WorldWideScience

Sample records for activities relating global

  1. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  2. Global increase in task-related fronto-parietal activity after focal frontal lobe lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Bor, Daniel; Duncan, John

    2013-09-01

    A critical question for neuropsychology is how complex brain networks react to damage. Here, we address this question for the well-known executive control or multiple-demand (MD) system, a fronto-parietal network showing increased activity with many different kinds of cognitive demand, including standard tests of fluid intelligence. Using fMRI, we ask how focal frontal lobe damage affects MD activity during a standard fluid intelligence task. Despite poor behavioral performance, frontal patients showed increased fronto-parietal activity relative to controls. The activation difference was not accounted for by difference in IQ. Moreover, rather than specific focus on perilesional or contralesional cortex, additional recruitment was distributed throughout the MD regions and surrounding cortex and included parietal MD regions distant from the injury. The data suggest that, following local frontal lobe damage, there is a global compensatory recruitment of an adaptive and integrated fronto-parietal network.

  3. Graduate global public health education: activities and outcomes in relation to student prior experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Cole, Donald C

    2013-01-31

    The Dalla Lana School of Public Health uses an "add-on" or concentration model of global health education. Records of masters' graduate cohorts across five disciplinary fields from 2006 to 2009 were classified as to prior experience at application and completion of global health concentration requirements. Alumni from the first two cohorts (2006-08 and 2007-09) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Prior experience was not linked consistently with the number of elective courses, location of practica or completion of requirements. Successful completion of the global health requirements depended more on the student's base disciplinary program. Interviewed alumni with medium prior experience reported greater satisfaction with the concentration. Alumni with lower prior experience wanted more courses and support with practica. The pros and cons of a concentration model of global public health graduate education are discussed.

  4. On the possible relations between solar activities and global seismicity in the solar cycle 20 to 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Arif, Johan; Nurzaman, Muhamad Zamzam; Astuti, Isna Kusuma Dewi

    2015-09-01

    Solar activities consist of high energetic particle streams, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic and orbital gravitational forces. The well-know solar activity main indicator is the existence of sunspot which has mean variation in 11 years, named by solar cycle, allow for the above fluctuations. Solar activities are also related to the space weather affecting all planetary atmospheric variability, moreover to the Earth's climate variability. Large extreme space and geophysical events (high magnitude earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms, etc.) are hazards for humankind, infrastructure, economies, technology and the activities of civilization. With a growing world population, and with modern reliance on delicate technological systems, human society is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazardous events. The big question arises to the relation between solar forcing energy to the Earth's global seismic activities. Estimates are needed for the long term occurrence-rate probabilities of these extreme natural hazardous events. We studied connectivity from yearly seismic activities that refer to and sunspot number within the solar cycle 20 to 23 of year 1960 to 2013 (53 years). We found clear evidences that in general high magnitude earthquake events and their depth were related to the low solar activity.

  5. On the possible relations between solar activities and global seismicity in the solar cycle 20 to 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani, E-mail: dhani@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Arif, Johan [Geology Research Division, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Nurzaman, Muhamad Zamzam; Astuti, Isna Kusuma Dewi [Astronomy Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Solar activities consist of high energetic particle streams, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic and orbital gravitational forces. The well-know solar activity main indicator is the existence of sunspot which has mean variation in 11 years, named by solar cycle, allow for the above fluctuations. Solar activities are also related to the space weather affecting all planetary atmospheric variability, moreover to the Earth’s climate variability. Large extreme space and geophysical events (high magnitude earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms, etc.) are hazards for humankind, infrastructure, economies, technology and the activities of civilization. With a growing world population, and with modern reliance on delicate technological systems, human society is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazardous events. The big question arises to the relation between solar forcing energy to the Earth’s global seismic activities. Estimates are needed for the long term occurrence-rate probabilities of these extreme natural hazardous events. We studied connectivity from yearly seismic activities that refer to and sunspot number within the solar cycle 20 to 23 of year 1960 to 2013 (53 years). We found clear evidences that in general high magnitude earthquake events and their depth were related to the low solar activity.

  6. The Current State of Global Activities Related to Deep-sea Mineral Exploration and Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Sven; Krätschell, Anna; Hannington, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea mining is seen as a potential way to provide future secure metal supply to global markets. The current rush to the seafloor in areas beyond national jurisdiction indicates that sound knowledge of the geological characteritics of the various commodities, a realistic resource assessment, and a social and political discussion about the cons and pros of their exploitation that is based on facts, not myths, is required. This contribution provides the most recent information on...

  7. p-mode frequency variation in relation to global solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.; Brown, Timothy M.

    1993-01-01

    We show that p-mode frequency variations correlate remarkably well with the variations of six solar activity indices over a 6 yr period from 1984 October to 1990 November, including both the large variation from solar minimum to solar maximum and smaller variations observed over approximately 1 month intervals during solar maximum. The quality of correlation as seen visually and as measured by two statistical tests differs significantly among the six activity indices, and we briefly speculate on possible reasons for this. Observations used in this study come from the HAO/NSO Fourier tachometer (FTACH) and include the spherical harmonic degree range l greater than 20 and equal to 60 or less and frequency range between 2600 and 3200 micro-Hz. The data are divided into 18 separate epochs with time string duration ranging from a minimum of 18 days to a maximum of 45 days. We have particularly good coverage during the early part of solar maximum of cycle 22.

  8. Global income related health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health

  9. Global Monopole in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Bronnikov, K A; Podolyak, E R; Bronnikov, Kirill A.; Meierovich, Boris E.; Podolyak, Evgeny R.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the gravitational properties of a global monopole on the basis of the simplest Higgs scalar triplet model in general relativity. We begin with establishing some common features of hedgehog-type solutions with a regular center, independent of the choice of the symmetry-breaking potential. There are six types of qualitative behavior of the solutions; we show, in particular, that the metric can contain at most one simple horizon. For the standard Mexican hat potential, the previously known properties of the solutions are confirmed and some new results are obtained. Thus, we show analytically that solutions with monotonically growing Higgs field and finite energy in the static region exist only in the interval $1<\\gamma <3$, $\\gamma $ being the squared energy of spontaneous symmetry breaking in Planck units. The cosmological properties of these globally regular solutions apparently favor the idea that the standard Big Bang might be replaced with a nonsingular static core and a horizon appearing ...

  10. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) ...

  11. Global thunderstorm activity research survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroniti, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The published literature on the subject of the monitoring of global thunderstorm activity by instrumented satellites was reviewed. A survey of the properties of selected physical parameters of the thunderstorm is presented. The concepts used by satellites to identify and to measure terrestrial lightning pulses are described. The experimental data acquired by satellites are discussed. The scientific achievements of the satellites are evaluated against the needs of scientists and the potential requirements of user agencies. The performances of the satellites are rated according to their scientific and operational achievements.

  12. Globalization and Women's Labour Activism in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BISHOP, Beverley

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization not only encompasses increased economic integration and increased flows of capital, but also social, political and cultural change. While considerable attention has been paid to the pro-active role that Japanese government and business actors have played, there has been rather less analysis of the way civil actors in Japan have been affected by, and have adapted their goals and strategies to the changing global polity. This paper examines how female labour activists in Japan have adapted their strategies to the existing national and international institutions, and changed their strategies as the processes of globalization have altered the relative power of these institutions. Section B of the paper examines the lack of influence that women labour activists have traditionally had in party and trade union politics, and how changes in these institutions are affecting the way women engage with them. Section C looks at the alternative way campaigners for women's labour rights actually organize. Section D goes on to examine the way women's groups are increasingly directing action at international bodies, and sharing information and activities with activists overseas.

  13. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  14. Relativity in the Global Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashby Neil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS uses accurate, stable atomic clocks in satellites and on the ground to provide world-wide position and time determination. These clocks have gravitational and motional frequency shifts which are so large that, without carefully accounting for numerous relativistic effects, the system would not work. This paper discusses the conceptual basis, founded on special and general relativity, for navigation using GPS. Relativistic principles and effects which must be considered include the constancy of the speed of light, the equivalence principle, the Sagnac effect, time dilation, gravitational frequency shifts, and relativity of synchronization. Experimental tests of relativity obtained with a GPS receiver aboard the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite will be discussed. Recently frequency jumps arising from satellite orbit adjustments have been identified as relativistic effects. These will be explained and some interesting applications of GPS will be discussed.

  15. Global water cycle and solar activity variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tameemi, Muthanna A.; Chukin, Vladimir V.

    2016-05-01

    The water cycle is the most active and most important component in the circulation of global mass and energy in the Earth system. Furthermore, water cycle parameters such as evaporation, precipitation, and precipitable water vapour play a major role in global climate change. In this work, we attempt to determine the impact of solar activity on the global water cycle by analyzing the global monthly values of precipitable water vapour, precipitation, and the Solar Modulation Potential in 1983-2008. The first object of this study was to calculate global evaporation for the period 1983-2008. For this purpose, we determined the water cycle rate from satellite data, and precipitation/evaporation relationship from 10 years of Planet Simulator model data. The second object of our study was to investigate the relationship between the Solar Modulation Potential (solar activity index) and the evaporation for the period 1983-2008. The results showed that there is a relationship between the solar modulation potential and the evaporation values for the period of study. Therefore, we can assume that the solar activity has an impact on the global water cycle.

  16. Global Sourcing of Services Versus Manufacturing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    International sourcing strategies and operations are usually described distinctively for manufacturing and services. In this paper, the theoretical and strategic relevance of this distinction is questioned. As an alternative, an activity-based theoretical framework for exploring the linkages...... between the attributes of the globally sourced activities and the international sourcing operations of firms is presented. This paper discusses the implications for global sourcing research and the strategic and organizational implications for managers, and it argues that finding the right match between...... strategy, activity and organization is a key determinant of the success of the sourcing process and outcome....

  17. GLOBALIZATION AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CENTERS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA FETINIUC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International financial centers are places of concentration banking and specialized financial institutions activities, engaged in international financial transactions. They have become elements of international market mechanisms that serve as controls global financial flows. The movement of the past carried out in the field of monetary and settlement services for the sale of goods and services, international investments, transactions with various financial instruments, foreign currency transactions. They have become points of support of financial globalization process, ensuring the normal circulation of international financial flows, and the link between local and international financial markets. This article examines the essence, the types and importance of specific territorial formations in the context of globalization.

  18. Globalization and Women's Labour Activism in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    BISHOP, Beverley

    2002-01-01

    The concept of globalization not only encompasses increased economic integration and increased flows of capital, but also social, political and cultural change. While considerable attention has been paid to the pro-active role that Japanese government and business actors have played, there has been rather less analysis of the way civil actors in Japan have been affected by, and have adapted their goals and strategies to the changing global polity. This paper examines how female labour activis...

  19. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, A; Karoff, C

    2014-01-01

    In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by ...

  20. Global dispersal pattern of HIV type 1 subtype CRF01-AE : A genetic trace of human mobility related to heterosexual sexual activities centralized in southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01-AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01-AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. Methods. We assembled a global data set

  1. French space programmes related to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellous, J. L.; Ratier, A.

    The guidelines of the national and cooperative environmental programmes conducted by CNES are complementarity with third agencies' programmes, synergism between scientific and application projects, and promotion of innovative concepts likely to meet the requirements of the World Climate Research and International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes. While the on-going SPOT series is to provide imagery of land surfaces until 2000, the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric mission is being developed by NASA and CNES for launch in mid-1992 in phase with the WOCE intensive field experiments. The design study of the AVISO ocean data system, and the development on behalf of ESA of the ERS-1-dedicated CERSAT facility are consolidating the French effort in space oceanography. Two other research space missions are studied by CNES and French laboratories. BEST, whose phase A study is nearing completion, is a low-altitude, low-inclination, GEWEX-dedicated mission for the investigation of the water and energy cycle in the tropics, with a target launch date in the late 1990's. The phase A study of GLOBSAT, a more IGBP-oriented mission concept, has just been initiated. The first objective of this mission in polar orbit considered for launch around 1997, is to collect comprehensive data sets needed to document key processes related to cloud/radiation interaction, stratospheric/tropospheric chemistry and dynamics of continental and marine ecosystems. The second objective is to start monitoring long-term trends of parameters required to close global budgets of carbon and ozone. The analysis of this space mission concept is conducted in parallel with the development of instruments of opportunity to be flown onboard foreign satellites, and of airborne sensors, either precursor to space instruments or designed for process studies and validation of space data.

  2. Towards a Global Science Diplomacy activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Luk Van Langenhove

    2016-01-01

    The recent trend to step up scientific diplomacy activities in different parts of the world is an interesting one to monitor. Indeed, almost all of today’s pressing global problems such as climate change or energy security have a scientific component.The growing awareness of global problems which sovereign states are faced with is perhaps the most salient development for the future of science diplomacy. For the sustainable development goals to be reached, different actors need to do their par...

  3. Space activities and global popular music culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  4. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-08-24

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  5. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  6. Global Dispersal Pattern of HIV Type 1 Subtype CRF01_AE: A Genetic Trace of Human Mobility Related to Heterosexual Sexual Activities Centralized in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01_AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01_AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. We assembled a global data set of 2736 CRF01_AE sequences by pooling sequences from public databases and patient-cohort studies. We estimated viral dispersal patterns, using statistical phylogeographic analysis run over bootstrap trees estimated by the maximum likelihood method. We show that Thailand has been the source of viral dispersal to most areas worldwide, including 17 of 20 sampled countries in Europe. Japan, Singapore, Vietnam, and other Asian countries have played a secondary role in the viral dissemination. In contrast, China and Taiwan have mainly imported strains from neighboring Asian countries, North America, and Africa without any significant viral exportation. The central role of Thailand in the global spread of CRF01_AE can be probably explained by the popularity of Thailand as a vacation destination characterized by sex tourism and by Thai emigration to the Western world. Our study highlights the unique case of CRF01_AE, the only globally distributed non-B clade whose global dispersal did not originate in Africa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are

  8. Globalization, domestic politics, and transatlantic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Oliver, T.; Trubowitz, P.

    For two decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall, globalization functioned as a unifying force in the West. In the absence of a common security threat, the United States and Europe found common ground in a neoliberal agenda calling for the freer movements of capital, goods, services, and peoples

  9. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies.

  10. Relations entre tectonique globale et déformations intraplaques Relations Between Global Tectonics and Intraplate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulet M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available C'est dans le domaine continental intraplaque que les applications de la tectonique globale intéressent le plus les géologues pétroliers mais c'est aussi dans ce domaine que sa réalité est la plus difficile à percevoir. Après un bref rappel des concepts de base de la tectonique globale et de la structure de la lithosphère, on fait le point des connaissances acquises à ce jour sur les principaux paramètres intervenant lors des déformations intraplaques - les déplacements absolus des plaques qui conditionnent les relations entre phénomènes profonds et déformations de surface ; - les hétérogénéités de la croûte terrestre qui introduisent des déséquilibres mécaniques - dissymétrie de structure des marges stables, - variations d'épaisseur et de composition chimique de la croûte continentale, - modifications des charges lithostatiques par sédimentation ou érosion. - les phénomènes thermiques qui n'apparaissent pas, sauf pour les marges stables, directement en relation avec la tectonique globale mais avec la géométrie de la lithosphère continentale mal connue à ce jour; - les forces motrices ou résistantes responsables du mouvement des plaques c'est en réalité l'étude des déformations actuelles qui doit permettre de tester la validité des mécanismes proposés par la tectonique globale. Ces mécanismes, une fois établis, permettront une meilleure compréhension des déformations passées affectant le sédimentaire dans la mesure où l'on tient compte des hétérogénéités anciennes du substratum. Après cet examen critique, on présente en conclusion un exemple concret, l'évolution structurale des grabens rhénans, évolution qui résulte de l'influence conjuguée des trois facteurs précédemment examinés : phénomènes thermiques, hétérogénéité de la croûte, mouvement des plaques. The intraplate continental realm is where the applications of global tectonics are of mostinterestta petroleum

  11. Relational Deployments Towards Cognitive Global Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo C. Michelini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the globalisation complex and confused scenarios show that the industrialism cycle has arrived to an impasse; sustainable and long-lasting progress requests strong changeovers. The technology challenge needs solving the overpollution and over-consumption figures of the current industrialism: to that purpose the world ought to radically modify the political set-up moving to global village sustainable growth, ruled by ‹the force of the law› and turning to ‹hyperdemocracy›, to assuring balanced citizen/authority interplay.

  12. Rethinking the costs related to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekins, P. (Birkbeck Coll., London (United Kingdom))

    1994-03-01

    The economic analysis of global warming seeks to balance the costs of damage from or adaptation to it with the costs of mitigating it. The costs of adaptation and damage have been estimated using techniques of environmental evaluation, but are subject to a wide margin of uncertainty. The costs of mitigation, principally by reducing the emissions of CO[sub 2], have been estimated using different kinds of economic models, some of the results of which have suggested that very little abatement of carbon emissions is justified before the costs of abatement exceed the benefits of it in terms of foregone damage and adaptation costs. The paper analyses the extent to which this conclusion is a function of the modelling assumptions and techniques used, rather than likely practical outcomes. It concludes that, with different and arguably more appropriate treatment of the issues, especially when the secondary benefits of reducing CO[sub 2] emissions are also taken into account, it is not clear that even substantial reductions in the use of fossil fuels will incur net costs, especially if there is the prospect of even moderate costs from global warming. (Author)

  13. Born Global Firms: A Foreign Trade Related Study on Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytaç GÖKMEN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the comprehensive advent in information and communication technologies and worldwide ease of transportation, the volume of international trade and business increased profoundly. Within this process, a Born Global Firm (BGF, right from its initiation, aims at creating competitive advantage by marketing a large volume of its products in various international markets by utilizing technological advances. Therefore, the rational behind the idea of BGF is to become an international firm in a short period of time and making international business affairs core of its business activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to review the concept of BGF theoretically and relate the issue to foreign trade affairs resting on significant sources related to the Turkish case mainly focusing on trade statistics as to review the potential development of BGFs in Turkey.

  14. Going global: Trust research and international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Jan; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2015-01-01

    relations – rationalist, social and psychological. We not only note the contributions these have made to understanding the role of trust internationally, but also highlight areas where more research is needed. Particularly, we argue that this includes theorising processes of trust......In this review article we explore the growing body of literature on the subject of trust in the field of international relations. We argue that the international level represents a unique challenge for trust research. This is so because some of the most pressing problems facing the world today...... require the development of trusting relationships internationally. In addition, the international environment is structurally different from domestic or personal relations on which much of the trust literature has focused so far. We identify three main strands of trust literature in international...

  15. Going global: Trust research and international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Jan; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2015-01-01

    In this review article we explore the growing body of literature on the subject of trust in the field of international relations. We argue that the international level represents a unique challenge for trust research. This is so because some of the most pressing problems facing the world today...... require the development of trusting relationships internationally. In addition, the international environment is structurally different from domestic or personal relations on which much of the trust literature has focused so far. We identify three main strands of trust literature in international...... relations – rationalist, social and psychological. We not only note the contributions these have made to understanding the role of trust internationally, but also highlight areas where more research is needed. Particularly, we argue that this includes theorising processes of trust...

  16. Global solar radiation estimation from relative sunshine hours in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Aziz, J.; A-Nagi, A.; Zumailan, A.A.R. (Aden Univ. (Yemen, Republic of))

    1993-01-01

    The existing measurements of global solar radiation and sunshine duration for Yemen are examined. The errors of estimating global solar radiation from sunshine hour measurements using Angstrom's relation are evaluated. As a simple predictor for global solar radiation, an average Angstrom relation in the form H-bar/H[sub o] = 0.3518 + 0.3162 n/N for all stations is evaluated. Other Angstrom correlation relations are also proposed by classifying the stations under study into four groups. The estimated results are compared and seem to be satisfactory in the latter case. (Author)

  17. Global relation between microwave satellite vegetation products and vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Irene E.; Forkel, Matthias; Jung, Martin; Miralles, Diego G.; Dorigo, Wouter A.

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of unfavourable environmental conditions like droughts commonly reduces the photosynthetic activity of ecosystems and, hence, their potential to take up carbon from the atmosphere. Ecosystem photosynthetic activity is commonly determined using remote sensing observations in the optical domain, which however have limitations particularly in regions of frequent cloud cover, e.g. the tropics. In this study, we explore the potential of vegetation optical depth (VOD) from microwave satellite observations as an alternative source for assessing vegetation productivity. VOD serves as an estimate for vegetation density and water content, which has an impact on plant physiological processes and hence should potentially provide a link to gross primary production (GPP). However, to date, it is unclear how microwave-retrieved VOD data and GPP data are related. We compare seasonal dynamics and anomalies of VOD retrievals from different satellite sensors and microwave frequencies with site level and global GPP estimates. We use VOD observations from active (ASCAT) and passive microwave sensors (AMSR-E, SMOS). We include eddy covariance measurements from the FLUXNET2015 dataset to assess the VOD products at site level. For a global scale analysis, we use the solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) observations from GOME-2 as a proxy for GPP and the FLUXCOM GPP product, which presents an upscaling of site measurements based on remote sensing data. Our results demonstrate that in general a good agreement between VOD and GPP or SIF exists. However, the strength of these relations depends on the microwave frequency, land cover type, and the time within the growing season. Correlations between anomalies of VOD and GPP or SIF support the assumption that microwave-derived VOD can be used to monitor vegetation productivity dynamics. The study is performed as part of the EOWAVE project funded by the Vienna University of Technology (http://eowave.geo.tuwien.ac.at/) and

  18. Bridging dynamic global sourcing relations with knowledge governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explore how knowledge governance can be used for bridging global sourcing relations in the struggle to avoid the erosion of firm capabilities. The paper is based on longitudinal case studies of two Danish enterprises competing in the highly globalized textile industry....

  19. The Global Society and Its Impact on Public Relations Theorizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Kruckeberg, Dean; Starck, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the discussion on societal changes and their impact on communication disciplines by focusing on public relations and its role in contemporary global society. The thesis is that public relations profession has been affected by contemporary societal changes that challenge...... the existing body of knowledge and its underpinning theories. To understand the role of public relations in the 21st Century global societies and pursue future public relations theorizing, the authors argue it is paramount to comprehend which factors at macro, meso, and micro levels lie beneath the substantial...... changes in today’s global society. The article presents and reflects on four major macro trends of contemporary global society and concludes with suggestions for future directions for public relations scholarship and practice that are rooted in the concept of community and the idea of being part...

  20. The Global Society and Its Impact on Public Relations Theorizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Kruckeberg, Dean; Starck, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the discussion on societal changes and their impact on communication disciplines by focusing on public relations and its role in contemporary global society. The thesis is that public relations profession has been affected by contemporary societal changes that challenge...... changes in today’s global society. The article presents and reflects on four major macro trends of contemporary global society and concludes with suggestions for future directions for public relations scholarship and practice that are rooted in the concept of community and the idea of being part...... the existing body of knowledge and its underpinning theories. To understand the role of public relations in the 21st Century global societies and pursue future public relations theorizing, the authors argue it is paramount to comprehend which factors at macro, meso, and micro levels lie beneath the substantial...

  1. Global Health Cooperation: International Relations' New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This issue of MEDICC Review appears in the wake of a media splash on the reopening of the Cuban and US embassies in Washington and Havana, signaling the renewal of full diplomatic relations between the two governments. Although the US embargo is still law and one of the thorniest bilateral issues remaining, the Obama administration's bold opening towards Cuba is being echoed in the chambers of Senate committees, calling for an end to the policy in place since 1962. Meanwhile, people from the United States have begun to travel to Cuba in droves, and for the first time in many years, we perceive real hope that cooperation may replace hostility-at least in the sectors that most matter to ordinary people in both nations.

  2. Globfit: Consistently fitting primitives by discovering global relations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyan

    2011-07-01

    Given a noisy and incomplete point set, we introduce a method that simultaneously recovers a set of locally fitted primitives along with their global mutual relations. We operate under the assumption that the data corresponds to a man-made engineering object consisting of basic primitives, possibly repeated and globally aligned under common relations. We introduce an algorithm to directly couple the local and global aspects of the problem. The local fit of the model is determined by how well the inferred model agrees to the observed data, while the global relations are iteratively learned and enforced through a constrained optimization. Starting with a set of initial RANSAC based locally fitted primitives, relations across the primitives such as orientation, placement, and equality are progressively learned and conformed to. In each stage, a set of feasible relations are extracted among the candidate relations, and then aligned to, while best fitting to the input data. The global coupling corrects the primitives obtained in the local RANSAC stage, and brings them to precise global alignment. We test the robustness of our algorithm on a range of synthesized and scanned data, with varying amounts of noise, outliers, and non-uniform sampling, and validate the results against ground truth, where available. © 2011 ACM.

  3. Global optogenetic activation of inhibitory interneurons during epileptiform activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledri, Marco; Madsen, Marita Grønning; Nikitidou, Litsa; Kirik, Deniz; Kokaia, Merab

    2014-02-26

    Optogenetic techniques provide powerful tools for bidirectional control of neuronal activity and investigating alterations occurring in excitability disorders, such as epilepsy. In particular, the possibility to specifically activate by light-determined interneuron populations expressing channelrhodopsin-2 provides an unprecedented opportunity of exploring their contribution to physiological and pathological network activity. There are several subclasses of interneurons in cortical areas with different functional connectivity to the principal neurons (e.g., targeting their perisomatic or dendritic compartments). Therefore, one could optogenetically activate specific or a mixed population of interneurons and dissect their selective or concerted inhibitory action on principal cells. We chose to explore a conceptually novel strategy involving simultaneous activation of mixed populations of interneurons by optogenetics and study their impact on ongoing epileptiform activity in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Here we demonstrate that such approach results in a brief initial action potential discharge in CA3 pyramidal neurons, followed by prolonged suppression of ongoing epileptiform activity during light exposure. Such sequence of events was caused by massive light-induced release of GABA from ChR2-expressing interneurons. The inhibition of epileptiform activity was less pronounced if only parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons were activated by light. Our data suggest that global optogenetic activation of mixed interneuron populations is a more effective approach for development of novel therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, but the initial action potential generation in principal neurons needs to be taken in consideration.

  4. Monitoring population disability: Evaluation of a new Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyen, H. van; Heyden, J.; Perenboom, R.; Jagger, C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a single item instrument, the Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI), to measure long-standing health related activity limitations, against several health indicators: a composite morbidity indicator, instruments measuring mental health (SCL-90R, GHQ-12), physical

  5. Age-related decline in global form suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas; Starman, Kornelija; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Visual selection of illusory 'Kanizsa' figures, an assembly of local elements that induce the percept of a whole object, is facilitated relative to configurations composed of the same local elements that do not induce a global form--an instance of 'global precedence' in visual processing. Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global-local task requiring selection of either a 'global' Kanizsa- or a 'local' non-Kanizsa configuration (in the presence of the respectively other configuration) by analyzing event-related lateralizations (ERLs). Behaviorally, older participants showed a more pronounced global-precedence effect. Electrophysiologically, this effect was accompanied by an early (150-225 ms) 'positivity posterior contralateral' (PPC), which was elicited for older, but not younger, participants, when the target was a non-Kanizsa configuration and the Kanizsa figure a distractor (rather than vice versa). In addition, timing differences in the subsequent (250-500 ms) posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) indicated that attentional resources were allocated faster to Kanizsa, as compared to non-Kanizsa, targets in both age groups, while the allocation of spatial attention seemed to be generally delayed in older relative to younger age. Our results suggest that the enhanced global-local asymmetry in the older age group originated from less effective suppression of global distracter forms on early processing stages--indicative of older observers having difficulties with disengaging from a global default selection mode and switching to the required local state of attentional resolution.

  6. Struggles Against Bilateral FTAs: Challenges for Transnational Global Justice Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Choudry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen major movements and mobilizations against the new crop of bilateral free trade and investment agreements being pursued by governments in the wake of the failure of global (World Trade Organization and regional (e.g. Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and the defeat of an attempted Multilateral Agreement on Investment in the 1990s.  However, in spite of much scholarly, non-governmental organization (NGO and activist focus on transnational global justice activism, many of these movements, such as the major multi-sectoral popular struggle over the recently-concluded US-Korea Free Trade Agreement, are hardly acknowledged in North America and Europe.  With a shift in emphasis pushing liberalization and deregulation of trade and investment increasingly favouring lower-profile bilateral agreements, this article maps the resistance movements to these latest shifts in global free market capitalist relations and discusses the disconnect between these (mainly Southern struggles and dominant scholarly and NGO conceptions of global justice and the global justice movement as well as questions of knowledge production arising from these movements.

  7. Age-related decline in global form suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Visual selection of illusory ‘Kanizsa’ figures, an assembly of local elements that induce the percept of a whole object, is facilitated relative to configurations composed of the same local elements that do not induce a global form – an instance of ‘global precedence’ in visual processing....... Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global....... Electrophysiologically, this effect was accompanied by an early (150-225 ms) ‘positivity posterior contralateral’ (PPC), which was elicited for older, but not younger, participants, when the target was a non-Kanizsa configuration and the Kanizsa figure a distractor (rather than vice versa). In addition, timing...

  8. Water-Related Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Herbert L.; Price, Charles L.

    This publication is designed to provide interested teachers with teaching activities for all grade levels and subject areas that can be used to help students learn about water resources. For each activity, the purpose, level, subject, and concept are given. Activities are organized by grade level. Most of these water related learning activities…

  9. Multi-Label Object Categorization Using Histograms of Global Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail; Xiong, Hanchen; Kraft, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an object categorization system capable of assigning multiple and related categories for novel objects using multi-label learning. In this system, objects are described using global geometric relations of 3D features. We propose using the Joint SVM method for learning...

  10. Globalization of rheumatology: activities of ILAR. Think global - act local

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dequeker, Jan; Rasker, Hans J.; El-Hadidi, Tahsin

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 a distinguished EULAR rheumatologist involved in the development of biologics asked somewhat ironically, “What is ILAR [International League of Associations for Rheumatology] doing?” Now, 3 years later, we are in a position to review ILAR’s activities in recent years and its plans for the

  11. Globalization of rheumatology: activities of ILAR. Think global - act local

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dequeker, Jan; Rasker, J.J. (Hans); El-Hadidi, Tahsin

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 a distinguished EULAR rheumatologist involved in the development of biologics asked somewhat ironically, “What is ILAR [International League of Associations for Rheumatology] doing?” Now, 3 years later, we are in a position to review ILAR’s activities in recent years and its plans for the fu

  12. The Role of Volcanic Activity in Climate and Global Change

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-09-23

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are magnificent events that in many ways affect the Earth\\'s natural processes and climate. They cause sporadic perturbations of the planet\\'s energy balance, activating complex climate feedbacks and providing unique opportunities to better quantify those processes. We know that explosive eruptions cause cooling in the atmosphere for a few years, but we have just recently realized that volcanic signals can be seen in the subsurface ocean for decades. The volcanic forcing of the previous two centuries offsets the ocean heat uptake and diminishes global warming by about 30%. The explosive volcanism of the twenty-first century is unlikely to either cause any significant climate signal or to delay the pace of global warming. The recent interest in dynamic, microphysical, chemical, and climate impacts of volcanic eruptions is also excited by the fact that these impacts provide a natural analogue for climate geoengineering schemes involving deliberate development of an artificial aerosol layer in the lower stratosphere to counteract global warming. In this chapter we aim to discuss these recently discovered volcanic effects and specifically pay attention to how we can learn about the hidden Earth-system mechanisms activated by explosive volcanic eruptions. To demonstrate these effects we use our own model results when possible along with available observations, as well as review closely related recent publications.

  13. Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are discusse

  14. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  15. Investor Relations & Importance in the Global Financial Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dziawgo, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the elaboration is to draw attention to selected aspects of investor relations importance for capital market functioning to increase the quality of communication with investors in the global financial market. The article presents the importance of investor relations from a macroeconomic and microeconomic point of view. The theory was complemented with selected surveys results. The sur-veys were conducted by the author on a sample of individual investors, stock-quoted companies and ...

  16. Inter-firm relations in global manufacturing: disintegrated production and its globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrigel, G.; Zeitlin, J.; Morgan, G.; Campbell, J.; Crouch, C.; Pedersen, O.K.; Whitley, R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter surveys the state of international scholarly debate on inter-firm relations in global manufacturing. It focuses on the evolving strategies of customers and suppliers within the value chains of core manufacturing industries, such as motor vehicles and complex mechanical engineering

  17. Inter-firm relations in global manufacturing: disintegrated production and its globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrigel, G.; Zeitlin, J.; Morgan, G.; Campbell, J.; Crouch, C.; Pedersen, O.K.; Whitley, R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter surveys the state of international scholarly debate on inter-firm relations in global manufacturing. It focuses on the evolving strategies of customers and suppliers within the value chains of core manufacturing industries, such as motor vehicles and complex mechanical engineering produ

  18. Miniaturization and globalization of clinical laboratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Murilo R; Clark, Samantha; Barrio, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Clinical laboratories provide an invaluable service to millions of people around the world in the form of quality diagnostic care. Within the clinical laboratory industry the impetus for change has come from technological development (miniaturization, nanotechnology, and their collective effect on point-of-care testing; POCT) and the increasingly global nature of laboratory services. Potential technological gains in POCT include: the development of bio-sensors, microarrays, genetics and proteomics testing, and enhanced web connectivity. In globalization, prospective opportunities lie in: medical tourism, the migration of healthcare workers, cross-border delivery of testing, and the establishment of accredited laboratories in previously unexplored markets. Accompanying these impressive opportunities are equally imposing challenges. Difficulty transitioning from research to clinical use, poor infrastructure in developing countries, cultural differences and national barriers to global trade are only a few examples. Dealing with the issues presented by globalization and the impact of developing technology on POCT, and on the clinical laboratory services industry in general, will be a daunting task. Despite such concerns, with appropriate countermeasures it will be possible to address the challenges posed. Future laboratory success will be largely dependent on one's ability to adapt in this perpetually shifting landscape.

  19. Emotional Eruptions, Volcanic Activity and Global Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2011-01-01

    The eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010 set off a number of environmental, economic and cultural effects obstructing thousands of people in the midst of their global mobility flows. It halted, as well, the exchange of goods and commodities and exposed the vulnerability of...

  20. Emotional Eruptions, Volcanic Activity and Global Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2011-01-01

    The eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010 set off a number of environmental, economic and cultural effects obstructing thousands of people in the midst of their global mobility flows. It halted, as well, the exchange of goods and commodities and exposed the vulnerability...

  1. Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohr, M.; Degner, J.; Wentura, D.

    2012-01-01

    An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific em

  2. Global health-related publications in otolaryngology are increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kyle J; Creighton, Francis; Abdul-Aziz, Dunia; Cheney, Mack; Randolph, Gregory W

    2015-04-01

    Determine trends in global health-related publication in otolaryngology. A review of research databases. A search of publications available on PubMed and nine additional databases was undertaken reviewing two time periods 10 years apart for the timeframes 1998 to 2002 (early time period) and 2008 to 2012 (recent time period) using specific search terms to identify global health-related publications in otolaryngology. Publications were examined for region of origin, subspecialty, type of publication, and evidence of international collaboration. χ and t test analyses were used to identify trends. In the 1998 to 2002 time period, a total of 26 publications met inclusion criteria for the study, with a mean of 5.2 ± 2.8 publications per year. In the 2008 to 2012 time period, a total of 61 publications met inclusion criteria, with a mean of 12.3 ± 5.6 publications per year. The 235% increase in global health-related publications identified between the two study periods was statistically significant (P = .02). The absolute number of publications in which collaboration occurred between countries increased from three in the early time period to nine the recent time period. There has been a significant increase in the volume of global health-related publications in English language otolaryngology journals over the past decade, providing strong evidence of the increasing trend of global health as an academic pursuit within the field of otolaryngology. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Lived experience of economic and political trends related to globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushon, Jennifer A; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Labonte, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method case study examined how the economic and political processes of globalization have influenced the determinants of health among low-income children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. This paper presents the results from the qualitative interview component of the case study. The purpose of the interviews was to uncover the lived experience of low-income families and their children in Saskatoon with regards to political and economic trends related to globalization, an important addition to the usual globalization and health research that relies primarily on cross-country regressions in which the personal impacts remain hidden. In-depth phenomenological interviews with 26 low-income parents of young children (aged zero to five) who were residents of Saskatoon. A combination of volunteer and criterion sampling was used. Interview questions were open-ended and based upon an analytical framework. Analysis proceeded through immersion in the data, a process of open coding, and finally through a process of selective coding. The larger case study and interviews indicate that globalization has largely not been benefiting low-income parents with young children. Low-income families with young children were struggling to survive, despite the tremendous economic growth occurring in Saskatchewan and Saskatoon at the time of the interviews. This often led to participants expressing a sense of helplessness, despair, isolation, and/or anger. Respondents' experiences suggest that globalization-related changes in social conditions and public policies and programs have great potential to negatively affect family health through either psychosocial effects in individuals and/or decreased levels of social cohesion in the community.

  4. The Fundamental k-Form and Global Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C.L. Ashton

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In [Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 453 (1997, no. 1962, 1411-1443] A.S. Fokas introduced a novel method for solving a large class of boundary value problems associated with evolution equations. This approach relies on the construction of a so-called global relation: an integral expression that couples initial and boundary data. The global relation can be found by constructing a differential form dependent on some spectral parameter, that is closed on the condition that a given partial differential equation is satisfied. Such a differential form is said to be fundamental [Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 55 (2002, 457-479]. We give an algorithmic approach in constructing a fundamental k-form associated with a given boundary value problem, and address issues of uniqueness. Also, we extend a result of Fokas and Zyskin to give an integral representation to the solution of a class of boundary value problems, in an arbitrary number of dimensions. We present an extended example using these results in which we construct a global relation for the linearised Navier-Stokes equations.

  5. Mapping International Cancer ActivitiesGlobal Cancer Project Map Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH’s Dr. Sudha Sivaram, Dr. Makeda Williams, and Ms. Kalina Duncan have partnered with Drs. Ami Bhatt and Franklin Huang at Global Oncology, Inc. (GO) to develop the Global Cancer Project Map - a web-based tool designed to facilitate cancer research and control activity planning.

  6. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S; Mniszewski, Susan M; Del Valle, Sara Y; Hyman, James M

    2014-12-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule's regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity's regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  7. Neoproterozoic magmatic activity and global change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongfei

    2003-01-01

    Neoproterozoic is a very important time in the history of the Earth, during which occurred supercontinent breakup, low-latitude glaciation, and biotic diversification. These concern a series of interdisciplinary studies involving ancient plate motion, climate change and life evolution, resulting in many forefront topics of general interest in the earth sciences. These include exact ages bracketing the Cryogenian System and glaciations, initial age and lasted duration of supercontinent breakup, dynamic reconstruction of China continents in supercontinental configurations, the nature of rift magmatism and extent of hydrothermal alteration, paleoclimatic implication of water-rock interaction and low-18O magmatism, and relationship between supercontinental evolution and global change. A number of outstanding advances in the above aspects have being made by Chinese scientists, leaving many important issues to be resolved: (1) did the Cryogenian start at either 800 to 820 Ma or 760 to 780 Ma? (2) was South China in the supercontinental configuration located in either southeast to Australia or north to India? (3) are Paleoproterozoic to Archean ages of crustal rocks a valid parameter in distinguishing North China from South China? Available observations suggest that Neoproterozoic mantle superwelling occurred as conspicuous magmatism in South China but as cryptical magmatism in North China. Mid-Neoproterozoic mantle superplume event and its derived rift-magmatism would not only result in the supercontinental demise, but also play a very important role in the generation and evolution of the snowball Earth event by initiating the global glaciation, causing the local deglaciation and terminating the snowball Earth event.

  8. On Global One-Dimensionality proposal in Quantum General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Glinka, L A

    2008-01-01

    Quantum General Relativity, better known as Quantum Gravity with additional epithets, currently is faraway from phenomenology. This mental crisis leads at most to empty hypotheses, but not to realistic physics. However, there exists the way, investigated by Dirac, which is constructive for experimental data predictions in astrophysics, high energy physics, and condensed matter physics. It is Field Theory. This article presents certain proposal for new discussion. General Relativity in 3+1 metric field gauge and its canonical quantization is developed. Reduction of the quantum geometrodynamics to Global One-Dimensional bosonic field theory, its quantization, and some conclusions are presented.

  9. Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Michaela; Degner, Juliane; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific emotion. In three studies, we investigated the specificity of emotion processing under conditions of limited awareness using a modified variant of an affective priming task. Faces with happy, angry, sad, fearful, and neutral expressions were presented as masked primes for 33 ms (Study 1) or 14 ms (Studies 2 and 3) followed by emotional target faces (Studies 1 and 2) or emotional adjectives (Study 3). Participants' task was to categorise the target emotion. In all three studies, discrimination of targets was significantly affected by the emotional primes beyond a simple positive versus negative distinction. Results indicate that specific aspects of emotions might be automatically disentangled in addition to valence, even under conditions of subjective unawareness.

  10. Global measurement of greenhouse gases and related air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, John P. [Institute of Environmental Physics and Remote Sensing, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve our understanding of the feedbacks within the earth atmosphere system, which determine the magnitude of global climate change, global measurement is required of greenhouse constituents at adequate spatial and temporal sampling scale. One of the holy grails of Earth Observation is the measurements of tropospheric constituents from space. In this context the determination of the loading of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, CO{sub 2}, and Methane, CH{sub 4}, in the boundary layer and lower troposphere at a precision capable of testing our understanding of their sources and sinks is challenging. SCIAMACHY (the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY), which flies aboard ENVISAT is the first Earth Observation instrument to attempt this. It is the forerunner of the missions OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory), from NASA and GOSAT, Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite, from JAXA. This presentation discusses the measurements of natural and anthropogenic greenhouse constituents and related pollutants from space.

  11. Transnational activism and free trade: Exploring the emancipatory potentials of global civil society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Felice, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the alleged emancipatory potential of global civil society as regards transnational activism to promote fair trade. It examines the case of transnational activism on European Free Trade Agreements, with illustrations from the Stop EPAs campaign and activism relating to the

  12. Response of global lightning activity to air temperature variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ming; TAO Shanchang; ZHU Baoyou; L(U) Weitao; TAN Yongbo

    2005-01-01

    It is an issue of great attention but yet not very clear whether lightning activities increase or decrease on a warmer world. Reeve et al. presented that lightning activities in global land and the Northern Hemisphere land have positive response to the increase of wet bulb temperature at 1000hPa. Is this positive response restricted only to wet bulb temperature or in land? What is the response of global lightning activities (in both land and ocean) to the global surface air temperature variation like? This paper, based on the 5-year or 8-year OTD/LIS satellite-based lightning detecting data and the NCEP reanalysis data, makes a reanalysis of the response of the global and regional lightning activities to temperature variations. The results show that on the interannual time scale the global total flash rate has positive response to the variation in global surface air temperature, with the sensitivity of 17±7% K-1. Also, the seasonal mean flash rate of continents all over the world and that of continents in the Northern Hemisphere have sensitive positive response to increase of global surface air temperature and wet bulb temperature, with the sensitivity of about 13±5% K-1, a bit lower than estimation of 40% K-1 in Reeve et al. However, the Southern Hemisphere and other areas like the tropics show no significant correlation.

  13. The atmospheric electric global circuit. [thunderstorm activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemir, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis that world thunderstorm activity represents the generator for the atmospheric electric current flow in the earth atmosphere between ground and the ionosphere is based on a close correlation between the magnitude and the diurnal variation of the supply current (thunderstorm generator current) and the load current (fair weather air-earth current density integrated over the earth surface). The advantages of using lightning survey satellites to furnish a base for accepting or rejecting the thunderstorm generator hypothesis are discussed.

  14. OTC Derivatives and Global Economic Activity: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Bodnar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available That the global market for derivatives has expanded beyond recognition is well known. What is not know is how this market interacts with economic activity. We provide the first empirical characterization of interdependencies between OECD economic activity and the global OTC derivatives market. To this end, we apply a vector-error correction model to OTC derivatives disaggregated across instruments and counterparties. The results indicate that with one exception, the heterogeneity of OTC contracts is too pronounced to be reliably summarized by our measures of economic activity. The one exception is interest-rate derivatives held by Other Financial Institutions.

  15. Abnormal network topographies and changes in global activity: absence of a causal relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Vijay; Tang, Chris C; Ma, Yilong; Spetsieris, Phoebe; Eidelberg, David

    2012-12-01

    Changes in regional brain activity can be observed following global normalization procedures to reduce variability in the data. In particular, spurious regional differences may appear when scans from patients with low global activity are compared to those from healthy subjects. It has thus been suggested that the consistent increases in subcortical activity that characterize the abnormal Parkinson's disease-related metabolic covariance pattern (PDRP) are artifacts of global normalization, and that similar topographies can be identified in scans from healthy subjects with varying global activity. To address this issue, we examined the effects of experimental reductions in global metabolic activity on PDRP expression. Ten healthy subjects underwent ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET in wakefulness and following sleep induction. In all subjects, the global metabolic rate (GMR) declined with sleep (mean -34%, range: -17 to -56%), exceeding the test-retest differences of the measure (pdata demonstrate that abnormal PDRP expression is not induced by reductions in global activity. Moreover, significant declines in GMR are not associated with the appearance of PDRP-like spatial topographies.

