WorldWideScience

Sample records for active transport systems

  1. Active flow control systems architectures for civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbal, M; Liddle, SC; Crowther, WJ

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics This paper considers the effect of choice of actuator technology and associated power systems architecture on the mass cost and power consumption of implementing active flow control systems on civil transport aircraft. The research method is based on the use of a mass model that includes a mass due to systems hardware and a mass due to the system energy usage. An Airbus A320 aircraft wing is used as a case-study applicatio...

  2. Engineering intracellular active transport systems as in vivo biomolecular tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, George David; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2006-11-01

    Active transport systems provide essential functions in terms of cell physiology and metastasis. These systems, however, are also co-opted by invading viruses, enabling directed transport of the virus to and from the cell's nucleus (i.e., the site of virus replication). Based on this concept, fundamentally new approaches for interrogating and manipulating the inner workings of living cells may be achievable by co-opting Nature's active transport systems as an in vivo biomolecular tool. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the ability to engineer kinesin-based transport systems for in vivo applications, specifically the collection of effector proteins (e.g., transcriptional regulators) within single cells. In the first part of this project, a chimeric fusion protein consisting of kinesin and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody was successfully produced through a recombinant expression system. The kinesin-scFv retained both catalytic and antigenic functionality, enabling selective capture and transport of target antigens. The incorporation of a rabbit IgG-specific scFv into the kinesin established a generalized system for functionalizing kinesin with a wide range of target-selective antibodies raised in rabbits. The second objective was to develop methods of isolating the intact microtubule network from live cells as a platform for evaluating kinesin-based transport within the cytoskeletal architecture of a cell. Successful isolation of intact microtubule networks from two distinct cell types was demonstrated using glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation methods. This work provides a platform for inferring the ability of kinesin-scFv to function in vivo, and may also serve as a three-dimensional scaffold for evaluating and exploiting kinesin-based transport for nanotechnological applications. Overall, the technology developed in this project represents a first-step in engineering active transport system for in vivo

  3. The Influence of Active Transport Systems on Morphine -6-Glucuronide Transport in MDCKII and MDCK-PGP Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SO. Mashayekhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G is a potent metabolite of morphine which has high penetration into the brain despite its high polarity, which could be the result of an active transport system involved in M6G transport through blood brain barrier. Examples of such transporters are p-glycoprotein (PGP, probenecid-sensitive transport mechanism, multidrug resistance related protein 1-3, the organic anion transporter family, and the organic anion transporter polypeptide family. The aim of present study was to elucidate the mechanisms involved in transporting morphine's potent metabolite, M6G.Methods: M6G permeability via two cell lines; MDCKII and MDCK-PGP, was compared with that of sucrose. M6G transport was examined in different concentrations and in the presence of inhibitors of different transport systems such as cyclosporine, digoxin and probenecid. M6G concentration was measured using ELISA assay. The method was sensitive, reliable and reproducible.Results: The results confirmed that M6G could cross a layer of MDCK II or MDR-PGP cells more than sucrose could. It was also observed that M6G is a PGP transporter substrate. Its permeability was increased by the use of a PGP expressed cell line, and also in the presence of a strong PGP inhibitor. Digoxin related transporters such as Oatp2 may also involved in transport of M6G. M6G seemed to be a glucose transporter 1 substrate, but was not a substrate to probenecid sensitive transporters.Major conclusion: It is concluded that different transporters are responsible for M6G transports via different membrane, which could have effects on its pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics.

  4. Development and testing of heat transport fluids for use in active solar heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Work on heat transport fluids for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is described. Program objectives and how they were accomplished including problems encountered during testing are discussed.

  5. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  6. Diagnosis of Transport Activity as a Component of the Enterprise Logistical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concept of “diagnosis of the enterprise transport activity”, by which there should be meant a process of evaluating the state of movement (transportation, carrying of freight (material resources, work in process or finished products by one type of transport facilities or their combination in accordance with the applied transport system and trends of its changes as well as determining the future prospects on the basis of sound management decisions in order to ensure a successful operation and development of the enterprise in the competitive environment. It has been found that the key business-indicators of the diagnosis system of transport activity as a component of the enterprise logistical system are: the coefficient of timeliness of freight transportation (delivery; coefficient of completeness of transportation; coefficient of freight safety conditions; coefficient of efficiency of freight transportation; coefficient of complexity of servicing freight owners; coefficient of satisfaction of freight owners’ demand, coefficient of readiness to operation of transport facilities per working day; coefficient of using vehicle kilometers travelled; coefficient of extensity of transport facility packing.

