of the models’ errors are reduced about 15% by using E10.7 instead of F10.7, while under active solar conditions (F10.7>200) the error’s standard deviation using E10.7 increases quickly and causes the models’ accuracy to fall down. With regard to S10, Mg10, their effects under quiet solar conditions are inconspicuous. If under active solar conditions, they can reduce the model error’s standard deviation by 5%-10%, implying that S10, Mg10 make the model error more stable. The JB2006 model, which was constructed by multi-solar-index (F10.7, S10, Mg10), is compared with DTM94 and NRLMSISE00 based on single-solar-index. It is found that JB2006’s accuracy is better than DTM94’s, and is close to NRLMSISE00 under the quiet solar condition. During the solar burst occurring on October 26, 2003, JB2006 has been in best agreement with CHAMP observations. All in all, the new indices may improve thermospheric density models’ accuracy under some special conditions. Concretely, E10.7 may reduce the average error of models and S10, Mg10 may prevent the error’s divergence.

  7. Comparison of rainfall based SPI drought indices with SMDI and ETDI indices derived from a soil water budget model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houcine, A.; Bargaoui, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Modelling soil water budget is a key issue for assessing drought awareness indices based on soil moisture estimation. The aim of the study is to compare drought indices based on rainfall time series to those based on soil water content time series and evapotranspiration time series. To this end, a vertically averaged water budget over the root zone is implemented to assist the estimation of evapotranspiration flux. A daily time step is adopted to run the water budget model for a lumped watershed of 250 km2 under arid climate where recorded meteorological and hydrological data are available for a ten year period. The water balance including 7 parameters is computed including evapotranspiration, runoff and leakage. Soil properties related parameters are derived according to pedo transfer functions while two remaining parameters are considered as data driven and are subject to calibration. The model is calibrated using daily hydro meteorological data (solar radiation, air temperature, air humidity, mean areal rainfall) as well as daily runoff records and also average annual (or regional) evapotranspiration. The latter is estimated using an empirical sub-model. A set of acceptable solutions is identified according to the values of the Nash coefficients for annual and decadal runoffs as well as the relative bias for average annual evapotranspiration. Using these acceptable solutions several drought indices are computed: SPI (standard precipitation index), SMDI (soil moisture deficit index) and ETDI (evapotranspiration deficit index). While SPI indicators are based only on monthly precipitation time series, SMDI are based on weekly mean soil water content as computed by the hydrological model. On the other hand ETDI indices are based on weekly mean potential and actual evapotranspirations as estimated by the meteorological and hydrological models. For SPI evaluation various time scales are considered from one to twelve months (SPI1, SPI3, SPI6, SPI9 and SPI12). For all

  8. Active control: Wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project 'Active Control of Wind Turbines'. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to designcontrollers. This report describes the model...... developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This hasbeen done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model...... validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending,a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models...

  9. Observation of Hysteresis between Solar Activity Indicators and -mode Frequency Shifts for Solar Cycle 22

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. C. Tripathy; Brajesh Kumar; Kiran Jain; A. Bhatnagar

    2000-09-01

    Using intermediate degree p-mode frequency data sets for solar cycle 22, we find that the frequency shifts and magnetic activity indicators show a ``hysteresis" phenomenon. It is observed that the magnetic indices follow different paths for the ascending and descending phases of the solar cycle while for radiative indices, the separation between the paths are well within the error limits.

  10. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  11. The histeresis of the indices of solar activity and of the ionospheric indices in 11-yr cycles. The histeresis of the stellar activity indices in the cyclic activity similar to the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A; Kazachevskaya, T V; Katyushina, V V; Nusinov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the effect of the hysteresis, which manifests itself in an ambiguous relationship of radiation from the photosphere, chromosphere and corona on the rise and decline phases of the solar and stellar activity cycles have done. Some indices of solar activity: the flux of the hydrogen Lyman-alpha emission, the 10.7 cm flux, the sunspot number SSN, the flux in the coronal green line 530.3 nm, the solar constant TSI and the 280 nm Mg II flux were studied. The stars with the well-determined cycles were examined to detect the effect of hysteresis between the chromosphere's S-index CaII fluxes versus the photosphere's fluxes Fphotosphere.

  12. Mysterious multiculturalism: the risks of using model-based indices for making meaningful comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvendak, J.W.; van Reekum, R.; El-Hajjari, F.; Bertossi, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss key problems of model-based indices and their indicators used by the students of cross-national differences in the field of immigration, integration and citizenship policies. Model-based indices aggregate scores on a variety of indicators. We scrutinize the risks of

  13. Active control: Wind turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, Henrik

    1999-07-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project `Active Control of Wind Turbines`. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to design controllers. This report describes the model developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This has been done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending, a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models. The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated through comparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch controlled wind turbine. The model and the measurements corresponds well in the relevant frequency range. The developed model is therefore applicable for controller design. (au) EFP-91. 18 ills., 22 refs.

  14. Mathematical model for estimating of technical and technological indicators of railway stations operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Kozachenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to create a mathematical model of the railway station functioning for the solving of problems of station technology development on the plan-schedule basis. Methodology. The methods of graph theory and object-oriented analysis are used as research methods. The model of the station activity plan-schedule includes a model of technical equipment of the station (plan-schedule net and a model of the station functioning , which are formalized on the basis of parametric graphs. Findings. The presented model is implemented as an application to the graphics package AutoCAD. The software is developed in Visual LISP and Visual Basic. Taking into account that the construction of the plan-schedule is mostly a traditional process of adding, deleting, and modifying of icons, the developed interface is intuitively understandable for a technologist and practically does not require additional training. Originality. A mathematical model was created on the basis of the theory of graphs and object-oriented analysis in order to evaluate the technical and process of railway stations indicators; it is focused on solving problems of technology development of their work. Practical value. The proposed mathematical model is implemented as an application to the graphics package of AutoCAD. The presence of a mathematical model allows carrying out an automatic analysis of the plan-schedule and, thereby, reducing the period of its creation more than twice.

  15. A Cognitive Modeling Method of the Life Quality Indicators in Terms of External Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Massel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a potential use of the methods of cognitive modeling in the field of quality of life. The quality of life, as a universal indicator of human self-perception to feel his sense of satisfaction from various parts of his life, is difficult to assess by strictly mathematical methods, so the authors suggest using the cognitive modeling. The quality of life in his estimation for the convenience of research activity is divided into components - indicators of the quality of life. The widespread indicator "quality of life" and the complexity of the development of its assessment methods lead to high relevance of the authors-proposed method.The introduction provides an overview of current approaches to assessing the quality of life. Among all these approaches the most advantageous is an objectively subjective one. The paper gives a brief assessment of cognitive modeling methods, which are, essentially, a way of graphic and structural elements of reflection and relationships in complex systems. As a result of the analysis of existing research in this area, was found the potential for creating cognitive models of the quality of life and its indicators and was defined the place of the proposed method, among others. The paper presents the method itself, as a series of steps, and focuses on the promising opportunities for researchers of the quality of life from its using.Among the possible lines to use cognitive modeling of the life quality indicators can be three main ones: implementation of new methods to assess the quality of life; choice of the most appropriate technique for a particular study among available methods; realization of the cognitive model and numerical experiment, which allows seeing the effect of external factors on the individual indicators of the quality of life. Thus, due to the high relevance and significant benefits from the use of the proposed method, the article is of interest to researchers of the quality of life

  16. Fast Newton active appearance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are statistical models of shape and appearance widely used in computer vision to detect landmarks on objects like faces. Fitting an AAM to a new image can be formulated as a non-linear least-squares problem which is typically solved using iterative methods. Owing to i

  17. Sensing Cardiac Electrical Activity With a Cardiac Myocyte--Targeted Optogenetic Voltage Indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang Liao, Mei-Ling; de Boer, Teun P; Mutoh, Hiroki; Raad, Nour; Richter, Claudia; Wagner, Eva; Downie, Bryan R; Unsöld, Bernhard; Arooj, Iqra; Streckfuss-Bömeke, Katrin; Döker, Stephan; Luther, Stefan; Guan, Kaomei; Wagner, Stefan; Lehnart, Stephan E; Maier, Lars S; Stühmer, Walter; Wettwer, Erich; van Veen, Toon; Morlock, Michael M; Knöpfel, Thomas; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Monitoring and controlling cardiac myocyte activity with optogenetic tools offer exciting possibilities for fundamental and translational cardiovascular research. Genetically encoded voltage indicators may be particularly attractive for minimal invasive and repeated assessments of cardiac

  18. Mid-infrared Spectral Indicators of Star Formation and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity in Normal Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treyer, Marie; Schiminovich, David; Johnson, Benjamin D.; O'Dowd, Matt; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted; Charlot, Stephane; Heckman, Timothy; Martins, Lucimara; Seibert, Mark; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of mid-infrared (MIR) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, the continuum, and emission lines as probes of star formation (SF) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 100 "normal" and local (z similar to 0.1) emission-line galaxies. The MIR spectra wer

  19. STUDY OF INDICATORS OF AMYLOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF MOUTH FLUID OF DENTAL HEALTHCARE WORKERS UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Melnikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Amylolytic activity indicators of oral liquid of dentists in different conditions of professional activity at outpatient dental care and lectures have been studied. We observed an increase in amylolytic activity of oral liquid of dentists men and women after outpatient dental care, that indicates the activation of the sympathetic-adrenal system in response to the professional stress. We also identified the gender-specific response to the α-amylase load in professional dentists: male amylolytic activity of oral fluid was higher than female. In the group of male and female dentist cadets we registered the decrease of amylolytic activity of oral fluid. The correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between the level of α-amylase and rigidity in a group of male dentists. We suggested that male dentists reduced their adaptation to the psychosocial conditions under job stress. Keywords: dentist, professional activity, professional stress, outpatient dental care, lectures, amylolytic activity of oral fluid.

  20. On the usage of geomagnetic indices for data selection in internal field modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauristie, K.; Morschhauser, A.; Olsen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    conditions. This exercise reveals that Dst and its time derivative yield a similar picture as Kp on quiet conditions as determined with the conditions typically used in internal field modelling. Magnetic quiescense at high latitudes is typically searched with the help of Merging Electric Field (MEF...... and observed values at high latitudes. Recent initiatives to upgrade the AE-indices, either with a better coverage of observing stations and improved baseline corrections (the Super-MAG concept) or with higher accuracy in pinpointing substorm activity (the Midlatitude Positive Bay -index) will most likely...

  1. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... of Horizontal Intertwining, Vertical Structuring and Horizontal Propagation the model consists of three phases, each considering different aspects of the nature of interdisciplinary activities. The theoretical modelling is inspired by work which focuses on the students abilities to concept formation in expanded...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  2. Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerboom, Jasper; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Wardill, Trevor J; Tian, Lin; Marvin, Jonathan S; Mutlu, Sevinç; Calderón, Nicole Carreras; Esposti, Federico; Borghuis, Bart G; Sun, Xiaonan Richard; Gordus, Andrew; Orger, Michael B; Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian; Macklin, John J; Filosa, Alessandro; Aggarwal, Aman; Kerr, Rex A; Takagi, Ryousuke; Kracun, Sebastian; Shigetomi, Eiji; Khakh, Baljit S; Baier, Herwig; Lagnado, Leon; Wang, Samuel S-H; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Kimmel, Bruce E; Jayaraman, Vivek; Svoboda, Karel; Kim, Douglas S; Schreiter, Eric R; Looger, Loren L

    2012-10-03

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) are powerful tools for systems neuroscience. Recent efforts in protein engineering have significantly increased the performance of GECIs. The state-of-the art single-wavelength GECI, GCaMP3, has been deployed in a number of model organisms and can reliably detect three or more action potentials in short bursts in several systems in vivo. Through protein structure determination, targeted mutagenesis, high-throughput screening, and a battery of in vitro assays, we have increased the dynamic range of GCaMP3 by severalfold, creating a family of "GCaMP5" sensors. We tested GCaMP5s in several systems: cultured neurons and astrocytes, mouse retina, and in vivo in Caenorhabditis chemosensory neurons, Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction and adult antennal lobe, zebrafish retina and tectum, and mouse visual cortex. Signal-to-noise ratio was improved by at least 2- to 3-fold. In the visual cortex, two GCaMP5 variants detected twice as many visual stimulus-responsive cells as GCaMP3. By combining in vivo imaging with electrophysiology we show that GCaMP5 fluorescence provides a more reliable measure of neuronal activity than its predecessor GCaMP3. GCaMP5 allows more sensitive detection of neural activity in vivo and may find widespread applications for cellular imaging in general.

  3. Motivation for Physical Activity and Mental Health Indicators in Male Gym Attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awruk Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of physical activity for mental well-being has been discussed in detail in the literature on the subject. However, a question arises concerning the relationship between motivation to exercise and psychological functioning. The objective of the present study was to test the relationship between the types of motivation for physical activity and selected indicators of mental health.

  4. Low-level electrical currents and brain indicators of behavioral activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lolas

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between slow brain potential correlates of arousal and activation on the basis of their functional role and temporal involvement during a reaction-time task, data are presented which suggest that weak electrical polarizing currents applied to the head in human subjects modify predominantly activation indicators rather than arousal ones.

  5. Active contours extension and similarity indicators for improved 3D segmentation of thyroid ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, P.; Illanes, A.; Arens, C.; Hansen, C.; Friebe, M.

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid segmentation in tracked 2D ultrasound (US) using active contours has a low segmentation accuracy mainly due to the fact that smaller structures cannot be efficiently recognized and segmented. To address this issue, we propose a new similarity indicator with the main objective to provide information to the active contour algorithm concerning the regions that the active contour should continue to expand or should stop. First, a preprocessing step is carried out in order to attenuate the noise present in the US image and to increase its contrast, using histogram equalization and a median filter. In the second step, active contours are used to segment the thyroid in each 2D image of the dataset. After performing a first segmentation, two similarity indicators (ratio of mean square error, MSE and correlation between histograms) are computed at each contour point of the initial segmented thyroid between rectangles located inside and outside the obtained contour. A threshold is used on a final indicator computed from the other two indicators to find the probable regions for further segmentation using active contours. This process is repeated until no new segmentation region is identified. Finally, all the segmented thyroid images passed through a 3D reconstruction algorithm to obtain a 3D volume segmented thyroid. The results showed that including similarity indicators based on histogram equalization and MSE between inside and outside regions of the contour can help to segment difficult areas that active contours have problem to segment.

  6. Social Capital in a Region: Revisiting the Measurement and Building of an Indicator Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanas’ev Dmitrii Vladimirovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital is gaining certain stability in the social studies. The heuristic potential of the concept is confirmed by numerous studies which prove the positive impact of levels and types of social capital on a wide range of social phenomena. Approaches to theoretical justification of social capital empirical appraisal are being formed, which is particularly relevant amid of general economic and structural crisis. However, science still lacks a generally accepted definition of social capital and the agreement on the ways to measure it. The article aims to theoretically justify the building of an indicator model for empirical measurement of social capital, which implies a set of indicators generated for a particular conceptual framework and helping obtain organized information about the phenomenon under study in order to identify the correlation between its components. The article is intended to foreground the need for social capital empirical measurement and comparison. The article contains analysis of theoretical approaches to the definition of social capital, notes its multi-aspect nature and productive ideas about the triadic nature of social capital lying at the interface between sociology, political science and economics. On the basis of generalization of positions concerning the types of social capital presented in scientific literature, the authors make a conclusion about the fundamental importance of distinguishing bridging and bonding social capital; of the necessity to identify special indicators for these types of social capital and their formal and informal components. The article presents the authors’ approach to building a social capital indicator model, including cognitive (readiness to join, responsibility for the state of affairs and structural elements (degree of participation in public activity, degree of participation in political activity, ability to influence the state of affairs, which helps obtain a

  7. Imaging activity in astrocytes and neurons with genetically encoded calcium indicators following in utero electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael eGee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex interactions between networks of astrocytes and neurons are beginning to be appreciated, but remain poorly understood. Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent protein reporters of cellular activity, such as the GCaMP family of genetically encoded calcium indicators, have been used to explore network behavior. However, in some cases, it may be desirable to use long-established rat models that closely mimic particular aspects of human conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and the development of epilepsy following status epilepticus. Methods for expressing reporter proteins in the rat brain are relatively limited. Transgenic rat technologies exist but are fairly immature. Viral-mediated expression is robust but unstable, requires invasive injections, and only works well for fairly small genes (< 5 kb. In utero electroporation offers a valuable alternative. IUE is a proven method for transfecting populations of astrocytes and neurons in the rat brain without the strict limitations on transgene size. We built a toolset of IUE plasmids carrying GCaMP variants 3, 6s or 6f driven by CAG and targeted to the cytosol or the plasma membrane. Because low baseline fluorescence of GCaMP can hinder identification of transfected cells, we included the option of co-expressing a cytosolic tdTomato protein. A binary system consisting of a plasmid carrying a piggyBac inverted terminal repeat-flanked CAG-GCaMP-IRES-tdTomato cassette and a separate plasmid encoding for expression of piggyBac transposase was employed to stably express GCaMP and tdTomato. The plasmids were co-electroporated on embryonic days 13.5-14.5 and astrocytic and neuronal activity was subsequently imaged in acute or cultured brain slices prepared from the cortex or hippocampus. Large spontaneous transients were detected in slices obtained from rats of varying ages up to 127 days. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of this toolset for interrogating astrocytic and neuronal

  8. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  9. Modeling Cytoskeletal Active Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Robert

    Active networks of filamentous proteins and crosslinking motor proteins play a critical role in many important cellular processes. One of the most important microtubule-motor protein assemblies is the mitotic spindle, a self-organized active liquid-crystalline structure that forms during cell division and that ultimately separates chromosomes into two daughter cells. Although the spindle has been intensively studied for decades, the physical principles that govern its self-organization and function remain mysterious. To evolve a better understanding of spindle formation, structure, and dynamics, I investigate course-grained models of active liquid-crystalline networks composed of microtubules, modeled as hard spherocylinders, in diffusive equilibrium with a reservoir of active crosslinks, modeled as hookean springs that can adsorb to microtubules and and translocate at finite velocity along the microtubule axis. This model is investigated using a combination of brownian dynamics and kinetic monte carlo simulation. I have further refined this model to simulate spindle formation and kinetochore capture in the fission yeast S. pombe. I then make predictions for experimentally realizable perturbations in motor protein presence and function in S. pombe.

  10. How to use composite indicator and linear programming model for determine sustainable tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaabadi, Maryam; Malakootian, Mohammad; Zare Mehrjerdi, Mohammad Reza; Jalaee, Seied Abdolmajid; Mehrabi Boshrabadi, Hosein

    2017-01-01

    The tourism industry which is one of the most dynamic economic activities in today's world plays a significant role in the sustainable development. Therefore, in addition to paying attention to tourism, sustainable tourism must be taken into huge account; otherwise, the environment and its health will be damaged irreparably. To determine the level of sustainability in this study, indicators of sustainable tourism were first presented in three environmental health, economic and social aspects. Then, the levels of sustainable tourism and environmental sustainability were practically measured in different cities of Kerman Province using a composite indicator, a linear programming model, Delphi method and the questionnaire technique. Finally, the study cities (tourist attractions) were ranked. Result of this study showed that unfortunately the tourism opportunities were not used appropriately in these cities and tourist destinations, and that environmental aspect (health and environmental sustainability) had very bad situations compared to social and economic aspects. In other words, environmental health had the lowest levels of sustainability. The environment is a place for all human activities like tourism, social and economic issues; therefore, its stability and health is of great importance. Thus, it is necessary to pay more attention to sustainability of activities, management and environmental health in planning sustainable development in regional and national policy.

  11. Impacts of Human Activity on Biodiversity——An Approach to Driving Force indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RichardDawson; CaoZhiping

    2005-01-01

    The impact of human activity on biodiversity is very complicated, making it difficult to design practical indicators for assessment. Currently, state and response indicators are listed within Chapter 15 of Agenda 21, but no mention is made of driving force indicators and how they relate to biodiversity protection. This paper represents an effort to identify and then operationalize the idea of driving force indicators at national level. Five human induced factors affecting blodiversity were discussed: (a) habitat toss and fragmentation; (b) overexploitation of resources; (c) species introduction; (d) pollution; and (e) climate change. From these five factors, a subset was selected to serve as possible driving force indicators: (1) habitat loss, (2) the ratio of exotic species to indigenous ones, and (3) the change in pollution status. Although the three indicators are relatively simple, they cover the most important human impacts on biodiversity and offer the potential for further redefinition and ultimate use within the spirit of biodiversity protection.

  12. Heme oxygenase activity correlates with serum indices of iron homeostasis in healthy nonsmokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirm...

  13. Synchronous fire activity in the tropical high Andes: an indication of regional climate forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman-Cuesta, R.M.; Carmona-Moreno, C.; Lizcano, G.; New, M.; Silman, M.R.; Knoke, T.; Malhi, Y.; Oliveras Menor, I.; Asbjornsen, H.; Vuille, M.

    2014-01-01

    Global climate models suggest enhanced warming of the tropical mid and upper troposphere, with larger temperature rise rates at higher elevations. Changes in fire activity are amongst the most significant ecological consequences of rising temperatures and changing hydrological properties in

  14. Parameterization of FAO's AquaCrop Model by Integrating a Hydrological Model and Climate Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorn, C.; Kienzle, S. W.; Doria, R.; Jiskoot, H.; Cheng, H.

    2014-12-01

    One of the greatest global challenges is to meet growing food demand under rapidly changing climate conditions. Continued global population growth increases the pressure on the agriculture sector to produce enough food to feed the world. In 2013, the province of Alberta, Canada, set a record high for principal field crop production of 34.5 million tonnes (Matejovsky, 2014). AquaCrop, a crop yield and water productivity model developed by the Land and Water Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), attempts to balance the accuracy, simplicity and robustness of crop modelling (Steduto et al., 2009). The model is focused on the three components of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. AquaCrop is applied in this study for simulating hard red spring wheat and durum wheat yields, and simulated yields are verified against observed yields available from a crop insurer. One of the challenges of crop yield modelling is the selection of a realistic seeding date, which can vary by four to five weeks (end of March to end of April). In order to enable realistic simulation for the historical period 1950-2010 as well the future period 2041-2070, AquaCrop is coupled with the ACRU agro-hydrological modelling system to determine the soil moisture conditions after the spring snow melt, and with a WMO climate index which determines the climatological beginning of the growing season. Therefore, the selection of a realistic seeding data for individual years can be dynamically optimized, based on the combination of the beginning of the climatological growing season and soil moisture status. The results of the coupling of ACRU and calculated climate indices with AquaCrop will be presented to show how improvements of parameterization of the AquaCrop model can be used to simulate wheat yields in Southern Alberta under changing climate conditions.

  15. Assessment of indices of temperature extremes simulated by multiple CMIP5 models over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Siyan; Xu, Ying; Zhou, Botao; Shi, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Given that climate extremes in China might have serious regional and global consequences, an increasing number of studies are examining temperature extremes in China using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. This paper investigates recent changes in temperature extremes in China using 25 state-of-the-art global climate models participating in CMIP5. Thirteen indices that represent extreme temperature events were chosen and derived by daily maximum and minimum temperatures, including those representing the intensity (absolute indices and threshold indices), duration (duration indices), and frequency (percentile indices) of extreme temperature. The overall performance of each model is summarized by a "portrait" diagram based on relative root-mean-square error, which is the RMSE relative to the median RMSE of all models, revealing the multi-model ensemble simulation to be better than individual model for most indices. Compared with observations, the models are able to capture the main features of the spatial distribution of extreme temperature during 1986-2005. Overall, the CMIP5 models are able to depict the observed indices well, and the spatial structure of the ensemble result is better for threshold indices than frequency indices. The spread amongst the CMIP5 models in different subregions for intensity indices is small and the median CMIP5 is close to observations; however, for the duration and frequency indices there can be wide disagreement regarding the change between models and observations in some regions. The model ensemble also performs well in reproducing the observational trend of temperature extremes. All absolute indices increase over China during 1961-2005.

  16. Evaluation-of soil enzyme activities as soil quality indicators in sludge-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, Efsun; Şağban, Fatma Olcay Topaç; Başkaya, Hüseyin Savaş

    2015-07-01

    Soil enzymatic activities are commonly used as biomarkers of soil quality. Several organic and inorganic compounds found in municipal wastewater sludges can possibly be used as fertilizers. Monitoring and evaluating the quality of sludge amended soils with enzyme activities accepted as a beneficial practice with respect to sustainable soil management. In the present study, variation of some enzyme activities (Alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase, urease and beta-glucosidase activities) in soils amended with municipal wastewater sludge at different application rates (50, 100 and 200 t ha(-1) dry sludge) was evaluated. Air dried sludge samples were applied to soil pots and sludge-soil mixtures were incubated during a period of three months at 28 degrees C. The results of the study showed that municipal wastewater sludge amendment apparently increased urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and P-glucosidase activities in soil by 48-70%, 14-47%, 33-66% and 9-14%, respectively. The maximum activity was generally observed in sludge amended soil with dose of 200 t ha(-1). Urease activity appeared to be a better indicator of soil enhancement with wastewater sludge, as its activity was more strongly increased by sludge amendment. Accordingly, urease activity is suggested to be soil quality indicator best suited for measuring existing conditions and potential changes in sludge-amended soil.

  17. Calculation of Classical Polar-Activity Indices Using Their Modern Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhatov, N. A.; Korolev, A. V.; Levitin, A. E.; Sakharov, S. Yu.

    2004-03-01

    At present, the auroral-electrojet AE, AU, and AL indices are calculated using a smaller number of stations than earlier. This influences the accuracy of estimates of the magnetospheric activity components, which are performed using the relationships with modern indices AE8 (obtained from the data of 8 stations) substituted instead of the classical indices AE12 (obtained from the data of 12 stations). In this paper, we develop an artificial neural-network (ANN) algoritm for recalculating the classical polar-activity indices from modern ones. It is demonstrated that the developed ANN is capable of retrieving the AE12-index from data of 8 stations (AE8) with efficiency reaching 90% in some cases. The results obtained allow one to estimate the error in the representation of the auroral-electrojet activity by modern AE8 indices as compared with the ones introduced into geophysical research by their creators. We also develop a retrieval technique for polar indices, which employs data on solar-wind parameters.

  18. Usefulness of Endoscopic Indices in Determination of Disease Activity in Patients with Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kucharski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assessment of endoscopic activity of Crohn’s disease (CD is of growing importance both in clinical practice and in clinical trials. The study aimed to assess which of the endoscopic indices used for evaluation of mucosal changes correlates with the currently used clinical indices for determination of disease activity and with the results of histopathological examination. Study. A group of 71 patients with CD and 52 individuals without a diagnosis of GI tract disease as a control group were investigated, considering clinical and histological severity of the disease and the severity of inflammatory changes in the bowel. Evaluation was conducted with the use of clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological indices. Endoscopic indices were then correlated with different clinical and histopathological indices with the aim of finding the strongest correlations. Results and Conclusions. Correlation between the clinical disease activity and the severity of endoscopic lesions in CD was shown in this study to be poor. The results also indicate that the optimal endoscopic index used in the diagnostic stage and in the assessment of treatment effects in CD is Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn’s Disease (SES-CD.

  19. A Growth-rate Indicator for Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, M.; Masini, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Chen, C.-T.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Ricci, C.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.

    2016-07-01

    Due to their heavily obscured central engines, the growth rate of Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is difficult to measure. A statistically significant correlation between the Eddington ratio, λ Edd, and the X-ray power-law index, Γ, observed in unobscured AGNs offers an estimate of their growth rate from X-ray spectroscopy (albeit with large scatter). However, since X-rays undergo reprocessing by Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption when the line of sight to the central engine is heavily obscured, the recovery of the intrinsic Γ is challenging. Here we study a sample of local, predominantly CT megamaser AGNs, where the black hole mass, and thus Eddington luminosity, are well known. We compile results of the X-ray spectral fitting of these sources with sensitive high-energy (E > 10 keV) NuSTAR data, where X-ray torus models, which take into account the reprocessing effects have been used to recover the intrinsic Γ values and X-ray luminosities, L X. With a simple bolometric correction to L X to calculate λ Edd, we find a statistically significant correlation between Γ and λ Edd (p = 0.007). A linear fit to the data yields Γ = (0.41 ± 0.18)log10 λ Edd + (2.38 ± 0.20), which is statistically consistent with results for unobscured AGNs. This result implies that torus modeling successfully recovers the intrinsic AGN parameters. Since the megamasers have low-mass black holes (M BH ≈ 106-107 M ⊙) and are highly inclined, our results extend the Γ-λ Edd relationship to lower masses and argue against strong orientation effects in the corona, in support of AGN unification. Finally this result supports the use of Γ as a growth-rate indicator for accreting black holes, even for CT AGNs.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of a New Fluorescent Indicator for the Intracellular Calcium Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Huaizhen; LEI Lei; LI Jianli; SHI Zhen

    2009-01-01

    A novel calcium-selective fluorescent indicator Fluo-3M AM was synthesized by introduction of a methyl group into the Ca2+-chelating moiety and adequately characterized by spectral methods (1H NMR, GC-MS, IR and MALDI-TOF MS). Meanwhile, its fluorescence spectra and some biological activities have been also studied. The results indicate that the new fluorescent indicator has relatively high affinity to calcium and a strong fluorescence signal, which should be useful for biomedical researchers to investigate the effects of calcium ions in biosystems.

  1. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC INDICATORS FOR ACTIVITY OF THE HOSPITALS IN SOFIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetelina M. Petrova-Gotova

    2015-01-01

    In the article are presented and analyzed the main economic indicators of hospitals’ activity in Sofia region for the period 2010 – 2012. The author formulates recommendations on optimizing the organization and management of activities and the financial resources of the reviewed hospitals. An important feature of effective hospital management is the style and resource thinking of the health manager. Achieving efficiency in the operation of the hospital requires an adequate approach by the hos...

  2. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  3. Appraisal of active tectonics in Hindu Kush: Insights from DEM derived geomorphic indices and drainage analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Amer Mahmood

    2012-07-01

    The results obtained from these indices were combined to yield an index of relative active tectonics (IRAT using GIS. The average of the seven measured geomorphic indices was used to evaluate the distribution of relative tectonic activity in the study area. We defined four classes to define the degree of relative tectonic activity: class 1__very high (1.0 ≤ IRAT < 1.3; class 2__high (1.3 ≥ IRAT < 1.5; class 3—moderate (1.5 ≥ IRAT < 1.8; and class 4—low (1.8 ≥ IRAT. In view of the results, we conclude that this combined approach allows the identification of the highly deformed areas related to active tectonics. Landsat imagery and field observations also evidence the presence of active tectonics based on the deflected streams, deformed landforms, active mountain fronts and triangular facets. The indicative values of IRAT are consistent with the areas of known relative uplift rates, landforms and geology.

  4. Leukocytes respiratory burst activity as indicator of innate immunity of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Biller-Takahashi

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the assay to quantify the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu as an indicator of the innate immune system, using the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT to formazan as a measure of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In order to assess the accuracy of the assay, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after challenge. The A. hydrophila infection increased the leukocyte respiratory burst activity. The protocol showed a reliable and easy assay, appropriate to determine the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu, a neotropical fish, in the present experimental conditions.

  5. The development of candidate composite disease activity and responder indices for psoriatic arthritis (GRACE project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helliwell, P.S.; Fitzgerald, O.; Fransen, J.; Gladman, D.D.; Kreuger, G.G.; Callis-Duffin, K.; McHugh, N.; Mease, P.J.; Strand, V.; Waxman, R.; Azevedo, V.F.; Beltran Ostos, A.; Carneiro, S.; Cauli, A.; Espinoza, L.R.; Flynn, J.A.; Hassan, N.; Healy, P.; Kerzberg, E.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Lubrano, E.; Marchesoni, A.; Marzo-Ortega, H.; Porru, G.; Moreta, E.G.; Nash, P.; Raffayova, H.; Ranza, R.; Raychaudhuri, S.P.; Roussou, E.; Scarpa, R.; Song, Y.W.; Soriano, E.R.; Tak, P.P.; Ujfalussy, I.; Vlam, K. de; Walsh, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop new composite disease activity indices for psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: Data from routine clinic visits at multiple centres were collected in a systematic manner. Data included all domains identified as important in randomised controlled trials in PsA. Decisions to chang

  6. The Adequacy of the Science Citation Index (SCI) as an Indicator of International Scientific Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark P.; Narin, Francis

    1981-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of Science Citation Index (SCI) as a source for developing indicators of international scientific activity. Journal counts based on SCI and British Library Lending Division (BLLD) cataloging records are compared and reference patterns in key journals are described. Eleven references are listed. (JL)

  7. Beyond the model democracy: observational constraints indicate risk of drying in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiogama, Hideo; Emori, Seita; Hanasaki, Naota; Abe, Manabu; Masutomi, Yuji; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Nozawa, Toru

    2013-04-01

    Climate warming due to human activities will be accompanied by hydrological cycle changes. Economies, societies and ecosystems in South America (SA) are vulnerable to such water resource changes. Hence, water resource impact assessments for SA, and corresponding adaptation and mitigation policies, have attracted increased attention. However, substantial uncertainties remain in the current water resource assessments that are based on multiple coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation models. This uncertainty varies from significant wetting to catastrophic drying. By applying a statistical method, we characterised the uncertainty and identified global-scale metrics for measuring the reliability of water resource assessments in SA. Here we show that, whereas the ensemble mean assessment suggested wetting across most of SA, the observational constraints indicate a higher probability of drying in the Amazon basin. Naive over-reliance on the consensus of models can lead to inappropriate decision making. Reference: Shiogama, H. et al. Observational constraints indicate risk of drying in the Amazon basin. Nature Communications 2:253 doi: 10.1038/ncomms1252 (2011).

  8. Long-term stellar activity variations of stars from the HARPS M-dwarf sample: Comparison between activity indices

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, J Gomes; Bonfils, X

    2010-01-01

    We used four known chromospheric activity indicators to measure long-term activity variations in a sample of 23 M-dwarf stars from the HARPS planet search program. We compared the indices using weighted Pearson correlation coefficients and found that in general (i) the correlation between $S_{CaII}$ and \\ion{Na}{i} is very strong and does not depend on the activity level of the stars, (ii) the correlation between our $S_{CaII}$ and H$\\alpha$ seems to depend on the activity level of the stars, and (iii) there is no strong correlation between $S_{CaII}$ and \\ion{He}{i} for these type of stars.

  9. Winterkill indicator model, Crop Condition Assessment Division (CCAD) data base interface driver, user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the Winterkill indicator model CCAD data base interface driver. The purpose of the system is to interface the Winterkill Indicator Model with the CCAD operational data base. The interface driver routine decides what meteorological stations should be processed and calls the proper subroutines to process the stations.

  10. Wheat stress indicator model, Crop Condition Assessment Division (CCAD) data base interface driver, user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of the wheat stress indicator model CCAD data base interface driver is described. The purpose of this system is to interface the wheat stress indicator model with the CCAD operational data base. The interface driver routine decides what meteorological stations should be processed and calls the proper subroutines to process the stations.

  11. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by a model based on risk indicators: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning;

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators.......This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators....

  12. Physical activity as an indicator of predictive functional disability in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtuoso Júnior, Jair Sindra; Tribess, Sheilla; Paulo, Thais Reis Silva De; Martins, Cristiane Alves; Romo-Perez, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the time spent on physical activity in female and male individuals as a predictor of the absence of functional disability in older adults, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 624 individuals. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves (ROC) were constructed and compared to areas of physical activity by gender and the absence of functional disability. We identified cutoffs of physical activity (minutes / week) to predict the absence of functional disability (CI 95%). It was found that there is a higher area under the ROC curve for the time spent on physical activities in females. It was observed that 280 minutes / week (women) or 410 minutes / week (men) were the best cutoff points for predicting the absence of functional disability. Time spent on physical activity practices can serve as an important indicator to sort priority groups for certain interventions.

  13. Quality of life and physical activity as indicators of health-preserving competence of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Iu.A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and physical activity of teachers of physical culture, basic of health, labour, the defense of Motherland and pedagogue-organizers from secondary schools Lviv region (Ukraine were investigated. The 402 persons (age 24-78 years were surveyed with the use of questionnaires MOS SF 36 and IPAQ. The highest quality of life and level of physical activity have teachers of physical culture. It is considered the quality of life of teachers of other subjects similar to persons with chronic diseases. The level of physical activity in leisure time was particularly low for teachers of Basic of Health and pedagogue-organizers. The teachers spent no more than 433 MET-min/ week for moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity. The level of physical activity of teachers (besides the physical education teachers was insufficient to improve health and indicate about low level of health-preserving competence.

  14. Developing of Indicators of an E-Learning Benchmarking Model for Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Khow, Jirasak

    2014-01-01

    This study was the development of e-learning indicators used as an e-learning benchmarking model for higher education institutes. Specifically, it aimed to: 1) synthesize the e-learning indicators; 2) examine content validity by specialists; and 3) explore appropriateness of the e-learning indicators. Review of related literature included…

  15. Spatial Memory Activity Distributions Indicate the Hippocampus Operates in a Continuous Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeye, Brittany M; Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2016-08-26

    There is a long-standing debate as to whether recollection is a continuous/graded process or a threshold/all-or-none process. In the current spatial memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined the hippocampal activity distributions-the magnitude of activity as a function of memory strength-to determine the nature of processing in this region. During encoding, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field. During retrieval, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants classified each shape as previously in the "left" or "right" visual field followed by an "unsure"-"sure"-"very sure" confidence rating. The contrast of left-hits and left-misses produced two activations in the hippocampus. The hippocampal activity distributions for left shapes and right shapes were completely overlapping. Critically, the magnitude of activity associated with right-miss-very sure responses was significantly greater than zero. These results support the continuous model of recollection, which predicts overlapping activity distributions, and contradict the threshold model of recollection, which predicts a threshold above which only one distribution exists. Receiver operating characteristic analysis did not distinguish between models. The present results demonstrate that the hippocampus operates in a continuous manner during recollection and highlight the utility of analyzing activity distributions to determine the nature of neural processing.

  16. Spatial Memory Activity Distributions Indicate the Hippocampus Operates in a Continuous Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany M. Jeye

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a long-standing debate as to whether recollection is a continuous/graded process or a threshold/all-or-none process. In the current spatial memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we examined the hippocampal activity distributions—the magnitude of activity as a function of memory strength—to determine the nature of processing in this region. During encoding, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field. During retrieval, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants classified each shape as previously in the “left” or “right” visual field followed by an “unsure”–“sure”–“very sure” confidence rating. The contrast of left-hits and left-misses produced two activations in the hippocampus. The hippocampal activity distributions for left shapes and right shapes were completely overlapping. Critically, the magnitude of activity associated with right-miss-very sure responses was significantly greater than zero. These results support the continuous model of recollection, which predicts overlapping activity distributions, and contradict the threshold model of recollection, which predicts a threshold above which only one distribution exists. Receiver operating characteristic analysis did not distinguish between models. The present results demonstrate that the hippocampus operates in a continuous manner during recollection and highlight the utility of analyzing activity distributions to determine the nature of neural processing.

  17. GFAP expression as an indicator of disease severity in mouse models of Alexander disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albee Messing

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AxD (Alexander disease is a rare disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein resulting in accumulation of the GFAP protein and elevation of Gfap mRNA. To test whether GFAP itself can serve as a biomarker of disease status or progression, we investigated two independent measures of GFAP expression in AxD mouse models, one using a genetic reporter of promoter activity and the other quantifying GFAP protein directly in a manner that could also be employed in human studies. Using a transgenic reporter line that expresses firefly luciferase under the control of the murine Gfap promoter (Gfap-luc, we found that luciferase activity reflected the regional CNS (central nervous system variability of Gfap mRNA in Gfap+/+ mice, and increased in mice containing a point mutation in Gfap that mimics a common human mutation in AxD (R239H in the human sequence, and R236H in the murine sequence. In a second set of studies, we quantified GFAP protein in CSF (cerebrospinal fluid taken from three different AxD mouse models and littermate controls. GFAP levels in CSF were increased in all three AxD models, in a manner corresponding to the concentrations of GFAP in brain. These studies demonstrate that transactivation of the Gfap promoter is an early and sustained indicator of the disease process in the mouse. Furthermore, GFAP in CSF serves as a potential biomarker that is comparable between mouse models and human patients.