  16. Global Advocacy for Physical Activity (GAPA): global leadership towards a raised profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Shilton, Trevor; Bull, Fiona

    2013-12-01

    Physical inactivity has been recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the leading causes of death due to non-communicable disease (NCD), worldwide. The benefits of action over inactivity can cut across health, environment, transportation, sport, culture and the economy. Despite the evidence, the policies and strategies to increase population-wide participation in physical activity receive insufficient priority from across high, middle and low-income countries; where physical inactivity is a rapidly-emerging issue. There is an increased need for all countries to invest in policies, strategies and supportive environments that inform, motivate and support individuals and communities to be active in ways that are safe, accessible and enjoyable. This commentary presents some recent efforts towards physical activity promotion globally, led by the Global Advocacy for Physical Activity (GAPA). It provides an overview of the background and history of GAPA; describes GAPA and the council's key achievements and milestones; places physical activity promotion within the global NCD agenda; presents GAPA flagships; and reflects on the lessons learned, ingredients for success and the major challenges that remain. The commentary documents insights into the effectiveness and challenges faced by a small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in mounting global advocacy. These lessons may be transferrable to other areas of health promotion advocacy.

  17. The Globalization of Value chain activities, Knowledge dynamics, and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Eunkyung

    of the involved regions and countries. The purpose of this thesis is to study these issues with a broad research question, “What implications does the globalization of value chain activities have on innovation in firms and locations?” Four articles and a case study included in the thesis present empirical results......Firms are increasingly relocating diverse activities in the value chain abroad to reap the locational advantage available in other countries. One of the issues raised in this context is that, as global operations can function as channels for knowledge flows, the involved firms and locations may...

  18. Global Change. Teaching Activities on Global Change for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This packet contains a series of teaching guides on global change. The series includes lessons on dendrochronology; land, air, and water; and island living. Included is information such as : laws of straws; where land, air, and water meet; and Earth as home. Each section provides an introductory description of the activity, the purpose of the…

  19. From Apathy to Action : Promoting Active Citizenship and Global Responsibility Amongst Populations in the Global North

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to address social and global problems such as poverty, mass hunger and mass-atrocity crimes are hindered significantly by apathy and low levels of active civil and political engagement amongst populations in developed countries. Social change non-government organisations (NGOs), such as Oxfa

  20. The Relation Between Global Migration and Trade Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sgrignoli, Paolo; Schiavo, Stefano; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we develop a methodology to analyze and compare multiple global networks. We focus our analysis on the relation between human migration and trade. First, we identify the subset of products for which the presence of a community of migrants significantly increases trade intensity. To assure comparability across networks, we apply a hypergeometric filter to identify links for which migration and trade intensity are both significantly higher than expected. Next we develop an econometric methodology, inspired by spatial econometrics, to measure the effect of migration on international trade while controlling for network interdependencies. Overall, we find that migration significantly boosts trade across sectors and we are able to identify product categories for which this effect is particularly strong.

  1. The relation between global migration and trade networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrignoli, Paolo; Metulini, Rodolfo; Schiavo, Stefano; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a methodology to analyze and compare multiple global networks, focusing our analysis on the relation between human migration and trade. First, we identify the subset of products for which the presence of a community of migrants significantly increases trade intensity, where to assure comparability across networks we apply a hypergeometric filter that lets us identify those links which intensity is significantly higher than expected. Next, proposing a new way to define country neighbors based on the most intense links in the trade network, we use spatial econometrics techniques to measure the effect of migration on international trade, while controlling for network interdependences. Overall, we find that migration significantly boosts trade across countries and we are able to identify product categories for which this effect is particularly strong.

  2. PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY IN A GLOBAL MODEL OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, S. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Viall, N. M., E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu, E-mail: Nicholeen.M.Viall@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  3. Global analysis of small molecule binding to related protein targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A Kruger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the integration of pharmacological data and homology information for a large scale analysis of small molecule binding to related targets. Differences in small molecule binding have been assessed for curated pairs of human to rat orthologs and also for recently diverged human paralogs. Our analysis shows that in general, small molecule binding is conserved for pairs of human to rat orthologs. Using statistical tests, we identified a small number of cases where small molecule binding is different between human and rat, some of which had previously been reported in the literature. Knowledge of species specific pharmacology can be advantageous for drug discovery, where rats are frequently used as a model system. For human paralogs, we demonstrate a global correlation between sequence identity and the binding of small molecules with equivalent affinity. Our findings provide an initial general model relating small molecule binding and sequence divergence, containing the foundations for a general model to anticipate and predict within-target-family selectivity.

  4. Activating Digital-Media-Global Literacies and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Heidi Hayes

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author states: "It doesn't matter how many computer-related devices we have in school, what matters is how we employ technology toward a large learning goal, toward a new vision of education." She continues, "When I suggest the cultivation and integration of digital, media, and global literacies, I do so…

  5. Global citizenship: From public support to active participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. Carabain (Christine); S.A.C. Keulemans (Shelena); M. van Gent (Marije); G. Spitz (Gabi)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globalisation is not something that has happened overnight. It is an ongoing process that, by trial and error, is part of human development. And yet, the last few decades have seen the unprecedented acceleration of changes in global relations. The fall of the Berlin Wal

  6. Activating Digital-Media-Global Literacies and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Heidi Hayes

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author states: "It doesn't matter how many computer-related devices we have in school, what matters is how we employ technology toward a large learning goal, toward a new vision of education." She continues, "When I suggest the cultivation and integration of digital, media, and global literacies, I do so…

  7. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  8. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-11-04

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity.

  9. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    CERN Document Server

    Pulinets, S A

    2002-01-01

    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstor...

  10. Global positioning system pseudolite-based relative navigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monda, Eric W. (University of Texas, Austin, TX)

    2004-03-01

    Though the Global Positioning System has revolutionized navigation in the modern age, it is limited in its capability for some applications because an unobstructed line of sight to a minimum of four satellites is required. One way of augmenting the system in small areas is by employing pseudolites to broadcast additional signals that can be used to improve the user's position solution. At the Navigation Systems Testing Laboratory (NSTL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, research has been underway on the use of pseudolites to perform precision relative navigation. Based on the findings of previous research done at the NSTL, the method used to process the pseudolite measurements is an extended Kalman filter of the double differenced carrier phase measurements. By employing simulations of the system, as well as processing previously collected data in a real time manner, sub-meter tracking of a moving receiver with carrier phase measurements in the extended Kalman filter appears to be possible.

  11. Sequential Reinstatement of Neocortical Activity during Slow Oscillations Depends on Cells’ Global Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrache, Adrien; Benchenane, Karim; Khamassi, Mehdi; Wiener, Sidney I.; Battaglia, Francesco P.

    2009-01-01

    During Slow Wave Sleep (SWS), cortical activity is dominated by endogenous processes modulated by slow oscillations (0.1–1 Hz): cell ensembles fluctuate between states of sustained activity (UP states) and silent epochs (DOWN states). We investigate here the temporal structure of ensemble activity during UP states by means of multiple single unit recordings in the prefrontal cortex of naturally sleeping rats. As previously shown, the firing rate of each PFC cell peaks at a distinct time lag after the DOWN/UP transition in a consistent order. We show here that, conversely, the latency of the first spike after the UP state onset depends primarily on the session-averaged firing rates of cells (which can be considered as an indirect measure of their intrinsic excitability). This latency can be explained by a simple homogeneous process (Poisson model) of cell firing, with sleep averaged firing rates employed as parameters. Thus, at DOWN/UP transitions, neurons are affected both by a slow process, possibly originating in the cortical network, modulating the time course of firing for each cell, and by a fast, relatively stereotyped reinstatement of activity, related mostly to global activity levels. PMID:20130754

  12. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in older Mexican adults and its association with physical activity and related factors: An analysis of the study on global ageing and adult health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Marino, Gabriela; Negin, Joel; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Sterner, Kirstin N; Snodgrass, Josh; Kowal, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in Mexico is increasing and represents a considerable public health challenge. The population aged 50 years and older is also increasing and is not exempt from the obesity rise. We aimed to determine the current prevalence of Body Mass Index (BMI) categories in a sample of Mexicans aged 50 years and older and to test the associations of BMI with physical activity categories and related factors. Data from 2,032 individuals aged 50 years and older who participated in SAGE Wave 1 (2009-2010) were analyzed. Representativeness of the sample was obtained by using weighted data. Descriptive statistics, chi square tests, simple regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed in relation to BMI, self-reported physical activity categories, and several variables, including demographic characteristics and selected risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Among older adults, 0.6% was found to be underweight, 21.4% normal weight, 49.4% overweight, and 28.7% obese. It was also found that practicing vigorous intensity physical activity (-1.32) and being 80 years or older (-2.73) were significantly associated (P obesity etiology in Mexico, and moreover confirm that overweight and obesity are current public health problems that must be addressed in specific subgroups of older adults. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Perceived reciprocal value of health professionals participation in global child health-related work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah Carbone; Jannah Wigle; Nadia Akseer; Raluca Barac; Melanie Barwick; Stanley Zlotkin

    2017-01-01

    ...’ participation in global child health-related work. Benefits were measured in the form of skills, knowledge and attitude strengthening as estimated by an adapted Global Health Competency Model...

  14. Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Adler, David; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides worldwide. While research has evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local or regional scales using in situ data, few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This study uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from TRMM data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurrence of precipitation and landslides globally. Evaluation of the GLC indicates that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This study characterizes the variability of satellite precipitation data and reported landslide activity at the globally scale in order to improve landslide cataloging, forecasting and quantify potential triggering sources at daily, monthly and yearly time scales.

  15. Comae Berenicids and related activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    The Comae Berenicids have been considered as a winter shower but lower meteor activities continue the whole year round in this region. It might be called the meteors of Coma Sororum Medusae (CSM) instead of Comae Berenicids (COM). The CSM radiant passes the zenith twice in lower latitudes of the northern hemisphere and CSM activities vary with the altitude of the radiant. December Leonis Minorids (DLM) and September varepsilon-Perseids (SPE) are distinct from the CSM background meteors, but July Pegasids (JPE), delta-Aurigids (DAU) and nu-Aurigids (NAU) are buried in this complex. The conglomeration of DLM, COM and JCO (January Comae Berenicids) has caused confusion in meteor observations as to whether they are three distinct sources or should be considered as one. A simple model of meteor stream structure shows the clear profile of their activities. Although their radiant drifts are overlapping, they might have different parent objects.

  16. Global synchronization of two parametrically excited systems using active control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Youming [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)] e-mail: leiyouming@nwpu.edu.cn; Xu Wei [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)] e-mail: weixu@nwpu.edu.cn; Shen Jianwei [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Fang Tong [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we apply an active control technique to synchronize a kind of two parametrically excited chaotic systems. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and Routh-Hurwitz criteria, some generic sufficient conditions for global asymptotic synchronization are obtained. Illustrative examples on synchronization of two Duffing systems subject to a harmonic parametric excitation and that of two parametrically excited chaotic pendulums are considered here. Numerical simulations show the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  17. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy.

  18. Infiltration of the synovial membrane with macrophage subsets and polymorphonuclear cells reflects global disease activity in spondyloarthropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, D; Kruithof, E; De Rycke, L; Boots, AM; Mielants, H; Veys, EM; De Keyser, F

    2005-01-01

    Considering the relation between synovial inflammation and global disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the distinct but heterogeneous histology of spondyloarthropathy (SpA) synovitis, the present study analyzed whether histopathological features of synovium reflect specific phenotypes

  19. Infiltration of the synovial membrane with macrophage subsets and polymorphonuclear cells reflects global disease activity in spondyloarthropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, D; Kruithof, E; De Rycke, L; Boots, AM; Mielants, H; Veys, EM; De Keyser, F

    2005-01-01

    Considering the relation between synovial inflammation and global disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the distinct but heterogeneous histology of spondyloarthropathy (SpA) synovitis, the present study analyzed whether histopathological features of synovium reflect specific phenotypes a

  20. Public relations as promotional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Almira Curri-Mehmeti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public. It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a two-way street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensa-tional promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.

  1. Pseudotensor applied to Numerical Relativity in Calculating Global Quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Chung-Chin; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yo, Hwei-Jang

    2015-01-01

    In this work we apply the Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensor flux formalism to the calculation of the total mass and the total angular momentum during the evolution of a binary black hole system. We also compare its performance with the traditional integrations for the global quantities. It shows that the advantage of the pseudotensor flux formalism is the smoothness of the numerical value of the global quantities, especially of the total angular momentum. Although the convergence behavior of the global quantities with the pseudotensor flux method is only comparable with the ones with the traditional method, the smoothness of its numerical value allows using a larger radius for surface integration to obtain more accurate result.

  2. Using Game Theory to Qualitatively Analyze Global Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacosa, Corliss A.; Cuper, Taryn

    2010-01-01

    As the world becomes smaller, the importance of global education increases. Technological advancements have made news instantaneous. The advent of the Internet has made contact with another part of the world just a click away. Such achievements have put pressure on educational institutions to prepare students for the global community in which they already live. !ey must not only e taug about the world and the interactions among countries, but also, how the decIsions are made which facilltae. these interactions and what factors might contribute to the chain reactions which might erupt from such declsl?n. It is critical that students learn the skills of decision-making and analysis in order to be able to operate Within a world where threats and crises abound. As tomorrow's leaders, today's students must be exposed to the global world and its mechanisms and learn the tools to navigate within it.

  3. Accounts from the field: a public relations perspective on global AIDS/HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Nilanjana R

    2002-01-01

    This study is a theoretical as well as empirical exploration of the power and cultural differentials that mark and construct various intersecting discourses, specifically media discourse, on global AIDS/HIV. It applies the language and concepts of public relations to understand how the press coverage of the pandemic is associated with the variables that impact the newsmaking process as well as the public and policy implications of macro news frames generated over time. Theoretical work in the areas of agenda setting and news framing also instruct the conceptual framework of this analysis. Narrative analysis is used as a methodology to qualitatively analyze three pools of accounts-from people either living with AIDS/HIV, involved in AIDS/HIV work, or discursively engaged in the media construction of the pandemic; from transnational wire service journalists who cover the issue at global and regional levels; and policy shapers and communicators who are active at the global level. These three communities of respondents represent important stakeholders in the AIDS/HIV issue. The findings are analyzed from a public relations standpoint. Perhaps the most important finding of this study is that the public relations approaches used to address AIDS/HIV related issues need to be grounded in context-specific research and communicative practices that bring out the lived realities of AIDS/HIV at grassroots levels. The findings also posit that those situated at critical junctions between various stakeholders need to cultivate a finely balanced understanding of the etic and emic intersections and subjectivities of global/local AIDS/HIV.

  4. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  5. Skill of a global seasonal streamflow forecasting system, relative roles of initial conditions and meteorological forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candogan Yossef, N.; Winsemius, H.C.; Weerts, A.; Van Beek, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through be

  6. Skill of a global seasonal streamflow forecasting system, relative roles of initial conditions and meteorological forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candogan Yossef, N.; Winsemius, H.C.; Weerts, A.; Van Beek, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through be

  7. Skill of a global seasonal streamflow forecasting system, relative roles of initial conditions and meteorological forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candogan Yossef, N.; Winsemius, H.C.; Weerts, A.; Van Beek, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through

  8. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  9. Characteristics and laws of MODS coupling relation in arid zone under global change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ranghui; ZHANG Huizhi; HUANG Qing

    2006-01-01

    Global change has influenced the distribution pattern and spatio-temporal changes of resources in arid zone, and has restrained the land use and land cover change, which is shown by water-heat state, landscape structure, climate effect, and human activities. The above-mentioned characteristics have a close coupling relation with the mountain-oasisdesert system (MODS). The climate in Central Asia arid zone is warm and wet, which is different from that in northern China which takes a tendency of aridity, and the mechanism has restricted the characteristics and laws of MODS. Systematic interface characteristics and process, especially the formation,transformation and consumption laws of water resource reflect directly MODS's response to global change in arid zone. Spatio-temporal pattern, dynamic change, scale change and coupling mode of MODS reflect the ecology mechanism between the systems and within the systems.

  10. Perceived reciprocal value of health professionals' participation in global child health-related work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Sarah; Wigle, Jannah; Akseer, Nadia; Barac, Raluca; Barwick, Melanie; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2017-05-22

    Leading children's hospitals in high-income settings have become heavily engaged in international child health research and educational activities. These programs aim to provide benefit to the institutions, children and families in the overseas locations where they are implemented. Few studies have measured the actual reciprocal value of this work for the home institutions and for individual staff who participate in these overseas activities. Our objective was to estimate the perceived reciprocal value of health professionals' participation in global child health-related work. Benefits were measured in the form of skills, knowledge and attitude strengthening as estimated by an adapted Global Health Competency Model. A survey questionnaire was developed following a comprehensive review of literature and key competency models. It was distributed to all health professionals at the Hospital for Sick Children with prior international work experience (n = 478). One hundred fifty six health professionals completed the survey (34%). A score of 0 represented negligible value gained and a score of 100 indicated significant capacity improvement. The mean respondent improvement score was 57 (95% CI 53-62) suggesting improved overall competency resulting from their international experiences. Mean scores were >50% in 8 of 10 domains. Overall scores suggest that international work brought value to the hospital and over half responded that their international experience would influence their decision to stay on at the hospital. The findings offer tangible examples of how global child health work conducted outside of one's home institution impacts staff and health systems locally.

  11. Global changes in biogeochemical cycles in response to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Melillo, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of our research was to characterize biogeochemical cycles at continental and global scales in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This characterization applied to both natural ecosystems and those disturbed by human activity. The primary elements of interest were carbon and nitrogen and the analysis sought to quantify standing stocks and dynamic cycling processes. The translocation of major nutrients from the terrestrial landscape to the atmosphere (via trace gases) and to fluvial systems (via leaching, erosional losses, and point source pollution) were of particular importance to this study. Our aim was to develop the first generation of Earth System Models. Our research was organized around the construction and testing of component biogeochemical models which treated terrestrial ecosystem processes, aquatic nutrient transport through drainage basins, and trace gas exchanges at the continental and global scale. A suite of three complementary models were defined within this construct. The models were organized to operate at a 1/2 degree latitude by longitude level of spatial resolution and to execute at a monthly time step. This discretization afforded us the opportunity to understand the dynamics of the biosphere down to subregional scales, while simultaneously placing these dynamics into a global context.

  12. US/Japan workshop on mitigation and adaptation technologies related to global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernthal, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    It is a great pleasure for me to have the honor of delivering the keynote address for this important gathering, an honor enhanced further because of the many activities and historic relationships represented by this workshop. First of all, it represents the spirit of continuing cooperation and good relations between the United States and Japan. With the aid of the framework provided by the U.S./Japan Science and Technology Agreement, our two nations can come together to address a problem that has no national boundaries {hor_ellipsis} and we can think about solutions of potential benefit to all citizens of the global community. This workshop also symbolizes the spirit of cooperation so characteristic of the conduct of research in science and technology -- cooperation between us as individual scientists and engineers, between the various institutions we represent, and across our diverse disciplines. This workshop is only the second of its kind. The first US/Japan Workshop on global climate change was held last year in Japan. That workshop focused on cooperative scientific research in the United States and Japan. Out of it came a general agreement to continue collaborative work and to extend cooperation into the area of global change-related technologies, in particular those technologies that hold promise for mitigation and adaptation.

  13. Global Citizenship Instruction through Active Participation: What Is Being Learned about Global Citizenship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    If the definitions of global citizenship are varied and contestable, how do teachers conceptualize and make meaning of global citizenship when required to teach global citizenship in the classroom? For this study, twenty-nine grade six social studies teachers in British Columbia, Canada, were surveyed on their definitions of global citizenship…

  14. Thinking Globally and Acting Locally: Environmental Education Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Lori D.; Stapp, William B.

    Provided are teaching activities related to: (1) food production and distribution; (2) energy; (3) transportation; (4) solid waste; (5) chemicals in the environment; (6) resource management; (7) pollution; (8) population; (9) world linkages; (10) endangered species; and (11) lifestyle and environment. The activities, designed to help learners…

  15. Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玮丽

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.

  16. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  17. An authoritative global database for active submarine hydrothermal vent fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Baker, Edward T.; German, Christopher R.; Maffei, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    The InterRidge Vents Database is available online as the authoritative reference for locations of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields. Here we describe the revision of the database to an open source content management system and conduct a meta-analysis of the global distribution of known active vent fields. The number of known active vent fields has almost doubled in the past decade (521 as of year 2009), with about half visually confirmed and others inferred active from physical and chemical clues. Although previously known mainly from mid-ocean ridges (MORs), active vent fields at MORs now comprise only half of the total known, with about a quarter each now known at volcanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers. Discoveries in arc and back-arc settings resulted in an increase in known vent fields within exclusive economic zones, consequently reducing the proportion known in high seas to one third. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. The purpose of the database now extends beyond academic research and education and into marine policy and management, with at least 18% of known vent fields in areas granted or pending applications for mineral prospecting and 8% in marine protected areas.

  18. Insights for the third Global Environment Outlook from related global scenario anlayses. Working paper for GEO-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkes JA; Goldewijk CGM; Meijer JR; Rothman DS; Vries HJM de; Woerden JW van; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This report relates to the ongoing development of scenarios for the third Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3) of UNEP. It illustrates the scale and type of environmental impacts that GEO-3 needs to consider. It does so by quantifying impacts using existing, recent studies whose scenarios come closest

  19. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  20. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  1. Global assemblages and structural models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Rather than consigning assemblages to the micro-politics of international relations, the chapter argues that assemblages can also be seen to play a role in the ‘grand’ structures of international relations. Structural IR theory normally only considers how subjects are ordered – hierarchically......, anarchically, in core-periphery relations or in terms of networks. However, not only subjects but also assemblages – the bringing together of previously unconnected elements into novel constellations – play a critical role in structuring international relations. More specifically, one sub......-category of assemblages – those constructed as malleable and governable which I call ‘governance-objects’ – is central to structure in international relations. The chapter begins with standard definitions of what structures are – patterns of interaction between elements – and briefly covers the range of models currently...

  2. Worldwide Surveillance, Policy, and Research on Physical Activity and Health: The Global Observatory for Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Andrea Ramirez; Pratt, Michael; Powell, Kenneth; Lee, I-Min; Bauman, Adrian; Heath, Gregory; Martins, Rafaela Costa; Kohl, Harold; Hallal, Pedro C

    2017-09-01

    The Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) was launched in response to the physical inactivity pandemic. The aim of this article is to present current information about surveillance, policy, and research on physical activity (PA) and health worldwide. Information was collected for 217 countries. For 139 of these nations we identified a contact who confirmed information's accuracy and completeness. Associations were calculated among surveillance, policy and research categories. Of the 139 countries, 90.6% reported having completed 1 or more PA survey, but less than one-third had 3 or more. 106 included PA on a national plan, but only one-quarter of these were PA-specific. At least 1 peer reviewed publication was identified for 63.3% of the countries. Positive associations (P < .001) were found between research and policy (ρ = 0.35), research and surveillance (ρ = 0.41), and surveillance and policy (ρ = 0.31). Countries with a standalone plan were more likely to have surveillance. Countries with more research were more likely to have a standalone plan and surveillance. Surveillance, policy, and research indicators were positively correlated, suggesting that action at multiple levels tends to stimulate progress in other areas. Efforts to expand PA-related surveillance, policy, and research in lower income countries are needed.

  3. Global Empirical Model of the TEC Response to Geomagnetic Activity and Forcing from Below

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2014-0025 Global empirical model of the TEC response to geomagnetic activity and forcing from below Dora...April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global empirical model of the TEC response to geomagnetic activity and forcing from below 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the global background TEC model c) Development of global empirical model of TEC response to geomagnetic activity d) On-line implementation of both

  4. Globalization, Inequality, and Transnational Activism: A Case Study on Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moctezuma Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has transformed how states are governed through a neoliberal economic approach that reinforces an unregulated capitalist market. An emphasis on Chile is important because it was the first state in Latin America to apply neoliberalism and has been hailed as a prime example for other developing states to integrate similar strategies to strengthen the local economy. However, inequality continues to persist despite economic gains. A combination of historical struggles affecting victims of the Pinochet era and present struggles with poverty, have resulted in a constant conflict between the power elite and the rest of society. Social movements in Chile have played a pivotal role in raising international awareness and pressuring the local government to protect the rights of highly vulnerable populations. A focus on transnational activism provides an effective medium for local and international advocates to work together toward holding Chile accountable for addressing social disparities.

  5. Global suppression of electrocortical activity in unilateral perinatal thalamic stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kharoshankaya, Liudmila

    2014-07-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression and right-sided clonic seizures in a male infant born at 40(+2) weeks\\' gestation, birthweight 3240g, with an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke. The EEG at 13 hours after birth showed a generalized very low amplitude background pattern, which progressed to frequent electrographic seizures over the left hemisphere. The interictal background EEG pattern remained grossly abnormal over the next 48 hours, showing very low background amplitudes (<10μV). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an isolated acute left-sided thalamic infarction. This is the first description of severe global EEG suppression caused by an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke and supports the role of the thalamus as the control centre for cortical electrical activity.

  6. Global trends in relative and absolute wealth concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares changes in relative and absolute wealth concentrations to establish if both processes have followed similar trajectories. The findings indicate that while the level of relative wealth concentration has increased recently, it is not extraordinarily high in an historical perspective. On the contrary, the level of absolute wealth concentration is most likely higher than that previously occurred because of the increase in the wealth holdings and population size of high net wor...

  7. Global segregation of cortical activity and metastable dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Peter; Wiles, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Cortical activity exhibits persistent metastable dynamics. Assemblies of neurons transiently couple (integrate) and decouple (segregate) at multiple spatiotemporal scales; both integration and segregation are required to support metastability. Integration of distant brain regions can be achieved through long range excitatory projections, but the mechanism supporting long range segregation is not clear. We argue that the thalamocortical matrix connections, which project diffusely from the thalamus to the cortex and have long been thought to support cortical gain control, play an equally-important role in cortical segregation. We present a computational model of the diffuse thalamocortical loop, called the competitive cross-coupling (CXC) spiking network. Simulations of the model show how different levels of tonic input from the brainstem to the thalamus could control dynamical complexity in the cortex, directing transitions between sleep, wakefulness and high attention or vigilance. The model also explains how mutually-exclusive activity could arise across large portions of the cortex, such as between the default-mode and task-positive networks. It is robust to noise but does not require noise to autonomously generate metastability. We conclude that the long range segregation observed in brain activity and required for global metastable dynamics could be provided by the thalamocortical matrix, and is strongly modulated by brainstem input to the thalamus.

  8. Global segregation of cortical activity and metastable dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eStratton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cortical activity exhibits persistent metastable dynamics. Assemblies of neurons transiently couple (integrate and decouple (segregate at multiple spatiotemporal scales; both integration and segregation are required to support metastability. Integration of distant brain regions can be achieved through long range excitatory projections, but the mechanism supporting long range segregation is not clear. We argue that the thalamocortical matrix connections, which project diffusely from the thalamus to the cortex and have long been thought to support cortical gain control, play an equally-important role in cortical segregation. We present a computational model of the diffuse thalamocortical loop, called the competitive cross-coupling (CXC spiking network. Simulations of the model show how different levels of tonic input from the brainstem to the thalamus could control dynamical complexity in the cortex, directing transitions between sleep, wakefulness and high attention or vigilance. The model also explains how mutually-exclusive activity could arise across large portions of the cortex, such as between the default-mode and task-positive networks. It is robust to noise but does not require noise to autonomously generate metastability. We conclude that the long range segregation observed in brain activity and required for global metastable dynamics could be provided by the thalamocortical matrix, and is strongly modulated by brainstem input to the thalamus.

  9. Annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the global wind oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have searched for relationships between tornado activity and atmospheric teleconnections to provide insight on the relationship between tornadoes, their environments, and larger scale patterns in the climate system. Knowledge of these relationships is practical because it can improve seasonal and sub-seasonal predictions of tornado probability and, therefore, help mitigate tornado-related losses. This study explores the relationships between the annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the Global Wind Oscillation. Time series herein show that phases of the Global Wind Oscillation, and atmospheric angular momentum anomalies, vary over a period of roughly 20-25 years. Rank correlations indicate that tornado activity is weakly correlated with phases 2, 3, and 4 (positive) and 6, 7, and 8 (negative) of the Global Wind Oscillation in winter, spring, and fall. The correlation is not as clear in summer or at the annual scale. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 and fewer phase 6, 7, and 8 days tend to have more tornadoes. Lastly, logistic regression models indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 days have greater likelihoods of having more than normal tornado activity. Combined, these analyses suggest that seasons with more low atmospheric angular momentum days, or phase 2, 3, and 4 days, tend to have greater tornado activity than those with fewer days, and that this relationship is most evident in winter and spring.

  10. Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Schaepman, M.E.; Furrer, R.; Bruin, de S.; Verburg, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation forms a main component of the terrestrial biosphere and plays a crucial role in land-cover and climate-related studies. Activity of vegetation systems is commonly quantified using remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI). Extensive reports on temporal trends over the past decades in time s

  11. Global Distance Duality Relation and the Shape of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Holanda, R F L; Ribeiro, M B

    2010-01-01

    Observations in the cosmological domain are heavily dependent on the validity of distance duality relation, $\\eta=D_{L}(L)(1+z)^{-2}/D_{A}(z)=1$, an exact result required by the Etherington reciprocity theorem, where $D_{A}(z)$ and $D_{L}(z)$ are the angular and luminosity distances, respectively. In the limit of very small redshifts, $D_{A}(z) \\approx D_{L}(z)$, and this ratio is trivially satisfied. In this letter we investigate some consequences of such a relation by assuming that $\\eta$ is a function of the redshift parameterized by two different relations: $\\eta(z) = 1 + \\eta_{0}z$ and $\\eta(z) = 1 + \\eta_{0}z/(1+z)$, where $\\eta_0$ is a constant parameter quantifying a possible departing from the strict validity of the reciprocity relation. In order to determine the pdf of $\\eta_{0}$ we consider the angular diameter distances from galaxy clusters recently studied by two different groups assuming elliptical and spherical $\\beta$ models. It is found that the elliptical geometry is in good agreement with n...

  12. An International Relations perspective on the global politics of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Coninck, H. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Policy Studies, Radarweg 60, 1043 NT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baeckstrand, K. [Department of Political Science, Lund University, P.O. Box 52, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    With the publication of the IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS), CCS has emerged as a focal issue in international climate diplomacy and energy collaboration. This paper has two goals. The first goal is to map CCS activities in and among various types of intergovernmental organisations; the second goal is to apply International Relations (IR) theories to explain the growing diversity, overlap and fragmentation of international organisations dealing with CCS. Which international organisations embrace CCS, and which refrain from discussing it at all? What role do these institutions play in bringing CCS forward? Why is international collaboration on CCS so fragmented and weak? We utilise realism, liberal institutionalism and constructivism to provide three different interpretations of the complex global landscape of CCS governance in the context of the similarly complicated architecture of global climate policy. A realist account of CCS's fragmented international politics is power driven. International fossil fuel and energy organisations, dominated by major emitter states, take an active role in CCS. An interest-based approach, such as liberal institutionalism, claims that CCS is part of a 'regime complex' rather than an integrated, hierarchical, comprehensive and international regime. Such a regime complex is exemplified by the plethora of international organisations with a role in CCS. Finally, constructivism moves beyond material and interest-based interpretations of the evolution of the institutionally fragmented architecture of global CCS governance. The 2005 IPCC Special Report on CCS demonstrates the pivotal role that ideas, norms and scientific knowledge have played in transforming the preferences of the international climate-change policy community.

  13. Science and Technology Related Global Problems: An International Survey of Science Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    1986-01-01

    Reviews findings from a survey which focused on the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. Includes a ranking of 12 global problems and a listing of the survey's results. Presents six specific policy recommendations for programs and practices which support a Science-Technology-Society theme. (ML)

  14. Prosodic realizations of global and local structure and rhetorical relations in read aloud news reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, J.N. den; Noordman, L.G.M.; Terken, J.M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study effects of global and local structure of texts and of rhetorical relations between sentences on the prosodic realization of sentences in read aloud text. Twenty texts were analyzed using Rhetorical Structure Theory. Based on these analyses, the global structure i

  15. Data revisions and the statistical relation of global mean sea-level and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric; Johansen, Søren; Schmith, Torben

    We study the stability of the estimated statistical relation of global mean temperature and global mean sea-level with regard to data revisions. Using three different model specifications proposed in the literature, we compare coefficient estimates and forecasts using two different vintages...

  16. Metaphors of Primary School Students Relating to the Concept of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Mustafa; Sarac, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the metaphors of primary school students (n = 362) relating to the concept of global warming. Data collected by completing the expression of "global warming is like..., because..." of the students were analysed by use of qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. According to findings of…

  17. Metaphors of Primary School Students Relating to the Concept of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Mustafa; Sarac, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the metaphors of primary school students (n = 362) relating to the concept of global warming. Data collected by completing the expression of "global warming is like..., because..." of the students were analysed by use of qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. According to findings of…

  18. Converging Divergences? : An International Comparison of the Impact of Globalization on Industrial Relations and Employment Careers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Buchholz, Sandra; Hofäcker, Dirk; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Hofmeister, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Profound social and economic transformations have taken place over the last two decades in modern societies. These changes are often referred to as globalization. The aim of this article is to examine whether processes of globalization have produced increasing convergence of employment-related aspec

  19. Converging divergences? An international comparison of the impact of globalization on industrial relations and employment careers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Buchholz, Sandra; Hofaecker, Dirk; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Hofmeister, Heather

    Profound social and economic transformations have taken place over the last two decades in modern societies. These changes are often referred to as globalization. The aim of this article is to examine whether processes of globalization have produced increasing convergence of employment-related

  20. Structuring medication related activities for information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Irmeli; Mykkänen, Juha; Kivekäs, Eija; Saranto, Kaija

    2014-01-01

    Medication treatment and the related information management are central parts of a patient's health care. As a cross-organizational and cooperative process, medication information management is a complex domain for development activities. We studied medication activities and related information management in a regional project in order to produce a shared broad picture of its processes and to understand the main issues and the needs for improvement. In this paper we provide a summary of the findings in a structured form, based on a six-dimensioned framework for design and analysis of activities and processes.

  1. Physical Activity and Obesity Related Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Probably, obesity can be considered as the most common metabolic disorder. In other words, the control of metabolism is disrupted in this condition. The most important metabolic control is performed by hormones. Today, adipose tissue is considered as an active tissue in secretion of hormones. In obesity, in addition to adipose tissue hormones, effective neuropeptides on appetite are interfered. There are 4 main approaches in the management and treatment of obesity including nutrition and diet therapy, physical activity, medical and surgical approaches. The specialists and obese patients prefer the first and second approaches. Physical activity helps to control and treat this disorder by influencing on obesity-related hormones. The main obesity-related hormones are ghrelin, agouti, obestatin, leptin, adiponectin, nesfatin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and resistin. In this review, the effect of physical activity on 10 major obesity-related hormones has been discussed.

  2. Gender relations in global agri-food value chains – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumacher, Kim Philip

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the research literature on gender relations in global agri-food value chains. The main focus is on the production side in countries of the Global South, with most examples from sub-Saharan Africa. After a short presentation of the underlying concepts and a review of the existing research literature, an outline is given of the major insights the analysis of gender issues in global value chains has offered. What is striking is the heterogeneity of the findings and proposed actions, as well as the scarcity of conceptual approaches that would integrate gender analyses further into the concept of global value chains.

  3. Will Global Warming Cause a Rise in Sea Level? A Simple Activity about the States of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, a possible problem related to global warming is clarified by the principle of states of water. The activity consists of an experiment that includes three scientific principles: Archimedes' Principle, the Law of Conservation of Matter, and the fluidity of liquids. The experiment helps students raise questions and open new horizons…

  4. Will Global Warming Cause a Rise in Sea Level? A Simple Activity about the States of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, a possible problem related to global warming is clarified by the principle of states of water. The activity consists of an experiment that includes three scientific principles: Archimedes' Principle, the Law of Conservation of Matter, and the fluidity of liquids. The experiment helps students raise questions and open new horizons…

  5. Ukrainian-Russian trade and economic relations under global integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Pylypenko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Examining Ukraine’s trade and economic cooperation with the Russian Federation (RF, as they integrate their economies into the world economy, the author of this article focuses on the integrative priorities of both countries: cooperation within the framework of CIS, BSEC. SES, EU, WTO and other organizations. Moreover, the author considers the possibility of converging the actions of Ukraine and Russia within the context of their accession to the WTO or coordinating with Russia the accession of Ukraine to the WTO. In analyzing the integrative priorities of Ukraine and Russia, the author offers his scenarios for the development of Ukrainian-Russian relations.

  6. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  7. Gravimetry, Relativity, and the Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tarantola, Albert; Pozo, Jose Maria; Coll, Bartolome

    2009-01-01

    Relativity is an integral part of positioning systems, and this is taken into account in today's practice by applying many "relativistic corrections" to computations performed using concepts borrowed from Galilean physics. A different, fully relativistic paradigm can be developed for operating a positioning system. This implies some fundamental changes. For instance, the basic coordinates are four times (with a symmetric meaning, not three space coordinate and one time coordinate) and the satellites must have cross-link capabilities. Gravitation must, of course, be taken into account, but not using the Newtonian theory: the gravitation field is, and only is, the space-time metric. This implies that the positioning problem and the gravimetry problem can not be separated. An optimization theory can be developed that, because it is fully relativistic, does not contain any "relativistic correction". We suggest that all positioning satellite systems should be operated in this way. The first benefit of doing so wou...

  8. Global Profiling of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes in Human Gut Microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanudeep Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme families, encoded by human gut microflora, play a crucial role in breakdown of complex dietary carbohydrates into components that can be absorbed by our intestinal epithelium. Since nutritional wellbeing of an individual is dependent on the nutrient harvesting capability of the gut microbiome, it is important to understand how CAZyme repertoire in the gut is influenced by factors like age, geography and food habits.This study reports a comprehensive in-silico analysis of CAZyme profiles in the gut microbiomes of 448 individuals belonging to different geographies, using similarity searches of the corresponding gut metagenomic contigs against the carbohydrate active enzymes database. The study identifies a core group of 89 CAZyme families that are present across 85% of the gut microbiomes. The study detects several geography/age-specific trends in gut CAZyme repertoires of the individuals. Notably, a group of CAZymes having a positive correlation with BMI has been identified. Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla. One of the major findings from this study is identification of three distinct groups of individuals, referred to as 'CAZotypes', having similar CAZyme profiles. Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated. The results of this study provide a global view of CAZyme profiles across individuals of various geographies and age-groups. These results reiterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.

  9. Time-varying trends of global vegetation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, N.; Feng, X.; Fu, B.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the energy change, water cycle and biochemical cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Monitoring the dynamics of vegetation activity and understanding their driving factors have been an important issue in global change research. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an indicator of vegetation activity, has been widely used in investigating vegetation changes at regional and global scales. Most studies utilized linear regression or piecewise linear regression approaches to obtain an averaged changing rate over a certain time span, with an implicit assumption that the trend didn't change over time during that period. However, no evidence shows that this assumption is right for the non-linear and non-stationary NDVI time series. In this study, we adopted the multidimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD) method to extract the time-varying trends of NDVI from original signals without any a priori assumption of their functional form. Our results show that vegetation trends are spatially and temporally non-uniform during 1982-2013. Most vegetated area exhibited greening trends in the 1980s. Nevertheless, the area with greening trends decreased over time since the early 1990s, and the greening trends have stalled or even reversed in many places. Regions with browning trends were mainly located in southern low latitudes in the 1980s, whose area decreased before the middle 1990s and then increased at an accelerated rate. The greening-to-browning reversals were widespread across all continents except Oceania (43% of the vegetated areas), most of which happened after the middle 1990s. In contrast, the browning-to-greening reversals occurred in smaller area and earlier time. The area with monotonic greening and browning trends accounted for 33% and 5% of the vegetated area, respectively. By performing partial correlation analyses between NDVI and climatic elements (temperature, precipitation and cloud cover

  10. Creative communication in public relations activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Jakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses several approaches to new waves of public relations. Emphasis is given to the creative impulse since many public relations professionals are less familiar with it than other forms of communication. Five criteria are suggested for structuring creative communications: 1. learning how to be a good storyteller; 2. visual communication is the content that could increasingly build strong relationships with audiences; 3. the PR practitioner’s challenge is to evaluate what people are discussing and identify the recurring issues in their marketplace; 4. recognizing that local is new global; and 5. predicate that PR is constantly changing. People who work in public relations possess the skill of offering arguments that will convince the people themselves of something. However, these skills can be offered in traditional or creative forms of expression. If we define public relations as the management of an organization’s communication with its public, then we are referring to the traditional dimension of public relations, the basis and ultimate goal of which are to cultivate relationships with the participants of the process in order to obtain support and to build trust and reputation.

  11. Global health diplomacy in Iraq: international relations outcomes of multilateral tuberculosis programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Jaf, Payman; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Abu Dalod, Mohammad; Tabena, Mohammed; Rashid, Sara; Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    International development programmes, including global health interventions, have the capacity to make important implicit and explicit benefits to diplomatic and international relations outcomes. Conversely, in the absence of awareness of these implications, such programmes may generate associated threats. Due to heightened international tensions in conflict and post-conflict settings, greater attention to diplomatic outcomes may therefore be necessary. We examine related 'collateral' effects of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis programmes in Iraq. During site visits to Iraq conducted during 2012 and 2013 on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, on-site service delivery evaluations, unstructured interviews with clinical and operational staff, and programme documentary review of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis treatment and care programmes were conducted. During this process, a range of possible external or collateral international relations and diplomatic effects of global health programmes were assessed according to predetermined criteria. A range of positive diplomatic and international relations effects of Global Fund-supported programmes were observed in the Iraq setting. These included (1) geo-strategic accessibility and coverage; (2) provisions for programme sustainability and alignment; (3) contributions to nation-building and peace-keeping initiatives; (4) consistent observation of social, cultural and religious norms in intervention selection; and (5) selection of the most effective and cost-effective tuberculosis treatment and care interventions. Investments in global health programmes have valuable diplomatic, as well as health-related, outcomes, associated with their potential to prevent, mitigate or reverse international tension and hostility in conflict and post-conflict settings, provided that they adhere to appropriate criteria. The associated international presence in such regions may also contribute to peace

  12. Roots shaping their microbiome: global hotspots for microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Bünger, Wiebke; Burbano, Claudia Sofía; Sabale, Mugdha; Hurek, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Land plants interact with microbes primarily at roots. Despite the importance of root microbial communities for health and nutrient uptake, the current understanding of the complex plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere is still in its infancy. Roots provide different microhabitats at the soil-root interface: rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane, and endorhizosphere. We discuss technical aspects of their differentiation that are relevant for the functional analysis of their different microbiomes, and we assess PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-based methods to analyze plant-associated bacterial communities. Development of novel primers will allow a less biased and more quantitative view of these global hotspots of microbial activity. Based on comparison of microbiome data for the different root-soil compartments and on knowledge of bacterial functions, a three-step enrichment model for shifts in community structure from bulk soil toward roots is presented. To unravel how plants shape their microbiome, a major research field is likely to be the coupling of reductionist and molecular ecological approaches, particularly for specific plant genotypes and mutants, to clarify causal relationships in complex root communities.

  13. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas;

    a processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual...... search. Older participants detected target stimuli slower and less accurate than younger participants did. ERPs indicated that the general performance decline originated at multiple stages within the information-processing stream, from sensory coding to spatial allocation of attention: The P1...... in global-local asymmetries originates from early processing stages, where the dissociation of hierarchical levels is less distinct, and inhibition of the salient irrelevant global object information is less effective...

  14. Turkey-USA relations in an age of regional and global turmoil: challenges and prospects introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Öniş, Ziya; Yılmaz, Şuhnaz

    2013-01-01

    TURKEY-US RELATIONS IN AN AGE OF REGIONAL AND GLOBAL TURMOIL: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Ziya Öniş and Şuhnaz Yılmaz This special issue on Turkish-American relations with a specific focus on the Middle East aims to analyze a complex web of relations at a critical regional and global juncture, with important implications well beyond bilateral relations. The idea for this special issue emerged during the “Turkish-American Alliance in a Volatile Region: ...

  15. Using global positioning systems to study health-related mobility and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Klein, Louis A; Salzer, Mark S

    2016-07-01

    Community participation, as indicated by mobility and engagement in socially meaningful activities, is a central component of health based on the International Classification of Health, Functioning, and Disease (WHO, 2001). Global positioning systems (GPS) technology is emerging as a tool for tracking mobility and participation in health and disability-related research. This paper fills a gap in the literature and provides a thorough description of a method that can be used to generate a number of different variables related to the constructs of mobility and participation from GPS data. Here, these variables are generated with the help of ST-DBSCAN, a spatiotemporal data mining algorithm. The variables include the number of unique destinations, activity space area, distance traveled, time in transit, and time at destinations. Data obtained from five individuals with psychiatric disabilities who carried GPS-enabled cell phones for two weeks are presented. Within- and across- individual variability on these constructs was observed. Given the feasibility of gathering data with GPS, larger scale studies of mobility and participation employing this method are warranted.

  16. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  17. Horror and hope: (re)presenting militarised children in global North-South relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Koo, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the (re)presentations of militarised children in contemporary global politics. In particular, it looks at the iconic image of the 21st century's child soldier, the subject of which is constructed as a menacing yet pitiable product of the so-called new wars of the global South. Yet this familiar image is a small, one-dimensional and selective (re)presentation of the issues facing children who are associated with conflict and militarism. In this sense it is a problematic focal point for analysing the insecurity and human rights of children in and around conflict. Instead, this article argues that the image of the child soldier asserts an important influence in its effect upon global North-South relations. It demonstrates how the image of the child soldier can assist in constructing knowledge about the global South, and the global North's obligations to it, either through programmes of humanitarianism, or through war.

  18. Processing of global and local properties——An analysis with event-related brain potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩世辉; 陈霖

    1996-01-01

    The different processing of global and local properties of compound visual stimuli was studied with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in the present experiment. It was found that, compared with the identification of global properties, the discrimination of local properties elicited longer RTs, lower accuracies, increased amplitudes of P1, decreased amplitudes of N1, and longer latencies of N2 and P3. The conflict of global and local properties increased the amplitudes of P2, decreased the amplitudes of P3, and prolonged latencies of N2 and P3. These results indicated that the advantage of global processing occurs at an early perceptual stage, and the attentional mechanisms for global and local processing may be different.