  7. The contribution of SNAT1 to system A amino acid transporter activity in human placental trophoblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desforges, M., E-mail: michelle.desforges@manchester.ac.uk [Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Developmental Biomedicine, School of Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, St. Mary' s Hospital, Level 5-Research, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Greenwood, S.L.; Glazier, J.D.; Westwood, M.; Sibley, C.P. [Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Developmental Biomedicine, School of Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, St. Mary' s Hospital, Level 5-Research, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} mRNA levels for SNAT1 are higher than other system A subtype mRNAs in primary human cytotrophoblast. {yields} SNAT1 knockdown in cytotrophoblast cells significantly reduces system A activity. {yields} SNAT1 is a key contributor to system A-mediated amino acid transport in human placenta. -- Abstract: System A-mediated amino acid transport across the placenta is important for the supply of neutral amino acids needed for fetal growth. All three system A subtypes (SNAT1, 2, and 4) are expressed in human placental trophoblast suggesting there is an important biological role for each. Placental system A activity increases as pregnancy progresses, coinciding with increased fetal nutrient demands. We have previously shown SNAT4-mediated system A activity is higher in first trimester than at term, suggesting that SNAT1 and/or SNAT2 are responsible for the increased system A activity later in gestation. However, the relative contribution of each subtype to transporter activity in trophoblast at term has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant subtype of system A in cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placenta, maintained in culture for 66 h, by: (1) measuring mRNA expression of the three subtypes and determining the Michaelis-Menten constants for uptake of the system A-specific substrate, {sup 14}C-MeAIB, (2) investigating the contribution of SNAT1 to total system A activity using siRNA. Results: mRNA expression was highest for the SNAT1 subtype of system A. Kinetic analysis of {sup 14}C-MeAIB uptake revealed two distinct transport systems; system 1: K{sub m} = 0.38 {+-} 0.12 mM, V{sub max} = 27.8 {+-} 9.0 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which resembles that reported for SNAT1 and SNAT2 in other cell types, and system 2: K{sub m} = 45.4 {+-} 25.0 mM, V{sub max} = 1190 {+-} 291 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which potentially represents SNAT4. Successful knockdown of SNAT1 mRNA using target-specific si

  8. SYSTEM OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT AT A MOTOR-TRANSPORT ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Shinkarenko, V.; Klepikova, O.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the system and cybernetic approach a system of innovative activity management at a motor-transport enterprise where the administrative work is organized as extended and elementary cycles of management has been developed. The extended cycle corresponds to strategic and tactical horizons of management and the elementary cycle corresponds to an operative one. To define the correlation and sequence of realization the administrative functions in each cycle of innovative activity ma...

  9. Statement of work for the immobilized low-activity waste transportation system -- Project W-465

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouette, P.

    1998-06-19

    The objective of this Statement of Work (SOW) is to present the scope, the deliverables, the organization, the technical and schedule expectations for the development of a Package Design Criteria (PDC), cost and schedule estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW).

  10. Activity and travel choice(s) in multimodal public transport systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krygsman, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Transport planners and policymakers are increasingly considering multimodal public transport and travel demand management (TDM) strategies to stem the unsustainable travel behaviour trends associated with modern-day, car-dominated travel. Multimodal public transport, however, implies that people change transport mode, which may mean that they can no longer implement their usual activity patterns, perhaps even resulting in increased car use. The quality of public transport is determined not on...

  11. Activity of the respiratory electron transport system and respiration rates within the oxygen minimum layer of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Shailaja, M.S.

    Measurements of the activity of the respirtory electron transport system (ETS) at 15 stations in the Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon (December 1988) yield high respiration rates that do not correlate with the trends in primary productivity...

  12. Canine amino acid transport system Xc(-): cDNA sequence, distribution and cystine transport activity in lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takuya; Kanemaki, Nobuyuki; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Ichihara, Nobuteru; Ochiai, Hideharu

    2014-04-01

    The cystine transport activity of a lens epithelial cell line originated from a canine mature cataract was investigated. The distinct cystine transport activity was observed, which was inhibited to 28% by extracellular 1 mM glutamate. The cDNA sequences of canine cysteine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) and 4F2hc were determined. The predicted amino acid sequences were 527 and 533 amino acid polypeptides, respectively. The amino acid sequences of canine xCT and 4F2hc showed high similarities (>80%) to those of humans. The expression of xCT in lens epithelial cell line was confirmed by western blot analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed high level expression only in the brain, and it was below the detectable level in other tissues.

  13. Lessons learned from reactive transport modeling of a low-activity waste glass disposal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Peter McGrail, B.

    2003-04-01

    A set of reactive chemical transport calculations were conducted with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases (STORM) code to evaluate the long-term performance of a representative low-activity waste glass in a shallow subsurface disposal system located on the Hanford site. Two different trench designs were considered, one with four rows of small waste packages (old design), the other with three layers of larger waste packages (new design). One-dimensional (1D) simulations were carried out to 20,000 yr, whereas two-dimensional (2D) simulations could only be carried out for 10,000 yr due to constraints on computational time. Both the 1D and 2D simulations predicted that the technetium release rate from the waste packages would be lower for the new trench design at times greater than 1 yr. Having fewer, larger waste packages decreases the glass surface area exposed to reaction with pore water. In the 2D simulations, water can flow around the waste packages, which causes a decrease in the water flux through the waste packages and lower release rates than predicted in the 1D simulations. This result reinforces the importance of performing multi-dimensional waste form release simulations.