  18. Active video games and health indicators in children and youth: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana G LeBlanc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active video games (AVGs have gained interest as a way to increase physical activity in children and youth. The effect of AVGs on acute energy expenditure (EE has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to explain the relationship between AVGs and nine health and behavioural indicators in the pediatric population (aged 0-17 years. DATA SOURCES: Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Central Database and personal libraries were searched and content experts were consulted for additional material. DATA SELECTION: Included articles were required to have a measure of AVG and at least one relevant health or behaviour indicator: EE (both habitual and acute, adherence and appeal (i.e., participation and enjoyment, opportunity cost (both time and financial considerations, and adverse events, adiposity, cardiometabolic health, energy intake, adaptation (effects of continued play, learning and rehabilitation, and video game evolution (i.e., sustainability of AVG technology. RESULTS: 51 unique studies, represented in 52 articles were included in the review. Data were available from 1992 participants, aged 3-17 years, from 8 countries, and published from 2006-2012. Overall, AVGs are associated with acute increases in EE, but effects on habitual physical activity are not clear. Further, AVGs show promise when used for learning and rehabilitation within special populations. Evidence related to other indicators was limited and inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Controlled studies show that AVGs acutely increase light- to moderate-intensity physical activity; however, the findings about if or how AVG lead to increases in habitual physical activity or decreases in sedentary behaviour are less clear. Although AVGs may elicit some health benefits in special populations, there is not sufficient evidence to

  19. A new class of indicators for the model selection of scaling laws in nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupelli, I., E-mail: Ivan.Lupelli@ccfe.ac.uk [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Mazon, D. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache DSM/IRFM, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vega, J. [Asociación EURATOM-CIEMAT para Fusión, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A new model selection indicator, based on the Model Falsification Criterion, has been applied to the problem of choosing the scaling laws for power threshold scaling to access the H-mode in tokamaks. ► The indicators have at least the same selection power of the classic indicators for databases of low dimensionality. ► For the high dimensionality dataset the indicator outperforms the traditional criteria. ► The indicator preserves its advantages up to a noise of 20% of the signal level. -- Abstract: The development of computationally efficient model selection strategies represents an important problem facing the analysis of nuclear fusion experimental data, in particular in the field of scaling laws for the extrapolation to future machines, and image processing. In this paper, a new model selection indicator, named Model Falsification Criterion (MFC), will be presented and applied to the problem of choosing the most generalizable scaling laws for the power threshold (P{sub Thresh}) to access the H-mode of confinement in tokamaks. The proposed indicator is based on the properties of the model residuals, their entropy and an implementation of the data falsification principle. The model selection ability of the proposed criterion will be demonstrated in comparison with the most widely used frequentist (Akaike information criterion) and bayesian (Bayesian information criterion) indicators.

  20. THE ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCES OF THE ENTREPRISE THROUGH INDICATORS OF THE VOLUME OF ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POP Fãnuța

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The activity of any economic entity is aimed at providing objects, works and services meant to fulfill certain social needs, as well as at achieving a certain level of profit which would enable the entreprise to maintain and/or develop in business. In order to reach these objectives, the offer of the entreprise should meet the demand of the market whithin which it activates in terms of: volume (how much it is demanded?, structure (what brands are demanded and what is their share in the total production?, rhythmicity (during what span of time? and level of quality (does the offer of the entity meet the qualitative level demanded by clients?. The entreprise develops interconditioning relations with its external factors, namely clients, suppliers, the state, employees, shareholders, banks, the government and budgetary institutions; the degree to which their expectations are met reflects the efficiency of the activity undertaken. Among the main indicators of performance, one could cite the turnover and the added value that reflect the economic raise of the entity, conditions its strategic position and defines its place in relation to other competitors, within the branch of activity concerned. A high level of turnover and added value guarantees that the economic entity develops a profitable activity, that it is expanding and developing, a fact with consequences upon the main economic-financial indicators but also upon the efficiency of the activity of the economic entity. The main objectives of the present paper are to point out the dynamics of the indicators of volume of activity, of factors of influence and of their strategies of growth. In addition to that, the study tries to ground and analyse theoretical aspects by providing some practical examples based on real data obtained from an economic entity during the period 2008-2011, but also data published by the INSSE for the same period, in order to observe its evolution in relation to other

  1. Disinfection of model indicator organisms in a drinking water pilot plant by using PEROXONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, R.L.; Stewart, M.H.; Liang, S.; McGuire, M.J. (Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, La Verne (USA))

    1989-09-01

    PEROXONE is an advanced oxidation process generated by combining ozone and hydrogen peroxide. This process stimulates the production of hydroxyl radicals, which have been shown to be superior to ozone for the destruction of some organic contaminants. In this study, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the microbicidal effectiveness of PEROXONE and ozone against three model indicator groups. Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage were seeded into the influent to the preozonation contactors of a pilot plant simulating conventional water treatment and were exposed to four ozone dosages, four hydrogen peroxide/ozone weight ratios, and four contact times in two source waters--Colorado River water and state project water--of different quality. The removal of heterotrophic plate count bacteria was also monitored. Results of the study indicated that the microbicidal activity of PEROXONE was greatly affected by the applied ozone dose, H2O2/O3 ratio, contact time, source water quality, and type of microorganism tested. At contact times of 5 min or less, ozone alone was a more potent bactericide than PEROXONE at all H2O2/O3 ratios tested. However, this decrease in the bactericidal potency of PEROXONE was dramatic only as the H2O2/O3 ratio was increased from 0.5 to 0.8. The fact that the bactericidal activity of PEROXONE generally decreased with increasing H2O2/O3 ratios was thought to be related to the lower ozone residuals produced. The viricidal activity of PEROXONE and ozone was comparable at all of the H2O2/O3 ratios. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria were the most resistant group of organisms. Greater inactivation of E. coli and MS2 was observed in Colorado River water than in state project water and appeared to result from differences in the turbidity and alkalinity of the two waters. Regardless of source water, greater than 4.5 log10 of E.

  2. Observations of hysteresis in solar cycle variations among seven solar activity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.; White, Oran R.

    1994-01-01

    We show that smoothed time series of 7 indices of solar activity exhibit significant solar cycle dependent differences in their relative variations during the past 20 years. In some cases these observed hysteresis patterns start to repeat over more than one solar cycle, giving evidence that this is a normal feature of solar variability. Among the indices we study, we find that the hysteresis effects are approximately simple phase shifts, and we quantify these phase shifts in terms of lag times behind the leading index, the International Sunspot Number. Our measured lag times range from less than one month to greater than four months and can be much larger than lag times estimated from short-term variations of these same activity indices during the emergence and decay of major active regions. We argue that hysteresis represents a real delay in the onset and decline of solar activity and is an important clue in the search for physical processes responsible for changing solar emission at various wavelengths.

  3. Observations of hysteresis in solar cycle variations among seven solar activity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.; White, Oran R.

    1994-01-01

    We show that smoothed time series of 7 indices of solar activity exhibit significant solar cycle dependent differences in their relative variations during the past 20 years. In some cases these observed hysteresis patterns start to repeat over more than one solar cycle, giving evidence that this is a normal feature of solar variability. Among the indices we study, we find that the hysteresis effects are approximately simple phase shifts, and we quantify these phase shifts in terms of lag times behind the leading index, the International Sunspot Number. Our measured lag times range from less than one month to greater than four months and can be much larger than lag times estimated from short-term variations of these same activity indices during the emergence and decay of major active regions. We argue that hysteresis represents a real delay in the onset and decline of solar activity and is an important clue in the search for physical processes responsible for changing solar emission at various wavelengths.

  4. Validating the Heat Stress Indices for Using In Heavy Work Activities in Hot and Dry Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Sayed Mohammad; Taheri, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Necessity of evaluating heat stress in the workplace, require validation of indices and selection optimal index. The present study aimed to assess the precision and validity of some heat stress indices and select the optimum index for using in heavy work activities in hot and dry climates. It carried out on 184 workers from 40 brick kilns workshops in the city of Qom, central Iran (as representative hot and dry climates). After reviewing the working process and evaluation the activity of workers and the type of work, environmental and physiological parameters according to standards recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) including ISO 7243 and ISO 9886 were measured and indices were calculated. Workers engaged in indoor kiln experienced the highest values of natural wet temperature, dry temperature, globe temperature and relative humidity among studied sections (Pstress index (HSI) indices had the highest correlation with other physiological parameters among the other heat stress indices. Relationship between WBGT index and carotid artery temperature (r=0.49), skin temperature (r=0.319), and oral temperature (r=0.203) was statistically significant (P=0.006). Since WBGT index, as the most applicable index for evaluating heat stress in workplaces is approved by ISO, and due to the positive features of WBGT such as ease of measurement and calculation, and with respect to some limitation in application of HSI; WBGT can be introduced as the most valid empirical index of heat stress in the brick workshops.

  5. Disinfection of model indicator organisms in a drinking water pilot plant by using PEROXONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R L; Stewart, M H; Liang, S; McGuire, M J

    1989-09-01

    PEROXONE is an advanced oxidation process generated by combining ozone and hydrogen peroxide. This process stimulates the production of hydroxyl radicals, which have been shown to be superior to ozone for the destruction of some organic contaminants. In this study, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the microbicidal effectiveness of PEROXONE and ozone against three model indicator groups. Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage were seeded into the influent to the preozonation contactors of a pilot plant simulating conventional water treatment and were exposed to four ozone dosages (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/liter), four hydrogen peroxide/ozone (H2O2/O3) weight ratios (0, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8), and four contact times (4, 5, 12, and 16 min) in two source waters--Colorado River water and state project water--of different quality. The removal of heterotrophic plate count bacteria was also monitored. Results of the study indicated that the microbicidal activity of PEROXONE was greatly affected by the applied ozone dose, H2O2/O3 ratio, contact time, source water quality, and type of microorganism tested. At contact times of 5 min or less, ozone alone was a more potent bactericide than PEROXONE at all H2O2/O3 ratios tested. However, this decrease in the bactericidal potency of PEROXONE was dramatic only as the H2O2/O3 ratio was increased from 0.5 to 0.8. The fact that the bactericidal activity of PEROXONE generally decreased with increasing H2O2/O3 ratios was thought to be related to the lower ozone residuals produced. The viricidal activity of PEROXONE and ozone was comparable at all of the H2O2/O3 ratios. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria were the most resistant group of organisms. Greater inactivation of E. coli and MS2 was observed in Colorado River water than in state project water and appeared to result from differences in the turbidity and alkalinity of the two waters. Regardless of source water, greater than 4.5 log10 of E. coli and MS2 was inactivated

  6. Modeling electrically active viscoelastic membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitikantha Roy

    Full Text Available The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism.

  7. Selected indicators of physical activities and inactivities of persons with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Bláha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For persons with visual impairments it is more difficult in many ways to carry out physical activities. They usually have a lower level of locomotive faculties and the negative trends of contemporary lifestyle related to the imbalance in energy intake and expenditure may affect them in larger measure. AIM: The objective of this research was to find out the volume of everyday physical activities compared to the passive relaxation. METHODS: Using the questionnaire IPAQ-short, we investigated the indicators characterizing the applied physical activity and inactivity during the week of citizens with visual impairment in the Usti Region (n = 152. The acquired data was converted to values MET and MET- min. . week-1. RESULTS: We recorded low values in intense physical activities and moderate activities. In the total volume of reported activities during the week (2967 METmin. . week-1 there is an increased share of walking (2222 MET-min. . week-1. CONCLUSIONS: Only a small part of the persons with visual impairments meets more of the health recommended criteria. Their lifestyle may suffer from an excess of sedentary activities that may have an unfavorable influence on health. These manifestations appear most in the persons with the highest degree of impairment. We recommend supporting their activity by the presence of tracers, improvements in navigation and preparation of specific programs. We see the possible measures also in the municipal politics.

  8. Larval fish assemblages across an upwelling front: Indication for active and passive retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, Maik; Brehmer, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    In upwelling areas, enrichment, concentration and retention are physical processes that have major consequences for larval fish survival. While these processes generally increase larval survival, strong upwelling can also increase mortality due to an offshore transport of larvae towards unfavorable habitats. In 2013 a survey was conducted along the Senegalese coast to investigate the upwelling effect with regard to larval fish assemblages and possible larval fish retention. According to water column characteristics two distinct habitats during an upwelling event were discriminated, i.e. the inshore upwelled water and the transition area over the deepest part of the Senegalese shelf. Along the two areas 42,162 fish larvae were collected representing 133 species within 40 families. Highest larval fish abundances were observed in the inshore area and decreasing abundances towards the transition, indicating that certain fish species make use of the retentive function of the inner shelf area as spawning grounds. Two larval fish assemblages overlap both habitats, which are sharply delimited by a strong upwelling front. One assemblage inhabited the inshore/upwelling area characterized by majorly neritic and pelagic species (Sparidae spp., Sardinella aurita), that seem to take the advantage of a passive retention on the shelf. The second assemblage consisted of a mix of pelagic and mesopelagic species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Carangidae spp. and Myctophidae spp.). Some species of the second assemblage, e.g. horse mackerels (Trachurus trachurus and Trachurus trecae), large finned-lantern fish (Hygophum macrochir) and foureyed sole (Microchirus ocellatus), revealed larval peak occurrences at intermediate and deep water layers, where the near-ground upwelling layer is able to transport larvae back to the shelf. This indicates active larval retention for species that are dominant in the transition area. Diel vertical migration patterns of S. aurita, E. encrasicolus and M

  9. Novel application of Wiener vis-à-vis Szeged indices: Antitubercular activities of quinolones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay K Agarwal; Shahnaz Bano; Keshav C Mathur; Padmakar V Khadikar

    2000-04-01

    The paper gives a brief account of the recently introduced Szeged index (Sz). Using this index antitubercular activities of N-2,4-difluorophenyl quinolones are subjected to quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. The potential of Sz related to the Wiener index (W) is critically discussed. In addition, Huckel molecular orbital energies: HOMO, LUMO and total were also used for comparing and modelling antitubercular activities of the quinolones. The results, based on univariate as well as multivariate regressions, have shown that W, Sz and total give better results and that the correlations improve in multivariate regression analyses.

  10. Variability of basin scale water resources indicators derived from global hydrological and land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Micha; Blyth, Eleanor; Schellekens, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    Global hydrological and land-surface models are becoming increasingly available, and as the resolution of these improves, as well how hydrological processes are represented, so does their potential. These offer consistent datasets at the global scale, which can be used to establish water balances and derive policy relevant indicators in medium to large basins, including those that are poorly gauged. However, differences in model structure, model parameterisation, and model forcing may result in quite different indicator values being derived, depending on the model used. In this paper we explore indicators developed using four land surface models (LSM) and five global hydrological models (GHM). Results from these models have been made available through the Earth2Observe project, a recent research initiative funded by the European Union 7th Research Framework. All models have a resolution of 0.5 arc degrees, and are forced using the same WATCH-ERA-Interim (WFDEI) meteorological re-analysis data at a daily time step for the 32 year period from 1979 to 2012. We explore three water resources indicators; an aridity index, a simplified water exploitation index; and an indicator that calculates the frequency of occurrence of root zone stress. We compare indicators derived over selected areas/basins in Europe, Colombia, Southern Africa, the Indian Subcontinent and Australia/New Zealand. The hydrological fluxes calculated show quite significant differences between the nine models, despite the common forcing dataset, with these differences reflected in the indicators subsequently derived. The results show that the variability between models is related to the different climates types, with that variability quite logically depending largely on the availability of water. Patterns are also found in the type of models that dominate different parts of the distribution of the indicator values, with LSM models providing lower values, and GHM models providing higher values in some

  11. Soil enzyme activities and their indication for fertility of urban forest soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To reveal the biological characteristics of urban forest soil and the effects of soil enzyme on soil fertility as well as the correlation between physicochemical properties and enzyme activities,44 urban forest soil profiles in Nanjing were investigated.Basic soil physicochemical properties and enzyme activities were analyzed in the laboratory.Hydrogen peroxidase,dehydrogenase,alkaline phosphatase,and cellulase were determined by potassium permanphosphate dinatrium colorimetry,and anthrone colorimetry,respectively.The result showed that soil pH,organic carbon (C),and total nitrogen (N) had great effects on hydrogen peroxidase,dehydrogenase,and alkaline phosphatase activities in 0-20 cm thick soil.However,pH only had great effect on hydrogen peroxidase,dehydrogenase,and alkaline phosphatase activities in 20-40 cm thick soil.Hydrogen peroxidase,dehydrogenase,and alkaline phosphatase were important biological indicators for the fertility of urban forest soil.Both in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil,soil enzyme system (hydrogen peroxidase,dehydrogenase,alkaline phosphatase,and cellulase) had a close relationship with a combination of physicochemical indicators (pH,organic C,total N,available K,available P,cation exchange capacity (CEC),and microbial biomass carbon(Cmic)).The more soil enzyme activities there were,the higher the fertility of urban forest soil.

  12. Hydrogen as an Indicator to Assess Biological Activity During Trace-Metal Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter R. Jaffe, John Komlos, Derick Brown

    2005-09-27

    Trace-metal and/or radionuclide bioremediation schemes require that specific redox conditions be achieved at given zones of an aquifer. Tools are therefore needed to identify the terminal electron acceptor processes (TEAPs) that are being achieved during bioremediation in an aquifer. Dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentrations have been shown to correlate with specific TEAPs during bioremediation in an aquifer. Theoretical analysis has shown that these steady-state H2 levels are solely dependent upon the physiological parameters of the hydrogen-consuming microorganisms, with H2 concentrations increasing as each successive TEAP yields less energy for bacterial growth. The objective of this research was to determine if H2 can still be used as an indicator of TEAPs during a uranium bioremediation scheme where an organic substrate is injected into the subsurface and organisms may consume H2 and carbon simultaneously. In addition, the effect of iron bioavailability on H2 concentrations during iron reduction was observed. The first phase of research determined the effect of a competing electron donor (acetate) on the kinetics of H2 utilization by Geobacter sulfurreducens in batch cultures under iron reducing conditions. The results indicate that, though the Monod kinetic coefficients describing the rate of H2 utilization under iron-reducing conditions correlate energetically with the coefficients found in previous experiments under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions, conventionally measured growth kinetics do not predict the steady state H2 levels typical for each TEAP. In addition, with acetate and H2 as simultaneous electron donors, there is slight inhibition between the two electron donors for G. sulfurreducens, and this can be modeled through competitive inhibition terms in the classic Monod formulation, resulting in slightly higher H2 concentrations under steady state conditions in the presence of acetate. This dual-donor model indicates that the steady state H

  13. Unifying distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators for hydrologic model assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qinbo; Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Chen, Xi; Schulte, Achim

    2014-05-01

    The goodness-of-fit indicator, i.e. efficiency criterion, is very important for model calibration. However, recently the knowledge about the goodness-of-fit indicators is all empirical and lacks a theoretical support. Based on the likelihood theory, a unified distance-based goodness-of-fit indicator termed BC-GED model is proposed, which uses the Box-Cox (BC) transformation to remove the heteroscedasticity of model errors and the generalized error distribution (GED) with zero-mean to fit the distribution of model errors after BC. The BC-GED model can unify all recent distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators, and reveals the mean square error (MSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) that are widely used goodness-of-fit indicators imply statistic assumptions that the model errors follow the Gaussian distribution and the Laplace distribution with zero-mean, respectively. The empirical knowledge about goodness-of-fit indicators can be also easily interpreted by BC-GED model, e.g. the sensitivity to high flow of the goodness-of-fit indicators with large power of model errors results from the low probability of large model error in the assumed distribution of these indicators. In order to assess the effect of the parameters (i.e. the BC transformation parameter λ and the GED kurtosis coefficient β also termed the power of model errors) of BC-GED model on hydrologic model calibration, six cases of BC-GED model were applied in Baocun watershed (East China) with SWAT-WB-VSA model. Comparison of the inferred model parameters and model simulation results among the six indicators demonstrates these indicators can be clearly separated two classes by the GED kurtosis β: β >1 and β ≤ 1. SWAT-WB-VSA calibrated by the class β >1 of distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators captures high flow very well and mimics the baseflow very badly, but it calibrated by the class β ≤ 1 mimics the baseflow very well, because first the larger value of β, the greater emphasis is put on

  14. Synchronous fire activity in the tropical high Andes: an indication of regional climate forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman-Cuesta, R.M.; Carmona-Moreno, C.; Lizcano, G.; New, M.; Silman, M.R.; Knoke, T.; Malhi, Y.; Oliveras Menor, I.; Asbjornsen, H.; Vuille, M.

    2014-01-01

    Global climate models suggest enhanced warming of the tropical mid and upper troposphere, with larger temperature rise rates at higher elevations. Changes in fire activity are amongst the most significant ecological consequences of rising temperatures and changing hydrological properties in mountain

  15. Increased Myeloperoxidase Activity and Protein Nitration Are Indicators of Inflammation in Patients with Chagas' Disease▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Monisha; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo; Pando, Jasmine M.; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Spratt, Heidi; Vazquez-Corzo, Sara; Perez-Molina, Gladys; Gallegos-Sandoval, Rosa; Moreno, Roberto; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether inflammatory responses contribute to oxidative/nitrosative stress in patients with Chagas' disease. We used three tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-flow cytometry, and STAT-PAK immunochromatography) to screen human serum samples (n = 1,481) originating from Chiapas, Mexico, for Trypanosoma cruzi-specific antibodies. We identified 121 subjects who were seropositive for T. cruzi-specific antibodies, a finding indicative of an 8.5% seroprevalence in the rural population from Chiapas. Seropositive and seronegative subjects were examined for plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation, i.e., myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and xanthine oxidase (XOD), as well as for oxidative (advanced oxidation protein products [AOPPs]) and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine [3NT]) biomarkers. The seropositive subjects exhibited a significant increase in MPO activity and protein level, the indicator of neutrophil activation. Subsequently, a corresponding increase in AOPP contents, formed by MPO-dependent hypochlorous acid and chloramine formation, was noted in seropositive subjects. The plasma level of 3NT was significantly increased in seropositive subjects, yet we observed no change in XOD activity (O2− source) and nitrate/nitrite contents (denotes iNOS activation and NO production), which implied that direct peroxynitrite formation does not contribute to increased nitrosative damage in chagasic subjects. Instead, a positive correlation between increased MPO activity and protein 3NT formation was observed, which suggested to us that MPO-dependent formation of nitrylchloride that occurs in the presence of physiological NO and O2− concentrations contributes to protein nitration. Overall, our data demonstrate that T. cruzi-induced neutrophil activation is pathological and contributes to MPO-mediated collateral protein oxidative and nitrosative damage in human patients with Chagas' disease. Therapies

  16. Electrospun nanofiber layers with incorporated photoluminescence indicator for chromatography and detection of ultraviolet-active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampalanonwat, Pimolpun; Supaphol, Pitt; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2013-07-19

    For the first time, electrospun nanofiber phases were fabricated with manganese-activated zinc silicate as photoluminescent indicator (UV254) to transfer and enlarge its application to the field of UV-active compounds. By integration of such an indicator, UV-active compounds got visible on the chromatogram. The separation of 7 preservatives and a beverage sample were studied on the novel luminescent polyacrylonitrile layers. The mat thickness and mean fiber diameters were calculated for additions of different UV254 indicator concentrations. The separation efficiency on the photoluminescent layers was characterized by comparison to HPTLC layers and calculation of the plate numbers and resolutions. Some benefits were the reduction in migration distance (3cm), migration time (12min), analyte (10-nL volumes) and mobile phase volumes (1mL). As ultrathin stationary phase, such layers are suited for their integration into the Office Chromatography concept. For the first time, electrospun nanofiber layers were hyphenated with mass spectrometry and the confirmation of compounds was successfully performed using the elution-head based TLC-MS Interface.

  17. Anti-CII antibody as a novel indicator to assess disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, C; Mao, T; Feng, Y; Song, T; Qin, C; Yan, R; Feng, P

    2015-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects a variety of organ systems. Anti-dsDNA Abs and complement factors have been used as indicators of lupus activity for more than 50 years. A novel indicator of activation in SLE is reported in this paper. Anti-collagen type II (CII) Ab was obviously elevated in patients with SLE compared to those patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and healthy controls (HCs). Anti-CII-Ab-positive patients with SLE showed significantly higher levels of serum IgG and higher titers of ANA but lower levels of C3 and C4 than controls. A positive correlation was demonstrated between anti-CII Ab and serum IgG in SLE patients (r = 0.50, p < 0.0001). The negative correlations of anti-CII Ab with C3 and C4 were observed in SLE patients (r = -0.36, p = 0.0013; r = -0.37, p = 0.0006, respectively). The reduced anti-CII Ab level was accompanied by decreased level of serum IgG and increased levels of C3 and C4 after regular treatment. Therefore, anti-CII Ab could be a novel indicator for monitoring activity of SLE.

  18. Correlation study of some solar activity indices in the cycles 21 - 23

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A

    2013-01-01

    The correlation coefficients of the linear regression of six solar indices versus F10,7 were analyzed in solar cycles 21, 22 and 23. We also analyzed the interconnection between these indices and F10,7 with help of the approximation by the polynomials of second order. The indices we've studied in this paper are: Wolf numbers - W, 530,3 nm coronal line flux - F530, the total solar irradiance - TSI, Mg II UV-index 280 nm core-to-wing ratio, Flare Index - FI and Counts of flares. In the most cases the regressions of these solar indices versus F10,7 are close to linear except the moments of time near to the minimums and maximums of 11-year activity. For the linear regressions we found that the values of correlation coefficients Kcorr(t) for the indices versus F10,7 and W show the cyclic variations with periods approximately equal to the to half length of 11-year cycle - 5,5 years approximately.

  19. Structured representation of drug indications: lexical and semantic analysis and object-oriented modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, C; Venot, A

    2000-03-01

    No standardized representation of drug indications is currently available that could be used in drug knowledge bases. We describe an object-oriented representation of indications that should make it possible to develop new tools for selecting drugs and checking prescriptions in computerized drug prescription systems. The model was developed using the results of a lexical and semantic analysis of drug indications, collected into a single file and processed using natural language processing software. It distinguishes both the diseases for which the drug may be given and the efficiency of the drug for a given indication. Two aspects of the model were evaluated: the differences if two independent evaluators filled the attributes independently and the loss of information induced by the use of the model. A system based on this model, making it possible for the physician to select all the drugs satisfying various criteria, is also presented.

  20. Disease activity indices in coeliac disease: systematic review and recommendations for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryckx, Pieter; Levesque, Barrett G; Holvoet, Tom; Durand, Serina; Tang, Ceen-Ming; Parker, Claire; Khanna, Reena; Shackelton, Lisa M; D'Haens, Geert; Sandborn, William J; Feagan, Brian G; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Leffler, Daniel A; Jairath, Vipul

    2016-10-31

    Although several pharmacological agents have emerged as potential adjunctive therapies to a gluten-free diet for coeliac disease, there is currently no widely accepted measure of disease activity used in clinical trials. We conducted a systematic review of coeliac disease activity indices to evaluate their operating properties and potential as outcome measures in registration trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane central library were searched from 1966 to 2015 for eligible studies in adult and/or paediatric patients with coeliac disease that included coeliac disease activity markers in their outcome measures. The operating characteristics of histological indices, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and endoscopic indices were evaluated for content and construct validity, reliability, responsiveness and feasibility using guidelines proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Of 19 123 citations, 286 studies were eligible, including 24 randomised-controlled trials. Three of five PROs identified met most key evaluative criteria but only the Celiac Disease Symptom Diary (CDSD) and the Celiac Disease Patient-Reported Outcome (CeD PRO) have been approved by the FDA. All histological and endoscopic scores identified lacked content validity. Quantitative morphometric histological analysis had better reliability and responsiveness compared with qualitative scales. Endoscopic indices were infrequently used, and only one index demonstrated responsiveness to effective therapy. Current best evidence suggests that the CDSD and the CeD PRO are appropriate for use in the definition of primary end points in coeliac disease registration trials. Morphometric histology should be included as a key secondary or co-primary end point. Further work is needed to optimise end point configuration to inform efficient drug development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Breast cancer screening in Italy: evaluating key performance indicators for time trends and activity volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Livia; Castagno, Roberta; Giorgi, Daniela; Piccinelli, Cristiano; Ventura, Leonardo; Segnan, Nereo; Zappa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Together with the National centre for screening monitoring (ONS), GISMa supports annual collection of data on national breast screening activities. Aggregated data on implementation and performance are gathered through a standardized form to calculate process and impact indicators. Analyzed data belong to 153 local programmes in the period 2006-2011 (2006-2012 for participation rate only). During the whole period, Italian crude participation rate exceeded GISMa's acceptable standard (50%), even though a higher participation in northern and central Italy compared to southern Italy and Islands was observed. Time trend analysis of diagnostic indicators confirmed in 2011 an adequate quality of breast screening performance, especially at subsequent screening. Recall rate at initial screening did not reach the acceptable standard (performance was achieved at subsequent screening. The same trend was followed by the overall detection rate and positive predictive value. They both showed a progressive reduction (from 6.2‰ in 2006 to 4.5‰ in 2011 for DR and from 8.0% in 2006 to 5.2% in 2011 for PPV, respectively) at initial screening and a good, stable trend at subsequent screening. Activity volume analysis shows that in programmes with greater activity (test/year ≥10,000) RR at both initial and subsequent screening has a better performance. This is also true for DR and PPV where programmes with high volumes of activity do better, especially when compared with those that interpret fewer than 5,000 mammograms per year. In spite of a few limits, these results are reassuring, and they reward the efforts made by screening professionals. It is therefore important to continue to monitor screening indicators and suggest, test, and evaluate new strategies for continuous improvement.

  2. A new class of indicators for the model selection of scaling laws in nuclear fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lupelli, I; Gaudio, P; Gelfusa, M; Mazon, D; Vega, J

    2013-01-01

    The development of computationally efficient model selection strategies represents an important problem facing the analysis of Nuclear Fusion experimental data, in particular in the field of scaling laws for the extrapolation to future machines, and image processing. In this paper, a new model selection indicator, named Model Falsification Criterion (MFC), will be presented and applied to the problem of choosing the most generalizable scaling laws for the power threshold to access the H-mode of confinement in Tokamaks. The proposed indicator is based on the properties of the model residuals, their entropy and an implementation of the data falsification principle. The model selection ability of the proposed criterion will be demonstrated in comparison with the most widely used frequentist (Akaike Information Criterion) and bayesian (Bayesian Information Criterion) indicators.

  3. Active Appearance Model Based Hand Gesture Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of hand gesture recognition in monocular image sequences using Active Appearance Model (AAM). For this work, the proposed algorithm is conposed of constructing AAMs and fitting the models to the interest region. In training stage, according to the manual labeled feature points, the relative AAM is constructed and the corresponding average feature is obtained. In recognition stage, the interesting hand gesture region is firstly segmented by skin and movement cues.Secondly, the models are fitted to the image that includes the hand gesture, and the relative features are extracted.Thirdly, the classification is done by comparing the extracted features and average features. 30 different gestures of Chinese sign language are applied for testing the effectiveness of the method. The Experimental results are given indicating good performance of the algorithm.

  4. Is modified clinical activity score an accurate indicator of diplopia progression in Graves' orbitopathy patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Woo, Young Jun; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2016-12-30

    The aim of this study is to describe characteristics of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) patients with progressive diplopia and to consider whether modified clinical activity score (CAS) is a useful indicator for prediction of diplopia progression. Medical records and images of GO patients with progressive diplopia were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical parameters (e.g., modified CAS, modified NOSPECS score, exophthalmometry results, score of diplopia, and prevalence of optic neuropathy) were evaluated. Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor autoantibody (TRAb) values were determined. Maximum recti muscle diameters and extraocular muscle (EOM) indices were evaluated. Sixty-three of the 435 GO patients had progressive diplopia; 44.4% (28/63) of these patients had a low CAS (diplopia, prevalence of optic neuropathy and the positive rate and level of TRAb were not significantly different between groups. There were no differences in maximum recti muscle diameters or EOM indices between the two groups. Diplopia may progress even in patients with a low modified CAS. CAS may not reflect the inflammatory activity of myopathy, especially in mild to moderate GO with low NOSPECS and exophthalmos values. Careful patient follow-up using subjective and objective measures for diplopia should be performed.

  5. Milk catalase activity as an indicator of thermization treatments used in the manufacture of cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvi, Y; Griffiths, M W

    1998-02-01

    Pilot-scale studies were carried out to determine the effect of different heat treatments on catalase activity during the manufacture and maturation of Cheddar cheese. Three trials were conducted to monitor catalase activity using disk flotation and polarographic methods. Cheese was manufactured from raw milk and from milk that had been treated at 60, 65 and 72 degrees C for 16 s using a high temperature, short time heat exchanger. Catalase activity was also determined in samples of commercial milk and in samples of mild, medium, sharp, and extra sharp Cheddar cheeses obtained from different manufacturers in order to verify that the enzyme could be used as an indicator of the type of heat treatment applied to cheese milk. Catalase activity was present in cheese made from raw milk but was only present at low concentrations in cheese manufactured from thermized milk. However, high catalase activity was observed in commercial samples of sharp and extra sharp Cheddar cheese that was apparently due to the growth of catalase-producing yeasts in the cheese during maturation.

  6. [Indicators of the persistent pro-inflammatory activation of the immune system in depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubała, Wiesław Jerzy; Godlewska, Beata; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Landowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    The aetiology of depression remains tentative. Current hypotheses on the aetiology of the depressive disorder tend to integrate monoaminoergic, neuroendocrine and immunological concepts of depression. A number of research papers emphasise the altered hormonal and immune status of patients with depression with pronounced cytokine level variations. Those studies tend to link the variable course of depression in relation to the altered proinflammatory activity of the immune system. The results of the studies on the activity of the selected elements of the immune system are ambiguous indicating both increased and decreased activities of its selected elements. However, a number of basic and psychopharmacological studies support the hypothesis of the increased proinflammatory activity of the immune system in the course of depression which is the foundation for the immunological hypothesis of depression. The aim of this paper is to review the functional abnormalities that are observed in depression focusing on the monoaminoergic deficiency and increased immune activation as well as endocrine dysregulation. This paper puts together and discusses current studies related to this subject with a detailed insight into interactions involving nervous, endocrine and immune systems.

  7. Cysteine desulfurase activity indicates a role for NIFS in metallocluster biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; White, R H; Cash, V L; Jack, R F; Dean, D R

    1993-04-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by nitrogenase, a complex metalloenzyme composed of two separately purifiable component proteins encoded by the structural genes nifH, nifD, and nifK. Deletion of the Azotobacter vinelandii nifS gene lowers the activities of both nitrogenase component proteins. Because both nitrogenase component proteins have metallocluster prosthetic groups that are composed of iron- and sulfur-containing cores, this result indicated that the nifS gene product could be involved in the mobilization of the iron or sulfur required for metallocluster formation. In the present work, it is shown that NIFS is a pyridoxal phosphate-containing homodimer that catalyzes the formation of L-alanine and elemental sulfur by using L-cysteine as substrate. NIFS activity is extremely sensitive to thiol-specific alkylating reagents, which indicates the participation of a cysteinyl thiolate at the active site. Based on these results we propose that an enzyme-bound cysteinyl persulfide that requires the release of the sulfur from the substrate L-cysteine for its formation ultimately provides the inorganic sulfide required for nitrogenase metallocluster formation. The recent discovery of nifS-like genes in non-nitrogen-fixing organisms also raises the possibility that the reaction catalyzed by NIFS represents a universal mechanism that involves pyridoxal phosphate chemistry, in the mobilization of the sulfur required for metallocluster formation.

  8. Mercury Anomaly in the Okinawa Trough Sediments—An Indicator of Modern Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一阳; 鄢明才

    1995-01-01

    The Okinawa Trough is located between the shelf-sea area of the East China Sea and the deep-sea area of western Pacific Ocean.More than 60 chemical elements in the sediments from the shelf area of the East China Sea,the Okinawa Trough and western Pacific Ocean were determined by advanced techniques including neutron acti-vation analysis,X-ray fluorescence spectrometry,atomic fluorescence spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry.Quantitative comparisons of the element abundances of the sediments were made in terms of the enrichment coefficients(K) of the elements.K>1.5 indicates enrichment (K=1.5-2, weak enrichment;K=2-4,strong enrichment) and K>4,anomalous enrichment.The results show that the Okinawa Trough sediments are characterized by Hg anomaly and the enrichment of such elements as Au,Ag,Se,Te,Sb,Cd,Mn,Mo,etc.Detailed studies show that the excess Hg comes from hydrothermal solutions rather than from the continent,sea water ,marine organisms,cosmic dust or vol-canic rocks.Attributed to modern hydrothermal activities on the sea floor ,Hg anomaly can be used as a geochemical indicator of modern seafloor hydrothermal activity.

  9. Do the physical properties of occlusal-indicating media affect muscle activity [EMG) during use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Stephanie E; Pain, Matthew T G; Presswood, Ron; Toy, Andy

    2009-06-01

    Four occlusal marking media (Parkell film, articulating silk, articulating paper and T-Scan foil) were tested to assess whether they affected neuromuscular function during occlusal marking events. Muscle activity of the anterior temporalis (TA) and superficial masseter (MS) muscles were obtained from surface EMG measurements during a slow closure to occlusion followed immediately by a forceful bite and a maximum clench onto each of the various occlusal indicating media. Muscle activity during the whole period of activation and immediately following onset were investigated. Significant differences in neuromuscular function between the occlusal marking media were observed, particularly between the Parkell film and articulating silk as opposed to the articulating paper and the T-Scan foil. The Parkell film and articulating silk gave neuromuscular function very similar to that of natural dentition occlusal contact, while the articulating paper and T-Scan foil showed similarities to occluding onto cotton rolls as previously reported (1). These results suggest that both the thickness and plasticity of the indicating media affect neuromuscular function during occlusion.

  10. Resistance of undisturbed soil microbiomes to ceftriaxone indicates extended spectrum β-lactamase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao eGatica

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, and specifically resistance to third generation cephalosporins associated with extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL activity, is one of the greatest epidemiological challenges of our time. In this study we addressed the impact of the third generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone on microbial activity and bacterial community composition of two physically and chemically distinct undisturbed soils in highly regulated microcosm experiments. Surprisingly, periodical irrigation of the soils with clinical doses of ceftriaxone did not affect their microbial activity; and only moderately impacted the microbial diversity (α and β of the two soils. Corresponding slurry experiments demonstrated that the antibiotic capacity of ceftriaxone rapidly diminished in the presence of soil, and approximately 70% of this inactivation could be explained by biological activity. The biological nature of ceftriaxone degradation in soil was supported by microcosm experiments that amended model Escherichia coli strains to sterile and non-sterile soils in the presence and absence of ceftriaxone and by the ubiquitous presence of ESBL genes (blaTEM, blaCTX-M and blaOXA in soil DNA extracts. Collectively, these results suggest that the resistance of soil microbiomes to ceftriaxone stems from biological activity and even more, from broad-spectrum β-lactamase activity; raising questions regarding the scope and clinical implications of ESBLs in soil microbiomes.

  11. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already been processed and is at the outlet of the plant and released into the environment.If the water quality is not acceptable, it is already too late for its improvement, which indicates the need for a feed forward process control based on a mathematical model. Since there is no possibility of retracing the process steps back, all the mistakes in the control of the process could induce an ecological disaster of a smaller or bigger extent. Therefore, models that describe this process well may be used as a basis for monitoring and optimal control of the process development. This work analyzes the process of biological treatment of wastewater in the Velika Gorica plant. Two empirical models for the description of the process were established, multiple linear regression model (MLR with 16 predictor variables and piecewise linear regression model (PLR with 17 predictor variables. These models were developed with the aim to predict COD value of the effluent wastewater at the outlet, after treatment. The development of the models is based on the statistical analysis of experimental data, which are used to determine the relations among individual variables. In this work are applied linear models based on multiple linear regression (MLR and partial least squares (PLR methods. The used data were obtained by everyday measurements of the quantities that indicate the quality of the input and output water, working conditions of the plant and the quality of the activated sludge

  12. Geodynamic evolution of the Earth over the Phanerozoic:Plate tectonic activity and palaeoclimatic indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Vérard; Cyril Hochard; Peter O. Baumgartner; Gérard M. Stamplfi

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, numerous local reconstructions based on ifeld geol-ogy were developed at the University of Lausanne (UNIL). Team members of the UNIL partici-pated in the elaboration of a 600 Ma to present global plate tectonic model deeply rooted in geological data, controlled by geometric and kinematic constraints and coherent with forces acting at plate boundaries. In this paper, we compare values derived from the tectonic model (ages of oceanic lfoor, production and subduction rates, tectonic activity) with a combination of chemical proxies (namely CO2, 87Sr/86Sr, glaciation evidence, and sea-level variations) known to be strongly in-lfuenced by tectonics. One of the outstanding results is the observation of an overall decreas-ing trend in the evolution of the global tectonic activity, mean oceanic ages and plate velocities over the whole Phanerozoic. We speculate that the decreasing trend relfects the global cooling of the Earth system. Additionally, the parallel between the tectonic activity and CO2 together with the extension of glaciations conifrms the generally accepted idea of a primary control of CO2 on climate and highlights the link between plate tectonics and CO2 in a time scale greater than 107 yr. Last, the wide variations observed in the reconstructed sea-lfoor production rates are in contradiction with the steady-state model hypothesized by some.

  13. Estimating indices of range shifts in birds using dynamic models when detection is imperfect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew J.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Pardieck, Keith L.; Ziolkowski, David J.

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in basic and applied ecology about the effect of global change on current and future species distributions. Projections based on widely used static modeling methods implicitly assume that species are in equilibrium with the environment and that detection during surveys is perfect. We used multiseason correlated detection occupancy models, which avoid these assumptions, to relate climate data to distributional shifts of Louisiana Waterthrush in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. We summarized these shifts with indices of range size and position and compared them to the same indices obtained using more basic modeling approaches. Detection rates during point counts in BBS surveys were low, and models that ignored imperfect detection severely underestimated the proportion of area occupied and slightly overestimated mean latitude. Static models indicated Louisiana Waterthrush distribution was most closely associated with moderate temperatures, while dynamic occupancy models indicated that initial occupancy was associated with diurnal temperature ranges and colonization of sites was associated with moderate precipitation. Overall, the proportion of area occupied and mean latitude changed little during the 1997–2013 study period. Near-term forecasts of species distribution generated by dynamic models were more similar to subsequently observed distributions than forecasts from static models. Occupancy models incorporating a finite mixture model on detection – a new extension to correlated detection occupancy models – were better supported and may reduce bias associated with detection heterogeneity. We argue that replacing phenomenological static models with more mechanistic dynamic models can improve projections of future species distributions. In turn, better projections can improve biodiversity forecasts, management decisions, and understanding of global change biology.