  19. Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Andersson, Micael

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty......, burnout level was positively associated with neural activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex and the striatum, primarily in the 2-back condition. Following stress rehabilitation, the striatal activity decreased as a function of improved levels of burnout. No significant...... association between burnout level and working memory performance was found, however, our findings indicate that frontostriatal neural responses related to working memory were modulated by burnout severity. We suggest that patients with high levels of burnout need to recruit additional cognitive resources...

  20. The Enemy is Still Below: The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K G

    2012-06-05

    The spread of submarines and related technology is an end product of globalization. Globalization is not a new story. By one estimate, our ancestors first crossed out of Africa roughly 80,000 years ago, and began the process that they now call globalization. With the dispersion of people around the world came the development of culture and civilization as well as the spread of ideas, goods, and technology. The process of globalization then is a long-standing one, not an innovation of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Over the millennia, this process has been an uneven one. Globalization has often cuased great disruptions even to the societies that initiated various innovations in culture and civilization, including science and technology. Indeed, many cultures and civilizations have disappeared while some regions failed to advance as rapidly as others, so the process of globalization is not just one of continuing progress. Globalization in the current era seems to be penetrating the most remote corners of the world at a remarkable rate as a result of advances in science and technology, particularly information technology. The diffusion of science and technology is not necessarily a benign development. It could increase the potential for a global military industrial base that may have an adverse affect on world stability in the future. For example, the spread of key military capabilities, like submarines, could still have an impact, especially over the longer term, on the US capability to project power overseas.

  1. Analysis of Facts and Dilemmas of Globalization Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Jurakovic; Giorgio Cadum; Goran Fabris

    2006-01-01

    This paper critically analyzes the key elements (world trends, national identity, human resources, market) of the effects of globalization on the market, as well as the role of our country in the entire process, listing practical examples. Through comparison and analysis of the available literature and experience, it was concluded that there is a dual impact of globalization in the economic sphere and the need for including management into world trends is increasing. The turbulent environment...

  2. Antischistosomal activities of mefloquine-related arylmethanols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Katrin; Ellis, William; Keiser, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    Interesting antischistosomal properties have been documented for the antimalarial mefloquine, a 4-quinolinemethanol. We evaluated the antischistosomal activities of nine mefloquine-related compounds belonging to the 4-pyridinemethanols, 9-phenanthrenmethanols, and 4-quinolinemethanols. Eight compounds revealed high activities against Schistosoma mansoni in vitro, with two drugs (the 4-quinolinemethanols WR7573 and WR7930) characterized by significantly lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) (2.7 and 3.5 μM, respectively) compared to mefloquine (11.4 μM). Mefloquine and WR7930 showed significantly decreased IC(50)s when incubated in the presence of hemoglobin. High worm burden reductions (WBR) were obtained with enpiroline (WBR, 82.7%; dosage, 200 mg/kg of body weight) and its threo isomers (+)-threo (WBR, 100%) and (-)-threo (WBR, 89%) and with WR7930 (WBR, 87%; dosage, 100 mg/kg) against adult S. mansoni in mice. Furthermore, excellent in vitro and in vivo antischistosomal activity was observed for two WR7930-related structures (WR29252 and WR7524). In addition, mefloquine (WBR, 81%), enpiroline (WBR, 77%), and WR7930 (WBR, 100%) showed high activities against S. haematobium harbored in mice following single oral doses of 200 mg/kg. These results provide a deeper insight into the structural features of the arylmethanols that rule antischistosomal activity. Further studies should be launched with enpiroline and WR7930.

  3. Renormalization of the global quantum correlation and monogamy relation in the anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Meng; Ren, Zhong-Zhou; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the global quantum correlation, monogamy relation and quantum phase transition of the Heisenberg XXZ model are investigated by the method of quantum renormalization group. We obtain, analytically, the expressions of the global negativity, the global measurement-induced disturbance and the monogamy relation for the system. The result shows that for a three-site block state, the partial transpose of an asymmetric block can get stronger entanglement than that of the symmetric one. The residual entanglement and the difference of the monogamy relation of measurement-induced disturbance show a scaling behavior with the size of the system becoming large. Moreover, the monogamy nature of entanglement measured by negativity exists in the model, while the nonclassical correlation quantified by measurement-induced disturbance violates the monogamy relation and demonstrates polygamy.

  4. Performance bounds for relative configuration and global transformation in cooperative localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative localization introduces internode measurements to provide the node relative locations instead of absolute locations. This paper decomposes the absolute locations into relative configuration and global transformation, where the former can be specified by the internode measurements while the latter requires reference information. This decomposition can be used to investigate the relative localization which uses only internode measurements and the absolute localization with the consideration of anchor location uncertainty. After deriving the coordinate representations, error metric, and performance bounds for the global transformation, we evaluate the performance of a node location calibration that uses the measurements from sources in unknown locations.

  5. The AVHRR component of a long-term global active fire data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Giglio, L.; Schroeder, W.; Justice, C. O.

    2010-12-01

    The increased thermal signal in the 3.7 µm channel, together with radiometric measurements in the longwave and shortwave channels, enable the detection of thermal anomalies from AVHRR for a wide range of environmental and observing conditions. The AVHRR has been used worldwide for operational fire monitoring and for research purposes since at least the early 1990s. The long data record of AVHRR makes it an essential part of a long-term, multisensor record of fire activity. Fire Disturbance is an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). Within the Fire Disturbance ECV, active fire occurrence is one of the supplementary variables. General requirements for long-term satellite-based data records for ECVs are articulated in the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles for satellite measurements, which specify requirements both for observing systems and for product generation and distribution. In this paper we provide an overview of the history of fire monitoring from AVHRR, and the potential and limitations for establishing a long-term data record in the context of the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles. Major sensor-related challenges include the relatively low saturation level of the 3.7 µm channel, the orbital drift of the early NOAA satellites and pixel geolocation inaccuracies. Additionally, fire detection requires full resolution observations and therefore the globally and systematically available Global Area Coverage (GAC) data are inadequate for global active fire monitoring. The need for the compilation and reprocessing of full resolution measurements from on-board Local Area Coverage (LAC) data and direct-readout High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving stations is articulated by the Fire Mapping and Monitoring Implementation Team of the Global Observation of Forest and Landcover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) program, in collaboration with the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites. As fire detection

  6. Harmonization of accounting in the process of globalization of economic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea Georgescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Once with the Romania adhering at the European Union the public accounting system was transformed and adapted according to the requirements imposed by the international public sector accounting standards (IPSAS.This fact had imposed the appearance of legislative norms and provisions adapted to the actual requirements, by taking into account the growing and complex level of economic activities where the irreversible process of globalization takes place. The changes due to the economic politics, especially the new configuration of the international economic relations, relations characterized by an intense and irreversible process of globalization, have conducted to the implementation of a unitary and uniform legislation, particularly for the member states of EU. The accounting reform has begun through the harmonization of legislation according to the requirements and provisions of International Accounting Standards and European Directives.  The ampleness and the rapid rhythm of informational society’s development have implicitly leaded to the development of accounting information’s importance and dimension. The decisive role of the accounting information had conducted to the accentuated growth of the interest, manifested at all informational society’s level, from the development of activities in financial and economical domain point of view. The accounting normalization process imposed the development of norms and provisions necessary to the drawing up of accounting documents, by defying methods and a specialized terminology, applied in the activity of entities and accounting specialists.

  7. Relationships Between Global Warming and Tropical Cyclone Activity in the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we investigate the relationships between global warming and tropical cyclone activity in the Western North Pacific (WNP). Our...hypothesis is that global warming impacts on TC activity occur through changes in the large scale environmental factors (LSEFs) known to be important in...averages. Using a least squares fit, we identify global warming signals in both the SST and vertical wind shear data across the WNP. These signals vary

  8. Global Indicators Analysis and Consultancy Experience Insights into Correlation between Entrepreneurial Activities and Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Krivokapić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many researches and practical experiences clearly indicate the existence of a strong relationship between entrepreneurial activities and the business environment in which these activities are initiated. Although this topic has been quite ignored until the late twentieth century, a lot of studies and consulting practice have contributed to the fact that there are now a number of theories concerning mentioned correlation. These theories aim to offer a model that would provide better utilization of the possibilities from the business environment which could be very important for the development from both macroeconomic and microeconomic aspects. An increasing number of articles on this topic says enough about its importance, and numerous researches by many reputable globally recognized institutions go in favor of this claim. There are many indicators that observe the economic situation in a country or a region from different aspects, so the analyses of these indicators make it possible to determine the specific relationships between entrepreneurial activities and the local and the global business environment. Given the complexity of these relations, the impact cannot be observed partially, without taking into consideration other important factors, but more detailed analyses, however, result in some useful conclusions, which in the proper context can have a positive impact on many economic factors. It is very important to emphasize the fact that the correlation between the business environment and entrepreneurial activities is bidirectional, since this influence is mutual, so that changes in one of these factors can and usually cause some modifications in the other. Frequent series of such iterations actually lead to changes in the business environment, while entrepreneurial activity changes its shape and affects the economy of a country or a region, which is of particular importance for its competitiveness in the era of globalization.

  9. Activating Global Operating Models: The bridge from organization design to performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Kates

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the concept of activation and discusses its use in the implementation of global operating models by large multinational companies. We argue that five particular activators help set in motion the complex strategies and organizations required by global operating models.

  10. Enabling socio-economic activities: Opening global markets for the marginalized through secure ICT use

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phahlamohlaka, Jackie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and describes five economic activities through which ICT could effectively be used to open global markets for rural and marginalized communities. The activities are identified in contexts where there are no industries...

  11. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  12. EFFECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION ON GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS: REVIEWS IN RELATION WITH EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HILAL YILDIRIR KESER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the effects of higher education on global competitiveness One of the most widely accepted definition of global competitiveness is in the form of " efficiency level encompassing all of the institutions that will ensure sustainable growth in a country, policies and factors of production". Therefore the competitiveness of a country depends on the factors such as; The level of development of R & D activities and productivity, performance of various sectors, the country's trade surplus, producing goods hosting high-tech in their nature, availability of expert and skilled labor force. But one of the main points in the realization of these factors is the quality of the higher education. Higher education has an important role in the formation of qualified labour. And the qualified labour carries the competitiveness firstly of the sector and then of the country up to higher ranks by increasing the performance and productivity of the companies. The study will be discussed in the following way: firstly the context of the global competitiveness will be mentioned, secondly, the role and importance of higher education will be put forth by explaining the basic determinants of competitivenes particularly within the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index. Finally, assessments will be made in relation with the situation of higher education in global competitiveness in European countries and Middle Eastern countries.

  13. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    was decreased, the N1 was enhanced, and the posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) was decreased and delayed in older age. We further found a stronger a global precedence effect in the older group. This was associated with age differences in short-latency ERPs: The younger group showed a more pronounced P1......Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects...... in global-local asymmetries originates from early processing stages, where the dissociation of hierarchical levels is less distinct, and inhibition of the salient irrelevant global object information is less effective...

  14. Physical Activity and Global Self-worth in a Longitudinal Study of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, Hudson; Meyre, David; Cairney, John

    2017-08-01

    Physical activity is associated with an array of physical and mental health benefits among children and adolescents. The development of self-worth/self-esteem has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the mental health benefits derived from physical activity. Despite several studies that have analyzed the association between physical activity and self-worth, the results have been inconsistent. It is also uncertain how related physical health measures, such as sedentary behavior, body composition, and fitness, influence the relationship between physical activity and self-worth over time. In the present study, we 1) analyzed if the association between physical activity and self-worth remained constant over time and whether this relationship varied by sex and 2) investigated if changes in body composition and fitness level mediated the relationship between physical activity and self-worth. Data from the Physical Health Activity Study Team were used for this analysis. The Physical Health Activity Study Team is a prospective cohort study that included 2278 children at baseline (ages 9-10 yr) and included eight follow-up contacts for a 4-yr study period. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate global self-worth (GSW) over follow-up. Increased physical activity was associated with greater GSW across all waves of data collection, and this relationship did not vary significantly over time or between sexes. Aerobic fitness was positively associated with GSW, whereas body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to GSW. Both aerobic fitness and BMI appeared to mediate the association between physical activity and GSW. Sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with GSW. Physical activity is associated with greater GSW, and this relationship appears to be mediated by BMI and aerobic fitness. These findings reinforce the importance of physical behaviors and physical characteristics in shaping GSW in children.

  15. Going Global Activity Guide: A Project To Educate and Involve American Students in Global Hunger Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gene; Balakshin, Maria

    Global hunger is one of the most urgent health and social problems the world faces at the beginning of the new millennium. In a world that produces enough food to feed every human being on the planet, there are still some 830 million people who do not get enough food on a daily basis. About 24,000 people die each day from the effects of hunger;…

  16. GLOBAL COUPLING OF AN INTERFACE PROBLEM IN AN ACTIVATOR-INHIBITOR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YoonMee Ham

    2003-01-01

    An activator-inhibitor reaction system with global coupling was introduced in [1]. The authors showed that global couplingsuppresses the breathing motion and enhances the propagation of the localized solution. The collision between two traveling waves for a sufficiently strong global coupling is discussed in [2]. If the width of layers is infinitesimally thin, the equation of motion for a pair of the interfaces is derived. We shall study the dynamics of interfaces in the free boundary problem with global coupling and with a strong global coupling.

  17. Globalization, Democracy, and Social Movements: The Educational Potential of Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the contemporary value of John Dewey's conception of democracy to addressing the challenges of neoliberal globalization. I begin by describing his vision of democracy as a way of life that requires habits of experimentalism, pluralism, and hope. I then suggest that contemporary forms of mobilization, resistance, and…

  18. The global economic crisis and marketing activities in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluzhsky, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Article on the impact of the crisis in the global economy on marketing strategy in Russia. The author substantiates the thesis of the decline in the value of methods of promoting the marketing mix and a gradual return to the dominance of the marketing concept of the distribution.

  19. Globalization, Democracy, and Social Movements: The Educational Potential of Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the contemporary value of John Dewey's conception of democracy to addressing the challenges of neoliberal globalization. I begin by describing his vision of democracy as a way of life that requires habits of experimentalism, pluralism, and hope. I then suggest that contemporary forms of mobilization, resistance, and…

  20. Unexpected global impact of VTA dopamine neuron activation as measured by opto-fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, Sweyta; Poplawsky, Alexander John; Kim, Seong-Gi; Moghaddam, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are strongly implicated in cognitive and affective processing as well as in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, ADHD and substance abuse disorders. In human studies, dopamine-related functions are routinely assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signals during the performance of dopamine-dependent tasks. There is, however, a critical void in our knowledge about if and how activation of VTA dopamine neurons specifically influences regional or global fMRI signals. Here we used optogenetics in Th::Cre rats to selectively stimulate VTA dopamine neurons while simultaneously measuring global hemodynamic changes using BOLD and cerebral blood volume-weighted (CBVw) fMRI. Phasic activation of VTA dopamine neurons increased BOLD and CBVw fMRI signals in VTA-innervated limbic regions, including the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Surprisingly, basal ganglia regions that receive sparse or no VTA dopaminergic innervation, including the dorsal striatum and the globus pallidus, were also activated. In fact, the most prominent fMRI signal increase in the forebrain was observed in the dorsal striatum that is not traditionally associated with VTA dopamine neurotransmission. These data establish causation between phasic activation of VTA dopamine neurons and global fMRI signals. They further suggest that mesolimbic and non-limbic basal ganglia dopamine circuits are functionally connected and, thus, provide a potential novel framework for understanding dopamine-dependent functions and interpreting data obtained from human fMRI studies. PMID:27457809

  1. Unexpected global impact of VTA dopamine neuron activation as measured by opto-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, S; Poplawsky, A J; Kim, S-G; Moghaddam, B

    2017-04-01

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are strongly implicated in cognitive and affective processing as well as in psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse disorders. In human studies, dopamine-related functions are routinely assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of blood oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals during the performance of dopamine-dependent tasks. There is, however, a critical void in our knowledge about whether and how activation of VTA dopamine neurons specifically influences regional or global fMRI signals. Here, we used optogenetics in Th::Cre rats to selectively stimulate VTA dopamine neurons while simultaneously measuring global hemodynamic changes using BOLD and cerebral blood volume-weighted (CBVw) fMRI. Phasic activation of VTA dopamine neurons increased BOLD and CBVw fMRI signals in VTA-innervated limbic regions, including the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Surprisingly, basal ganglia regions that receive sparse or no VTA dopaminergic innervation, including the dorsal striatum and the globus pallidus, were also activated. In fact, the most prominent fMRI signal increase in the forebrain was observed in the dorsal striatum that is not traditionally associated with VTA dopamine neurotransmission. These data establish causation between phasic activation of VTA dopamine neurons and global fMRI signals. They further suggest that mesolimbic and non-limbic basal ganglia dopamine circuits are functionally connected and thus provide a potential novel framework for understanding dopamine-dependent functions and interpreting data obtained from human fMRI studies.

  2. Ionic current correlations underlie the global tuning of large numbers of neuronal activity attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shunbing; Golowasch, Jorge

    2012-09-26

    Ionic conductances in identified neurons are highly variable. This poses the crucial question of how such neurons can produce stable activity. Coexpression of ionic currents has been observed in an increasing number of neurons in different systems, suggesting that the coregulation of ionic channel expression, by thus linking their variability, may enable neurons to maintain relatively constant neuronal activity as suggested by a number of recent theoretical studies. We examine this hypothesis experimentally using the voltage- and dynamic-clamp techniques to first measure and then modify the ionic conductance levels of three currents in identified neurons of the crab pyloric network. We quantify activity by measuring 10 different attributes (oscillation period, spiking frequency, etc.), and find linear, positive and negative relationships between conductance pairs and triplets that can enable pyloric neurons to maintain activity attributes invariant. Consistent with experimental observations, some of the features most tightly regulated appear to be phase relationships of bursting activity. We conclude that covariation (and probably a tightly controlled coregulation) of ionic conductances can help neurons maintain certain attributes of neuronal activity invariant while at the same time allowing conductances to change over wide ranges in response to internal or environmental inputs and perturbations. Our results also show that neurons can tune neuronal activity globally via coordinate expression of ion currents.

  3. Global exponential stability of neural networks with globally Lipschitz continuous activations and its application to linear variational inequality problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X B; Si, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability (GES) of the equilibrium point for a large class of neural networks with globally Lipschitz continuous activations including the widely used sigmoidal activations and the piecewise linear activations. The provided sufficient condition for GES is mild and some conditions easily examined in practice are also presented. The GES of neural networks in the case of locally Lipschitz continuous activations is also obtained under an appropriate condition. The analysis results given in the paper extend substantially the existing relevant stability results in the literature, and therefore expand significantly the application range of neural networks in solving optimization problems. As a demonstration, we apply the obtained analysis results to the design of a recurrent neural network (RNN) for solving the linear variational inequality problem (VIP) defined on any nonempty and closed box set, which includes the box constrained quadratic programming and the linear complementarity problem as the special cases. It can be inferred that the linear VIP has a unique solution for the class of Lyapunov diagonally stable matrices, and that the synthesized RNN is globally exponentially convergent to the unique solution. Some illustrative simulation examples are also given.

  4. Global trend according to estimated number of occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases at region and country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Päivi; Leena Saarela, Kaija; Takala, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    Although occupational accidents and work-related diseases have been of interest for a long time, due to lack of proper recording and notification systems the official numbers of occupational accidents and work-related diseases are missing for many countries. Presently, the demand for effectiveness and an interest in the economic aspects of accidents have increased prevention activities at company and country levels. Occupational accident data of selected countries and of World Health Organization regional divisions together with the global burden of disease were used in estimating global occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases. The trend of global occupational accidents and work-related diseases is presented at region and country levels. The years 1998, 2001, and 2003 are compared in the case of occupational accidents and the years 2000 and 2002 in the case of work-related diseases. The total number of occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases has increased, but the fatality rates per 100,000 workers have decreased. There were almost 360,000 fatal occupational accidents in 2003 and almost 2 million fatal work-related diseases in 2002. Every day more than 960,000 workers get hurt because of accidents. Each day 5,330 people die because of work-related diseases. Information on occupational accidents and work-related diseases is needed so that countries may understand better the importance of occupational health and safety at country and company level. Especially companies in developing countries are not familiar with occupational safety and health. Statistical data is essential for accident prevention; it is a starting point for the safety work.

  5. Overview of global space activities in 2007/2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nicolas; Delmotte, Raphaëlle

    2009-08-01

    The period ranging from July 2007 to June 2008 has been marked by significant trends and issues in the space sector, particularly under the impulsion of space-faring countries. The internationalisation and globalisation of the space sector which started a few years ago have been gaining momentum as well. As a consequence, the size of the space sector has been growing, as well as the global competition for market shares.

  6. What are the implications of rapid global warming for landslide-triggered turbidity current activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Peter, Talling; James, Hunt

    2014-05-01

    A geologically short-lived (~170kyr) episode of global warming occurred at ~55Ma, termed the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (IETM). Global temperatures rose by up to 8oC over only ~10kyr and a massive perturbation of the global carbon cycle occurred; creating a negative carbon isotopic (~-4% δ13C) excursion in sedimentary records. This interval has relevance to study of future climate change and its influence on geohazards including submarine landslides and turbidity currents. We analyse the recurrence frequency of turbidity currents, potentially initiated from large-volume slope failures. The study focuses on two sedimentary intervals that straddle the IETM and we discuss implications for turbidity current triggering. We present the results of statistical analyses (regression, generalised linear model, and proportional hazards model) for extensive turbidite records from an outcrop at Zumaia in NE Spain (N=285; 54.0 to 56.5 Ma) and based on ODP site 1068 on the Iberian Margin (N=1571; 48.2 to 67.6 Ma). The sedimentary sequences provide clear differentiation between hemipelagic and turbiditic mud with only negligible evidence of erosion. We infer dates for turbidites by converting hemipelagic bed thicknesses to time using interval-averaged accumulation rates. Multi-proxy dating techniques provide good age constraint. The background trend for the Zumaia record shows a near-exponential distribution of turbidite recurrence intervals, while the Iberian Margin shows a log-normal response. This is interpreted to be related to regional time-independence (exponential) and the effects of additive processes (log-normal). We discuss how a log-normal response may actually be generated over geological timescales from multiple shorter periods of random turbidite recurrence. The IETM interval shows a dramatic departure from both these background trends, however. This is marked by prolonged hiatuses (0.1 and 0.6 Myr duration) in turbidity current activity in contrast to the

  7. An Analysis of the Vulnerability of Global Drinking Water Access to Climate-related Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M.; Banerjee, O.; Christenson, E.; Holcomb, D.; Hamrick, L.; Bartram, J.

    2014-12-01

    Global drinking water access targets are formulated around "sustainable access." Global climate change (GCC) and associated hazards threaten the sustainability of drinking water supply. Extensive literature exists on the impacts of GCC on precipitation and water resources. However, the literature lacks a credible analysis of the vulnerability of global drinking water access. This research reports on an analysis of the current vulnerability of drinking water access due to three climate-related hazardous events: cyclone, drought and flood. An ArcGIS database was built incorporating the following: population density, hazardous event frequency, drinking water technologies in use and adaptive capacity. Two global grids were incorporated first: (1) LandScanTM global population distribution; and (2) frequency of cyclone, drought and flood from ~1980-2000 from Columbia University Center for Hazards Risk Research (CHRR). Population density was used to characterize cells as urban or rural and country-level urban/rural drinking water technologies in use were added based on the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme data. Expert assessment of the resilience of each technology to each hazardous event based on WHO/DFID Vision 2030 were quantified and added to the database. Finally, country-level adaptive capacity was drawn from the "readiness" parameter of the Global Adaptation Index (GaIn). ArcGIS Model Builder and Python were used to automate the addition of datasets. This presentation will report on the results of this analysis, the first credible attempt to assess the vulnerability of global drinking water access to climate-related hazardous events. This analysis has yielded country-level scores and maps displaying the ranking of exposure score (for flood, drought, cyclone, and all three in aggregate) and the corresponding country-level vulnerability scores and rankings incorporating the impact of drinking water technologies and adaptive capacity (Figure 1).

  8. Studying the activation of epithelial ion channels using global whole-field photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassy, Janos; Yule, David I

    2013-01-01

    The production of saliva by parotid acinar cells is stimulated by Ca(2+) activation of Cl(-) and K(+) channels located in the apical plasma membrane of these polarized cells. Here we provide a detailed description of a flash photolysis experiment designed to give a global and relatively uniform photorelease of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) or Ca(2+) from caged precursors (NPE-InsP(3) or NP-EGTA) combined with the simultaneous measurement of whole-cell Ca(2+)-activated currents. The photolysis light source can be either an ultraviolet (UV) flash lamp or alternatively the output from a 375-nm diode laser, which is defocused to illuminate the entire field.

  9. Distinguishing Between Related and Unrelated International Geographic Diversification: A Comprehensive Measure of Global Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Vachani

    1991-01-01

    This paper argues that it is important to distinguish between related and unrelated international geographic diversification when measuring impact of diversification on performance. It then extends the Jacquemin-Berry entropy measure to propose a comprehensive measure of global diversification that comprises related and unrelated product diversification. It suggests a classification of firms based on diversification strategies and proposes hypotheses for future research.© 1991 JIBS. Journal o...

  10. Using Global Geo-information for Disaster Risk Reduction Following the UN Sendai Framework: Climate Change and Disruptions to Global Fire Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the knowledge that climate induced fire activity will threaten ecosystems and human well-being throughout the world, there are few fire projections at global scales and almost none from a broad range of global climate models (GCMs). The following study presents global fire datasets and environmental variables used to build spatial statistical baseline models of fire probability and examine the environmental controls on fire activity. As the UN Sendai Framework requires an update of hazard databases and an integration additional manmade hazards in the calculation of risks, this global fire study examines the magnitude and direction of change over two projection periods, 2010-2039 and 2070-2099. From the GCM ensemble results, the study identified areas of consensus for increases or decreases in fires. This type of information may inform policies and strategies of fire-prone nations to better utilize baseline and projection geo-information for enhancing disaster preparedness for what the Sendai Framework is calling an effective response, and to "Build Back Better" in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. Certain biomes are sensitive to constraints on biomass productivity while others to atmospheric conditions promoting combustion. Substantial and rapid shifts are projected for future fire activity across vast portions of the globe. In the near term, the most consistent increases in fire activity occur in biomes with already somewhat warm climates; decreases are less pronounced and concentrated primarily in a few tropical and subtropical biomes. However, models do not agree on the direction of near-term changes across more than 50% of terrestrial lands. Although these models demonstrated that long-term environmental norms captured chronic fire probability patterns, future work is needed to assess how annual variation in climate variables could add more explanatory power. This study provides an examination of global disruptions to fire activity using a

  11. Chemical Structure-Related Drug-Like Criteria of Global Approved Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fei; Ni, Wei; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jing; Ji, Min; Li, Jian

    2016-01-12

    The chemical structure of a drug determines its physicochemical properties, further determines its ADME/Tox properties, and ultimately affects its pharmacological activity. Medicinal chemists can regulate the pharmacological activity of drug molecules by modifying their structure. Ring systems and functional groups are important components of a drug. The proportion of non-hydrocarbon atoms among non-hydrogen atoms reflects the heavy atoms proportion of a drug. The three factors have considerable potential for the assessment of the drug-like properties of organic molecules. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies to systematically analyze the simultaneous effects of the number of aromatic and non-aromatic rings, the number of some special functional groups and the proportion of heavy atoms on the drug-like properties of an organic molecule. To this end, the numbers of aromatic and non-aromatic rings, the numbers of some special functional groups and the heavy atoms proportion of 6891 global approved small drugs have been comprehensively analyzed. We first uncovered three important structure-related criteria closely related to drug-likeness, namely: (1) the best numbers of aromatic and non-aromatic rings are 2 and 1, respectively; (2) the best functional groups of candidate drugs are usually -OH, -COOR and -COOH in turn, but not -CONHOH, -SH, -CHO and -SO3H. In addition, the -F functional group is beneficial to CNS drugs, and -NH2 functional group is beneficial to anti-infective drugs and anti-cancer drugs; (3) the best R value intervals of candidate drugs are in the range of 0.05-0.50 (preferably 0.10-0.35), and R value of the candidate CNS drugs should be as small as possible in this interval. We envision that the three chemical structure-related criteria may be applicable in a prospective manner for the identification of novel candidate drugs and will provide a theoretical foundation for designing new chemical entities with good drug

  12. What contribution can international relations make to the evolving global health agenda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sara E

    2010-01-01

    This article presents two approaches that have dominated International Relations in their approach to the international politics of health. The statist approach, which is primarily security-focused, seeks to link health initiatives to a foreign or defence policy remit. The globalist approach, in contrast, seeks to advance health not because of its intrinsic security value but because it advances the well-being and rights of individuals. This article charts the evolution of these approaches and demonstrates why both have the potential to shape our understanding of the evolving global health agenda. It examines how the statist and globalist perspectives have helped shape contemporary initiatives in global health governance and suggests that there is evidence of an emerging convergence between the two perspectives. This convergence is particularly clear in the articulation of a number of UN initiatives in this area - especially the One World, One Health Strategic Framework and the Oslo Ministerial Declaration (2007) which inspired the first UN General Assembly resolution on global health and foreign policy in 2009 and the UN Secretary-General's note "Global health and foreign policy: strategic opportunities and challenges". What remains to be seen is whether this convergence will deliver on securing states' interest long enough to promote the interests of the individuals who require global efforts to deliver local health improvements.

  13. Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Roelofs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by cloud droplets growing on particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.

  14. Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Roelofs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.

  15. Implication of global climate change on the distribution and activity of Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Venette

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is predicted to alter the distribution and activity of several forest pathogens. Boland et al. (2004) suggested that climate change might affect pathogen establishment, rate of disease progress, and the duration of...

  16. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  17. QUALITY-RELATED FUNDING IN ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION THROUGHOUT 2003 – 2011: A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Alexandru Vîiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores quality-related funding and its global outcomes in the context of Romanian higher education by focusing on the funding allocations provided to public universities throughout a period of nine years based on their institutional performance on the quality indicators integrated in the funding algorithm. Global funding allocations between universities are analysed and a summative appraisal for the entire nine-year window is provided. The article also explores the relation between quality- related funding, institutional disciplinary profiles and the results of a comprehensive evaluation conducted in 2011 by the Ministry of Education to complete a classification of the universities. The main findings indicate a low overall impact of qualityrelated funding for many institutions, but also a clear pattern in which universities focused on science, technology, engineering and mathematics overwhelmingly outperformed mixed institutions, as well as those focused on humanities, arts and social sciences. Furthermore, the global quality-related funding outcomes of the 2003 – 2011 period studied in the paper are shown to be significantly associated with the results of the 2011 classification

  18. Active and passive beam application design guide for global application

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Passive Beam Application Design Guide is the result of collaboration by worldwide experts to give system designers a current, authoritative guide on successfully applying active and passive beam technology. Active and Passive Beam Application Design Guide provide energy-efficient methods of cooling, heating, and ventilating indoor areas, especially spaces that require individual zone control and where internal moisture loads are moderate. The systems are simple to operate, with low maintenance requirements. This book is an essential resource for consulting engineers, architects, owners, and contractors who are involved in the design, operation, and installation of these systems. Building on REHVA’s Chilled Beam Application Guidebook, this new guide provides up-to-date tools and advice for designing, commissioning, and operating chilled-beam systems to achieve a determined indoor climate, and includes examples of active and passive beam calculations and selections. Dual units (SI and I-P) are...

  19. Soil hazards related to shale gas activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczyńska, Monika; Lipińska, Olga

    2017-04-01

    In 2010-2015 dozen of unconventional hydrocarbons wells were drilled in Poland. These earliest cases of new industrial activity in Europe were carefully observed and monitored both by the society and scientific community. One of the biggest and most comprehensive researches on environmental impact posed by the activity was the one conducted by a scientific consortium led by the PGI-NRI. The outcomes of this study are still relevant as a basic data for environmental impact assessment and ought to be more widely used for analysis and comparisons as they documented real case studies involving local factors and conditions. With this presentation, issues related to soil will be discussed, including sub-soil compaction (due to overburden from infrastructure and topsoil temporary storage heaps) as well as contamination by accidental spills of chemicals and technological fluids. Both chemical and agricultural properties of soils have been tested. Within the study, contents of methane and others light hydrocarbons in soil gas were considered as possible indicators of stray gases migration towards the land surface from deeper formations. Thus, such gases survey was conducted with concentrations as well as isotopic characteristics analysis. According to the results a peculiar and unexpected phenomenon of increased methane concentration under site protective impermeable coverage were observed. It is supposed to be caused by a mix of local geological conditions and land-use pattern. Based on real study results a need for baseline conditions establishment as well as continuous soil properties monitoring is needed in order to protect the soil itself as well as to have a tool for unwanted substances migration indicator. For both purposes proper sampling strategy recommendation need to be elaborated.

  20. Variations of terrestrial geomagnetic activity correlated to M6+ global seismic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    From the surface of the Sun, as a result of a solar flare, are expelled a coronal mass (CME or Coronal Mass Ejection) that can be observed from the Earth through a coronagraph in white light. This ejected material can be compared to an electrically charged cloud (plasma) mainly composed of electrons, protons and other small quantities of heavier elements such as helium, oxygen and iron that run radially from the Sun along the lines of the solar magnetic field and pushing into interplanetary space. Sometimes the CME able to reach the Earth causing major disruptions of its magnetosphere: mashed in the region illuminated by the Sun and expanding in the region not illuminated. This interaction creates extensive disruption of the Earth's geomagnetic field that can be detected by a radio receiver tuned to the ELF band (Extreme Low Frequency 0-30 Hz). The Radio Emissions Project (scientific research project founded in February 2009 by Gabriele Cataldi and Daniele Cataldi), analyzing the change in the Earth's geomagnetic field through an induction magnetometer tuned between 0.001 and 5 Hz (bandwidth in which possible to observe the geomagnetic pulsations) was able to detect the existence of a close relationship between this geomagnetic perturbations and the global seismic activity M6+. During the arrival of the CME on Earth, in the Earth's geomagnetic field are generated sudden and intensive emissions that have a bandwidth including between 0 and 15 Hz, an average duration of 2-8 hours, that preceding of 0-12 hours M6+ earthquakes. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012, all M6+ earthquakes recorded on a global scale were preceded by this type of signals which, due to their characteristics, have been called "Seismic Geomagnetic Precursors" (S.G.P.). The main feature of Seismic Geomagnetic Precursors is represented by the close relationship that they have with the solar activity. In fact, because the S.G.P. are geomagnetic emissions, their temporal modulation depends

  1. Global Civil Society and Health Advocacy in Intellectual Property Related Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Civil society organizations and other non-governmental organizations (NGOs) act as policy watchdogs and often represent the voices of marginalized populations. The importance of advocates in the field of Intellectual Property is apparent now more than ever. The global stage is changing; what were previously considered domestic issues have been thrust onto the international stage by agreements such as the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement (TRIPS) (Sell & Praka...

  2. Global Adaptation to a Lipid Environment Triggers the Dormancy-Related Phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan G.; Hernández, Adriana C.; Helguera-Repetto, Cecilia; Aguilar Ayala, Diana; Guadarrama-Medina, Rosalina; Anzóla, Juan M.; Bustos, Jose R.; Zambrano, María M.; González-y-Merchand, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strong evidence supports the idea that fatty acids rather than carbohydrates are the main energy source of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during infection and latency. Despite that important role, a complete scenario of the bacterium’s metabolism when lipids are the main energy source is still lacking. Here we report the development of an in vitro model to analyze adaptation of M. tuberculosis during assimilation of long-chain fatty acids as sole carbon sources. The global lipid transcriptome revealed a shift toward the glyoxylate cycle, the overexpression of main regulators whiB3, dosR, and Rv0081, and the increased expression of several genes related to reductive stress. Our evidence showed that lipid storage seems to be the selected mechanism used by M. tuberculosis to ameliorate the assumed damage of reductive stress and that concomitantly the bacilli acquired a slowed-growth and drug-tolerant phenotype, all characteristics previously associated with the dormant stage. Additionally, intergenic regions were also detected, including the unexpected upregulation of tRNAs that suggest a new role for these molecules in the acquisition of a drug-tolerant phenotype by dormant bacilli. Finally, a set of lipid signature genes for the adaptation process was also identified. This in vitro model represents a suitable condition to illustrate the participation of reductive stress in drugs’ activity against dormant bacilli, an aspect scarcely investigated to date. This approach provides a new perspective to the understanding of latent infection and suggests the participation of previously undetected molecules. PMID:24846381

  3. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  4. Global-scale location and distance estimates: common representations and strategies in absolute and relative judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alinda; Montello, Daniel R

    2006-03-01

    The authors examined whether absolute and relative judgments about global-scale locations and distances were generated from common representations. At the end of a 10-week class on the regional geography of the United States, participants estimated the latitudes of 16 North American cities and all possible pairwise distances between them. Although participants were relative experts, their latitude estimates revealed the presence of psychologically based regions with large gaps between them and a tendency to stretch North America southward toward the equator. The distance estimates revealed the same properties in the representation recovered via multidimensional scaling. Though the aggregated within- and between-regions distance estimates were fitted by Stevens's law (S. S. Stevens, 1957), this was an averaging artifact: The appropriateness of a power function to describe distance estimates depended on the regional membership of the cities. The authors conclude that plausible reasoning strategies, combined with regionalized representations and beliefs about the location of these relative to global landmarks, underlie global-scale latitude and distance judgments.

  5. Global Art: Activities, Projects, and Inventions from Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, MaryAnn F.; Potter, Jean

    This activity book contains over 130 art ideas from around the world, combining the fun and creativity of art with the mysteries of history, the lure of geography, and the diversity of the cultures of the world. These projects allow children to explore the world through art with a process, not a product, approach to artistic outcome; the process…

  6. An Evaluation on Effects of Total Quality Applications in Customer Relations Management on Sustainable Global Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Altinok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization inherently necessitated knowing management technics that could adapt to fast changes. Assuming all other financial aspects are almost equal for companies, the only factor “that can create difference” within the global competition environment is “the human factor”. It draws attention in the way that among companies who set out with the same technical equipment, the companies who are successful in customer relations are able to render the global competition sustainable through approaches that are based on the human factor. In this area, the constructive influences of total quality management on the human, which is the main source that can manage information and turn it into speed and strength, positively reflect on companies and translate into advantages. Placing human at the center of the business, these approaches add new dimensions to changes and developments that will create differences in the global market in line with the versatile structure of business management and contribute to earnings that support economic growth.

  7. Understanding decreases in land relative humidity with global warming: conceptual model and GCM simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Climate models simulate a strong land-ocean contrast in the response of near-surface relative humidity to global warming: relative humidity tends to increase slightly over oceans but decrease substantially over land. Surface energy balance arguments have been used to understand the response over ocean but are difficult to apply over more complex land surfaces. Here, a conceptual box model is introduced, involving moisture transport between the land and ocean boundary layers and evapotranspiration, to investigate the decreases in land relative humidity as the climate warms. The box model is applied to idealized and full-complexity (CMIP5) general circulation model simulations, and it is found to capture many of the features of the simulated changes in land relative humidity. The box model suggests there is a strong link between fractional changes in specific humidity over land and ocean, and the greater warming over land than ocean then implies a decrease in land relative humidity. Evapotranspiration is of sec...

  8. RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN RELATIONS IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE VALUES RESHAPED BY THE GLOBALIZED COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nikolaevna SHEVCHENKO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented a description of the current standing of the globalizing world community assumed to settle on the shared scale of values. The study examined the chang-es in the scale of values Ukraine has undergone, taking for instance the Russian-Ukrainian relations. The paper re-vealed discrepancy in the values NATO declared with their factual actions aimed at inciting the Ukrainian conflict, and inferred that stabilizing the Russian-Ukrainian relations in prospect would depend on commitments the both coun-tries could make to mutual understanding and bilateral cooperation on the shared value basis.

  9. The relation of edge confinement to global confinement in ASDEX Upgrade (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitcher, C.S.; Boozer, A.H.; Murmann, H.; Schweinzer, J.; Suttrop, W.; Salzmann, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM Association, D--85748 Garching (Germany); ASDEX Upgrade Team% NBI Group

    1997-07-01

    Experimental evidence is presented from the ASDEX Upgrade (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment) tokamak [{ital Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1993} (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1994), Vol. I, p. 127] of a robust relation between the edge radial pressure gradient and the global confinement of the plasma. This relation transcends the power flowing across flux surfaces near the edge and thus suggests that the usual model of cross-field heat transport, where local gradients increase with increasing local power flow, is not appropriate. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Organism activity levels predict marine invertebrate survival during ancient global change extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Multistressor global change, the combined influence of ocean warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, poses a serious threat to marine organisms. Experimental studies imply that organisms with higher levels of activity should be more resilient, but testing this prediction and understanding organism vulnerability at a global scale, over evolutionary timescales, and in natural ecosystems remain challenging. The fossil record, which contains multiple extinctions triggered by multistressor global change, is ideally suited for testing hypotheses at broad geographic, taxonomic, and temporal scales. Here, I assess the importance of activity level for survival of well-skeletonized benthic marine invertebrates over a 100-million-year-long interval (Permian to Jurassic periods) containing four global change extinctions, including the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions. More active organisms, based on a semiquantitative score incorporating feeding and motility, were significantly more likely to survive during three of the four extinction events (Guadalupian, end-Permian, and end-Triassic). In contrast, activity was not an important control on survival during nonextinction intervals. Both the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions also triggered abrupt shifts to increased dominance by more active organisms. Although mean activity gradually returned toward pre-extinction values, the net result was a permanent ratcheting of ecosystem-wide activity to higher levels. Selectivity patterns during ancient global change extinctions confirm the hypothesis that higher activity, a proxy for respiratory physiology, is a fundamental control on survival, although the roles of specific physiological traits (such as extracellular pCO2 or aerobic scope) cannot be distinguished. Modern marine ecosystems are dominated by more active organisms, in part because of selectivity ratcheting during these ancient extinctions, so on average may be less vulnerable to global change

  11. Agglomeration economies and global activities: impact on firm survival

    OpenAIRE

    FERRAGINA, Anna Maria; Mazzotta, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus of our contribution is to shed light on the importance of firm agglomerations and FDI as drivers of firm survival in Italy. We focus upon different types of agglomeration economies related to the geographical context checking how these economies impact differently on heterogeneous firms survival and whether effects are robust to different estimators (Probit, Cox hazard models, Probit Heckman) and to different assumptions about inter-and intra-regional spillovers. The novelty our pap...

  12. Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Kristin D; Vonk, Roos

    2009-02-01

    This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self-compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N=2,187) compared self-compassion and global self-esteem as they relate to ego-focused reactivity. It was found that self-compassion predicted more stable feelings of self-worth than self-esteem and was less contingent on particular outcomes. Self-compassion also had a stronger negative association with social comparison, public self-consciousness, self-rumination, anger, and need for cognitive closure. Self-esteem (but not self-compassion) was positively associated with narcissism. Study 2 (N=165) compared global self-esteem and self-compassion with regard to positive mood states. It was found that the two constructs were statistically equivalent predictors of happiness, optimism, and positive affect. Results from these two studies suggest that self-compassion may be a useful alternative to global self-esteem when considering what constitutes a healthy self-stance.

  13. Global Health as a Field of Power Relations: A Response to Recent Commentaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2015-05-22

    Actors working in global health often portray it as an enterprise grounded in principled concerns, advanced by individuals and organizations who draw on scientific evidence to pursue health equity. This portrait is incomplete. It is also a field of power relations-a social arena in which actors claim and draw on expertise and moral authority to gain influence and pursue career, organizational and national interests. A clear understanding of how power operates in this field is necessary to ensure that it is used productively to serve the aims of health equity and improved population health. Responding to commentaries on an editorial published in this journal, I offer 3 ideas toward this end: (1) be skeptical of the global health rationality project-the effort to rescue the field from the alleged indignities of politics through the application of scientific methods; (2) analyze global health as a field of power relations, a concept developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu; and (3) elevate the place of input legitimacy-inclusive deliberation, fair process and transparency-to address legitimacy and knowledge deficits in this field.

  14. Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sallis, James F; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity, i...

  15. Relation of tolerance of ambiguity to global and specific paranormal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houran, J; Williams, C

    1998-12-01

    We examined the relationship of tolerance of ambiguity to severe global factors and specific types of anomalous or paranormal experience. 107 undergraduate students completed MacDonald's 1970 AT-20 and the Anomalous Experiences Inventory of Kumar, Pekala, and Gallagher. Scores on the five subscales of the Anomalous Experiences Inventory correlated differently with tolerance of ambiguity. Global paranormal beliefs, abilities, experiences, and drug use were positively associated with tolerance of ambiguity, whereas a fear of paranormal experience showed a negative relation. The specific types of anomalous experiences that correlated with tolerance of ambiguity often involved internal or physiological experience, e.g., precognitive dreams, memories of reincarnation, visual apparitions, and vestibular alterations. We generally found no effects of age of sex. These results are consistent with the idea that some paranormal experiences are misattributions of internal experience to external ('paranormal') sources, a process analogous to mechanisms underpinning delusions and hallucinations.