  14. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  15. A systems approach to hemostasis: 3. Thrombus consolidation regulates intrathrombus solute transport and local thrombin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, Timothy J; Welsh, John D; Tomaiuolo, Maurizio; Wu, Jie; Colace, Thomas V; Diamond, Scott L; Brass, Lawrence F

    2014-09-11

    Hemostatic thrombi formed after a penetrating injury have a distinctive structure in which a core of highly activated, closely packed platelets is covered by a shell of less-activated, loosely packed platelets. We have shown that differences in intrathrombus molecular transport emerge in parallel with regional differences in platelet packing density and predicted that these differences affect thrombus growth and stability. Here we test that prediction in a mouse vascular injury model. The studies use a novel method for measuring thrombus contraction in vivo and a previously characterized mouse line with a defect in integrin αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling that affects clot retraction ex vivo. The results show that the mutant mice have a defect in thrombus consolidation following vascular injury, resulting in an increase in intrathrombus transport rates and, as predicted by computational modeling, a decrease in thrombin activity and platelet activation in the thrombus core. Collectively, these data (1) demonstrate that in addition to the activation state of individual platelets, the physical properties of the accumulated mass of adherent platelets is critical in determining intrathrombus agonist distribution and platelet activation and (2) define a novel role for integrin signaling in the regulation of intrathrombus transport rates and localization of thrombin activity. PMID:24951426

  16. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...... is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection...

  17. Activity and travel choice(s) in multimodal public transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krygsman, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Transport planners and policymakers are increasingly considering multimodal public transport and travel demand management (TDM) strategies to stem the unsustainable travel behaviour trends associated with modern-day, car-dominated travel. Multimodal public transport, however, implies that people cha

  18. Transport in Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a theory of transport in Hamiltonian systems in the context of iteration of area-preserving maps. Invariant closed curves present complete barriers to transport, but in regions without such curves there are still invariant Cantor sets named cantori, which appear to form major obstacles. The flux through the gaps of the cantori is given by Mather's differences in action. This gives useful bounds on transport between regions, and a universal scaling law for one-parameter families when a curve has just broken, which agree well with numerical experiments of Chirikov and explain an apparent disagreement with results of Greene. By dividing the phase space into regions separated by the strongest barriers, and assuming the motion is mixing within them, we derive a global picture of transport, which can be used, for example, to predict confinement times and to explain longtime tails in the decay of correlations

  19. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  20. Alternate transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  1. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower

  2. System data communication structures for active-control transport aircraft, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, A. L.; Martin, J. H.; Brock, L. D.; Jansson, D. G.; Serben, S.; Smith, T. B.; Hanley, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Candidate data communication techniques are identified, including dedicated links, local buses, broadcast buses, multiplex buses, and mesh networks. The design methodology for mesh networks is then discussed, including network topology and node architecture. Several concepts of power distribution are reviewed, including current limiting and mesh networks for power. The technology issues of packaging, transmission media, and lightning are addressed, and, finally, the analysis tools developed to aid in the communication design process are described. There are special tools to analyze the reliability and connectivity of networks and more general reliability analysis tools for all types of systems.

  3. High capacity cask (TN28V) and International Transport System for the return shipment of vitrified high activity wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent fuel generates different kinds of wastes. Among them fission products and non fissile actinides represent 98% of the radioactivity; these wastes are separated, concentrated, mixed with molten glass and poured into stainless steel containers. For political reasons, it is necessary to return these vitrified high activity wastes to the foreign countries which have decided to have their spent fuel reprocessed in France. So the transport of vitrified waste is vital for both the reprocessor and the utilities that have trusted the reprocessor and this operation has to be securely performed to give satisfaction to all concerned particles. For that reason Cogema will control the whole transport activity from La Hague plants to the receiving facilities of the customers. Therefore cogema will be responsible of the transport whatever the cask type (transport or storage) and will subcontract the transport operation to experienced companies such as Transnucleaire, PNTL or NTL, who will act on behalf of Cogema. Cogema will be the owner of the transport casks while the storage casks will normally be owned by the customers. Both cask types will of course have to comply with the requirements of La Hague, as published by Cogema

  4. Reprint of “Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

    2014-10-01

    Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 μm) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

  5. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  6. An electrochemical one-step system for assaying methyltransferase activity based on transport of a quantum dot signaling tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Songyi; Won, Byoung Yeon; Park, Ki Soo; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2013-11-15