  14. Teaching Quality Management Model for the Training of Innovation Ability and the Multilevel Decomposition Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingjiang; Yao, Chen; Zheng, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the training of undergraduate students' innovation ability. On top of the theoretical framework of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD), we propose a teaching quality management model. Based on this model, we establish a multilevel decomposition indicator system, which integrates innovation ability characterized by four…

  15. Wildland fire probabilities estimated from weather model-deduced monthly mean fire danger indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Shyh-Chin Chen; Francis Fujioka; John W. Benoit; Anthony L. Westerling

    2008-01-01

    The National Fire Danger Rating System indices deduced from a regional simulation weather model were used to estimate probabilities and numbers of large fire events on monthly and 1-degree grid scales. The weather model simulations and forecasts are ongoing experimental products from the Experimental Climate Prediction Center at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography...

  16. Innovation indicators: a survey of innovative activities in the international food processed industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cardoso de Barros Fornari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to combine traditional methods of measuring intensity with other alternative indicators to examine the dispersion of innovation activities in different industries and countries. The hypothesis that underlies the study lies in the fact that in the Food Processed Industry (IAP the traditional methods are insufficient to detect the core of the innovation process. As method, we analyzed patent data extracted from the twenty-five largest food processed companies in the world and suggested different indicators developed from the Pesquisa de Inovação Tecnológica (PINTEC, 2010 – for Brazilian companies – and the Community Innovation Survey (CIS, 2009 – for European Union companies. The results allowed us to establish relationships in three dimensions: (i the complexity of the innovative effort of the IAP; (ii the efforts to innovation in different countries are distinct and; (iii there is heterogeneity in country performance.

  17. Modelling macroinvertebrate and fish biotic indices: From reaches to entire river networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Cabria, Mario; González-Ferreras, Alexia M; Peñas, Francisco J; Barquín, José

    2017-01-15

    We modelled three macroinvertebrate (IASPT, EPT number of families and LIFE) and one fish (percentage of salmonid biomass) biotic indices to river networks draining a large region (110,000km(2)) placed in Northern and Eastern Spain. Models were developed using Random Forest and 26 predictor variables (19 predictors to model macroinvertebrate indices and 22 predictors to model the fish index). Predictor variables were related with different environmental characteristics (water quality, physical habitat characteristics, hydrology, topography, geology and human pressures). The importance and effect of predictors on the 4 biotic indices was evaluated with the IncNodePurity index and partial dependence plots, respectively. Results indicated that the spatial variability of macroinvertebrate and fish indices were mostly dependent on the same environmental variables. They decreased in river reaches affected by high mean annual nitrate concentration (>4mg/l) and temperature (>12°C), with low flow water velocity (macrophytes. These indices were higher in the Atlantic region than in the Mediterranean. This study provides a continuous image of river biological communities used as indicators, which turns very useful to identify the main sources of change in the ecological status of water bodies and assist both, the integrated catchment management and the identification of river reaches for recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of ICTs on Innovation Activities: Indication for selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoroja Jovana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development and usage of information and communication technologies (ICTs has particularly increased in the last two decades, while at the same time showing great potential to improve the efficacy of business processes, facilitate and drive innovations, and therefore increase competitiveness. Innovation activities represent an important factor for social and economic change as well as for increasing competitive advantages at both the national and firm levels. This paper focuses on the role that ICTs play in the innovation performance of selected European countries. Using data drawn from the Eurostat and Global Competitiveness Index (2007–2011 and panel regression analysis, research results indicate that ICTs have a significant impact on business innovation activities.

  19. Food shopping habits, physical activity and health-related indicators among adults aged ≥70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L; Bentley, Georgina; Davis, Mark; Coulson, Jo; Stathi, Afroditi; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the food shopping habits of older adults in the UK and explore their potential associations with selected health-related indicators. A cross-sectional study including objectively measured physical activity levels, BMI, physical function and self-reported health status and dietary intake. Bristol, UK. A total of 240 older adults aged ≥70 years living independently. Mean age was 78·1 (sd 5·7) years; 66·7 % were overweight or obese and 4 % were underweight. Most (80·0 %) carried out their own food shopping; 53·3 % shopped at least once weekly. Women were more likely to shop alone (P car at least once weekly at large supermarket chains, with most finding high-quality fruit, vegetables and low-fat products easily accessible. Higher levels of physical function and physical activity and better self-reported health are important in supporting food shopping and maintaining independence.

  20. [Activities using websites and social networks: tools and indicators for evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María José; Continente, Xavier; Sánchez, Esther; Bartroli, Montse

    In the field of health, information and communication technology (ICT) can create a space that, regardless of place or time, enables information to be shared and disseminated quickly. In addition to the usual challenges of evaluating public health activities, other difficulties are present when evaluating activities using ICT, such as lack of previous standards, unknown individual exposure or lack of information on the characteristics of those exposed. The aim of this paper is to describe some tools and indicators that may help to assess the scope, use and parameters related to website positioning on search engines as well as the connected social networks. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis in ankylosing spondylitis: correlations with disease activity indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Perrotta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate atherosclerosis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS through the assessment of morphological and functional measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Twenty patients [M/F=12/8, age (median/range 43.5/28-69 years; disease duration (median/range 9.7/1-36 years] with AS classified according to modified New York criteria and twenty age and sex related healthy controls with negative past medical history for cardiovascular events were enrolled in the study. In all patients and controls, the intima-media thickness (IMT of common carotid artery, carotid bulb and internal carotid artery, and the flow-mediated dilatation (FMD of non-dominant arm brachial artery were determined, using a sonographic probe Esaote GPX (Genoa, Italy. Furthermore, we assess the main disease activity and disability indices [bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index, ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score-eritrosedimentation rate (ASDAS-ESR, ASDAS-C-reactive protein (CRP, bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index, bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index and acute phase reactants. Plasmatic values of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride and homocysteine were carried out in all twenty patients. IMT at carotid bulb was significant higher in patients than in controls (0.67 mm vs 0.54 mm; P=0.03. FMD did not statistically differ between patients and controls (12.5% vs 15%; P>0.05. We found a correlation between IMT at carotid bulb and ESR (rho 0.43; P=0.04. No correlation was found between FMD and disease activity and disability indices. This study showed that in AS patients, without risk factors for cardiovascular disease, carotid bulb IMT, morphological index of subclinical atherosclerosis, is higher than in controls.

  2. Urinary sialyloligosaccharide excretion as an indicator of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, C P; Wegelius, O

    1981-01-01

    Urinary trisaccharides containing sialic acid, urinary total sialic acid, and serum sialic acid were studied in 51 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The urinary excretion of sialyllactose and sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine was measured by quantitative gas chromatography. The output of sialyllactose was significantly greater in patients with RA (31.9 +/- 17.3 mg/24, SD) than in control subjects (15.9 +/- 5.4, P less than 0.001). The RA patients also had higher mean levels of urinary sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine (P less than 0.05), total urinary sialic acid (P less than 0.001), and serum sialic acid (P less than 0.001). Urinary excretion of sialyllactose was considerably higher in patients with active and aggressive RA and moderately higher in patients with moderate disease activity. Excretion in those with mild or almost inactive RA did not differ significantly from that in the controls. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between urinary sialyllactose levels and clinical disease activity (P less than 0.001), as well as between excretion of sialyllactose and sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine in RA. These results suggest that the urinary content of trisaccharides containing sialic acid is an indicator of disease activity of RA.

  3. Combining docking and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (COMSIA) to predict estrogen activity and probe molecular mechanisms of estrogen activity for estrogen compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XuShu; WANG XiaoDong; JI Li; LI Rong; SUN Cheng; WANG LianSheng

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen compounds are suspected of disrupting endocrine functions by mimicking natural hormones,and such compounds may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. Close attention has been paid to the prediction and molecular mechanisms of estrogen activity for estrogen compounds. In this article, estrogen receptor a subtype (Era) -based comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (COMSIA) was performed on 44 estrogen compounds with structural diversity to find out the structural relationship with the activity and to predict the activity. The model with the significant correlation and the best predictive power (R2 = 0.965, (Q2LOO = 0.599, R2pred = 0.825) was achieved. The COMSIA and docking results revealed the structural features for estrogen activity and key amino acid residues in binding pocket, and provided an insight into the interaction between the ligands and these amino acid residues.

  4. Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris

    2010-05-01

    Soils provide central ecosystem functions in recycling nutrients, detoxifying harmful chemicals as well as regulating microclimate and local hydrological processes. The internal regulation of these functions and therefore the development of healthy and fertile soils mainly depend on the functional diversity of plants and animals. Soil organisms drive essential processes such as litter decomposition, nutrient cycling, water dynamics, and soil structure formation. Disturbances by different soil management practices (e.g., soil tillage, fertilization, pesticide application) affect the distribution and abundance of soil organisms and hence influence regulating processes. The strong relationship between environmental conditions and soil organisms gives us the opportunity to link spatiotemporal distribution patterns of indicator species with the potential provision of essential soil processes on different scales. Earthworms are key organisms for soil function and affect, among other things, water dynamics and solute transport in soils. Through their burrowing activity, earthworms increase the number of macropores by building semi-permanent burrow systems. In the unsaturated zone, earthworm burrows act as preferential flow pathways and affect water infiltration, surface-, subsurface- and matrix flow as well as the transport of water and solutes into deeper soil layers. Thereby different ecological earthworm types have different importance. Deep burrowing anecic earthworm species (e.g., Lumbricus terrestris) affect the vertical flow and thus increase the risk of potential contamination of ground water with agrochemicals. In contrast, horizontal burrowing endogeic (e.g., Aporrectodea caliginosa) and epigeic species (e.g., Lumbricus rubellus) increase water conductivity and the diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The question which processes are more relevant is pivotal for soil management and risk assessment. Thus, finding relevant

  5. [Determination of the antioxidant properties of activators of mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channels with the Amplex Red fluorescent indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzaeva, S V; Belova, S P; Mironova, G D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of adaptogens-antihypoxants that participate in the activation of mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channels (mitoK(ATP)) at the oxidation of the Amplex Red (AR) fluorescent indicator in a peroxidase system was tested. It was shown that Extralife, Hypoxen, taurine, and synthetic antioxidant ionol can be arranged in the following row, according to the fluorescence inhibition activity: Extralife > Hypoxen > > ionol > taurine; their effect was shown to be concentration-dependent. The calculated K(i) value of fluorescence indicators demonstrate fast and slow phases of inhibition of the AR oxidation by Extralife and Hypoxen. The fast phase occurs in the presence of microdoses (0.05-3 microg/mL) of adaptogens and is related to the competition for H2O2, which is in agreement with our previous data on the mitoK(ATP) activation by doses of adaptogens related to the H2O2 consumption. The slow phase is characteristic of high adaptogen and ionol concentrations and is related to the competition for phenoxyl radicals of resorufin formed during AR oxidation. The obtained results allow one to suggest the application of a highly sensitive model peroxidase system with AR for the preliminary testing of compounds activating mitoK(ATP) channels.

  6. Effects of Organized Physical Activity on Selected Health Indices among Women Older than 55 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Zmijewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine health benefits among women older than 55 years who participated in organized, group-based physical activity (OPA. Thirty-five women aged 65.0 ± 7.3 years volunteered for this study. The classical and nonclassical cardiovascular (CVD risk factors were measured before and after a 2-week OPA camp in a remote location and 3 months of OPA. Self-guided physical activity was analyzed 18 months after OPA. Two-week effects included significant decreases in body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP and resting heart rate, improved exercise capacity (EC, improved low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C, cholesterol, and other atherogenic lipid indices (ALI, and a reduction in 10-year estimated risk of death from CVD. Three-month effects included a further decrease in systolic BP, improvements in EC and HDL-C, and maintenance of lower levels of ALI, as well as lower CVD risk. The implementation of the OPA programme had a positive impact on somatic features, exercise capacity, biochemical indices, and risk for death from CVD. The presented programme can be regarded as an effective element of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among women older than 55 years.

  7. Trends in global vegetation activity and climatic drivers indicate a decoupled response to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schut, Antonius G T; Ivits, Eva; Conijn, Jacob G.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed understanding of a possible decoupling between climatic drivers of plant productivity and the response of ecosystems vegetation is required. We compared trends in six NDVI metrics (1982-2010) derived from the GIMMS3g dataset with modelled biomass productivity and assessed uncertainty...... in trend estimates. Annual total biomass weight (TBW) was calculated with the LINPAC model. Trends were determined using a simple linear regression, a Thiel-Sen medium slope and a piecewise regression (PWR) with two segments. Values of NDVI metrics were related to Net Primary Production (MODIS......-NPP) and TBWper biome and land-use type. The simple linear and Thiel-Sen trends did not differ much whereas PWR increased the fraction of explained variation, depending on the NDVI metric considered. A positive trend in TBW indicating more favorable climatic conditions was found for 24% of pixels on land...

  8. Prioritizing Public- Private Partnership Models for Public Hospitals of Iran Based on Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asghari Jaafarabadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals.Methods: In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative study, systematic review and expert panel hasbeen done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second stepwe prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicatorsby Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 andExpert Choice11 software’s.Results: In quality – effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections(100%, hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%, pure rate of hospital mortality (63%, patientsatisfaction percentage (53%, in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatientwaiting time (100% and average outpatient waiting time (74%, and in financial – efficiency area,indicators including average length of stay (100%, bed occupation ratio (99%, specific incometo total cost ratio (97% have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the prioritizationof the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own,operate and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance indicatorareas.Conclusion: This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different.

  9. Geodynamic evolution of the Earth over the Phanerozoic: Plate tectonic activity and palaeoclimatic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vérard

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we compare values derived from the tectonic model (ages of oceanic floor, production and subduction rates, tectonic activity with a combination of chemical proxies (namely CO2, 87Sr/86Sr, glaciation evidence, and sea-level variations known to be strongly influenced by tectonics. One of the outstanding results is the observation of an overall decreasing trend in the evolution of the global tectonic activity, mean oceanic ages and plate velocities over the whole Phanerozoic. We speculate that the decreasing trend reflects the global cooling of the Earth system. Additionally, the parallel between the tectonic activity and CO2 together with the extension of glaciations confirms the generally accepted idea of a primary control of CO2 on climate and highlights the link between plate tectonics and CO2 in a time scale greater than 107 yr. Last, the wide variations observed in the reconstructed sea-floor production rates are in contradiction with the steady-state model hypothesized by some.

  10. Soil pollution indices conditioned by medieval metallurgical activity - A case study from Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Mazurek, Ryszard; Gąsiorek, Michał; Setlak, Marcin; Zaleski, Tomasz; Waroszewski, Jaroslaw

    2016-11-01

    The studied soil profile under the Main Market Square (MMS) in Krakow was characterised by the influence of medieval metallurgical activity. In the presented soil section lithological discontinuity (LD) was found, which manifests itself in the form of cultural layers (CLs). Moreover, in this paper LD detection methods based on soil texture are presented. For the first time, three different ways to identify the presence of LD in the urban soils are suggested. The presence of LD had an influence on the content and distribution of heavy metals within the soil profile. The content of heavy metals in the CLs under the MMS in Krakow was significantly higher than the content in natural horizons. In addition, there were distinct differences in the content of heavy metals within CLs. Profile variability and differences in the content of heavy metals and phosphorus within the CLs under the MMS were activity indicators of Krakow inhabitants in the past. This paper presents alternative methods for the assessment of the degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils using selected pollution indices. On the basis of the studied total concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Sn, Ag) and total phosphorus content, the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Enrichment Factor (EF), Sum of Pollution Index (PIsum), Single Pollution Index (PI), Nemerow Pollution Index (PINemerow) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI) were calculated using different local and reference geochemical backgrounds. The use of various geochemical backgrounds is helpful to evaluate the assessment of soil pollution. The individual CLs differed from each other according to the degree of pollution. The different values of pollution indices within the studied soil profile showed that LDS should not be evaluated in terms of contamination as one, homogeneous soil profile but each separate CL should be treated individually.

  11. Executive Functions Do Not Mediate Prospective Relations between Indices of Physical Activity and Academic Performance: The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Katrine N.; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Aadland, Eivind; Brønnick, Kolbjørn S.; Lervåg, Arne; Resaland, Geir K.; Moe, Vegard F.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in cognitive function induced by physical activity have been proposed as a mechanism for the link between physical activity and academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate if executive function mediated the prospective relations between indices of physical activity and academic performance in a sample of 10-year-old Norwegian children. The study included 1,129 children participating in the Active Smarter Kids (ASK) trial, followed over 7 months. Structural equation modeling (SEM) with a latent variable of executive function (measuring inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) was used in the analyses. Predictors were objectively measured physical activity, time spent sedentary, aerobic fitness, and motor skills. Outcomes were performance on national tests of numeracy, reading, and English (as a second language). Generally, indices of physical activity did not predict executive function and academic performance. A modest mediation effect of executive function was observed for the relation between motor skills and academic performance. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov registry, trial registration number: NCT02132494. PMID:28706500

  12. Spectral Bio-indicator Simulations for Tracking Photosynthetic Activities in a Corn Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yen-Ben; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Corp, Lawrence; Campbell, Petya; Kustas, William

    2011-01-01

    Accurate assessment of vegetation canopy optical properties plays a critical role in monitoring natural and managed ecosystems under environmental changes. In this context, radiative transfer (RT) models simulating vegetation canopy reflectance have been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for understanding and estimating spectral bio-indicators. In this study, two narrow band spectroradiometers were utilized to acquire observations over corn canopies for two summers. These in situ spectral data were then used to validate a two-layer Markov chain-based canopy reflectance model for simulating the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), which has been widely used in recent vegetation photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE) studies. The in situ PRI derived from narrow band hyperspectral reflectance exhibited clear responses to: 1) viewing geometry which affects the asset of light environment; and 2) seasonal variation corresponding to the growth stage. The RT model (ACRM) successfully simulated the responses to the variable viewing geometry. The best simulations were obtained when the model was set to run in the two layer mode using the sunlit leaves as the upper layer and shaded leaves as the lower layer. Simulated PRI values yielded much better correlations to in situ observations when the cornfield was dominated by green foliage during the early growth, vegetative and reproductive stages (r = 0.78 to 0.86) than in the later senescent stage (r = 0.65). Further sensitivity analyses were conducted to show the important influences of leaf area index (LAI) and the sunlit/shaded ratio on PRI observations.

  13. Synchronous fire activity in the tropical high Andes: an indication of regional climate forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Cuesta, R M; Carmona-Moreno, C; Lizcano, G; New, M; Silman, M; Knoke, T; Malhi, Y; Oliveras, I; Asbjornsen, H; Vuille, M

    2014-06-01

    Global climate models suggest enhanced warming of the tropical mid and upper troposphere, with larger temperature rise rates at higher elevations. Changes in fire activity are amongst the most significant ecological consequences of rising temperatures and changing hydrological properties in mountainous ecosystems, and there is a global evidence of increased fire activity with elevation. Whilst fire research has become popular in the tropical lowlands, much less is known of the tropical high Andean region (>2000 masl, from Colombia to Bolivia). This study examines fire trends in the high Andes for three ecosystems, the Puna, the Paramo and the Yungas, for the period 1982-2006. We pose three questions: (i) is there an increased fire response with elevation? (ii) does the El Niño- Southern Oscillation control fire activity in this region? (iii) are the observed fire trends human driven (e.g., human practices and their effects on fuel build-up) or climate driven? We did not find evidence of increased fire activity with elevation but, instead, a quasicyclic and synchronous fire response in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, suggesting the influence of high-frequency climate forcing on fire responses on a subcontinental scale, in the high Andes. ENSO variability did not show a significant relation to fire activity for these three countries, partly because ENSO variability did not significantly relate to precipitation extremes, although it strongly did to temperature extremes. Whilst ENSO did not individually lead the observed regional fire trends, our results suggest a climate influence on fire activity, mainly through a sawtooth pattern of precipitation (increased rainfall before fire-peak seasons (t-1) followed by drought spells and unusual low temperatures (t0), which is particularly common where fire is carried by low fuel loads (e.g., grasslands and fine fuel). This climatic sawtooth appeared as the main driver of fire trends, above local human influences and fuel build

  14. A participatory evaluation model for Healthier Communities: developing indicators for New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, N

    2000-01-01

    Participatory evaluation models that invite community coalitions to take an active role in developing evaluations of their programs are a natural fit with Healthy Communities initiatives. The author describes the development of a participatory evaluation model for New Mexico's Healthier Communities program. She describes evaluation principles, research questions, and baseline findings. The evaluation model shows the links between process, community-level system impacts, and population health changes.

  15. A stochastic model for the indicated pressure process and the dynamics of the internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzoni, G. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1989-08-01

    In-cylinder gas pressure has long been recognized as a fundamental measure of performance in the internal combustion engine. Among the issues that have been the subject of research in recent years is the study of the effects cyclic combustion variability has on the cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder fluctuations in combustion pressures. Some of the research problems pertaining to cyclic combustion variability are to reformulate from a perspective markedly different from the fluid dynamic and thermodynamic models which traditionally characterize this research: a system viewpoint is embraced to construct a stochastic model for the indicated pressure process and the dynamics of the internal combustion engine. First a deterministic model for the dynamics of the engine is described; then a stochastic model is proposed for the cylinder pressure process. The deterministic model and the stochastic representation are then tied together in a Kalman filter model. Experimental results are discussed to validate the models.

  16. On the usage of geomagnetic indices for data selection in internal field modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauristie, K.; Morschhauser, A.; Olsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    and observed values at high latitudes. Recent initiatives to upgrade the AE-indices, either with a better coverage of observing stations and improved baseline corrections (the Super-MAG concept) or with higher accuracy in pinpointing substorm activity (the Midlatitude Positive Bay -index) will most likely...

  17. The impact of green logistic based on financial economic, social and environment activities on sustainable monetary expansion indicators of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Alshubiri

    2017-05-01

    the country's economy also activating the industrial sectors by reducing operating costs and improving the quality of service provided to customers as an indicator of social activities to building green logistic and increase corporate awareness about an environmental variables and behavior of consumers to establish financial and economic system based on green logistical concept.  Research limitations The available data in statistical annual report of Oman is limited, which limited of the period and all variables of the study.  Practical implications: The management of firms should be adopting of green logistic operations by comparing the results of these concepts with competitors in the market for concentrated position of these firms in the market. Also this concept of green logistic helps firms to build an intellectual model that’s contributes to enhance the value-added. The results of this study enhance the stability of monastery policy indicators that’s reflecting of growth economic.  Social implications: Green logistic is presenting a behavior role on the firm’s and country performance and determines the trends and attitudes of future growth of firms especially in environment indicator.  Originality/value: This study aims to analysis the green logistic in the financial economic, social and environment that’s reflect more variations especially as they affected by changes of global markets, particularly with respect to the oil price, which is the main source of revenue for the Sultanate of Oman as the green logistic is one of the modern concepts is influencing the construction of corporate strategies to build economic plans of the country. Also this study has supplied researcher's conceptual framework to explain the green logistic in preparation for many future studies to examine the elements of green logistic.

  18. Transcriptomics Indicates Active and Passive Metronidazole Resistance Mechanisms in Three Seminal Giardia Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Brendan R. E.; Baker, Louise; Emery, Samantha J.; McConville, Malcolm J.; Svärd, Staffan G.; Gasser, Robin B.; Jex, Aaron R.

    2017-01-01

    resistance whereas increased transcription of nitroreductase-2, and a MATE transmembrane pump system, suggest active drug detoxification and efflux, respectively. By contrast, transcriptional changes in 713-M3 and WB-M3 indicated a higher oxidative stress load, attributed to Mtz- and oxygen-derived radicals, respectively. Quantitative comparisons of orthologous gene transcription between Mtz-resistant G. duodenalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, a closely related parasite, revealed changes in transcripts encoding peroxidases, heat shock proteins, and FMN-binding oxidoreductases, as prominent correlates of resistance. This work provides deep insight into Mtz-resistant G. duodenalis, and illuminates resistance-associated features across parasitic species. PMID:28367140

  19. Associations among physical activity, health indicators, and employment in 12th grade girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Dishman, Rod K; Pate, Russell R

    2007-11-01

    This study compared physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and other health indicators between 1381 employed and nonemployed 12th grade girls. The girls were from 22 high schools in South Carolina (2002-2003); 56% of the girls were African American, and the mean age was 17.7 (0.6) years. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR). Fitness, depressive symptoms, and smoking behavior were assessed. Fifty percent of the girls were employed, and on average, employed girls worked 9.6 30-minute blocks per day. Girls who worked reported significantly (p work (M 59.5, SE 0.5). Also, a higher percent of girls who worked reported 2+ blocks of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (89.3%), and fewer (20.2%) reported 4+ blocks of electronic media (EM) compared with girls who did not work (MVPA 62.7%, EM 41.7%). After on-the-job activity was subtracted, total METs for girls who worked was reduced to 48.0 (SE 0.4), and only 48.5% reported 2 or more blocks on average of MVPA. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between girls who reported working (W) and those who did not (NW) for body mass index (BMI) (W: M 25.2, SE 0.2; NW: M 24.6, SE 0.2), depression scores (W: M 14.4, SE 0.5; NW: M 14.4, SE 0.5), fitness (W: M 11.3 kg . m/min/kg, SE 0.2; NW: M 11.7 kg . m/min/kg, SE 0.2), or smoking during the past 30 days (W: 18.5%; NW: 17.4%). Nearly one third of employed high school girls' total physical activity occurred while they were at work. Employed girls also spent less time using electronic media. Employment was not associated with fitness, smoking, or depressive symptoms in 12th grade girls.

  20. Forecast and restoration of geomagnetic activity indices by using the software-computational neural network complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhatov, Nikolay; Revunov, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    It is known that currently used indices of geomagnetic activity to some extent reflect the physical processes occurring in the interaction of the perturbed solar wind with Earth's magnetosphere. Therefore, they are connected to each other and with the parameters of near-Earth space. The establishment of such nonlinear connections is interest. For such purposes when the physical problem is complex or has many parameters the technology of artificial neural networks is applied. Such approach for development of the automated forecast and restoration method of geomagnetic activity indices with the establishment of creative software-computational neural network complex is used. Each neural network experiments were carried out at this complex aims to search for a specific nonlinear relation between the analyzed indices and parameters. At the core of the algorithm work program a complex scheme of the functioning of artificial neural networks (ANN) of different types is contained: back propagation Elman network, feed forward network, fuzzy logic network and Kohonen layer classification network. Tools of the main window of the complex (the application) the settings used by neural networks allow you to change: the number of hidden layers, the number of neurons in the layer, the input and target data, the number of cycles of training. Process and the quality of training the ANN is a dynamic plot of changing training error. Plot of comparison of network response with the test sequence is result of the network training. The last-trained neural network with established nonlinear connection for repeated numerical experiments can be run. At the same time additional training is not executed and the previously trained network as a filter input parameters get through and output parameters with the test event are compared. At statement of the large number of different experiments provided the ability to run the program in a "batch" mode is stipulated. For this purpose the user a

  1. Socio-economic vulnerability to natural hazards - proposal for an indicator-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, U.; McLean, A.; Vangelsten, B. V.; Kalsnes, B.; Ciurean, R. L.; Argyroudis, S.; Winter, M.; Corominas, J.; Mavrouli, O. C.; Fotopoulou, S.; Pitilakis, K.; Baills, A.; Malet, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment, with respect to natural hazards, is a complex process that must consider multiple dimensions of vulnerability, including both physical and social factors. Physical vulnerability refers to conditions of physical assets, and may be modeled by the intensity and magnitude of the hazard, the degree of physical protection provided by the natural and built environment, and the physical robustness of the exposed elements. Social vulnerability refers to the underlying factors leading to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand impacts from the natural hazards. Social vulnerability models can be used in combination with physical vulnerability models to estimate both direct losses, i.e. losses that occur during and immediately after the impact, as well as indirect losses, i.e. long-term effects of the event. Direct impact of a landslide typically includes casualties and damages to buildings and infrastructure while indirect losses may e.g. include business closures or limitations in public services. The direct losses are often assessed using physical vulnerability indicators (e.g. construction material, height of buildings), while indirect losses are mainly assessed using social indicators (e.g. economical resources, demographic conditions). Within the EC-FP7 SafeLand research project, an indicator-based method was proposed to assess relative socio-economic vulnerability to landslides. The indicators represent the underlying factors which influence a community's ability to prepare for, deal with, and recover from the damage associated with landslides. The proposed model includes indicators representing demographic, economic and social characteristics as well as indicators representing the degree of preparedness and recovery capacity. Although the model focuses primarily on the indirect losses, it could easily be extended to include more physical indicators which account for the direct losses. Each indicator is individually

  2. [Socioeconomic status indicators, physical activity, and overweight/obesity in Brazilian children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Mire, Emily; Barreira, Tiago V; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Katzmarzyk, Peter

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and physical activity and overweight/obesity in children. 485 children wore accelerometers for 7 days. Variables included time in sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and steps/day. Children were further categorized as meeting or not meeting guidelines of ≥60min/day MVPA and ≥12,000 steps/day. Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured using bioelec-trical impedance. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI>+1 SD and BF%≥85th percentile. Parents answered questionnaires that questioned total annual household income, parental education level, parental employment status and automobile ownership. Children averaged 59.5min/day in MVPA (44.1% met MVPA guidelines), and 9639 steps/day (18.4% met steps/day guidelines). 45.4% and 33% were overweight/obese classified by BMI and BF% respectively. Higher relative total annual household income level (Odds Ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval=0.15-0.65), and relatively higher maternal (OR=0.38; 95%CI=0.20-0.72) and paternal (OR=0.36; 95%CI=0.17-0.75) education levels were associ-ated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. Household automobile ownership was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA (OR=0.48; 95%CI=0.31-0.75) and steps/day guidelines (OR=0.44; 95%CI=0.26-0.74). SES indicators were not associated with overweight/obesity, but higher SES was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Socioeconomic status indicators, physical activity, and overweight/obesity in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Keihan Rodrigues Matsudo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze the associations between socioeconomic status (SES indicators and physical activity and overweight/obesity in children. Methods: 485 children wore accelerometers for 7 days. Variables included time in sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and steps/day. Children were further categorized as meeting or not meeting guidelines of ≥60min/day MVPA and ≥12,000 steps/day. Body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BF% were measured using bioelectrical impedance. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI >+1 SD and BF% ≥85th percentile. Parents answered questionnaires that questioned total annual household income, parental education level, parental employment status and automobile ownership. Results: Children averaged 59.5min/day in MVPA (44.1% met MVPA guidelines, and 9639 steps/day (18.4% met steps/day guidelines. 45.4% and 33% were overweight/obese classified by BMI and BF% respectively. Higher relative total annual household income level (Odds Ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval=0.15-0.65, and relatively higher maternal (OR=0.38; 95%CI=0.20-0.72 and paternal (OR=0.36; 95%CI=0.17-0.75 education levels were associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. Household automobile ownership was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA (OR=0.48; 95%CI=0.31-0.75 and steps/day guidelines (OR=0.44; 95%CI=0.26-0.74. Conclusions: SES indicators were not associated with overweight/obesity, but higher SES was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines.

  4. Genetically encoded calcium indicators for multi-color neural activity imaging and combination with optogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper eAkerboom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs are powerful tools for systems neuroscience. Here we describe red, single-wavelength GECIs, RCaMPs, engineered from circular permutation of the thermostable red fluorescent protein mRuby. High-resolution crystal structures of mRuby, the red sensor RCaMP, and the recently published red GECI R-GECO1 give insight into the chromophore environments of the Ca2+-bound state of the sensors and the engineered protein domain interfaces of the different indicators. We characterized the biophysical properties and performance of RCaMP sensors in vitro and in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila larvae, and larval zebrafish. Further, we demonstrate 2-color calcium imaging both within the same cell (registering mitochondrial and somatic [Ca2+] and between two populations of cells: neurons and astrocytes. Finally, we perform integrated optogenetics experiments, wherein neural activation via channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 or a red-shifted variant, and activity imaging via RCaMP or GCaMP, are conducted simultaneously, with the ChR2/RCaMP pair providing independently addressable spectral channels. Using this paradigm, we measure calcium responses of naturalistic and ChR2-evoked muscle contractions in vivo in crawling C. elegans. We systematically compare the RCaMP sensors to R-GECO1, in terms of action potential-evoked fluorescence increases in neurons, photobleaching, and photoswitching. R-GECO1 displays higher Ca2+ affinity and larger dynamic range than RCaMP, but exhibits significant photoactivation with blue and green light, suggesting that integrated channelrhodopsin-based optogenetics using R-GECO1 may be subject to artifact. Finally, we create and test blue, cyan and yellow variants engineered from GCaMP by rational design. This engineered set of chromatic variants facilitates new experiments in functional imaging and optogenetics.

  5. Socioeconomic status indicators, physical activity, and overweight/obesity in Brazilian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Mire, Emily; Barreira, Tiago V; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Katzmarzyk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and physical activity and overweight/obesity in children. Methods: 485 children wore accelerometers for 7 days. Variables included time in sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and steps/day. Children were further categorized as meeting or not meeting guidelines of ≥60min/day MVPA and ≥12,000 steps/day. Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured using bioelectrical impedance. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI >+1 SD and BF% ≥85th percentile. Parents answered questionnaires that questioned total annual household income, parental education level, parental employment status and automobile ownership. Results: Children averaged 59.5min/day in MVPA (44.1% met MVPA guidelines), and 9639 steps/day (18.4% met steps/day guidelines). 45.4% and 33% were overweight/obese classified by BMI and BF% respectively. Higher relative total annual household income level (Odds Ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval=0.15-0.65), and relatively higher maternal (OR=0.38; 95%CI=0.20-0.72) and paternal (OR=0.36; 95%CI=0.17-0.75) education levels were associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. Household automobile ownership was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA (OR=0.48; 95%CI=0.31-0.75) and steps/day guidelines (OR=0.44; 95%CI=0.26-0.74). Conclusions: SES indicators were not associated with overweight/obesity, but higher SES was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. PMID:26975562

  6. Big Data Analytics for Modelling and Forecasting of Geomagnetic Field Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.

    2016-12-01

    A massive amount of data are produced and stored in research areas of space weather and space climate. However, the value of a vast majority of the data acquired every day may not be effectively or efficiently exploited in our daily practice when we try to forecast solar wind parameters and geomagnetic field indices using these recorded measurements or digital signals, probably due to the challenges stemming from the dealing with big data which are characterized by the 4V futures: volume (a massively large amount of data), variety (a great number of different types of data), velocity (a requirement of quick processing of the data), and veracity (the trustworthiness and usability of the data). In order to obtain more reliable and accurate predictive models for geomagnetic field indices, it requires that models should be developed from the big data analytics perspective (or it at least benefits from such a perspective). This study proposes a few data-based modelling frameworks which aim to produce more efficient predictive models for space weather parameters forecasting by means of system identification and big data analytics. More specifically, it aims to build more reliable mathematical models that characterise the relationship between solar wind parameters and geomagnetic filed indices, for example the dependent relationship of Dst and Kp indices on a few solar wind parameters and magnetic field indices, namely, solar wind velocity (V), southward interplanetary magnetic field (Bs), solar wind rectified electric field (VBs), and dynamic flow pressure (P). Examples are provided to illustrate how the proposed modelling approaches are applied to Dst and Kp index prediction.

  7. Can Agrometeorological Indices of Adverse Weather Conditions Help to Improve Yield Prediction by Crop Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava Lalić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of adverse weather conditions (AWCs on crop production is random in both time and space and depends on factors such as severity, previous agrometeorological conditions, and plant vulnerability at a specific crop development stage. Any exclusion or improper treatment of any of these factors can cause crop models to produce significant under- or overestimates of yield. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on a range of agrometeorological indices (AMI related to AWCs that might affect real yield as well as simulated yield. For this purpose, the analysis addressed four indicators of extreme temperatures and three indicators of dry conditions during the growth period of maize and winter wheat in Austria, Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, and Sweden. It is shown that increases in the number and intensity of AWCs cannot be unambiguously associated with increased deviations in simulated yields. The identified correlations indicate an increase in modeling uncertainty. This finding represents important information for the crop modeling community. Additionally, it opens a window of opportunity for a statistical (“event scenario” approach based on correlations between agrometeorological indices of AWCs and crop yield data series. This approach can provide scenarios for certain locations, crop types, and AWC patterns and, therefore, improve yield forecasting in the presence of AWCs.

  8. Modeling drought impact occurrence based on meteorological drought indices in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagge, James H.; Kohn, Irene; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stahl, Kerstin

    2015-11-01

    There is a vital need for research that links meteorological drought indices with drought impacts felt on the ground. Previously, this link has been estimated based on experience or defined based on very narrow impact measures. This study expands on earlier work by showing the feasibility of relating user-provided impact reports with meteorological drought indices, the Standardized Precipitation Index and the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, through logistic regression, while controlling for seasonal and interannual effects. Analysis includes four impact types, spanning agriculture, energy and industry, public water supply, and freshwater ecosystem across five European countries. Statistically significant climate indices are retained as predictors using step-wise regression and used to compare the most relevant drought indices and accumulation periods across different impact types and regions. Agricultural impacts are explained by 2-12 month anomalies, though anomalies greater than 3 months are likely related to agricultural management practices. Energy and industrial impacts, typically related to hydropower and energy cooling water, respond slower (6-12 months). Public water supply and freshwater ecosystem impacts are explained by a more complex combination of short (1-3 month) and seasonal (6-12 month) anomalies. The resulting drought impact models have both good model fit (pseudo-R2 = 0.225-0.716) and predictive ability, highlighting the feasibility of using such models to predict drought impact likelihood based on meteorological drought indices.

  9. An Indicator of Research Front Activity: Measuring Intellectual Organization as Uncertainty Reduction in Document Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Lucio-Arias, Diana

    2009-01-01

    When using scientific literature to model scholarly discourse, a research specialty can be operationalized as an evolving set of related documents. Each publication can be expected to contribute to the further development of the specialty at the research front. The specific combinations of title words and cited references in a paper can then be considered as a signature of the knowledge claim in the paper: new words and combinations of words can be expected to represent variation, while each paper is at the same time selectively positioned into the intellectual organization of a field using context-relevant references. Can the mutual information among these three dimensions--title words, cited references, and sequence numbers--be used as an indicator of the extent to which intellectual organization structures the uncertainty prevailing at a research front? The effect of the discovery of nanotubes (1991) on the previously existing field of fullerenes is used as a test case. Thereafter, this method is applied t...

  10. Blood flow to long bones indicates activity metabolism in mammals, reptiles and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S; Smith, Sarah L; White, Craig R; Henderson, Donald M; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela

    2012-02-07

    The cross-sectional area of a nutrient foramen of a long bone is related to blood flow requirements of the internal bone cells that are essential for dynamic bone remodelling. Foramen area increases with body size in parallel among living mammals and non-varanid reptiles, but is significantly larger in mammals. An index of blood flow rate through the foramina is about 10 times higher in mammals than in reptiles, and even higher if differences in blood pressure are considered. The scaling of foramen size correlates well with maximum whole-body metabolic rate during exercise in mammals and reptiles, but less well with resting metabolic rate. This relates to the role of blood flow associated with bone remodelling during and following activity. Mammals and varanid lizards have much higher aerobic metabolic rates and exercise-induced bone remodelling than non-varanid reptiles. Foramen areas of 10 species of dinosaur from five taxonomic groups are generally larger than from mammals, indicating a routinely highly active and aerobic lifestyle. The simple measurement holds possibilities offers the possibility of assessing other groups of extinct and living vertebrates in relation to body size, behaviour and habitat.

  11. Trends in Global Vegetation Activity and Climatic Drivers Indicate a Decoupled Response to Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius G T Schut

    Full Text Available Detailed understanding of a possible decoupling between climatic drivers of plant productivity and the response of ecosystems vegetation is required. We compared trends in six NDVI metrics (1982-2010 derived from the GIMMS3g dataset with modelled biomass productivity and assessed uncertainty in trend estimates. Annual total biomass weight (TBW was calculated with the LINPAC model. Trends were determined using a simple linear regression, a Thiel-Sen medium slope and a piecewise regression (PWR with two segments. Values of NDVI metrics were related to Net Primary Production (MODIS-NPP and TBW per biome and land-use type. The simple linear and Thiel-Sen trends did not differ much whereas PWR increased the fraction of explained variation, depending on the NDVI metric considered. A positive trend in TBW indicating more favorable climatic conditions was found for 24% of pixels on land, and for 5% a negative trend. A decoupled trend, indicating positive TBW trends and monotonic negative or segmented and negative NDVI trends, was observed for 17-36% of all productive areas depending on the NDVI metric used. For only 1-2% of all pixels in productive areas, a diverging and greening trend was found despite a strong negative trend in TBW. The choice of NDVI metric used strongly affected outcomes on regional scales and differences in the fraction of explained variation in MODIS-NPP between biomes were large, and a combination of NDVI metrics is recommended for global studies. We have found an increasing difference between trends in climatic drivers and observed NDVI for large parts of the globe. Our findings suggest that future scenarios must consider impacts of constraints on plant growth such as extremes in weather and nutrient availability to predict changes in NPP and CO2 sequestration capacity.

  12. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  13. Spectral Color Indices Based Geospatial Modeling of Soil Organic Matter in Chitwan District, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Umesh K.