  16. The impact of globalization on the reform of the system of relations in politics of social partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shulika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of social partnership are the workers, employers and the state agencies. But a system that has long been effectively regulate social and labor issues within the country, today has almost no effect on the new international system of economic and industrial relations. So now we can see the modernization actors of social partnership policy, especially employers and workers.The most intensively developed in the present conditions employers and entrepreneurs, which in most cases is the cause of the evolution of economic and social development in the world. Now there is a tendency to increase the number and impact of international non­governmental organizations, including trade unions.In modern terms, it is necessary to strengthen control over the implementation of the agreements, which should be based on consideration of international agreements and establishing a mechanism to coordinate rapid response of international agencies, trade unions and employers associations.The direction of the Ukrainian state promotes global social partnership is to promote businesses joining the UN Global Compact, which is the world’s largest voluntary initiative of business, UN agencies, labor, civil society organizations and government in the area of corporate social responsibility. Federation of Employers of Ukraine is an active participant in the process of attracting the Global Compact.

  17. THE PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL BANKS IN THEIR CROSS-BORDER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea POPOVICI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that affected the global financial stability and the economy in 2007-09 has reinforced the need to rethink some of the approaches adopted by the financial community in assessing banks’ performance. The aim of this paper is to see if global banks improve their performance due to their cross-border activity, whether we speak about mergers or acquisitions of local banks or we speak about other ways a global bank begins the activity in a different country. As methodology, we will analyze the dynamic of ROAA and ROAE during 2006-2013 in the case of two global banks, Société Générale and Erste Group, and their branches in countries from Central and Eastern Europe. At the end of the paper, we will compare the results for each big bank and their branches.

  18. THE PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL BANKS IN THEIR CROSS-BORDER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea POPOVICI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that affected the global financial stability and the economy in 2007-09 has reinforced the need to rethink some of the approaches adopted by the financial community in assessing banks’ performance. The aim of this paper is to see if global banks improve their performance due to their cross-border activity, whether we speak about mergers or acquisitions of local banks or we speak about other ways a global bank begins the activity in a different country. As methodology, we will analyze the dynamic of ROAA and ROAE during 2006-2013 in the case of two global banks, Société Générale and Erste Group, and their branches in countries from Central and Eastern Europe. At the end of the paper, we will compare the results for each big bank and their branches.

  19. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  20. Activity Based Learning in a Freshman Global Business Course: Analyses of Preferences and Demographic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Mark F.; Guy, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates pre-business students' reaction to Activity Based Learning in a lower division core required course entitled Introduction to Global Business in the business curriculum at California State University Chico. The study investigates students' preference for Activity Based Learning in comparison to a more traditional…

  1. Role of Staphylococcus aureus global regulators sae and sigmaB in virulence gene expression during device-related infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, Christiane; Fluckiger, Ursula; Steinhuber, Andrea; Bisanzio, Vittoria; Ulrich, Martina; Bischoff, Markus; Patti, Joseph M; Wolz, Christiane

    2005-06-01

    The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to adapt to different environments is due to a regulatory network comprising several loci. Here we present a detailed study of the interaction between the two global regulators sae and sigmaB of S. aureus and their influence on virulence gene expression in vitro, as well as during device-related infection. The expression of sae, asp23, hla, clfA, coa, and fnbA was determined in strain Newman and its isogenic saeS/R and sigB mutants by Northern analysis and LightCycler reverse transcription-PCR. There was no indication of direct cross talk between the two regulators. sae had a dominant effect on target gene expression during device-related infection. SigmaB seemed to be less active throughout the infection than under induced conditions in vitro.

  2. Classroom Activities for Introducing Equivalence Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Equivalence relations and partitions are two interconnected ideas that play important roles in advanced mathematics. While students encounter the informal notion of equivalence in many courses, the formal definition of an equivalence relation is typically introduced in a junior level transition-to-proof course. This paper reports the results of a…

  3. Understanding Decreases in Land Relative Humidity with Global Warming: Conceptual Model and GCM Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael P.; O'Gorman, Paul A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate models simulate a strong land-ocean contrast in the response of near-surface relative humidity to global warming: relative humidity tends to increase slightly over oceans but decrease substantially over land. Surface energy balance arguments have been used to understand the response over ocean but are difficult to apply over more complex land surfaces. Here, a conceptual box model is introduced, involving moisture transport between the land and ocean boundary layers and evapotranspiration, to investigate the decreases in land relative humidity as the climate warms. The box model is applied to idealized and full-complexity (CMIP5) general circulation model simulations, and it is found to capture many of the features of the simulated changes in land relative humidity. The box model suggests there is a strong link between fractional changes in specific humidity over land and ocean, and the greater warming over land than ocean then implies a decrease in land relative humidity. Evapotranspiration is of secondary importance for the increase in specific humidity over land, but it matters more for the decrease in relative humidity. Further analysis shows there is a strong feedback between changes in surface-air temperature and relative humidity, and this can amplify the influence on relative humidity of factors such as stomatal conductance and soil moisture.

  4. Global Health as a Field of Power Relations: A Response to Recent Commentaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Shiffman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Actors working in global health often portray it as an enterprise grounded in principled concerns, advanced by individuals and organizations who draw on scientific evidence to pursue health equity. This portrait is incomplete. It is also a field of power relations—a social arena in which actors claim and draw on expertise and moral authority to gain influence and pursue career, organizational and national interests. A clear understanding of how power operates in this field is necessary to ensure that it is used productively to serve the aims of health equity and improved population health. Responding to commentaries on an editorial published in this journal, I offer 3 ideas toward this end: (1 be skeptical of the global health rationality project—the effort to rescue the field from the alleged indignities of politics through the application of scientific methods; (2 analyze global health as a field of power relations, a concept developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu; and (3 elevate the place of input legitimacy—inclusive deliberation, fair process and transparency—to address legitimacy and knowledge deficits in this field.

  5. Fossil Group Origins. VI. Global X-ray scaling relations of fossil galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kundert, A; D'Onghia, E; Girardi, M; Aguerri, J A L; Barrena, R; Corsini, E M; De Grandi, S; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Lozada-Muñoz, M; Méndez-Abreu, J; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Wilcots, E; Zarattini, S

    2015-01-01

    We present the first pointed X-ray observations of ten candidate fossil galaxy groups and clusters. With these Suzaku observations, we determine global temperatures and bolometric X-ray luminosities of the intracluster medium (ICM) out to $r_{500}$ for six systems in our sample. The remaining four systems show signs of significant contamination from non-ICM sources. For the six objects with successfully determined $r_{500}$ properties, we measure global temperatures between $2.8 \\ \\mathrm{keV} \\leq T_{\\mathrm{X}} \\leq 5.3 \\ \\mathrm{keV}$, bolometric X-ray luminosities of $0.6 \\times 10^{44} \\ \\mathrm{ergs} \\ \\mathrm{s}^{-1} \\leq L_{\\mathrm{X,bol}} \\leq 7.2\\times 10^{44} \\ \\mathrm{ergs} \\ \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$, and estimate masses, as derived from $T_{\\mathrm{X}}$, of $M_{500} \\gtrsim 10^{14} \\ \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$. Scaling relations are constructed for an assembled sample of fossil and non-fossil systems using global X-ray luminosities, temperatures, optical luminosities, and velocity dispersions. The fit of the sc...

  6. Global Reduction in HIV-related Maternal Mortality: ART as a Key Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Holtz and colleagues present a synthesis of evidence from published studies over the previous decade on the collective impact of HIV-targeted interventions on maternal mortality. Amongst an assortment of interventions [that include antiretroviral therapy (ART), micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A and selenium), and antibiotics], only ART reduced maternal mortality among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum mothers. These findings have fundamental and global strategic implications. They are also timely since they provide the evidence that ART reduces HIV-related maternal mortality, and by further enhancing access to ART in HIV-challenged and poor regions of the world, significant improvement in maternal morbidity and mortality indices could be attained. The paper bears good tidings and sound scientific proof that the financial investment made globally by government and non-governmental organizations and agencies to reduce the global burden of HIV/AIDS primarily by making ART more accessible to regions of the world most affected by the epidemic is beginning to show beneficial effects not only in terms of numerical reductions in the rates of new cases of HIV/AIDS among women, but also in maternal mortality levels.

  7. Global Health as a Field of Power Relations: A Response to Recent Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Actors working in global health often portray it as an enterprise grounded in principled concerns, advanced by individuals and organizations who draw on scientific evidence to pursue health equity. This portrait is incomplete. It is also a field of power relations—a social arena in which actors claim and draw on expertise and moral authority to gain influence and pursue career, organizational and national interests. A clear understanding of how power operates in this field is necessary to ensure that it is used productively to serve the aims of health equity and improved population health. Responding to commentaries on an editorial published in this journal, I offer 3 ideas toward this end: (1) be skeptical of the global health rationality project—the effort to rescue the field from the alleged indignities of politics through the application of scientific methods; (2) analyze global health as a field of power relations, a concept developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu; and (3) elevate the place of input legitimacy—inclusive deliberation, fair process and transparency—to address legitimacy and knowledge deficits in this field. PMID:26188819

  8. Political Education. The Global Education of Citizen through Active Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Puka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The human being grows in relationship with others of its fellows, and it is by virtue of this relationship that it receives a particular cultural heritage and acquires its own identity, differentiating itself, finding its own space of freedom and autonomy allowing it to interact and extend its own network of relations. In such a dynamic of reciprocity, the man realizes himself as such as a conscious member of a “social body”, i.e. of a radical society in an organic human context, which has become nowadays a clearly planetary one, by virtue of the unpublished migration flows and obvious interdependence of the Planet. The education is a line of human civility and it causes that grounds of anonymity, fears, consumerism, prejudice, haste, indifference, abuse, insecurity, solitude, become grounds of hospitality, trust, sharing, security, friendship, and brotherhood. The patterns of political education having prevailed so far are: the academic model with its explanation and dissent in the abstract of a great deal of knowledge, and that of the laboratory, which tilts and leans over, even by moments of simulation, toward vital worlds of operational policy. It is now manifested a widespread social demand about the necessity to provide to everybody, but especially in the range of basic youth socio-political information, an equipment of historical and values’ nature, and by providing comparative elements on the different socio-political matrices and traditions, raising the incentive at a renewing and increasingly conscious commitment in the face of growing difficulties, inherent to the political perspectives disputed so far in the world. It is necessary to refocus and reestablish a political culture uniting the breath of the ideal with the reality of administrative experience, supporting this political culture with the contribution of a dynamic and open reflection, capable of understanding the reality.

  9. Latitudinal variations in seasonal activity of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV: a global comparative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Bloom-Feshbach

    Full Text Available There is limited information on influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV seasonal patterns in tropical areas, although there is renewed interest in understanding the seasonal drivers of respiratory viruses.We review geographic variations in seasonality of laboratory-confirmed influenza and RSV epidemics in 137 global locations based on literature review and electronic sources. We assessed peak timing and epidemic duration and explored their association with geography and study settings. We fitted time series model to weekly national data available from the WHO influenza surveillance system (FluNet to further characterize seasonal parameters.Influenza and RSV activity consistently peaked during winter months in temperate locales, while there was greater diversity in the tropics. Several temperate locations experienced semi-annual influenza activity with peaks occurring in winter and summer. Semi-annual activity was relatively common in tropical areas of Southeast Asia for both viruses. Biennial cycles of RSV activity were identified in Northern Europe. Both viruses exhibited weak latitudinal gradients in the timing of epidemics by hemisphere, with peak timing occurring later in the calendar year with increasing latitude (P<0.03. Time series model applied to influenza data from 85 countries confirmed the presence of latitudinal gradients in timing, duration, seasonal amplitude, and between-year variability of epidemics. Overall, 80% of tropical locations experienced distinct RSV seasons lasting 6 months or less, while the percentage was 50% for influenza.Our review combining literature and electronic data sources suggests that a large fraction of tropical locations experience focused seasons of respiratory virus activity in individual years. Information on seasonal patterns remains limited in large undersampled regions, included Africa and Central America. Future studies should attempt to link the observed latitudinal gradients in

  10. The relativity experiment of MORE: Global full-cycle simulation and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Giulia

    2015-07-01

    BepiColombo is a joint ESA/JAXA mission to Mercury with challenging objectives regarding geophysics, geodesy and fundamental physics. In particular, the Mercury Orbiter Radio science Experiment (MORE) intends, as one of its goals, to perform a test of General Relativity. This can be done by measuring and constraining the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters to an accuracy significantly better than current one. In this work we perform a global numerical full-cycle simulation of the BepiColombo Radio Science Experiments (RSE) in a realistic scenario, focussing on the relativity experiment, solving simultaneously for all the parameters of interest for RSE in a global least squares fit within a constrained multiarc strategy. The results on the achievable accuracy for each PPN parameter will be presented and discussed, confirming the significant improvement to the actual knowledge of gravitation theory expected for the MORE relativity experiment. In particular, we will show that, including realistic systematic effects in the range observables, an accuracy of the order of 10-6 can still be achieved in the Eddington parameter β and in the parameter α1, which accounts for preferred frame effects, while the only poorly determined parameter turns out to be ζ, which describes the temporal variations of the gravitational constant and the Sun mass.

  11. Globalism of commutation relation and mechanism of momentum transfer in the Aharonov-Bohm effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Fang

    1997-09-01

    After examining the domain of an operator that has classical analog, which is shown to be the whole spatial space, the concept of globalism of a commutation relation is introduced through analyzing the quantization of the kinetic angular momentum in the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Its applications are also given to explain in an elegant and precise way, the mechanism of momentum transfer in the Aharonov-Bohm scattering and to study the probability distribution of the momentum for a particle in a one-dimensional infinitely deep square potential well.

  12. Entropy of Nonstatic Black Hole with the Internal Global Monopole and the Generalized Uncertainty Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yi-Wen; LIU Shou-Yu

    2005-01-01

    @@ The new equation of state density is obtained by the utilization of the generalized uncertainty relation. With the help of coordinates and the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, direct calculation of the scalar field entropy of the non-state black hole with an internal global monopole is performed. The entropy obtained from the calculation is proportional to the horizon area. The calculation can be free from convergence if without any cutoff, which is different from the brick-wall method. However, the pertinent result is limited.

  13. A possible relationship between Global Warming and Lightning Activity in India during the period 1998-2009

    CERN Document Server

    B., Felix Pereira; Girish, T E

    2010-01-01

    Lightning activity on a global scale has been studied season wise using satellite data for the period from 1998 to 2009. Lightning activity shows an increasing trend during the period of study which is highly correlated with atmospheric warming. A similar increasing trend of lightning activity is observed in the Indian region during the pre-monsoon season which is correlated with global lightning trends and warming trends of surface temperature in India. Key words: Global warming, lightning activity, Solar cycle changes

  14. Assessing pediatric ileocolonic Crohn's disease activity based on global MR enterography scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerri, Fabio; Zuliani, Monica; Giorgi, Benedetta; Muzzio, Pier Carlo [University of Padova, Department of Medicine-DIMED, Padova (Italy); Al Bunni, Faise [Rovigo Hospital, Radiology Unit, S. Maria della Misericordia, Rovigo (Italy); Guariso, Graziella; Gasparetto, Marco; Cananzi, Mara [University of Padova, Department of Women and Child Health, Padova (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    This study was aimed at correlating a magnetic resonance index of activity (MaRIA) and a magnetic resonance enterography global score (MEGS) with activity indexes in a paediatric population with Crohn's disease (CD). This retrospective study included 32 paediatric patients (median age 14.5 years, 18 male) with proven CD who underwent magnetic resonance enterography (MRE). A correlation analysis was performed on the MRE-based scores, the simplified endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD), the paediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Based on PCDAI, comparison of both global MaRIA and MEGS was made between patients with mild and moderate/severe disease activity. Global MaRIA correlated with SES-CD (r = 0.70, p = 0.001) and PCDAI (r = 0.42, p = 0.016). MEGS correlated with PCDAI (r = 0.46, p = 0.007) and CRP levels (r = 0.35, p = 0.046). MEGS differed significantly (p = 0.027) between patients grouped by clinical disease severity. MRE-based global scores correlated with clinical indexes of CD activity. Therefore, they represent a potential useful tool to predict CD activity and severity, as well as a possible promising alternative to endoscopy, to monitor paediatric patients with CD during their follow-up. (orig.)

  15. Effectiveness of Corporate Social Media Activities to Increase Relational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This study applies social media analytics to investigate the impact of different corporate social media activities on user word of mouth and attitudinal loyalty. We conduct a multilevel analysis of approximately 5 million tweets regarding the main Twitter accounts of 28 large global companies. We...

  16. Global proteomic analysis of Chelidonium majus and Corydalis cava (Papaveraceae) extracts revealed similar defense-related protein compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Robert; Zauber, Henrik; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2014-04-01

    Chelidonium majus and Corydalis cava are phylogenetically closely related (Papaveraceae family). The medicinal and pharmaceutical interest in these plants is based on their synthesis of pharmaceutically important compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and proteins. C. majus shoot and C. cava tuber extracts have been used in traditional folk medicine to treat many diseases, such as fungal, bacterial and viral infections, liver disorders, fever, post-traumatic, colic, abdominal and menstrual pains and even cancer. This study attempts to perform a global comparative proteomic analysis of pharmacologically important extracts from these two closely related unsequenced plant species to gain insights into the protein basis of these plant organs and to compare their common and specific proteomic compositions. We used a shotgun proteomic approach combined with label-free protein quantitation according to the exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI). In total, a mean number of 228 protein identification results were recorded in C. cava tuber extracts and about 1240 in C. majus shoot extracts. Comparative analysis revealed a similar stress and defense-related protein composition of pharmacologically active plant species and showed the presence of different pathogenesis-related and low molecular inducible antimicrobial peptides. These findings could form the basis for further elucidation of the mechanism of the strong pharmacological activities of these medicinal plant extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Citizenship Related Activities in World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Pete

    1984-01-01

    A world history course is molded around broad instructional goals in which citizenship education can and should be included. Learning activities dealing with ancient Greece illustrate teaching strategies which can be used in high school world history courses to foster citizenship knowledge, skills, and attitudes. (RM)

  18. An Active Global Attack Model for Sensor Source Location Privacy: Analysis and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Zhu, Sencun; Cao, Guohong; Laporta, Thomas

    Source locations of events are sensitive contextual information that needs to be protected in sensor networks. Previous work focuses on either an active local attacker that traces back to a real source in a hop-by-hop fashion, or a passive global attacker that eavesdrops/analyzes all network traffic to discover real sources. An active global attack model, which is more realistic and powerful than current ones, has not been studied yet. In this paper, we not only formalize this strong attack model, but also propose countermeasures against it.

  19. ACTIVLIM-CP a new Rasch-built measure of global activity performance for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Paradis, Julie; Renders, Anne; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Arnould, Carlyne

    2017-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often have upper extremity (UE) and lower extremity (LE) impairments. While tools measuring separately UE and LE abilities are currently used, activities in which UE and LE are used in combination - numerous in everyday life - cannot be assessed because no instrument allows capturing global activity performance in children with CP. This study aimed to develop a clinical tool for measuring their global activity performance using the Rasch model. The caregivers of 226 children with CP (2-18 years old) answered a 154-item experimental questionnaire. Within 4-6 weeks, 129 of them filled in the questionnaire a second time. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch RUMM2020 software. The final 43 item scale presented a high reliability (R=0.98) and reproducibility (R=0.97). The item difficulty hierarchy was consistent over time and did not vary according to age, gender, or clinical form, allowing the follow-up of children from 2 to 18 years old. ACTIVLIM-CP is a unidimensional scale specifically developed to measure global activity performance in children with CP providing a reliable tool to follow children's evolution and document changes related to neurorehabilitation, especially where a combination of UE and LE is targeted. Its responsiveness is still to be tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The local in the global – creating ethical relations between producers and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Torjusen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose d’explorer comment les produits locaux et localisés jouent un rôle dans la créations de relations « équitables » entre producteurs et consommateurs, dans le système alimentaire globalisé actuel. Dans un premier temps nous discuterons les termes de « local » et de « produits locaux ». Dans un second temps nous présenterons trois exemples de stratégies fondées sur les produits locaux et l’équitabilité : le commerce équitable, Slow Food et les associations pour le maintien de l’agriculture paysanne (AMAP. A partir des ces exemples nous discuterons de l’impact d’un système alimentaire globalisé sur le développement d’un système alimentaire localisé, soulignant le fait que considérer le « local dans le global » offre à la fois une perspective de transformation, de mouvement et de résistance.In this paper we explore how “local” food plays a role in creating ethical relations between producers and consumers in today’s globalized food system. First, understandings of local and local food will be discussed. Second, we will present and reflect on three examples of local food strategies for creating ethical links between producers and consumers: Fair trade, Slow Food and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA. We argue that the process of globalisation of the food system creates space for various local food initiatives, indicating that the local in the global offers both a potential for transformation, movement and site of resistance.

  1. The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers: an overview of recent activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) is an organizational framework for three operational bodies dedicated to global mapping and monitoring of glacier changes. In this talk I will provide an overview of recent progress made by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) toward distribution and analysis of global in-situ and remotely sensed glacier observations. I will highlight new initiatives aimed at database integration, modernization of internet-based tools, and enhanced community outreach. These activities are helping to generate new discoveries in cryospheric studies, which I will illustrate through several example applications. Finally, I will outline a vision for future GTN-G efforts that will enable rapid response to anticipated glacier variations resulting from climate variability.

  2. Coupling Strength and System Size Induce Firing Activity of Globally Coupled Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Du-Qu; LUO Xiao-Shu; ZOU Yan-Li

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how firing activity of globally coupled neural network depends on the coupling strength C and system size N.Network elements are described by space-clamped FitzHugh-Nagumo (SCFHN) neurons with the values of parameters at which no firing activity occurs.It is found that for a given appropriate coupling strength,there is an intermediate range of system size where the firing activity of globally coupled SCFHN neural network is induced and enhanced.On the other hand,for a given intermediate system size level,there ex/sts an optimal value of coupling strength such that the intensity of firing activity reaches its maximum.These phenomena imply that the coupling strength and system size play a vital role in firing activity of neural network.

  3. The Global Politics of Gay Rights: The Straining Relations between the West and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakeem Onapajo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the contemporary global politics of gay rights as it relates to the straining relations between the Western powers and many African states that oppose sexual minorities’ rights. While the West (with emphasis on the United States, EU, and Britain advocates for the protection of gay rights in the world, Africa provides the largest concentration of states opposed to them. Therefore, there has been rising tension between both regions. This became more apparent after Nigeria and Uganda, respectively, signed their anti-gay bills into law in January and February 2014. In response to this, the Western powers decided to take some punitive measures, especially imposition of sanctions, against the countries to pressurise them to repeal their laws. In an unusual manner, the African states are radically determined to go ahead with their anti-gay laws in open defiance to the demands of the Western powers. This development, which is informed by a number of factors, shows a rather new pattern of behaviour by African states in global politics.

  4. Are secular correlations between sunspots, geomagnetic activity, and global temperature significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.J.; Mursula, K.; Tsai, V.C.; Perkins, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have led to speculation that solar-terrestrial interaction, measured by sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, has played an important role in global temperature change over the past century or so. We treat this possibility as an hypothesis for testing. We examine the statistical significance of cross-correlations between sunspot number, geomagnetic activity, and global surface temperature for the years 1868-2008, solar cycles 11-23. The data contain substantial autocorrelation and nonstationarity, properties that are incompatible with standard measures of cross-correlational significance, but which can be largely removed by averaging over solar cycles and first-difference detrending. Treated data show an expected statistically- significant correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, Pearson p correlations between global temperature and sunspot number (geomagnetic activity) are not significant, p = 0.9954, (p = 0.8171). In other words, straightforward analysis does not support widely-cited suggestions that these data record a prominent role for solar-terrestrial interaction in global climate change. With respect to the sunspot-number, geomagnetic-activity, and global-temperature data, three alternative hypotheses remain difficult to reject: (1) the role of solar-terrestrial interaction in recent climate change is contained wholly in long-term trends and not in any shorter-term secular variation, or, (2) an anthropogenic signal is hiding correlation between solar-terrestrial variables and global temperature, or, (3) the null hypothesis, recent climate change has not been influenced by solar-terrestrial interaction. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. UNESCO Global Ethics Observatory: database on ethics related legislation and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, T W; ten Have, H; Solbakk, J H; Nys, H

    2008-10-01

    The Database on Ethics Related Legislation and Guidelines was launched in March 2007 as the fourth database of the UNESCO Global Ethics Observatory system of databases in ethics of science and technology. The database offers a collection of legal instruments searchable by region, country, bioethical themes, legal categories and applicability to specific articles of the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights and International Declaration on Human Genetic Data. This paper discusses the background and rationale for the database and its role as a consultative and comparative resource hub for the study of ethics related legal instruments across the world, with the purpose of informing and inspiring relevant stakeholders on the implementation of the principles contained within the UNESCO declarations on bioethics.

  6. A review of the global relationship among freshwater fish, autotrophic activity, and regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, Andrew M.; Bunnell, David B.; Rogers, Mark W.; Beard, T. Douglas; Taylor, William W.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between autotrophic activity and freshwater fish populations is an important consideration for ecologists describing trophic structure in aquatic communities, fisheries managers tasked with increasing sustainable fisheries development, and fish farmers seeking to maximize production. Previous studies of the empirical relationships of autotrophic activity and freshwater fish yield have found positive relationships but were limited by small sample sizes, small geographic scopes, and the inability to compare patterns among many types of measurement techniques. Individual studies and reviews have also lacked consistent consideration of regional climate factors which may inform relationships between fisheries and autotrophic activity. We compiled data from over 700 freshwater systems worldwide and used meta-analysis and linear models to develop a comprehensive global synthesis between multiple metrics of autotrophic activity, fisheries, and climate indicators. Our results demonstrate that multiple metrics of fish (i.e., catch per unit effort, yield, and production) increase with autotrophic activity across a variety of fisheries. At the global scale additional variation in this positive relationship can be ascribed to regional climate differences (i.e., temperature and precipitation) across systems. Our results provide a method and proof-of-concept for assessing inland fisheries production at the global scale, where current estimates are highly uncertain, and may therefore inform the continued sustainable use of global inland fishery resources.

  7. Global Groundwater related Risk Indicators: quantifying groundwater stress and groundwater table decline (1990-2010) at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faneca Sanchez, Marta; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Kuijper, Marijn; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is an invisible but indispensable resource for the economic development of many countries. Due to the need for this resource, in many cases it is exploited under severe pressure and the exploitation can become not sustainable. The non-sustainable exploitation of water is a well-known problem on both regional and global scales. However, most currently-available assessments on water stress still mostly focus on surface water and on water balances. In this work, we presented two global maps of groundwater risk indicators: an updated version of the groundwater stress (Gleeson et al., 2011, DOI: 10.1038/nature11295) and an indicator on groundwater table decline for the period 1990-2010. To calculate both indicators, we used the updated PCR-GLOBWB model output at 5 arcmin resolution (about 10 km at the equator), that is extended with an offline coupling to a global groundwater MODFLOW model. PCR-GLOBWB simulates daily river discharge and groundwater recharge, as well as surface water and groundwater abstraction rates. The latter are estimated internally within the model based on the simulation of their availabilities and water demands for irrigation and other sectors. The daily output of PCR-GLOBWB would then be aggregated to the monthly resolution and used to force the MODFLOW groundwater model resolving spatio-temporal groundwater table dynamics, incorporating the simulated groundwater abstraction of PCR-GLOBWB. Using the PCR-GLOBWB and MODFLOW simulation results from the period 1990-2010, we then quantified groundwater stress and assessed the groundwater table decline. Results are presented on four different spatial scales: 5 arcmin pixel, drainage/sub-catchment unit, state level, and major aquifer unit. The maps clearly show where groundwater is under stress, where there is a trend in the drop of the groundwater table, the slope of the drop and the significance of it.

  8. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.129 Activities closely related to banking. Courier activities. The...

  9. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  10. Nature–Culture Relations: Early Globalization, Climate Changes, and System Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing C. Chew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has been on everyone’s lips in light of the contemporary conditions. It has been viewed mostly as a stage reached as a result of long-term societal changes over the course of world history. For us, globalization has been an ongoing process for at least the last 5000 years. Little attention has been paid to the socioeconomic and natural processes that led to the current transformation. With the exception of historical sociologists, there is less interest in examining the long-term past as it is often assumed that the past has nothing to teach us, and it is the future that we have to turn our intellectual gaze. This paper will argue the opposite. We believe a long-term tracing of the socioeconomic and political processes of the making of the modern world will allow us to have a more incisive understanding of the current trajectory of world development and transformations. To plead our case, we outline the emergence of the first Eurasian World Economy linking seven regions (Europe, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, the Persian Gulf, Central Asia, South Asia, Ceylon, Southeast Asia, and China of the world, with the exception of the Americas, starting as early as 200 BC, and the sequence of structural crises and transformations (trading networks and commodities that has circumscribed the structures and trends of the current global system. Such consideration in our view is limited if we do not also include the relations between social systems and Nature, and the rhythms of the climate. For the latter, an awareness of the natural rhythms of the climate as well as human induced changes or climate forcing have triggered system-wide level collapses during certain early historical periods.

  11. Living in a Global Age. A Simulation Activity for Upper Elementary and Secondary Level Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    Designed to introduce concepts in international trade and global economics to upper elementary and secondary level students, this simulation activity engages students in the group task of assembling flashlights. A variety of topics can be explored, such as energy shortages, international crises, relationships between rich and poor nations, foreign…

  12. Global self-esteem, perceived athletic competence, and physical activity in children : A longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, Johannes J.; van der Net, Janjaap; Jak, Suzanne; Helders, Paul J M; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Exercise and Self-Esteem Model is used as a theoretical framework to describe associations between global self-esteem and physical activity, mediated by perceived athletic competence. We know little about how these associations develop over time in elementary school children. We

  13. Brain MR image segmentation using local and global intensity fitting active contours/surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Chunming; Sun, Quansen; Xia, Deshen; Kao, Chiu-Yen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved region-based active contour/surface model for 2D/3D brain MR image segmentation. Our model combines the advantages of both local and global intensity information, which enable the model to cope with intensity inhomogeneity. We define an energy functional with a local intensity fitting term and an auxiliary global intensity fitting term. In the associated curve evolution, the motion of the contour is driven by a local intensity fitting force and a global intensity fitting force, induced by the local and global terms in the proposed energy functional, respectively. The influence of these two forces on the curve evolution is complementary. When the contour is close to object boundaries, the local intensity fitting force became dominant, which attracts the contour toward object boundaries and finally stops the contour there. The global intensity fitting force is dominant when the contour is far away from object boundaries, and it allows more flexible initialization of contours by using global image information. The proposed model has been applied to both 2D and 3D brain MR image segmentation with promising results.

  14. The effects of solar activity on the global solar radiation measured at Khargha Oasis in the Western Dessert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M.; Mohamed, A.

    Khargha is an Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt of coordinates lat. 25 o 27/ N, long. 30 o 32 / E, and elevation 77.8 meter over the sea level. It is one of the driest areas in the world, the global solar radiation measured starting from January 1976 till now by station belong to the Egyptian Meteorological Authority. We used the data for the last 25 years of the 20"' Century on the daily bases, it is more than two solar cycles. The annual mean of relative humidity for Khargha is 30, and the total rainfall in mms as annual mean is less than one. Where, the evaporation in mms per day as annual mean is about 16. The total sky cover in oktas as annual mean is 0.4 at the midnight, while it is one oktas at the noon as 2annual mean, and 0.7 oktas on the mean of the day. The annual mean is 6.5 Kwh/rn /day for global solar radiation. Fourier analysis technique used to analysis the time series to show any reflection for the 11-year cycle of the solar activity on the measured global radiation in remote, clean, and dry desert area. The results indicate periodicity's similar to the solar activity periodicities, especially that of the eleven year cycle, in a good indication for the effect of solar activity on the climate change.

  15. Statistical Modelling of Global Tectonic Activity and some Physical Consequences of its Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Statnikov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of global earthquake data bank for the last thirty years, a global tectonic activity indicator was proposed comprising a weekly globally averaged mean earthquake magnitude value. It was shown that 84% of indicator variability is a harmonic oscillation with a fundamental period of 37.2 years, twice the maximum period in the tidal oscillation spectrum (18.6 years. From this observation, a conclusion was drawn that parametric resonance (PR exists between global tectonic activity and low-frequency tides. The conclusion was also confirmed by the existence of the statistically significant PR response at the second lowest tidal frequency i.e. 182.6 days. It was shown that the global earthquake flow, with a determination factor 93%, is a sum of two Gaussian streams, nearly equally intense, with mean values of 23 and 83 events per week and standard deviations of 9 and 30 events per week, respectively. The Earth periphery to 'mean time interval between earthquakes' ratios in the first and the second flow modes described above match, by the order of magnitude, the sound velocity in the fluid (~1500 m/s and in elastic medium (5500 m/s.

  16. Risk factors related to the global burden of disease in Brazil and its Federated Units, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Machado, Ísis Eloah; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Ishitani, Lenice Harumi; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Carneiro, Mariangela; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the global burden of disease related to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to selected risk factors in Brazil and its 27 Federated Units. Databases from the Global Burden of Disease study in Brazil and its Federated Units were used, estimating the summary exposure value (SEV) for selected environmental, behavioral, and metabolic risk factors (RFs), and their combinations. The DALYs were used as the main metric. The ranking of major RFs between 1990 and 2015 was compiled, comparing data by sex and states. The analyzed RFs account for 38.8% of the loss of DALYs in the country. Dietary risks was the main cause of DALYs in 2015. In men, dietary risks contributed to 12.2% of DALYs and in women, to 11.1%. Other RFs were high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, smoking, high fasting plasma glucose and, among men, alcohol and drug use. The main RFs were metabolic and behavioral. In most states, dietary risks was the main RF, followed by high blood pressure. Dietary risks leads the RF ranking for Brazil and its Federated Units. Men are more exposed to behavioral risk factors, and women are more exposed to metabolic ones.

  17. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S-Y Simon; Gillies, Robert R; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J

    2015-10-21

    Since the winter of 2013-2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those associations that pertain to changing climate oscillations under global warming. Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% towards the end of the twenty-first century; this projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with a strengthened relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)--in particular, extreme El Niño and La Niña events that modulate California's climate not only through its warm and cold phases but also its precursor patterns.

  18. Activity Theory applied to Global Software Engineering: Theoretical Foundations and Implications for Tool Builders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Although a plethora of tools are available for Global Software Engineering (GSE) teams, it is being realized increasingly that the most prevalent desktop metaphor underpinning the majority of tools have several inherent limitations. We have proposed that Activity-Based Computing (ABC) can...... for applying activity theory to GSE. We analyze and explain the fundamental concepts of activity theory, and how they can be applied by using examples of software architecture design and evaluation processes. We describe the kind of data model and architectural support required for applying activity theory...

  19. Molecular mechanism of 7TM receptor activation--a global toggle switch model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Thue W; Frimurer, Thomas M; Holst, Birgitte;

    2006-01-01

    The multitude of chemically highly different agonists for 7TM receptors apparently do not share a common binding mode or active site but nevertheless act through induction of a common molecular activation mechanism. A global toggle switch model is proposed for this activation mechanism to reconcile...... to this model, a vertical see-saw movement of TM-VI-and to some degree TM-VII-around a pivot corresponding to the highly conserved prolines will occur during receptor activation, which may involve the outer segment of TM-V in an as yet unclear fashion. Small-molecule agonists can stabilize such a proposed...

  20. A mathematical model for malaria transmission relating global warming and local socioeconomic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun M Yang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sensitivity analysis was applied to a mathematical model describing malaria transmission relating global warming and local socioeconomic conditions. METHODS: A previous compartment model was proposed to describe the overall transmission of malaria. This model was built up on several parameters and the prevalence of malaria in a community was characterized by the values assigned to them. To assess the control efforts, the model parameters can vary on broad intervals. RESULTS: By performing the sensitivity analysis on equilibrium points, which represent the level of malaria infection in a community, the different possible scenarios are obtained when the parameters are changed. CONCLUSIONS: Depending on malaria risk, the efforts to control its transmission can be guided by a subset of parameters used in the mathematical model.

  1. Toward a pro-active scientific advice on global volcanic activity within the multi-hazard framework of the EU Aristotle project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Sara; Duncan, Melanie; Loughlin, Susan; Gísladóttir, Bryndis; Roberts, Matthew; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Scollo, Simona; Salerno, Giuseppe; Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos

    2017-04-01

    The demand for timely analysis and advice on global volcanic activity from scientists is growing. At the same time, decision-makers require more than an understanding of hazards; they need to know what impacts to expect from ongoing and future events. ARISTOTLE (All Risk Integrated System TOwards Trans-boundary hoListic Early-warning) is a two-year EC funded pilot project designed to do just that. The Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) works to support and coordinate response to disasters both inside and outside Europe using resources from the countries participating in the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism. Led by INGV and ZAMG, the ARISTOTLE consortium comprises 15 institutions across Europe and aims to deliver multi-hazard advice on natural events, including their potential interactions and impact, both inside and outside of Europe to the ERCC. Where possible, the ERCC would like a pro-active provision of scientific advice by the scientific group. Iceland Met Office leads the volcanic hazards work, with BGS, INGV and NOA comprising the volcano observatory team. At this stage, the volcanology component of the project comprises mainly volcanic ash and gas dispersal and potential impact on population and ground-based critical infrastructures. We approach it by relying upon available and official volcano monitoring institutions' reporting of activity, existing assessments and global databases of past events, modelling tools, remote-sensing observational systems and official VAAC advisories. We also make use of global assessments of volcanic hazards, country profiles, exposure and proxy indicators of threat to livelihoods, infrastructure and economic assets (e.g. Global Volcano Model outputs). Volcanic ash fall remains the only hazard modelled at the global scale. Volcanic risk assessments remain in their infancy, owing to challenges related to the multitude of hazards, data availability and model representation. We therefore face a number of

  2. Global robust dissipativity of interval recurrent neural networks with time-varying delay and discontinuous activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Huang, Lihong; Guo, Zhenyuan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the problems of robust dissipativity and robust exponential dissipativity are discussed for a class of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delay and discontinuous activations. We extend an invariance principle for the study of the dissipativity problem of delay systems to the discontinuous case. Based on the developed theory, some novel criteria for checking the global robust dissipativity and global robust exponential dissipativity of the addressed neural network model are established by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functionals and employing the theory of Filippov systems and matrix inequality techniques. The effectiveness of the theoretical results is shown by two examples with numerical simulations.

  3. Global robust dissipativity of interval recurrent neural networks with time-varying delay and discontinuous activations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Huang, Lihong; Guo, Zhenyuan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the problems of robust dissipativity and robust exponential dissipativity are discussed for a class of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delay and discontinuous activations. We extend an invariance principle for the study of the dissipativity problem of delay systems to the discontinuous case. Based on the developed theory, some novel criteria for checking the global robust dissipativity and global robust exponential dissipativity of the addressed neural network model are established by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functionals and employing the theory of Filippov systems and matrix inequality techniques. The effectiveness of the theoretical results is shown by two examples with numerical simulations.

  4. The Impact of Globalization on the Changes in Industrial Relations and Development of Employee Participation – Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Skorupinska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization influences not only economic relations but also causes significant changes in the area of industrial relations and employee participation. The answer to the challenges of globalization has been the emergence of new transnational institutions of participation in the form of European Works Councils (EWCs and European Companies (SEs and the concluding of transnational company agreements. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of globalization on the development of employee participation in Polish industrial relations. The paper argues that globalization leads to dissemination of forms of employee participation in Polish companies but the scope of the forms of participation is still lower than in companies in the old EU countries. The slow growth of participation in Poland has primarily resulted from an indifferent or even hostile attitude to participation on the part of the state and social partners.

  5. Rethinking the "Diseases of Affluence" Paradigm: Global Patterns of Nutritional Risks in Relation to Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzati Majid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases and their nutritional risk factors-including overweight and obesity, elevated blood pressure, and cholesterol-are among the leading causes of global mortality and morbidity, and have been predicted to rise with economic development. Methods and Findings We examined age-standardized mean population levels of body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in relation to national income, food share of household expenditure, and urbanization in a cross-country analysis. Data were from a total of over 100 countries and were obtained from systematic reviews of published literature, and from national and international health agencies. BMI and cholesterol increased rapidly in relation to national income, then flattened, and eventually declined. BMI increased most rapidly until an income of about I$5,000 (international dollars and peaked at about I$12,500 for females and I$17,000 for males. Cholesterol's point of inflection and peak were at higher income levels than those of BMI (about I$8,000 and I$18,000, respectively. There was an inverse relationship between BMI/cholesterol and the food share of household expenditure, and a positive relationship with proportion of population in urban areas. Mean population blood pressure was not correlated or only weakly correlated with the economic factors considered, or with cholesterol and BMI. Conclusions When considered together with evidence on shifts in income-risk relationships within developed countries, the results indicate that cardiovascular disease risks are expected to systematically shift to low-income and middle-income countries and, together with the persistent burden of infectious diseases, further increase global health inequalities. Preventing obesity should be a priority from early stages of economic development, accompanied by population-level and personal interventions for blood pressure and cholesterol.

  6. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global data set of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0 and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global data set, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons, without major change in cloudiness, could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  7. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global dataset of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0 and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global dataset, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of temperature and growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  8. Traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease: an update in the context of global urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Christopher; Rider, Christopher F

    2017-04-01

    The review aims to give an update on the literature around traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and allergic disease in the context of global urbanization, as the most populous countries in the world face severe TRAP exposure challenges. As research continues to show that gene-environment interactions and epigenetics contribute to the TRAP-allergy link, evidence around the links to climate change grows. Greenspace may provide a buffer to adverse effects of traffic on health, overall, but pose risks in terms of allergic disease. The link between traffic-related pollution and allergy continues to strengthen, in terms of supportive observational findings and mechanistic studies. Levels of TRAP across the world, particularly in Asia, continue to dramatically exceed acceptable levels, suggesting that the related adverse health consequences will accelerate. This could be counterbalanced by primary emission control and urban planning. Attention to combined effects of TRAP and allergen exposure is critical to avoiding misleading inferences drawn though examination only of isolated factors.

  9. The MUSIC of Galaxy Clusters II: X-ray global properties and scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Biffi, Veronica; De Petris, Marco; Valdarnini, Riccardo; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We present the X-ray properties and scaling relations of a large sample of clusters extracted from the Marenostrum MUltidark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) dataset. We focus on a sub-sample of 179 clusters at redshift z~0.11, with 3.2e14M_sun/hglobal properties of the intracluster medium (ICM), as X-ray temperature (T_X) and luminosity (L_X). T_X is found to slightly under-estimate the true mass-weighted temperature, although tracing fairly well the cluster total mass. We also study the effects of T_X on scaling relations with cluster intrinsic properties: total (M_500) and gas (M_g500) mass; integrated Compton parameter (Y_SZ) of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) thermal effect; Y_X=M_g500 T_X. We confirm that Y_X is a very good mass proxy, with a scatter on M_500-Y_X and Y_SZ-Y_X lower than 5%. The study of scaling relations among X-ray, intrinsic and S...

  10. Globalization of innovation activity by transnational corporations: and its importance in the present economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zorska

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to investigate the process of globalizing innovation activity conducted by transnational corporations (TNCs, in a wider context of economic changes outside and inside companies. The process has been triggered by decentralization and internationalization of R&D, “creative transition” of foreign subsidiaries as well as implementing research networks and the open innovation model of TNCs’ innovation activity. Under the present economic crisis some slowdown and reorientation of innovation programs are implemented in order to reduce their costs and increase effectiveness. The globalization of corporate innovation activity can contribute to reaching some of TNCs’ goals both under the present crisis and the future revival of the world economy.

  11. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  12. Leveraging HIV-related human rights achievements through a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Kent; Eba, Patrick; Sigurdson, Jason; Thomson, Kate; Timberlake, Susan

    2013-06-14

    Although AIDS remains a leading cause of death, especially in low- and middle-income countries, the movement to address it has greatly contributed to changing the world's response to health challenges. By fusing activism, political leadership, domestic and international investment, and accountability for results, the course of the epidemic has been radically shifted. People living with HIV and others directly affected by the epidemic have exerted immense leadership since the first days of the response: they have fought to end discrimination on the basis of sero-status, gender, sexual orientation, disability, migration status, drug use, or participation in sex work. Some of this mobilization has taken the form of strategic litigation, drawing human rights down into concrete demands and defining social, health, legal, and economic policy. The global AIDS response has shown that at the core of health lie considerations of social justice, human rights, and accountability. As momentum builds for a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), we believe there is an opportunity to take stock of lessons learned from the response to HIV and ensure that they are replicated and institutionalized in an eventual Convention. We argue that the most critical aspect to the success of the HIV response has been the leadership and activism of civil society. Conventions do not lead to results on their own, and there should be every expectation that the FCGH will be no different. Success requires active monitoring of progress and shortcomings, combined with political and social mobilization to expand investment and access to the services and underlying conditions that protect and advance health. While the FCGH must make civil society support and engagement an indispensable principle, the AIDS movement can contribute substantive content and mobilization for its adoption. A broad international legal framework for health can help address some of the key legal, policy, regulatory, and

  13. Global Perspectives on Activated Sludge Community Composition analyzed using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads

    communities, and in this study activated sludge sampled from 32 Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) around the world was described and compared. The top abundant bacteria in the global activated sludge ecosystem were found and the core population shared by multiple samples was investigated. The results......Activated sludge is the most commonly applied bioprocess throughout the world for wastewater treatment. Microorganisms are key to the process, yet our knowledge of their identity and function is still limited. High-througput16S rRNA amplicon sequencing can reliably characterize microbial...

  14. Global Stability Analysis for Periodic Solution in Discontinuous Neural Networks with Nonlinear Growth Activations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Huaiqin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a new class of additive neural networks where the neuron activations are modelled by discontinuous functions with nonlinear growth. By Leray-Schauder alternative theorem in differential inclusion theory, matrix theory, and generalized Lyapunov approach, a general result is derived which ensures the existence and global asymptotical stability of a unique periodic solution for such neural networks. The obtained results can be applied to neural networks with a broad range of activation functions assuming neither boundedness nor monotonicity, and also show that Forti's conjecture for discontinuous neural networks with nonlinear growth activations is true.