    A one-step, electrochemical method for assaying methyltransferase (MTase) activity, based on the convective transport of a quantum dot (QD) signaling tracer, has been developed. The assay chip used in this system was prepared by modifying a gold matrix with CdSe/ZnS QD-tagged dsDNA, which contains a specific methylation site (5'-GATC-3') recognized by MTase. Treatment of the chip with DNA adenine methylation (Dam) MTase, generates a methylated sequence (5'-GAmTC-3') within the dsDNA. The methylated dsDNA is then subjected to a cleavage reaction, induced by DpnI, which leads to release from the gold matrix of a DNA fragment tethered to a QD. Detection of the released QD, using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode, enables the reliable quantitation of the methylated DNA. Because it is accomplished in a simple and convenient one step and does not require any complicated secondary or tedious washing steps, the new assay method holds great promise for epigenetic analysis in facility-limited environments or point-of-care testing (POCT) applications. PMID:23777705

  7. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The active control technology (ACT) control/guidance system task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the NASA energy efficient transport program was documented. The air traffic environment of navigation and air traffic control systems and procedures were extrapolated. An approach to listing flight functions which will be performed by systems and crew of an ACT configured airplane of the 1990s, and a determination of function criticalities to safety of flight, are the basis of candidate integrated ACT/Control/Guidance System architecture. The system mechanizes five active control functions: pitch augmented stability, angle of attack limiting, lateral/directional augmented stability, gust load alleviation, and maneuver load control. The scope and requirements of a program for simulating the integrated ACT avionics and flight deck system, with pilot in the loop, are defined, system and crew interface elements are simulated, and mechanization is recommended. Relationships between system design and crew roles and procedures are evaluated.

  8. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  9. Thermal transport in fractal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...

  10. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amun Qa-t-a

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental

  11. Symmetric solid target transport system

    OpenAIRE

    Tomov, D.; Lawrence, L; Gaehle, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The expansion of our PET isotope production with a new TR-19 cyclotron necessitated a suitable solid target transport system. None of the known existing and proposed solid target transport systems (STTS) was able to meet the technical and budget requirements of the MIR cyclotron facility [5]. A unique carrier design allowed us to develop a fully automated 50.8 mm inner diameter pneumatic tube STTS with an in-hot-cell compact form factor receiving station. The cyclotron or v...

  12. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Akgüngör, Ali Payıdar; DEMİREL, Abdulmuttalip

    2004-01-01

    Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properti...

  13. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  14. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  15. Activity assay of membrane transport proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xie

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins are integral membrane proteins and considered as potential drug targets. Activity assay of transport proteins is essential for developing drugs to target these proteins. Major issues related to activity assessment of transport proteins include availability of transporters,transport activity of transporters, and interactions between ligands and transporters. Researchers need to consider the physiological status of proteins (bound in lipid membranes or purified), availability and specificity of substrates, and the purpose of the activity assay (screening, identifying, or comparing substrates and inhibitors) before choosing appropriate assay strategies and techniques. Transport proteins bound in vesicular membranes can be assayed for transporting substrate across membranes by means of uptake assay or entrance counterflow assay. Alternatively, transport proteins can be assayed for interactions with ligands by using techniques such as isothermal titration calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or surface plasmon resonance. Other methods and techniques such as fluorometry, scintillation proximity assay, electrophysiological assay, or stopped-flow assay could also be used for activity assay of transport proteins. In this paper the major strategies and techniques for activity assessment of membrane transport proteins are reviewed.

  16. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  17. A role for tungsten in the biology of Campylobacter jejuni: tungstate stimulates formate dehydrogenase activity and is transported via an ultra-high affinity ABC system distinct from the molybdate transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jonathan P; Cliff, Matthew J; Kelly, David J

    2009-11-01

    The food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni possesses no known tungstoenzymes, yet encodes two ABC transporters (Cj0300-0303 and Cj1538-1540) homologous to bacterial molybdate (ModABC) uptake systems and the tungstate transporter (TupABC) of Eubacterium acidaminophilum respectively. The actual substrates and physiological role of these transporters were investigated. Tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry of the purified periplasmic binding proteins of each system revealed that while Cj0303 is unable to discriminate between molybdate and tungstate (K(D) values for both ligands of 4-8 nM), Cj1540 binds tungstate with a K(D) of 1.0 +/- 0.2 pM; 50 000-fold more tightly than molybdate. Induction-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy of single and double mutants showed that this large difference in affinity is reflected in a lower cellular tungsten content in a cj1540 (tupA) mutant compared with a cj0303c (modA) mutant. Surprisingly, formate dehydrogenase (FDH) activity was decreased approximately 50% in the tupA strain, and supplementation of the growth medium with tungstate significantly increased FDH activity in the wild type, while inhibiting known molybdoenzymes. Our data suggest that C. jejuni possesses a specific, ultra-high affinity tungstate transporter that supplies tungsten for incorporation into FDH. Furthermore, possession of two MoeA paralogues may explain the formation of both molybdopterin and tungstopterin in this bacterium. PMID:19818021