    2016-06-01

    Space Technology provides a resourceful-cost effective means to assess soil nutrients essential for soil management plan. Soil organic matter (SOM) is one of valuable controlling productivity of crops by providing nutrient in farming systems. Geospatial modeling of soil organic matter is essential if there is unavailability of soil test laboratories and its strong spatial correlation. In the present analysis, soil organic matter is modeled from satellite image derived spectral color indices. Brightness Index (BI), Coloration Index (CI), Hue Index (HI), Redness Index (RI) and Saturation Index (SI) were calculated by converting DN value to radiance and radiance to reflectance from Thematic Mapper image. Geospatial model was developed by regressing SOM with color indices and producing multiple regression model using stepwise regression technique. The multiple regression equation between SOM and spectral indices was significant with R = 0. 56 at 95% confidence level. The resulting MLR equation was then used for the spatial prediction for the entire study area. Redness Index was found higher significance in estimating the SOM. It was used to predict SOM as auxiliary variables using cokringing spatial interpolation technique. It was tested in seven VDCs of Chitwan district of Nepal using Thematic Mapper remotely sensed data. SOM was found to be measured ranging from 0.15% to 4.75 %, with a mean of 2.24 %. Remotely sensed data derived spectral color indices have the potential as useful auxiliary variables for estimating SOM content to generate soil fertility management plans.

  14. Artificial neural network model for prediction of safety performance indicators goals in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Kelling C.; Nunes, Wallace W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Aplicacoes Computacionais; Machado, Marcelo D., E-mail: dornemd@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Combustivel Nuclear - GCN.T

    2011-07-01

    Safety performance indicators have been developed to provide a quantitative indication of the performance and safety in various industry sectors. These indexes can provide assess to aspects ranging from production, design, and human performance up to management issues in accordance with policy, objectives and goals of the company. The use of safety performance indicators in nuclear power plants around the world is a reality. However, it is necessary to periodically set goal values. Such goals are targets relating to each of the indicators to be achieved by the plant over a predetermined period of operation. The current process of defining these goals is carried out by experts in a subjective way, based on actual data from the plant, and comparison with global indices. Artificial neural networks are computational techniques that present a mathematical model inspired by the neural structure of intelligent organisms that acquire knowledge through experience. This paper proposes an artificial neural network model aimed at predicting values of goals to be used in the evaluation of safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Artificial neural network model for prediction of safety performance indicators goals in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Kelling C.; Nunes, Wallace W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Aplicacoes Computacionais; Machado, Marcelo D., E-mail: dornemd@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Combustivel Nuclear - GCN.T

    2011-07-01

    Safety performance indicators have been developed to provide a quantitative indication of the performance and safety in various industry sectors. These indexes can provide assess to aspects ranging from production, design, and human performance up to management issues in accordance with policy, objectives and goals of the company. The use of safety performance indicators in nuclear power plants around the world is a reality. However, it is necessary to periodically set goal values. Such goals are targets relating to each of the indicators to be achieved by the plant over a predetermined period of operation. The current process of defining these goals is carried out by experts in a subjective way, based on actual data from the plant, and comparison with global indices. Artificial neural networks are computational techniques that present a mathematical model inspired by the neural structure of intelligent organisms that acquire knowledge through experience. This paper proposes an artificial neural network model aimed at predicting values of goals to be used in the evaluation of safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. A Generalized Model for Electrical Power Distribution Feeders’ Contributions to System Reliability Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability indices are parametric quantities used to assess the performance levels of electrical power distribution systems. In this work, a generalized quadratic model is developed for electrical power distribution system contributions to system reliability indices using Ikeja, Port-Harcourt, Kaduna and Kano distribution system feeders as case studies. The mean System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI, System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI and Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDI contributions to system reliability indices for Ikeja, Port-Harcourt, Kaduna and Kano distribution systems were 0.0033, 0.0026, 0.0033 and 0.0018 respectively due to the fact that a prolonged period of interruptions was recorded on most of the feeders attached to Port-Harcourt and Kano distribution systems making them to be less reliable compared to Ikeja and Kaduna distribution systems. The generalized Quadratic model forms a basis for a good design, planning and maintenance of distribution systems at large.

  17. OSL dating of fluvial terraces for incision rate estimation and indication of neotectonic activity in Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M. C.; Gloaguen, R.; Krbetschek, M.; Szulc, A.

    2012-04-01

    ThePamir owes its special attraction for geo-scientists to being among Earth's largest intra-continental orogens and to display some of the highest uplift rates as well as to host among the most powerful river systems on the planet. The evolution of the drainage network as a proxy for the landscape's response to tectonic signals provides a powerful tool to study neotectonics. The relation between tectonic forcing and surface response is indicated by structural anomalies (e.g. river-capture, river-reversal or -deflection) and spatial differences of process rates (e.g. incision rates). We combine OSL dating with remote sensing tectonic geomorphology in order to determine the zones of active deformation in the Quaternary. The local drainage system of the study region aligns mainly to the east-west-trending belts of shortening, which results from the ongoing northward propagation of the Indian plate. In contrast the major trunk river, the Panj, is unusual in that it deflects northwards and then doubles back to the southwest, cutting the southern and central Pamir doming and several other major Cenozoic deformation zones. We use fluvial terraces along the deflected north-south orientated part including the doubled back prolongation of the more or less normal orientated Panj. These sediment bodies are used as a geomorphic record to reveal changes in the balance between sediment flux and discharge. Dating these fluvial terraces by OSL provides the burial ages of the sediments indicating periods of sedimentation. The remains of those periods are far from equally distributed and mark the time of local conditions for sedimentation as especially the close neighbourhood of most of the terraces from the two youngest periods demonstrate. Precise measurements of the heights of the dated terraces with respect to the present river level based on relative kinematic GPS quantify the total vertical incision of the river subsequent to the sedimentation and abandonment. Incision rates

  18. Using species abundance distribution models and diversity indices for biogeographical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone; Rigal, François; Cardoso, Pedro; Borges, Paulo A. V.

    2016-01-01

    We examine whether Species Abundance Distribution models (SADs) and diversity indices can describe how species colonization status influences species community assembly on oceanic islands. Our hypothesis is that, because of the lack of source-sink dynamics at the archipelago scale, Single Island Endemics (SIEs), i.e. endemic species restricted to only one island, should be represented by few rare species and consequently have abundance patterns that differ from those of more widespread species. To test our hypothesis, we used arthropod data from the Azorean archipelago (North Atlantic). We divided the species into three colonization categories: SIEs, archipelagic endemics (AZEs, present in at least two islands) and native non-endemics (NATs). For each category, we modelled rank-abundance plots using both the geometric series and the Gambin model, a measure of distributional amplitude. We also calculated Shannon entropy and Buzas and Gibson's evenness. We show that the slopes of the regression lines modelling SADs were significantly higher for SIEs, which indicates a relative predominance of a few highly abundant species and a lack of rare species, which also depresses diversity indices. This may be a consequence of two factors: (i) some forest specialist SIEs may be at advantage over other, less adapted species; (ii) the entire populations of SIEs are by definition concentrated on a single island, without possibility for inter-island source-sink dynamics; hence all populations must have a minimum number of individuals to survive natural, often unpredictable, fluctuations. These findings are supported by higher values of the α parameter of the Gambin mode for SIEs. In contrast, AZEs and NATs had lower regression slopes, lower α but higher diversity indices, resulting from their widespread distribution over several islands. We conclude that these differences in the SAD models and diversity indices demonstrate that the study of these metrics is useful for

  19. Review and Extension of Suitability Assessment Indicators of Weather Model Output for Analyzing Decentralized Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schermeyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E is gaining more and more influence in traditional energy and electricity markets in Europe and around the world. When modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution, energy systems analysts frequently use data generated by numerical weather models as input since there is no spatial inclusive and comprehensive measurement data available. However, the suitability of such model data depends on the research questions at hand and should be inspected individually. This paper focuses on new methodologies to carry out a performance evaluation of solar irradiation data provided by a numerical weather model when investigating photovoltaic feed-in and effects on the electricity grid. Suitable approaches of time series analysis are researched from literature and applied to both model and measurement data. The findings and limits of these approaches are illustrated and a new set of validation indicators is presented. These novel indicators complement the assessment by measuring relevant key figures in energy systems analysis: e.g., gradients in energy supply, maximum values and volatility. Thus, the results of this paper contribute to the scientific community of energy systems analysts and researchers who aim at modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution using weather model data.

  20. Comparison of several climate indices as inputs in modelling of the Baltic Sea runoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanninen, J.; Vuorinen, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Archipelaco Research Inst.], e-mail: jari.hanninen@utu.fi

    2012-11-01

    Using Transfer function (TF) models, we have earlier presented a chain of events between changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their oceanographical and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea. Here we tested whether other climate indices as inputs would improve TF models, and our understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Besides NAO, the predictors were the Arctic Oscillation (AO), sea-level air pressures at Iceland (SLP), and wind speeds at Hoburg (Gotland). All indices produced good TF models when the total riverine runoff to the Baltic Sea was used as a modelling basis. AO was not applicable in all study areas, showing a delay of about half a year between climate and runoff events, connected with freezing and melting time of ice and snow in the northern catchment area of the Baltic Sea. NAO appeared to be most useful modelling tool as its area of applicability was the widest of the tested indices, and the time lag between climate and runoff events was the shortest. SLP and Hoburg wind speeds showed largely same results as NAO, but with smaller areal applicability. Thus AO and NAO were both mostly contributing to the general understanding of climate control of runoff events in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. (orig.)

  1. Mathematical modelling of transport of a non-diffusible indicator to estimate renal blood supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, I.N.; Narkevich, V.Y.

    1985-01-01

    A new method is recommended to interpret the results in radionuclide studies of renal blood flow with the mathematical modelling of transport of a non-diffusible indicator in the blood vessels. The analytic proportions are ascertained between mean transit time of indicator, mean retention time (both at impulse influence and at occurence of any signal at the input) for different forms of transport function, and impulse-shaped retention function of the studied physiological system. By means of external measuring of radioactivity this allows to estimate the mean transit time of the indicator by the studied element of hemodynamics, an index, used in classically physiological studies. The recommended system of physiological indices describes the statistic and dynamic parameters of the vessel network in each kidney adequately. The use of this method showed its efficiency on principle in 7 healthy persons and in 4 patients with clinically manifest kidney diseases. (author).

  2. A process-based mathematical model on methane production with emission indices for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, A; Bhattacharaya, D K

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, a process-based mathematical model is developed for the production of methane through biodegradation. It is a three-dimensional model given by ordinary differential equations. The results of the analysis of the model are interpreted through three emission indices, which are introduced for the first time. The estimation of either one or all of them can interpret the feasibility of the equilibrium and the long-term emission tendency of methane. The vulnerability of the methane production process with respect to soil temperature effects in methanogenic phase has been discussed and a feasible condition within a specified temperature range has defined for the nonvulnerability of the methane production process and also it has shown that under the same condition, zero-emission process of methane will be nonvulnerable with respect to the soil temperature effects in methanogenic phase. Lastly, condition for zero emission of methane is also obtained and it is interpreted through the emission indices.

  3. Multiscale model of the human cardiovascular system: Description of heart failure and comparison of contractility indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosta, S; Negroni, J; Lascano, E; Dauby, P C

    2017-02-01

    A multiscale model of the cardiovascular system is presented. Hemodynamics is described by a lumped parameter model, while heart contraction is described at the cellular scale. An electrophysiological model and a mechanical model were coupled and adjusted so that the pressure and volume of both ventricles are linked to the force and length of a half-sarcomere. Particular attention was paid to the extreme values of the sarcomere length, which must keep physiological values. This model is able to reproduce healthy behavior, preload variations experiments, and ventricular failure. It also allows to compare the relevance of standard cardiac contractility indices. This study shows that the theoretical gold standard for assessing cardiac contractility, namely the end-systolic elastance, is actually load-dependent and therefore not a reliable index of cardiac contractility.

  4. The Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Convolvulus Aucheri (Convolvulaceae Extract on Biochemical Indices in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MAMMADOV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus L., the second largest genus of the family Convolvulaceae, has about 250 species distributed mainly in the temperate and tropical regions of the world, with a cosmopolitan distribution. According to recent studies, this genus is represented in Turkey by 33 species, 9 of which are endemic. Convolvulus species are extensively used in traditional medicine for various purposes as in ulcer treatment, diabetes, and tension. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and the effects of Convolvulus aucheri extract on biochemical indices in rats.The antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol, acetone and benzene obtained from C. aucheri were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In addition, total phenolic contents in all the extracts of C. aucheri were determined as gallic acid equivalents. As for the biochemical assay, the extracts of the plant at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1 ml/100 g body weight/day were administered orally to the experimental groups for 36 days. Blood samples were taken by cardiac venipuncture on the 2nd and 4th weeks after the initial treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT and blood urea nitrogen (BUN were measured for the determination of liver function.Among all the extracts, the ethanolic extracts of C. aucheri showed the highest antioxidant activity (66.88 ± 0.8%. The highest free radical scavenging activity (59.50 ± 1.2% was recorded on the ethanolic extracts. The phenolic contents of the ethanolic extracts are higher than the other types of extracts (23.03 mg/g GAE. In biochemical assay, it was found a significant increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and decrease the serum GGT levels in the experimental groups when compared to the controls (p<0.05. On the other hand, we found significant increase in the level of BUN.

  5. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  6. Analyzing Latent State-Trait and Multiple-Indicator Latent Growth Curve Models as Multilevel Structural Equation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eGeiser

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latent state-trait (LST and latent growth curve (LGC models are frequently used in the analysis of longitudinal data. Although it is well-known that standard single-indicator LGC models can be analyzed within either the structural equation modeling (SEM or multilevel (ML; hierarchical linear modeling frameworks, few researchers realize that LST and multivariate LGC models, which use multiple indicators at each time point, can also be specified as ML models. In the present paper, we demonstrate that using the ML-SEM rather than the SL-SEM framework to estimate the parameters of these models can be practical when the study involves (1 a large number of time points, (2 individually-varying times of observation, (3 unequally spaced time intervals, and/or (4 incomplete data. Despite the practical advantages of the ML-SEM approach under these circumstances, there are also some limitations that researchers should consider. We present an application to an ecological momentary assessment study (N = 158 youths with an average of 23.49 observations of positive mood per person using the software Mplus (Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2012 and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the ML-SEM approach to estimate the parameters of LST and multiple-indicator LGC models.

  7. An Integrated Model Based on a Hierarchical Indices System for Monitoring and Evaluating Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of world’s population presently resides in cities, and this number is expected to rise to ~70% by 2050. Increasing urbanization problems including population growth, urban sprawl, land use change, unemployment, and environmental degradation, have markedly impacted urban residents’ Quality of Life (QOL. Therefore, urban sustainability and its measurement have gained increasing attention from administrators, urban planners, and scientific communities throughout the world with respect to improving urban development and human well-being. The widely accepted definition of urban sustainability emphasizes the balancing development of three primary domains (urban economy, society, and environment. This article attempts to improve the aforementioned definition of urban sustainability by incorporating a human well-being dimension. Major problems identified in existing urban sustainability indicator (USI models include a weak integration of potential indicators, poor measurement and quantification, and insufficient spatial-temporal analysis. To tackle these challenges an integrated USI model based on a hierarchical indices system was established for monitoring and evaluating urban sustainability. This model can be performed by quantifying indicators using both traditional statistical approaches and advanced geomatic techniques based on satellite imagery and census data, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for a comprehensive assessment of urban sustainability from a spatial-temporal perspective.

  8. Prospective Analysis of Life-Cycle Indicators through Endogenous Integration into a National Power Generation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego García-Gusano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing importance of sustainability aspects in national energy plans, this article deals with the prospective analysis of life-cycle indicators of the power generation sector through the case study of Spain. A technology-rich, optimisation-based model for power generation in Spain is developed and provided with endogenous life-cycle indicators (climate change, resources, and human health to assess their evolution to 2050. Prospective performance indicators are analysed under two energy scenarios: a business-as-usual one, and an alternative scenario favouring the role of carbon dioxide capture in the electricity production mix by 2050. Life-cycle impacts are found to decrease substantially when existing fossil technologies disappear in the mix (especially coal thermal power plants. In the long term, the relatively high presence of natural gas arises as the main source of impact. When the installation of new fossil options without CO2 capture is forbidden by 2030, both renewable technologies and—to a lesser extent—fossil technologies with CO2 capture are found to increase their contribution to electricity production. The endogenous integration of life-cycle indicators into energy models proves to boost the usefulness of both life cycle assessment and energy systems modelling in order to support decision- and policy-making.

  9. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an active beam model suitable for building energy simulations with the programming language Modelica. The model encapsulates empirical equations derived by a novel active beam terminal unit that operates with low-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling systems....... Measurements from a full-scale experiment are used to compare the thermal behavior of the active beam with the one predicted by simulations. The simulation results show that the model corresponds closely with the actual operation. The model predicts the outlet water temperature of the active beam...... with a maximum mean absolute error of 0.18 °C. In term of maximum mean absolute percentage error, simulation results differ by 0.9%. The methodology presented is general enough to be applied for modeling other active beam units. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica. Available from: https...

  10. MODELING OF WORLD'S SYSTEMICALLY IMPORTANT ECONOMIES IMPACT ON THE DYNAMICS OF MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bazhenova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops the vector autoregression model of the Ukraine’s economy for exploring the dynamics of key indicators of the domestic economy in response to the shocks from systemically important economies. The foreign variables in the model are growth rates of real GDP, consumer price indices in the advanced economies and in countries of emerging and developing Asia and oil price. The results suggest that the shocks from the “large” economies are absorbed by the domestic economy for a long time. A significant part of the variability of real GDP growth index in Ukraine is due to external factors. Inflation in advanced countries has the most significant influence on this variability (among other external shocks that confirms inflation import from these economies. At the same time the price of oil does not significantly contribute to the explanation of the mentioned variability. Given the euro area share increase in foreign trade and China’s impact on metal market conditions this paper also explores the influence of these economies’ indicators (notably production indices and consumer price indices on Ukraine’s economy.

  11. Transcriptome profiling indicating canine parvovirus type 2a as a potential immune activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xu-Xu; Gao, Yuan; Shu, Long; Wei, Yan-Quan; Yao, Xue-Ping; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Peng, Guang-Neng; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Shi-Qi

    2016-12-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a) is a variant of CPV-2, which is a highly contagious pathogen causing severe gastroenteritis and death in young dogs. However, how CPV-2 participates in cell regulation and immune response remains unknown. In this study, persistently infected MDCK cells were generated through culture passage of the CPV-2a-infected cells for ten generations. Our study showed that CPV-2a induces cell proliferation arrest and cell morphology alternation before the fourth generation, whereas, the cell morphology returns to normal after five times of passages. PCR detection of viral VP2 gene demonstrated that CPV-2a proliferate with cell passage. An immunofluorescence assay revealed that CPV-2a particles were mainly located in the cell nuclei of MDCK cell. Then transcriptome microarray revealed that gene expression pattern of MDCK with CPV-2a persistent infection is distinct compared with normal cells. Gene ontology annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway analysis demonstrated that CPV-2a infection induces a series of membrane-associated genes expression, including many MHC protein or MHC-related complexes. These genes are closely related to signaling pathways of virus-host interaction, including antigen processing and presentation pathway, intestinal immune network, graft-versus-host disease, and RIG-I-like helicases signaling pathway. In contrast, the suppressed genes mediated by CPV-2a showed low enrichment in any category, and were only involved in pathways linking to synthesis and metabolism of amino acids, which was confirmed by qPCR analysis. Our studies indicated that CPV-2a is a natural immune activator and has the capacity to activate host immune responses, which could be used for the development of antiviral strategy and biomaterial for medicine.

  12. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.;

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...... then successfully applied to activity recognition, activity simulation and multi-target tracking. Our method compares favourably with respect to previously reported results using Hidden Markov Models and Relational Particle Filtering....

  13. Groundwater Development Stress: Global-Scale Indices Compared to Regional Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M; Clark, Brian R; Ely, David M; Faunt, Claudia C

    2017-08-15

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Exact formulas for the variance of several balance indices under the Yule model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Mir, Arnau; Rosselló, Francesc

    2013-12-01

    One of the main applications of balance indices is in tests of nullmodels of evolutionary processes. The knowledge of an exact formula for a statistic of a balance index, holding for any number n of leaves, is necessary in order to use this statistic in tests of this kind involving trees of any size. In this paper we obtain exact formulas for the variance under the Yule model of the Sackin, the Colless and the total cophenetic indices of binary rooted phylogenetic trees with n leaves.

  15. ABOUT THE SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT OF YOUTH: GENERAL TASKS AND PRIVATE MODELS OF MARKET INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Kontsevaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work attempt of system approach to the analysis of labor market of youth is made, the place and a role of youth labor exchange are dened, opportunities and methods of state regulation are opened, contradictions in the analysis of the main market indicators are designated.Within system approach to the analysis of dynamics of market processes modeling of the main indicators of labor market in regional scale is shown.This approach can be useful when developing effective and economically reasonable mechanisms of employment of youth, both at the level of regional services of employment, and in the state scale

  16. Detecting Location Shifts during Model Selection by Step-Indicator Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Castle

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To capture location shifts in the context of model selection, we propose selecting significant step indicators from a saturating set added to the union of all of the candidate variables. The null retention frequency and approximate non-centrality of a selection test are derived using a ‘split-half’ analysis, the simplest specialization of a multiple-path block-search algorithm. Monte Carlo simulations, extended to sequential reduction, confirm the accuracy of nominal significance levels under the null and show retentions when location shifts occur, improving the non-null retention frequency compared to the corresponding impulse-indicator saturation (IIS-based method and the lasso.

  17. Combined statistical and spatially distributed hydrological model for evaluating future drought indices in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunwoo Kang

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The results of the ensemble mean of SSI indicated that there was an overall increase in agricultural drought occurrences projected in the New (>1.3 times and Rappahannock (>1.13 times river basins due to increases in evapotranspiration and surface and groundwater flow. However, MSDI and MPDSI exhibited a decrease in projected future drought, despite increases in precipitation, which suggests that it is essential to use hybrid-modeling approaches and to interpret application-specific drought indices that consider both precipitation and temperature changes.

  18. A quantitative analysis to objectively appraise drought indicators and model drought impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmair, S.; Svensson, C.; Hannaford, J.; Barker, L. J.; Stahl, K.

    2016-07-01

    coverage. The predictions also provided insights into the EDII, in particular highlighting drought events where missing impact reports may reflect a lack of recording rather than true absence of impacts. Overall, the presented quantitative framework proved to be a useful tool for evaluating drought indicators, and to model impact occurrence. In summary, this study demonstrates the information gain for drought monitoring and early warning through impact data collection and analysis. It highlights the important role that quantitative analysis with impact data can have in providing "ground truth" for drought indicators, alongside more traditional stakeholder-led approaches.

  19. A quantitative analysis to objectively appraise drought indicators and model drought impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bachmair

    2015-09-01

    . The predictions also provided insights into the EDII, in particular highlighting drought events where missing impact reports reflect a lack of recording rather than true absence of impacts. Overall, the presented quantitative framework proved to be a useful tool for evaluating drought indicators, and to model impact occurrence. In summary, this study demonstrates the information gain for drought monitoring and early warning through impact data collection and analysis, and highlights the important role that quantitative analysis with impacts data can have in providing "ground truth" for drought indicators alongside more traditional stakeholder-led approaches.

  20. A quantitative analysis to objectively appraise drought indicators and model drought impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmair, S.; Svensson, C.; Hannaford, J.; Barker, L. J.; Stahl, K.

    2015-09-01

    also provided insights into the EDII, in particular highlighting drought events where missing impact reports reflect a lack of recording rather than true absence of impacts. Overall, the presented quantitative framework proved to be a useful tool for evaluating drought indicators, and to model impact occurrence. In summary, this study demonstrates the information gain for drought monitoring and early warning through impact data collection and analysis, and highlights the important role that quantitative analysis with impacts data can have in providing "ground truth" for drought indicators alongside more traditional stakeholder-led approaches.

  1. Effect of sire on mu- and m-calpain activity and rate of tenderization as indicated by myofibril fragmentation indices of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Pringle, T D; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Coleman, S W

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of sire on mu- and m-calpain activities, to evaluate the relationships of activities of these enzymes to other traits related to beef palatability, and to assess the influence of sire on the rate of tenderization (as measured by myofibril fragmentation index [MFI]) in Brahman longissimus muscle. Brahman calves (n = 87), sired by nine bulls, were born, weaned, fed, and slaughtered in central Florida. Traits evaluated were mu- and m-calpain activities and MFI after 1, 7, 14, and 21 d of aging. Other traits were analyzed to determine their associations with mu- and m-calpain activity and MFI, including calpastatin activity, percentage of raw and cooked lipids, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, and sensory panel rating of tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue amount after 14 d of aging. Data were analyzed using a model with sire, sex, year, and slaughter group (calves of the same sex slaughtered on the same date) as fixed effects, and adjusted to a constant adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness. Sire affected mu-calpain activity (P carcass sorting program represents an alternative consideration for tenderization improvement programs.

  2. Establishing an Integration-Energy-Practice Model for Improving Energy Performance Indicators in ISO 50001 Energy Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Yung Chiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global energy sources are gradually becoming scarce and prices are continually rising. Governments and businesses in various countries are actively developing technologies for energy management and developing new sources of energy. On 15 June 2011, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO announced the ISO 50001 standard for energy management systems. Organizations and enterprises are confronted with challenges associated with enhancing energy performance indicators, continuing to improve energy consumption efficiency, and managing third-party international certifications. This study conducted cases studies of businesses that have introduced an ISO 50001 energy management system by using an integration-energy-practice model to improve energy performance indicators and to complete the international auditing and certification procedures for ISO 50001 energy management systems. Based on case study results, the achievement rates for annual energy performance indicators increased, thereby enhancing the energy intensity efficiency. Establishing an integration-energy-practice model for introducing an ISO 50001 energy management system can efficiently meet demands for energy performance indicators and pass the international certification for ISO 50001 energy management systems. The proposed model efficiently provides enterprises with methods for developing sustainable energy management. It integrates internal and external technical resources to establish energy technology think tanks, for promoting successful technology and experiences to various sectors, thereby allowing enterprises to integrate energy management, increase energy efficiency, and meet the ISO 50001 international standard for energy management systems.

  3. Effects of logging activities on ecological water quality indicators in the Berasau River, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Zaiha, A; Mohd Ismid, M S; Salmiati; Shahrul Azri, M S

    2015-08-01

    Influence of deforestation on biodiversity of aquatic organisms was investigated in a stream in the Ulu Sedili Forest Reserve. The stream was monitored five (5) times from December 2011 until December 2012 with 2-month intervals. Sampling of benthic communities was carried out using rectangular dip net while water quality study using a YSI ProPlus meter and the rest were done in the laboratory. Physicochemical parameters and water quality index (WQI) calculation showed no significant difference among the investigated events. WQI classified the Berasau River between Class II (good) to III (moderate) of river water quality. In total, 603 individuals representing 25 taxa that were recorded with Decapods from genus Macrobrabchium were widely distributed. Several intolerant taxa, especially Ephemeroptera and Odonata, were also observed in this river. According to Pearson's correlation analysis, the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by water quality parameters represented by WQI (P < 0.01). In conclusion, logging activities have strong attributes for variation in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage.

  4. A Statistical Analysis of Solar Surface Indices Through the Solar Activity Cycles 21-23

    CERN Document Server

    Goker, Umit Deniz; Nutku, Ferhat; Priyal, Muthu

    2016-01-01

    Variations of total solar irradiance (TSI), magnetic field, Ca II K-flux, faculae and plage areas due to the number and the type of sunspots/sunspot groups (SGs) are well established by using ground based data from various centers such as Solar Irradiance Platform, Stanford Data (SFO), Kodaikanal data (KKL) and National Geographical Data Center (NGDC) Homepage, respectively. We applied time series analysis for extracting the data over the descending phases of solar activity cycles (SACs) 21, 22 and 23, and the ascending phases 22 and 23 of SACs, and analyzed the selected data using the Python programming language. Our detailed analysis results suggest that there is a stronger correlation between solar surface indices and the changes in the relative portion of the small and large SGs. This somewhat unexpected finding suggest that plage regions decreased in a lower values in spite of the higher number of large SGs in SAC 23 while Ca II K-flux did not decrease by large amount or it was comparable with SAC 22 for...

  5. Indications and outcome of subtotal petrosectomy for active middle ear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Nicolas; Mojallal, Hamidreza; Schwab, Burkard

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the outcome and possible complications of subtotal petrosectomy (SP) for Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) device surgery in a tertiary referral center. A secondary objective was the evaluation of hearing results in a subgroup of subjects who received the VSB device. Between 2009 and early 2011, 22 adult subjects with chronic otitis media (COM) underwent a SP, blind sac closure of the external auditory canal and abdominal fat obliteration to facilitate the application of an active middle ear implant (AMEI) in a staged procedure. Indications consisted of mixed hearing loss after previous tympanomastoplasty and failure of hearing rehabilitation with a hearing aid or bone conduction device in COM. Pre- and postoperative pure-tone audiograms were analyzed in respect to deterioration of inner ear function, unaided and aided (hearing aid, bone-anchored hearing aid and VSB) speech audiograms were compared to verify improvements in communications skills and functional gains. Incidence and type of complications were reviewed. No significant change was observed regarding mean bone conduction thresholds after the first stage procedure. Some minor wound healing problems were noted. Speech perception using the VSB (n = 16) showed a mean aided speech discrimination at 65-dB SPL of 75 % [standard deviation (SD) 28.7], at 80-dB SPL of 90 % (SD 25.1). Our results suggest that for selected patients with open mastoid cavities and chronic middle ear disease, SP with abdominal fat obliteration is an effective and safe technique to facilitate safe AMEI placement.

  6. Fluconazole Binding and Sterol Demethylation in Three CYP51 Isoforms Indicate Differences in Active Site Topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamine, A.; Lepesheva, Galina I.; Waterman, Mike (Vanderbilt)

    2010-11-16

    14{alpha}-Demethylase (CYP51) is a key enzyme in all sterol biosynthetic pathways (animals, fungi, plants, protists, and some bacteria), catalyzing the removal of the C-14 methyl group following cyclization of squalene. Based on mutations found in CYP51 genes from Candida albicans azole-resistant isolates obtained after fluconazole treatment of fungal infections, and using site-directed mutagenesis, we have found that fluconazole binding and substrate metabolism vary among three different CYP51 isoforms: human, fungal, and mycobacterial. In C. albicans, the Y132H mutant from isolates shows no effect on fluconazole binding, whereas the F145L mutant results in a 5-fold increase in its IC{sub 50} for fluconazole, suggesting that F145 (conserved only in fungal 14{alpha}-demethylases) interacts with this azole. In C. albicans, F145L accounts, in part, for the difference in fluconazole sensitivity reported between mammals and fungi, providing a basis for treatment of fungal infections. The C. albicans Y132H and human Y145H CYP51 mutants show essentially no effect on substrate metabolism, but the Mycobacterium tuberculosis F89H CYP51 mutant loses both its substrate binding and metabolism. Because these three residues align in the three isoforms, the results indicate that their active sites contain important structural differences, and further emphasize that fluconazole and substrate binding are uncoupled properties.

  7. In situ hydrogen consumption kinetics as an indicator of subsurface microbial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S.H.; Smith, R.L.; Suflita, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There are few methods available for broadly assessing microbial community metabolism directly within a groundwater environment. In this study, hydrogen consumption rates were estimated from in situ injection/withdrawal tests conducted in two geochemically varying, contaminated aquifers as an approach towards developing such a method. The hydrogen consumption first-order rates varied from 0.002 nM h-1 for an uncontaminated, aerobic site to 2.5 nM h-1 for a contaminated site where sulfate reduction was a predominant process. The method could accommodate the over three orders of magnitude range in rates that existed between subsurface sites. In a denitrifying zone, the hydrogen consumption rate (0.02 nM h-1) was immediately abolished in the presence of air or an antibiotic mixture, suggesting that such measurements may also be sensitive to the effects of environmental perturbations on field microbial activities. Comparable laboratory determinations with sediment slurries exhibited hydrogen consumption kinetics that differed substantially from the field estimates. Because anaerobic degradation of organic matter relies on the rapid consumption of hydrogen and subsequent maintenance at low levels, such in situ measures of hydrogen turnover can serve as a key indicator of the functioning of microbial food webs and may be more reliable than laboratory determinations. ?? 2007 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  8. VSMP for Modeling the Biodegradability of Substituted Benzenes Based on Electrotopological State Indices for Atom Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Shen; YIN Da-Qiang; CUI Shi-Hai; WANG Lian-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    The electrotopological state (E-state) index was employed to characterize the structures of 51 substituted benzenes. Eleven E-state indices of the compounds were calculated by the computer program developed in our laboratory. The method for variable selection and modeling based on prediction (VSMP) was used to select an optimal combination of the variables from 11 E-state descriptors. Then the optimal descriptors were employed to model the relationship between the relative biodegradability of the substituted benzenes and their molecular structures. A novel 5-descriptor linear model was developed and the model has a high quality with the correlation coefficient and the root mean square error in estimation step being 0.9378 and 0.35, respectively, and these in leave-one-out cross-validation procedure being 0.9210 and 0.39, respectively.

  9. Modeling Workflow Using UML Activity Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yinxing(韦银星); Zhang Shensheng

    2004-01-01

    An enterprise can improve its adaptability in the changing market by means of workflow technologies. In the build time, the main function of Workflow Management System (WFMS) is to model business process. Workflow model is an abstract representation of the real-world business process. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) activity diagram is an important visual process modeling language proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). The novelty of this paper is representing workflow model by means of UML activity diagram. A translation from UML activity diagram to π-calculus is established. Using π-calculus, the deadlock property of workflow is analyzed.

  10. Measurement of infrared refractive indices of organic and organophosphorous compounds for optical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Danby, Tyler O.; Birnbaum, Jerome L.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2017-05-01

    The complex optical refractive index contains the optical constants, n(ῦ)and k(ῦ), which correspond to the dispersion and absorption of light within a medium, respectively. By obtaining the optical constants one can in principle model most optical phenomena in media and at interfaces including reflection, refraction and dispersion. We have developed improved protocols based on the use of multiple path lengths to determine the optical constants for dozens of liquids, including organic and organophosphorous compounds. Detailed description of the protocols to determine the infrared indices will be presented, along with preliminary results using the constants with their applications to optical modeling.

  11. Measurement of infrared refractive indices of organic and organophosphorous compounds for optical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Danby, Tyler O.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2017-05-03

    The complex optical refractive index contains the optical constants, n($\\tilde{u}$)and k($\\tilde{u}$), which correspond to the dispersion and absorption of light within a medium, respectively. By obtaining the optical constants one can in principle model most optical phenomena in media and at interfaces including reflection, refraction and dispersion. We have developed improved protocols based on the use of multiple path lengths to determine the optical constants for dozens of liquids, including organic and organophosphorous compounds. Detailed description of the protocols to determine the infrared indices will be presented, along with preliminary results using the constants with their applications to optical modeling.

  12. Global Patterns in Ecological Indicators of Marine Food Webs: A Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy

    2014-01-01

    Background Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, or overfishing. Methodology In this study ecological network analysis indicators of 105 marine food web models were tested for variation with traits such as ecosystem type, latitude, ocean basin, depth, size, time period, and exploitation state, whilst also considering structural properties of the models such as number of linkages, number of living functional groups or total number of functional groups as covariate factors. Principal findings Eight indicators were robust to model construction: relative ascendency; relative overhead; redundancy; total systems throughput (TST); primary production/TST; consumption/TST; export/TST; and total biomass of the community. Large-scale differences were seen in the ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with the Western Atlantic being more complex with an increased ability to mitigate impacts, while the Eastern Atlantic showed lower internal complexity. In addition, the Eastern Pacific was less organised than the Eastern Atlantic although both of these systems had increased primary production as eastern boundary current systems. Differences by ecosystem type highlighted coral reefs as having the largest energy flow and total biomass per unit of surface, while lagoons, estuaries, and bays had lower transfer efficiencies and higher recycling. These differences prevailed over time, although some traits changed with fishing intensity. Keystone groups were mainly higher trophic level species with mostly top-down effects, while structural/dominant groups were mainly lower trophic level groups (benthic primary producers such as seagrass and macroalgae

  13. Global patterns in ecological indicators of marine food webs: a modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Jacomina Heymans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, or overfishing. METHODOLOGY: In this study ecological network analysis indicators of 105 marine food web models were tested for variation with traits such as ecosystem type, latitude, ocean basin, depth, size, time period, and exploitation state, whilst also considering structural properties of the models such as number of linkages, number of living functional groups or total number of functional groups as covariate factors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight indicators were robust to model construction: relative ascendency; relative overhead; redundancy; total systems throughput (TST; primary production/TST; consumption/TST; export/TST; and total biomass of the community. Large-scale differences were seen in the ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with the Western Atlantic being more complex with an increased ability to mitigate impacts, while the Eastern Atlantic showed lower internal complexity. In addition, the Eastern Pacific was less organised than the Eastern Atlantic although both of these systems had increased primary production as eastern boundary current systems. Differences by ecosystem type highlighted coral reefs as having the largest energy flow and total biomass per unit of surface, while lagoons, estuaries, and bays had lower transfer efficiencies and higher recycling. These differences prevailed over time, although some traits changed with fishing intensity. Keystone groups were mainly higher trophic level species with mostly top-down effects, while structural/dominant groups were mainly lower trophic level groups (benthic primary producers such as

  14. Correlation of basic oil quality indices and electrical properties of model vegetable oil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevc, Tjaša; Cigić, Blaž; Vidrih, Rajko; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Šegatin, Nataša

    2013-11-27

    Model vegetable oil mixtures with significantly different basic oil quality indices (free fatty acid, iodine, and Totox values) were prepared by adding oleic acids, synthetic saturated triglycerides, or oxidized safflower oil ( Carthamus tinctorius ) to the oleic type of sunflower oil. Dielectric constants, dielectric loss factors, quality factors, and electrical conductivities of model lipids were determined at frequencies from 50 Hz to 2 MHz and at temperatures from 293.15 to 323.15 K. The dependence of these dielectric parameters on basic oil quality indices was investigated. Adding oleic acids to sunflower oil resulted in lower dielectric constants and conductivities and higher quality factors. Reduced iodine values resulted in increased dielectric constants and quality factors and decreased conductivities. Higher Totox values resulted in higher dielectric constants and conductivities at high frequencies and lower quality factors. Dielectric constants decreased linearly with temperature, whereas conductivities followed the Arrhenius law.

  15. Hydrodynamic evaluation of a hydraulic clarifier through hydraulic behaviour indicators and simplified flow models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Patiño

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic phenomena take place within water treatment plants associated with physical, operational and environmental factors which can affect the water quality. This study evaluated a hydraulic clarifier’s hydrodynamic pattern using sludge recirculation through continuous tracer test leading to determining hydraulic behaviour indicators and simplified flow models. The clarifier had dual flow with a predominantly complete mixture during the hours in which higher temperatures were reported for affluent water compared to those reported inside the reactor, causing the formation of density currents promoting mixing in the reactor and increased turbidity in the effluent. The hydraulic indicators and the Wolf-Resnick model had higher sensitivity to the influence of temperature on reactor hydrodynamics.

  16. PrimeSupplier Cross-Program Impact Analysis and Supplier Stability Indicator Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calluzzi, Michael

    2009-01-01

    PrimeSupplier, a supplier cross-program and element-impact simulation model, with supplier solvency indicator (SSI), has been developed so that the shuttle program can see early indicators of supplier and product line stability, while identifying the various elements and/or programs that have a particular supplier or product designed into the system. The model calculates two categories of benchmarks to determine the SSI, with one category focusing on agency programmatic data and the other focusing on a supplier's financial liquidity. PrimeSupplier was developed to help NASA smoothly transition design, manufacturing, and repair operations from the Shuttle program to the Constellation program, without disruption in the industrial supply base.

  17. Analytic network process model for sustainable lean and green manufacturing performance indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminuddin, Adam Shariff Adli; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Mohamed, Nik Mohd Zuki Nik

    2014-09-01

    Sustainable manufacturing is regarded as the most complex manufacturing paradigm to date as it holds the widest scope of requirements. In addition, its three major pillars of economic, environment and society though distinct, have some overlapping among each of its elements. Even though the concept of sustainability is not new, the development of the performance indicator still needs a lot of improvement due to its multifaceted nature, which requires integrated approach to solve the problem. This paper proposed the best combination of criteria en route a robust sustainable manufacturing performance indicator formation via Analytic Network Process (ANP). The integrated lean, green and sustainable ANP model can be used to comprehend the complex decision system of the sustainability assessment. The finding shows that green manufacturing is more sustainable than lean manufacturing. It also illustrates that procurement practice is the most important criteria in the sustainable manufacturing performance indicator.

  18. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade…

  19. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade…

  20. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by a model based on risk indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective multicenter study with 5235 consecutive pregnant women, diagnostic testing with a 2-hour 75-g oral glucose...... was comparable with universal screening by fasting glucose or a 1-hour 50-g glucose challenge test. Both screening and diagnostic testing could be avoided in two thirds of all pregnant women....

  1. Applying Transtheoretical Model to Promote Physical Activities Among Women

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the most important indicators of health in communities but different studies conducted in the provinces of Iran showed that inactivity is prevalent, especially among women. Objectives: Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us to conduct this study with the aim of determining the application of transtheo...