  15. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane eDöhring

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The transient global amnesia (TGA is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 fields of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18 % (n= 24 patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73% did show typical MRI lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought to be the

  16. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June 15...

  17. Animal Related Activities as Determinants of Species Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established a relationship between knowledge and environmental concern. Different factors may contribute to this knowledge and animal-related leisure activities may also contribute to this knowledge. 390 participants in Leipzig, Germany were interviewed to assess their animal-related leisure activities, their demographic status…

  18. Realismo versus globalismo nas relações internacionais Realism versus globalism in international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullo Vigevani

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a influência que os temas econômicos produzem nas bases do poder mundial, tradicionalmente vinculadas aos temas clássicos da estratégia e das relações de poder. Para isso, discutem-se dois pontos de vista teóricos centrais no debate contemporâneo sobre as relações internacionais, o realismo e o globa-lismo, concluindo-se que as divergências existentes não excluem percepões semelhantes no que toca à visão de mundo. As teorias da estabilidade hegemônica e da interdependência complexa são consideradas no quadro do debate relativo às possíveis ordem ou desordem internacionais.World power, traditionally linked with classic themes of strategy and power relations, is discussed in terms of the influence that economic issues have on its foundations. Two main theoretical approaches in the contemporary debate on international relations - realism and globalism - are examined. Existing divergences between them do not conceal a perceptible similarity in their outlooks, the authors argue. Hegemonic stability and complex interdepence theories ares considered in the context of the debate on international order or disorder.

  19. Global numerical simulations of vortex-mediated pulsar glitches in full general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Sourie, Aurélie; Novak, Jérôme; Oertel, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study in detail the role of general relativity on the global dynamics of giant pulsar glitches as exemplified by Vela. For this purpose, we carry out numerical simulations of the spin up triggered by the sudden unpinning of superfluid vortices. In particular, we compute the exchange of angular momentum between the core neutron superfluid and the rest of the star within a two-fluid model including both (non-dissipative) entrainment effects and (dissipative) mutual friction forces. Our simulations are based on a quasi-stationary approach using realistic equations of state (EoSs) following \\cite{sourie2016numerical}. We show that the evolution of the angular velocities of both fluids can be accurately described by an exponential law. The associated characteristic rise time $\\tau_{\\text{r}}$, which can be precisely computed from stationary configurations only, has a form similar to that obtained in the Newtonian limit. However, general relativity changes the structure of the star and leads to ad...

  20. Quality Service and its Relation with Global Satisfaction in Fast Food Consumers. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique IBARRA MORALES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the quality service perception and its relation with the satisfaction for the fast food consumers of hamburgers’ sector of the chain Burger King in Hermosillo, Sonora. By the application of Servperf of Cronin and Taylor methodology and a data regression method, through the coefficient of determination (R2 was determined that the independent variables explain the variability or variance of 82.9% in consumer satisfaction and that the explanatory variable which has the most influence in absolute value over the explained variable is reliability, due to its standardized beta is 0.301, being the highest score among the variables. To achieve the objective of this study, a quantitative and correlation investigation was designed, where data was collected from a survey structured by five dimensions, measured by 22 items. It was applied to a random and representative sample of 385 consumers, with a 95% level confidence and a ±5% of permissible error. An inferential statistical analysis allowed observing a positive relation between consumers’ satisfaction level and quality service. The results showed that Servperf is a valid instrument with psychometric characteristics of high reliability that makes it appropriate to measure quality service. The same way, it was observed an index of service global satisfaction of 69.27%, which according to the scale used implies clients are satisfied with the received service.

  1. Global Matrix 2.0: Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 38 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Barnes, Joel; Gonzales, Silvia;

    2016-01-01

    , understand underlying determinants, conceive innovative solutions, and mitigate the global childhood inactivity crisis. The paradox of higher physical activity and lower sedentary behavior in countries reporting poorer infrastructure, and lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior in countries...

  2. Nocturnal Hypermotor Activity during Apnea-Related Arousals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Romy; DelRosso, Lourdes M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 50-year-old patient who exhibits nocturnal hypermotor activity occurring exclusively during apnea-related arousals consisting of repetitive lower extremity hip-flapping. This movement is unusual and reflects a new form of lower extremity movement associated with apnea-related arousals. Citation: Hoque R, DelRosso LM. Nocturnal hypermotor activity during apnea-related arousals. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(9):1305–1307. PMID:27092691

  3. Differential neural activity patterns for spatial relations in humans: a MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicole M; Leuthold, Arthur; Sera, Maria D; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2016-02-01

    Children learn the words for above-below relations earlier than for left-right relations, despite treating these equally well in a simple visual categorization task. Even as adults--conflicts in congruency, such as when a stimulus is depicted in a spatially incongruent manner with respect to salient global cues--can be challenging. Here we investigated the neural correlates of encoding and maintaining in working memory above-below and left-right relational planes in 12 adults using magnetoencephalography in order to discover whether above-below relations are represented by the brain differently than left-right relations. Adults performed perfectly on the task behaviorally, so any differences in neural activity were attributed to the stimuli's cognitive attributes. In comparing above-below to left-right relations during stimulus encoding, we found the greatest differences in neural activity in areas associated with space and movement. In comparing congruent to incongruent trials, we found the greatest differential activity in premotor areas. For both contrasts, brain areas involved in the encoding phase were also involved in the maintenance phase, which provides evidence that those brain areas are particularly important in representing the relational planes or congruency types throughout the trial. When comparing neural activity associated with the relational planes during working memory, additional right posterior areas were implicated, whereas the congruent-incongruent contrast implicated additional bilateral frontal and temporal areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis left-right relations are represented differently than above-below relations.

  4. Public perception of global warming and related environmental issues in Kano city, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliyasu, Z.; Abubakar, I.; Gajida, A.U.

    2010-07-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries are at an increased risk of the effects of global warming. Unfortunately they have the least capacity to adapt to its untoward effects. We studied public awareness of global warming, its perceived causes, effects and prevention in Kano city, northern Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered on a cross section of 181 adults in Kano eliciting their awareness of global warming, as well as perceived causes, effects and ways of prevention. Of the 181 respondents, 132 (72.9%) were aware of global warming mainly from electronic media (44.4%), the Internet (20.5%) and schools (18.7%). They mostly attributed it to air pollution (99.2%), use of fossil fuels (97.7%), toxic waste (78.0%) and chlorofluorocarbons (73.5%). Perceived effects of global warming include extremes of ambient temperature (97.7%), increased disease outbreaks (92.4%), floods (68.2%), droughts (51.5%) and loss of species (50.0%). Respondents opined that global warming could be prevented by using renewable sources of energy such as the sun (53.8%), massive tree planting (44.7%) and phasing out of old automobiles (43.2%). A significantly higher proportion of males, younger and educated respondents were aware of global warming. The high awareness about global warming needs to be reinforced through use of media to encourage advocacy and community action towards preventing global warming and ensuring environmental sustainability.

  5. Global numerical simulations of the rise of vortex-mediated pulsar glitches in full general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourie, A.; Chamel, N.; Novak, J.; Oertel, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we study in detail the role of general relativity on the global dynamics of giant pulsar glitches as exemplified by Vela. For this purpose, we carry out numerical simulations of the spin up triggered by the sudden unpinning of superfluid vortices. In particular, we compute the exchange of angular momentum between the core neutron superfluid and the rest of the star within a two-fluid model including both (non-dissipative) entrainment effects and (dissipative) mutual friction forces. Our simulations are based on a quasi-stationary approach using realistic equations of state (EoSs). We show that the evolution of the angular velocities of both fluids can be accurately described by an exponential law. The associated characteristic rise time τr, which can be precisely computed from stationary configurations only, has a form similar to that obtained in the Newtonian limit. However, general relativity changes the structure of the star and leads to additional couplings between the fluids due to frame-dragging effects. As a consequence, general relativity can have a large impact on the actual value of τr: the errors incurred by using Newtonian gravity are thus found to be as large as ˜40 per cent for the models considered. Values of the rise time are calculated for Vela and compared with current observational limits. Finally, we study the amount of gravitational waves emitted during a glitch. Simple expressions are obtained for the corresponding characteristic amplitudes and frequencies. The detectability of glitches through gravitational wave observatories is briefly discussed.

  6. Response of Global Lightning Activity Observed by the TRMM/LIS During Warm and Cold ENSO Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Themis G.; Cecil, Dan; Goodman, Steven J.; Buechler, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the response of global lightning activity to the transition from the warm (January February March-JFM 1998) to the cold (JFM 1999) ENSO phase. The nine-year global lightning climatology for these months from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) provides the observational baseline. Flash rate density is computed on a 5.0x5.0 degree lat/lon grid within the LIS coverage area (between approx.37.5 N and S) for each three month period. The flash rate density anomalies from this climatology are examined for these months in 1998 and 1999. The observed lightning anomalies spatially match the documented general circulation features that accompany the warm and cold ENSO events. During the warm ENSO phase the dominant positive lightning anomalies are located mostly over the Western Hemisphere and more specifically over Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean and Northern Mid-Atlantic. We further investigate specifically the Northern Mid-Atlantic related anomaly features since these show strong relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Furthermore these observed anomaly patterns show strong spatial agreement with anomalous upper level (200 mb) cold core cyclonic circulations. Positive sea surface temperature anomalies during the warm ENSO phase also affect the lightning activity, but this is mostly observed near coastal environments. Over the open tropical oceans, there is climatologically less lightning and the anomalies are less pronounced. Warm ENSO related anomalies over the Eastern Hemisphere are most prominent over the South China coast. The transition to the cold ENSO phase illustrates the detected lightning anomalies to be more pronounced over East and West Pacific. A comparison of total global lightning between warm and cold ENSO phase reveals no significant difference, although prominent regional anomalies are located over mostly oceanic environments. All three tropical "chimneys" (Maritime Continent, Central

  7. Does the global temporal activation differ in triceps surae during standing balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, F V; Fontanella, F; Gazzoni, M; Vieira, T M M

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important muscular groups which contribute to maintain standing balance is triceps surae. However, it is unclear whether the postural controllers of triceps surae, medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL), have different temporal patterns of activation during upright stance. This paper aimed at evaluating whether the global temporal activation in triceps surae differ among young subjects during standing balance. Nine male volunteers performed two tasks: standing quietly and with voluntary back and forward sways over their ankle. Electromyograms (EMGs) from soleus medial (MSOL) and lateral (LSOL) regions and from MG were sampled with linear arrays of surface electrodes. The percentage of muscle activation in time (i.e. temporal index) was computed for each muscle during upright standing. The results revealed that the medial portion of soleus muscle (MSOL) was activated continuously compared to the lateral portion of soleus (LSOL) and MG, which were activated intermittently. Therefore, the global temporal activation differed among the postural muscles of triceps surae during standing balance.

  8. Evaluation of environmental impact produced by different economic activities with the global pollution index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    The paper analyses the environment pollution state in different case studies of economic activities (i.e. co-generation electric and thermal power production, iron profile manufacturing, cement processing, waste landfilling, and wood furniture manufacturing), evaluating mainly the environmental cumulative impacts (e.g. cumulative impact against the health of the environment and different life forms). The status of the environment (air, water resources, soil, and noise) is analysed with respect to discharges such as gaseous discharges in the air, final effluents discharged in natural receiving basins or sewerage system, and discharges onto the soil together with the principal pollutants expressed by different environmental indicators corresponding to each specific productive activity. The alternative methodology of global pollution index (I (GP)*) for quantification of environmental impacts is applied. Environmental data analysis permits the identification of potential impact, prediction of significant impact, and evaluation of cumulative impact on a commensurate scale by evaluation scores (ES(i)) for discharge quality, and global effect to the environment pollution state by calculation of the global pollution index (I (GP)*). The I (GP)* values for each productive unit (i.e. 1.664-2.414) correspond to an 'environment modified by industrial/economic activity within admissible limits, having potential of generating discomfort effects'. The evaluation results are significant in view of future development of each productive unit and sustain the economic production in terms of environment protection with respect to a preventive environment protection scheme and continuous measures of pollution control.

  9. Evidence of long term global decline in the Earth's thermospheric densities apparently related to anthropogenic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G. M.; Tolson, R. H.; Bradford, M. S.

    2000-05-01

    A study was performed of the long-term orbital decay of five Earth satellites with perigee altitudes averaging near 350km. To decouple long-term trend measurements from the effects of solar variability, measurements were evaluated during the years of solar minimum (1976, 1986 and 1996). Atmospheric densities derived from these essentially global measurements showed substantial evidence of a decline averaging 9.8 ± 2.5% in thermospheric density over 20 years pointing toward a long-term cooling of the upper atmosphere. Increases in greenhouse gases induced by human activity are hypothesized to warm the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere, but strongly cool the upper atmosphere. Assuming that the 10% increase in CO2 over these 20 years caused cooling resulting in the 10% decline in density, a doubling of CO2 could cause the thermospheric densities measured near 350km to decrease by a factor of 3. This decrease may shrink the altitude of a constant density surface by 40km before the end of the 21st century.

  10. Globalization, Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ethier, Wilfred J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses a complex of globalization issues: the effect of globalization on the skill premium; the effect of globalization on unemployment; the relative importance of globalization and exogenous technical change; the effect of globalization on the ability of national governments to conduct independent social policies. Thinking about these topics has been dominated by a large empirical literature concluding that trade has played a relatively minor role in the rise of the skill premi...

  11. Age-Related Change in Shifting Attention between Global and Local Levels of Hierarchical Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Mariette; Burack, Jacob A.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was the developmental pattern of the ability to shift attention between global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli. Children aged 7 years and 11 years and 21-year-old adults were administered a task (two experiments) that allowed for the examination of 1) the direction of attention to global or local stimulus levels;…

  12. Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate, plant functional types and leaf traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkin, O.; Bloomfield, K.; Reich, P.B.; Tjoelker, M.G.; Asner, G.; Bonal, D.; Bönisch, G.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf dark respiration (R-dark) is an important yet poorly quantified component of the global carbon cycle. Given this, we analyzed a new global database of R-dark and associated leaf traits. Data for 899 species were compiled from 100 sites (from the Arctic to the tropics). Several woody and nonwood

  13. Towards Transnational Feminisms. Some reflections and concerns in relation to the globalization of reproductive technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of the concept of ‘transnational feminisms’ as a differentiated notion from ‘global sisterhood’ within feminist postcolonial criticism. This is done in order to examine its usefulness for interrogating the globalization of reproductive technologies and women’s ri

  14. Sequential Optimization of Global Sequence Alignments Relative to Different Cost Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Odat, Enas M.

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to present a methodology to model global sequence alignment problem as directed acyclic graph which helps to extract all possible optimal alignments. Moreover, a mechanism to sequentially optimize sequence alignment problem relative to different cost functions is suggested. Sequence alignment is mostly important in computational biology. It is used to find evolutionary relationships between biological sequences. There are many algo- rithms that have been developed to solve this problem. The most famous algorithms are Needleman-Wunsch and Smith-Waterman that are based on dynamic program- ming. In dynamic programming, problem is divided into a set of overlapping sub- problems and then the solution of each subproblem is found. Finally, the solutions to these subproblems are combined into a final solution. In this thesis it has been proved that for two sequences of length m and n over a fixed alphabet, the suggested optimization procedure requires O(mn) arithmetic operations per cost function on a single processor machine. The algorithm has been simulated using C#.Net programming language and a number of experiments have been done to verify the proved statements. The results of these experiments show that the number of optimal alignments is reduced after each step of optimization. Furthermore, it has been verified that as the sequence length increased linearly then the number of optimal alignments increased exponentially which also depends on the cost function that is used. Finally, the number of executed operations increases polynomially as the sequence length increase linearly.

  15. Evaluation of global, photosynthetically active radiation and diffuse radiation transmission of agricultural screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Gamez, M.; Suarez-Rey, E. M.; Castilla, N.; Soriano, T.

    2012-11-01

    Transmittance of a material depends on the type of radiation impinging on the material (direct or diffuse), the angle of incidence of the sun's rays (in direct radiation conditions) and the structure and characteristics of the material itself. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of nine agricultural screens of different densities, colours, thread diameters and porosities. A simple metal frame was used to quantify global, diffuse and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) transmission to determine their transmittance values (as a function of the incidence angle of solar rays in direct radiation conditions) for global radiation and PAR, as well as the diffuse radiation transmitted characteristics of the screens (ratio of diffuse radiation to global radiation transmitted by screens). Non-coloured (translucent) screens contributed to a higher and more efficient proportion of diffuse radiation (Di/Gi {approx} 90%). The green screen behaved similarly to the non-coloured 20 × 10 type as far as global radiation was concerned, although the PAR transmittance values were lower (up to 12.4% at 15°). Variation in transmission according to diameter and density of the threads was greatest in the black screens. The non-coloured-thread screens may be the best option for maximising the transmission of diffuse radiation and the 6 × 6 green screen for vegetables cultivation during the summer in inland areas with latitudes close to 36degree N. (Author) 43 refs.

  16. A Global Genomic Screening Strategy Reveals Diverse Activators of Constitutive Activated Receptor (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive survey of conditions that activate CAR in the mouse liver has not been carried out but would be useful in understanding their impact on CAR-dependent liver tumor induction. A gene signature dependent on CAR activation was identified by comparing the transcript pr...

  17. Local and global visual processing and eating disorder traits: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Jennifer; Rose, Mark; van Velzen, Jose; de Fockert, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that individuals with eating disorders show a stronger local processing bias and/or a weaker global bias in visual processing than typical individuals. In this study, healthy participants with varying scores on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) performed the Navon task, a standard task of local and global visual processing, whilst electrophysiological measures were recorded. Global stimuli were presented that were made up of many local parts, and the information between levels was either compatible or incompatible. Participants were instructed to report the identity of either a global or a local target shape, while ignoring the other level. Higher EDE-Q scores were associated with enhanced amplitude of the P3 component during local visual processing, as well as greater P1 amplitude during local incompatible trials. These findings support the claim that eating disorders are associated with differences in local and global visual processing.

  18. Age-related variations in global spinal alignment and sagittal balance in asymptomatic Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kunio; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Yamada, Makoto; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Ito, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shinji; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2017-05-01

    The global spinal sagittal alignment varies widely among healthy individuals as it is affected by not only race, but also aging. We investigated age-related changes in the spinal alignment in asymptomatic Japanese individuals. The subjects comprised 220 individuals without any spine-related neurological symptoms or treatment history thereof who visited our outpatient clinic. Lateral radiographs of the whole spine were taken for all subjects in the standing position. Based on the images obtained, spino-pelvic parameters were calculated using Jackson's method so as to analyze any correlations with age. TIA, TK, and C2-C7A were found to markedly increase with age from late middle age (P balance (P > 0.05). However, there were 22 subjects (10%) with C7SVA > 50 mm, with those aged 70 years or older accounting for half of this subpopulation. Sagittal balance tended to be retained even in elderly subjects if lumbosacral lordosis was large enough to compensate for thoracic kyphosis. A very strong correlation was found between the L1 slope and whole-spine sagittal balance (P spine. In contrast, the lumbosacral spine compensates in such a manner so as to maintain the sagittal balance. The whole-spine sagittal balance can deteriorate if the compensatory changes in the lumbosacral spine are insufficient. The L1 slope is a central parameter that defines the whole-spine sagittal balance. PI; pelvic incidence; SS; sacral slope; PT; pelvic tilt; LL; lumbar lordosis; C7SVA; C7 sagittal vertical axis; SSA; spinosacral angle; TK; thoracic kyphosis; C2-C7SVA; C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis; C2-C7A; C2-C7 Angle; TIA; thoracic inlet angle; NT; neck tilt.

  19. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The Enemy Below - The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K G

    2002-09-05

    The end of the Cold War seemed to create a more peaceful international environment. September 11 reminded us of the dangers of complacency. Indeed, even before September 11 US forces had intervened in a number of wars and crises, including Panama, the Persian Gulf War, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, several Taiwan Straits crises, the North Korea nuclear weapons crisis, and most recently Afghanistan. US ability to intervene in remote areas of the world is often dependent on the Navy's ability to project power ashore. As a result, US ability to influence events in crisis situations, especially between or among nuclear powers, may become more difficult along with our ability to conduct littoral warfare. Although the numbers of potentially hostile submarines have declined with the end of the Cold War, US anti-submarine warfare capabilities have also declined. Moreover, foreign submarines and related technologies are likely to diffuse globally. New technologies like Air Independent Propulsion (AIP), improved weapons and sensors will make conventional submarines more dangerous, and the spread of nuclear submarines even to a few more countries raise political, military, environmental, and safety concerns. Submarines are one of the key weapon systems used alone or in combination with other weapon systems such as coastal defense missiles, aircraft, and other sea-based missile platforms to deny US ability to project power ashore, Thus, other countries who wish to deny the US the ability to interfere with their regional or even global ambitions may emphasize the acquisition and/or development of submarines. As the world become more multipolar over the longer term, as the Chinese believe it will, countries such as Russia, China. etc., may be able to acquire the submarine capabilities to challenge us not just regionally, but in blue waters. To the extent that our alliance relationships require US naval access or superiority to sustain them, then our erstwhile friendly

  1. Global analysis of the relation between aerosols and short-lived trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Veefkind

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal correlations between concurrent satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and tropospheric columns of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and formaldehyde from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI are used to infer information on the global composition of aerosol particles. When averaging the satellite data over large regions and longer time periods, we find significant correlation between MODIS AOT and OMI trace gas columns for various regions in the world. This suggests that enhanced aerosol and trace gas concentrations originate from common sources, such as fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and organic compounds released from the biosphere. This leads us to propose that satellite-inferred AOT to NO2 ratios for regions with comparable photochemical regimes can be used as indicators for the relative (local efficiency of combustion processes. Indeed, satellites observe low AOT to NO2 ratios over the eastern United States and western Europe, and high AOT to NO2 ratios over comparably industrialized regions in eastern Europe and China. Emission databases and OMI SO2 observations over these regions suggest a much stronger sulfur contribution to aerosol formation than over the well-regulated areas of the eastern United States and western Europe. Furthermore, satellite observations show AOT to NO2 ratios are a factor 100 higher over biomass burning regions than over industrialized areas, reflecting the unregulated burning practices with strong primary particle emissions in the tropics compared to the heavily controlled combustion processes in the industrialized Northern Hemisphere. Simulations with a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem capture most of these differences, providing some confidence in our understanding of aerosol sources, formation mechanisms, and sinks. Wintertime

  2. Fluid versus global model approach for the modeling of active species production by streamer discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we seek to validate the zero-dimensional (global) model approach for the modeling of the plasma composition in high pressure reactive streamer discharges. We focus on streamers typical of dielectric barrier discharge that are widely used, for instance, for plasma-assisted reforming of greenhouse gases. However, our conclusions can be extended to the streamers used in plasma-assisted ignition/combustion and other related systems. First, we perform two-dimensional fluid simulations for streamers with positive and negative trigger voltages and analyze the difference between the breakdown mechanisms of these two modes. Second, we use the time evolution of the electron heating term obtained from the fluid simulations as the input parameter of the global model and compare the plasma component content predicted by this model with the results of the fluid model. We obtain a very good agreement between fluid and global models for all species generated in plasma. However, we conclude that streamers initiated by the positive and negative trigger voltage cannot be considered as symmetrical which is usually done in global models of barrier discharge reactors.

  3. Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  4. Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  5. Disentangling longitudinal relations between physical activity, work-related fatigue, and task demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.D. de; Claessens, B.J.C.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Kompier, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined ‘normal’, ‘reversed’, and ‘reciprocal’ relationships between (1) physical activity and work-related fatigue; and (2) physical activity and task demands. Furthermore, the effects of across-time change in meaningful physical activity groups on levels of

  6. Teamwork tools and activities within the hazard component of the Global Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, M.; Weatherill, G.; Monelli, D.; Danciu, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) is a public-private partnership aimed at supporting and fostering a global community of scientists and engineers working in the fields of seismic hazard and risk assessment. In the hazard sector, in particular, GEM recognizes the importance of local ownership and leadership in the creation of seismic hazard models. For this reason, over the last few years, GEM has been promoting different activities in the context of seismic hazard analysis ranging, for example, from regional projects targeted at the creation of updated seismic hazard studies to the development of a new open-source seismic hazard and risk calculation software called OpenQuake-engine (http://globalquakemodel.org). In this communication we'll provide a tour of the various activities completed, such as the new ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Catalogue, and of currently on-going initiatives like the creation of a suite of tools for the creation of PSHA input models. Discussion, comments and criticism by the colleagues in the audience will be highly appreciated.

  7. A global defect in scaling relationship between electrical activity and availability of muscle sodium channels in hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed-Frank, M; Marom, S

    1999-07-01

    Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperPP) is a hereditary disorder characterized by alternate episodic attacks of muscle weakness and muscle myotonia. The most common mutation associated with HyperPP is a T704M substitution in the skeletal-muscle sodium channel. This mutation increases sodium persistent currents, alters voltage dependence of activation and impairs slow inactivation. The present study shows experimental evidence in support of a potentially important global defect caused by the T704M mutation. While the effective rate of recovery from slow inactivation, in both normal and mutated channels, is related to the duration of past activity by a power law function, the scaling power of the mutated channel is significantly greater. This difference between the channels offers a clue for an explanation to the wide range of time scales, history dependence, and the mixed myotonic/paralysis effect, which mark the clinical picture of HyperPP.

  8. Physical Demands of Top-Class Soccer Friendly Matches in Relation to a Playing Position Using Global Positioning System Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallo Javier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on professional soccer players during 11-a-side friendly matches in relation to their playing position, using global positioning system (GPS technology. One hundred and eleven match performances of a Spanish “La Liga” team during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 pre-seasons were selected for analysis. The activities of the players were monitored using GPS technology with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz. Total distance covered, distance in different speed categories, accelerations, and heart rate responses were analyzed in relation to five different playing positions: central defenders (n=23, full-backs (n=20, central midfielders (n=22, wide midfielders (n=26, and forwards (n=20. Distance covered during a match averaged 10.8 km, with wide and central midfielders covering the greatest total distance. Specifically, wide midfielders covered the greatest distances by very high-intensity running (>19.8 km·h-1 and central midfielders by jogging and running (7.2-19.7 km·h-1. On the other hand, central defenders covered the least total distance and at high intensity, although carried out more (p<0.05-0.01 accelerations than forwards, wide midfielders, and fullbacks. The work rate profile of the players obtained with the GPS was very similar to that obtained with semi-automatic image technologies. However, when comparing results from this study with data available in the literature, important differences were detected in the amount of distance covered by sprinting, which suggests that caution should be taken when comparing data obtained with the GPS with other motion analysis systems, especially regarding high-intensity activities.

  9. Relative amplitude of the variations of the total electron content according to the data of the GPS global network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevalova, N. P.; Afraimovich, E. L.; Zhivetiev, I. V.; Kosogorov, E. A.

    2007-04-01

    [1] A method is developed that makes it possible to estimate the relative amplitude dI/I of the variations of the total electron content (TEC) corresponding to the mean (MS) and intermediate (IS) scales of ionospheric irregularities (from 300 to 30 km). This method is based on the evaluation of TEC variations from the data of the global GPS network. The results of the analysis of the diurnal and latitudinal dependencies of dI/I and distribution probability P(dI/I) for 52 days with different level of geomagnetic activity are presented. The statistical estimates were obtained from the analysis of 106 samples of 2-hour-long TEC series. To obtain statistically significant results, we have chosen three latitudinal zones provided on the Web by the maximum number of GPS sites: high-latitudinal zone of the Northern America (50-80o N, 200-300o E; 59 stations), midlatitude zone of the Northern America (20-50o N, 200-300o E; 817 stations), and the equatorial zone (20o S-20o N, 0-360o E; 76 stations). It was found that on the average the relative amplitude of the TEC variations varies within the range 0-10% proportionally to the value of the Kp geomagnetic index. This dependence is best pronounced at high latitudes (the proportionality coefficient k = 0.37), is weaker at middle latitudes (k = 0.2), and is the weakest at the equator (kcardinal depletion of the slope of the power spectrum of TEC disturbances because of a decrease of the amplitude of the small-scale parts of the spectrum. The amplitude of TEC variations almost does not depend on solar activity index F 10.7. The obtained results do not always agree with the known mechanisms of generation and propagation of ionospheric irregularities at various latitudes and may be useful for development of the theory.

  10. Sleep-related electrodermal activity patterns in impotent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J C; Karacan, I; Salis, P J; Thornby, J; Hirshkowitz, M

    1984-01-01

    The etiology of erectile failure is not always clear despite the fact that recordings of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) are used to detect patients with a significant organic component to their complaint. We recorded electrodermal activity in addition to NPT in 60 impotent patients. Normally more electrodermal activity occurs in stage 2 than in stage REM sleep. Despite a similar total amount of electrodermal activity, organically impotent patients tended to have less electrodermal activity in stage 2 and more in stage REM sleep than those with normal NPT. This difference was due to a subgroup of 15 organically impotent patients with less electrodermal activity in stage 2 than in stage REM sleep. Because of this difference in the pattern of electrodermal activity in relation to sleep stages, the results suggest a central nervous system change is related to impaired erectile capability and abnormal NPT in these cases.

  11. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed.

  12. Cooperative Semi-Global Output Regulation of Nonlinear Strict-Feedback Multi-Agent Systems With Nonidentical Relative Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Youfeng

    2016-03-03

    In this paper, we study the cooperative semi-global output regulation problem for a class of nonlinear strict-feedback multi-agent systems, where the subsystems are assumed to have nonidentical relative degrees. We first introduce the so-called distributed internal model that converts our problem into the cooperative semi-global stabilization problem of the corresponding augmented system composed of the original multi-agent system and the internal model. We then put this augmented system into the general block lower triangular form, and develop the block semi-global backstepping technique to stabilize it. Comparing with some existing literatures, our design has removed the identical relative degree assumption, and hence applies to a much larger group of nonlinear multi-agent systems.

  13. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  14. The Role of Social Activity in Age-Cognition Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current project was to examine whether engaging in social activity may moderate or mediate the relation between age and cognitive functioning. A large age range sample of adults performed a variety of cognitive tests and completed a social activities questionnaire. Results did not support the moderator hypothesis, as age…

  15. Physical Activity among Older People and Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ann; While, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the duration, intensity and type of physical activity undertaken by people aged 60 years and over in relation to their reported levels of participation in social activities and their perceptions of their neighbourhood. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of older people attending two luncheon and eight social…

  16. Social power and approach-related neural activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.S. Boksem (Maarten); R. Smolders (Ruud); D. de Cremer (David)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIt has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and

  17. Global spatial assessment of WUI and related land cover in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Marj; Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G.

    2017-04-01

    Forest fires as hazardous events are assuming an increasing importance all around the world, especially in relation to climate changes and to urban sprawl, which makes it difficult to outline a border between human infrastructures and wildland areas. This zone, known as the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), is defined as the area where structures and other human development meet or intermingle with undeveloped wildland (USDA 2001). Its extension is influenced by anthropogenic features, since, as it was proved, the distance to roads and houses negatively influence the probability of forest fires ignitions, while the population density positively affects it. Land use is also a crucial feature to be considered in the analyses of the impact of forest fires, and each natural, semi-natural and artificial land cover can be affected in a different proportion. The aim of the present study is to investigate and mapping the wildland urban interface and its temporal dynamic in Portugal at global scale. Secondly, it aims at providing a quantitative characterization of forest fires occurred in the last few decades (1990 - 2012) in relation to the burned area and the land covers evolution. The National mapping burnt area dataset (by the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests) provided the information allowing to precisely localize forest fires. The land cover classes were derived from the Corinne Land Cover, available for four periods (1990-2000-2006-2012). The following two classes were retained to outline the WUI: 1) artificial surfaces, as representative of the human development; 2) forest and semi-natural area, as representative of undeveloped wildland. First, we investigated the distribution of the burned areas among the different detailed land covers classes. Then, to map the WUI, we considered a buffer distance around artificial surfaces located in proximity of forests and semi-natural areas. The descriptive statistic carried out individually within each

  18. Modeling and Analysis of Global and Regional Climate Change in Relation to Atmospheric Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    This research was directed to the development and application of global isentropic modeling and analysis capabilities to describe hydrologic processes and energy exchange in the climate system, and discern regional climate change. An additional objective was to investigate the accuracy and theoretical limits of global climate predictability which are imposed by the inherent limitations of simulating trace constituent transport and the hydrologic processes of condensation, precipitation and cloud life cycles.

  19. Projected water consumption in future global agriculture: scenarios and related impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Stephan; Bayer, Peter; Koehler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2011-09-15

    Global stress on water and land resources is increasing as a consequence of population growth and higher caloric food demand. Many terrestrial ecosystems have already massively been degraded for providing agricultural land, and water scarcity related to irrigation has damaged water dependent ecosystems. Coping with the food and biomass demand of an increased population, while minimizing the impacts of crop production, is therefore a massive upcoming challenge. In this context, we developed four strategies to deliver the biotic output for feeding mankind in 2050. Expansion on suitable and intensification of existing areas are compared to assess associated environmental impacts, including irrigation demand, water stress under climate change, and the productivity of the occupied land. Based on the agricultural production pattern and impacts of the strategies we identified the trade-offs between land and water use. Intensification in regions currently under deficit irrigation can increase agricultural output by up to 30%. However, intensified crop production causes enormous water stress in many locations and might not be a viable solution. Furthermore, intensification alone will not be able to meet future food demand: additionally, a reduction of waste by 50% along the food supply chain or expansion of agricultural land is required for satisfying current per-capita meat and bioenergy consumption. Suitable areas for such expansion are mainly located in Africa, followed by South America. The increased land stress is of smaller concern than the water stress modeled for the intensification case. Therefore, a combination of waste reduction with expansion on suitable pastures generally results as the best option, along with some intensification on selected areas. Our results suggested that minimizing environmental impacts requires fundamental changes in agricultural systems and international cooperation, by producing crops where it is most environmentally efficient and not

  20. Global Research Trends Related to C02 Emissions and Their Enlightenment to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hongguang; Liu Weidong; Fan Xiaomei; Tang Zhipeng

    2012-01-01

    Given the growing awareness of the likely catastrophic impacts of climate change and close association of climate change with global emissions of greenhouse gases (of which carbon dioxide is more prominent) , considerable research efforts have been devoted to the analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and its relationship to sustainable development. Now GHG reduction programs have been coming into effect in many developed coun- tries that have more responsibility for historical CO2 emissions, and the studies have become mature. First, the GHG emissions accounting system is more all-inclusive and the methods are more rational with the effort of IPCC from 1995 and all other research- ers related. Second, the responsibility allocation is more rational and fair. Along with the clarity of "carbon transfer" and "carbon leakage", the perspective and methodology for allocating regional COz emissions responsibility is turning from production base to consumption base. Third, the decomposition method has become more mature and more complex. For example, the decomposition formulas are including KAYA expression and input-output expres- sion and the decomposition techniques are developed from index analysis to simple average divisia and then adaptive-weighting divisia. Fourth, projection models have become more integrated and long-term. The top-down model and bottom-up model are both inter-embedded and synergetic. Trends above give some advice for the research on CO2 in China, such as emissions factors database construction, deeper-going research on emissions responsibility and structure analysis, promotion of modeling technology and technology-environment database.

  1. The Leicester AATSR Global Analyser (LAGA) - Giving Young Students the Opportunity to Examine Space Observations of Global Climate-Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, David; Good, Simon; Corlett, Gary

    A pc-based analysis package has been developed, for the dual purposes of, firstly, providing ‘quick-look' capability to research workers inspecting long time-series of global satellite datasets of Sea-surface Temperature (SST); and, secondly, providing an introduction for students, either undergraduates, or advanced high-school students to the characteristics of commonly used analysis techniques for large geophysical data-sets from satellites. Students can also gain insight into the behaviour of some basic climate-related large-scale or global processes. The package gives students immediate access to up to 16 years of continuous global SST data, mainly from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer, currently flying on ESA's Envisat satellite. The data are available and are presented in the form of monthly averages and spatial averaged to half-degree or one-sixth degree longitude-latitude grids. There are simple button-operated facilities for defining and calculating box-averages; producing time-series of such averages; defining and displaying transects and their evolution over time; and the examination anomalous behaviour by displaying the difference between observed values and values derived from climatological means. By using these facilities a student rapidly gains familiarity with such processes as annual variability, the El Nĩo effect, as well as major current systems n such as the Gulf Stream and other climatically important phenomena. In fact, the student is given immediate insights into the basic methods of examining geophysical data in a research context, without needing to acquire special analysis skills are go trough lengthy data retrieval and preparation procedures which are more generally required, as precursors to serious investigation, in the research laboratory. This software package, called the Leicester AAATSR Global Analyser (LAGA), is written in a well-known and widely used analysis language and the package can be run by using software

  2. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Lankveld, C.A.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in other

  3. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R. de; Lankveld, C.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in othe

  4. The Centre for Mountain Studies: Active From Scottish to Global Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Woolvin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Centre for Mountain Studies (CMS, located at Perth College, University of the Highlands and Islands, Scotland, hosts the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Chair in Sustainable Mountain Development. Since 2000, CMS staff and students have been active in research and knowledge exchange activities at scales from the local—in Scotland—to the global (Price 2011; Glass et al 2013. In addition to hosting the Mountains of our Future Earth conference (Perth III, recent international activities have focused on climate change, biosphere reserves, social innovation, and stakeholder engagement in biodiversity research. Projects in Scotland have mainly addressed land management and local communities. The CMS also runs a part-time online MSc program in Sustainable Mountain Development.

  5. Frequency-independent radiation modes of interior sound radiation: Experimental study and global active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, C.; Papantoni, V.; Algermissen, S.; Monner, H. P.

    2017-08-01

    Active control of structural sound radiation is a promising technique to overcome the poor passive acoustic isolation performance of lightweight structures in the low-frequency region. Active structural acoustic control commonly aims at the suppression of the far-field radiated sound power. This paper is concerned with the active control of sound radiation into acoustic enclosures. Experimental results of a coupled rectangular plate-fluid system under stochastic excitation are presented. The amplitudes of the frequency-independent interior radiation modes are determined in real-time using a set of structural vibration sensors, for the purpose of estimating their contribution to the acoustic potential energy in the enclosure. This approach is validated by acoustic measurements inside the cavity. Utilizing a feedback control approach, a broadband reduction of the global acoustic response inside the enclosure is achieved.

  6. Indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescents’ sexual behaviors and emotions through global self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van de Bongardt; E. Reitz; M. Deković

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of t

  7. Indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescents’ sexual behaviors and emotions through global self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bongardt, D.; Reitz, E.; Deković, M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of

  8. Indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescents’ sexual behaviors and emotions through global self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bongardt, D.; Reitz, E.; Deković, M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of t

  9. [Human social activity under conditions of relative social isolation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhvatilov, A Iu

    1992-01-01

    The differences in using a "social isolation" concept in the psychological literature are presented. The term of "relative social isolation" is clarified. A relationship between human adaptation to the relative social isolation environments and the development of his social qualities and social activities is presented. The "social context", dictating motivation attitudes of a man to the isolation situation, emotional experiences, self-appraisal of activity is of crucial importance for evaluating the real environments of relative social isolations. Social activity of a personality is studied as the relations of a man with the conditions of his activity. The results of studying the dynamics of the psychic state of a man during individual and group isolation are compared. It is concluded that social activity of man and his functional state are interrelated. The particular manifestations and direction of the changes in the social activity of the subject depend on the duration of isolation and are determined first of all by social significance and meaningful and balanced work for a person as well as by the amount and frequency of direct and mediated social contacts under specific conditions of relative social isolation.

  10. Factors related to physical activity: a study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, R; Thorlindsson, T

    1998-09-01

    Although the consequences of physical activity have been carefully documented, less is known about its correlates, particularly among children and youth. Based on a representative national survey of 1131 Icelandic adolescents, the study examined various physical, psychological, social and demographic factors related to physical activity. Male sex, significant others' involvement in physical activity (father, friend and older brother), sociability, perceived importance of sport and of health improvement and satisfaction with mandatory gym classes in school, were all related to more involvement, whereas hours of paid work and TV-viewing were related to less. Furthermore, the data suggested that the influence of friend's participation in physical activity depends on his or her emotional significance. Influential others appeared to affect males and females in the same way. The meaning of the results and their implications for future research are discussed.

  11. Global positive expectancies in adolescence and health-related behaviours: longitudinal models of latent growth and cross-lagged effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Scott C

    2012-01-01

    Constructs representative of global positive expectancies (GPE) such as dispositional optimism and hope have been theoretically and empirically linked to many positive mental and physical health outcomes. However such expectancies' health implications for adolescents, as well as their trajectory over time, are less well understood than for adult populations. This study tested whether GPE predict the key indicators of adolescents' future physical health status, their health-related behaviours. A prospective longitudinal study design was employed whereby a diverse population-based cohort (N = 744; mean age at baseline = 12) completed three surveys over approximately 18 months. Rigorous tests of causal predominance and reciprocal effects were conducted through latent growth and cross-panel structural equation models. Results showed GPE systematically decreased during the course of the study, yet higher initial levels of GPE predicted less alcohol drinking, healthier food choice and greater physical activity over time. GPE's protective relationships towards health protective behaviours (vs. health risk behaviours that also included tobacco smoking) appear more independent from depressive symptomatology, and the primary findings were robust across socio-demographic groups.

  12. Information Global Marketing Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Grubor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global marketing management needs to be implemented based on valid, i.e. reliable, timely, verifiable and high-quality marketing information, which will enable valid decision-making in global business operations. The efficiency and effectiveness of decision-making is directly related to considering the comprehensive state of the chosen segment(s of the global market. Informational completion of the picture of a market requires devising and implementing a large number of activities set in a logical sequence. Practical experience has shown that decision-making in managing global business activities of affirmed companies is based on accumulated knowledge and is regarded as a specific form of creativity, unlike operationalization and supervision, which are mostly organizational and technical issues. Bearing this in mind, the informational basis in the operation of global companies should be viewed in accordance with its significance and function in global marketing management.

  13. Active measures for reducing the global climatic impacts of escalating CO 2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, S. S.; Schneider, A. M.; Kennedy, E. M.

    The buildup of CO 2 by fossil-fuel burning and associated climatic changes have become the subject of intensive investigations. Although the time scale on which significant climatic changes (e.g. mean temperature changes of several degrees, appreciable changes in global and regional rainfalls and winds, etc.) are expected to occur is long, it has been noted that the magnitude of the energy system is so vast that modifications in the primary resource mix should preferably be initiated within a decade or sooner. The notion that the most economical energy source will be replaced globally in response to longterm climate model predictions is probably false. Before policy matters of this type can be discussed reasonably, careful assessments must be made of alternative global measures that do not require curtailments of fossil-fuel applications. This study on active measures for reducing climate changes caused by escalating CO 2 concentrations deals with potentially important areas of research. We find: (a) reductions in the solar input to the Earth by reflecting sunlight directly are prohibitively costly; (b) desired changes in Earth albedo through judicious introduction of small particles can probably be accomplished at acceptable cost through the use of modified combustors on high-flying aircraft.

  14. The Potential Radiative Forcing of Global Land Use and Land Cover Change Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Given the expected increase in pressure on land resources over the next century, there is a need to understand the total impacts of activities associated with land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify these impacts using the radiative forcing metric, including forcings from changes in long-lived greenhouse gases, tropospheric ozone, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We estimate radiative forcings from the different agents for historical LULCC and for six future projections using simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model and Community Atmosphere Models and additional offline analyses. When all forcing agents are considered together we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day (2010) anthropogenic radiative forcing can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC radiative forcing by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the forcing from CO2 alone. In contrast, the non-CO2 forcings from fossil fuel burning are roughly neutral, due largely to the negative (cooling) impact of aerosols from these sources. We partition the global LULCC radiative forcing into three major sources: direct modification of land cover (e.g. deforestation), agricultural activities, and fire regime changes. Contributions from deforestation and agriculture are roughly equal in the present day, while changes to wildfire activity impose a small negative forcing globally. In 2100, deforestation activities comprise the majority of the LULCC radiative forcing for all projections except one (Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5). This suggests that realistic scenarios of future forest area change are essential for projecting the contribution of LULCC to climate change. However, the commonly used RCP land cover change projections all include decreases in global deforestation rates over the next 85 years. To place an upper bound on the potential

  15. Issues Related to University Education in Ukraine in the Context of Globalization, European Integration and Bologna Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna V. Bosenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of issued linked to the development of Ukrainian education in the contexts of globalization, European integration and Bologna Process. The needs for reforms related to the university education in Ukraine is linked with job market and social services, including educational services, globalization of economics and IT technologies: enhancing of socio-economical and pedagogical processes, informatization in society, transition to ‘knowledge societies’, changing the system f values, expanding the core of university education, emergence and distribution of innovative technologies, freedom of choice in electing the university curriculum, fundamentalization and humanization of education etc.

  16. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): progress, activities, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  17. Radon activity in the lower troposphere and its impact on ionization rate : a global estimate using different radon emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, K. .; Feichter, J.; Kazil, J.; Wan, H.; Zhuo, W.; Griffiths, A. D.; Sartorius, H.; Zahorowski, W.; Ramonet, M.; Schmidt, Martina; Yver, C.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Brunke, E. -G.; Schulz, M.