  18. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  19. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  20. Preliminary description of the transportation operations systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a preliminary description of the transportation operations systems designed to ship spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) from waste generator sites to authorized waste receiving facilities. It is an initial effort to define the operations system and identifies the activities and system components necessary to provide complete transportation capability. It is intended that this be a project level working document to facilitate dialog for further identification of system elements and functional requirements. This process will lead to issuance of a System Requirements and Description (SRD) document for the transportation operations systems and will identify detailed system functional requirements, performance criteria, and functional interfaces. The transportation system is quite complex and is influenced by a large number of external factors and interfaces. Some of these interfaces (such as the repository) are just now being developed. Others (such as utility-handling capabilities) are currently in existence and must be accommodated or modified. Additionally, the allocation of requirements is likewise both developing (with the repository) and somewhat fixed. 16 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Alterations in mitochondrial electron transport system activity in response to warm acclimation, hypoxia-reoxygenation and copper in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappal, Ravinder [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); MacDougald, Michelle [Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Health Sciences Centre, Prince Philip Drive, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3V6 (Canada); Fast, Mark [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); Stevens, Don [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); Kibenge, Fred [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); Siah, Ahmed [British Columbia Centre for Aquatic Health Sciences, 871A Island Highway, Campbell River, BC, V9W 2C2 (Canada); Kamunde, Collins, E-mail: ckamunde@upei.ca [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Sequential inhibition and activation allows assessment of multiple segments of the electron transport system. • Warm acclimation and hypoxia-reoxygenation have global effects on the electron transport system. • Warm acclimation and hypoxia-reoxygenation sensitize the electron transport system to copper. • Thermal stress, hypoxia-reoxygenation and copper act additively to impair mitochondrial function. - Abstract: Fish expend significant amounts of energy to handle the numerous potentially stressful biotic and abiotic factors that they commonly encounter in aquatic environments. This universal requirement for energy singularizes mitochondria, the primary cellular energy transformers, as fundamental drivers of responses to environmental change. Our study probed the interacting effects of thermal stress, hypoxia-reoxygenation (HRO) and copper (Cu) exposure in rainbow trout to test the prediction that they act jointly to impair mitochondrial function. Rainbow trout were acclimated to 11 (controls) or 20 °C for 2 months. Liver mitochondria were then isolated and their responses in vitro to Cu (0–20 μM) without and with HRO were assessed. Sequential inhibition and activation of mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) enzyme complexes permitted the measurement of respiratory activities supported by complex I–IV (CI–IV) in one run. The results showed that warm acclimation reduced fish and liver weights but increased mitochondrial protein indicating impairment of energy metabolism, increased synthesis of defense proteins and/or reduced liver water content. Whereas acute rise (11 → 20 °C) in temperature increased mitochondrial oxidation rates supported by CI–IV, warm acclimation reduced the maximal (state 3) and increased the basal (state 4) respiration leading to global uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). HRO profoundly inhibited both maximal and basal respiration rates supported by CI–IV, reduced RCR for all except

  2. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2016-01-01

    reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists...

  3. The effect of uric acid on the transport activity of placental system A%尿酸对胎盘系统A转运活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙湛博; 杨琳; 宋薇薇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨尿酸对胎盘系统A氨基酸转运活性的影响.方法 2009年9月至2011年1月在中国医科大学附属盛京医院取无妊娠期并发症(如高血压、糖尿病等)与合并症的孕妇剖宫产分娩,体重正常的健康足月儿胎盘组织为研究对象.体外实验依据不同的尿酸质量浓度分为尿酸质量浓度178.5 μmol/L组、297.5μmol/L组、416.5 μmol/L组,以及不加尿酸的对照组.采用胎盘绒毛片段培养技术及同位素掺入技术对系统A的转运活性进行测定.结果 3种不同质量浓度尿酸组孵育2h后培养液中雌二醇质量浓度分别为(166.75±9.45)、(167.32±8.56)及(160.01±9.29) pmol/L,与对照组(170.03±11.32)pmol/L比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).3组不同尿酸质量浓度组分别与对照组系统A的氨基酸转运活性比较,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).4组之间系统A的转运活性比较,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 尿酸可能对胎盘系统A的氨基酸转运活性具有重要影响,这种影响具有浓度依赖性,而这一影响可能是高尿酸血症时引起低出生体重的重要机制之一.%Objective To explore the effect of uric acid on placental system A amino acid transport activity. Methods Between Sep. 2009 and Jan. 2011 in China Medical University Affiliated Shengjing Hospital placental samples were taken from pregnancies, which had no history of obstetric or metabolic disease and had cesarean section delivery to normal healthy full-term birth. According to different uric acid concentration, placental samples were divided into four groups; Groupl, control group; Group 2, uric acid concentration was 178. 5μmol/L; Group 3, uric acid concentration was 297. 5μmol/L and Group 4, uric acid concentration was 416. 5μmol/L. System A transport activity was detected by placenta fragment culture technique and isotope incorporation. Results After 2-h culture by different concentrations of uric acid, the estradiol

  4. Airport in the intermodal transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of integrating of airports into the intermodal transport system is presented in this paper. The development of intermodal systems helps to use the available transport means in optimal and balanced way. The intermodality of the airport is analyzed in two areas: the airport accessibility and the integration of an airport with other transport means of domestic and international transport system. The railway transport is the main transport branch concerned to be integrated together with the air transport. The examples of existing solutions of intermodal systems in the biggest European hubs are presented with the strongest emphasis put on the airport in Frankfurt. The inhibiting and stimulating factors of the development of intermodal transport system are presented. The last part of the paper presents the conclusions how European solutions can be of the help in the process of the development of the Polish transport system.