  2. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by a model based on risk indicators: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dorte M; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Westergaard, Jes G; Ovesen, Per; Damm, Peter

    2003-11-01

    This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators. In a prospective multicenter study with 5235 consecutive pregnant women, diagnostic testing with a 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was routinely performed in women with risk indicators and offered to women without risk indicators as part of the study. Forty-four percent of the women underwent testing, 43% declined participation, 6% did not speak Danish, and 7% could not be contacted. By extrapolation of the results from tested women to the whole group in question, a 2.4% prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of the model was 80.6 (73.7-87.6) and 64.8 (63.5-66.1), respectively (95% CIs). Under ideal conditions, sensitivity of the model was comparable with universal screening by fasting glucose or a 1-hour 50-g glucose challenge test. Both screening and diagnostic testing could be avoided in two thirds of all pregnant women.

  3. A consistent picture of the hydroclimatic response to global warming from multiple indices: Models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.; Raffaele, F.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze trends of six daily precipitation-based and physically interconnected hydroclimatic indices in an ensemble of historical and 21st century climate projections under forcing from increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP)8.5), along with gridded (land only) observations for the late decades of the twentieth century. The indices include metrics of intensity (SDII) and extremes (R95) of precipitation, dry (DSL), and wet spell length, the hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and a newly introduced index of precipitation area (PA). All the indices in both the 21st century and historical simulations provide a consistent picture of a predominant shift toward a hydroclimatic regime of more intense, shorter, less frequent, and less widespread precipitation events in response to GHG-induced global warming. The trends are larger and more spatially consistent over tropical than extratropical regions, pointing to the importance of tropical convection in regulating this response, and show substantial regional spatial variability. Observed trends in the indices analyzed are qualitatively and consistently in line with the simulated ones, at least at the global and full tropical scale, further supporting the robustness of the identified prevailing hydroclimatic responses. The HY-INT, PA, and R95 indices show the most consistent response to global warming, and thus offer the most promising tools for formal hydroclimatic model validation and detection/attribution studies. The physical mechanism underlying this response and some of the applications of our results are also discussed.

  4. Forecast daily indices of solar activity, F10.7, using support vector regression method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong Huang; Dan-Dan Liu; Jing-Song Wang

    2009-01-01

    The 10.7cm solar radio flux (F10.7), the value of the solar radio emission flux density at a wavelength of 10.7cm, is a useful index of solar activity as a proxy for solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. It is meaningful and important to predict F10.7 values accurately for both long-term (months-years) and short-term (days) forecasting, which are often used as inputs in space weather models. This study applies a novel neural network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecasting daily values of F10.7. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in short-term F10.7 forecasting. The approach, based on SVR, reduces the dimension of feature space in the training process by using a kernel-based learning algorithm. Thus, the complexity of the calculation becomes lower and a small amount of training data will be sufficient. The time series of F10.7 from 2002 to 2006 are employed as the data sets. The performance of the approach is estimated by calculating the norm mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. It is shown that our approach can perform well by using fewer training data points than the traditional neural network.

  5. A growth-rate indicator for Compton-thick active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Brightman, M; Ballantyne, D R; Baloković, M; Brandt, W N; Chen, C -T; Comastri, A; Farrah, D; Gandhi, P; Harrison, F A; Ricci, C; Stern, D; Walton, D J

    2016-01-01

    Due to their heavily obscured central engines, the growth rate of Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) is difficult to measure. A statistically significant correlation between the Eddington ratio, {\\lambda}$_{Edd}$, and the X-ray power-law index, {\\Gamma}, observed in unobscured AGN offers an estimate of their growth rate from X-ray spectroscopy (albeit with large scatter). However, since X-rays undergo reprocessing by Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption when the line-of-sight to the central engine is heavily obscured, the recovery of the intrinsic {\\Gamma} is challenging. Here we study a sample of local, predominantly Compton-thick megamaser AGN, where the black hole mass, and thus Eddington luminosity, are well known. We compile results on X-ray spectral fitting of these sources with sensitive high-energy (E> 10 keV) NuSTAR data, where X-ray torus models which take into account the reprocessing effects have been used to recover the intrinsic {\\Gamma} values and X-ray luminosities, L$_...

  6. Using electrotopological state indices to model the depuration rates of polychlorinated biphenyls in mussels of Elliptio complanata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Wang; Xinhui Liu; Zhengjun Shan; Lili Shi

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model on deputation rate constants (kd) of polychiorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata was successfully constructed using electrotopological state indices (ESI) and partial least squares (PLS) regression.The cross validated Q2cum and the correlation coefficient R for the model were determined to be 0.845 and 0.954,respectively.The satisfactory Q2cum and R values indicated significantly high robustness and good predictive ability for the model.The model was tested and found acceptable for the prediction of logkd (the logarithm of the depuration rate constants) by validation set.According to the model,an increase in the values of SaasC,S5',S4,S5 and S4' led to increased logkd,and a decrease in the values of No,S2' and S6 also resulted in increased logkd.Among these descriptors,No,SaasC,S5',S4 and S5 made significant contributions to the value of logkd.These significant descriptors showed that the deputation of PCBs in Elliptio complanata may be mainly attributed to an equilibrium partitioning process among compartments with different lipid contents,while the reactivity of PCBs with enzymes or other molecules may play a subordinate role.

  7. Discursive Positionings and Emotions in Modelling Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their…

  8. Modeling Drought Impact Occurrence Based on Climatological Drought Indices for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagge, J. H.; Kohn, I.; Tallaksen, L. M.; Stahl, K.

    2014-12-01

    ) and seasonal (6-12 month) anomalies. A mean of 47.0% (22.4-71.6%) impact deviance is explained by the resulting models, highlighting the feasibility of using such statistical techniques and drought impact databases to model drought impact likelihood based on relatively easily calculated meteorological drought indices.

  9. Students’ mathematical learning in modelling activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Ten years of experience with analyses of students’ learning in a modelling course for first year university students, led us to see modelling as a didactical activity with the dual goal of developing students’ modelling competency and enhancing their conceptual learning of mathematical concepts...... involved. We argue that progress in students’ conceptual learning needs to be conceptualised separately from that of progress in their modelling competency. Findings are that modelling activities open a window to the students’ images of the mathematical concepts involved; that modelling activities can...... create and help overcome hidden cognitive conflicts in students’ understanding; that reflections within modelling can play an important role for the students’ learning of mathematics. These findings are illustrated with a modelling project concerning the world population....

  10. Modeling Rain-fed Wheat and Barley based on Meteorological Features and Drought Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mosaedi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weather features and their variations have an important role in the yield of agricultural products, especially in rain-fed conditions. The main metrological variables that affected yields consist of precipitation, temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. Also, drought is one of the major constraints to production, especially the mid-season drought which occurs during the podand seed formation stages and the terminal drought which occurs during the pod filling stage. The results of investigating the relation between drought indices such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI, Crop Moisture index (CMI and Z index with crop yields indicated the capability of these indices to estimate variations in crop yields. The objective of this study in the first step is investigation of relations among wheat and barley crop yields with climatic variables and SPI and RDI drought indices based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA method at Bojnourd, Mashhad and Birjand stations. In addition, by selecting the prominent variables via PCA method, the best models of estimating each crop’s yield based on multivariate regression methods at selected stations were determined. Materials and Methods: In this study, the relationship between yields of rain-fed wheat and barley with weather variables consisting of minimum, mean and maximum temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration and drought indices including SPI and RDI were investigated and modeled at Bojnourd, Mashhad and Birjand stations. For this purpose, the values of each variable were calculated for 34 time scales of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 months and wet periods (nine 1-month periods, eight 2- month periods, seven 3- month periods, six 4- month periods, two 6- month periods, one wet period (5 or 7-month and one 9-month period. After that, the main influencing variables were chosen among investigated time periods for each variable by using the method

  11. Indications and limitations of three-dimensional models in cranio-maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santler, G; Kärcher, H; Ruda, C

    1998-02-01

    Anatomical, life-like, three-dimensional (3D) models have a definite place in cranio-maxillofacial surgery. Our experience with 541 computer tomography (CT)-based 3D models employed in aiding corrective surgery of tumours, dysgnathia, traumatology, alveolar atrophy, congenital malformation and asymmetrical malformations in our department is discussed. From July 1988 to February 1997, 3D models of 346 patients were used. Most of these were produced at our clinic. The indications, advantages and limitations of 3D-models were analysed retrospectively. In the case of congenital malformations (n = 60), models facilitated precise diagnosis of the skeletal deformity. Simulation surgery allowed prediction and solution of intraoperative problems prior to the actual patient operation. Size, shape and localization of defects caused by trauma (n = 64), osteoradionecrosis (n = 17) or osteomyelitis (n = 2) determined the choice of transplant donor site. In patients suffering from dysgnathia (n = 144), 3D models enabled exact positioning of the jaws. Precise planning could only be accomplished with the help of 3D models, especially for asymmetrical malformations (n = 12). In cases of severe atrophy of the alveolar crest (n = 45), exact measurement of the bone was possible and facilitated the decision as to whether dental implants, bone transplants or a combination of these were indicated. The positioning of transplants and implants was carried out in the ideal relation to the opposite jaw. In tumour patients (n = 186), it is not always possible to identify the tumour borders precisely on the CT scan or 3D model. Therefore, the defect was assumed to be bigger, a longer bridging plate constructed and this measurement corrected according to the intraoperative situation. The advantage of the 3D models consisted of an accurate representation of anatomical structures, bone or soft tissue. This allows precise preoperative diagnosis, operation planning and model operations. Due to this

  12. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  13. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  14. MODEL BASED ON KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR ASSESSING THE MARKET POSITION OF A COMPANY. CASE STUDY IN A CAR RENTAL COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    URSACESCU Minodora; Mihai CIOC

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is the result of a research approach realized on the Romanian car rental services` market. Beginning from the characteristics of this economic sector and from the activity`s specificities of the car rental companies, the present study intends to develop an evaluation model of the position on the competitive market of a Romanian company in the car rental industry, based on Key Performance Indicators and Balanced Scorecard. The research`s objectives reside in defining an indic...

  15. Meteor-Shower on Mars Indicates Cometary Activity Far Away From the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Aswin; ASHER, DAVID

    2015-08-01

    Introduction: The close encounter of Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) with Mars on 2014 Oct 19 at 1830h (UT) generated a lot of interest and modelling work [1] [2] [3] in the solar system community. A recent (on 2014 Nov 7) press release from NASA implied that a meteor shower was detected on Mars by their space instruments some hours after the comet-Mars close encounter. Various work [4] [5] [6] has suggested that very specific meteoroid sizes and ejection conditions may be required to produce meteor phenomena at Mars at the given times.Stream dynamics: Meteoroid stream modelling and their orbital geometry calculations have gained high precision over the years. In this work, we compute in detail the structure of the cloud of meteoroids released by C/2013 A1, showing its dependence on heliocentric ejection distances, 3-dimensional ejection velocities, and particle sizes. Our calculations using numerical integrator MERCURY, [7], incorporating radiation pressure, [8], show that ejection of particles at large heliocentric distances (about 7 au to 13 au) from C/2013 A1 could lead to evolution of a dense meteoroid cloud which intersects Mars a few hours after the comet-Mars close encounter. Hence this detection of a meteor shower on Mars by space instruments is an indirect confirmation of cometary activity at large distances which has rarely been observed directly by telescopes so far. Furthermore it shows that comprehensive threat estimation needs to be done for satellites orbiting the Earth when dynamically new comets come very close to the Earth in future.References:[1] Vaubaillon J., Macquet L., Soja R. 2014. MNRAS. 439: 3294.[2] Moorhead A. V., Wiegert P. A., Cooke W. J. 2014. Icarus. 231:13.[3] Ye Q.-Z., Hui M.-T., 2014, ApJ, 787: 115.[4] Farnocchia D. et al. 2014. ApJL. 790: 114.[5] Kelley M. S. P. et al. 2014, ApJL, 792: 16.[6] Tricarico P. et al., 2014, ApJL, 787: 35.[7] Chambers J. E. 1999. MNRAS. 304: 793.[8] Burns J. A, Lamy P. L., Soter S. 1979. Icarus. 40: 1.

  16. [Simulation of vegetation indices optimizing under retrieval of vegetation biochemical parameters based on PROSPECT + SAIL model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Liu, Xiang-Nan; Zhou, Bo-Tian; Liu, Chuan-Hao; Li, Lu-Feng

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzed the sensitivities of three vegetation biochemical parameters [chlorophyll content (Cab), leaf water content (Cw), and leaf area index (LAI)] to the changes of canopy reflectance, with the effects of each parameter on the wavelength regions of canopy reflectance considered, and selected three vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function. Then, the Cab, Cw, and LAI were estimated, based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm and PROSPECT + SAIL model. The results showed that retrieval efficiency with vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function was better than that with all spectral reflectance. The correlation coefficients (R2) between the measured and estimated values of Cab, Cw, and LAI were 90.8%, 95.7%, and 99.7%, and the root mean square errors of Cab, Cw, and LAI were 4.73 microg x cm(-2), 0.001 g x cm(-2), and 0.08, respectively. It was suggested that to adopt vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function could effectively improve the efficiency and precision of the retrieval of biochemical parameters based on PROSPECT + SAIL model.

  17. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae reflecting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Koivula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1 Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2 Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3 Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4 Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5 Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6 Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7 Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  18. Soil microbial activities in Mediterranean environment as desertification indicators along a pluviometric gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosadova, I.; Zahora, J.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.

    2009-04-01

    In the Mediterranean areas of Southern Spain, unsuitable agricultural practices with adverse environmental conditions (López Bermúdez and Albaladejo, 1990), have led to a permanent degradation and loss of soil fertility. This includes deterioration of the natural plant cover, which protects against erosion by contributing organic matter, the main prerequisite of ecosystem sustainability (Grace et al., 1994). Physico-chemical, microbiological and biochemical soil properties are very responsive and provide immediate and precise information on small changes occurring in soil (Dick and Tabatabai, 1993). There is increasing evidence that such parameters are also sensitive indicators of ecology stress suffered by a soil and its recovery, since microbial activity has a direct influence on the stability and fertility of ecosystems (Smith and Papendick, 1993). One method for recovering degraded soils of such semiarid regions, with their low organic matter content, is to enhance primary productivity and carbon sequestration without any additional nitrogen fertilization and preferably without incorporation of leguminous plants (Martinez Mena et al., 2008). Carbon rich materials can sustain microbial activity and growth, thus enhancing biogeochemical nutrient cycles (Pascual et al., 1997). The present study is focused in the role of physico-chemical and microbial soil properties in Mediterranean environment, in terms of in situ and ex situ microbial transformation of soil carbon and nitrogen, in order to characterise the key soil microbial activities which could strongly affect carbon and nitrogen turnover in soil and hereby soil fertility and soil organic matter "quality". These microbial activities could at unsuitable agricultural practices with adverse environmental conditions induce unfavourable hydrologycal tempo-spatial response. The final results shown modifications in the soil properties studied with the increasing of the aridity. Such changes suppose the soil

  19. QSTR with extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices. 15. Development of predictive models for toxicity of organic chemicals against fathead minnow using second-generation ETA indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, K; Das, R Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Modern industrialisation has led to the production of millions of toxic chemicals having hazardous effects on the ecosystem. It is impracticable to determine the toxic potential of a large number of chemicals in animal models, making the use of quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models an alternative strategy for toxicity prediction. Recently we introduced a set of second-generation extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices for predictive modelling. Here we have developed predictive toxicity models on a large dataset of 459 diverse chemicals against fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) using the second-generation ETA indices. These descriptors can be easily calculated from two-dimensional molecular representation without the need of time-consuming conformational analysis and alignment, making the developed models easily reproducible. Considering the importance of hydrophobicity for toxicity prediction, AlogP98 was used as an additional predictor in all the models, which were validated rigorously using multiple strategies. The ETA models were comparable in predictability to those involving various non-ETA topological parameters and those previously reported using various descriptors including computationally demanding quantum-chemical ones.

  20. Dynamical complexity in geomagnetic activity indices: revelations from nonextensive Tsallis statistics, entropies, wavelets and universality concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, G.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamical complexity detection for output time series of complex systems is one of the foremost problems in physics, biology, engineering, and economic sciences. Especially in geomagnetism and magnetospheric physics, accurate detection of the dissimilarity between normal and abnormal states (e.g. pre-storm activity and magnetic storms) can vastly improve geomagnetic field modelling as well as space weather forecasting, respectively. Nonextensive statistical mechanics through Tsallis entropy provides a solid theoretical basis for describing and analyzing complex systems out of equilibrium, particularly systems exhibiting long-range correlations or fractal properties. Entropy measures (e.g., Tsallis entropy, Shannon entropy, block entropy, Kolmogorov entropy, T-complexity, and approximate entropy) have been proven effectively applicable for the investigation of dynamical complexity in Dst time series. It has been demonstrated that as a magnetic storm approaches, there is clear evidence of significantly lower complexity in the magnetosphere. The observed higher degree of organization of the system agrees with results previously inferred from fractal analysis via estimates of the Hurst exponent based on wavelet transform. This convergence between entropies and linear analyses provides a more reliable detection of the transition from the quiet time to the storm time magnetosphere, thus showing evidence that the occurrence of an intense magnetic storm is imminent. Moreover, based on the general behavior of complex system dynamics it has been recently found that Dst time series exhibit discrete scale invariance which in turn leads to log-periodic corrections to scaling that decorate the pure power law. The latter can be used for the determination of the time of occurrence of an approaching magnetic storm.

  1. Influence of solar activity on fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis. [statistical correlation between solar flare and blood coagulation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, V. I.

    1974-01-01

    During periods of high solar activity fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis are increased. A direct correlative relationship is established between the indices of fibrinolysis, fibrinogenolysis and solar flares which were recorded two days before the blood was collected for analysis.

  2. Regime Switching Vine Copula Models for Global Equity and Volatility Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Fink

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For nearly every major stock market there exist equity and implied volatility indices. These play important roles within finance: be it as a benchmark, a measure of general uncertainty or a way of investing or hedging. It is well known in the academic literature that correlations and higher moments between different indices tend to vary in time. However, to the best of our knowledge, no one has yet considered a global setup including both equity and implied volatility indices of various continents, and allowing for a changing dependence structure. We aim to close this gap by applying Markov-switching R-vine models to investigate the existence of different, global dependence regimes. In particular, we identify times of “normal” and “abnormal” states within a data set consisting of North-American, European and Asian indices. Our results confirm the existence of joint points in a time at which global regime switching between two different R-vine structures takes place.

  3. Constructing coincident indices of economic activity for the Latin American economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Issler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has three main contributions. The first is to propose an individual coincident indicator for the following Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. In order to obtain similar series to those traditionally used in business-cycle research in constructing coincident indices (output, sales, income and employment we were forced to back-cast several individual country series which were not available in a long time-series span. The second contribution is to establish a chronology of recessions for these countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2012 on a monthly basis. Based on this chronology, the countries are compared in several respects. The final contribution is to propose an aggregate coincident indicator for the Latin American economy, which weights individual-country composite indices. Finally, this indicator is compared with the coincident indicator (The Conference Board - TCB of the U.S. economy. We find that the U.S. indicator Granger-causes the Latin American indicator in statistical tests

  4. Estimating Irrigation Water Requirements using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Harriss, Robert; Harriss, Robert; Wells, Gordon; Glantz, Michael; Dukhovny, Victor A.; Orlovsky, Leah

    2007-01-01

    An inverse process approach using satellite-driven (MODIS) biophysical modeling was used to quantitatively assess water resource demand in semi-arid and arid agricultural lands by comparing the carbon and water flux modeled under both equilibrium (in balance with prevailing climate) and non-equilibrium (irrigated) conditions. Since satellite observations of irrigated areas show higher leaf area indices (LAI) than is supportable by local precipitation, we postulate that the degree to which irrigated lands vary from equilibrium conditions is related to the amount of irrigation water used. For an observation year we used MODIS vegetation indices, local climate data, and the SiB2 photosynthesis-conductance model to examine the relationship between climate and the water stress function for a given grid-cell and observed leaf area. To estimate the minimum amount of supplemental water required for an observed cell, we added enough precipitation to the prevailing climatology at each time step to minimize the water stress function and bring the soil to field capacity. The experiment was conducted on irrigated lands on the U.S. Mexico border and Central Asia and compared to estimates of irrigation water used.

  5. Evaluating Fit Indices for Multivariate t-Based Structural Equation Modeling with Data Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. C. Lai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In conventional structural equation modeling (SEM, with the presence of even a tiny amount of data contamination due to outliers or influential observations, normal-theory maximum likelihood (ML-Normal is not efficient and can be severely biased. The multivariate-t-based SEM, which recently got implemented in Mplus as an approach for mixture modeling, represents a robust estimation alternative to downweigh the impact of outliers and influential observations. To our knowledge, the use of maximum likelihood estimation with a multivariate-t model (ML-t to handle outliers has not been shown in SEM literature. In this paper we demonstrate the use of ML-t using the classic Holzinger and Swineford (1939 data set with a few observations modified as outliers or influential observations. A simulation study is then conducted to examine the performance of fit indices and information criteria under ML-Normal and ML-t in the presence of outliers. Results showed that whereas all fit indices got worse for ML-Normal with increasing amount of outliers and influential observations, their values were relatively stable with ML-t, and the use of information criteria was effective in selecting ML-normal without data contamination and selecting ML-t with data contamination, especially when the sample size was at least 200.

  6. Estimating Irrigation Water Requirements using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Harriss, Robert; Harriss, Robert; Wells, Gordon; Glantz, Michael; Dukhovny, Victor A.; Orlovsky, Leah

    2007-01-01

    An inverse process approach using satellite-driven (MODIS) biophysical modeling was used to quantitatively assess water resource demand in semi-arid and arid agricultural lands by comparing the carbon and water flux modeled under both equilibrium (in balance with prevailing climate) and non-equilibrium (irrigated) conditions. Since satellite observations of irrigated areas show higher leaf area indices (LAI) than is supportable by local precipitation, we postulate that the degree to which irrigated lands vary from equilibrium conditions is related to the amount of irrigation water used. For an observation year we used MODIS vegetation indices, local climate data, and the SiB2 photosynthesis-conductance model to examine the relationship between climate and the water stress function for a given grid-cell and observed leaf area. To estimate the minimum amount of supplemental water required for an observed cell, we added enough precipitation to the prevailing climatology at each time step to minimize the water stress function and bring the soil to field capacity. The experiment was conducted on irrigated lands on the U.S. Mexico border and Central Asia and compared to estimates of irrigation water used.

  7. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesje Coertjens

    Full Text Available The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  8. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  9. Modeling using clinical examination indicators predicts interstitial lung disease among patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Song, Wuqi; Wu, Jing; Li, Zhangming; Mu, Fengyun; Li, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Wenliang

    2017-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a severe extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that is well-defined as a chronic systemic autoimmune disease. A proportion of patients with RA-associated ILD (RA-ILD) develop pulmonary fibrosis (PF), resulting in poor prognosis and increased lifetime risk. We investigated whether routine clinical examination indicators (CEIs) could be used to identify RA patients with high PF risk. A total of 533 patients with established RA were recruited in this study for model building and 32 CEIs were measured for each of them. To identify PF risk, a new artificial neural network (ANN) was built, in which inputs were generated by calculating Euclidean distance of CEIs between patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the ANN performed well in predicting the PF risk (Youden index = 0.436) by only incorporating four CEIs including age, eosinophil count, platelet count, and white blood cell count. A set of 218 RA patients with healthy lungs or suffering from ILD and a set of 87 RA patients suffering from PF were used for independent validation. Results showed that the model successfully identified ILD and PF with a true positive rate of 84.9% and 82.8%, respectively. The present study suggests that model integration of multiple routine CEIs contributes to identification of potential PF risk among patients with RA.

  10. Spatial Models of Sewer Pipe Leakage Predict the Occurrence of Wastewater Indicators in Shallow Urban Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Lee, Do Gyun; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2017-02-07

    Twentieth century municipal wastewater infrastructure greatly improved U.S. urban public health and water quality. However, sewer pipes deteriorate, and their accumulated structural defects may release untreated wastewater to the environment via acute breaks or insidious exfiltration. Exfiltrated wastewater constitutes a loss of potentially reusable water and delivers a complex and variable mix of contaminants to urban shallow groundwater. Yet, predicting where deteriorated sewers impinge on shallow groundwater has been challenging. Here we develop and test a spatially explicit model of exfiltration probability based on pipe attributes and groundwater elevation without prior knowledge of exfiltrating defect locations. We find that models of exfiltration probability can predict the probable occurrence in underlying shallow groundwater of established wastewater indicators including the artificial sweetener acesulfame, tryptophan-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter, nitrate, and a stable isotope of water (δ(18)O). The strength of the association between exfiltration probability and indicators of wastewater increased when multiple pipe attributes, distance weighting, and groundwater flow direction were considered in the model. The results prove that available sanitary sewer databases and groundwater digital elevation data can be analyzed to predict where pipes are likely leaking and contaminating groundwater. Such understanding could direct sewer infrastructure reinvestment toward water resource protection.

  11. Bioluminescent Indicator for Highly Sensitive Analysis of Estrogenic Activity in a Cell-Based Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenouchi, Osamu; Kanno, Akira; Takakura, Hideo; Hattori, Mitsuru; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2016-11-16

    Estrogens regulate different physiological systems with wide ranges of concentrations. The rapid analysis of estrogens is crucially important for drug discovery and medical diagnosis, but quantitation of nanomolar estrogens in live cells persists as an important challenge. We herein describe a bioluminescent indicator used to detect low concentrations of estrogens quantitatively with a high signal-to-background ratio. The indicator comprises a ligand-binding domain of an estrogen receptor connected with its binding peptide, which is sandwiched between split fragments of a luciferase mutant. Results show that the indicator recovered its bioluminescence upon binding to 17β-estradiol at concentrations higher than 1.0 × 10(-10) M. The indicator was reactive to agonists but did not respond to antagonists. The indicator is expected to be applicable for rapid screening estrogenic compounds and inhibitors, facilitating the discovery of drug candidates in a high-throughput manner.

  12. Ecohydrologic Response of a Wetland Indicator Species to Climate Change and Streamflow Regulation: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, E. M.; Gorelick, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Peace-Athabasca Delta ("Delta") in northeastern Alberta, Canada, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance. Delta ecohydrology is expected to respond rapidly to upstream water demand and climate change, with earlier spring meltwater, decreased springtime peak flow, and a decline in springtime ice-jam flooding. We focus on changes in the population and distribution of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), an ecohydrologic indicator species. We present a conceptual model linking hydrology and muskrat ecology. Our conceptual model links seven modules representing (1) upstream water demand, (2) streamflow and snowmelt, (3) floods, (4) the water balance of floodplain lakes, (5) muskrat habitat suitability, (6) wetland vegetation, and (7) muskrat population dynamics predicted using an agent-based model. Our goal is to evaluate the effects of different climate change and upstream water demand scenarios on the abundance and distribution of Delta muskrat, from present-2100. Moving from the current conceptual model to a predictive quantitative model, we will rely on abundant existing data and Traditional Ecological Knowledge of muskrat and hydrology in the Delta.

  13. Modeling Indicator Systems for Evaluating Environmental Sustainable Development Based on Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; CHEN Xiaoling; HE Ying; HE Xiaorong; CAI Xiaobin; XU Keyan

    2006-01-01

    Indicator systems of environmental sustainable development in the Poyang Lake Basin are established from 51 elementary indexes by factor analysis, which is composed of four steps such as the factor model, the parameter estimation, the factor rotation and the factor score. Under the condition that the cumulative proportion is greater than 85%, 5 explicit factors of environmental sustainable development as well as its factor score by region are carried out. The result indicates some impact factors to the basin environmental in descending sort order are volume of water, volume of waste gas discharge, volume of solid wastes, the degree to comprehensive utilization of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes, the emission volume of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes. It is helpful and important to provide decision support for constituting sustainable development strategies and evaluate the sustainable development status of each city.

  14. Comparison of drought stress indices in beech forests: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilhar U

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Two drought stress indices were applied to managed as well as old-growth beech forests and gaps for the 2001 to 2013 period to aid in the development of an efficient tool for field water supply diagnosis. The relative extractable soil water (REW, which was calculated from the soil water content in the root zone, and the transpiration index (TI, calculated as the ratio between the actual and potential transpiration were used. Both indices were calculated on a daily basis using the water balance model BROOK90, which was fitted and tested using measured data on throughfall and soil water content. A sensitivity analysis apportioned to the input parameters of the drought stress indices was conducted to assess uncertainty. Both drought stress indices showed the greatest drought stress in the years 2009, 2003 and 2011, as also indicated by the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI at the nearest meteorological station. However, drought stress intensity and duration differed between the indices and study sites. Greater water supply stress was shown in the forests than the gaps. Furthermore, the agreement among the indices was smaller for gaps compared with forests, which implies that careful index selection is needed when comparing water supply stresses in different stages of forest stand development. Due to the low amount of input data required and the parameters that can be measured with relative ease in the field, REW might be an efficient tool for field water supply diagnosis when analyzing the drought stresses of similar forest types and at unique stages of development. REW satisfactorily indicated drought stress in forests but to a lesser extent in gaps. TI demonstrated more consistent differences in drought stress between forests and gaps and therefore proved to be the appropriate index for a detailed analysis of drought stress variation between different stages of forest stand development. However, due to a greater number of

  15. Development of generic key performance indicators for PMBOK® using a 3D project integration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Langston

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Martin Barnes’ so-called ‘iron triangle’ circa 1969, much debate has occurred over how best to describe the fundamental constraints that underpin project success. This paper develops a 3D project integration model for PMBOK® comprising core constraints of scope, cost, time and risk as a basis to propose six generic key performance indicators (KPIs that articulate successful project delivery. These KPIs are defined as value, efficiency, speed, innovation, complexity and impact and can each be measured objectively as ratios of the core constraints. An overall KPI (denoted as s3/ctr is also derived. The aim in this paper is to set out the case for such a model and to demonstrate how it can be employed to assess the performance of project teams in delivering successful outcomes at various stages in the project life cycle. As part of the model’s development, a new PMBOK® knowledge area concerning environmental management is advanced.

  16. Fish as Indicators of Disturbance in Streams Used for Snorkeling Activities in a Tourist Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa, Fabricio Barreto; Romero, Renato De Mei; Casatti, Lilian; Sabino, José

    2011-05-01

    A set of metrics that reflect various aspects of population and fish community structure in streams used for snorkeling was evaluated in the tourist region of Bodoquena Plateau, Brazil, with the purpose of biomonitoring the impacts of such activities. Observations were made while snorkeling in two sites (active = with tourism; inactive = without tourism) and along the gradient of daily tourist activity (before, during and after the passage of tourists) in two streams. Five metrics discriminated active from inactive sites: (i) the abundance of Crenicichla lepidota and (ii) the incidence of reproductive activity in Crenicichla lepidota which were greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iii) the feeding pattern of Prochilodus lineatus, which differed among sites and along the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iv) the abundance of Moenkhausia bonita, which was higher in the active sites and significantly increased along the gradient of daily tourist activity in one stream but decrease along the gradient in other stream; (v) the abundance of Hyphessobrycon eques, which was greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity. With the exception of metric "iv", the metrics were mediated by the reduction in habitat structural complexity due to snorkeling disturbance. The definition of these metrics is relevant because the degradation of ecosystem structural elements is one of the main impacts of recreational activities on aquatic environments. The easy recognition of target species and high water transparency throughout the year ensures the feasibility of these metrics in monitoring programs and may be applied by technicians after quick guides and training.

  17. Fish as indicators of disturbance in streams used for snorkeling activities in a tourist region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa, Fabricio Barreto; Romero, Renato de Mei; Casatti, Lilian; Sabino, José

    2011-05-01

    A set of metrics that reflect various aspects of population and fish community structure in streams used for snorkeling was evaluated in the tourist region of Bodoquena Plateau, Brazil, with the purpose of biomonitoring the impacts of such activities. Observations were made while snorkeling in two sites (active = with tourism; inactive = without tourism) and along the gradient of daily tourist activity (before, during and after the passage of tourists) in two streams. Five metrics discriminated active from inactive sites: (i) the abundance of Crenicichla lepidota and (ii) the incidence of reproductive activity in Crenicichla lepidota which were greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iii) the feeding pattern of Prochilodus lineatus, which differed among sites and along the gradient of daily tourist activity; (iv) the abundance of Moenkhausia bonita, which was higher in the active sites and significantly increased along the gradient of daily tourist activity in one stream but decrease along the gradient in other stream; (v) the abundance of Hyphessobrycon eques, which was greater in inactive sites, regardless the gradient of daily tourist activity. With the exception of metric "iv", the metrics were mediated by the reduction in habitat structural complexity due to snorkeling disturbance. The definition of these metrics is relevant because the degradation of ecosystem structural elements is one of the main impacts of recreational activities on aquatic environments. The easy recognition of target species and high water transparency throughout the year ensures the feasibility of these metrics in monitoring programs and may be applied by technicians after quick guides and training.

  18. AA Geomagnetic Activity Indices From Two Antipodal Observatories in Australia and England

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) receives, on a monthly basis, indices that are based on the data...

  19. Plasma rennin activity: Early indicator of renal injury in bilateral pelviureteric junction obstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In bilateral PUJO where DRF and SFU grading of hydronephrosis did not correctly reflect renal injury, PRA showed a significant relationship with renal histopathologic grade and could be an early indicator of renal injury in bilateral PUJO.

  20. Simulated discharge trends indicate robustness of hydrological models in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addor, Nans; Nikolova, Silviya; Seibert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Assessing the robustness of hydrological models under contrasted climatic conditions should be part any hydrological model evaluation. Robust models are particularly important for climate impact studies, as models performing well under current conditions are not necessarily capable of correctly simulating hydrological perturbations caused by climate change. A pressing issue is the usually assumed stationarity of parameter values over time. Modeling experiments using conceptual hydrological models revealed that assuming transposability of parameters values in changing climatic conditions can lead to significant biases in discharge simulations. This raises the question whether parameter values should to be modified over time to reflect changes in hydrological processes induced by climate change. Such a question denotes a focus on the contribution of internal processes (i.e., catchment processes) to discharge generation. Here we adopt a different perspective and explore the contribution of external forcing (i.e., changes in precipitation and temperature) to changes in discharge. We argue that in a robust hydrological model, discharge variability should be induced by changes in the boundary conditions, and not by changes in parameter values. In this study, we explore how well the conceptual hydrological model HBV captures transient changes in hydrological signatures over the period 1970-2009. Our analysis focuses on research catchments in Switzerland undisturbed by human activities. The precipitation and temperature forcing are extracted from recently released 2km gridded data sets. We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate HBV for the whole 40-year period and for the eight successive 5-year periods to assess eventual trends in parameter values. Model calibration is run multiple times to account for parameter uncertainty. We find that in alpine catchments showing a significant increase of winter discharge, this trend can be captured reasonably well with constant

  1. Modeling spatially- and temporally-explicit water stress indices for use in life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, L.; Venkatesh, A.; Karuppiah, R.; Usadi, A.; Pfister, S.; Hellweg, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water scarcity is a regional issue in many areas across the world, and can affect human health and ecosystems locally. Water stress indices (WSIs) have been developed as quantitative indicators of such scarcities - examples include the Falkenmark indicator, Social Water Stress Index, and the Water Supply Stress Index1. Application of these indices helps us understand water supply and demand risks for multiple users, including those in the agricultural, industrial, residential and commercial sectors. Pfister et al.2 developed a method to calculate WSIs that were used to estimate characterization factors (CFs) in order to quantify environmental impacts of freshwater consumption within a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. Global WSIs were based on data from the WaterGAP model3, and presented as annual averages for watersheds. Since water supply and demand varies regionally and temporally, the resolution used in Pfister et al. does not effectively differentiate between seasonal and permanent water scarcity. This study aims to improve the temporal and spatial resolution of the water scarcity calculations used to estimate WSIs and CFs. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)4 hydrological model to properly simulate water supply in different world regions with high spatial and temporal resolution, and coupled it with water use data from WaterGAP3 and Pfister et al.5. Input data to SWAT included weather, land use, soil characteristics and a digital elevation model (DEM), all from publicly available global data sets. Potential evapotranspiration, which affects water supply, was determined using an improved Priestley-Taylor approach. In contrast to most other hydrological studies, large reservoirs, water consumption and major water transfers were simulated. The model was calibrated against observed monthly discharge, actual evapotranspiration, and snow water equivalents wherever appropriate. Based on these simulations, monthly WSIs were calculated for a few

  2. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  3. Democracy to Come: Active Forums as Indicator Suites for e-Participation and e-Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodan, Debbie; Balnaves, Mark

    There is in modern industrial societies a ‘civic deficit’ Civic engagement in the traditional sense of community values and civic participation is declining (Putman 2000). What has not been examined is the ways in which various media including new media may provide real options for participatory cultures and participatory democracy now and in the future. Undoubtedly there are differences between participatory cultures that are considered a ‘genuine’ contribution to representational democracy and those that are not. This paper, based on initial research into Internet activism, will examine GetUp! as a specific example of an active forum that the authors argue enable participatory citizenship through media participation. While there are very few examples of active forums that might be considered a ‘genuine’ contribution to representational democracy there are clear signals that activism through active forums is maturing into a potent democratic force.

  4. Language Learning Activities of Distance EFL Learners in the Turkish Open Education System as the Indicator of Their Learner Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the noncompulsory language learning activities performed by a group of distance EFL learners in the Turkish Open Education System. Performance of these activities has been considered as an indicator of their learner autonomy. The data were collected through an online questionnaire and interviews. The study shows that in…

  5. Advanced Model of Squirrel Cage Induction Machine for Broken Rotor Bars Fault Using Multi Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Ouachtouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squirrel cage induction machine are the most commonly used electrical drives, but like any other machine, they are vulnerable to faults. Among the widespread failures of the induction machine there are rotor faults. This paper focuses on the detection of broken rotor bars fault using multi-indicator. However, diagnostics of asynchronous machine rotor faults can be accomplished by analysing the anomalies of machine local variable such as torque, magnetic flux, stator current and neutral voltage signature analysis. The aim of this research is to summarize the existing models and to develop new models of squirrel cage induction motors with consideration of the neutral voltage and to study the effect of broken rotor bars on the different electrical quantities such as the park currents, torque, stator currents and neutral voltage. The performance of the model was assessed by comparing the simulation and experimental results. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the model, and allow detection and diagnosis of these defects.

  6. Genetically encoded pH-indicators reveal activity-dependent cytosolic acidification of Drosophila motor nerve termini in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Adam J; Chouhan, Amit K; Macleod, Gregory T

    2013-04-01

    All biochemical processes, including those underlying synaptic function and plasticity, are pH sensitive. Cytosolic pH (pH(cyto)) shifts are known to accompany nerve activity in situ, but technological limitations have prevented characterization of such shifts in vivo. Genetically encoded pH-indicators (GEpHIs) allow for tissue-specific in vivo measurement of pH. We expressed three different GEpHIs in the cytosol of Drosophila larval motor neurons and observed substantial presynaptic acidification in nerve termini during nerve stimulation in situ. SuperEcliptic pHluorin was the most useful GEpHI for studying pH(cyto) shifts in this model system. We determined the resting pH of the nerve terminal cytosol to be 7.30 ± 0.02, and observed a decrease of 0.16 ± 0.01 pH units when the axon was stimulated at 40 Hz for 4 s. Realkalinization occurred upon cessation of stimulation with a time course of 20.54 ± 1.05 s (τ). The chemical pH-indicator 2,7-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein corroborated these changes in pH(cyto). Bicarbonate-derived buffering did not contribute to buffering of acid loads from short (≤ 4 s) trains of action potentials but did buffer slow (~60 s) acid loads. The magnitude of cytosolic acid transients correlated with cytosolic Ca(2+) increase upon stimulation, and partial inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase, a Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger, attenuated pH(cyto) shifts. Repeated stimulus trains mimicking motor patterns generated greater cytosolic acidification (~0.30 pH units). Imaging through the cuticle of intact larvae revealed spontaneous pH(cyto) shifts in presynaptic termini in vivo, similar to those seen in situ during fictive locomotion, indicating that presynaptic pH(cyto) shifts cannot be dismissed as artifacts of ex vivo preparations.

  7. Oxygen and indicators of stress for marine life in multi-model global warming projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, V.; Joos, F.; Steinacher, M.; Frölicher, T. L.; Bopp, L.; Dunne, J.; Gehlen, M.; Heinze, C.; Orr, J.; Oschlies, A.; Schneider, B.; Segschneider, J.; Tjiputra, J.

    2013-03-01

    Decadal-to-century scale trends for a range of marine environmental variables in the upper mesopelagic layer (UML, 100-600 m) are investigated using results from seven Earth System Models forced by a high greenhouse gas emission scenario. The models as a class represent the observation-based distribution of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2), albeit major mismatches between observation-based and simulated values remain for individual models. By year 2100 all models project an increase in SST between 2 °C and 3 °C, and a decrease in the pH and in the saturation state of water with respect to calcium carbonate minerals in the UML. A decrease in the total ocean inventory of dissolved oxygen by 2% to 4% is projected by the range of models. Projected O2 changes in the UML show a complex pattern with both increasing and decreasing trends reflecting the subtle balance of different competing factors such as circulation, production, remineralization, and temperature changes. Projected changes in the total volume of hypoxic and suboxic waters remain relatively small in all models. A widespread increase of CO2 in the UML is projected. The median of the CO2 distribution between 100 and 600m shifts from 0.1-0.2 mol m-3 in year 1990 to 0.2-0.4 mol m-3 in year 2100, primarily as a result of the invasion of anthropogenic carbon from the atmosphere. The co-occurrence of changes in a range of environmental variables indicates the need to further investigate their synergistic impacts on marine ecosystems and Earth System feedbacks.