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive decay of radon and its progeny can lead to ionization of air molecules and consequently influence aerosol size distribution. In order to provide a global estimate of the radon-related ionization rate, we use the global atmospheric model ECHAM5 to simulate transport and decay

  18. Perspectives on the linkage between typhoon activity and global warming from recent research advances in paleotempestology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN DaiDu; LIU Kam-biu

    2008-01-01

    The recent increase in typhoon (tropical cyclone) activity has attracted great interest and induced heated debates over whether it is linked to global warming or only a return to an active phase of the well-known multi-decadal variability. Due to the short instrumental record, our knowledge is quite scarce on the complex processes and mechanism of typhoon generation, development, and evolution, especially for the rare but highly destructive super-typhoons. It is therefore very important to extend the time span of typhoon activity records. Paleotempestology, a young science that emerged in the early 1990s, studies past typhoon activity spanning several centuries to millennia before the instru-mental era through the use of geological proxies and historical documentary records. This paper pre-sents a brief review and synthesis on the major research advances and findings of paleotempestology with an emphasis on proxy technique development and applications. The methodology has been evolving from single geologic proxy to multi-proxy techniques by integrating microfossils, sedimentary organic elemental ratios, and stable isotopes, together with typical sedimentary textures and structures, for the diagnosis of storm deposits. A newly-developed proxy technique is employing oxygen isotopes preserved in growing laminae of tree rings, cave stalagmites, and reef corals to diagnose typhoon rainwater impacts. Historical documentary records have been systematically compiled and analyzed to reconstruct the history of typhoon activity in some regions. The extracted typhoon-proxy data show that there does not exist a simple linear relationship between typhoon frequency and Holocene climate (temperature) change. Typhoon activity should have a secular and constant linkage with ENSO fluc-tuations, in that more typhoons and hurricanes make landfalls in China, Central and North America during La Nina years than El Niho years. This finding is consistent with that derived from recent in

  19. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, l-minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  20. Auroral Electrojet Indices Designed to Provide a Global Measure, 2.5-Minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  1. Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the global carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, W.M.; Dale, V.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; O' Neill, R.V.; Peng, T.-H.; Farrell, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs. 87 refs.

  2. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  3. A trend analysis of global fire activity. Is it land use or climate the main driver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Silva, Joao M. N.; Lopez-Saldaña, Gerardo; Pereira, Jose M. C.

    2016-04-01

    We perform a global trend analysis of active fire counts at 0.5o spatial resolution, using 156 months (January 2001 - December 2013) of MODIS Climate Modelling Grid data (TERRA). We use the Contextual Mann-Kendall (CMK) test to assess the statistical significance at cell level and found that 13% of the global land area displays statistically significant active fire count trends, with a slight predominance of negative trends (50.63% of the total significant cells). We perform the same trend analysis with the unexplained variability (residuals) between active fires and the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that is used as a proxy for climate. There is agreement between the main patterns from the trend analysis coming from the residuals and the active fire trends, implying that the main contemporary fire trends are not climate driven. Spatially coherent patches with significant trends were found in all continents (with the obvious exception of Antarctica). The majority of significant trends occur in areas of high fire incidence, and both increasing and decreasing trends appear to be associated with land use change processes. The analysis reveals large negative trends at the Sahel and between Russia and Kazakhstan, whereas a massive and coherent positive trend appears in southeastern Asia. Smaller patches of positive trends appear in southeastern United States and in Mexico, as well as in Brazil and between Argentina and Paraguay, and in Asia in India. There are also negative trends in Brazil, Argentina and in Australia. The study highlights the land use activities as the main driver of these trends, but also the need for data driven analyses and longer time series for future studies in order to gain better knowledge on fire occurrence.

  4. GlobVolcano pre-operational services for global monitoring active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.

    2010-05-01

    The GlobVolcano project (2007-2010) is part of the Data User Element programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The project aims at demonstrating Earth Observation (EO) based integrated services to support the Volcano Observatories and other mandate users (e.g. Civil Protection) in their monitoring activities. The information services are assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of volcano, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. In a first phase, a complete information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations. In the currently on-going second phase, GlobVolcano is delivering pre-operational services over 15 volcanic sites located in three continents and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. The set of GlobVolcano offered EO based information products is composed as follows: Deformation Mapping DInSAR (Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been used to study a wide range of surface displacements related to different phenomena (e.g. seismic faults, volcanoes, landslides) at a spatial resolution of less than 100 m and cm-level precision. Permanent Scatterers SAR Interferometry method (PSInSARTM) has been introduced by Politecnico of Milano as an advanced InSAR technique capable of measuring millimetre scale displacements of individual radar targets on the ground by using multi-temporal data-sets, estimating and removing the atmospheric components. Other techniques (e.g. CTM) have followed similar strategies and have shown promising results in different scenarios. Different processing approaches have been adopted, according to data availability, characteristic of the area and dynamic characteristics of the volcano. Conventional DInSAR: Colima (Mexico), Nyiragongo (Congo), Pico (Azores), Areanal (Costa Rica) PSInSARTM: Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island

  5. A prospective study of differential sources of school-related social support and adolescent global life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, James; Huebner, E Scott; Jiang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between three sources of school-related social support (parent involvement, peer support for learning, and teacher-student relationships) and early adolescents' global life satisfaction. The participants were 597 middle school students from 1 large school in the southeastern United States who completed measures of school social climate and life satisfaction on 2 occasions, 5 months apart. The results revealed that school-related experiences in terms of social support for learning contributed substantial amounts of variance to individual differences in adolescents' satisfaction with their lives as a whole. Cross-sectional multiple regression analyses of the differential contributions of the sources of support demonstrated that family and peer support for learning contributed statistically significant, unique variance to global life satisfaction reports. Prospective multiple regression analyses demonstrated that only family support for learning continued to contribute statistically significant, unique variance to the global life satisfaction reports at Time 2. The results suggest that school-related experiences, especially family-school interactions, spill over into adolescents' overall evaluations of their lives at a time when direct parental involvement in schooling and adolescents' global life satisfaction are generally declining. Recommendations for future research and educational policies and practices are discussed. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  6. Mantle plume related dynamic uplift and plate kinematics: The NE Atlantic case with global implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogseid, Jakob; Khabbaz Ghazian, Reza; Lunt, Ian

    2014-05-01

    At present a pronounced residual depth anomaly (RDA), centred on Iceland, is characterizing the bathymetry of the NE Atlantic region. For the oceanic lithosphere this anomaly represents a 2500 m elevation difference compared to 'normal' oceanic lithosphere. The observed depth anomaly has since Cochran and Talwani (1978) been ascribed to a 200 -300 km thick moderate thermal anomaly beneath the oceanic lithosphere, the existence of which today has been proven by a sizable low velocity zone on seismic tomography data. The sub-lithosphere low velocities are, however, not limited to the oceanic domain, but also underlie the adjacent continental lithosphere, thus causing a similar magnitude anomalous elevation of the continental shelves and landmasses. The thermal anomaly is presumed to relate to the arrival of the Iceland mantle plume demonstrated by excess Paleocene and Early Eocene magmatism and the formation of the North Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAVP), and subsequent volcanic margin formation. The present width of the RDA compares with the size of the regions that experienced excess magmatism during rifting and breakup, which implies that the sub-lithospheric thermally anomalous body was emplaced in Paleocene time, but still resides in the area. This presentation aims to describe the temporal and spatial development of uplift based on combining plate kinematic modeling with models of lithospheric and plume body thickness development through Late Cretaceous-Paleocene extension, and subsequent seafloor spreading. The model prediction of uplift compares well with descriptions of erosional episodes and depositional sequences off Greenland, in the Northern North Sea, off mid-Norway and in the SW Barents Sea, and represents a mechanism that explains the present elevation of East Greenland as well as western Norway. In a global perspective the close correlation between Large Igneous Provinces (LIP's), the arrival of known mantle plumes and formation of volcanic margins

  7. Global Matrix 2.0: Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 38 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Barnes, Joel; Gonzales, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance organized the concurrent preparation of Report Cards on the physical activity of children and youth in 38 countries from 6 continents (representing 60% of the world’s population). Nine common indicators were used (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport ...

  8. Global Matrix 2.0 : Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 38 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Barnes, Joel D; González, Silvia A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Onywera, Vincent O; Reilly, John J; Tomkinson, Grant R; Takken, T

    The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance organized the concurrent preparation of Report Cards on the physical activity of children and youth in 38 countries from 6 continents (representing 60% of the world's population). Nine common indicators were used (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport

  9. Global Matrix 2.0 : Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 38 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Barnes, Joel D; González, Silvia A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Onywera, Vincent O; Reilly, John J; Tomkinson, Grant R; Takken, T

    2016-01-01

    The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance organized the concurrent preparation of Report Cards on the physical activity of children and youth in 38 countries from 6 continents (representing 60% of the world's population). Nine common indicators were used (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport Par

  10. GLOBAL WARMING, TECTONIC ACTIVITY AND DESERTISATION%全球变暖、构造运动与沙漠化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学祥

    2001-01-01

    By using the method of statistical and synthetical analysis, the effect of climate warming, tectonic activity, the orbit effect of the earth (and of the moon and planets) and solar activity on precipitatiion is studied. It is pointed out that precipitation relates to tectonic activity, earthquake and climate warming. The orbit effect of the earth is related to drought or excessive rain beause the effect is an improtant factor on the variations of temperature. The orbit effect of the moon and planets and solar activity are also related to drought or exccessive rain. It is the major reasons of desertisation that global temperature is going dawn and tectonic activity gets weaker. Human actions make the desertisation speedily.%采用统计分析与综合分析方法,研究了全球变暖、构造活动、地球(以及月球和行星)轨道效应、太阳活动等对降水的影响。认为构造活动、地震、气候变暖与降水或洪涝灾害有一定关系;地球的轨道效应是地球气候变化的重要因素,从而与旱涝相关;月球行星轨道效应和太阳活动均与旱涝有明显的对应关系。气候变冷和构造活动变弱是沙漠化的主要原因,人类活动则加速了沙漠化的进程。

  11. Localization of Physical Activity in Primary School Children Using Accelerometry and Global Positioning System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Bürgi

    Full Text Available Ecological approaches have highlighted the importance of the built environment as a factor affecting physical activity. However, knowledge on children's activity patterns is still incomplete. Particularly, data on the spatial context of physical activity is limited, which limits the potential to design location-based interventions effectively. Using global positioning system (GPS and accelerometry, this study aimed to identify locations where children engage in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.Participants included 119 children (11-14 years, 57% girls from public schools in Winterthur, Switzerland. During a regular school week between February and April 2013, children wore an accelerometer and GPS sensor for seven consecutive days. Time-matched accelerometer and GPS data was mapped with a geographic information system and each data point was assigned to one of seven defined activity settings. Both the absolute amount of MVPA and proportion of time in MVPA were calculated for every setting. Multilevel analyses accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted to investigate any gender differences.Children achieved most MVPA on streets (34.5% and on school grounds (33.4%. The proportion children spent in MVPA was highest in recreational facilities (19.4%, at other schools (19.2% and on streets (18.6%. Boys accumulated significantly more MVPA overall and on other school grounds (p < 0.05 and showed a significantly higher proportion of time in MVPA at own school and outside of Winterthur (p < 0.05.The results indicate the importance of streets and school grounds as activity-promoting environments. The high use of streets may be an indicator for active transportation, which appears to contribute to an active lifestyle in both genders. In contrast, the school setting is more likely to encourage physical activity in boys. Recreational facilities seem to be conducive for MVPA among both genders, although infrequently visited

  12. Environmental supportiveness for physical activity in English schoolchildren: a study using Global Positioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Simon J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that the environment plays a role in influencing physical activity in children and adults. As children have less autonomy in their behavioural choices, neighbourhood environment supportiveness may be an important determinant of their ability to be active. Yet we know rather little about the types of environment that children use for bouts of physical activity. This study uses accelerometery and global positioning system technologies to identify the charactieristics of environments being used for bouts of continuous moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of English schoolchildren. Methods The study used a convenience sample of 100 children from SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people, a cohort of 2064 9–10 year-olds from Norfolk, England, recruited in 2007. Children wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer and a Garmin Forerunner 205 GPS unit over four consecutive days. Accelerometery data points were matched to GPS locations and bouts (5 minutes or more of MVPA were identified. Bout locations were overlaid with a detailed landcover dataset developed in a GIS to identify the types of environment supporting MVPA. Findings are presented using descriptive statistics. Results Boys were also more active than girls, spending an average of 20 (SD 23 versus 11 (SD 15 minutes per day in MVPA bouts. Children who spent more time outside the home were more active (p = 0.002, especially girls and children living in rural locations (both p Conclusion The study has developed a new methodology for the identification of environments in which bouts of continuous physical activity are undertaken. The results highlight the importance of the provision of urban gardens and greenspaces, and the maintenance of safe street environments as places for children to be active.

  13. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  14. NEW CHALLENGES FOR TRADE PROMOTION ACTIVITY IN ACTUAL GLOBAL WORLD ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian-Liviu OLARU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Export promotion strategy has to play play an important part in the development strategies of countries, especially of developing countries that seek to make exports an engine for economic growth. General category of Trade support institutions (TSI exist in every country to help businesses developement, promote and sell their goods and services abroad. Within TSI, we can consider that a TPO traditionally has a the leading role in “promoting” international trade, focusing on the most important activities in the field, in cooperation with the other component institutions of a national TSI. There may be more than one TPO per country, they are not homogeneous and can take many forms. There has not been a revolution in trade promotion activity over the the past 20 years, but there has certainly been an evolution in the context of new prerequisits of the global world economic framework.

  15. Time-dependent global sensitivity analysis with active subspaces for a lithium ion battery model

    CERN Document Server

    Constantine, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy researchers use computer simulation to aid the design of lithium ion storage devices. The underlying models contain several physical input parameters that affect model predictions. Effective design and analysis must understand the sensitivity of model predictions to changes in model parameters, but global sensitivity analyses become increasingly challenging as the number of input parameters increases. Active subspaces are part of an emerging set of tools to reveal and exploit low-dimensional structures in the map from high-dimensional inputs to model outputs. We extend a linear model-based heuristic for active subspace discovery to time-dependent processes and apply the resulting technique to a lithium ion battery model. The results reveal low-dimensional structure that a designer may exploit to efficiently study the relationship between parameters and predictions.

  16. A Unified Active Learning Framework for Biomedical Relation Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Tao Zhang; Min-Lie Huang; Xiao-Yan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Supervised machine learning methods have been employed with great success in the task of biomedical relation extraction.However,existing methods are not practical enough,since manual construction of large training data is very expensive.Therefore,active learning is urgently needed for designing practical relation extraction methods with little human effort.In this paper,we describe a unified active learning framework.Particularly,our framework systematically addresses some practical issues during active learning process,including a strategy for selecting informative data,a data diversity selection algorithm,an active feature acquisition method,and an informative feature selection algorithm,in order to meet the challenges due to the immense amount of complex and diverse biomedical text.The framework is evaluated on protein-protein interaction (PPI) extraction and is shown to achieve promising results with a significant reduction in editorial effort and labeling time.

  17. Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsi, Mihály; Tortajada, Agustin; Uzonyi, Barbara; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Complement factor H-related proteins (FHRs) are strongly associated with different diseases involving complement dysregulation, which suggests a major role for these proteins regulating complement activation. Because FHRs are evolutionarily and structurally related to complement inhibitor factor H (FH), the initial assumption was that the FHRs are also negative complement regulators. Whereas weak complement inhibiting activities were originally reported for these molecules, recent developments indicate that FHRs may enhance complement activation, with important implications for the role of these proteins in health and disease. We review these findings here, and propose that FHRs represent a complex set of surface recognition molecules that, by competing with FH, provide improved discrimination of self and non-self surfaces and play a central role in determining appropriate activation of the complement pathway.

  18. The global structure of the visual light field and its relation to the physical light field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartashova, Tatiana; Sekulovski, Dragan; de Ridder, Huib; te Pas, S.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111010853; Pont, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Human observers have been demonstrated to be sensitive to the local (physical) light field, or more precisely, to the primary direction, intensity, and diffuseness of the light at a point in a space. In the present study we focused on the question of whether it is possible to reconstruct the global

  19. Axionic domain wall number related to U(1anom global symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihn E. Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The QCD axion with fa at an intermediate scale, 109 GeV∼1012 GeV, seems in conflict with the gravity spoil of global symmetries and may face the axionic domain wall problem. We point out that the string compactifications with an anomalous U(1 gauge symmetry, allowing desirable chiral matter spectra, circumvent these two problems simultaneously.

  20. Age-related change in shifting attention between global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, M.; Burack, J.A.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was the developmental pattern of the ability to shift attention between global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli. Children aged 7 years and 11 years and 21-year-old adults were administered a task (two experiments) that allowed for the examination of 1) the direction o

  1. The global structure of the visual light field and its relation to the physical light field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartashova, Tatiana; Sekulovski, Dragan; de Ridder, Huib; te Pas, S.F.; Pont, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Human observers have been demonstrated to be sensitive to the local (physical) light field, or more precisely, to the primary direction, intensity, and diffuseness of the light at a point in a space. In the present study we focused on the question of whether it is possible to reconstruct the global

  2. Global brain atrophy but not hippocampal atrophy is related to type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, L.E.; Bresser, J. de; Geerlings, M.I.; Reijmer, Y.D.; Portegies, M.L.; Brundel, M.; Kappelle, L.J.; Graaf, Y. van der; Biessels, G.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: It has been suggested that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), brain atrophy is most pronounced in the hippocampus, but this has not been investigated systematically. The present pooled analysis of three studies examined if hippocampal atrophy is more prominent than global brain

  3. When any Worx looks typical to you: global relative to local processing increases prototypicality and liking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.; Denzler, M.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examine novelty categorization theory's (Förster, Marguc & Gillebaart, 2010) assumption that global compared to local processing styles enhance typicality judgments of atypical objects and thereby enhance liking. We used an artificial category of figures for an alleged computer game incl

  4. Could hatha yoga be a health-related physical activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Grabara Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this review paper are (I) the analysis based on previous studies of whether hatha yoga exercises fulfil the recommendation for the level of physical activity recommended by the WHO and ACSM; (II) the recommendation for how to arrange weekly hatha yoga practice, which can be considered a health-related physical activity; and (III) the analysis of the benefits of a regular hatha yoga workout in view of scientific studies, in particular regard to the prevention of diseases of c...

  5. Could hatha yoga be a health-related physical activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabara Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review paper are (I the analysis based on previous studies of whether hatha yoga exercises fulfil the recommendation for the level of physical activity recommended by the WHO and ACSM; (II the recommendation for how to arrange weekly hatha yoga practice, which can be considered a health-related physical activity; and (III the analysis of the benefits of a regular hatha yoga workout in view of scientific studies, in particular regard to the prevention of diseases of civilization and improvement in health-related physical fitness.

  6. Effect of corporate culture on public relations activities interaction between public relations and corporate culture

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRCİ, FETTAHOĞLU Sevgin

    2010-01-01

    Public relations units which were giving support to efforts to develop and expand a common corporate culture have evolved into units playing an effective role in decision-making mechanisms. Public relations experts should be familiar with and be capable of applying the components of corporate culture. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of public relations activities which is undeniably crucial for developing the concept of corporate culture and to expose its strengths. I...

  7. Impacts of people and tigers on leopard spatiotemporal activity patterns in a global biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Carter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leopard population declines largely occur in areas where leopards and people frequently interact. Research on how leopards respond to human presence and competitors, like other predators, can provide important insights on leopard ecology and conservation in human-dominated regions; however, such research is lacking. Here we used data from field cameras in 2010 and 2011 to examine how human presence, prey, and tigers influence leopard spatiotemporal activity patterns in and around Nepal’s Chitwan National Park, part of a global biodiversity hotspot. We found that leopards were adjusting their spatiotemporal activity patterns to both tigers and people, but by different mechanisms. Leopards spatially avoided tigers in 2010, but were generally active at the same times of day that tigers were. Despite pervasive human presence, people on foot and vehicles had no significant effect on leopard detection and space use, but leopard temporal activity was displaced from those periods of time with highest human activity. Temporal displacement from humans was especially pronounced outside the park, where there is a much greater prevalence of natural resource collection by local people. Continuing to evaluate the interconnections among leopards, tigers, prey, and people across different land management regimes is needed to develop robust landscape-scale conservation strategies.

  8. The Bahasa Melayu version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire: reliability and validity study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, K L; Wan Abdul Manan, W M; Wan Suriati, W N

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the reliability and concurrent validity of the Bahasa Melayu version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ-M) by comparing it with the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-S) and objectively measuring physical activity using a Yamax DigiWalker (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan) pedometer. A total of 100 adults aged between 20 and 58 years from Kelantan in Malaysia voluntarily participated in this study. The Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed no significant differences in 2-week test-retest scores for total metabolic equivalent∙minutes∙per week and 4 domains of the GPAQ-M. There was a low but significant relationship between time spent on total physical activity measured by the GPAQ-M and average steps per day recorded using the pedometer (r s = .265, P = .013). Significant correlations were also found between GPAQ-M and the IPAQ-S for varying levels of intensity during physical activities (r s = .309-.466, P < .01).

  9. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men.

  10. Oxaliplatin antagonizes HIV-1 latency by activating NF-κB without causing global T cell activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Sijie; Wang, Pengfei; Qu, Xiying; Wang, Xiaohui; Zeng, Hanxian [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Huabiao [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Zhu, Huanzhang, E-mail: hzzhu@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • The chemotherapeutic drug oxaliplatin reactivates latent HIV-1 in this cell line model of HIV-1 latency. • Reactivation is synergized when oxaliplatin is used in combination with valproic acid. • Oxaliplatin reactivates latent HIV-1 through activation of NF-kB and does not induce T cell activation. - Abstract: Reactivation of latent HIV-1 is a promising strategy for the clearance of the viral reservoirs. Because of the limitations of current agents, identification of new latency activators is urgently required. Using an established model of HIV-1 latency, we examined the effect of Oxaliplatin on latent HIV-1 reactivation. We showed that Oxaliplatin, alone or in combination with valproic acid (VPA), was able to reactivate HIV-1 without inducing global T cell activation. We also provided evidence that Oxaliplatin reactivated HIV-1 expression by inducing nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) nuclear translocation. Our results indicated that Oxaliplatin could be a potential drug candidate for anti-latency therapies.

  11. Relative roles of climatic suitability and anthropogenic influence in determining the pattern of spread in a global invader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura-Pascual, Núria; Hui, Cang; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Leday, Gwénaël; Richardson, David M.; Carpintero, Soledad; Espadaler, Xavier; Gómez, Crisanto; Guénard, Benoit; Hartley, Stephen; Krushelnycky, Paul; Lester, Philip J.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Menke, Sean B.; Pedersen, Jes S.; Pitt, Joel P. W.; Reyes, Joaquin; Sanders, Nathan J.; Suarez, Andrew V.; Touyama, Yoshifumi; Ward, Darren; Ward, Philip S.; Worner, Sue P.

    2011-01-01

    Because invasive species threaten the integrity of natural ecosystems, a major goal in ecology is to develop predictive models to determine which species may become widespread and where they may invade. Indeed, considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors that influence the local pattern of spread for specific invaders and the factors that are correlated with the number of introduced species that have become established in a given region. However, few studies have examined the relative importance of multiple drivers of invasion success for widespread species at global scales. Here, we use a dataset of >5,000 presence/absence records to examine the interplay between climatic suitability, biotic resistance by native taxa, human-aided dispersal, and human modification of habitats, in shaping the distribution of one of the world's most notorious invasive species, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). Climatic suitability and the extent of human modification of habitats are primarily responsible for the distribution of this global invader. However, we also found some evidence for biotic resistance by native communities. Somewhat surprisingly, and despite the often cited importance of propagule pressure as a crucial driver of invasions, metrics of the magnitude of international traded commodities among countries were not related to global distribution patterns. Together, our analyses on the global-scale distribution of this invasive species provide strong evidence for the interplay of biotic and abiotic determinants of spread and also highlight the challenges of limiting the spread and subsequent impact of highly invasive species. PMID:21173219

  12. Substrate Activity Screening (SAS) and Related Approaches in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Joossens, Jurgen; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2016-03-04

    Substrate activity screening (SAS) was presented a decade ago by Ellman and co-workers as a straightforward methodology for the identification of fragment-sized building blocks for enzyme inhibitors. Ever since, SAS and variations derived from it have been successfully applied to the discovery of inhibitors of various families of enzymatically active drug targets. This review covers key achievements and challenges of SAS and related methodologies, including the modified substrate activity screening (MSAS) approach. Special attention is given to the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of these methodologies, as a thorough understanding thereof is crucial for successfully transforming the identified fragment-sized hits into potent inhibitors.

  13. Accounting for sampling patterns reverses the relative importance of trade and climate for the global sharing of exotic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2017-01-01

    AimThe distributions of exotic species reflect patterns of human-mediated dispersal, species climatic tolerances and a suite of other biotic and abiotic factors. The relative importance of each of these factors will shape how the spread of exotic species is affected by ongoing economic globalization and climate change. However, patterns of trade may be correlated with variation in scientific sampling effort globally, potentially confounding studies that do not account for sampling patterns.LocationGlobal.Time periodMuseum records, generally from the 1800s up to 2015.Major taxa studiedPlant species exotic to the United States.MethodsWe used data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) to summarize the number of plant species with exotic occurrences in the United States that also occur in each other country world-wide. We assessed the relative importance of trade and climatic similarity for explaining variation in the number of shared species while evaluating several methods to account for variation in sampling effort among countries.ResultsAccounting for variation in sampling effort reversed the relative importance of trade and climate for explaining numbers of shared species. Trade was strongly correlated with numbers of shared U.S. exotic plants between the United States and other countries before, but not after, accounting for sampling variation among countries. Conversely, accounting for sampling effort strengthened the relationship between climatic similarity and species sharing. Using the number of records as a measure of sampling effort provided a straightforward approach for the analysis of occurrence data, whereas species richness estimators and rarefaction were less effective at removing sampling bias.Main conclusionsOur work provides support for broad-scale climatic limitation on the distributions of exotic species, illustrates the need to account for variation in sampling effort in large biodiversity databases, and highlights the

  14. Steroid hormone activity of flavonoids and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, R S; Jenkins, D J; Diamandis, E P

    2000-07-01

    Soy isoflavones have been studied extensively for estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties. Other flavonoids, found in fruits, vegetables, tea and wine, have been much less tested for steroid hormone activity. We therefore assessed the estrogenic, androgenic and progestational activities of 72 flavonoids and structurally-related compounds. These compounds were tested on BT-474 human breast cancer cells at concentrations of 10(8)-10(-5) M, with estradiol (estrogen), norgestrel (progestin) and dihydrotestosterone (androgen) used as positive controls, and ethanol (solvent) as a negative control. pS2, an estrogen-regulated protein, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), regulated by androgens and progestins, were quantified in tissue culture supernatants using ELISA-type immunofluorometric assays developed in-house. Of the 72 compounds tested, 18 showed estrogenic activity at 10(-5) M. Of this subset, seven also showed progestational activity at this concentration. The soy isoflavones, biochanin A and genistein, showed the most potent estrogenic activity, with a dose-response effect up to 10(-7) M. Of all other flavonoids, luteolin and naringenin displayed the strongest estrogenicity, while apigenin had a relatively strong progestational activity. Based on our data, we have formulated a set of structure/function relationships between the tested compounds. Flavonoids, therefore, exhibit significant steroid hormone activity, and may have an effect in the modification of cancer risk by diet, or in cancer therapeutics and prevention.

  15. The Impact of Global Warming on Typhoon Activities%全球变暖对台风活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玛雅

    2015-01-01

    全球变暖和人类活动有着密切的联系,人类的一些活动都会直接或者间接地造成全球平均温度的不断升高。虽然科学领域和相关领域还没有针对全球变暖对台风活动产生的影响进行最后的判断,但全球变暖已经严重影响到人类的正常活动,这一点观点是毋庸置疑的。%Global warming and human activities are closely linked, some of the activities of human beings will directly or indirectly causethe rise of global average temperature. Although there has not yet a final judgment against the effects of global warming on the typhoon activities in the field of science and related fields, global warming has seriously affected the normal activities of human beings, which is beyond doubt.

  16. Stability of XIST repression in relation to genomic imprinting following global genome demethylation in a human cell line

    OpenAIRE

    E.S.S. de Araújo; Vasques, L.R.; Stabellini,R.; A.C.V. Krepischi; Pereira, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential in X chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting, maintaining repression of XIST in the active X chromosome and monoallelic repression of imprinted genes. Disruption of the DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the HCT116 cell line (DKO cells) leads to global DNA hypomethylation and biallelic expression of the imprinted gene IGF2 but does not lead to reactivation of XIST expression, suggesting thatXIST repression is due to a more stable epigenetic mar...

  17. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity Predicts Successful Relational Memory Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Ranganath, Charan

    2009-01-01

    Previous neuropsychological findings have implicated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures in retaining object-location relations over the course of short delays, but MTL effects have not always been reported in neuroimaging investigations with similar short-term memory requirements. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that the hippocampus and related MTL structures support accurate retention of relational memory representations, even across short delays. On every trial, four objects were presented, each in one of nine possible locations of a three-dimensional grid. Participants were to mentally rotate the grid and then maintain the rotated representation in anticipation of a test stimulus: a rendering of the grid, rotated 90° from the original viewpoint. The test stimulus was either a “match” display, in which object-location relations were intact, or a “mismatch” display, in which one object occupied a new, previously unfilled location (mismatch position), or two objects had swapped locations (mismatch swap). Encoding phase activation in anterior and posterior regions of the left hippocampus, and in bilateral perirhinal cortex, predicted subsequent accuracy on the short-term memory decision, as did bilateral posterior hippocampal activity after the test stimulus. Notably, activation in these posterior hippocampal regions was also sensitive to the degree to which object-location bindings were preserved in the test stimulus; activation was greatest for match displays, followed by mismatch-position displays, and finally mismatch-swap displays. These results indicate that the hippocampus and related MTL structures contribute to successful encoding and retrieval of relational information in visual short-term memory. PMID:18171929

  18. A global galactic dynamo with a corona constrained by relative helicity

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for a global axisymmetric turbulent dynamo operating in a galaxy with a corona which treats the supernovae (SNe) and magneto-rotational instability (MRI) driven turbulence parameters under a common formalism. The nonlinear quenching of the dynamo is alleviated by inclusion of small-scale advective and diffusive magnetic helicity fluxes, which allow the gauge invariant magnetic helicity to be transferred outside the disk and consequently build up a corona during the course of dynamo action. The time-dependent dynamo equations are expressed in a separable form and solved through an eigenvector expansion constructed using the steady-state solutions of the dynamo equation. The parametric evolution of the dynamo solution allows us to estimate the final structure of the global magnetic field and the saturated value of the turbulence parameter $\\alpha_m$, even before solving the dynamical equations for evolution of magnetic fields in the disk and the corona, along with $\\alpha$-quenching. We then ...

  19. Autonomy of lower-level perception from global processing in autism: evidence from brain activation and functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanni; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-06-01

    Previous behavioral studies have shown that individuals with autism are less hindered by interference from global processing during the performance of lower-level perceptual tasks, such as finding embedded figures. The primary goal of this study was to examine the brain manifestation of such atypicality in high-functioning autism using fMRI. Fifteen participants with high-functioning autism and fifteen age- and IQ-matched typical controls were asked to perform a lower-level perceptual line-counting task in the presence of a distracting depiction of a 3-D object, in which participants counted whether there were more red or more green contours (In a contrasting 3-D task, participants judged whether the same 3-D stimulus objects (but without color in any contours) depicted a possible or impossible 3-D object). We hypothesized that individuals with autism would be less likely than controls to process the global 3-D information (and would hence show fewer neural signs of such interfering 3-D processing) during the lower-level line-counting task. The fMRI results revealed that in the line-counting task, the autism group did not show the increased medial frontal activity (relative to the possibility task), or the increased functional connectivity between the medial frontal region and posterior visual-spatial regions, demonstrated by the control group. Both findings are indices of lesser effort and difficulty in the line-counting task for the autism group than for the control group, attributed to less interference from the 3-D processing in the autism group. In addition, in the line-counting task, the control group showed a positive correlation between a measure of spatial ability (Vandenberg scores) and activation in the medial frontal region, suggesting that more spatially able control participants did more suppression of the irrelevant 3-D background information in order to focus on the line-counting task. The findings collectively indicate that the global 3-D structure

  20. Identifying Pressurise and Threatful Tourism Products In Relation To Global Warming and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dr. Anupama; Sharma, Dr Anjana

    2013-01-01

    Tourism Industry in India is contributing a lot towards improving the financial position of the country directly or indirectly and satisfying the needs of tourist by providing good services, comforts, and luxries at a very reasonable cost. Travel and Tourism contributes to be one of the worlds largest industries. 2011 was one of the most challenging years ever experienced by the global travel & tourism industry.Despite political upheaval,economic uncertainity and natural disasters,the industr...

  1. Work and Employment Relations in a Globalized World: The Emerging Texture of Transnational Labour Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pries, L.; Seeliger, M.

    2013-01-01

    While globalization has led to what can – with reference to Karl Polanyi – be referred to as a disembedding of the labour market from its nationally segmented settings, recent decades bring about a development identifiable as a ‘countermovement’. As the text shows, drawing on the example of European Works Councils and International Framework Agreements, this process of ‘re-embedding’ takes place through a network of different measures of labour regulation. It is for this reason that establish...

  2. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner’s phenomenon (KP); and ‘autoimmune vitiligo’. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geogr...

  3. Medical student stories of participation in patient care-related activities: the construction of relational identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, Sally; McColl, Geoffrey

    2017-03-01

    Professional identity formation is acknowledged as one of the fundamental tasks of contemporary medical education. Identity is a social phenomenon, constructed through participation in everyday activities and an integral part of every learning interaction. In this paper we report from an Australian ethnographic study into how medical students and patients use narrative to construct their identities. The dialogic narrative analysis employed focused on the production of meaning through the use of language devices in a given context, and the juxtaposition of multiple perspectives. Two stories told by students about their participation in patient care-related activities reveal how identities are constructed in this context through depictions of the relationships between medical students, patients and clinical teachers. These students use the rhetorical functions of stories to characterise doctors and patients in certain ways, and position themselves in relation to them. They defend common practices that circumvent valid consent processes, justified by the imperative to maximise students' participation in patient care-related activities. In doing so, they identify patients as their adversaries, and doctors as allies. Both students are influenced by others' expectations but one reveals the active nature of identity work, describing subtle acts of resistance. These stories illustrate how practices for securing students' access to patients can influence students' emerging identities, with implications for their future disclosure and consent practices. We argue that more collaborative ways of involving medical students in patient care-related activities will be facilitated if students and clinical teachers develop insight into the relational nature of identity work.

  4. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength.

  5. Marshes, Estuaries and Wetlands. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  6. Insect antifeedant activity of clerodane diterpenes and related model compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Gebbinck, E.A.; Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive compilation of all test results on the insect antifeedant activity of clerodane diterpenes and related model compounds is reported. To increase the compatibility of data from different sources, some of the results reported in the literature have been converted into a standardized for

  7. The Relation between Self-Esteem, Sexual Activity, and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rachel B.; Frank, Deborah I.

    1994-01-01

    Examined self-esteem and sexuality in 141 male and 172 female adolescents. Found no differences in self-esteem of males versus females. Sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem for either gender. Pregnant teenagers did not have different self-esteem levels from nonpregnant. Males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem…

  8. Educational Activity as a Problem of Adult Education in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folvarochnyi Ihor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of adult education in the context of globalization. The analysis of scientific pedagogical literature devoted to studying of some aspects of educational activity in adult education has been conducted. The problem of public institutions development and activity has been analyzed in the broad context of “globalization”. Possibilities and threat for the work of “the third sector” have been explored. The tendency of deepening international cooperation of public organizations in adult education with the increase of their interdependence and competition has been emphasized. The article deals with the historical and pedagogical issues of educational activities in the field of adult education. Much attention has been given to social problems of the subject (the problem of human’s social protection, the necessity of a systematic solution of a range of socially-oriented issues in the education sphere, the focus of the social educational work’s vector in the field of nonformal adult education. The features of internationalization of educational activities in the field of adult education have been defined. Methodology of the problem’s research has been researched. Transnational research has been conducted with the help of functional analysis method, which allows to allocate complex international requirements in national standards of public organizations. It has been determined that at present there is increase of integration processes in national European systems which influence the change of their structure and creation of regional and general world models of adult and informal education.

  9. Clioquinol inhibits zinc-triggered caspase activation in the hippocampal CA1 region of a global ischemic gerbil model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive release of chelatable zinc from excitatory synaptic vesicles is involved in the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia. The present study was designed to examine the neuroprotective effect of a membrane-permeable zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, in the CA1 region of the gerbil hippocampus after transient global ischemia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The common carotid arteries were occluded bilaterally, and CQ (10 mg/kg, i.p. was injected into gerbils once a day. The zinc chelating effect of CQ was examined with TSQ fluorescence and autometallography. Neuronal death, the expression levels of caspases and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF were evaluated using TUNEL, in situ hybridization and Western blotting, respectively. We were able to show for the first time that CQ treatment attenuates the ischemia-induced zinc accumulation in the CA1 pyramidal neurons, accompanied by less neuronal loss in the CA1 field of the hippocampus after ischemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of caspase-3, -9, and AIF were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of CQ-treated gerbils. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicates that the neuroprotective effect of CQ is related to downregulation of zinc-triggered caspase activation in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils with global ischemia.

  10. Relations of PC indices to further geophysical activity parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices, PCN for the index values derived from Thule magnetic data and PCS derived from Vostok data, relate to the polar cap ionospheric plasma convection driven mainly by the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. Thus, the PC indices serve to monitor the input power from the solar wind which drives a range of geophysical disturbances such as magnetic storms and substorms, energization of the plasma trapped in the Earth's near space, auroral activity, and heating of the upper atmosphere. The presentation will demonstrate the relations between the PC indices and further parameters and indices used to describe geophysical activity such as polar cap potentials, auroral electrojet activity, Joule and particle heating of the upper atmosphere, mid-latitude magnetic variations, and ring current indices Dst, SYM-H and ASY-H.

  11. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  12. Global thunderstorm activity estimation based on number of transients in ELF-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondraskova, Adriena; Sevcik, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Schumann resonances (SR) are resonant electromagnetic oscillations in extremely low frequency band (ELF, 3 Hz - 3 kHz), which arise in the Earth-ionosphere cavity due to lightning activity in planetary range. The time records in the ELF-band consist of background signals and ELF transients/Q-bursts superimposed on the background exceeding it by a factor of 5 - 10. The former are produced by the common worldwide thunderstorm activity (100 - 150 events per second), the latter origin from individual intense distant lightning discharges (100 - 120 powerful strokes per hour). A Q-burst is produced by a combination of direct and antipodal pulses and the decisive factor for its shape follows from the source-to-observer distance. Diurnal/seasonal variations of global thunderstorm activity can be deduced from spectral amplitudes of SR modes. Here we focus on diurnal/seasonal variations of the number of ELF-transients assuming that it is another way of lightning activity estimation. To search for transients, our own code was applied to the SR vertical electric component measured in October 2004 - October 2008 at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory of FMPI CU, Slovakia. Criteria for the identification of the burst are chosen on the basis of the transient amplitudes and their morphological features. Monthly mean daily variations in number of transients showed that African focus dominates at 14 - 16 h UT and it is more active in comparison with Asian source, which dominates at 5 - 8 h UT in dependence on winter or summer month. American source had surprisingly slight response. Meteorological observations in South America aiming to determine lightning hotspots on the Earth indicate that flash rate in this region is greatest during nocturnal 0 h - 3 h local standard time. This fact may be interpreted that Asian and South American sources contribute together in the same UT. Cumulative spectral amplitude of the first three SR modes compared with number of ELF-transients in

  13. Standardization of Administered Activities in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: A Report of the First Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative Project, Part 2-Current Standards and the Path Toward Global Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI are to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. It was decided to divide the final report of this project into 2 parts. Part 1 was published in this journal in the spring of 2015. This article presents part 2 of the final report. It discusses current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various professional organizations. It also presents an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of 313 nuclear medicine clinics and centers from 29 countries. Lastly, it provides recommendations for a path toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children.

  14. Implicit Active Contour Model with Local and Global Intensity Fitting Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozeng Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new active contour model which integrates a local intensity fitting (LIF energy with an auxiliary global intensity fitting (GIF energy. The LIF energy is responsible for attracting the contour toward object boundaries and is dominant near object boundaries, while the GIF energy incorporates global image information to improve the robustness to initialization of the contours. The proposed model not only can provide desirable segmentation results in the presence of intensity inhomogeneity but also allows for more flexible initialization of the contour compared to the RSF and LIF models, and we give a theoretical proof to compute a unique steady state regardless of the initialization; that is, the convergence of the zero-level line is irrespective of the initial function. This means that we can obtain the same zero-level line in the steady state, if we choose the initial function as a bounded function. In particular, our proposed model has the capability of detecting multiple objects or objects with interior holes or blurred edges.

  15. Vigorous intensity physical activity is related to the metabolic syndrome independent of the physical activity dose

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Ian; Ross, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background Current physical activity guidelines imply that, by comparison with moderate physical activity (MPA), the benefits of engaging in vigorous physical activity (VPA) are attributed to the greater energy expenditure dose per unit of time and do not relate to intensity per se. The purpose of this study was to determine whether VPA influences the metabolic syndrome (MetS) independent of its influence on the energy expenditure dose of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods...

  16. Large-Scale Variation in Forest Carbon Turnover Rate and its Relation to Climate - Remote Sensing vs. Global Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, N.; Thurner, M.; Beer, C.; Forkel, M.; Rademacher, T. T.; Santoro, M.; Tum, M.; Schmullius, C.

    2015-12-01

    While vegetation productivity is known to be strongly correlated to climate, there is a need for an improved understanding of the underlying processes of vegetation carbon turnover and their importance at a global scale. This shortcoming has been due to the lack of spatially extensive information on vegetation carbon stocks, which we recently have been able to overcome by a biomass dataset covering northern boreal and temperate forests originating from radar remote sensing. Based on state-of-the-art products on biomass and NPP, we are for the first time able to study the relation between carbon turnover rate and a set of climate indices in northern boreal and temperate forests. The implementation of climate-related mortality processes, for instance drought, fire, frost or insect effects, is often lacking or insufficient in current global vegetation models. In contrast to our observation-based findings, investigated models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT, are able to reproduce spatial climate - turnover rate relationships only to a limited extent. While most of the models compare relatively well to observation-based NPP, simulated vegetation carbon stocks are severely biased compared to our biomass dataset. Current limitations lead to considerable uncertainties in the estimated vegetation carbon turnover, contributing substantially to the forest feedback to climate change. Our results are the basis for improving mortality concepts in global vegetation models and estimating their impact on the land carbon balance.

  17. Climate-related hazards: a method for global assessment of urban and rural population exposure to cyclones, droughts, and floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Elliott, Mark; Banerjee, Ovik; Hamrick, Laura; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-02-21

    Global climate change (GCC) has led to increased focus on the occurrence of, and preparation for, climate-related extremes and hazards. Population exposure, the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given hazard event(s) in a given period of time, was the outcome for this analysis. Our objectives were to develop a method for estimating the population exposure at the country level to the climate-related hazards cyclone, drought, and flood; develop a method that readily allows the addition of better datasets to an automated model; differentiate population exposure of urban and rural populations; and calculate and present the results of exposure scores and ranking of countries based on the country-wide, urban, and rural population exposures to cyclone, drought, and flood. Gridded global datasets on cyclone, drought and flood occurrence as well as population density were combined and analysis was carried out using ArcGIS. Results presented include global maps of ranked country-level population exposure to cyclone, drought, flood and multiple hazards. Analyses by geography and human development index (HDI) are also included. The results and analyses of this exposure assessment have implications for country-level adaptation. It can also be used to help prioritize aid decisions and allocation of adaptation resources between countries and within a country. This model is designed to allow flexibility in applying cyclone, drought and flood exposure to a range of outcomes and adaptation measures.

  18. Global HRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization.…

  19. Global business activities in light of the impacts of the economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kuzmišin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the impacts of the economic recession in 2008-2009, which resulted in significant losses in manufacturing, investments, foreign trade and led to a major rise in unemployment and decrease in the standard of living. Based on the assumptions about the growth of global economy, the attention is paid to the activities of business sphere in the area of investments in terms of the Index of investor confidence published in 2010. As the main motive for investments in the forthcoming future, the security of investments has been identified. The turning point is expected to occur in 2011. Nowadays, there is rather a climate of “suspended investments” due to both the insecurity on the markets and problems with acquiring credits.

  20. GLOBAL BUSINESS ACTIVITIES IN LIGHT OF THE IMPACTS OF THE ECONOMIC RECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER KUZMIŠIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the impacts of the economic recession in 2008-2009, which resulted in significant losses in manufacturing, investments, foreign trade and led to a major rise in unemployment and decrease in the standard of living. Based on the assumptions about the growth of global economy, the attention is paid to the activities of business sphere in the area of investments in terms of the Index of investor confidence published in 2010. As the main motive for investments in the forthcoming future, the security of investments has been identified. The turning point is expected to occur in 2011. Nowadays, there is rather a climate of “suspended investments” due to both the insecurity on the markets and problems with acquiring credits.