  5. The Analysis of Sustainable Transport System Development in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgita Barysienė; Eglė Speičytė

    2011-01-01

    Recently, sustainable development, as well as sustainable transport, have become the guiding principles of human activities. Transport is of special importance for economic development of Lithuania, therefore a sustainable transport system is required for achieving major goals of sustainable development. The paper discusses general aims of the European Union and Lithuania’s sustainable development strategies and the role of sustainable transport in this common development. Moreover, environme...

  6. Interpretation of current-voltage relationships for "active" ion transport systems: I. Steady-state reaction-kinetic analysis of class-I mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, U P; Gradmann, D; Sanders, D; Slayman, C L

    1981-01-01

    This paper develops a simple reaction-kinetic model to describe electrogenic pumping and co- (or counter-) transport of ions. It uses the standard steady-state approach for cyclic enzyme- or carrier-mediated transport, but does not assume rate-limitation by any particular reaction step. Voltage-dependence is introduced, after the suggestion of Läuger and Stark (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 211:458-466, 1970), via a symmetric Eyring barrier, in which the charge-transit reaction constants are written as k12 = ko12 exp(zF delta psi/2RT) and k21 = ko21 exp(-zF delta psi/2RT). For interpretation of current-voltage relationships, all voltage-independent reaction steps are lumped together, so the model in its simplest form can be described as a pseudo-2-state model. It is characterized by the two voltage-dependent reaction constants, two lumped voltage-independent reaction constants (k12, k21), and two reserve factors (ri, ro) which formally take account of carrier states that are indistinguishable in the current-voltage (I-V) analysis. The model generates a wide range of I-V relationships, depending on the relative magnitudes of the four reaction constants, sufficient to describe essentially all I-V datas now available on "active" ion-transport systems. Algebraic and numerical analysis of the reserve factors, by means of expanded pseudo-3-, 4-, and 5-state models, shows them to be bounded and not large for most combinations of reaction constants in the lumped pathway. The most important exception to this rule occurs when carrier decharging immediately follows charge transit of the membrane and is very fast relative to other constituent voltage-independent reactions. Such a circumstance generates kinetic equivalence of chemical and electrical gradients, thus providing a consistent definition of ion-motive forces (e.g., proton-motive force, PMF). With appropriate restrictions, it also yields both linear and log-linear relationships between net transport velocity and either

  7. Research on advanced transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  8. Activity transport models for PWR primary circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion products activated in the primary circuit form a major source of occupational radiation dose in the PWR reactors. Transport of corrosion activity is a complex process including chemistry, reactor physics, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. All the mechanisms involved are not known and there is no comprehensive theory for the process, so experimental test loops and plant data are very important in research efforts. Several activity transport modelling attempts have been made to improve the water chemistry control and to minimise corrosion in PWR's. In this research report some of these models are reviewed with special emphasis on models designed for Soviet VVER type reactors. (51 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.)

  9. Modelling activity transport behavior in PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activation and transport of corrosion products around a PWR circuit is a major concern to PWR plant operators as these may give rise to high personnel doses. The understanding of what controls dose rates on ex-core surfaces and shutdown releases has improved over the years but still several questions remain unanswered. For example the relative importance of particle and soluble deposition in the core to activity levels in the plant is not clear. Wide plant to plant and cycle to cycle variations are noted with no apparent explanations why such variations are observed. Over the past few years this group have been developing models to simulate corrosion product transport around a PWR circuit. These models form the basis for the latest version of the BOA code and simulate the movement of Fe and Ni around the primary circuit. Part of this development is to include the activation and subsequent transport of radioactive species around the circuit and this paper describes some initial modelling work in this area. A simple model of activation, release and deposition is described and then applied to explain the plant behaviour at Sizewell B and Vandellos II. This model accounts for activation in the core, soluble and particulate activity movement around the circuit and for activity capture ex-core on both the inner and outer oxides. The model gives a reasonable comparison with plant observations and highlights what controls activity transport in these plants and importantly what factors can be ignored. (authors)