  8. Recent Developments in Indicators and Models for Agri-environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Carpani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the years there has been a remarkable development in agricultural and environmental sciences and the public is growing increasingly concerned about the relations between agriculture and the environment, and about the sustainability of agricultural production systems in many parts of the world. Policy makers and the general public have asked the scientific community to make more information available, and a great wealth of research studies have been conducted and published in recent years. Many studies include in-depth analyses of agricultural systems based on simulation models for various purposes: understanding the mechanisms involved, comparing alternative scenarios and supporting and evaluating policy measures. Indicators are also frequently used to provide concise quantitative figures of various aspects (economic or productive performances, environmental impacts, etc. and to communicate them to a broad audience. This paper offers a survey of the recent literature dealing with agri-environmental issues and, in particular, of those references presenting the use of models and indicators for the assessment of agricultural systems and their effects on environmental compartments (water, soil, air, from multiple disciplinary perspectives, and at various scales. The references examined for this paper have been classified in order to group the papers according to various criteria, thus facilitating the identification of relevant references, and to compare their contents. The methodological approaches are analysed and compared in order to highlight the contributions of the scientific literature to the assessment of agro-ecosystems and agri-environmental policies.

  9. Integration of vegetation indices into a water balance model to estimate evapotranspiration of wheat and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. M. Padilla

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation indices (VIs have been traditionally used for quantitative monitoring of vegetation. Remotely sensed radiometric measurements of visible and infrared solar energy, which is reflected or emitted by plant canopies, can be used to obtain rapid, non-destructive estimates of certain canopy attributes and parameters. One parameter of special interest for water management applications, is the crop coefficient employed by the FAO-56 model to derive actual crop evapotranspiration (ET. The aim of this study was to evaluate a methodology that combines the basal crop coefficient derived from VIs with a daily soil water balance in the root zone to estimate daily evapotranspiration rates for corn and wheat crops at field scale. The ability of the model to trace water stress in these crops was also assessed. Vegetation indices were first retrieved from field hand-held radiometer measurements and then from Landsat 5 and 7 satellite images. The results of the model were validated using two independent measurement systems for ET and regular soil moisture monitoring, in order to evaluate the behavior of the soil and atmosphere components of the model. ET estimates were compared with latent heat flux measured by an eddy covariance system and with weighing lysimeter measurements. Average overestimates of daily ET of 8 and 11% were obtained for corn and wheat, respectively, with good agreement between the estimated and measured root-zone water deficit for both crops when field radiometry was employed. Satellite remote-sensing inputs overestimated ET by 4 to 9%, showing a non-significant lost of accuracy when the satellite sensor data replaced the field radiometry data. The model was also used to monitor the water stress during the 2009 growing season, detecting several periods of water stress in both crops. Some of these stresses occurred during stages like grain filling, when the water stress is know to have a negative effect on yield. This fact could

  10. Changed Relation Between Radio Flux F10,7 And Some Solar Activity Indices During Cycles 21 - 23

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A

    2011-01-01

    A stable cyclicity of correlation coefficients Kcorr for some solar activity indices versus F10,7 was found after monthly averages values analysis. These indices are: Wolf numbers, 10,7 cm radio flux F10,7, 0,1-0,8 nm background, the total solar irradiance, Mg II UV-index (280 nm core to wing ratio) and counts of flares. The correlation coefficients of the linear regression of these solar activity indices versus F10,7 were analyzed for every year in solar cycles 21 - 23. We found out that the values of yearly determined correlation coefficients Kcorr for solar activity indices versus F10,7 show the cyclic variations with stable period closed to half length of 11-year cycle (5,5 years approximately)

  11. Indicators of competitive activity of the oarswomen on kayaks at the Olympic distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chychkan O.A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The frame of competitive activity of sportsmen on kayaks different sports qualification on a distance of 500 meters is construed. 20 sportsmen of different sports qualification have been inspected. During competitions were fixed: number paddle boat and a road clearance time of a distance. It is exhibited variances in a level of competitive activity. Competitive activity expediently to value on parameters of a road clearance time of a distance, an amount paddle boat on a distance, roads of a boat for 1 paddle boat, an average velocity of a boat, average rate, average duration paddle boat, an average velocity of a boat in a cycle paddle boat, to factor mechanics.

  12. Original article Identifying indicators of defensive activity in narration about important interpersonal relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Soroko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the main components of psychological conversation that influence communication is psychological defensiveness. 
In the paper I propose processual – situational understanding of defensiveness, and its measurement based on coding system. Preliminary results on link between personality traits and defensiveness in people’s narratives are presented as well. Participants and procedure To test proposed coding system, study was conducted with participants presenting different levels of personality organization’s (borderline: n = 35, 20 women, M = 26.09, SD = 4.82, neurotic: n = 29, 24 women, M = 25.90, SD = 5.25, integrated: n = 31, 26 women, M = 21.94, SD = 1.69. Correlation method was applied (Borderline Personality Inventory, Neuroticism Scale, Emotion Control Inventory, as well as narrative’s interviews. Participants’ statements were coded by competent judges (defensiveness and coherence of narratives, and by automatic lexical analyses (descriptive indicators. Results Results indicate that proposed defensiveness coding system is a set of heterogeneous indicators, and four groups of indicators could be extracted. Correlations between those indicators and expression control (positive relation, and coherence of narratives (negative relation. Moreover, differences between borderline participants and neurotic ones emerged. Conclusions Proposed coding system seems to be a heterogeneous but useful tool for assessing defensiveness during psychological interviews. It could be applied as an element of a procedural control measures, directed to test the reliability of psychological conversation.

  13. Individual analysis the competitive activity indicators of elite swimmer in a distance of 200 m. breaststroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyriene V.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of features of competition activity is presented one of the best sportsmen. Basic dignities of competition activity of sportsman there is ability to develop high-rate of swimming of the starting cutting-off, distance and finish cutting-off. The low rate of motions is thus marked at a very long stroke. To failings it is possible to take the enough long stay of sportsman on a starting stand, considerable falling of speed of implementation of turns on motion distance. It is well-proven that a systematic and permanent analysis of competition activity is the important mean of training process control. Information about activity of sportsman on competitions at certain terms can be foundation for raising of purpose and tasks of preparation, choice of facilities and methods of their realization.

  14. Serum bactericidal activity as indicator of innate immunity in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Biller-Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of teleost fish has mechanisms responsible for the defense against bacteria through protective proteins in several tissues. The protein action can be evaluated by serum bactericidal activity and this is an important tool to analyze the immune system. Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, is one of the most important fish in national aquaculture. However there is a lack of studies on its immune responses. In order to standardize and assess the accuracy of the serum bactericidal activity assay, fish were briefly challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after the challenge. The bacterial infection increased the concentration of protective proteins, resulting in a decrease of colony-forming unit values expressed as well as an enhanced serum bactericidal activity. The protocol showed a reliable assay, appropriate to determine the serum bactericidal activity of pacu in the present experimental conditions.

  15. Kernel density surface modelling as a means to identify significant concentrations of vulnerable marine ecosystem indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kenchington

    Full Text Available The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify "significant concentrations" of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores, and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here

  16. Activity-based resource capability modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shao-wu; XU Xiao-fei; WANG Gang; SUN Xue-dong

    2008-01-01

    To analyse and optimize a enterprise process in a wide scope, an activity-based method of modeling resource capabilities is presented. It models resource capabilities by means of the same structure as an activity, that is, resource capabilities are defined by input objects, actions and output objects. A set of activity-based re-source capability modeling rules and matching rules between an activity and a resource are introduced. This method can not only be used to describe capability of manufacturing tools, but also capability of persons and applications, etc. It unifies methods of modeling capability of all kinds of resources in an enterprise and supports the optimization of the resource allocation of a process.

  17. Incremental activity modeling in multiple disjoint cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Chen Change; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2012-09-01

    Activity modeling and unusual event detection in a network of cameras is challenging, particularly when the camera views are not overlapped. We show that it is possible to detect unusual events in multiple disjoint cameras as context-incoherent patterns through incremental learning of time delayed dependencies between distributed local activities observed within and across camera views. Specifically, we model multicamera activities using a Time Delayed Probabilistic Graphical Model (TD-PGM) with different nodes representing activities in different decomposed regions from different views and the directed links between nodes encoding their time delayed dependencies. To deal with visual context changes, we formulate a novel incremental learning method for modeling time delayed dependencies that change over time. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using a synthetic data set and videos captured from a camera network installed at a busy underground station.

  18. High performance computation of landscape genomic models including local indicators of spatial association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, S; Orozco-terWengel, P; Forester, B R; Duruz, S; Colli, L; Masembe, C; Negrini, R; Landguth, E; Jones, M R; Bruford, M W; Taberlet, P; Joost, S

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing availability of both molecular and topo-climatic data, the main challenges facing landscape genomics - that is the combination of landscape ecology with population genomics - include processing large numbers of models and distinguishing between selection and demographic processes (e.g. population structure). Several methods address the latter, either by estimating a null model of population history or by simultaneously inferring environmental and demographic effects. Here we present samβada, an approach designed to study signatures of local adaptation, with special emphasis on high performance computing of large-scale genetic and environmental data sets. samβada identifies candidate loci using genotype-environment associations while also incorporating multivariate analyses to assess the effect of many environmental predictor variables. This enables the inclusion of explanatory variables representing population structure into the models to lower the occurrences of spurious genotype-environment associations. In addition, samβada calculates local indicators of spatial association for candidate loci to provide information on whether similar genotypes tend to cluster in space, which constitutes a useful indication of the possible kinship between individuals. To test the usefulness of this approach, we carried out a simulation study and analysed a data set from Ugandan cattle to detect signatures of local adaptation with samβada, bayenv, lfmm and an FST outlier method (FDIST approach in arlequin) and compare their results. samβada - an open source software for Windows, Linux and Mac OS X available at http://lasig.epfl.ch/sambada - outperforms other approaches and better suits whole-genome sequence data processing.

  19. Constructing coincident indices of economic activity for the Latin American economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Issler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has three main contributions. The first is to propose an individual coincident indicator for the following Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. In order to obtain similar series to those traditionally used in business-cycle research in constructing coincident indices (output, sales, income and employment we were forced to back-cast several individual country series which were not available in a long time-series span. The second contribution is to establish a chronology of recessions for these countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2012 on a monthly basis. Based on this chronology, the countries are compared in several respects. The final contribution is to propose an aggregate coincident indicator for the Latin American economy, which weights individual-country composite indices. Finally, this indicator is compared with the coincident indicator (The Conference Board - TCB of the U.S. economy. We find that the U.S. indicator Granger-causes the Latin American indicator in statistical testsEsse artigo tem 3 contribuições à literatura de ciclos de negócios. A primeira é a de construir indicadores coincidentes de atividade econômica para Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia e México, usando pesos idênticos para as séries de Emprego, Produção, Renda, e Vendas. Para tal, tivemos que fazer o back-cast de algumas séries chave para poder construir esses indicadores. A segunda é a de estabelecer uma cronologia de recessões para esses países no período 1980-2012 em bases mensais. Com base na última, fazemos comparações em várias dimensões. Finalmente, nossa última contribuição é propor um índice coincidente agregado para a América Latina, que é comparado ao índice agregado dos EUA. Esta comparação indica que o índice coincidente dos EUA Granger-causa o da América Latina, mas a recíproca não é verdadeira

  20. Combined drug and surgery treatment of plutonium-contaminated wounds: indications obtained using a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Nina M; Coudert, Sylvie; Wilk, Jean Claude; Renault, Daniel; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2014-06-01

    There is an important requirement following accidental actinide contamination of wounds to limit the dissemination and retention of such alpha-emitting radionuclides. To reduce wound and systemic contamination, treatment approaches include chelation therapy with or without wound excision. However, it has been hypothesized that wound excision could lead to increased contaminant release and systemic organ retention. This study in the rat addresses this question. Anesthetized rats were contaminated with plutonium nitrate following wounding by deep incision of hind leg muscle. Excision of tissue at the contaminated site was performed 7 d later with or without Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) treatment (30 μmol kg⁻¹ i.v.). Pu urinary excretion was then measured for a further 3 d, and animals were euthanized at 14 d after contamination. Tissue samples were evaluated for Pu activity and histology. At 7 d after contamination, around 50% of the initial activity remained at the wound site. An average of 16% of this activity was then removed by surgery. Surgery alone resulted in increased urinary excretion, suggesting release from the wound site, but no subsequent increases in organ retention (bone, liver) were observed at 14 d. Indeed, organ Pu activity was slightly reduced. The combination of surgery and DTPA or DTPA treatment alone was much more effective than excision alone as shown by the markedly increased urinary Pu excretion and decreased tissue levels. This is the first report in an experimental rodent model of resection of Pu-contaminated wound. Urinary excretion data provide evidence for the release of activity as a result of surgery, but this does not appear to lead to further Pu organ retention. However, a combination of prior DTPA treatment with wound excision is particularly effective.

  1. Recent trends of extreme precipitation indices in the Iberian Peninsula using observations and WRF model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeu, S.; Carvalho, M. J.; Marta-Almeida, M.; Melo-Gonçalves, P.; Rocha, A.

    2016-08-01

    Spatial and temporal distributions of the trends of extreme precipitation indices were analysed between 1986 and 2005, over the Iberian Peninsula (IP). The knowledge of the patterns of extreme precipitation is important for impacts assessment, development of adaptation and mitigation strategies. As such, there is a growing need for a more detailed knowledge of precipitation climate change. This analysis was performed for Portuguese and Spanish observational datasets and results performed by the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Extreme precipitation indices recommended by the Expert Team for Climate Change Detection Monitoring and Indices were computed, by year and season. Then, annual and seasonal trends of the indices were estimated by Theil-Sen method and their significance was tested by the Mann-Kendal test. Additionally, a second simulation forced by the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM), was considered. This second modelling configuration was created in order to assess its performance when simulating extremes of precipitation. The annual trends estimated for the 1986-2005, from the observational datasets and from the ERA-driven simulation reveal: 1) negative statistically significant trends of the CWD index in the Galicia and in the centre of the IP; 2) positive statistically significant trends of the CDD index over the south of the IP and negative statistically significant trends in Galicia, north and centre of Portugal; 3) positive statistically significant trends of the R75p index in some regions of the north of the IP; 4) positive statistically significant trends in the R95pTOT index in the Central Mountains Chain, Leon Mountains and in the north of Portugal. Seasonally, negative statistically significant trends of the CWD index were found in Galicia, in winter and in the south of the IP, in summer. Positive statistically significant trends of the CWD index were identified in the Leon Mountains

  2. A rat monoclonal antibody that recognizes pro- and active MMP-7 indicates polarized expression in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fingleton, Barbara; Powell, William C; Crawford, Howard C

    2007-01-01

    different species and, by immunohistochemistry, can detect MMP-7 of human, murine, porcine, and gerbil origin. Immunostaining of MMP-7 in normal tissues or benign tumors of intestinal, breast, and prostatic origin indicates that this protein is normally localized luminally in glandular epithelium...

  3. ATP as an indicator of biomass activity in thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This work investigated the biomass activity in a thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor of wastewater treatment. Synthetic textile wastewater with pH 10-11, COD level of 2000-3000 mg/L was tested. Cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in volatile solids (VS; mg ATP/gVS) was measured and expressed as specific ATP content to compare the biomass activity in up zone and lower zone in UASB reactor. The result shows that the specific ATP content based on total volatile solids (VS)in lower zone (0. 046 mgATP/gVS average) is much lower than that in up zone (0.62 mgATP/gVS average) due to high content of inactive biomass and high pH in lower zone. The SATP in up zone increases as HRT increases and approaches to a maximum value of 0.85 mgATP/gVS at HRT of 7h, then decreases. It shows most of the total VS in up zone represent active bacterial biomass at HRT of 7h. Rate of subtract utilization is directly related to the activity of microorganisms in the reactor. The effect of HRT on SATP in lower zone is not as significant as on SATP in up zone. The buffer capacity of the thermophilic UASB reactor is very good. It is the activity of sludge granules in lower zone that give the UASB reactor such a good buffer capacity to the inlet high pH.

  4. Monitoring the performances of a real scale municipal solid waste composting and a biodrying facility using respiration activity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelou, Alexandros; Gerassimidou, Spyridoula; Mavrakis, Nikitas; Komilis, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    Objective of the work was to monitor two full-scale commingled municipal solid waste (MSW) mechanical and biological pretreatment (MBT) facilities in Greece, namely a biodrying and a composting facility. Monitoring data from a 1.5-year sampling period is presented, whilst microbial respiration indices were used to monitor the decomposition process and the stability status of the wastes in both facilities during the process. Results showed that in the composting facility, the organic matter reduced by 35 % after 8 weeks of combined composting/curing. Material exiting the biocells had a moisture content of less than 30 % (wb) indicating a moisture limitation during the active composting process. The static respiration indexes indicated that some stabilization occurred during the process, but the final material could not be characterized as stable compost. In the biodrying facility, the initial and final moisture contents were 50 % and less than 20 % wb, respectively, and the biodrying index was equal to 4.1 indicating effective biodrying. Lower heating values at the inlet and outlet were approximately 5.5 and 10 MJ/wet kg, respectively. The organic matter was reduced by 20 % during the process and specifically from a range of 63-77 % dw (inlet) to a range of 61-70 % dw. A significant respiration activity reduction was observed for some of the biodrying samples. A statistically significant correlation among all three respiration activity indices was recorded, with the two oxygen related activity indices (CRI7 and SRI24) observing the highest correlation.

  5. Individual analysis the competitive activity indicators of elite swimmer in a distance of 200 m. breaststroke

    OpenAIRE

    Skyriene V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of features of competition activity is presented one of the best sportsmen. Basic dignities of competition activity of sportsman there is ability to develop high-rate of swimming of the starting cutting-off, distance and finish cutting-off. The low rate of motions is thus marked at a very long stroke. To failings it is possible to take the enough long stay of sportsman on a starting stand, considerable falling of speed of implementation of turns on motion distance. It is well-pro...

  6. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.;

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...

  7. Capturing Appearance Variation in Active Appearance Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents an extension of active appearance models (AAMs) that is better capable of dealing with the large variation in face appearance that is encountered in large multi-person face data sets. Instead of the traditional PCA-based texture model, our extended AAM employs a mixture of probabi

  8. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were t...

  9. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  10. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous nepenthes plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Buch

    Full Text Available Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep. Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory.

  11. The approach of Bayesian model indicates media awareness of medical errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, K.; Arulchelvan, S.

    2016-06-01

    This research study brings out the factors behind the increase in medical malpractices in the Indian subcontinent in the present day environment and impacts of television media awareness towards it. Increased media reporting of medical malpractices and errors lead to hospitals taking corrective action and improve the quality of medical services that they provide. The model of Cultivation Theory can be used to measure the influence of media in creating awareness of medical errors. The patient's perceptions of various errors rendered by the medical industry from different parts of India were taken up for this study. Bayesian method was used for data analysis and it gives absolute values to indicate satisfaction of the recommended values. To find out the impact of maintaining medical records of a family online by the family doctor in reducing medical malpractices which creates the importance of service quality in medical industry through the ICT.

  12. Analysis of indicators of an efficiency estimation of work of the employee and the business model of the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury G. Odegov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of increasing competition, the problems of efficiency increase of activity of the company are significantly actualized, which directly depends on efficiency of labour activity of every employee and the implemented business model of the organization. On this basis the aim of the research is to analyze existing indicators of performance evaluation of the labour activities of both the employee and the business model of the organization.The theoretical basis of the study consists of principles of the economic theory, the works of native and foreign experts in the field of job evaluation. The information base of the research consists of economic and legal literature dealing with problems of this study, the data published in periodicals, materials of Russian scientific conferences, seminars, and Internet resources.In this article I have used and found the application of scientific methods of data collection, methods of research and methods of assessing their credibility: quantitative, comparative, logical analysis and synthesis.The modern business concern about the accumulation of wealth of shareholders, giving the company stability, growth and efficiency inevitably leads to necessity of creation and development of technologies aimed at improving the productivity of employees. The paper presents a comparative analysis of different approaches to assessing the labour effectiveness.The performance of the work is the ratio of the four essential parameters that determine the measure of efficiency of persons’ activity: the quantity and quality of result of work (a service, material product or technology in relation to spend time and cost on its production. The use of employees («performance» should be in the following way that they could achieve the planned results in the workplace. The authors have noted that to develop of technologies for the measurement of productivity it is very important to use the procedures and indicators that are

  13. Maximum Coronal Mass Ejection Speed as an Indicator of Solar and Geomagnetic Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Kilcik, A; Abramenko, V; Goode, P R; Gopalswamy, N; Ozguc, A; Rozelot, J P; 10.1088/0004-637X/727/1/44

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the monthly averaged maximal speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), international sunspot number (ISSN), and the geomagnetic Dst and Ap indices covering the 1996-2008 time interval (solar cycle 23). Our new findings are as follows. (1) There is a noteworthy relationship between monthly averaged maximum CME speeds and sunspot numbers, Ap and Dst indices. Various peculiarities in the monthly Dst index are correlated better with the fine structures in the CME speed profile than that in the ISSN data. (2) Unlike the sunspot numbers, the CME speed index does not exhibit a double peak maximum. Instead, the CME speed profile peaks during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Similar to the Ap index, both CME speed and the Dst indices lag behind the sunspot numbers by several months. (3) The CME number shows a double peak similar to that seen in the sunspot numbers. The CME occurrence rate remained very high even near the minimum of the solar cycle 23, when both the sunspot ...

  14. Indications of low macrobenthic activity in the deep sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Basso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluxes and budget of organic matter from the oligotrophic surface waters of the eastern Mediterranean to the deep waters are poorly known, and little information is available on past and present macrobenthic activity on the sea floor. Evidence of macrobenthic activity can be direct, through recovery of living organisms or their autochthonous skeletal remains, or indirect, through bioturbation and trace fossils. The evidence of biological activity in deep eastern Mediterranean sediments has been evaluated and compared through 210Pb profiles from box-cores and study of dredge samples from sites on Medina Rise (1374 m water depth, the Messina Abyssal Plain (4135 m and several sites along the Mediterranean Ridge, SW and S of Crete (1783 to 3655 m. All these sites are remote from the continental shelves, so the biological benthic activity is expected to depend primarily on primary production from surface waters. The results show that present-day macrobenthos and trace fossils are generally scarce, especially at depths > 2500 m. This observation is supported by surface sediment 210Pb excess distributions that show a surface mixed layer (SML 2500 m. The historical layer of some box-cores and the Pleistocene hardgrounds collected in the Cleft area (Mediterranean Ridge do, however, record a macrobenthic activity that is apparently more intense than at present, which may be related to higher primary production of the Pleistocene glacial intervals. In contrast with most areas of the present-day deep eastern Mediterranean which depend on surface primary production based on photosynthesis, a relatively dense and diversified macrobenthic community based on chemosynthesis has been recognised at depths > 1100 m on the Napoli Dome mud volcano in the Olimpi area, and on the Kazan and other mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountains.

  15. Quality management indicators for tissue banks: an operative model from the period of 2002-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldías, M; Alvarez, I; Pérez Campos, H; Sánchez, G; Acosta, M

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a specific indicator model to evaluate the Quality Management System (QMS) in Tissue Banks (TB) for deceased and/or live donors. Quantitative Indicators for Quality Management are considered for deceased donors as the origin of therapeutic tissues. A glossary of definitions was established (also applicable for tissues from live donors): Deceased Therapeutic Real Donors (DTRD), donors that were processed and at least 1 tissue was harvested for a therapeutic purpose; Deceased Effective Donors (DED), DTRD in which 1 or more tissues were validated, stored, and/or grafted; Processed Tissues (PT), number of tissues harvested from a DTRD, which were processed and counted as final product units; Validated Tissues (VT), number of tissues as final product units, which fulfilled quality criteria to be grafted; Grafted Tissues (GT), number of transplanted tissues for therapeutic purposes; and Grafted Patients (GP), number of patients who were grafted with validated tissues. MANAGEMENT QUANTITATIVE INDICATORS: Deceased donors were considered from 2002 to 2007. The total number of tissues was 15,363: Productivity Index (PI), PI = DED/DTRD; Processing Quality Rate (PQR), PQR = VT/PT%; Productivity Efficiency per Donor (PED), PED = VT/DED; Grafted Tissues Coefficient (GTC), GTC = GT/VT; and Grafted Patients Index per Donor (GID), GID = GP/DED. Results were as follows: PI = 0.80; PQR = 76%; PED = 30.99; GTC = 0.93; and GID = 4. In our study, 80% of DTRD produced VT (PI = 0.80), which represented 76% of PT (average, 31 final products per donor). Also, 93% of the VT were grafted with 5 patients grafted per donor. Defined variables resulted in useful tools to evaluate QMS in a TB.

  16. A business model for managing system change through strategic financing and performance indicators: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Mary I; Milch, Heidi; Curtis, Peter; Endress, Phillip

    2012-06-01

    This article describes how a system of care operated by a county government agency used a fiscal crisis as the opportunity to reform its children's system. A cross-system response to the crisis is outlined that includes a system of care framework coupled with a business model, inter-departmental collaboration and leadership, the use of strategic reinvestment strategies, and a quality improvement system that focuses on key indicators. Implementation of the system change is described with a specific focus on cross-system entry points, financing strategies that re-allocate funds from deep-end programs to community-based services, and management oversight through the use of performance indicators to monitor and support effectiveness. This article examines the results of the system change, including the diversion of youth from system penetration, the reduction in residential treatment bed days, the re-allocation of these savings to community-based services, and the outcomes of children who were diverted from residential care and served in the community. The article offers a number of recommendations for other communities contemplating system change.

  17. Construction Of CIBEST Model as Measurement of Poverty and Welfare Indices From Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Syauqi Beik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges faced by most of the Islamic countries is poverty. This paper attempts to construct the concept of poverty and welfare standards based on Islamic perspective.The study tries to cover both material and spiritual dimensions. These standards are based on CIBEST Quadrant, which is divided into four quadrants: welfare quadrant (I, material poverty quadrant (II, spiritual poverty quadrant (III and absolute poverty quadrant (IV. Determination of these quadrants is resulted from criteria and indicators of basic material needs and basic spiritual needs. By using household as unit of analysis, this study is able to developCIBEST Model comprising welfare index,  material  poverty  index,  spiritual  poverty  index,  and  absolute  poverty index. Mathematical formula and illustration of the indices are also elaborated to strengthen the concept.DOI:10.15408/aiq.v7i1.1361

  18. Influence of the program of physical training of highly skilled hockey players (forwards on indicators of the competitive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Goncharenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the efficiency of the program of physical training of highly skilled sportswomen on indicators of the competitive activity in field hockey that was offered in the first pre-season of an annual macrocycle. Material and Methods: influence of the offered program was decided with the help of testing of motive qualities and technical elements of female hockey players. Results: correlation between indicators of the competitive activity of players of attack and the level of physical preparation was found out. Conclusions: positive influence of introduction of the program on physical preparation for highly skilled female hockey players, namely – forwards, on indicators of their competitive activity is revealed.

  19. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents....... These models include a model for analyzing evolution of terrorist networks; a text classification model for detecting suspicious text and identification of suspected authors of anonymous emails; and a semantic analysis model for news reports, which may help analyze the illicit activities in certain area...... with location and temporal information. For the network evolution, the hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach has been applied to terrorist networks as case studies. The networks' evolutions show that how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small groups, which...

  20. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Callan-Jones, A C

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  1. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  2. The effects of digital elevation model resolution on the calculation and predictions of topographic wetness indices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drover, Damion, Ryan

    2011-12-01

    One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is a

  3. Formation of the system of indicators of effectiveness of the consulting activity

    OpenAIRE

    Verba Veronika A.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents own vision of methodological principles of assessment of managerial consulting in the knowledge economy. The goal of the article is justification of the own position of principles and methodical provisions of assessing the consulting activity and developing the consulting company scorecard with consideration of the focus of their strategic consulting. In the result of the conducted study the article justifies expediency of assessment of effectiveness of managerial consult...

  4. QSAR MODELING OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA O. PODUNAVAC-KUZMANOVIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR study has been carried out for a training set of 12 benzimidazole derivatives to correlate and predict the antibacterial activity of studied compounds against Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Multiple linear regression was used to select the descriptors and to generate the best prediction model that relates the structural features to inhibitory activity. The predictivity of the model was estimated by cross-validation with the leave-one-out method. Our results suggest a QSAR model based on the following descriptors: parameter of lipophilicity (logP and hydration energy (HE. Good agreement between experimental and predicted inhibitory values, obtained in the validation procedure, indicated the good quality of the generated QSAR model.

  5. Effect of Epistemic Uncertainty Modeling Approach on Decision-Making: Example using Equipment Performance Indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana Kelly; Robert Youngblood

    2012-06-01

    Quantitative risk assessments are an integral part of risk-informed regulation of current and future nuclear plants in the U.S. The Bayesian approach to uncertainty, in which both stochastic and epistemic uncertainties are represented with precise probability distributions, is the standard approach to modeling uncertainties in such quantitative risk assessments. However, there are long-standing criticisms of the Bayesian approach to epistemic uncertainty from many perspectives, and a number of alternative approaches have been proposed. Among these alternatives, the most promising (and most rapidly developing) would appear to be the concept of imprecise probability. In this paper, we employ a performance indicator example to focus the discussion. We first give a short overview of the traditional Bayesian paradigm and review some its controversial aspects, for example, issues with so-called noninformative prior distributions. We then discuss how the imprecise probability approach treats these issues and compare it with two other approaches: sensitivity analysis and hierarchical Bayes modeling. We conclude with some practical implications for risk-informed decision making.

  6. Modeling Agricultural Crop Production in China using AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Kogan, F.; Guo, W.; Zhiyuan, P.; Xianfeng, J.

    Weather related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers On a wider scale it has always influenced decision of Governments traders and other policy makers for the purpose of balanced food supplies trade and distribution of aid to the nations in need Therefore national policy and decision makers are giving increasing importance to early assessment of crop losses in response to weather fluctuations This presentation emphasizes utility of AVHRR-based Vegetation health index VHI for early warning of drought-related losses of agricultural production in China The VHI is a three-channel index characterizing greenness vigor and temperature of land surface which can be used as proxy for estimation of how healthy and potentially productive could be vegetation China is the largest in the world producer of grain including wheat and rice and cotton In the major agricultural areas China s crop production is very dependent on weather The VHI being a proxy indicator of weather impact on vegetation showed some correlation with productivity of agricultural crops during the critical period of their development The periods of the strongest correlation were investigated and used to build regression models where crop yield deviation from technological trend was accepted as a dependent and VHI as independent variables The models were developed for several major crops including wheat corn and soybeans

  7. Mapping crop evapotranspiration by integrating vegetation indices into a soil water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Simona; Vanella, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    The approach combines the basal crop coefficient (Kcb) derived from vegetation indices (VIs) with the daily soil water balance, as proposed in the FAO-56 paper, to estimate daily crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates of orange trees. The reliability of the approach to detect water stress was also assessed. VIs were simultaneously retrieved from WorldView-2 imagery and hyper-spectral data collected in the field for comparison. ETc estimated were analysed at the light of independent measurements of the same fluxes by an eddy covariance (EC) system located in the study area. The soil water depletion in the root zone of the crop simulated by the model was also validated by using an in situ soil water monitoring. Average overestimate of daily ETc of 6% was obtained from the proposed approach with respect to EC measurements, evidencing a quite satisfactory agreement between data. The model also detected several periods of light stress for the crop under study, corresponding to an increase of the root zone water deficit matching quite well the in situ soil water monitoring. The overall outcomes of this study showed that the FAO-56 approach with remote sensing-derived basal crop coefficient can have the potential to be applied for estimating crop water requirements and enhancing water management strategies in agricultural contexts.

  8. County-Scale Spatial Distribution of Soil Enzyme Activities and Enzyme Activity Indices in Agricultural Land: Implications for Soil Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangping Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here the spatial distribution of soil enzymatic properties in agricultural land was evaluated on a county-wide (567 km2 scale in Changwu, Shaanxi Province, China. The spatial variations in activities of five hydrolytic enzymes were examined using geostatistical methods. The relationships between soil enzyme activities and other soil properties were evaluated using both an integrated total enzyme activity index (TEI and the geometric mean of enzyme activities (GME. At the county scale, soil invertase, phosphatase, and catalase activities were moderately spatially correlated, whereas urease and dehydrogenase activities were weakly spatially correlated. Correlation analysis showed that both TEI and GME were better correlated with selected soil physicochemical properties than single enzyme activities. Multivariate regression analysis showed that soil OM content had the strongest positive effect while soil pH had a negative effect on the two enzyme activity indices. In addition, total phosphorous content had a positive effect on TEI and GME in orchard soils, whereas alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium contents, respectively, had negative and positive effects on these two enzyme indices in cropland soils. The results indicate that land use changes strongly affect soil enzyme activities in agricultural land, where TEI provides a sensitive biological indicator for soil quality.

  9. Trends in global vegetation activity and climatic drivers indicate a decoupled response to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schut, Antonius G T; Ivits, Eva; Conijn, Jacob G.;

    2015-01-01

    Detailed understanding of a possible decoupling between climatic drivers of plant productivity and the response of ecosystems vegetation is required. We compared trends in six NDVI metrics (1982-2010) derived from the GIMMS3g dataset with modelled biomass productivity and assessed uncertainty...... an increasing difference between trends in climatic drivers and observed NDVI for large parts of the globe. Our findings suggest that future scenarios must consider impacts of constraints on plant growth such as extremes in weather and nutrient availability to predict changes in NPP and CO2 sequestration...... in trend estimates. Annual total biomass weight (TBW) was calculated with the LINPAC model. Trends were determined using a simple linear regression, a Thiel-Sen medium slope and a piecewise regression (PWR) with two segments. Values of NDVI metrics were related to Net Primary Production (MODIS...

  10. Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

    2012-12-01

    The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro

  11. Measuring Faecal Epi-Androsterone as an Indicator of Gonadal Activity in Spotted Hyenas (Crocuta crocuta.

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    Susanne Pribbenow

    Full Text Available Enzyme immunoassays (EIA that measure faecal testosterone metabolites (fTM are useful tools to monitor gonadal activity. The aim of this study was to validate an "in-house" epiandrosterone EIA to monitor fTM in spotted hyenas. FTM were characterised in a male and a female hyena that each received an injection of 3H-testosterone. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses revealed a cluster of highly polar enzyme-hydrolysable hormone metabolite conjugates. We performed hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase to deconjugate metabolites and improve sensitivity of the assay. Because β-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia has been reported to bias testosterone measurements in some species, we compared the enzymatic activity of the commonly used β-glucuronidase extracted from H. pomatia with the same enzyme from Escherichia coli. Our results showed that β-glucuronidases from both sources produced similar results from spotted hyena faeces. We therefore hydrolysed samples with H. pomatia enzymes. HPLC analyses also demonstrated that following hydrolysis the epiandrosterone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactive metabolites corresponding to radiolabelled metabolites in both sexes. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of epiandrosterone in faeces of spotted hyenas. The biological relevance of the epiandrosterone EIA was validated by demonstrating (1 a significant increase in fTM levels in response to a testosterone injection within 16 h, (2 no biological responsiveness to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH injection and (3 significant differences in fTM levels between juvenile males and adult immigrant males in a free-ranging wild population. Our results clearly demonstrate that the epiandrosterone EIA is a reliable non-invasive method to monitor gonadal activity in spotted hyenas.

  12. Managing CSCL Activity through networking models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Casillas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at managing activity carried out in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL environments. We apply an approach that gathers and manages the knowledge underlying huge data structures, resulting from collaborative interaction among participants and stored as activity logs. Our method comprises a variety of important issues and aspects, such as: deep understanding of collaboration among participants in workgroups, definition of an ontology for providing meaning to isolated data manifestations, discovering of knowledge structures built in huge amounts of data stored in log files, and development of high-semantic indicators to describe diverse primitive collaborative acts, and binding these indicators to formal descriptions defined in the collaboration ontology; besides our method includes gathering collaboration indicators from web forums using natural language processing (NLP techniques.

  13. Modeling Atmospheric Activity of Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.

    2003-10-01

    This review discusses a set of simple models for cool-star activity with which we compute (1) photospheric field patterns on stars of different activity levels, (2) the associated outer-atmospheric field configurations, and (3) the soft X-ray emission that is expected to result from the ensemble of loop atmospheres in the coronae of these stars. The model is based on empirically-determined properties of solar activity. It allows us to extrapolate to stars of significantly higher and lower activity than seen on the present-day Sun through its cycle. With it, we can, for example, gain insight into stellar field patterns (including a possible formation mechanism for polar starspots), as well as in the properties of coronal heating (helpful in the identification of the quiescent coronal heating mechanism). Lacking comprehensive theoretical understanding, the model's reliance on empirical solar data means that the multitude of processes involved are approximated to be independent of rotation rate, activity level, and fundamental stellar parameters, or -- where unavoidably necessary -- assumed to simply scale with activity. An evaluation of the most important processes involved guides a discussion of the limits of the model, of the limitations in our knowledge, and of future needs. "I propose to adopt such rules as will ensure the testability of scientific statements; which is to say, their falsifiability." Karl Popper (1902-1994)

  14. INDICATORS THAT CAN BE USED TO MEASURE PERFORMANCE IN THE INTERNAL AUDITING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin BOGHEAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal auditing has evolved from an approach based essentially on accounting aspects to a profession oriented towards management of entities and essentially destined for them. Modern internal auditing provides services that incorporate the examination and appreciation of regulations, performances, risk management and governance of all kind of property types – public or private bodies. The financial aspects represent just a part of the internal auditing view. In this paper, we will try to submit a series of indicators that can be used to measure the added value generated in an entity. Internal auditors provide to managers the information they need in order to download their responsibilities. Internal auditors are vitally involved in aspects that address to the risks and governance of the organization.

  15. Social indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R

    1975-05-16

    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  16. Integrated conceptual ecological model and habitat indices for the southwest Florida coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Georgiana L.; Lorenz, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    The coastal wetlands of southwest Florida that extend from Charlotte Harbor south to Cape Sable, contain more than 60,000 ha of mangroves and 22,177 ha of salt marsh. These coastal wetlands form a transition zone between the freshwater and marine environments of the South Florida Coastal Marine Ecosystem (SFCME). The coastal wetlands provide diverse ecosystem services that are valued by society and thus are important to the economy of the state. Species from throughout the region spend part of their life cycle in the coastal wetlands, including many marine and coastal-dependent species, making this zone critical to the ecosystem health of the Everglades and the SFCME. However, the coastal wetlands are increasingly vulnerable due to rising sea level, changes in storm intensity and frequency, land use, and water management practices. They are at the boundary of the region covered by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), and thus are impacted by both CERP and marine resource management decisions. An integrated conceptual ecological model (ICEM) for the southwest coastal wetlands of Florida was developed that illustrates the linkages between drivers, pressures, ecological process, and ecosystem services. Five ecological indicators are presented: (1) mangrove community structure and spatial extent; (2) waterbirds; (3) prey-base fish and macroinvertebrates; (4) crocodilians; and (5) periphyton. Most of these indicators are already used in other areas of south Florida and the SFCME, and therefore will allow metrics from the coastal wetlands to be used in system-wide assessments that incorporate the entire Greater Everglades Ecosystem.

  17. Composite Disease Activity and Responder Indices for Psoriatic Arthritis: A Report from the GRAPPA 2013 Meeting on Development of Cutoffs for Both Disease Activity States and Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helliwell, P.S.; Fitzgerald, O.; Fransen, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are several new composite indices for assessing disease activity in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Each may function as a disease state variable and a responder index. The aim of our study was to determine cutoffs for disease activity and response. METHODS: Data from the Group for GRAPP

  18. Pyroclastic flow deposits on Venus as indicators of renewed magmatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Morgan, Gareth A.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Carter, Lynn M.; Glaze, Lori S.; Campbell, Donald B.

    2017-07-01

    Radar bright deposits on Venus that have diffuse margins suggest eruptions that distribute debris over large areas due to ground-hugging flows from plume collapse. We examine deposits in eastern Eistla, western Eistla, Phoebe, and Dione Regiones using Magellan data and Earth-based radar maps. The radar bright units have no marginal lobes or other features consistent with viscous flow. Their morphology, radar echo strength, polarization properties, and microwave emissivity are consistent with mantling deposits composed of few centimeters or larger clasts. This debris traveled downhill up to 100 km on modest slopes and blanketed lava flows and tectonic features to depths of tens of centimeters to a few meters over areas up to 40 × 103 km2. There is evidence for ongoing removal and exhumation of previously buried terrain. A newly identified occurrence is associated with a ridge belt south of Ushas Mons. We also note radar bright streaks of coarse material west of Rona Chasma that reflect the last traces of a deposit mobilized by winds from the formation of Mirabeau crater. If the radar bright units originate by the collapse of eruption columns, with coarse fragmental material entrained and fluidized by hot gases, then their extent suggests large erupted volatile (CO2 or H2O) amounts. We propose that these deposits reflect the early stage of renewed magmatic activity, with volatile-rich, disrupted magma escaping through vents in fractured regions of the upper crust. Rapidly eroding under Venus surface conditions or buried by subsequent eruptions, these markers of recently renewed activity have disappeared from older regions.