  1. A global review of past land use, climate, and active vs. passive restoration effects on forest recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Paula; Holl, Karen D.; Rey Benayas, José María; Jones, Holly P.; Jones, Peter C.; Montoya, Daniel; Moreno Mateos, David

    2017-01-01

    Global forest restoration targets have been set, yet policy makers and land managers lack guiding principles on how to invest limited resources to achieve them. We conducted a meta-analysis of 166 studies in naturally regenerating and actively restored forests worldwide to answer: (1) To what extent do floral and faunal abundance and diversity and biogeochemical functions recover? (2) Does recovery vary as a function of past land use, time since restoration, forest region, or precipitation? (3) Does active restoration result in more complete or faster recovery than passive restoration? Overall, forests showed a high level of recovery, but the time to recovery depended on the metric type measured, past land use, and region. Abundance recovered quickly and completely, whereas diversity recovered slower in tropical than in temperate forests. Biogeochemical functions recovered more slowly after agriculture than after logging or mining. Formerly logged sites were mostly passively restored and generally recovered quickly. Mined sites were nearly always actively restored using a combination of planting and either soil amendments or recontouring topography, which resulted in rapid recovery of the metrics evaluated. Actively restoring former agricultural land, primarily by planting trees, did not result in consistently faster or more complete recovery than passively restored sites. Our results suggest that simply ending the land use is sufficient for forests to recover in many cases, but more studies are needed that directly compare the value added of active versus passive restoration strategies in the same system. Investments in active restoration should be evaluated relative to the past land use, the natural resilience of the system, and the specific objectives of each project. PMID:28158256

  2. Contribution of solar radiation and geomagnetic activity to global structure of 27-day variation of ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yibin; Zhai, Changzhi; Kong, Jian; Liu, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Twenty-seven-day variation caused by solar rotation is one of the main periodic effects of solar radiation influence on the ionosphere, and there have been many studies on this periodicity using peak electron density N_{mF2} and solar radio flux index F10.7. In this paper, the global electron content (GEC) and observation of Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) represent the whole ionosphere and solar EUV flux, respectively, to investigate the 27-day variation. The 27-day period components of indices (GEC_{27}, SEM_{27}, F10.7_{27}, Ap_{27}) are obtained using Chebyshev band-pass filter. The comparison of regression results indicates that the index SEM has higher coherence than F10.7 with 27-day variation of the ionosphere. The regression coefficients of SEM_{27 } varied from 0.6 to 1.4 and the coefficients of Ap_{27} varied from - 0.6 to 0.3, which suggests that EUV radiation seasonal variations are the primary driver for the 27-day variations of the ionosphere for most periods. TEC map grid points on three meridians where IGS stations are dense are selected for regression, and the results show that the contribution of solar EUV radiation is positive at all geomagnetic latitudes and larger than geomagnetic activity in most latitudes. The contribution of geomagnetic activity is negative at high geomagnetic latitude, increasing with decreasing geomagnetic latitudes, and positive at low geomagnetic latitudes. The global structure of 27-day variation of ionosphere is presented and demonstrates that there are two zonal anomaly regions along with the geomagnetic latitudes lines and two peaks in the north of Southeast Asia and the Middle Pacific where TEC_{27} magnitude values are notably larger than elsewhere along zonal anomaly regions.

  3. THE FACTOR OF ENERGY-INFORMATION SECURITY IN THE FRAMEWORK OF GLOBAL CIVILIZATION-RELATED CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Viktorovich SUHORUKHIH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the grounds having involved global social and cultural changes, and emphasized the precedence taken by an energy-information component to the geopolitical dynamics of the civilization continuum. The study emphasized the relevance of new facets in social and cultural insight urged to respond to challenges of direct mental hazards emerging over the world, and requirement of energy-information security the civilization has sought for, assumed to be the framework for considering spiritual culture as a «strategic reserve» for the mental setup of the nation, for the purpose of generating new forms of civil society. 

  4. Global hydrobelts and hydroregions: improved reporting scale for water-related issues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meybeck

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Global-scale water issues such as its availability, water needs or stress, or management, are mapped at various resolutions and reported at many scales, mostly along political or continental boundaries. As such, they ignore the fundamental heterogeneity of hydroclimates and natural boundaries of river basins. Here we describe the continental landmasses at two levels: eight hydrobelts strictly limited by river basins, defined at a 30' (0.5° resolution, which are decomposed on continents as 26 hydroregions. The belts were defined and delineated, based primarily on the annual average temperature (T and run-off (q, to maximise inter-belt differences and minimise intra-belt variability. This new global puzzle defines homogeneous and near-contiguous entities with similar hydrological and thermal regimes, glacial and postglacial basin histories, endorheism distribution and sensitivity to climate variations. The mid-latitude, dry and subtropical belts have northern and southern analogues and a general symmetry can be observed for T and q between them. The boreal and equatorial belts are unique. Population density between belts and between the continents varies greatly, resulting in pronounced differences between the belts with analogues in both hemispheres. Hydroregions (median size 4.7 M km2 are highly contrasted, with the average q ranging between 6 and 1393 mm yr−1 and the average T between −9.7 and +26.3 °C, and a population density ranging from 0.7 to 0.8 p km−2 for the North American boreal region and some Australian hydroregions to 280 p km−2 for some Asian hydroregions. The population/run-off ratio, normalised to a reference pristine region, is used to map and quantify the global population at risk of severe water quality degradation. Our initial tests suggest that hydrobelt and hydroregion divisions are often more appropriate than conventional continental or political divisions for the global analysis of river basins within the Earth

  5. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  6. The impact of human activities in africa,the north and south pole regions on global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    As a result of the rapid increase in the petroleum exploration, Industrial, deforestation and other human activities going on within or around the Arctic and Antarctica ice caps near or in the temperate region countries like Canada, Greenland, Russia, U.S.A (Alaska), Iceland, Finland, Argentina, Tasmania and New Zealand among many others plus the increase in deforestation activities in Tropical world countries like the Amazon of Brazil, The Tropical Rain forest of Nigeria, Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo), Cotedvoire, Indonesia etc. in addition to the Sahara and the Kalahari deserts encouragement as a result of human factors plus the uncontrolled disposals of broken Refrigerators, Air conditioners and propellants containing chlorofluorocarbon substances capable of destroying the Ozone layer in African refuse dumps (B.Abubkar,2006) are collectively becoming a threat to the world climate. This explains why the volume of the Ocean keeps on rising, global temperature keeps ascending and the global climate is becoming abnormal since the beginning of the above mentioned activities in the above mentioned locations. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed suggestions/recommendations: 1. The temperature region countries like Canada, Russia, U.S.A, Argentina etc. should come up with polices restricting certain industries with the possibilities of causing environmental hazards from operating near the Ice Caps of the Arctic or Antarctica even in areas which the Ice was frozen thousands of years ago as the case with Greenland. 2. The research and exploration activities going on around or on the Arctic and the Antarctica regions should be carried out with utmost care and concern to the global climate. 3. The deforestation activities going on without control in most of the Tropical World Countries should be monitored by the United Nation's Specialized Agencies on forest and other related international organization in such

  7. Global Crustal Dynamics of Magnetars in Relation to their Bright X-ray Outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Christopher; Ortiz, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the yielding response of a neutron star crust to smooth, unbalanced Maxwell stresses imposed at the core-crust boundary, and the coupling of the dynamic crust to the external magnetic field. Stress buildup and yielding in a magnetar crust is a global phenomenon: an elastic distortion radiating from one plastically deforming zone is shown to dramatically increase the creep rate in distant zones. Runaway creep to dynamical rates is shown to be possible, being enhanced by in situ heating and suppressed by thermal conduction and shearing of an embedded magnetic field. A global and time-dependent model of elastic, plastic, magnetic, and thermal evolution is developed. Fault-like structures develop naturally, and a range of outburst timescales is observed. Transient events with time profiles similar to giant magnetar flares (millisecond rise, $\\sim$ 0.1 s duration, and decaying power-law tails) result from runaway creep that starts in localized sub-km-sized patches and spreads across the crust....

  8. Systemic complement activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Hendrik P N; Charbel Issa, Peter; Walier, Maja; Janzer, Stefanie; Pollok-Kopp, Beatrix; Börncke, Florian; Fritsche, Lars G; Chong, Ngaihang V; Fimmers, Rolf; Wienker, Thomas; Holz, Frank G; Weber, Bernhard H F; Oppermann, Martin

    2008-07-02

    Dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. To further test the hypothesis that defective control of complement activation underlies AMD, parameters of complement activation in blood plasma were determined together with disease-associated genetic markers in AMD patients. Plasma concentrations of activation products C3d, Ba, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, substrate proteins C3, C4, factor B and regulators factor H and factor D were quantified in patients (n = 112) and controls (n = 67). Subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor H (CFH), factor B-C2 (BF-C2) and complement C3 (C3) genes which were previously found to be associated with AMD. All activation products, especially markers of chronic complement activation Ba and C3d (pAMD patients compared to controls. Similar alterations were observed in factor D, but not in C3, C4 or factor H. Logistic regression analysis revealed better discriminative accuracy of a model that is based only on complement activation markers Ba, C3d and factor D compared to a model based on genetic markers of the complement system within our study population. In both the controls' and AMD patients' group, the protein markers of complement activation were correlated with CFH haplotypes.This study is the first to show systemic complement activation in AMD patients. This suggests that AMD is a systemic disease with local disease manifestation at the ageing macula. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for an association of systemic activation of the alternative complement pathway with genetic variants of CFH that were previously linked to AMD susceptibility.

  9. Systemic complement activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik P N Scholl

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP of complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. To further test the hypothesis that defective control of complement activation underlies AMD, parameters of complement activation in blood plasma were determined together with disease-associated genetic markers in AMD patients. Plasma concentrations of activation products C3d, Ba, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, substrate proteins C3, C4, factor B and regulators factor H and factor D were quantified in patients (n = 112 and controls (n = 67. Subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor H (CFH, factor B-C2 (BF-C2 and complement C3 (C3 genes which were previously found to be associated with AMD. All activation products, especially markers of chronic complement activation Ba and C3d (p<0.001, were significantly elevated in AMD patients compared to controls. Similar alterations were observed in factor D, but not in C3, C4 or factor H. Logistic regression analysis revealed better discriminative accuracy of a model that is based only on complement activation markers Ba, C3d and factor D compared to a model based on genetic markers of the complement system within our study population. In both the controls' and AMD patients' group, the protein markers of complement activation were correlated with CFH haplotypes.This study is the first to show systemic complement activation in AMD patients. This suggests that AMD is a systemic disease with local disease manifestation at the ageing macula. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for an association of systemic activation of the alternative complement pathway with genetic variants of CFH that were previously linked to AMD susceptibility.

  10. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L

    2015-11-01

    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  11. Linking subsistence activities to global marketing systems: the role of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to improve the understanding of how micro-level subsistence activities might be related to higher-level phenomena to increase the well-being of individuals and communities in contexts characterized by institutional gaps. Using coffee as illustrative case, it explores the link

  12. Linking subsistence activities to global marketing systems: the role of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to improve the understanding of how micro-level subsistence activities might be related to higher-level phenomena to increase the well-being of individuals and communities in contexts characterized by institutional gaps. Using coffee as illustrative case, it explores the link betwe

  13. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    This Report has a number of inter-related general purposes. One is to explore the extent to which food, nutrition, physical activity, and body composition modify the risk of cancer, and to specify which factors are most important. To the extent that environmental factors such as food, nutrition, and

  14. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    This Report has a number of inter-related general purposes. One is to explore the extent to which food, nutrition, physical activity, and body composition modify the risk of cancer, and to specify which factors are most important. To the extent that environmental factors such as food, nutrition, and

  15. Closely-related taxa influence woody species discrimination via DNA barcoding: evidence from global forest dynamics plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Nancai; Erickson, David L; Chen, Bufeng; Ge, Xuejun; Mi, Xiangcheng; Swenson, Nathan G; Zhang, Jin-Long; Jones, Frank A; Huang, Chun-Lin; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Hsieh, Chang-Fu; Lum, Shawn; Bourg, Norman A; Parker, John D; Zimmerman, Jess K; McShea, William J; Lopez, Ida C; Sun, I-Fang; Davies, Stuart J; Ma, Keping; Kress, W John

    2015-10-12

    To determine how well DNA barcodes from the chloroplast region perform in forest dynamics plots (FDPs) from global CTFS-ForestGEO network, we analyzed DNA barcoding sequences of 1277 plant species from a wide phylogenetic range (3 FDPs in tropics, 5 in subtropics and 5 in temperate zone) and compared the rates of species discrimination (RSD). We quantified RSD by two DNA barcode combinations (rbcL + matK and rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA) using a monophyly-based method (GARLI). We defined two indexes of closely-related taxa (Gm/Gt and S/G ratios) and correlated these ratios with RSD. The combination of rbcL + matK averagely discriminated 88.65%, 83.84% and 72.51% at the local, regional and global scales, respectively. An additional locus trnH-psbA increased RSD by 2.87%, 1.49% and 3.58% correspondingly. RSD varied along a latitudinal gradient and were negatively correlated with ratios of closely-related taxa. Successes of species discrimination generally depend on scales in global FDPs. We suggested that the combination of rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA is currently applicable for DNA barcoding-based phylogenetic studies on forest communities.

  16. The relation between instrumental musical activity and cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; MacKay, Alicia

    2011-05-01

    Intensive repetitive musical practice can lead to bilateral cortical reorganization. However, whether musical sensorimotor and cognitive abilities transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities that are maintained throughout the life span is unclear. In an attempt to identify modifiable lifestyle factors that may potentially enhance successful aging, we evaluated the association between musical instrumental participation and cognitive aging. Seventy older healthy adults (ages 60-83) varying in musical activity completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The groups (nonmusicians, low and high activity musicians) were matched on age, education, history of physical exercise, while musicians were matched on age of instrumental acquisition and formal years of musical training. Musicians were classified in the low (1-9 years) or high (>10 years) activity group based on years of musical experience throughout their life span. The results of this preliminary study revealed that participants with at least 10 years of musical experience (high activity musicians) had better performance in nonverbal memory (η2 = .106), naming (η2 = .103), and executive processes (η2 = .131) in advanced age relative to nonmusicians. Several regression analyses evaluated how years of musical activity, age of acquisition, type of musical training, and other variables predicted cognitive performance. These correlational results suggest a strong predictive effect of high musical activity throughout the life span on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. A discussion of how musical participation may enhance cognitive aging is provided along with other alternative explanations.

  17. The Relation Between Instrumental Musical Activity and Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; MacKay, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intensive repetitive musical practice can lead to bilateral cortical reorganization. However, whether musical sensorimotor and cognitive abilities transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities that are maintained throughout the life span is unclear. In an attempt to identify modifiable lifestyle factors that may potentially enhance successful aging, we evaluated the association between musical instrumental participation and cognitive aging. Method Seventy older healthy adults (ages 60–83) varying in musical activity completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The groups (nonmusicians, low and high activity musicians) were matched on age, education, history of physical exercise, while musicians were matched on age of instrumental acquisition and formal years of musical training. Musicians were classified in the low (1–9 years) or high (>10 years) activity group based on years of musical experience throughout their life span. Results The results of this preliminary study revealed that participants with at least 10 years of musical experience (high activity musicians) had better performance in nonverbal memory (η2 = .106), naming (η2 = .103), and executive processes (η2 = .131) in advanced age relative to nonmusicians. Several regression analyses evaluated how years of musical activity, age of acquisition, type of musical training, and other variables predicted cognitive performance. Conclusions These correlational results suggest a strong predictive effect of high musical activity throughout the life span on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. A discussion of how musical participation may enhance cognitive aging is provided along with other alternative explanations. PMID:21463047

  18. Global analysis of climate-driven interannual variability of food production and related water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; Gerten, Dieter; Heinke, Jens; Konzmann, Markus; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this study we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. We further quantify some options to overcome food deficit due to chronic or sporadic water scarcity. We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water scare food production units (FPUs) (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing dataset over the period 1977-2007, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In so doing, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of FPUs to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3,000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). The LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model was used to calculate spatially and explicitly the variation in food production, green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i

  19. Global vitamin D levels in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and lactitude: an ecologic metaregression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagenau, T.; Vest, R.; Gissel, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have characterized the neutralization of the inhibitory activity of the serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) by a number of structurally distinct organochemicals, including compounds with environment-sensitive spectroscopic properties. In contrast to latent and reactive center-clea...... for development of compounds for neutralizing PAI-1 in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Apr-20...

  20. Relative roles of climatic suitability and anthropogenic influence in determining the pattern of spread in a global invader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura-Pascual, Núria; Hui, Cang; Ikeda, Takayoshi

    2011-01-01

    , the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). Climatic suitability and the extent of human modification of habitats are primarily responsible for the distribution of this global invader. However, we also found some evidence for biotic resistance by native communities. Somewhat surprisingly, and despite the often......Because invasive species threaten the integrity of natural ecosystems, a major goal in ecology is to develop predictive models to determine which species may become widespread and where they may invade. Indeed, considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors that influence...... the local pattern of spread for specific invaders and the factors that are correlated with the number of introduced species that have become established in a given region. However, few studies have examined the relative importance of multiple drivers of invasion success for widespread species at global...

  1. THE ACCEPTANCE OF JAPANESE MANAGEMENT IN ROMANIA (A STUDY FOR THE RELATION BETWEEN CORPORATE PHILOSOPHY AND GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Naruo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a work paper for the discussion about the relation between corporate philosophy and globalization. Many Japanese excellent companies have very clear corporate philosophy. These philosophies are deeply integrated with Japanese moral, ethics, history, culture and education. When the company grew in scale and sales, the company’s structure will be changed orcustomized. However, excellent company had kept founder’s corporate philosophy even if changed business environment or corporate structure.Such an original source of the excellence strengthens the company’s corporate culture, and then had sustained business performance of the company. Excellent company knows what they can change and what they shouldn’t change in case of economic environment change and / or the process of globalization.

  2. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).

  3. [Sports practice is related to parasympathetic activity in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Rodrigues, Aristides Machado; Silva, Manuel João Coelho E; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Barbosa, Maurício Fregonesi; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the relationship among sports practice, physical education class, habitual physical activity and cardiovascular risk in adolescents. Cross-sectional study with 120 schoolchildren (mean: 11.7±0.7 years old), with no regular use of medicines. Sports practice and physical education classes were assessed through face-to-face interview, while habitual physical activity was assessed by pedometers. Body weight, height and height-cephalic trunk were used to estimate maturation. The following variables were measured: body fatness, blood pressure, resting heart rate, blood flow velocity, intima-media thickness (carotid and femoral) and heart rate variability (mean between consecutive heartbeats and statistical index in the time domain that show the autonomic parasympathetic nervous system activity root-mean by the square of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals in a time interval. Statistical treatment used Spearman correlation adjusted by sex, ethnicity, age, body fatness and maturation. Independently of potential confounders, sports practice was positively related to autonomic parasympathetic nervous system activity (β=0.039 [0.01; 0.76]). On the other hand, the relationship between sport practice and mean between consecutive heartbeats (β=0,031 [-0.01; 0.07]) was significantly mediated by biological maturation. Sport practice was related to higher heart rate variability at rest. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Sports practice is related to parasympathetic activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suziane Ungari Cayres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship among sports practice, physical education class, habitual physical activity and cardiovascular risk in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 120 schoolchildren (mean: 11.7±0.7 years old, with no regular use of medicines. Sports practice and physical education classes were assessed through face-to-face interview, while habitual physical activity was assessed by pedometers. Bodyweight, height and height-cephalic trunk were used to estimate maturation. The following variables were measured: body fatness, blood pressure, resting heart rate, blood flow velocity, intima-media thickness (carotid and femoral and heart rate variability (mean between consecutive heartbeats and statistical index in the time domain that show the autonomic parasympathetic nervous system activity root-mean by the square of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals in a time interval. Statistical treatment used Spearman correlation adjusted by sex, ethnicity, age, body fatness and maturation. RESULTS: Independently of potential confounders, sports practice was positively related to autonomic parasympathetic nervous system activity (β=0.039 [0.01; 0.76]. On the other hand, the relationship between sport practice and mean between consecutive heartbeats (β=0,031 [-0.01; 0.07] was significantly mediated by biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: Sport practice was related to higher heart rate variability at rest.

  5. Diet quality and physical activity in relation to childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2017-04-01

    Healthy lifestyles such as being physically active and eating a healthy diet help reduce the childhood obesity risk. However, population-level studies on the relationship between lifestyles and childhood obesity typically focus on either physical activity or diet but seldom both. This study examined physical activity and diet quality in relation to obesity in a nationally representative sample of U.S. children and adolescents. The study sample of 2818 children 6-17 years old came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 waves. A healthy eating index (HEI)-2010 was constructed based on two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Participants at or above the 60th percentile of the HEI-2010 score were classified as consuming a healthy diet. Participants engaging in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity daily measured by accelerometer were classified as being physically active. Adjusted average marginal effect of diet quality and physical activity on obesity was calculated based on estimates from logistic regressions. Compared with those consuming a healthy diet who are physically active, the estimated probabilities for overweight and obesity were 19.03 (95% confidence interval: 11.31, 26.74) and 15.84 (10.48, 21.21) percentage points higher among children consuming an unhealthy diet and who are physically inactive, 16.53 (7.58, 25.48) and 13.48 (5.68, 21.29) percentage points higher among children consuming a healthy diet but who are physically inactive and 3.22 (-3.43, 9.88) and 3.10 (-3.08, 9.29) percentage points higher among children consuming an unhealthy diet but physically active, respectively. Healthy habit formation at an early age is essential in obesity prevention.

  6. The rotation-activity relation in M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berlind, Perry L.; Calkins, Michael L.; Mink, Jessica D.

    2017-01-01

    Main sequence stars with masses below approximately 0.35 solar masses are fully-convective, and are expected to have a different type of magnetic dynamo than solar-type stars. Observationally, the dynamo mechanism can be probed through the relationship between rotation and magnetic activity, and the evolution of these properties. Though M dwarfs are the most common type of star in the galaxy, a lack of observational constraints at ages beyond 1 Gyr has hampered studies of the rotation-activity relation. To address this, we have made new measurements of rotation and magnetic activity in nearby, field-age M dwarfs. Combining our 386 rotation period measurements and 247 new optical spectra with data from the literature, we are able to probe the rotation-activity in M dwarfs with masses from 0.1 to 0.6 solar masses. We observe a threshold in the mass--period plane that separates active and inactive M dwarfs. The threshold coincides with the fast-period edge of the slowly rotating population, at approximately the rotation period at which an era of rapid rotational evolution appears to cease. We confirm that the activity of rapidly rotating M dwarfs maintains a saturated value. We have measured rotation periods as long as 140 days, allowing us to probe the unsaturated regime in detail. Our data show a clear power-law decay in relative H-alpha luminosity as a function Rossby number. We discuss implications for the magnetic dynamo mechanism.We acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation Fellowship for Science and Engineering, and the John Templeton Foundation. E.R.N. acknowledges support from the NSF through a Graduate Research Fellowship and an Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  7. The "early life" origins of obesity-related health disorders: new discoveries regarding the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed traits in the global cardiometabolic health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyshek, Daniel C

    2013-12-01

    Popular media reports concerning the causes of the current global obesity pandemic and its related sequelae-the cardiometabolic syndrome-are often couched in terms of dramatic changes in diet and lifestyle around the world; namely, drastically increasing dietary intakes of high energy foods and plummeting levels of daily physical activity-the hallmarks of the so called "nutrition transition." Far less attention is generally drawn to the important role phenotypic plasticity during early life (i.e., "developmental programming") plays in the cardiometabolic health crisis. Recently, however, researchers working within the field of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) and epigenetics have extended our understanding of the role played by these developmental processes and capacities in health and disease even further by investigating the transmissible nature of developmentally programmed cardiometabolic traits to subsequent generations. In this review, after briefly revisiting the fundamental discoveries of first-generation DOHaD research, I consider how recent discoveries regarding the transmissibility of developmentally acquired traits are providing new insights into the current global cardiometabolic pandemic, and how a better understanding of developmental programming-including transmissibility-are essential for the conceptualization and implementation of public health initiatives aimed at stemming this global health crisis.

  8. Quantitative global and gene-specific promoter methylation in relation to biological properties of neuroblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Nimrod B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we aimed to quantify tumor suppressor gene (TSG promoter methylation densities levels in primary neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines. A subset of these TSGs is associated with a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP in other tumor types. Methods The study panel consisted of 38 primary tumors, 7 established cell lines and 4 healthy references. Promoter methylation was determined by bisulphate Pyrosequencing for 14 TSGs; and LINE-1 repeat element methylation was used as an indicator of global methylation levels. Results Overall mean TSG Z-scores were significantly increased in cases with adverse outcome, but were unrelated to global LINE-1 methylation. CIMP with hypermethylation of three or more gene promoters was observed in 6/38 tumors and 7/7 cell lines. Hypermethylation of one or more TSG (comprising TSGs BLU, CASP8, DCR2, CDH1, RASSF1A and RASSF2 was evident in 30/38 tumors. By contrast only very low levels of promoter methylation were recorded for APC, DAPK1, NORE1A, P14, P16, TP73, PTEN and RARB. Similar involvements of methylation instability were revealed between cell line models and neuroblastoma tumors. Separate analysis of two proposed CASP8 regulatory regions revealed frequent and significant involvement of CpG sites between exon 4 and 5, but modest involvement of the exon 1 region. Conclusions/significance The results highlight the involvement of TSG methylation instability in neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines using quantitative methods, support the use of DNA methylation analyses as a prognostic tool for this tumor type, and underscore the relevance of developing demethylating therapies for its treatment.

  9. A GLOBAL GALACTIC DYNAMO WITH A CORONA CONSTRAINED BY RELATIVE HELICITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, A.; Mangalam, A., E-mail: avijeet@iiap.res.in, E-mail: mangalam@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Sarjapur Road, Koramangala, Bangalore, 560034 (India)

    2016-01-20

    We present a model for a global axisymmetric turbulent dynamo operating in a galaxy with a corona that treats the parameters of turbulence driven by supernovae and by magneto-rotational instability under a common formalism. The nonlinear quenching of the dynamo is alleviated by the inclusion of small-scale advective and diffusive magnetic helicity fluxes, which allow the gauge-invariant magnetic helicity to be transferred outside the disk and consequently to build up a corona during the course of dynamo action. The time-dependent dynamo equations are expressed in a separable form and solved through an eigenvector expansion constructed using the steady-state solutions of the dynamo equation. The parametric evolution of the dynamo solution allows us to estimate the final structure of the global magnetic field and the saturated value of the turbulence parameter α{sub m}, even before solving the dynamical equations for evolution of magnetic fields in the disk and the corona, along with α-quenching. We then solve these equations simultaneously to study the saturation of the large-scale magnetic field, its dependence on the small-scale magnetic helicity fluxes, and the corresponding evolution of the force-free field in the corona. The quadrupolar large-scale magnetic field in the disk is found to reach equipartition strength within a timescale of 1 Gyr. The large-scale magnetic field in the corona obtained is much weaker than the field inside the disk and has only a weak impact on the dynamo operation.

  10. Analyzing the validity of a possible relation between solar-terrestrial magnetic activity and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, M. J.; Dominguez, M.; Pinto, V. A.; Moya, P. S.; Munoz, V.; Rogan, J.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    A connection between solar-terrestrial geomagnetic activity and seismicity has been long proposed. Some studies claim there are global effects, relating solar activity, for instance sunspot number or solar wind speed, with earthquakes occurrence on the Earth. Other studies intend to find effects on a local scale, where perturbations in the geomagnetic activity are followed by seismic events. To address these issues, we analyze the statistical validity of some of the reported correlations, by means of two statistical approaches in both scales, namely the use of surrogate and Student's test. Regarding to the global analysis, we study the correlations between the sunspots area, Dst index, and the total annual released seismic energy during the last century. For local geomagnetic variations prior to an important earthquake, we carry out a similar statistical analysis between magnetic field fluctuations from the SAMBA array and the Dst index in a window of two years centered in the February 27th, 2010 M = 8.8 earthquake at Chile.

  11. Relating ACT-R buffer activation to EEG activity during an attentional blink task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, M. K.; Rußwinkel, N.; Drewitz, U.; van Rijn, H.

    2012-01-01

    While a clear relation has been established between ACT-R and activity in fMRI, little is known about whether ACT-R has also correlates in EEG activity. Because of its superior temporal resolution compared to fMRI, EEG could potentially be used to adjudicate between model versions that differ in tim

  12. EMANI, ERAM and Other European Activities Contributing to a Global Digital Library in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Bernd

    With the rapidly growing activities in electronic publishing ideas came up to install global repositories which deal with three mainstreams in this enterprise: storing the electronic material currently available, pursuing projects to solve the archiving problem for this material with the ambition to preserve the content in readable form for future generations, and to capture the printed literature in digital versions providing good access and search facilities for the readers. Long-term availability of published research articles in mathematics and easy access to them is a strong need for researchers working with mathematics. Hence in this domain some pioneering projects have been established addressing the above mentioned problems. The talk will describe some of these activities and the plan to develop a global Digital Library in Mathematics (DLM). For example, in the archiving area as a special project for mathematics the Electronic Mathematics Archives Network Initiative (EMANI) had been designed. Having in mind that a distributed architecture would be more suitable and reduce the load on the partners for such a project, a network is proposed, which also might be a more open approach for extending the project from a initially restricted solution to a more comprehensive enterprise. For the core of the network, a co-operational system of reference libraries and content providers like publishers and editors has been be set up. On the side of the libraries the following partners have agreed to set up a prototype for the archive: the Tsinghua University Library in Beijing, the Cornell University Library in Ithaca (N. Y.), the Mathematical Library at Orsay in Paris and the Lower Saxony State and University Library in Goettingen. The first group of content providers consists of the Springer publishing house, associated publishers and journals posted in the Electronic Library of EMIS. The Electronic Research Archive in Mathematics (ERAM) is a German project dealing with

  13. On Using WWLLN Observations as Starting Information for the Quantitative Schumann Resonance Monitoring of Global Lightning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtak, V. C.; Guha, A.; Williams, E.

    2013-12-01

    The idea of the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) monitoring of global lightning activity is based on the small attenuation (a few tenths of dB/Mm) of ELF waves and, hence, the occurrence of interference phenomena (Schumann resonance (SR) patterns). As a result, SR observations: a) collect signals from parent lightning events over the entire current moment range (in contrast to the events from the tail of the distribution in the WWLLN data), b) cover the activity regions of the entire globe practically uniformly from a net of a few stations (in contrast to the spatially and temporarily non-uniform coverage by the WWLLN), and c) provide information on the mutual locations of sources and observers uniquely reflected in the SR characteristics (modal intensities, frequencies, and quality factors). However, some physically substantiated advantages (for instance, the global coverage) of the SR technique turn into certain methodological shortcomings (for instance, low spatial resolution) when the technique is exploited as a practical monitoring procedure. While some of the SR shortcomings (such as spatial resolution ) are not important when considering the source strengths of global lightning regions (chimneys) with continental dimensions, other challenges of the SR technique require use of additional information. As a primary challenge, there is the problem of an extremely complicated multi-dimensional relief of the functional minimized in the inversion procedure; due to the presence of local (secondary) minima along with the global (major) one, the inversion's result is critically dependent on the quality of initial guesses for the sought-for parameters of the source model (geographical locations, dimensions, and quantitative source strengths of the major chimneys). Attempts to use the general lightning climatology for this initial guess have not resolved the problem of local minima due to the pronounced day-to-day variability of lightning scenarios in individual chimneys

  14. Global Mindset in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the call for identification of organizational contingencies related to global mindset, exploration of different forms of global mindset and their relationship with global strategies (Osland, Bird, Mendenhall & Osland, 2006). To this end, this paper explores global mindset...

  15. Logarithmic InGaAs detectors with global shutter and active dark current reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yang; Arion, Bogdan; Bouvier, Christian; Noguier, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present newly developed logarithmic InGaAs detectors with global shuttering and also an active dark current reduction technique to ensure ambient temperature operation without TEC for industrial applications. The newly released detectors come with both VGA (15um pitch) and QVGA (25um pitch) resolutions, giving the possibility to use lens less than 1-inch size. The logarithmic response is obtained by using solar-cell mode InGaAs photodiodes. The VGA and QVGA ROICs have 3 analog memories inside each pixel which permit, except the classic ITR, IWR and CDS modes, a new differential imaging mode which can be a useful feature in active imaging systems. The photodiode frontend circuit, in pure voltage mode, is made with non-inverting amplifier instead of CTIA. The reason of this choice is that the exposure time can be shortened without need of excessive power consumption as in CTIA front-end. We think that this arrangement associated with true CDS could match the noise performance of CTIA based one. VGA and QVGA ROICs have been designed and manufactured by using 0.18um 1P4M CMOS process. Both ROIC have been tested with success and match the design targets. The first batch of both detectors is under fabrication and will be presented during the conference.

  16. The Necessity of Public Relations for Sustainable Mining Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunbock; Ji, Sangwoo

    2015-04-01

    other hand, in the survey to determine what the greatest difficulties of the current mining activities, 54% of mining companies chose environmental regulations, 26% of mining companies chose conflicts between mine area residents and mining companies. Environmental regulations are may defined as the greatest difficulty of current mining activities. But most of environmental regulation's problems are caused by frictions with residents, because all of South Korean mines are very close to villages. So, the biggest difficulty of mining activities can be defined conflicts between residents and mining companies. Moreover, general people in South Korea including some mining engineers recognize the mining industry as a declined and pollution industry. Without clear understanding of mining activities, any mine developments and policies related to mining activities cannot be made by rational discussions. And, if their recognition is not formed in a rational way, it will be turned to extreme fear or blind hatred. Therefore, to understand mining activities correctly, the effective public relations strategy is necessary such as corporate advertisements or public advertisements.

  17. A global, comprehensive review of literature related to paper recycling: A pressing need for a uniform system of terms and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-02-01

    A global, comprehensive review of terms and definitions related to paper recycling was conducted in this article. Terms and definitions related to paper recycling have varied in the course of time. Different terms and different definitions for the same thing are being used in different geographical regions and by different organizations. Definitions are different based on varying conceptions of waste paper as a raw material. Definitions of how to make various calculations related to paper recycling activity are inconsistent. Even such fundamental basic definitions like how to calculate recycling rate and paper consumption are not uniform. It could be concluded that there is no uniform system of terms and definitions related to paper recycling and the implications of this deficiency are profound. For example, it is difficult to reliably compare with each other statistics from different times and from different geographical regions. It is not possible to measure if targets for recycling activities are met if the terms describing the targets are not uniformly defined. In cases of reporting data for recycling targets, the lack of uniform terminology can, for example, impede the necessary transparency between different stakeholders and may allow for deception. The authors conclude there is a pressing need to develop a uniform system of terms and definition for terms related to paper recycling.

  18. Post-ischemic administration of progesterone reduces caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampus following global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-García, Claudia; Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César; Aguilar-Hernández, Alejandra; Monfil, Tomas; Cervantes, Miguel; Moralí, Gabriela

    2013-08-29

    Delayed death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion may be mediated, in part, by caspase-3 activation resulting in DNA fragmentation. Progesterone (P4) is known to exert neuroprotective effects in several models of brain injury. This study was designed to assess the effect of P4 on caspase-3 levels and activation, and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampus following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to global ischemia by the four-vessel occlusion model. P4 (8 mg/kg), or its vehicle were administered i.v. at 15 min, 2, 6, 24, 48 and 70 h of reperfusion. Remaining pyramidal neurons were assesed by the Nissl staining technique, caspase-3 levels and activation by immunohistochemistry and an in situ activity assay, and DNA fragmentation by the TUNEL method. Post-ischemic progesterone treatment significantly reduced the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase in caspase-3 levels and activation at 72 h, and DNA fragmentation and CA1 neuronal loss at 7 days. Present results suggest the reduction of caspase-3 levels/activation, and DNA fragmentation, as a part of the neuroprotective effects of progesterone against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Global strategy for further reducing the leprosy burden and sustaining leprosy control activities 2006-2010. Operational guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The Global Strategy for further reducing the leprosy burden and sustaining leprosy control activities (2006 - 2010) has been widely welcomed and endorsed. The overall goal is to provide access to quality leprosy services for all affected communities following the principles of equity and social justice. The purpose of these Operational Guidelines is to help managers of national health services to implement the new Global Strategy in their own countries. This will be done as they develop detailed policies applicable to their own situation, and revise their National Manual for Leprosy Control. Leprosy services are being integrated into the general health services throughout the world; a new emphasis is given here to the need for an effective referral system, as part of an integrated programme. Good communication between all involved in the management of a person with leprosy or leprosy- related complications is essential. These Guidelines should help managers to choose which activities can be carried out at the primary health care level and for which aspects of care patients will have to be referred. This will depend on the nature of the complication and the capacity of the health workers to provide appropriate care at different levels of the health system. The promotion of self-reporting is now crucial to case detection, as case- finding campaigns become less and less cost-effective. It is important to identify and remove barriers that may prevent new cases from coming forward. The procedures for establishing the diagnosis of leprosy remain firmly linked to the cardinal signs of the disease, but the accuracy of diagnosis must be monitored. The Guidelines suggest a greater emphasis on the assessment of disability at diagnosis, so that those at particular risk can be recognized and managed appropriately. The treatment of leprosy with MDT has been a continuing success; neither relapse nor drug-resistance are significant problems and the regimens are well- tolerated

  20. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  1. Relative Priming of Temporal Local-Global Levels in Auditory Hierarchical Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Alexandra; Justus, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Priming is a useful tool for ascertaining the circumstances under which previous experiences influence behavior. Previously, using hierarchical stimuli, we demonstrated that selectively attending to one temporal scale of an auditory stimulus improved subsequent attention to a repeated (vs. changed) temporal scale, i.e., we demonstrated inter-trial auditory temporal level-priming. Here, we have extended those results to address whether level-priming relied on absolute or relative temporal information. Both relative and absolute temporal information are important in auditory perception: speech and music can be recognized over various temporal scales, but become uninterpretable to a listener when presented too quickly or slowly. We first confirmed that temporal level-priming generalized over new temporal scales. Second, in the context of multiple temporal scales, we found that temporal level-priming operates predominantly on the basis of relative, rather than absolute, temporal information. These findings are discussed in the context of expectancies and relational invariance in audition. PMID:20045889

  2. Serious and life-threatening pregnancy-related infections: opportunities to reduce the global burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A Gravett

    Full Text Available Michael Gravett and colleagues review the burden of pregnancy-related infections, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and offer suggestions for a more effective intervention strategy.

  3. Item response theory-based measure of global disability in multiple sclerosis derived from the Performance Scales and related items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Eric; Kister, Ilya; Cutter, Gary R

    2014-10-03

    The eight Performance Scales and three assimilated scales (PS) used in North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry surveys cover a broad range of neurologic domains commonly affected by multiple sclerosis (mobility, hand function, vision, fatigue, cognition, bladder/bowel, sensory, spasticity, pain, depression, and tremor/coordination). Each scale consists of a single 6-to-7-point Likert item with response categories ranging from "normal" to "total disability". Relatively little is known about the performances of the summary index of disability derived from these scales (the Performance Scales Sum or PSS). In this study, we demonstrate the value of a combination of classical and modern methods recently proposed by the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) network to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PSS and derive an improved measure of global disability from the PS. The study sample included 7,851adults with MS who completed a NARCOMS intake questionnaire between 2003 and 2011. Factor analysis, bifactor modeling, and item response theory (IRT) analysis were used to evaluate the dimension(s) of disability underlying the PS; calibrate the 11 scales; and generate three alternative summary scores of global disability corresponding to different model assumptions and practical priorities. The construct validity of the three scores was compared by examining the magnitude of their associations with participant's background characteristics, including unemployment. We derived structurally valid measures of global disability from the PS through the proposed methodology that were superior to the PSS. The measure most applicable to clinical practice gives similar weight to physical and mental disability. Overall reliability of the new measure is acceptable for individual comparisons (0.87). Higher scores of global disability were significantly associated with older age at assessment, longer disease duration

  4. Long-Term Global Trade-Offs Related to Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1999-08-25

    An overall comparative assessment of different energy systems and their potential long-term role in contributing to a sustainable energy mix is examined through the use of a global, long-term Energy, Economics, Environment (E{sup 3}) model. This model is used to generate a set of surprise-free futures that encompass a range of economic potentialities. The focus of this study is nuclear energy (NE), and the range of possible futures embodies extrema of NE growth [a Basic Option (BO)] to an NE Phase Out (PO). These NE scenario extrema are expressed against a background that reflects E{sup 3} circumstances ranging from a Business-As-Usual (BAU) to one that is Ecologically Driven (ED), with the latter emphasizing price-induced reductions in greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions associate with a mix of fossil energy sources. Hence, four ''views-of-the-future'' scenarios emerge to form the framework of this study: BAU/BO, BAU/PO, ED/BO, and ED/PO. Model results ranging from (regional and temporal) primary- and nuclear-energy demands, carbon-dioxide emissions, nuclear-material (plutonium) accumulations and attendant proliferation-risk implications, Gross National Product (GNP) impacts, and a range of technology requirements provide essential input to the subject assessment.

  5. [Disembedding and remoralization. Old age security and intergenerational relations in globalized welfare capitalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisering, L

    2002-08-01

    The article reconstructs the changes in provision for old age since the 19th century with regard to the ensuing change in intergenerational relationships. The first finding is a broadening of the arenas of provision for old age, a historical cumulation of family (which is still relevant), welfare state and, increasingly, private provision in financial markets, adding up to a 'welfare mix' in old age. This implies a complexification of intergenerational relationships. The second finding is an ambivalent qualitative change: on the one hand relationships between generations become more anonymous and disembedded from primary social relationships; on the other hand they are politicized (they become a public issue) and remoralized. This ambivalence applies to bureaucratic provision for old age in the welfare state, i.e., to social insurance. The main thesis is that--contrary to neoliberal belief--private old-age security in global financial markets cannot be seen as individualistic and moral-free but constitutes an anonymous exchange relationship between generations on financial markets that also raises issues of intergenerational justice. We can expect that these abstract relationships between generations will be politicized and remoralized as a consequence. Welfare state and financial markets offer solutions to problems of previous forms of provision for old age but they also produce new problems of intergenerational relationships.

  6. Climate-related global changes in the southern Caribbean: Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawan

    1997-10-01

    A climate change deriving from the atmospheric build up of greenhouse gases (GHG) is supposed to become evident by the middle of the next century. This GHG-induced climate change would supposedly lead to a global warming of about 2 to 4°C and a rise in mean sea level of about 60 cm towards the end of the next century. This study focuses on the field measurements and interpretations of a number of, supposedly, climate-driven regional changes, including shifts in climate and hydrology, coastal erosion and sedimentation, salinisation of coastal aquifers and estuaries, and also coral bleaching, in Trinidad and Tobago, in the southern Caribbean. The results show significant changes and shifts in temperature and rainfall, severe coastal erosion, approaching 2 to 4 m per year for certain beaches, appreciable salinisation of a number of coastal aquifers and an estuary along the Caroni swamp, in Trinidad, and what appears to be partial coral bleaching, at the Culloden Reef in Tobago. These field-observed regional changes may conceivably be interpreted as early signals of a GHG-induced climate change. However, in view of the uncertainty surrounding GHG-induced climate change and sea level rise and the limitations of our data, especially the length of record, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of these results.

  7. GLOBAL TOURISM PERFORMANCE IN RELATION TO CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT FROM THE SOCIAL MEDIA PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIROIU DANIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Having one of the most prominent dynamics globally, tourism is still under the influence of several factors, extremely different and diverse, with sometimes profound influences, difficult to explain and to commensurate. The consequence, especially that of the economic and technological expansion, is that tourism in the 21st century acquires new meanings, with multiple roles, from influences on the lifestyle and the social status, to know-how influences on organizations. Apparently, one of the factors with major implications for productive aspects, the technological factor, is currently becoming, for the actors in the tourism industry, one of the progress binders, with positive effects both in the creation, distribution and sale of tourism products and in the area of pre and post sale relationships with customers. In this context, Social Media, the most important and discussed topic regarding the online environment nowadays has become, for the tourism industry as well, a difficult to manage phenomenon, through the benefits but also through the risks regarding a new way of communication, a deep, transparent, fast one. Social CRM represents the next step to take for companies that want to get closer to their clients, becoming more efficient and competitive

  8. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, K; Lim, H W; Suzuki, T; Katayama, I; Hamzavi, I; Lan, C C E; Goh, B K; Anbar, T; Silva de Castro, C; Lee, A Y; Parsad, D; van Geel, N; Le Poole, I C; Oiso, N; Benzekri, L; Spritz, R; Gauthier, Y; Hann, S K; Picardo, M; Taieb, A

    2012-05-01

    During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner's phenomenon (KP); and 'autoimmune vitiligo'. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term 'vitiligo' be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including 'mixed vitiligo' in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that 'autoimmune vitiligo' should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms.

  9. Global surface temperature in relation to northeast monsoon rainfall over Tamil Nadu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Balachandran; R Asokan; S Sridharan

    2006-06-01

    The local and teleconnective association between Northeast Monsoon Rainfall (NEMR)over Tamil Nadu and global Surface Temperature Anomalies (STA)is examined using the monthly grid-ded STA data for the period 1901-2004.Various geographical regions which have significant tele-connective signals associated with NEMR are identi fied.During excess (deficient)NEMR years,it is observed that the meridional gradient in surface air temperature anomalies between Europe and north Africa,in the month of September is directed from the subtropics (higher latitudes)to higher latitudes (subtropics).It is also observed that North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)during September in fluences the surface air temperature distribution over north Africa and Europe.Also,the NAO index in January shows significant inverse relationship with NEMR since recent times.The central and eastern equatorial Pacific oceanic regions have signi ficant and consistent positive correlation with NEMR while the western equatorial region has significant negative correlation with NEMR. A zonal temperature anomaly gradient index (ZTAGI)de fined between eastern equatorial Pacific and western equatorial Pacific shows stable significant inverse relationship with NEMR.