  10. Transportation activities for BWR fuels at NFI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Fuel Industries, LTD. (NFI) supplies fuel assemblies for both PWR and BWR in Japan. We can also manage transportation of the fuel assemblies from our fabrication facilities to the nuclear power plants of Japanese utilities. For the transportation of fuel assembly, we designed and fabricated the transportation containers to meet the requirements of the IAEA regulations, and licensed in Japan. This paper introduced the recent activity and R and D of NFI concerning transportation of BWR fuel assembly. NT-XII transportation container was developed for fresh BWR fuel assemblies. NT-XII container consists of inner container and outer container. Two BWR fuel assemblies with up to 5 wt.-% 235-U enriched are enclosed in an inner container. In the concept of NT-XII container design, we made the best priority to transportation efficiency, as well as ensuring fuel integrity during transportation. NT-XII has been used since 2002 in Japan. Thanks to the lightening weight of containers, the number of containers to be loaded to one transportation truck was increased up to 9 containers (equivalent to 18 fuel assemblies) compared with former type container (NT-IV transportation container) which can be loaded up to 6 containers (equivalent to 12 fuel assemblies). In addition to the design of brand-new container, we promote the improvement of the packaging methods. In Japan, in order to reduce the damage to the fuel rod and fuel spacer while transporting, polyethylene sleeves which are called 'packing separators' are inserted in the rod-to-rod gap of fuel assembly. However, packing separators requires time and cost for the installation at fuel fabrication facility. In the same way, huge time and cost are needed for removal of packing separators at nuclear power plant. For the improvement of preparation efficiency before and after transportation, we investigated the influence of vibration to fuel integrity in case of transportation without packing separators. Based on the above

  11. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE's internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex

  12. An Abiotic Glass-Bead Collector Exhibiting Active Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Youhei; Kanda, Masato; Yamamoto, Daigo; Shioi, Akihisa

    2015-09-01

    Animals relocate objects as needed by active motion. Active transport is ubiquitous in living organisms but has been difficult to realize in abiotic systems. Here we show that a self-propelled droplet can gather scattered beads toward one place on a floor and sweep it clean. This is a biomimetic active transport with loadings and unloadings, because the transport was performed by a carrier and the motion of the carrier was maintained by the energy of the chemical reaction. The oil droplet produced fluctuation of the local number density of the beads on the floor, followed by its autocatalytic growth. This mechanism may inspire the technologies based on active transport wherein chemical and physical substances migrate as in living organisms.

  13. BWR startup and shutdown activity transport control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes BWR industry experience on good practices for controlling the transport of corrosion product activity during shutdowns, particularly refueling outages, and for startup chemistry control to minimize IGSCC (intergranular stress corrosion cracking). For shutdown, overall goals are to minimize adverse impacts of crud bursts and the time required to remove activated corrosion products from the reactor coolant during the shutdown process prior to refueling, and to assist plants in predicting and controlling radiation exposure during outages. For startup, the overall goals are to highlight conditions during early heatup and startup when sources of reactor coolant oxidants are high, when there is a greater likelihood for chemical excursions associated with refueling outage work activities, and when hydrogen injection is not available to mitigate IGSCC due to system design limitations. BWR water chemistry has changed significantly in recent years with the adoption of hydrogen water chemistry, zinc addition and noble metal chemical applications. These processes have, in some instances, resulted in significant activity increases during shutdown evolutions, which together with reduced time for cleanup because of shorter outages, has consequently increased outage radiation exposure. A review several recent outages shows that adverse effects from these conditions can be minimized, leading to the set of good practice recommendations for shutdown chemistry control. Most plants lose the majority of their hydrogen availability hours during early startup because feedwater hydrogen injection systems were not originally designed to inject hydrogen below 20% power. Hydrogen availability has improved through modifications to inject hydrogen at lower power levels, some near 5%. However, data indicate that IGSCC is accelerated during early startup, when dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide levels are high and reactor coolant temperatures are in the 300 to 400 oF (

  14. Stochastic steps in secondary active sugar transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Joshua L; Ghezzi, Chiara; Bisignano, Paola; Loo, Donald D F; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Rosenberg, John M; Wright, Ernest M; Grabe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the concomitant flow of substrates is a fundamental structural and biophysical question that is beginning to be answered at the atomistic level with the advent of high-resolution structures of transporters in different structural states. Nonetheless, the dynamic character of the transporters, such as ion/substrate binding order and how binding triggers conformational change, is not revealed from static structures, yet it is critical to understanding their function. Here, we report a series of molecular simulations carried out on the sugar transporter vSGLT that lend insight into how substrate and ions are released from the inward-facing state of the transporter. Our simulations reveal that the order of release is stochastic. Functional experiments were designed to test this prediction on the human homolog, hSGLT1, and we also found that cytoplasmic release is not ordered, but we confirmed that substrate and ion binding from the extracellular space is ordered. Our findings unify conflicting published results concerning cytoplasmic release of ions and substrate and hint at the possibility that other transporters in the superfamily may lack coordination between ions and substrate in the inward-facing state. PMID:27325773

  15. Effect of surfactant-induced cell surface modifications on electron transport system and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activities and phenanthrene biodegradation by Citrobacter sp. SA01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Zhu, Lizhong

    2012-11-01

    In order to better understand how surfactants affect biodegradation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), were selected to investigate effects on cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), electron transport system (ETS) activities and phenanthrene biodegradation by Citrobacter sp. SA01. Tween 80 and SDBS increased CSH by 19.8-25.2%, ETS activities by 352.1-376.0μmol/gmin, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12) activities by 50.8-52.7U/L, and phenanthrene biodegradation by 8.9-17.2% separately in the presence of 50mg/L of surfactants as compared to in their absence. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release was 334.7μg/mg in the presence of both surfactants whereas in their absence only 8.6-44.4μg/mg of LPS was released. Thus, enhanced LPS release probably increased ETS and C12 activities as well as phenanthrene biodegradation by increasing CSH. The results demonstrate that surfactant-enhanced CSH provides a simple, yet effective strategy for field applications of surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of HOCs.