  19. Use of faropenem as an indicator of carbapenemase activity in the Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kathryn M; Pike, Rachel; Winstanley, Trevor G; Lanyon, Clare; Cummings, Stephen P; Raza, Muhammad W; Woodford, Neil; Perry, John D

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of a disc susceptibility test using faropenem (10 μg) to predict carbapenemase activity in Enterobacteriaceae. A collection of 166 isolates of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and 82 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that produced other β-lactamases was compiled from diverse sources. Disc susceptibility testing was performed using the CLSI/EUCAST methodology with discs of faropenem (10 μg), temocillin (30 μg), and four carbapenems (each 10 μg). A further prospective evaluation of the faropenem disc susceptibility test was performed using 205 consecutive isolates referred to a United Kingdom reference laboratory in parallel with molecular methods for carbapenemase detection. Of 166 isolates of CPE, 99% showed growth up to the edge of a 10-μg faropenem disc compared with only 6% of other β-lactamase producers (sensitivity, 99%; specificity, 94%). A "double zone" around 10-μg faropenem discs was frequently associated with OXA-48 producers. Of the carbapenems, the most useful agent was imipenem, where a zone diameter of ≤ 23 mm as a predictor of carbapenemase activity had a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 85%. The presence of no zone of inhibition around a 30-μg temocillin disc was a consistent feature of strains producing OXA-48 carbapenemase. For 205 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae referred to a United Kingdom reference laboratory, growth up to a 10-μg faropenem disc correctly identified 84 of 86 carbapenemase producers (98% sensitivity), with a specificity of 87%. Disc susceptibility testing using faropenem (10 μg) is a simple, convenient, and highly predictive screening test for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

  20. A review of Ramadan fasting and regular physical activity on metabolic syndrome indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome constitutes a cluster of risk factors such as obesity, hyperglycemia,  hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. In this review article, we aimed to discuss the possible effects of fasting and regular physical activity on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.  Methods: Online databases including Google Scholar, SID, PubMed, and MagIran were searched, using the following keywords:  “training”, “exercise”, “physical activity”, “fasting”, “Ramadan”, “metabolic syndrome”, “fat percentage”, “blood pressure”, “blood sugar”, “cholesterol”, “triglyceride”, and “lowdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol”. All articles including research studies, review articles, descriptive and analytical studies, and ross-sectional research, published during 2006-2015, were reviewed. In case of any errors in the methodologyof articles, they were removed from our analysis. Results:Based on our literature review, inconsistent findings have been reported on risk factors formetabolic syndrome. However, the majority of conducted studies have suggested the positive effects offasting on reducing the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Although fasting in different seasons of the year has no significant impacts on mental health or physical fitness, it can reduce the risk of various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Also, based on the conducted studies, if individuals adhere to a proper diet, avoid excessive eating, drink sufficient amounts of fluids, and keep a healthy level of physical activity, fasting can improve their physical health.

  1. Indications for influence of artificial (man-made) activity on radon signals, in simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, G.; Kotlarsky, P.; Piatibratova, O.

    2016-11-01

    Radon (Rn-222; a radioactive noble gas) is characterized by large temporal variations that differ significantly from variations of (i) other trace elements in geogas (noble gases); (ii) variation patterns of other dynamic geophysical systems (atmospheric, tidal). Consensus exists that there is no simple and straightforward understanding of the phenomena and its behaviour. This lacuna in the understanding of the underlying principles hampers the development of applications-such as radon as a proxy of processes in the seismogenic context. Using results from field investigations and simulation experiments the GSI suggested that an unidentified extraterrestrial component, probably in solar radiation, drives periodic radon signals in the diurnal and annual frequency bands. Recent findings from experimental investigations shed additional perspectives allowing a new evaluation of the issue. Particular transient signals, measured with alpha and gamma detectors, are interpreted to reflect the influence of artificial activity. Criteria are (i) signals lasting several hours that occur around midday on workdays (Sunday-Thursday); (ii) signals composed of a train of around 10 strong pulses, each lasting less than 15 min, occurring within several hours once a week, from Wednesday afternoon/evening to Thursday morning. A first interpretation is that an unidentified artificial activity of some sort (industrial?) generates and emits an unidentified agent that reaches enhanced confined mode experiments at the GSI laboratory, which respond to the incoming agent in the form of radon signals. Developing the capability of identification of such an earth-bound source generating an influencing agent is a key step towards understanding of external influence on radioactivity of radon.

  2. Excessive supraventricular ectopic activity is indicative of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with cerebral ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Weber-Krüger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detecting paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF in patients with cerebral ischemia is challenging. Frequent premature atrial complexes (PAC/h and the longest supraventricular run on 24-h-Holter (SV-run(24 h, summarised as excessive supraventricular ectopic activity (ESVEA, may help selecting patients for extended ECG-monitoring, especially in combination with echocardiographic marker LAVI/a' (left atrial volume index/late diastolic tissue Doppler velocity. METHODS: Retrospective analysis from the prospective monocentric observational trial Find-AF (ISRCTN-46104198. Patients with acute stroke or TIA were enrolled at the University Hospital Göttingen, Germany. Those with sinus rhythm at presentation received 7-day Holter-monitoring. ESVEA was quantified in one 24-hour interval free from PAF. Echocardiographic parameters were assessed prospectively. RESULTS: PAF was detected in 23/208 patients (11.1%. The median was 4 [IQR 1; 22] for PAC/h and 5 [IQR 0; 9] for SV-run(24 h. PAF was more prevalent in patients with ESVEA: 19.6% vs. 2.8% for PAC/h >4 vs. ≤ 4 (p5 vs. ≤ 5 beats (p = 0.003. Patients with PAF showed more supraventricular ectopic activity: 29 PAC/h [IQR 9; 143] vs. 4 PAC/h [1]; [14] and longest SV-run(24 h = 10 [5]; [21] vs. 0 [0; 8] beats (both p4 and abnormal LAVI/a' showed high PAF-rates. CONCLUSIONS: ESVEA discriminated PAF from non-PAF beyond clinical factors including LAVI/a' in patients with cerebral ischemia. Normal LAVI/a'+PAC/h ≤ 4 ruled out PAF, while prevalence was high in those with abnormal LAVI/a'+PAC/h >4.

  3. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  4. Proliferative index activity in oral squamous cell carcinoma: indication for postoperative radiotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontarz, M; Wyszyńska-Pawelec, G; Zapała, J; Czopek, J; Lazar, A; Tomaszewska, R

    2014-10-01

    The predictive value of the Ki-67 labelling index and its relationship with radiosensitivity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains controversial. We sought to evaluate whether the expression of Ki-67 antigen found in SCC of the tongue and the floor of the mouth is an indication for postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). The first study group included 34 patients who were treated only with primary surgery, while the second group included 26 patients who underwent primary surgery combined with PORT. The correlation between Ki-67 expression and loco-regional recurrence, as well as the 5-year disease-specific survival, was assessed in the two groups. Cases of high-proliferative tumours showed a significantly higher risk of loco-regional recurrence (P=0.018) and a poorer prognosis (P=0.001) only in the 34 patients treated with surgery alone. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high Ki-67 expression was an independent predictor of loco-regional recurrence (HR 5.42, P=0.029) and disease-specific survival (HR 9.02, P=0.004). The correlation between Ki-67 expression and the risk of loco-regional recurrence in SCC of the tongue and the floor of the mouth may be useful in the selection of patients at a higher risk of recurrence who would benefit from PORT, despite adequate margins of resection and early stage of the disease.

  5. Influence of Social and Health Indicators on Pain Interference With Everyday Activities Among Older Black and White Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This prospective study aimed to determine the influence social and health factors have on pain interference with everyday activities among older patients receiving outpatient treatment services from a comprehensive cancer center. Method: Participants were surveyed on questions assessing pain interference, and social (communication, health (pain severity, comorbidities, behavioral (self-efficacy, affect, and demographic characteristics. Multivariate analyses were specified to examine determinants of pain interference, with items loading on separate cluster composites: physical interference and psychosocial interference. Results: Pain severity was a significant indicator for physical interference. Similarly, pain severity, education, self-efficacy, negative affect, and communication were predictors of psychosocial interference. Discussion: Factors defining the daily lived experiences of older adults are important in providing baseline information on functional status. This emphasizes the need to rigorously examine the association between pain, and clinical and psychosocial indicators, but more importantly indicators that contribute to the patient’s ability to perform normal everyday activities.

  6. Cocoa Extract Indicated Has Activity on Selectively Killing Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza Budi Tunjung Sari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the cocoa crude extract on mortality of breast cancer cell lines i.e. MCF-7, T47D and normal cell (Vero, was observed. Crude cocoa extract prepared from a freshly dried cocoa bean that was containing 14% catechin and 0.6% caffeine. Catechin and caffeine content were modulated to 2-folds (28% catechin or 1.2% caffeine and 3-folds (42% catechin or 1.8% caffeine by adding pure compounds. Extracts were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO at concentrations ranging from 200 to 1600 μg/ml. The positive control was doxorubicin (0.5-16 μg/ml in DMSO. Cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and Vero were incubated in test sample for 24h at 37°, prior to 3-(4,4-dimetylthiazole-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The absorbance of each well was measured at 550 nm, and lethal concentration (LC50 was calculated. The cocoa extract induced mortality of breast cancer cell lines but not in Vero cells. The effect on MCF-7 was greater than on T47D, given the LC50 was 1236 μg/ml (MCF-7 and 1893 μg/ml (T47D. Cytotoxic potential of cocoa extract was much lower than doxorubicin whose LC50 was 0,777 μg/ml (MCF-7 and 0,082 μg/ml (T47D. Increasing catechin content to 2-folds did not significantly affect LC50 value, but 3-folds catechin content reduced LC50 to 1021 μg/ml. Meanwhile increasing caffeine content to 2-folds significantly reduced LC50 to 750 μg/ml, however, 3-fold content resulted in slightly higher LC50 at 780 μg/ml. This indicates that cocoa extract have anti-cancer potential, and purification may improve this property.

  7. Mid-Infrared Spectral Indicators of Star-Formation and AGN Activity in Normal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Treyer, Marie; Schiminovich, David; O'Dowd, Matt

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of mid-infrared PAH bands, continuum and emission lines as probes of star-formation and AGN activity in a sample of 100 `normal' and local (z~0.1) galaxies. The MIR spectra were obtained with the Spitzer IRS as part of the Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) which includes multi-wavelength photometry from the UV to the FIR and optical spectroscopy. The spectra were decomposed using PAHFIT (Smith et al. 2007), which we find to yield PAH equivalent widths (EW) up to ~30 times larger than the commonly used spline methods. Based on correlations between PAH, continuum and emission line properties and optically derived physical properties (gas phase metallicity, radiation field hardness), we revisit the diagnostic diagram relating PAH EWs and [NeII]/[OIV] and find it more efficient as distinguishing weak AGNs from star-forming galaxies than when spline decompositions are used. The luminosity of individual MIR component (PAH, continuum, Ne and molecular hydrogen lines) are found to...

  8. Assessment of mental fatigue during car driving by using high resolution EEG activity and neurophysiologic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghini, G; Vecchiato, G; Toppi, J; Astolfi, L; Maglione, A; Isabella, R; Caltagirone, C; Kong, W; Wei, D; Zhou, Z; Polidori, L; Vitiello, S; Babiloni, F

    2012-01-01

    Driving tasks are vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation and mental fatigue, diminishing driver's ability to respond effectively to unusual or emergent situations. Physiological and brain activity analysis could help to understand how to provide useful feedback and alert signals to the drivers for avoiding car accidents. In this study we analyze the insurgence of mental fatigue or drowsiness during car driving in a simulated environment by using high resolution EEG techniques as well as neurophysiologic variables such as heart rate (HR) and eye blinks rate (EBR). Results suggest that it is possible to introduce a EEG-based cerebral workload index that it is sensitive to the mental efforts of the driver during drive tasks of different levels of difficulty. Workload index was based on the estimation of increase of EEG power spectra in the theta band over prefrontal areas and the simultaneous decrease of EEG power spectra over parietal areas in alpha band during difficult drive conditions. Such index could be used in a future to assess on-line the mental state of the driver during the drive task.

  9. Global epigenomic analysis indicates protocadherin-7 activates osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell–cell fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Haruhiko [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Department of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Nakashima, Tomoki [Department of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Hayashi, Mikihito [Department of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ERATO, Takayanagi Osteonetwork Project, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Izawa, Naohiro; Yasui, Tetsuro [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aburatani, Hiroyuki [Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Tanaka, Sakae [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takayanagi, Hiroshi, E-mail: takayana@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Japan Science and Technology Agency, ERATO, Takayanagi Osteonetwork Project, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Identification of epigenetically regulated genes during osteoclastogenesis. • Pcdh7 is regulated by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 during osteoclastogenesis. • Pcdh7 expression is increased by RANKL during osteoclastogenesis. • Establishment of novel cell fusion analysis for osteoclasts by imaging cytometer. • Pcdh7 regulates osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell fusion related gene expressions. - Abstract: Gene expression is dependent not only on genomic sequences, but also epigenetic control, in which the regulation of chromatin by histone modification plays a crucial role. Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) are related to transcriptionally activated and silenced sequences, respectively. Osteoclasts, the multinucleated cells that resorb bone, are generated by the fusion of precursor cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. To elucidate the molecular and epigenetic regulation of osteoclast differentiation, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis for H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in combination with RNA sequencing. We focused on the histone modification change from H3K4me3(+)H3K27me3(+) to H3K4me3(+)H3K27me3(–) and identified the protocadherin-7 gene (Pcdh7) to be among the genes epigenetically regulated during osteoclastogenesis. Pcdh7 was induced by RANKL stimulation in an NFAT-dependent manner. The knockdown of Pcdh7 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation due to the impairment of cell–cell fusion, accompanied by a decreased expression of the fusion-related genes Dcstamp, Ocstamp and Atp6v0d2. This study demonstrates that Pcdh7 plays a key role in osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell–cell fusion.

  10. Static and Dynamic Modeling of a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2007-09-01

    Recent hydrostatic simulations of solar active regions have shown that it is possible to reproduce both the total intensity and the general morphology of the high-temperature emission observed at soft X-ray wavelengths using static heating models. These static models, however, cannot account for the lower temperature emission. In addition, there is ample observational evidence that the solar corona is highly variable, indicating a significant role for dynamical processes in coronal heating. Because they are computationally demanding, full hydrodynamic simulations of solar active regions have not been considered previously. In this paper we make first application of an impulsive heating model to the simulation of an entire active region, AR 8156 observed on 1998 February 16. We model this region by coupling potential field extrapolations to full solutions of the time-dependent hydrodynamic loop equations. To make the problem more tractable we begin with a static heating model that reproduces the emission observed in four different Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) filters and consider impulsive heating scenarios that yield time-averaged SXT intensities that are consistent with the static case. We find that it is possible to reproduce the total observed soft X-ray emission in all of the SXT filters with a dynamical heating model, indicating that nanoflare heating is consistent with the observational properties of the high-temperature solar corona. At EUV wavelengths the simulated emission shows more coronal loops, but the agreement between the simulation and the observation is still not acceptable.

  11. Hydrogen as an Indicator to Assess Biological Activity During Trace-Metal Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Komlos, J.; Brown, D. G.; Lovley, D. R.

    2002-05-01

    The design and operation of a trace-metal or radionuclide bioremediation scheme requires that specific redox conditions be achieved at given zones of an aquifer for a predetermined duration. Tools are therefore needed to identify and quantify the terminal electron acceptor processes (TEAPs) that are being achieved during bioremediation in an aquifer, and that this is done at a high spatial resolution. Hydrogen holds the promise of being a key parameter that may be used to identify TEAPs. Theoretical analysis have shown that steady-state hydrogen levels in the subsurface are solely dependent upon the physiological parameters of the hydrogen-consuming microorganisms, and that hydrogen concentrations increase as each successive TEAP yields less energy for bacterial growth. The assumptions for this statement may not hold during a bioremediation scheme in which an organic substrate is injected into the subsurface and where organisms may consume hydrogen and carbon simultaneously. The objective of the research is to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen dynamics in an aquifer during a trace metal/radionuclide bioremediation scheme. For this purpose, a series of batch studies have been conducted during the first year of this project. In these studies the utilization of acetate and hydrogen by geobacter sulfurreducens were studied. In all cases Fe(III) was the electron acceptor. Microcosms were set up to investigate the utilization of hydrogen and acetate when either of them is the sole electron donor and when both are present and utilized simultaneously as electron donor. These experiments were conducted for varying initial conditions of the hydrogen and acetate concentration, and the disappearance of these compounds plus the evolution of Fe(II) as well as biomass was monitored over time. The results of these studies indicate that the biokinetic coefficients describing the rate of hydrogen utilization are not affected by the simultaneous utilization of acetate. While

  12. Anthropometric obesity indices in relation to age, educational level, occupation and physical activity in Bulgarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreenko, Emiliya; Mladenova, Silviya; Akabaliev, Valentin

    2014-09-12

    Obesity indices. Anthropometry. Men. Factors. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar el nivel de obesidad y su relación con la edad, nivel educativo, ocupación y actividad física en los hombres adultos búlgaros de zona urbana. Material y métodos: La muestra incluyó hombres 1010, de 18-50 años de edad, de la ciudad de Plovdiv, Bulgaria. El estudio se realizó en el período 2004-2008. Se midieron la circunferencia del cuerpo altura, peso y cintura. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se definen según los puntos de corte internacional de índice de masa corporal (IMC). La obesidad abdominal fue evaluar las categorías de relación de la altura de la cintura (CT). La edad, nivel educativo, ocupación y actividad física de cada persona se investigaron a través de la consulta. Para el análisis estadístico el SPSS paquete fue utilizado. Resultados: Los resultados muestran que 42,1% de los hombres investigados eran sobrepeso y 19,4% de ellos eran obesos. Con CT irregular y obesidad central fueron 66,1% de los casos. El porcentaje de hombres con obesidad general y central aumenta con la edad. En el caso de la obesidad central y general, las diferencias entre los trabajadores físicos e intelectuales son significación, incluso después de controlar la edad.CT tiene un mayor potencial para diferenciar las personas con diversas ocupaciones que BMI. La edad y la ocupación fueron los factores más importantes que afectan la obesidad general y abdominal. El nivel educativo tiene un impacto significativo en la acumulación de grasa abdominal.La conexión entre el nivel de actividad física e IMC y CT fue menor. Conclusiónes: El estudio encuentra que los hombres trabajan y viven en ese particular área urbana tienen diferencias significativas en términos de sobrepeso y obesidad. El nivel educativo, ocupación y edad tienen un potencial grave influenciado su estado nutricional del cuerpo.

  13. The activity model of legal psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Bogdanovich,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose an activity model of legal psychologist work. As a basis for the construction of the system of legal psychologist activity, we use trajectory of teenager living in the legal field. As the main activities within their respective specializations, we highlighted prevention, maintenance and rehabilitation. We define the main activities necessary for the development within the FGOSIII specialization 050407 “Pedagogy and Psychology of deviant behavior”: general and pathopsychologic diagnostics, development activity and psychological education, psycho-correction, psychological counseling. Accordingly, we define the types of psychological practices. We highlight the motivational and integrative practice (teaching introductory and trainee. We propose a system of training modules, ensuring the formation of the necessary competencies. The modules feature is their focus on practice (the association of training courses with the main types of psychological practice.

  14. The Kolb Model Modified for Classroom Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinicki, Marilla D.; Dixon, Nancy M.

    1987-01-01

    The experiential learning model of Kolb provides a framework for examining the selection of a broader range of classroom activities than is in current use. Experiential learning cycle, experiential learning as instructional design, and student as actor versus student as receiver are discussed. (MLW)

  15. The Seasons Explained by Refutational Modeling Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frede, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the principles and investigation of a small-group laboratory activity based on refutational modeling to teach the concept of seasons to preservice elementary teachers. The results show that these teachers improved significantly when they had to refute their initial misconceptions practically. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  16. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  17. Estimating an Activity Driven Hidden Markov Model

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, David A.; Shakeel, Asif

    2015-01-01

    We define a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in which each hidden state has time-dependent $\\textit{activity levels}$ that drive transitions and emissions, and show how to estimate its parameters. Our construction is motivated by the problem of inferring human mobility on sub-daily time scales from, for example, mobile phone records.

  18. Atmospheric Propagation Modeling Indicates Homing Pigeons use Loft-Specific Infrasonic 'Map' Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; Baker, L. M.; Spritzer, J. M.; McKenna, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia) released at distant sites commonly depart in directions significantly off the actual homeward bearing. Such site-dependent deviations, or biases, for birds from a given loft are generally stable over time, but can also change from hour to hour, day to day, and year to year. At some release sites, birds consistently vanish in random directions and have longer flight times and lower return rates. Release sites characterized by frequent disorientation are not uncommon for pigeon lofts in both Europe and the USA. One such site is the Jersey Hill fire tower in upstate New York located ~120 km W of the Cornell loft in Ithaca. Cornell birds released at Jersey Hill between 1968 and 1987 almost always vanished randomly, although birds from other lofts had little difficulty orienting there. The results for one day, however, stand out: on August 13, 1969, Cornell birds released at Jersey Hill vanished consistently to the NE (r = 0.921; n=7) and returned home after normal flight times. Cornell pigeons released the next day again showed 'normal' behavior for the site and departed randomly. If, in fact, the birds are using acoustic cues to navigate, the long-term acoustic 'dead' zone we propose for Jersey Hill, due to prevailing atmospheric conditions, indicates that the cues are coming from a single, relatively restricted area, most likely surrounding the home loft. We have modeled the transmission of infrasonic waves, presumably coupled to the atmosphere from ocean-generated microseisms (0.14 Hz), between the Cornell loft and a number of release sites using HARPA (Hamiltonian Acoustic Ray-tracing Program for the Atmosphere) and rawinsonde data collected near Albany and Buffalo, NY. The HARPA modeling shows that acoustic signals from the Cornell loft reached Jersey Hill only on a few release days with unusual atmospheric conditions, including August 13, and were launched at angles less than ~2° above horizontal, most likely from steep-sided terrain in

  19. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.; Deverić Meštrović, B.; Ležajić, Z.; Bevetek, A.; Čurlin; M.

    2008-01-01

    Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already b...

  20. Antifibrotic activities of pirfenidone in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pirfenidone is an orally active small molecule that has recently been evaluated in large clinical trials for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a fatal disease in which the uncontrolled deposition of extracellular matrix leads to progressive loss of lung function. This review describes the activity of pirfenidone in several well-characterised animal models of fibrosis in the lung, liver, heart and kidney. In these studies, treatment-related reductions in fibrosis are associated with modulation of cytokines and growth factors, with the most commonly reported effect being reduction of transforming growth factor-β. The consistent antifibrotic activity of pirfenidone in a broad array of animal models provides a strong preclinical rationale for the clinical characterisation of pirfenidone in pulmonary fibrosis and, potentially, other conditions with a significant fibrotic component.

  1. Markov Switching Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (SWARCH) Model to Detect Financial Crisis in Indonesia Based on Import and Export Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto; Zukhronah, Etik; Susanti, Yuliana; Rahma Dwi, Sisca

    2017-06-01

    A country is said to be a crisis when the financial system is experiencing a disruption that affects systems that can not function efficiently. The performance efficiency of macroeconomic indicators especially in imports and exports can be used to detect the financial crisis in Indonesia. Based on the import and export indicators from 1987 to 2015, the movement of these indicators can be modelled using SWARCH three states. The results showed that SWARCH (3,1) model was able to detect the crisis that occurred in Indonesia in 1997 and 2008. Using this model, it can be concluded that Indonesia is prone to financial crisis in 2016.

  2. Molecular modeling indicates distinct classes of missense variants with mild and severe XLRS phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Yuri V; Vitale, Susan; Sieving, Paul A; Vincent, Ajoy; Robson, Anthony G; Moore, Anthony T; Webster, Andrew R; Holder, Graham E

    2013-12-01

    X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a vitreo-retinal degeneration caused by mutations in the RS1 gene which encodes the protein retinoschisin (RS1), required for the structural and functional integrity of the retina. Data are presented from a group of 38 XLRS patients from Moorfields Eye Hospital (London, UK) who had one of 18 missense mutations in RS1. Patients were grouped based on mutation severity predicted by molecular modeling: mild (class I), moderate (intermediate) and severe (class II). Most patients had an electronegative scotopic bright flash electroretinogram (ERG) (reduced b/a-wave ratio) in keeping with predominant inner retinal dysfunction. An association between the type of structural RS1 alterations and the severity of b/a-wave reduction was found in all but the oldest group of patients, significant in patients aged 15-30 years. Severe RS1 missense changes were associated with a lower ERG b/a ratio than were mild changes, suggesting that the extent of inner retinal dysfunction is influenced by the effect of the mutations on protein structure. The majority of class I mutations showed no changes involving cysteine residues. Class II mutations caused severe perturbations due to the removal or insertion of cysteine residues or due to changes in the hydrophobic core. The ERG b/a ratio in intermediate cases was abnormal but showed significant variability, possibly related to the role of proline or arginine residues. We also conducted a second study, using a completely independent cohort, to indicate a genotype-ERG phenotype correlation.

  3. Impact of Distinct Oxygenators on Pulsatile Energy Indicators in an Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Lonneke M; van Barneveld, Laurentius J M; Simons, Antoine P; Boer, Christa; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2017-02-01

    The quantification of pulse energy during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) post-oxygenator is required prior to the evaluation of the possible beneficial effects of pulsatile flow on patient outcome. We therefore, evaluated the impact of three distinctive oxygenators on the energy indicators energy equivalent pressure (EEP) and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) in an adult CPB model under both pulsatile and laminar flow conditions. The pre- and post-oxygenator pressure and flow were measured at room temperature using a 40% glycerin-water mixture at flow rates of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 L/min. The pulse settings at frequencies of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 beats per minute were according to the internal algorithm of the Sorin CP5 centrifugal pump. The EEP is equal to the mean pressure, hence no SHE is present under laminar flow conditions. The Quadrox-i Adult oxygenator was associated with the highest preservation of pulsatile energy irrespective of flow rates. The low pressure drop-high compliant Quadrox-i Adult oxygenator shows the best SHE performance at flow rates of 5 and 6 L/min, while the intermediate pressure drop-low compliant Fusion oxygenator and the high pressure drop-low compliant Inspire 8F oxygenator behave optimally at flow rates of 5 L/min and up to 4 L/min, respectively. In conclusion, our findings contributed to studies focusing on SHE values post-oxygenator as well as post-cannula in clinical practice. In addition, our findings may give guidance to the clinical perfusionist for oxygenator selection prior to pulsatile CPB based on the calculated flow rate for the individual patient. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  5. Concepts of disability: the Activity Space Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, J A

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes a new conceptual framework for functional assessment, the Activity Space Model (ASM). According to this model, functional impairments may lead to restrictions in an individual's activity space, a multidimensional space that represents human potential for activity. For each elementary ability, restrictions in the corresponding dimension of the activity space can be evaluated by deriving a difficulty curve that depicts the relationship between the level of performance and the psychophysical cost of activity. The effect of disease on daily functioning is explained in terms of a tradeoff between the psychophysical cost and the value of each act of behavior to the disabled individual. These two constructs are measured on the same scale and expressed in units of difficulty. The location of each task within the activity space in relation to the difficulty curve determines whether it will be performed or avoided at a given point in time. The ASM has both theoretical and practical implications. It offers a new, integrated perspective on disability and suggests new strategies for developing and evaluating functional assessment measures.

  6. Mathematical model of radon activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Zambianchi, Pedro, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Present work describes a mathematical model that quantifies the time dependent amount of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn altogether and their activities within an ionization chamber as, for example, AlphaGUARD, which is used to measure activity concentration of Rn in soil gas. The differential equations take into account tree main processes, namely: the injection of Rn into the cavity of detector by the air pump including the effect of the traveling time Rn takes to reach the chamber; Rn release by the air exiting the chamber; and radioactive decay of Rn within the chamber. Developed code quantifies the activity of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn isotopes separately. Following the standard methodology to measure Rn activity in soil gas, the air pump usually is turned off over a period of time in order to avoid the influx of Rn into the chamber. Since {sup 220}Rn has a short half-life time, approximately 56s, the model shows that after 7 minutes the activity concentration of this isotope is null. Consequently, the measured activity refers to {sup 222}Rn, only. Furthermore, the model also addresses the activity of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny, which being metals represent potential risk of ionization chamber contamination that could increase the background of further measurements. Some preliminary comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations is presented. Obtained transient and steady-state solutions could be used for planning of Rn in soil gas measurements as well as for accuracy assessment of obtained results together with efficiency evaluation of chosen measurements procedure. (author)

  7. Identifying carcinogenic activity of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through electronic and topological indices

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, R S; Barone, P M V B

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules, abundant in urban environment, which can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power varies in a large range, from very strong carcinogens to inactive ones. In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to identify the PAHs carcinogenic activity exploring electronic and topological indices. In the present work, we show that it is possible to simplify that methodology and expand its applicability to include methylated PAHs compounds. Using very simple rules, we can predict their carcinogenic activity with high accuracy (approx 89%).

  8. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents...... traditional models for both of the tasks. Apart from these globally organized crimes and cybercrimes, there happen specific world issues which affect geographic locations and take the form of bursts of public violence. These kinds of issues have received little attention by the academicians. These issues have...... to describe the phenomenon of contagious public outrage, which eventually leads to the spread of violence following a disclosure of some unpopular political decisions and/or activity. The results shed a new light on terror activity and provide some hint on how to curb the spreading of violence within...

  9. Prevalence of Perceived Stress and Mental Health Indicators Among Reserve-Component and Active-Duty Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Marian E.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Bray, Robert M.; Williams, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined stress levels and other indicators of mental health in reservists and active-duty military personnel by deployment status. Methods. We used data from the Department of Defense Health-Related Behaviors surveys, which collect comprehensive, population-based data for reserve and active-duty forces. Data were collected from 18 342 reservists and 16 146 active-duty personnel. Results. Overall, with adjustment for sociodemographic and service differences, reservists reported similar or less work and family stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms than did active-duty personnel. However, reservists who had been deployed reported higher rates of suicidal ideation and attempts than did active-duty personnel who had been deployed and higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology than did any active-duty personnel and reservists who had not been deployed. The highest rates of suicidal ideation and attempts were among reservists who had served in theaters other than Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusions. Our results suggest that deployment has a greater impact on reservists than on active-duty members, thus highlighting the urgent need for services addressing reservists’ unique postdeployment mental health issues. Also, deployment to any theater, not only Iraq or Afghanistan, represents unique threats to all service members’ mental well-being. PMID:22571709

  10. Structural Equation Models of Latent Interactions: Evaluation of Alternative Estimation Strategies and Indicator Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Wen, Zhonglin; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2004-01-01

    Interactions between (multiple indicator) latent variables are rarely used because of implementation complexity and competing strategies. Based on 4 simulation studies, the traditional constrained approach performed more poorly than did 3 new approaches-unconstrained, generalized appended product indicator, and quasi-maximum-likelihood (QML). The…

  11. PROJECT ACTIVITY ANALYSIS WITHOUT THE NETWORK MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Munapo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new procedure for analysing and managing activity sequences in projects. The new procedure determines critical activities, critical path, start times, free floats, crash limits, and other useful information without the use of the network model. Even though network models have been successfully used in project management so far, there are weaknesses associated with the use. A network is not easy to generate, and dummies that are usually associated with it make the network diagram complex – and dummy activities have no meaning in the original project management problem. The network model for projects can be avoided while still obtaining all the useful information that is required for project management. What are required are the activities, their accurate durations, and their predecessors.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing beskryf ’n nuwerwetse metode vir die ontleding en bestuur van die sekwensiële aktiwiteite van projekte. Die voorgestelde metode bepaal kritiese aktiwiteite, die kritieke pad, aanvangstye, speling, verhasing, en ander groothede sonder die gebruik van ’n netwerkmodel. Die metode funksioneer bevredigend in die praktyk, en omseil die administratiewe rompslomp van die tradisionele netwerkmodelle.

  12. Sensitivity analysis in oxidation ditch modelling: the effect of variations in stoichiometric, kinetic and operating parameters on the performance indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abusam, A.A.A.; Keesman, K.J.; Straten, van G.; Spanjers, H.; Meinema, K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the application of the factorial sensitivity analysis methodology in studying the influence of variations in stoichiometric, kinetic and operating parameters on the performance indices of an oxidation ditch simulation model (benchmark). Factorial sensitivity analysis investig

  13. Hedonic price models and indices based on boosting applied to the Dutch housing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kagie (Martijn); M.C. van Wezel (Michiel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe create a hedonic price model for house prices for six geographical submarkets in the Netherlands. Our model is based on a recent data mining technique called boosting. Boosting is an ensemble technique that combines multiple models, in our case decision trees, into a combined

  14. The Weird World, and Equally Weird Measurement Models: Reactive Indicators and the Validity Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, Leslie A.; Robinson, Hannah Pazderka; Cummings, Greta G.; Boadu, Kwame; Verbeek, Eric L.; Perks, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers using structural equation modeling (SEM) aspire to learn about the world by seeking models with causal specifications that match the causal forces extant in the world. This quest for a model matching existing worldly causal forces constitutes an ontology that orients, or perhaps reorients, thinking about measurement validity. This…

  15. The Cross-Correlation Analysis of Indicators of the Scientific-Innovation and Educational Activity of the Regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuravka Andrey V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at exploring the cross-correlation dependency between the 11 selected indicators of the scientific-innovation and educational activity of the regions of Ukraine over the past years using the standard features of the MS Excel software. The calculated values of the pairwise coefficients of Pearson correlation changed from 0,66 to 1. The worst-case correlation coefficient, which changed from 0,7 to 0,8, was observed only with the number of students at the beginning of the academic year 2015/16. The article provides seven selected equations of linear regression and their graphs, with the latter equation corresponding to the worst correlation coefficient between the number of students and doctoral candidates (R = 0,6574. The first five equations of linear regression conform to correlations between financing the costs for completing scientific and scientific-technical works by the regions of Ukraine and various indicators of the scientific-educational potential of personnel. In all five cases, there was a high correlation dependency. As result of the study, fairly high correlation relationships among all indicators have been obtained. Prospect for further research is accounting for a larger number of indicators of the scientific-innovation and educational activity of the regions of Ukraine.

  16. Data-Driven Nonlinear Subspace Modeling for Prediction and Control of Molten Iron Quality Indices in Blast Furnace Ironmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ping; Song, Heda; Wang, Hong; Chai, Tianyou

    2017-09-01

    Blast furnace (BF) in ironmaking is a nonlinear dynamic process with complicated physical-chemical reactions, where multi-phase and multi-field coupling and large time delay occur during its operation. In BF operation, the molten iron temperature (MIT) as well as Si, P and S contents of molten iron are the most essential molten iron quality (MIQ) indices, whose measurement, modeling and control have always been important issues in metallurgic engineering and automation field. This paper develops a novel data-driven nonlinear state space modeling for the prediction and control of multivariate MIQ indices by integrating hybrid modeling and control techniques. First, to improve modeling efficiency, a data-driven hybrid method combining canonical correlation analysis and correlation analysis is proposed to identify the most influential controllable variables as the modeling inputs from multitudinous factors would affect the MIQ indices. Then, a Hammerstein model for the prediction of MIQ indices is established using the LS-SVM based nonlinear subspace identification method. Such a model is further simplified by using piecewise cubic Hermite interpolating polynomial method to fit the complex nonlinear kernel function. Compared to the original Hammerstein model, this simplified model can not only significantly reduce the computational complexity, but also has almost the same reliability and accuracy for a stable prediction of MIQ indices. Last, in order to verify the practicability of the developed model, it is applied in designing a genetic algorithm based nonlinear predictive controller for multivariate MIQ indices by directly taking the established model as a predictor. Industrial experiments show the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. A Program Evaluation Model: Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Identify Outcome Indicators in Outcomes-Based Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Rita C.

    2011-01-01

    Outcomes-based program evaluation is a systematic approach to identifying outcome indicators and measuring results against those indicators. One dimension of program evaluation is assessing the level of learner acquisition to determine if learning objectives were achieved as intended. The purpose of the proposed model is to use Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  18. Applying Transtheoretical Model to Promote Physical Activities Among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the most important indicators of health in communities but different studies conducted in the provinces of Iran showed that inactivity is prevalent, especially among women. Objectives: Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us to conduct this study with the aim of determining the application of transtheoretical model in promoting the physical activities among women of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study which was conducted on 141 women residing in Isfahan, Iran. They were randomly divided into case and control groups. In addition to the demographic information, their physical activities and the constructs of the transtheoretical model (stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy) were measured at 3 time points; preintervention, 3 months, and 6 months after intervention. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed through t test and repeated measures ANOVA test using SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed that education based on the transtheoretical model significantly increased physical activities in 2 aspects of intensive physical activities and walking, in the case group over the time. Also, a high percentage of people have shown progress during the stages of change, the mean of the constructs of processes of change, as well as pros and cons. On the whole, a significant difference was observed over the time in the case group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study showed that interventions based on the transtheoretical model can promote the physical activity behavior among women. PMID:26834796

  19. Exoenzyme activity in contaminated soils before and after soil washing: ß-glucosidase activity as a biological indicator of soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; Cui, Rongxue; Woong Kim, Shin; An, Gyeonghyeon; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-01-01

    It is essential to remediate or amend soils contaminated with various heavy metals or pollutants so that the soils may be used again safely. Verifying that the remediated or amended soils meet soil quality standards is an important part of the process. We estimated the activity levels of eight soil exoenzymes (acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, catalase, dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolase, protease, urease, and ß-glucosidase) in contaminated and remediated soils from two sites near a non-ferrous metal smelter, using colorimetric and titrimetric determination methods. Our results provided the levels of activity of soil exoenzymes that indicate soil health. Most enzymes showed lower activity levels in remediated soils than in contaminated soils, with the exception of protease and urease, which showed higher activity after remediation in some soils, perhaps due to the limited nutrients available in remediated soils. Soil exoenzymes showed significantly higher activity in soils from one of the sites than from the other, due to improper conditions at the second site, including high pH, poor nutrient levels, and a high proportion of sand in the latter soil. Principal component analysis revealed that ß-glucosidase was the best indicator of soil ecosystem health, among the enzymes evaluated. We recommend using ß-glucosidase enzyme activity as a prior indicator in estimating soil ecosystem health.

  20. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Palacz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom–coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  1. Improving and Maintaining Physical Activity and Anthropometric Indices in females from Tehran: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Gholamnia-shirvani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The amount of physical activity as an essential determinant of healthy lifestyle in females is less than is required. Theory-driven health education interventions, particularly Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, are effective in promoting and sustaining physical activity. This research evaluated the TPB-based educational intervention on exercise behavior and anthropometric indices in females residing in organizational houses in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was performed on 130 females residing in institutional houses in Tehran (2014. Participants were randomly chosen with multi-stage cluster sampling. The instructional sessions were carried out applying modified methods of the TPB structure (instrumental and affective attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention and behavior. The TPB constructs, physical activity level and intensity, Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR were analyzed using the SPSS 16software in baseline, three and six months post-education. Results: Conducting the educational program led to a rise and maintained the mean of the TPB constructs and mean rank of the physical activity level and intensity, three and six months post-intervention in the case group (P0.05 Conclusions: Implementing the TPB-directed instructional sessions resulted in ameliorating and sustaining exercise behavior and anthropometric indices in females.

  2. Object tracking using active appearance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that (near) real-time object tracking can be accomplished by the deformable template model; the Active Appearance Model (AAM) using only low-cost consumer electronics such as a PC and a web-camera. Successful object tracking of perspective, rotational and translational...... transformations was carried out using a training set of five images. The tracker was automatically initialised by a described multi-scale initialisation method and achieved a performance in the range of 7-10 frames per second....

  3. Methods of Modelling Marketing Activity on Software Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashirov Islam H.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies a topical issue of development of methods of modelling marketing activity on software sales for achievement of efficient functioning of an enterprise. On the basis of analysis of the market type for the studied CloudLinux OS product, the article identifies the market structure type: monopolistic competition. To ensure the information basis of the marketing activity in the target market segment, the article offers the survey method. The article provides a questionnaire, which contains specific questions regarding the studied market segment of hosting services, for an online survey with the help of the Survio service. In accordance with the system approach the CloudLinux OS has properties of systems, namely, diversity. Economic differences are non-price indicators that have no numeric expression and are quality descriptions. Analysis of the market and the conducted survey allow obtaining them. Combination of price and non-price indicators provides a complete description of the product properties. To calculate an integral indicator of competitiveness the article offers to apply a model, which is based on the direct algebraic addition of weight measures of individual indicators, regulation of formalised indicators and use of the mechanism of fuzzy sets for identification of non-formalised indicators. The calculated indicator allows not only assessment of the current level of competitiveness, but also identification of influence of changes of various indicators, which allows increase of efficiency of marketing decisions. Also, having identified the target customers of hosting OS and formalised non-price parameters, it is possible to conduct the search for a set of optimal characteristics of the product. In the result an optimal strategy of the product advancement to the market is formed.