  10. Global Remote Sensing of Precipitating Electron Energies: A Comparison of Substorms and Pressure Pulse Related Intensifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, D.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    The Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) observes aurora responses to incident solar wind pressure pulses and interplanetary shocks such its those associated with coronal mass ejections. Previous observations have demonstrated that the arrival of it pressure pulse at the front of the magnetosphere results in highly disturbed geomagnetic conditions and a substantial increase in both dayside and nightside aurora precipitations. Our observations show it simultaneous brightening over bread areas of the dayside and nightside auroral in response to a pressure pulse, indicating that more magnetospheric regions participate as sources for auroral precipitation than during isolate substorm. We estimate the characteristic energies of incident auroral electrons using Polar UVI images and compare the precipitation energies during pressure pulse associated event to those during isolated substorms. We estimate the characteristic energies of incident auroral electrons using Polar UVI images and compare the precipitation energies during pressure pulse associated events to those during isolated auroral substorms. Electron precipitation during substorms has characteristic energies greater than 10 KeV and is structured both in local time and in magnetic latitude. For auroral intensifications following the arrival of'a pressure pulse or interplanetary shock. Electron precipitation is less spatially structured and has greater flux of lower characteristic energy electrons (Echar less than 7 KeV) than during isolated substorm onsets. These observations quantify the differences between global and local auroral precipitation processes and will provide a valuable experimental check for models of sudden storm commencements and magnetospheric response to perturbations in the solar wind.

  11. The Role of Trust and Interaction in Global Positioning System Related Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris W.; Shea, Christine; Holloway, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses a network of satellites to calculate the position of a receiver over time. This technology has revolutionized a wide range of safety-critical industries and leisure applications. These systems provide diverse benefits; supplementing the users existing navigation skills and reducing the uncertainty that often characterizes many route planning tasks. GPS applications can also help to reduce workload by automating tasks that would otherwise require finite cognitive and perceptual resources. However, the operation of these systems has been identified as a contributory factor in a range of recent accidents. Users often come to rely on GPS applications and, therefore, fail to notice when they develop faults or when errors occur in the other systems that use the data from these systems. Further accidents can stem from the over confidence that arises when users assume automated warnings will be issued when they stray from an intended route. Unless greater attention is paid to the role of trust and interaction in GPS applications then there is a danger that we will see an increasing number of these failures as positioning technologies become integral in the functioning of increasing numbers of applications.

  12. Paradigms of global climate change and sustainable development: Issues and related policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Combating climate change is intimately linked with peace and resource equity. Therefore, critical link establishment between climate change and sustainable development is extremely relevant in global scenario. Following the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, the international sustainable development agenda was taken up by the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD; the climate change agenda was carried forward by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. International and local climate change mitigation policies need to be assessed based on sustainability criteria. The increasing concern over climate change drives towards the search of solutions enabling to combat climate change into broader context of sustainable development. The core element of sustainable development is the integration of economic, social and environmental concerns in policy-making. Therefore, article also analyzes post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes and their impact on sustainable development. Wide range of post- Kyoto climate change mitigation architectures has different impact on different groups of countries. Nevertheless, there are several reasons for optimism that sustainable consumption patterns might develop. One is the diversity of current consumption patterns and the growing minority concerned with ethical consumption. Another is the growing understanding of innovation processes, developed to address technological change, but applicable to social innovation. A third reason is the growing reflexivity of communities and institutions.

  13. Climate-related global changes in the southern Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhawan [Department of Geography, University of Montreal, Montreal, QU (Canada)

    1997-10-30

    A climate change deriving from the atmospheric build up of greenhouse gases (GHG) is supposed to become evident by the middle of the next century. This GHG-induced climate change would supposedly lead to a global warming of about 2 to 4C and a rise in mean sea level of about 60 cm towards the end of the next century. This study focuses on the field measurements and interpretations of a number of, supposedly, climate-driven regional changes, including shifts in climate and hydrology, coastal erosion and sedimentation, salinisation of coastal aquifers and estuaries, and also coral bleaching, in Trinidad and Tobago, in the southern Caribbean. The results show significant changes and shifts in temperature and rainfall, severe coastal erosion, approaching 2 to 4m per year for certain beaches, appreciable salinisation of a number of coastal aquifers and an estuary along the Caroni swamp, in Trinidad, and what appears to be partial coral bleaching, at the Culloden Reef in Tobago. These field-observed regional changes may conceivably be interpreted as early signals of a GHG-induced climate change. However, in view of the uncertainty surrounding GHG-induced climate change and sea level rise and the limitations of our data, especially the length of record, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of these results

  14. Developing GIOVANNI-based Online Prototypes to Intercompare TRMM-Related Global Gridded-Precipitation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Teng, William; Kempler, Steven; Milich, Lenard

    2014-01-01

    New online prototypes have been developed to extend and enhance the previous effort by facilitating investigation of product characteristics and intercomparison of precipitation products in different algorithms as well as in different versions at different spatial scales ranging from local to global without downloading data and software. Several popular Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products and the TRMM Composite Climatology are included. In addition, users can download customized data in several popular formats for further analysis. Examples show product quality problems and differences in several monthly precipitation products. It is seen that differences in daily and monthly precipitation products are distributed unevenly in space and it is necessary to have tools such as those presented here for customized and detailed investigations. A simple time series and two area maps allow the discovery of abnormal values of 3A25 in one of the months. An example shows a V-shaped valley issue in the Version 6 3B43 time series and another example shows a sudden drop in 3A25 monthly rain rate, all of which provide important information when the products are used for long-term trend studies. Future plans include adding more products and statistical functionality in the prototypes.

  15. On the relation between activity-related frequency shifts and the sunspot distribution over the solar cycle 23

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, A R G; Avelino, P P; Chaplin, W J; Campante, T L

    2016-01-01

    The activity-related variations in the solar acoustic frequencies have been known for 30 years. However, the importance of the different contributions is still not well established. With this in mind, we developed an empirical model to estimate the spot-induced frequency shifts, which takes into account the sunspot properties, such as area and latitude. The comparison between the model frequency shifts obtained from the daily sunspot records and those observed suggests that the contribution from a stochastic component to the total frequency shifts is about 30%. The remaining 70% is related to a global, long-term variation. We also propose a new observable to investigate the short- and mid-term variations of the frequency shifts, which is insensitive to the long-term variations contained in the data. On the shortest time scales the variations in the frequency shifts are strongly correlated with the variations in the total area covered by sunspots. However, a significant loss of correlation is still found, whic...

  16. Global rates of marine sulfate reduction and implications for sub-sea-floor metabolic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Marshall W.; Mogollón, José M.; Kasten, Sabine; Zabel, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Sulfate reduction is a globally important redox process in marine sediments, yet global rates are poorly quantified. We developed an artificial neural network trained with 199 sulfate profiles, constrained with geomorphological and geochemical maps to estimate global sulfate-reduction rate distributions. Globally, 11.3 teramoles of sulfate are reduced yearly (~15% of previous estimates), accounting for the oxidation of 12 to 29% of the organic carbon flux to the sea floor. Combined with global cell distributions in marine sediments, these results indicate a strong contrast in sub-sea-floor prokaryote habitats: In continental margins, global cell numbers in sulfate-depleted sediment exceed those in the overlying sulfate-bearing sediment by one order of magnitude, whereas in the abyss, most life occurs in oxic and/or sulfate-reducing sediments.

  17. Convulsion-related activities of Scutellaria flavones are related to the 5,7-dihydroxyl structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seo Young; dela Peña, Ike Campomayor; Shin, Chan Young; Son, Kun Ho; Lee, Yong Soo; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ko, Kwang Ho

    2011-06-01

    We screened the major bioactive flavones isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis (baicalin, baicalein and oroxylin A) for their convulsion related activities. In electrogenic response score system and the pentylenetetrazole seizure model, baicalein but not oroxylin A and baicalin exhibited anticonvulsant effects. In vitro studies also revealed that baicalein induced intracellular Cl(-) influx, whereas oroxylin A blocked muscimol- and baicalein-induced intracellular Cl(-) influx. The anticonvulsant effect of baicalein was inhibited by flumazenil, a benzodiazepine(BZD) receptor antagonist. Therefore, anticonvulsive effect of baicalein was mediated by the BZD binding site of GABA(A) receptor. The 5, 7-dihydroxyl group is present in the structure of the three flavones. It is postulated that this group played a key role in inducing convulsion-related activities.

  18. Simulating Activities: Relating Motives, Deliberation and Attentive Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Activities are located behaviors, taking time, conceived as socially meaningful, and usually involving interaction with tools and the environment. In modeling human cognition as a form of problem solving (goal-directed search and operator sequencing), cognitive science researchers have not adequately studied "off-task" activities (e.g., waiting), non-intellectual motives (e.g., hunger), sustaining a goal state (e.g., playful interaction), and coupled perceptual-motor dynamics (e.g., following someone). These aspects of human behavior have been considered in bits and pieces in past research, identified as scripts, human factors, behavior settings, ensemble, flow experience, and situated action. More broadly, activity theory provides a comprehensive framework relating motives, goals, and operations. This paper ties these ideas together, using examples from work life in a Canadian High Arctic research station. The emphasis is on simulating human behavior as it naturally occurs, such that "working" is understood as an aspect of living. The result is a synthesis of previously unrelated analytic perspectives and a broader appreciation of the nature of human cognition. Simulating activities in this comprehensive way is useful for understanding work practice, promoting learning, and designing better tools, including human-robot systems.

  19. Activity loss and depression in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of severe vision loss in older persons and is associated with high rates of disability and depression. The authors evaluated 51 patients with bilateral AMD to investigate the interrelationships of disease severity, disability, and depression and focused on loss of valued activities as an emblematic disabling consequence of AMD. They characterized depression by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score, a syndromal state based on the CES-D, and as a level of distress (Index of Affective Suffering; IAS). Thirty subjects (58.8%) had loss of a valued, discretionary activity. They had worse visual acuity and more depressive symptoms and were represented in higher IAS levels than other subjects. Visual acuity was significantly correlated with IAS levels, but not with CES-D scores or syndromal depression. A regression model demonstrated that activity loss mediated the relationship between visual acuity and IAS level. Affective distress occurs in AMD, largely to the extent that valued activities are relinquished because of vision loss. IAS levels best illuminated this relationship, suggesting the value of this dimension of affective functioning in studies of the consequences of chronic disease.

  20. Towards age/rotation/magnetic activity relation with seismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Savita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of stellar ages directly impacts the characterization of a planetary system as it puts strong constraints on the moment when the system was born. Unfortunately, the determination of precise stellar ages is a very difficult task. Different methods can be used to do so (based on isochrones or chemical element abundances but they usually provide large uncertainties. During its evolution a star goes through processes leading to loss of angular momentum but also changes in its magnetic activity. Building rotation, magnetic, age relations would be an asset to infer stellar ages model independently. Several attempts to build empirical relations between rotation and age (namely gyrochronology were made with a focus on cluster stars where the age determination is easier and for young stars on the main sequence. For field stars, we can now take advantage of high-precision photometric observations where we can perform asteroseismic analyses to improve the accuracy of stellar ages. Furthermore, the variability in the light curves allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar rotation and magnetic activity. By combining these precise measurements, we are on the way of understanding and improving relations between magnetic activity, rotation, and age, in particular at different stages of stellar evolution. I will review the status on gyrochronology relationships based on observations of young cluster stars. Then I will focus on solar-like stars and describe the inferences on stellar ages, rotation, and magnetism that can be provided by high-quality photometric observations such as the ones of the Kepler mission, in particular through asteroseismic analyses.

  1. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China

    CERN Document Server

    Guan Xia Ling; Ding Da Zhao; Fang Jia Xun; Fang Shou Xian; Fu Shin Ian; Guo, Z Y; Jiang Wei; Li Jie Quan; Luo Zi Hua; Ouyang Hua Fu; Peng Chao Hua; Xu Tao Guang; Xu Wen Wu; Yu Qi; Zhang Zong Hua; Zhao Sheng Chu

    2001-01-01

    High Power Proton Accelerator (HPPA) is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. In China, a multi-purpose verification system as a first phase of Chinese ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton linac) and a swimming pool light water sub-critical reactor. The activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described

  2. Western US high June 2015 temperatures and their relation to global warming and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sjoukje Y.; Kew, Sarah F.; Hauser, Mathias; Guillod, Benoit P.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Whan, Kirien; Uhe, Peter; Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van

    2017-06-01

    The Western US states Washington (WA), Oregon (OR) and California (CA) experienced extremely high temperatures in June 2015. The temperature anomalies were so extreme that they cannot be explained with global warming alone. We investigate the hypothesis that soil moisture played an important role as well. We use a land surface model and a large ensemble from the weather@home modelling effort to investigate the coupling between soil moisture and temperature in a warming world. Both models show that May was anomalously dry, satisfying a prerequisite for the extreme heat wave, and they indicate that WA and OR are in a wet-to-dry transitional soil moisture regime. We use two different land surface-atmosphere coupling metrics to show that there was strong coupling between temperature, latent heat flux and the effect of soil moisture deficits on the energy balance in June 2015 in WA and OR. June temperature anomalies conditioned on wet/dry conditions show that both the mean and extreme temperatures become hotter for dry soils, especially in WA and OR. Fitting a Gaussian model to temperatures using soil moisture as a covariate shows that the June 2015 temperature values fit well in the extrapolated empirical temperature/drought lines. The high temperature anomalies in WA and OR are thus to be expected, given the dry soil moisture conditions and that those regions are in the transition from a wet to a dry regime. CA is already in the dry regime and therefore the necessity of taking soil moisture into account is of lower importance.

  3. The Relation between Extreme Weather Events and the Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battinelli, P.; di Fazio, A.; Torelli, M.

    The oscillating part of the solar irradiance drives the cyclic component of the variations of the terrestrial atmosphere's thermodynamic state. In particular, the average temperature, and thus the turbulent atmospheric fuxes, are influenced. Reliable temperature data exist from ~220,000 years, while accurate solar irradiance space measurements (not affected by the atmosphere's absorption) are available only since 1979. Actually, there is a rather long data-set regarding solar activity, indicated by the Wolf number, which is found to be well correlated with the total solar flux. Thus, we use the Wolf number as a quantitative proxy of the incident flux, even in the interval before the space-based measurements. The fraction of solar energy trapped in the atmosphere due to the re-absorption of the infrared radiation by the greenhouse gases is an increasing function of time (in the latter 150-160 years). Over this interval, we spectrally analyzed the time series of both the Wolf number and the frequencies of extreme meteorological events, isolating and removing in the latter the cyclic components due to the periodic part of the radiative forcing exherted by the Sun. We were thus able to determine the time trend in the data regarding the observed frequencies of the U.S. continental tornadoes (National Center for Atmospheric Research) and of the global cyclones (hurricanes and tropical storms on all ocean basins, National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration). We find, for both the data sets an exponential behaviour, with e-folding times: for the cyclones tau ~= 110 years, and for the tornadoes tau ~= 70 years. We are happy to have given --through this work-- a contribution to the interdisciplinary scientific process coordinated by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) through the ICSU (International Council of Scientific Unions) which takes place a latere of the international negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  4. THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF A GLOBAL MERCHANT -BANKER IN CHILE: HUTH & CO. OF LONDON, 1820S-1850S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL LLORCA-JAÑA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Huth & Co.'s activities in Chile during the 1820s-1850s. Huth was the only London merchant-banker that decided to go global before 1850, and also the only one to open a branch in Chile. The analysis of how his branches operated should take this into account, yet Huth's activities in Chile have only previously been examined using a bilateral approach to examine the economic relations between Chile and Britain. This situation was mainly due to the fact that the richest collection of primary material on Huth & Co. (the Huth papers at University College London had been ignored by scholars working on Anglo-Chilean economic relations during the first half of the nineteenth-century. The main focus of this paper is on the information that we were made unaware of due to this restricted investigative approach. Among them are the connections established between Huth's branches in Chile and the USA, Asia, continental Europe and the rest of Latin America; and the important trade in Spanish quicksilver.El presente artículo trata sobre las actividades económicas en Chile de Huth & Co. durante el período 1820-1850. Huth & Co. fue el único mercader banquero de Londres que decidió tener una empresa global antes de 1850 y el único también en abrir una oficina en Chile. Por lo tanto, las actividades de la sucursal en Chile deben ser analizadas considerando estos dos importantes hechos. Sin embargo, antes de este estudio, las actividades de Huth en el país fueron examinadas usando un enfoque estrictamente bilateral de las relaciones entre Chile y Gran Bretaña. Esta visión restrictiva se debió en gran parte al desconocimiento de los historiadores interesados en las relaciones anglo-chilenas de una importante fuente de información: los archivos de Huth disponibles en el University College London. Debido a este desconocimiento, la historiografía no ha dado cuenta de importantes hechos tratado en este artículo. Por ejemplo, de las

  5. Galactic bulges from Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations : Global scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balcells, Marc; Graham, Alister W.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate bulge and disk scaling relations using a volume-corrected sample of early-to intermediate-type disk galaxies in which, importantly, the biasing flux from additional nuclear components has been modeled and removed. Structural parameters are obtained from a seeing-convolved, bulge +

  6. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  7. Galactic bulges from Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations : Global scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balcells, Marc; Graham, Alister W.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate bulge and disk scaling relations using a volume-corrected sample of early-to intermediate-type disk galaxies in which, importantly, the biasing flux from additional nuclear components has been modeled and removed. Structural parameters are obtained from a seeing-convolved, bulge + dis

  8. Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: Two different ways of relating to the self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neff, K.D.; Vonk, R.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self-compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N=2,187) compared

  9. The ART approach using glass-ionomers in relation to global oral health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent non-communicable disease in the world. Its management in high-income countries over the last four decades has resulted in relatively low caries prevalence in child and adolescent populations. In low- and middle-income countries, caries management is virtually non-

  10. Curriculum Integration versus Educating for Global Citizenship: A (Disciplinary) View from the International Relations Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a view from the classroom and departmental chair's office, using the teaching of introductory "International Relations" and some basic theoretical foundations of the field, "Realism," "Cosmopolitanism," and "Constructivism," to explore how study abroad can balance calls to educate for…

  11. Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: Two different ways of relating to the self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neff, K.D.; Vonk, R.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self-compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N=2,187) compared

  12. [A critical perspective on the global research activity in the field of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffel, N; Domnitz, F; Brüggmann, D; Klingelhöfer, D; Bendels, M H K; Groneberg, D A

    2016-11-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common forms of cancer world-wide. This underestimated disease can cause severe morbidity and mortality in individuals. Increasing awareness can be depicted by the increasing numbers of publications since the 1990s. Hence, it is challenging for a scientist to obtain an overview of the topic. To quantify the global research activity in this field, a scientometric investigation was conducted. Using the database Web of Science, the bibliometric data of publications on the topic of BC was acquired for the period 1900-2007. According to the NewQIS protocol, different visualization techniques and scientometric methods were applied. A total of 19,651 publications were evaluated. The USA takes a leading position in terms of the overall number of publications, institutions, and collaborations. International collaboration on BC has changed considerably in terms of quantity during the past 20 years. The largest number of articles and the highest number of citations regarding BC are found in the Journal of Urology. Thus, it is considered the most prolific journal. Furthermore, the productivity (i. e., publication numbers) of authors and scientific impact (i. e., citation rates) vary greatly. The field of BC continues to progress, whereby the influence of international co-operation on scientific progress is of increasing importance. New evaluation factors/tools have to be established for a more reliable evaluation of scientific work.

  13. The global unified parallel file system (GUPFS) project: FY 2002 activities and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Gregory F.; Lee, Rei Chi; Welcome, Michael L.

    2003-04-07

    The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase, five-year project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center to provide a scalable, high performance, high bandwidth, shared file system for all the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make it easier to conduct advanced scientific research using the NERSC systems. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is directly accessed by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. During its first year, FY 2002, the GUPFS project focused on identifying, testing, and evaluating existing and emerging shared/cluster file system, SAN fabric, and storage technologies; identifying NERSC user input/output (I/O) requirements, methods, and mechanisms; and developing appropriate benchmarking methodologies and benchmark codes for a parallel environment. This report presents the activities and progress of the GUPFS project during its first year, the results of the evaluations conducted, and plans for near-term and longer-term investigations.

  14. [Relation between biofilm, caries activity and gingivitis in HIV + children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Apoena de Aguiar; Portela, Maristela; Souza, Ivete Pomarico de

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of medicines to treat HIV-infected children has been promoting a decrease in the prevalence of soft-tissue oral lesions, as years pass by. In contrast, it has been observed that the experience of caries and gingivitis is constant in this population, mostly because of the chronic influence of some factors involved in the HIV-infection process, such as the chronic utilization of sweetened liquid medicines and carbohydrate-enriched diet, as well as frequent episodes of hospitalization. So, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the quality and quantity of biofilm are important factors in the activity of dental caries and gingivitis, also in this special group. After examination of the biofilm (biofilm index - Ribeiro23, 2000), the activity of caries and gingivitis was assessed in 56 children, aging from 0 to 14 years, who were patients with definitive diagnosis of HIV infection. It was observed that only 7 subjects (12.5%) did not present with clinically visible biofilm, and 33 (58.9%) presented with gingivitis, with the average of 4.44 bleeding sites. As to dental caries, 73.2% of the patients presented with active carious lesions. A strong correlation was verified between Biofilm Index, gingival status and active carious lesions (Spearman's correlation test, r s = +0.57 and r s = +0.49, respectively). It was concluded that, also in HIV-infected children, the quality and quantity of biofilm over the dental surfaces are important etiologic factors related to the activity of caries and gingivitis. Biofilm should, thus, be controlled in order to reestablish the oral health of HIV-infected children.

  15. Use of global positioning system for physical activity research in youth: ESPAÇOS Adolescentes, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberico, Claudia Oliveira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Reis, Rodrigo S

    2016-12-23

    The built environment is an important factor associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) during adolescence. This study presents the methods for objective assessment of context-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, as well as describes results from the first project using such methodology in adolescents from a developing country. An initial sample of 381 adolescents was recruited from 32 census tracts in Curitiba, Brazil (2013); 80 had their homes geocoded and wore accelerometer and GPS devices for seven days. Four domains were defined as important contexts: home, school, transport and leisure. The majority of participants (n=80) were boys (46; 57.5%), with a normal BMI (52; 65.0%) and a mean age (SD) of 14.5 (5.5) years. Adolescents spent most of their time at home, engaging in SB. Overall, the largest proportion of MVPA was while in transport (17.1% of time spent in this context) and SB while in leisure (188.6min per day). Participants engaged in MVPA for a median of 28.7 (IQR 18.2-43.2) and 17.9 (IQR 9.2-32.1) minutes during week and weekend days, respectively. Participants spent most of their day in the leisure and home domains. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer data allowed objective identification of the amount of time spent in MVPA and SB in four different domains. Though the combination of objective measures is still an emerging methodology, this is a promising and feasible approach to understanding interactions between people and their environments in developing countries.

  16. Issues related to a programme of activities under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2006-05-15

    Emissions of CO2 from the energy and land-use change and forestry sectors are responsible for the majority of emissions in non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC. Tackling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these sectors is a key to slowing the growth in GHG emissions in non-Annex I countries. Implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects can help achieve this aim, while also assisting non-Annex I countries to move towards sustainable development and Annex I countries achieve their emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. There has been rapid progress in the CDM over the last year - in terms of the number of projects in the pipeline and registered, and in terms of credits issued. However, some important sectors are notable by their small share in the CDM portfolio. Several countries have also called attention to the need to accelerate the process of approving CDM methodologies and projects. In order to improve the effectiveness of the CDM to achieve its dual objectives, the COP/MOP agreed a decision on 'further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism. This decision lays out guidance on how to improve the operation of the CDM, and includes provisions that allow: (1) Bundling of project activities; and (2) Project activities under a programme of activities, to be registered as a CDM project activity. At present, of the 172 currently registered CDM project activities, 27 involve programmes or bundles. These project activities can include more than one project type, be implemented in several locations, and/or occur in more than one sector. This paper assesses how project activities under a programme of activities under the CDM (referred to here as PCDM) could help to increase the effectiveness of the CDM by encouraging a wide spread of emission mitigation activities. This paper also explores the key issues that may need to be considered for the PCDM concept to be further implemented. The paper concludes that: (1) Key concepts and issues

  17. Physical activity intensity can be accurately monitored by smartphone global positioning system 'app'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Brett Ashley; Bruce, Lyndell; Benson, Amanda Clare

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring physical activity is important to better individualise health and fitness benefits. This study assessed the concurrent validity of a smartphone global positioning system (GPS) 'app' and a sport-specific GPS device with a similar sampling rate, to measure physical activity components of speed and distance, compared to a higher sampling sport-specific GPS device. Thirty-eight (21 female, 17 male) participants, mean age of 24.68, s = 6.46 years, completed two 2.400 km trials around an all-weather athletics track wearing GPSports Pro™ (PRO), GPSports WiSpi™ (WISPI) and an iPhone™ with a Motion X GPS™ 'app' (MOTIONX). Statistical agreement, assessed using t-tests and Bland-Altman plots, indicated an (mean; 95% LOA) underestimation of 2% for average speed (0.126 km·h(-1); -0.389 to 0.642; p < .001), 1.7% for maximal speed (0.442 km·h(-1); -2.676 to 3.561; p = .018) and 1.9% for distance (0.045 km; -0.140 to 0.232; p < .001) by MOTIONX compared to that measured by PRO. In contrast, compared to PRO, WISPI overestimated average speed (0.232 km·h(-1); -0.376 to 0.088; p < .001) and distance (0.083 km; -0.129 to -0.038; p < .001) by 3.5% whilst underestimating maximal speed by 2.5% (0.474 km·h(-1); -1.152 to 2.099; p < .001). Despite the statistically significant difference, the MOTIONX measures intensity of physical activity, with a similar error as WISPI, to an acceptable level for population-based monitoring in unimpeded open-air environments. This presents a low-cost, minimal burden opportunity to remotely monitor physical activity participation to improve the prescription of exercise as medicine.

  18. Converging divergences? An international comparison of the impact of globalization on industrial relations and employment careers : A critical analysis of Kwame Bediako's theology from a Frisian perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Buchholz, Sandra; Hofaecker, Dirk; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Hofmeister, Heather; Wagenaar, Hinne; Hofäcker, D.

    2008-01-01

    Profound social and economic transformations have taken place over the last two decades in modern societies. These changes are often referred to as globalization. The aim of this article is to examine whether processes of globalization have produced increasing convergence of employment-related aspec

  19. Visual Attention to Global and Local Stimulus Properties in 6-Month-Old Infants: Individual Differences and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Maggie W.; Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were utilized in an investigation of 21 six-month-olds' attention to and processing of global and local properties of hierarchical patterns. Overall, infants demonstrated an advantage for processing the overall configuration (i.e., global properties) of local features of hierarchical patterns; however,…

  20. The Radio Activity-Rotation Relation of Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    McLean, M; Reiners, A

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] We present a new radio survey of about 100 late-M and L dwarfs undertaken with the VLA. The sample was chosen to explore the role of rotation in the radio activity of ultracool dwarfs. Combining the new sample with results from our previous studies and from the literature, we compile the largest sample to date of ultracool dwarfs with radio observations and measured rotation velocities (167 objects). In the spectral type range M0-M6 we find a radio activity-rotation relation, with saturation at log(L_rad/L_bol) 10^(-7.5) above vsini~5 km/s, similar to the relation in H-alpha and X-rays. However, at spectral types >M7 the ratio of radio to bolometric luminosity increases regardless of rotation velocity, and the scatter in radio luminosity increases. In particular, while the most rapid rotators (vsini>20 km/s) exhibit "super-saturation" in X-rays and H-alpha, this effect is not seen in the radio. We also find that ultracool dwarfs with vsini>20 km/s have a higher radio detection fraction by about a f...

  1. On the Relationship Between Global Land-Ocean Temperature and Various Descriptors of Solar-Geomagnetic Activity and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Examined are sunspot cycle- (SC-) length averages of the annual January-December values of the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index () in relation to SC-length averages of annual values of various descriptors of solar-geomagnetic activity and climate, incorporating lags of 0-5 yr. For the overall interval SC12-SC23, the is inferred to correlate best against the parameter incorporating lag = 5 yr, where the parameter refers to the resultant aa value having removed that portion of the annual aa average value due to the yearly variation of sunspot number (SSN). The inferred correlation between the and is statistically important at confidence level cl > 99.9%, having a coefficient of linear correlation r = 0.865 and standard error of estimate se = 0.149 degC. Excluding the most recent cycles SC22 and SC23, the inferred correlation is stronger, having r = 0.969 and se = 0.048 degC. With respect to the overall trend in the , which has been upwards towards warmer temperatures since SC12 (1878-1888), solar-geomagnetic activity parameters are now trending downwards (since SC19). For SC20-SC23, in contrast, comparison of the against SC-length averages of the annual value of the Mauna Loa carbon dioxide () index is found to be highly statistically important (cl >> 99.9%), having r = 0.9994 and se = 0.012 degC for lag = 2 yr. On the basis of the inferred preferential linear correlation between the and , the current ongoing SC24 is inferred to have warmer than was seen in SC23 (i.e., >0.526 degC), probably in excess of 0.68 degC (relative to the 1951-1980 base period).

  2. Superoxide Dismutase 1 Loss Disturbs Intracellular Redox Signaling, Resulting in Global Age-Related Pathological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and organ dysfunction, which occur in a progressive and irreversible manner. Superoxide dismutase (SOD serves as a major antioxidant and neutralizes superoxide radicals throughout the body. In vivo studies have demonstrated that copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/− mice show various aging-like pathologies, accompanied by augmentation of oxidative damage in organs. We found that antioxidant treatment significantly attenuated the age-related tissue changes and oxidative damage-associated p53 upregulation in Sod1−/− mice. This review will focus on various age-related pathologies caused by the loss of Sod1 and will discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in Sod1−/− mice.

  3. GLOBALIZATION AND RESPONSE OF LARGE STATED OWNED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL RELATED INDUS TRIES: COMPANY CASE STUDIES FROM CENTRAL CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using interview data from three large state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in agriculture related industries, this paper reveals that SOEs in inland area are much slow in response to globalization. Although they pursued some strate gies to adjust themselves, they are far behind the position to utilize the opportunities generated by economic globaliza tion. Most of them are still out of the networks of transnational corporations. The strategies they adopted are quite differ ent from SOEs in the coastal area. They overlook the importance of information infrastructure, well-educated personnel, and collaboration with the competitive leaders in their industries. The lagging situation is related to isolated location, tradi tional culture, and slow progress in enterprise reform. International comparison shows that the case companies did follow the general patterns that globalization promotes extension of company′s networks of linkages but in a rather slow phase. The decision makers should encourage intra-regional linkages between SOEs, between SOEs and private, foreign owned companies, as well as inter-regional linkages among them. The latter appears particularly important given the enlarging gaps between coastal and inland areas.

  4. Terrorism, civil war and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Khan, Maria R; Rehm, Jürgen; Sapkota, Amir

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine associations between deaths owing to terrorism, civil war, and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 and substance use disorder disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The relationship between terrorism, and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality among World Health Organization Member States in 2002, controlling for adult per capita alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, and economic variables at baseline in 1994. Deaths as a result of terrorism and related violence were related to substance use disorder DALYs: a 1.0% increase in deaths as a result of terrorism, war and one-sided violence was associated with an increase of between 0.10% and 0.12% in alcohol and drug use disorder DALYs. Associations were greater among males and 15-44 year-old. Terrorism, war and one-sided violence may influence morbidity and mortality attributable to substance use disorders in the longer-term suggests that more attention to be given to rapid assessment and treatment of substance use disorders in conflict-affected populations with due consideration of gender and age differences that may impact treatment outcomes in these settings. Priorities should be established to rebuild substance abuse treatment infrastructures and treat the many physical and mental comorbid disorders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Globalization by the Souths. Chinese-African Relations and International Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Rajaoson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on worldwide governance. It will be related to the Assian approach of international relationships. This approach claiming by the Chinese is closed to the David Miller Nationalist and liberal way of thinking. But it remains very restrictive because it is only based on the liberal economic point of view. We will do a critical study of the principles which are regulating the governances and we will analyse a special sectorial field: the Sino-African relations. These thoughts and statements need to have a sectorial dimension of approaching matters. The management of the different governments can have effects on local realities of people's life and on investments. In thirty years China passed from an emerging country to the second worldwide economically powerful country just behind the United States. Now, they must have an interdependance relationship with the United States. It is very important and necessary to undermine this interdependance relationship in order to understand how its economic strategy has an influence upon the worldwide market. And from this study, we will understand how the Chinese relate to the balance of power they are dealing with.

  6. Global coastal wetland change under sea-level rise and related stresses: The DIVA Wetland Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas; Schuerch, Mark; Nicholls, Robert J.; Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, A. T.; Reef, Ruth; McFadden, Loraine; Brown, Sally

    2016-04-01

    The Dynamic Interactive Vulnerability Assessment Wetland Change Model (DIVA_WCM) comprises a dataset of contemporary global coastal wetland stocks (estimated at 756 × 103 km2 (in 2011)), mapped to a one-dimensional global database, and a model of the macro-scale controls on wetland response to sea-level rise. Three key drivers of wetland response to sea-level rise are considered: 1) rate of sea-level rise relative to tidal range; 2) lateral accommodation space; and 3) sediment supply. The model is tuned by expert knowledge, parameterised with quantitative data where possible, and validated against mapping associated with two large-scale mangrove and saltmarsh vulnerability studies. It is applied across 12,148 coastal segments (mean length 85 km) to the year 2100. The model provides better-informed macro-scale projections of likely patterns of future coastal wetland losses across a range of sea-level rise scenarios and varying assumptions about the construction of coastal dikes to prevent sea flooding (as dikes limit lateral accommodation space and cause coastal squeeze). With 50 cm of sea-level rise by 2100, the model predicts a loss of 46-59% of global coastal wetland stocks. A global coastal wetland loss of 78% is estimated under high sea-level rise (110 cm by 2100) accompanied by maximum dike construction. The primary driver for high vulnerability of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise is coastal squeeze, a consequence of long-term coastal protection strategies. Under low sea-level rise (29 cm by 2100) losses do not exceed ca. 50% of the total stock, even for the same adverse dike construction assumptions. The model results confirm that the widespread paradigm that wetlands subject to a micro-tidal regime are likely to be more vulnerable to loss than macro-tidal environments. Countering these potential losses will require both climate mitigation (a global response) to minimise sea-level rise and maximisation of accommodation space and sediment supply (a regional

  7. The Chromospheric Activity-Age Relation for M Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, N. M.; Oswalt, T. D.; Hawley, S. L.

    2000-12-01

    We present preliminary results from our study in which we use moderate resolution spectroscopy to determine the correlation between the chromospheric activity and age of M dwarf stars in wide binary systems. We have observed ~50 M dwarf stars from our sample with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. We measure the ratio of Hα luminosity to the bolometric luminosity (LHα /Lbol) of the M dwarf---a measure of activity that is proven to correlate well with age. This project is unique in that it will extend the chromospheric activity-age relation of low-mass main sequence stars beyond the ages provided by cluster methods. The ages so determined are also independent of the uncertainties in cluster age determinations. The technique has the potential to improve by at least a factor of two the precision and the range over which ages can currently be determined for main sequence stars. Work on this project is supported by the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program grant NGT-50290 (N.M.S.).

  8. Relation of Age at Menarche to Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egreta Peja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether regular physical activity during early puberty is influential in preventing early menarche. This cross sectional study was carried out on 102 post-menarcheal girls aged 11–20 (14.79±0.33. 51 of them were already engaged in competitive sport activities prior to the onset of menstruation (group 1, while the others got engaged in such activities after the onset of menstruation (group 2. All participants provided the year and the month of their first menstrual period. First, we estimated the equality of dispersion between the two groups, by conducting Two Samples for Variances F-test. Second, because no homogeneity of variances between groups was found, they were compared by using Two Samples Assuming Unequal Variances t-test. The difference between groups is statistically significant, as the t statistics (=2.883 is greater than both critical t statistics (one-tail=1.664 two-tail=1.990 and the p value less than 0.05 in both cases (one-tail=0.002 two-tail=0.005. None of the girls in the first group starts to menstruate before 11 years of age and 90% of them are menstruating by age 14, with a median age of 12.95±0.35 years. Age of menarche is lower in the second group with a median age of 12.25±0.31 years, thus approximately 8 months lower than median age for the first group. 11.76% of the girls in the second group start to menstruate before 11 years of age and 90% of them are menstruating by age 13. It is rather, the decline in early matures among those engaged in regular physical activity prior to the onset of menses, that makes the statistically significant correlation between physical activity and age at menarche practically meaningful. Relatively early matures (<11 years have been found to be slightly shorter but up to 5.5 kg heavier in adulthood than are late matures. In addition, a relatively young age at menarche has been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer and spontaneous

  9. Creativity related cortex activity in the remote associates task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, Olga M

    2007-06-15

    The involvement of different oscillating neuronal systems during verbal creative thinking was investigated by multi-channel EEG measuring. The remote associates task (RAT) as a model of creative thinking in comparison to the resting condition and the simple associates task (SAT) was used. The EEG coherence along with spectral power density estimates were evaluated in each of the six frequency bands in 4-30 Hz range. We have found out RAT-related EEG changes mainly in the theta1, alpha1, alpha2 and beta2 bands. The RAT-induced cortical activation was differed from the SAT-induced EEG pattern by (i) widespread enhancement of power and coherence in the beta2, (ii) the theta1 power increase in the frontal cortex, and (iii) increased desynchronization of the alpha1,alpha2 mainly over posterior cortex together with the alpha1 coherence decrease in the prefrontal sites. Originality scores of the verbal associates positively correlated with an increase of coherence focused in the fronto-parietal regions of both hemispheres in the beta2 and in the left parieto-temporal loci in the alpha1. Additionally, more original responses positively correlated with amplitude of the alpha1 mostly in the left hemisphere. We propose that widespread cortical integration of multi-component internal processing has been simultaneously mediated during creative verbal thinking. The selectively distributed theta, alpha, and beta oscillations reflect intra- and inter-hemispheric communication networks with different functional relations to the RAT solving. The theta1 and alpha1 rhythms seem to specifically relate to top-down information processing such as deliberate sustained attention and working-memory-retention during defocused attention, respectively, whereas larger interregional synchrony in the beta2 band may mediate 'differential' attention to diffusely activating alternative meanings of words and remote associates from coarse semantic coding.

  10. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari J S Ferreira

    Full Text Available Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  11. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Ari J S

    2014-06-12

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world\\'s oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  12. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Maki; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Ferronato, Angela Esposito; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. Data source: We identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination) in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or) "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. Data synthesis: 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4%–99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years, 6–14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995), with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1–4 years) in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1–4 years) in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1–4 years) in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1–4 years) in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years) in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7%–73.8% decrease (general population), coverage of 60%–95%. Conclusions: The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between data. PMID

  13. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Hirose

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. Data source: We identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. Data synthesis: 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4%–99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years, 6–14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995, with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1–4 years in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1–4 years in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1–4 years in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1–4 years in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7%–73.8% decrease (general population, coverage of 60%–95%. Conclusions: The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between

  14. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Maki; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Ferronato, Angela Esposito; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta

    2016-09-01

    to describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. we identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination) in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or) "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4% -99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years after 6-14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995), with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1-4 years) in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years) in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7% -73.8% decrease (general population), coverage of 60%-95%. The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between data. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por

  15. The MUSIC of galaxy clusters - II. X-ray global properties and scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, V.; Sembolini, F.; De Petris, M.; Valdarnini, R.; Yepes, G.; Gottlöber, S.

    2014-03-01

    We present the X-ray properties and scaling relations of a large sample of clusters extracted from the Marenostrum MUltidark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) data set. We focus on a sub-sample of 179 clusters at redshift z ˜ 0.11, with 3.2 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ MUSIC clusters reasonably resemble the self-similar prediction, especially for correlations involving TX. The observational approach also allows for a more direct comparison with real clusters, from which we find deviations mainly due to the physical description of the ICM, affecting TX and, particularly, LX.

  16. On the Relation Between Global Properties of Linear Difference and Differential Equations with Polynomial Coefficients, 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, G. K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper is concerned with applications of the Mellin transformation in the study of homogeneous linear differential and difference equations with polynomial coefficients. We begin by considering a differential equation (D) with regular singularities at O and ∞ and arbitrary singularities in the rest of the complex plane, and the difference equation (Δ‧) obtained from (D) by a variant of the formal Mellin transformation. We define fundamental systems of solutions of (Δ‧), analytic in either a right or a left half plane. by the use of Mellin transforms of microsolutions of (D). The relations between these fundamental systems are expressed in terms of central connection matrices of (D). Second, we study the differential equation (D1) obtained from (D) by means of a formal Laplace transformation and the difference equation (Δ1) obtained from (D1) by a formal Mellin transformation. We use Mellin transforms of "ordinary" solutions of (D1) with moderate growth at ∞ to construct fundamental systems of solutions of (Δ1). The relation between these fundamental systems involves certain Stokes multipliers and a formal monodromy matrix of (D1).

  17. The ART approach using glass-ionomers in relation to global oral health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent non-communicable disease in the world. Its management in high-income countries over the last four decades has resulted in relatively low caries prevalence in child and adolescent populations. In low- and middle-income countries, caries management is virtually non-existent and this may lead to serious physical and mental complications, particularly in children. Toothache is predominantly treated by extracting the cavitated tooth. Absence of restorative oral care is partly due to the copying from high-income countries, of restorative treatment reliant on electrically driven equipment and often inappropriate for use in many low- and middle-income countries. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART), which does not rely on electrically driven equipment, has yielded good results over the last two decades. ART uses hand instruments and high-viscosity glass-ionomers. Its introduction into public oral healthcare systems has been piloted in several countries. Initial short-term results show that the introduction of ART, using high-viscosity glass-ionomers, has increased the ratio of restorations to extractions. Moreover, the percentage of ART restorations in relation to the total number of restorations placed increased steeply after its introduction and has remained high. However, ART introduction faced a few barriers, the most important being high patient workloads and the absence of a constant supply of dental instruments and glass-ionomers. High-viscosity glass-ionomer has become an essential element in public oral healthcare systems, particularly in those operating inadequately.

  18. The role of theory of international relations in explicating global political events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Bardhok Bashota

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is rather obvious that different developments in the international relations scene are so dynamic that a theory of international relations cannot elaborate alone the ways they begin, develop and eventually end. Therefore, one must underline that using a theoretical framework of wi-der extent becomes almost indispensable. In this sense, one must underli-ne that IR theories are paths or means used by scholars to provide expla-nation on these developments. Among numerous IR theories, those app-lied the most are the three key ones: liberalism, realism and rationalism. These three theories, depending on the manner and logic of approach and effort in trying to elaborate an IR event, they gain labels in a specific form, for instance – positivist theories. They are called positivist, because they aim to pursue the example of natural science to be more accurate in their work, at least in a metaphorical sense. Therefore, the contents of this paper provide an example of physics, to adapt to the nature of theory elaborated herein. The reason and objective of this paper is to argue our thesis that “li-beral theory alone cannot elaborate on all IR developments, and more theories are required”. The two other theories, realism and ratio-nalism help build a more wholesome understanding of IR developments. Also, the two other theories are used to support or counter the arguments of liberals and liberalism in relation to interpretation, explication and forecast of IR developments, which are tasks of an IR theory. This research is realized in a temporal context of post Cold War. This period is more suitable for study, and has attracted our interest. Otherwise, the three theoretical traditions had existed even before, and any effort to elaborate in details would be historical. Also, the focus in only three main IR theories, Liberalism, Realism and Rationalism, narrow down the field of study and make it more tangible. Nevertheless, to have an easier job in

  19. G8 global partnership. 2004-2005-2006 activity report; Partenariat mondial du G8. Rapport d'activite 2004-2005-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction was launched by the heads of state and government of the G8 at the G8 summit in Kananaskis in June 2002. Fourteen other countries have since joined this G8 initiative. The aim of this partnership is to 'prevent terrorists, or those who harbor them, from acquiring or developing nuclear, chemical radiological and biological weapons, missiles, and related materials, equipment and technology'. Within the framework of the Partnership, the participants have agreed to support cooperation projects, starting with Russia, to promote non-proliferation, disarmament, the fight against terrorism and nuclear safety. The destruction of chemical weapons, the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear submarines, the disposal of fissile materials and the employment of former weapons scientists are among the priority concerns expressed. Ukraine has also been a beneficiary of this partnership since 2004. The participants in this initiative have agreed to contribute up to 20 billion dollars (up to 750 million euros from France) to support these projects over a period of ten years from 2002. A group of experts from the G8 on the Global Partnership (the GPWG = Global Partnership Working Group) meets regularly and gives an account of the progress made with this initiative in its annual report to the G8. These annual reports are published at the G8 summits. This document is the 2004 to 2006 activity report of the G8 global partnership.

  20. Global fire activity patterns (1996-2006) and climatic influence: an analysis using the World Fire Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Y.; Pereira, J. M. C.; Trigo, R.; da Camara, C.; Oom, D.; Mota, B.

    2008-04-01

    Vegetation fires have been acknowledged as an environmental process of global scale, which affects the chemical composition of the troposphere, and has profound ecological and climatic impacts. However, considerable uncertainty remains, especially concerning intra and inter-annual variability of fire incidence. The main goals of our global-scale study were to characterise spatial-temporal patterns of fire activity, to identify broad geographical areas with similar vegetation fire dynamics, and to analyse the relationship between fire activity and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. This study relies on 10 years (mid 1996-mid 2006) of screened European Space Agency World Fire Atlas (WFA) data, obtained from Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and Advanced ATSR (AATSR) imagery. Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset. Regions of homogeneous fire dynamics were identified with cluster analysis, and interpreted based on their eco-climatic characteristics. The impact of 1997-1998 El Niño is clearly dominant over the study period, causing increased fire activity in a variety of regions and ecosystems, with variable timing. Overall, this study provides the first global decadal assessment of spatial-temporal fire variability and confirms the usefulness of the screened WFA for global fire ecoclimatology research.