  4. Indicators of Arctic Sea Ice Bistability in Climate Model Simulations and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Indicators of Arctic Sea Ice Bistability in Climate...possibility that the climate system supports multiple Arctic sea ice states that are relevant for the evolution of sea ice during the next several...the most relevant scalar quantities related to the hemisphere-scale Arctic sea ice cover that indicate the presence of bistability, as well as the

  5. An Active Region Model for Capturing Fractal Flow Patterns inUnsaturated Soils: Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, R.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-06-11

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the soil surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential patterns observed from fields are fractals. In this study, we developed a relatively simple active region model to incorporate the fractal flow pattern into the continuum approach. In the model, the flow domain is divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. A new constitutive relationship (the portion of the active region as a function of saturation) was derived. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by the consistency between field observations and the new constitutive relationship.

  6. Modelling Proteasome and Proteasome Regulator Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Liepe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteasomes are key proteases involved in a variety of processes ranging from the clearance of damaged proteins to the presentation of antigens to CD8+ T-lymphocytes. Which cleavage sites are used within the target proteins and how fast these proteins are degraded have a profound impact on immune system function and many cellular metabolic processes. The regulation of proteasome activity involves different mechanisms, such as the substitution of the catalytic subunits, the binding of regulatory complexes to proteasome gates and the proteasome conformational modifications triggered by the target protein itself. Mathematical models are invaluable in the analysis; and potentially allow us to predict the complex interactions of proteasome regulatory mechanisms and the final outcomes of the protein degradation rate and MHC class I epitope generation. The pioneering attempts that have been made to mathematically model proteasome activity, cleavage preference variation and their modification by one of the regulatory mechanisms are reviewed here.

  7. Internal Model Based Active Disturbance Rejection Control

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jinwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The basic active disturbance rejection control (BADRC) algorithm with only one order higher extended state observer (ESO) proves to be robust to both internal and external disturbances. An advantage of BADRC is that in many applications it can achieve high disturbance attenuation level without requiring a detailed model of the plant or disturbance. However, this can be regarded as a disadvantage when the disturbance characteristic is known since the BADRC algorithm cannot exploit such informa...

  8. Magnetic resonance enterography versus capsule endoscopy activity indices for quantification of small bowel inflammation in Crohn’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, Uri; Klang, Eyal; Yablecovitch, Doron; Lahat, Adi; Avidan, Benjamin; Neuman, Sandra; Levhar, Nina; Greener, Tomer; Rozendorn, Noa; Beytelman, Arkadi; Yanai, Henit; Dotan, Iris; Chowers, Yehuda; Weiss, Batya; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Amitai, Marianne M.; Eliakim, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) are the prime modalities for the evaluation of small bowel (SB) Crohn’s disease (CD). Mucosal inflammation on VCE is quantified using the Lewis score (LS). Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for accurate assessment of SB inflammation without administration of intravenous contrast material. The Magnetic Resonance Index of Activity (MaRiA) and the Clermont index are quantitative activity indices validated for contrast-enhanced MRE and DW-MRE, respectively. The aim of this study was to compare the quantification of distal SB inflammation by VCE and MR-related activity indices. Methods: Patients with known quiescent SB CD were prospectively recruited and underwent MRE and VCE. LS, MaRIA and Clermont scores were calculated for the distal SB. Results: Both MRI-based indices significantly correlated with the LS and the Clermont index (r = 0.50, p = 0.001 and r = 0.53, p = 0.001, respectively). Both MaRIA and Clermont scores were significantly lower in patients with mucosal healing (LS < 135). The area under the curve (AUC) with both MR scores was moderate for prediction of any mucosal inflammation (LS ⩾ 135) and excellent for prediction of moderate-to-severe inflammation (LS ⩾ 790) (0.71 and 0.74 versus 0.93 and 0.91 for MaRIA and Clermont score, respectively). Conclusions: Modest correlation between VCE- and MRE-based quantitative indices of inflammation in patients with quiescent SB CD was observed. Between-modality correlation was higher in patients with endoscopically severe disease. DW-MRE gauged by Clermont score was at least as accurate as contrast-enhanced MRE for quantification of SB inflammation. PMID:27582877

  9. ANALYSIS OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF METALLURGICAL COMPANIES USING MONTE-CARLO MATHEMATICAL MODEL-ING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekoturova S. D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of an innovative activity of four Russian metallurgical enterprises: "Ruspolimet", JSC "Ural Smithy", JSC "Stupino Metallurgical Company", JSC "VSMPO" via mathematical modeling using Monte Carlo method. The results of the assessment of innovative activity of Russian metallurgical companies were identified in five years dynamics. An assessment of the current innovative activity was made by the calculation of an integral index of the innovative activity. The calculation was based on such six indicators as the proportion of staff employed in R & D; the level of development of new technology; the degree of development of new products; share of material resources for R & D; degree of security of enterprise intellectual property; the share of investment in innovative projects and it was analyzed from 2007 to 2011. On the basis of this data the integral indicator of the innovative activity of metallurgical companies was calculated by well-known method of weighting coefficients. The comparative analysis of integral indicators of the innovative activity of considered companies made it possible to range their level of the innovative activity and to characterize the current state of their business. Based on Monte Carlo method a variation interval of the integral indicator was obtained and detailed instructions to choose the strategy of the innovative development of metallurgical enterprises were given as well

  10. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael; Brevin, R.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework...

  11. Mathematical models for predicting indoor air quality from smoking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, W R

    1999-05-01

    Much progress has been made over four decades in developing, testing, and evaluating the performance of mathematical models for predicting pollutant concentrations from smoking in indoor settings. Although largely overlooked by the regulatory community, these models provide regulators and risk assessors with practical tools for quantitatively estimating the exposure level that people receive indoors for a given level of smoking activity. This article reviews the development of the mass balance model and its application to predicting indoor pollutant concentrations from cigarette smoke and derives the time-averaged version of the model from the basic laws of conservation of mass. A simple table is provided of computed respirable particulate concentrations for any indoor location for which the active smoking count, volume, and concentration decay rate (deposition rate combined with air exchange rate) are known. Using the indoor ventilatory air exchange rate causes slightly higher indoor concentrations and therefore errs on the side of protecting health, since it excludes particle deposition effects, whereas using the observed particle decay rate gives a more accurate prediction of indoor concentrations. This table permits easy comparisons of indoor concentrations with air quality guidelines and indoor standards for different combinations of active smoking counts and air exchange rates. The published literature on mathematical models of environmental tobacco smoke also is reviewed and indicates that these models generally give good agreement between predicted concentrations and actual indoor measurements.

  12. Integration of Tidal Prism Model and HSPF for simulating indicator bacteria in coastal watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Rose S.; Rifai, Hanadi S.; Petersen, Christina M.

    2017-09-01

    Coastal water quality is strongly influenced by tidal fluctuations and water chemistry. There is a need for rigorous models that are not computationally or economically prohibitive, but still allow simulation of the hydrodynamics and bacteria sources for coastal, tidally influenced streams and bayous. This paper presents a modeling approach that links a Tidal Prism Model (TPM) implemented in an Excel-based modeling environment with a watershed runoff model (Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN, HSPF) for such watersheds. The TPM is a one-dimensional mass balance approach that accounts for loading from tidal exchange, runoff, point sources and bacteria die-off at an hourly time step resolution. The novel use of equal high-resolution time steps in this study allowed seamless integration of the TPM and HSPF. The linked model was calibrated to flow and E. Coli data (for HSPF), and salinity and enterococci data (for the TPM) for a coastal stream in Texas. Sensitivity analyses showed the TPM to be most influenced by changes in net decay rates followed by tidal and runoff loads, respectively. Management scenarios were evaluated with the developed linked models to assess the impact of runoff load reductions and improved wastewater treatment plant quality and to determine the areas of critical need for such reductions. Achieving water quality standards for bacteria required load reductions that ranged from zero to 90% for the modeled coastal stream.

  13. MODELING EXCHANGE RATE CHANGE BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF FUNDAMENTAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Timofeev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with analysis of economic fundamental data and the issue of modeling of change in exchange rate EUR/USD. On the basis of statistical methods from the analysis was developed a model which helps to predict the range of currencies.

  14. Evaluation of a quantitative phosphorus transport model for potential improvement of southern phosphorus indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to a shortage of available phosphorus (P) loss data sets, simulated data from a quantitative P transport model could be used to evaluate a P-index. However, the model would need to accurately predict the P loss data sets that are available. The objective of this study was to compare predictions ...

  15. The Hierarchical Trend Model for property valuation and local price indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Francke; G.A. Vos

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical trend model (HTM) for selling prices of houses, addressing three main problems: the spatial and temporal dependence of selling prices and the dependency of price index changes on housing quality. In this model the general price trend, cluster-level price trends, an

  16. Modelling land use changes according to transportation scenarios using raster based GIS indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Morten; Münier, Bernd; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    The modelling of land use change is a way to analyse future scenarios by modelling different future pathways. This study demonstrates the potential to explore and test the understanding of land use change relations by applying spatial data of different scales, coupled with socio-economic data. In....... This will lead to less impact on climate from transportation based on a more optimal localization and transport infrastructure strategy........ In the EU-FP7 research project PASHMINA (Paradigm Shift modelling and innovative approaches), three storylines of future transportation paradigm shifts towards 2050 are created. These storylines are translated into spatial planning strategies and their implication on land use changes were modelled via...... the cellular automata model LUCIA. An Eastern Danish case area was selected, comprising the Copenhagen metropolitan area and its hinterland. The different scenarios are described using a range of different GIS datasets. These include mapping of accessibility based on public and private transportation, urban...

  17. Characterizing and modeling the dynamics of activity and popularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Social media, regarded as two-layer networks consisting of users and items, turn out to be the most important channels for access to massive information in the era of Web 2.0. The dynamics of human activity and item popularity is a crucial issue in social media networks. In this paper, by analyzing the growth of user activity and item popularity in four empirical social media networks, i.e., Amazon, Flickr, Delicious and Wikipedia, it is found that cross links between users and items are more likely to be created by active users and to be acquired by popular items, where user activity and item popularity are measured by the number of cross links associated with users and items. This indicates that users generally trace popular items, overall. However, it is found that the inactive users more severely trace popular items than the active users. Inspired by empirical analysis, we propose an evolving model for such networks, in which the evolution is driven only by two-step random walk. Numerical experiments verified that the model can qualitatively reproduce the distributions of user activity and item popularity observed in empirical networks. These results might shed light on the understandings of micro dynamics of activity and popularity in social media networks.

  18. Characterizing and Modeling the Dynamics of Activity and Popularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Menghui; Gao, Liang; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-01-01

    Social media, regarded as two-layer networks consisting of users and items, turn out to be the most important channels for access to massive information in the era of Web 2.0. The dynamics of human activity and item popularity is a crucial issue in social media networks. In this paper, by analyzing the growth of user activity and item popularity in four empirical social media networks, i.e., Amazon, Flickr, Delicious and Wikipedia, it is found that cross links between users and items are more likely to be created by active users and to be acquired by popular items, where user activity and item popularity are measured by the number of cross links associated with users and items. This indicates that users generally trace popular items, overall. However, it is found that the inactive users more severely trace popular items than the active users. Inspired by empirical analysis, we propose an evolving model for such networks, in which the evolution is driven only by two-step random walk. Numerical experiments verified that the model can qualitatively reproduce the distributions of user activity and item popularity observed in empirical networks. These results might shed light on the understandings of micro dynamics of activity and popularity in social media networks. PMID:24586586

  19. The Study of Relationship between Anthropometric Indices and Physical Activities with Musculoskeletal Complaints in High School Female Students of Tabriz in 1388

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Salekzamani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Adolescence is a proper time to make lifestyle changes to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases in the adulthood. This study aimed to describe the anthropometric indices and physical activities status and their relationship with musculoskeletal complaints in high school female students in Tabriz. Materials and Methods : Two hundred students were selected by cluster sampling method. Anthropometric indicators, physical activity level and musculoskeletal complaints were determined using standard protocols and questionnaires. Statistical analysis of data was performed according to age and body types. Results : The mean age and BMI of the subjects were 17.12 years and 22.16 kg/m2, respectively. About 20% of the students were overweight or obese. The body type of the students was endomorph-mesomorph. Only 8% of the students exercised in gyms and 31% spent more than three hours a day watching television and 70% did the housework. Body type and Body Mass Index did not differ significantly between age groups. Logistic regression models showed no relationship between musculoskeletal complaints, physical activities and body types. Conclusion : This study showed reduction in the physical activities of female students, but there was no significant relationship between musculoskeletal complaints, physical activities and body types.

  20. Models of performance of evolutionary program induction algorithms based on indicators of problem difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Mario; Poli, Riccardo; Flores, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the behavior of algorithms is the realm of evolutionary algorithm theory. From a practitioner's point of view, theory must provide some guidelines regarding which algorithm/parameters to use in order to solve a particular problem. Unfortunately, most theoretical models of evolutionary algorithms are difficult to apply to realistic situations. However, in recent work (Graff and Poli, 2008, 2010), where we developed a method to practically estimate the performance of evolutionary program-induction algorithms (EPAs), we started addressing this issue. The method was quite general; however, it suffered from some limitations: it required the identification of a set of reference problems, it required hand picking a distance measure in each particular domain, and the resulting models were opaque, typically being linear combinations of 100 features or more. In this paper, we propose a significant improvement of this technique that overcomes the three limitations of our previous method. We achieve this through the use of a novel set of features for assessing problem difficulty for EPAs which are very general, essentially based on the notion of finite difference. To show the capabilities or our technique and to compare it with our previous performance models, we create models for the same two important classes of problems-symbolic regression on rational functions and Boolean function induction-used in our previous work. We model a variety of EPAs. The comparison showed that for the majority of the algorithms and problem classes, the new method produced much simpler and more accurate models than before. To further illustrate the practicality of the technique and its generality (beyond EPAs), we have also used it to predict the performance of both autoregressive models and EPAs on the problem of wind speed forecasting, obtaining simpler and more accurate models that outperform in all cases our previous performance models.

  1. On a Quantum Model of Brain Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main activities of the brain is the recognition of signals. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in [6]. Subsequently, details of the mathematical model were presented in a (still incomplete) series of papers (cf. [7, 2, 5, 10]). In the present note we want to give a general view of the principal ideas of this approach. We will introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces and operations. Further, we bring the model face to face with basic postulates any statistical model of the recognition process should fulfill. These postulates are in accordance with the opinion widely accepted in psychology and neurology.

  2. A highly sensitive fluorescent indicator dye for calcium imaging of neural activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Mayumi; Takeuchi, Atsuya; Hashizume, Miki; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kano, Masanobu

    2014-06-01

    Calcium imaging of individual neurons is widely used for monitoring their activity in vitro and in vivo. Synthetic fluorescent calcium indicator dyes are commonly used, but the resulting calcium signals sometimes suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, it is difficult to detect signals caused by single action potentials (APs) particularly from neurons in vivo. Here we showed that a recently developed calcium indicator dye, Cal-520, is sufficiently sensitive to reliably detect single APs both in vitro and in vivo. In neocortical neurons, calcium signals were linearly correlated with the number of APs, and the SNR was > 6 for in vitro slice preparations and > 1.6 for in vivo anesthetised mice. In cerebellar Purkinje cells, dendritic calcium transients evoked by climbing fiber inputs were clearly observed in anesthetised mice with a high SNR and fast decay time. These characteristics of Cal-520 are a great advantage over those of Oregon Green BAPTA-1, the most commonly used calcium indicator dye, for monitoring the activity of individual neurons both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  4. Benefit Indicators for Flood Regulation Services of Wetlands: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a method for developing indicators of the benefits of flood regulation services of wetlands and presents a companion case study. We demonstrate our approach through an application to the Woonasquatucket River watershed in northern Rhode Island. This work is ...

  5. Daily House Price Indices: Construction, Modeling, and Longer-Run Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Patton, Andrew J.; Wang, Wenjing

    We construct daily house price indices for ten major U.S. metropolitan areas. Our calculations are based on a comprehensive database of several million residential property transactions and a standard repeat-sales method that closely mimics the methodology of the popular monthly Case-Shiller hous...

  6. Benefit Indicators for Flood Regulation Services of Wetlands: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a method for developing indicators of the benefits of flood regulation services of wetlands and presents a companion case study. We demonstrate our approach through an application to the Woonasquatucket River watershed in northern Rhode Island. This work is ...

  7. An Activation Threshold Model for Response Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Hayley J.; McMorland, Angus J. C.; Stinear, Cathy M.; Coxon, James P.; Byblow, Winston D.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive response inhibition (RI) is the cancellation of a prepared response when it is no longer appropriate. Selectivity of RI can be examined by cueing the cancellation of one component of a prepared multi-component response. This substantially delays execution of other components. There is debate regarding whether this response delay is due to a selective neural mechanism. Here we propose a computational activation threshold model (ATM) and test it against a classical “horse-race” model using behavioural and neurophysiological data from partial RI experiments. The models comprise both facilitatory and inhibitory processes that compete upstream of motor output regions. Summary statistics (means and standard deviations) of predicted muscular and neurophysiological data were fit in both models to equivalent experimental measures by minimizing a Pearson Chi-square statistic. The ATM best captured behavioural and neurophysiological dynamics of partial RI. The ATM demonstrated that the observed modulation of corticomotor excitability during partial RI can be explained by nonselective inhibition of the prepared response. The inhibition raised the activation threshold to a level that could not be reached by the original response. This was necessarily followed by an additional phase of facilitation representing a secondary activation process in order to reach the new inhibition threshold and initiate the executed component of the response. The ATM offers a mechanistic description of the neural events underlying RI, in which partial movement cancellation results from a nonselective inhibitory event followed by subsequent initiation of a new response. The ATM provides a framework for considering and exploring the neuroanatomical constraints that underlie RI. PMID:28085907

  8. APT cost scaling: Preliminary indications from a Parametric Costing Model (PCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-03

    A Parametric Costing Model has been created and evaluate as a first step in quantitatively understanding important design options for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) concept. This model couples key economic and technical elements of APT in a two-parameter search of beam energy and beam power that minimizes costs within a range of operating constraints. The costing and engineering depth of the Parametric Costing Model is minimal at the present {open_quotes}entry level{close_quotes}, and is intended only to demonstrate a potential for a more-detailed, cost-based integrating design tool. After describing the present basis of the Parametric Costing Model and giving an example of a single parametric scaling run derived therefrom, the impacts of choices related to resistive versus superconducting accelerator structures and cost of electricity versus plant availability ({open_quotes}load curve{close_quotes}) are reported. Areas of further development and application are suggested.

  9. Quantification of potential impurities by a stability indicating UV-HPLC method in niacinamide active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Saji; Bharti, Amber; Tharpa, Kalsang; Agarwal, Ashutosh

    2012-02-23

    A sensitive, stability indicating reverse phase UV-HPLC method has been developed for the quantitative determination of potential impurities of niacinamide active pharmaceutical ingredient. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 stationary phase in isocratic mode using simple mobile phase. Forced degradation study confirmed that the newly developed method was specific and selective to the degradation products. Major degradation of the drug substance was found to occur under oxidative stress conditions to form niacinamide N-oxide. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, precision, linearity and accuracy. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for niacinamide and its six impurities. Detection limit of impurities was in the range of 0.003-0.005% indicating the high sensitivity of the newly developed method. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 93.3% and 113.3% for all impurities.

  10. Outgroup, alignment and modelling improvements indicate that two TNFSF13-like genes existed in the vertebrate ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Anthony K; Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2017-03-01

    The molecular machinery required for lymphocyte development and differentiation appears to have emerged concomitantly with distinct B- and T-like lymphocyte subsets in the ancestor of all vertebrates. The TNFSF superfamily (TNFSF) members BAFF (TNFSF13/Blys) and APRIL (TNFSF13) are key regulators of B cell development survival, and activation in mammals, but the temporal emergence of these molecules, and their precise relationship to the newly identified TNFSF gene BALM (BAFF and APRIL-like molecule), have not yet been elucidated. Here, to resolve the early evolutionary history of this family, we improved outgroup sampling and alignment quality, and applied better fitting substitution models compared to past studies. Our analyses reveal that BALM is a definitive TNFSF13 family member, which split from BAFF in the gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) ancestor. Most importantly, however, we show that both the APRIL and BAFF lineages existed in the ancestors of all extant vertebrates. This implies that APRIL has been lost, or is yet to be found, in cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates). Our results suggest that lineage-specific gene duplication and loss events have caused lymphocyte regulation, despite shared origins, to become secondarily distinct between gnathostomes and cyclostomes. Finally, the structure of lamprey BAFF-like, and its phylogenetic placement as sister to BAFF and BALM, but not the more slowly evolving APRIL, indicates that the primordial lymphocyte regulator was more APRIL-like than BAFF-like.

  11. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  12. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574316

  13. An immunological model for detecting bot activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md E.; Phoha, Vir V.; Sultan, Md A.

    2009-05-01

    We develop a hierarchical immunological model to detect bot activities in a computer network. In the proposed model antibody (detector)-antigen (foreign object) reactions are defined using negative selection based approach and negative systems-properties are defined by various temporal as well as non-temporal systems features. Theory of sequential hypothesis testing has been used in the literature for identifying spatial-temporal correlations among malicious remote hosts and among the bots within a botnet. We use it for combining multiple immunocomputing based decisions too. Negative selection based approach defines a self and helps identifying non-selves. We define non-selves with respect to various systems characteristics and then use different combinations of non-selves to design bot detectors. Each detector operates at the client sites of the network under surveillance. A match with any of the detectors suggests presence of a bot. Preliminary results suggest that the proposed model based solutions can improve the identification of bot activities.

  14. Physiological responses of juvenile rainbow trout to fasting and swimming activity: Effects on body composition and condition indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    The physiological traits that allow fish to survive periods of limited food resources are poorly understood. We assessed changes in proximate body composition, relative organ mass, blood metabolites, and relative weight (Wr) of sedentary and actively swimming (15 cm/s) juvenile rainbow trout (154-182 mm total length) over 147 d of fasting. Fasting caused measurable responses that were augmented when fish were swimming. Lipids and plasma triacylglycerides declined over time. Proteins were catabolized simultaneously with lipid reserves, but ammonia concentrations in plasma did not increase. The liver somatic index (LSI) did not change substantially over 105 d, suggesting that gluconeogenesis maintained blood glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen reserves for a substantial period of fasting. The gut somatic index (GSI) and Wr declined linearly during fasting, but the LSI did not decline until after 105 d of fasting. Consequently, the use of different body condition indices could lead to different conclusions about the condition of juvenile rainbow trout. Swimming activity caused fish to have lower lipid and protein reserves than those of sedentary fish. No mortalities were observed among sedentary fish, but mortalities occurred among actively swimming fish after 97 d of fasting when 3.2% or less lipid remained in their bodies. Body condition indices did not account for differences in proximate body composition between sedentary and actively swimming fish and were relatively poor predictors of lipid content and risk of mortality. The probability of mortality was most accurately predicted by percent lipid content. Therefore, we suggest that fisheries scientists consider using percent lipid content when evaluating the physiological status and risk of mortality due to starvation among juvenile rainbow trout.

  15. INDICATOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL SECTORS UNDER THE ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee; Yothin Sawangdee

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to deal with environmental problems for agricultural sectors caused by goods and services production. The aspects to calculate the real benefit of agricultural sectors and environmental cost for analyzing are natural resources materials, energy and transportation, fertilizer and pesticides, and sanitary and similar service. From the research it was found that the highest environmental cost of natural resources materials was 026: charco...

  16. An ejection model for SNC meteorites: An indication for recent volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manker, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    When compared to other achondrites, Shergotty-Nakhla-Chassigny (SNC) meteorites are viewed as anomalous objects. This conclusion is based mainly on their extremely young crystallization ages and their short cosmic ray exposure times. Further, SNC's noble gas and nitrogen components indicate a martian origin for these objects. If these meteorites are from Mars, then the most confounding question facing the planetary science community is how were they ejected from the planet's surface. The following is an investigation of that question.

  17. Applying model simulation and photochemical indicators to evaluate ozone sensitivity in southern Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yen-Ping Peng1; Kang-Shin Chen2; Hsin-Kai Wang2; Chia-Hsiang Lai3; Ming-Hsun Lin4; Cheng-Haw Lee4

    2011-01-01

    Ozone sensitivity was investigated using CAMx simulations and photochemical indicator ratios at three sites (Pingtung City, ChaoChou Town, and Kenting Town) in Pingtung County in southern Taiwan during 2003 and 2004.The CAMx simulations compared fairly well with the hourly concentrations of ozone.Simulation results also showed that Pingtung City was mainly a volatile organic compounds (VOC)-sensitive regime, while Chao-Chou Town was either a VOC-sensitive or a NOx-sensitive regime, depending on the seasons.Measurements of three photochemical indicators (H202, HNO3, and NOy) were conducted, and simulated three transition ranges of H202/HNO3 (0.5-0.8), O3/HNO3 (10.3-16.2) and O3/NOy (5.7-10.8) were adopted to assess the ozone sensitive regime at the three sites.The results indicated that the three transition ranges yield consistent results with CAMx simulations at most times at Pingtung City.However, both VOC-sensitive and NOx-sensitive regimes were important at the rural site Chao-Chou Town.Kenting Town, a touring site at the southern end of Taiwan, was predominated by a NOx-sensitive regime in four seasons.

  18. Sediment amino acids as indicators of anthropogenic activities and potential environmental risk in Erhai Lake, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhaokui; Wang, Shengrui; Zhang, Mianmian

    2016-05-01

    Total hydrolysable amino acids (THAAs) constitute the most important fraction of labile nitrogen. Anthropogenic activities directly influence various biogeochemical cycles and then accelerate lake ecosystem deterioration. This is the first study that has established the relationship between sediment THAAs and anthropogenic activities using dated sediment cores, and evaluated the possibility of THAAs release at the sediment interface based on changes in environmental conditions in Erhai Lake. The results showed that historical distribution and fractions of THAAs could be divided into three stages: a stable period before the 1970s, a clear increasing period from the 1970s to 1990s, and a gradually steady period that started after the 1990s. The chemical fraction, aromatic and sulfur amino acids (AAs) accounted for only ≤3% of THAAs. Basic AAs accounted for 5-17% of THAAs, and remained at a relatively stable level. However, acidic and neutral AAs, which accounted for 19-44% and 35-69% of THAAs, respectively, were the predominant factors causing THAAs to increase due to rapid agricultural intensification and intensification of contemporary sedimentation of phytoplankton or macrophytes since the 1970s. These trends were closely related to both anthropogenic activities and natural processes, which implied that sediment THAAs could act as an effective indicator that reflects anthropogenic activities and aquatic environmental characteristics. The current contributions of sediment THAAs on TN and TOC were environment continuously changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring exposure of northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides: enzyme activity, reactivations, and indicators of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Jonathan D; Farris, Jerry L

    2005-07-01

    Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) frequently use agricultural field edges in northeast Arkansas, USA, and may be at risk of exposure to cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting pesticides. We monitored northern cardinal exposure to ChE-inhibiting pesticides by comparing plasma total ChE (TChE) activity to reference-derived benchmarks and TChE reactivations. Total ChE and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured for 128 plasma samples from 104 northern cardinals from nine study sites. Of birds sampled from sites treated with ChE-inhibiting pesticides, 4.3% of the samples had TChE activities below the diagnostic threshold (2 standard deviations [SD] below the reference mean) and 8.7% of the samples had TChE reactivations. No difference was found in TChE (p = 0.553) and AChE (p = 0.288) activity between treated and reference sites; however, activity varied among treated sites (p = 0.003). These data do not suggest uniform exposure to individuals, but rather exposure was variable and likely influenced by mitigating factors at individual and site scales. Furthermore, monitoring of TChE reactivation appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of exposure than the diagnostic threshold. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was greater at agricultural sites than reference sites (p = 0.016), supporting the hypothesis that FA may be useful for assessing a combination of habitat- and contaminant-related environmental stress.

  20. Modelling land use changes according to transportation scenarios using raster based GIS indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Morten; Münier, Bernd; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    . In the EU-FP7 research project PASHMINA (Paradigm Shift modelling and innovative approaches), three storylines of future transportation paradigm shifts towards 2050 are created. These storylines are translated into spatial planning strategies and their implication on land use changes were modelled via...... the cellular automata model LUCIA. An Eastern Danish case area was selected, comprising the Copenhagen metropolitan area and its hinterland. The different scenarios are described using a range of different GIS datasets. These include mapping of accessibility based on public and private transportation, urban...... in urban distribution that different spatial planning strategies may initiate, and thus change the shape of the urban landscape. The scenarios outline different planning strategies, leading to a more homogenous urban structure, targeted at a reduction of transportation work and thus energy consumption...

  1. CD74 indicates microglial activation in experimental diabetic retinopathy and exogenous methylglyoxal mimics the response in normoglycemic retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Lin, Jihong; Schlotterer, Andreas; Wu, Liang; Fleming, Thomas; Busch, Stephanie; Dietrich, Nadine; Hammes, Hans-Peter

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes induces vasoregression, neurodegeneration and glial activation in the retina. Formation of advanced glycation endoproducts (AGEs) is increased in diabetes and contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. CD74 is increased in activated microglia in a rat model developing both neurodegeneration and vasoregression. In this study, we aimed at investigating whether glucose and major AGE precursor methylglyoxal induce increased CD74 expression in the retina. Expression of CD74 in retinal microglia was analyzed in streptozotocin-diabetic rats by wholemount immunofluorescence. Nondiabetic mice were intravitreally injected with methylglyoxal. Expression of CD74 was studied by retinal wholemount immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR, 48 h after the injection. CD74-positive cells were increased in diabetic 4-month retinas. These cells represented a subpopulation of CD11b-labeled activated microglia and were mainly located in the superficial vascular layer (13.7-fold increase compared to nondiabetic group). Methylglyoxal induced an 9.4-fold increase of CD74-positive cells in the superficial vascular layer and elevated gene expression of CD74 in the mouse retina 2.8-fold. In summary, we identified CD74 as a microglial activation marker in the diabetic retina. Exogenous methylglyoxal mimics the response in normoglycemic retina. This suggests that methylglyoxal is important in mediating microglial activation in the diabetic retina.

  2. Accuracy of self-reported physical activity as an indicator of cardiovascular fitness depends on education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Paul

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between the level of education and the accuracy of self-reported physical activity as a proxy measure of aerobic fitness. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination from the years 1999 to 2004 were used. Linear regression was performed for measured maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2)max) versus self-reported physical activity for 5 different levels of education. This was a national survey in the United States. Participants included adults from the general U.S. population (N=3290). None. Coefficients of determination obtained from models for each education level were used to compare how well self-reported physical activity represents cardiovascular fitness. These coefficients were the main outcome measure. Coefficients of determination for Vo(2)max versus reported physical activity increased as the level of education increased. In this preliminary study, self-reported physical activity is a better proxy measure for aerobic fitness in highly educated individuals than in poorly educated individuals. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. QSTR with extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices. 14. QSAR modeling of toxicity of aromatic aldehydes to Tetrahymena pyriformis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Kunal, E-mail: kunalroy_in@yahoo.com [Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Division of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Das, Rudra Narayan [Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Division of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2010-11-15

    Aldehydes are a toxic class of chemicals causing severe health hazards. In this background, quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models have been developed in the present study using Extended Topochemical Atom (ETA) indices for a large group of 77 aromatic aldehydes for their acute toxicity against the protozoan ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The ETA models have been compared with those developed using various non-ETA topological indices. Attempt was also made to include the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log K{sub o/w}) as an additional descriptor considering the importance of hydrophobicity in toxicity prediction. Thirty different models were developed using different chemometric tools. All the models have been validated using internal validation and external validation techniques. The statistical quality of the ETA models was found to be comparable to that of the non-ETA models. The ETA models have shown the important effects of steric bulk, lipophilicity, presence of electronegative atom containing substituents and functionality of the aldehydic oxygen to the toxicity of the aldehydes. The best ETA model (without using log K{sub o/w}) shows encouraging statistical quality (Q{sub int}{sup 2}=0.709,Q{sub ext}{sup 2}=0.744). It is interesting to note that some of the topological models reported here are better in statistical quality than previously reported models using quantum chemical descriptors.

  4. Using an integrated hydrological model to estimate the usefulness of meteorological drought indices in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, Diane; Wöhling, Thomas; Haslauer, Claus P.; Merchán, Daniel; Causapé, Jesus; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-10-01

    Droughts are serious natural hazards, especially in semi-arid regions. They are also difficult to characterize. Various summary metrics representing the dryness level, denoted drought indices, have been developed to quantify droughts. They typically lump meteorological variables and can thus directly be computed from the outputs of regional climate models in climate-change assessments. While it is generally accepted that drought risks in semi-arid climates will increase in the future, quantifying this increase using climate model outputs is a complex process that depends on the choice and the accuracy of the drought indices, among other factors. In this study, we compare seven meteorological drought indices that are commonly used to predict future droughts. Our goal is to assess the reliability of these indices to predict hydrological impacts of droughts under changing climatic conditions at the annual timescale. We simulate the hydrological responses of a small catchment in northern Spain to droughts in present and future climate, using an integrated hydrological model calibrated for different irrigation scenarios. We compute the correlation of meteorological drought indices with the simulated hydrological time series (discharge, groundwater levels, and water deficit) and compare changes in the relationships between hydrological variables and drought indices. While correlation coefficients linked with a specific drought index are similar for all tested land uses and climates, the relationship between drought indices and hydrological variables often differs between present and future climate. Drought indices based solely on precipitation often underestimate the hydrological impacts of future droughts, while drought indices that additionally include potential evapotranspiration sometimes overestimate the drought effects. In this study, the drought indices with the smallest bias were the rainfall anomaly index, the reconnaissance drought index, and the standardized

  5. Goal Oriented Activity Towards Life Skill Training: Preliminary Indications of a Task-intensive Approach to Manage Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumen Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To devise a viable programme of intervention for older people with Cerebral Palsy (CP. Methods: Using focus group interviews, a ‘top down’ model of intervention was devised among older children and adolescents with CP. Ten participants volunteered and a custom tailored approach was employed, in keeping with the participants’ goals. Results: The outcomes are described qualitatively. Conclusions: There are preliminary indications that the programme is versatile and feasible. Further trials must be conducted before conclusive comments can be made.

  6. State-space modeling indicates rapid invasion of an alien shrub in coastal dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian Frølund; Nygaard, Bettina; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Invasion by alien plants has negative effects on coastal dunes. Monitoring local spread of invasive species depends on long-term data with sufficient spatial resolution. Bayesian state-space models are a new method for monitoring invasive plants based on unbalanced permanent-plot data. The method...

  7. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND ENTERPRISE AGILITY – A MODEL OF THE SURVEYED INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOIER Rodica

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the agility of the response to market demands is one of the most desirable qualities for the management of today’s enterprise, which is facing an unstable environment, with abrupt, frequent and unpredictable changes. The paper proposes a model o

  8. Chylomicron metabolism in rats: kinetic modeling indicates that the particles remain at endothelial sites for minutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Magnus; Savonen, Roger; Chevreuil, Olivier; Olivecrona, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Chylomicrons labeled in vivo with (14)C-oleic acid (primarily in triglycerides, providing a tracer for lipolysis) and (3)H-retinol (primarily in ester form, providing a tracer for the core lipids) were injected into rats. Radioactivity in tissues was followed at a series of times up to 40 min and the data were analyzed by compartmental modeling. For heart-like tissues it was necessary to allow the chylomicrons to enter into a compartment where lipolysis is rapid and then transfer to a second compartment where lipolysis is slower. The particles remained in these compartments for minutes and when they returned to blood they had reduced affinity for binding in the tissue. In contrast, the data for liver could readily be fitted with a single compartment for native and lipolyzed chylomicrons in blood, and there was no need for a pathway back to blood. A composite model was built from the individual tissue models. This whole-body model could simultaneously fit all data for both fed and fasted rats and allowed estimation of fluxes and residence times in the four compartments; native and lipolyzed chylomicrons ("remnants") in blood, and particles in the tissue compartments where lipolysis is rapid and slow, respectively.

  9. Modeling the dynamics of DDT in a remote tropical floodplain: indications of post-ban use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Annelle; Ng, Carla A; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Bastos, Wanderley; Bogdal, Christian; Dos Reis, George Alexandre; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding the fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in tropical environments. In Brazil, indoor residual spraying with DDT to combat malaria and leishmaniasis began in the 1950s and was banned in 1998. Nonetheless, high concentrations of DDT and its metabolites were recently detected in human breast milk in the community of Lake Puruzinho in the Brazilian Amazon. In this work, we couple analysis of soils and sediments from 2005 to 2014 at Puruzinho with a novel dynamic floodplain model to investigate the movement and distribution of DDT and its transformation products (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) and implications for human exposure. The model results are in good agreement with the accumulation pattern observed in the measurements, in which DDT, DDE, and DDD (collectively, DDX) accumulate primarily in upland soils and sediments. However, a significant increase was observed in DDX concentrations in soil samples from 2005 to 2014, coupled with a decrease of DDT/DDE ratios, which do not agree with model results assuming a post-ban regime. These observations strongly suggest recent use. We used the model to investigate possible re-emissions after the ban through two scenarios: one assuming DDT use for IRS and the other assuming use against termites and leishmaniasis. Median DDX concentrations and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios from both of these scenarios agreed with measurements in soils, suggesting that the soil parameterization in our model was appropriate. Measured DDX concentrations in sediments were between the two re-emission scenarios. Therefore, both soil and sediment comparisons suggest re-emissions indeed occurred between 2005 and 2014, but additional measurements would be needed to better understand the actual re-emission patterns. Monte Carlo analysis revealed model predictions for sediments were very sensitive to highly

  10. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  11. Activity based costing model for inventory valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Chouhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Activity-Based-Model (ABC is used for the purpose of significant improvement for overhead accounting systems by providing the best information required for managerial decision. This pa-per discusses implacability of ABC technique on inventory valuation as a management account-ing innovation. In order to prove the applicability of ABC for inventory control a material driven medium-sized and privately owned company from engineering (iron and steel industry is select-ed and by analysis of its production process and its material dependency and use of indirect in-ventory, an ABC model is explored for better inventory control. The case revealed that the ne-cessity of ABC in the area of inventory control is significant. The company is not only able to increase its quality of decision but also it can significantly analyze its cost of direct material cost, valuation of direct material and use its implications for better decision making.

  12. Stata Modules for Calculating Novel Predictive Performance Indices for Logistic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkhordari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Prediction is a fundamental part of prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The development of prediction algorithms based on the multivariate regression models loomed several decades ago. Parallel with predictive models development, biomarker researches emerged in an impressively great scale. The key question is how best to assess and quantify the improvement in risk prediction offered by new biomarkers or more basically how to assess the performance of a risk prediction model. Discrimination, calibration, and added predictive value have been recently suggested to be used while comparing the predictive performances of the predictive models’ with and without novel biomarkers. Objectives Lack of user-friendly statistical software has restricted implementation of novel model assessment methods while examining novel biomarkers. We intended, thus, to develop a user-friendly software that could be used by researchers with few programming skills. Materials and Methods We have written a Stata command that is intended to help researchers obtain cut point-free and cut point-based net reclassification improvement index and (NRI and relative and absolute Integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI for logistic-based regression analyses.We applied the commands to a real data on women participating the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS to examine if information of a family history of premature CVD, waist circumference, and fasting plasma glucose can improve predictive performance of the Framingham’s “general CVD risk” algorithm. Results The command is addpred for logistic regression models. Conclusions The Stata package provided herein can encourage the use of novel methods in examining predictive capacity of ever-emerging plethora of novel biomarkers.

  13. Serum HMGB1 Serves as a Novel Laboratory Indicator Reflecting Disease Activity and Treatment Response in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ye; Huang, Yishu; Sun, Mengchen; Zhu, Yingzi; Zheng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a late inflammatory factor participating in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the current study, we analyzed the association between serum levels of HMGB1 and clinical features of AS patients before and during treatment. Methods. Serum HMGB1 was detected in 147 AS patients and 61 healthy controls using ELISA. We evaluated the association between HMGB1 and extra-articular manifestations as well as disease severity indices. Among these AS patients, 41 patients received close follow-up at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. This group comprised 25 patients treated with anti-TNF-α biologics and 16 patients receiving oral NSAIDs plus sulfasalazine. Results. The serum HMGB1 of AS patients was significantly higher than in healthy controls and positively correlated with BASDAI, BASFI, ASDAS-ESR, ASDAS-CRP, ESR, and CRP, but not with HLA-B27, anterior uveitis, and recurrent diarrhea. There was no significant difference between patients with radiographic damage of hip joints and those without. We observed that serum HMGB1 paralleled disease activity after treatment. Conclusion. Serum level of HMGB1 is higher in AS patients, and to some extent, HMGB1 can reflect the activity of AS and be used as a laboratory indicator to reflect the therapeutic response.

  14. Indices to Study the Electrical Power Signals in Active and Passive Distribution Lines: A Combined Analysis with Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Vergura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The broad diffusion of renewable energy-based technologies has introduced several open issues in the design and operation of smart grids (SGs when distributed generators (DGs inject a large amount of power into the grid. In this paper, a theoretical investigation on active and reactive power data is performed for one active line characterized by several photovoltaic (PV plants with a great amount of injectable power and two passive lines, one of them having a small peak power PV plant and the other one having no PV power. The frequencies calculated via the empirical mode decomposition (EMD method based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT are compared to the ones obtained via the fast Fourier transform (FFT and the wavelet transform (WT, showing a wider spectrum of significant modes mainly due to the non-periodical behavior of the power signals. The results obtained according to the HHT-EMD analysis are corroborated by the calculation of three new indices that are computed starting from the electrical signal itself and not from the Hilbert spectrum. These indices give the quantitative deviation from the periodicity and the coherence degree of the power