  16. Next generation: In-space transportation system(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Fredrick; Redus, Jerry; Kelley, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the next generation In-Space Transportation System presents a unique challenge to the design of a propulsion system for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Never before have the requirements for long-life, multiple mission use, space basing, high reliability, man-rating, and minimum maintenance come together with performance in one system that must protect the lives of space travelers, support the mission logistics needs, and do so at an acceptable cost. The challenge that is presented is to quantify the bounds of these requirements. The issue is one of degree. The length of acceptable life in space, the time it takes for reuse to pay off, and the degree to which space basing is practical (full, partial, or expended) are the issues that determine the reusable bounds of a design and include dependability, contingency capabilities, resilency, and minimum dependence on a maintenance node in preparation for and during a mission. Missions to planet earth, other non-NASA missions, and planetary missions will provide important but less demanding requirements for the transportation systems of the future. The mission proposed for the SEI require a family of transportation vehicles to meet the requirements for establishing a permanent human presence on the Moon and eventually on Mars. Specialized vehicles are needed to accomplish the different phases of each mission. These large scale missions require assembly in space and will provide the greatest usage of the planned integrated transportation system. The current approach to defining the In-Space Transportation System for the SEI Moon missions with later Mars mission applications is presented. Several system development options, propulsion concepts, current/proposed activities are reviewed, and key propulsion design criteria, issues, and technology challenges for the next generation In-Space Transportation System(s) are outlined.

  17. Transport coefficients of relativistic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It becomes increasingly important to know the strength of dissipative effects in relativistic hydrodynamics. Recently, scientists have strongly focused on shear viscosity. Nevertheless, heat flow, being proportional to spatial gradients of e.g. chemical potential over temperature, can also be an important effect in studies of relativistic fluid dynamics. We investigated the heat conductivity coefficient for an ultrarelativistic Boltzmann-gas, using our partonic transport model BAMPS. BAMPS solves the relativistic Boltzmann-equation numerically for arbitrary different particle species. We use pQCD scattering cross-sections. Furthermore, the response of a charged, relativistic gas onto an external electric field determines the electric conductivity. We investigated the electric conductivity of different model systems using three different methods: analytic transport theory, linear response via Green-Kubo formulae in equilibrium BAMPS-setups, and applying the textbook-picture of linear response to BAMPS. We plan to investigate the electric conductivity with the recently improved 2<->3 processes from BAMPS and compare the results with lattice QCD.

  18. An Interactive Energy System with Grid, Heating and Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker

    occurring with power generation purposes, there is an interest on extending this tendency to other strategic systems like the heating, gas and transportation. This implies that at least an important part of these systems will have to be electrified. From a power system perspective, this means...... and economic aspects of these networks, an active demand response represents a promising solution. This research work is based on the opportunity of interacting the electrical power system and the heating, gas and transportation systems to ensure a correct and efficient operation of the distribution systems...... that it will have to undergo a significant load increase in the future. Due to its nature, most of this load is expected to be accommodated at the power distribution level. This implies a need for finding new alternatives to operate and control the medium and low voltage networks. Considering the technical...

  19. Railway intelligent transportation system and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yong; Jia Limin; Zhang Yuan

    2011-01-01

    With the development of artificial intelligence, communication, computer and other related technologies, it becomes feasible to rebuild traditional railway with such advanced technologies in order to establish a new generation railway transport system. The railway intelligent transportation system is the trend of railway transportation system in China, and it is also the research focus of international railway transport industry. This paper presents the definition, characters, architecture, key technologies and developing pattern of the RITS (railway intelligent transportation system). Then three typical applications are introduced. Finally, the prospect of the RITS is summarized.

  20. Transport theory and systems theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastović Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of singular nonlinear transport equation is obtained via corresponding neutron or photon kinetic equation. The conditions for convergence of the non stationary transport process to ward the pure dif fusion across the equilibriums are presented. For such purpose the method of transport scattering is exploited. The goal of these results is optimization of fusion fuels via neutron diagnostics.

  1. Classical transport in disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Antonios

    This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non- Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in one-dimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the long-time regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surface-to-volume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the

  2. Development of novel active transport membrande devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Air Products has undertaken a research program to fabricate and evaluate gas separation membranes based upon promising ``active-transport`` (AT) materials recently developed in our laboratories. Active Transport materials are ionic polymers and molten salts which undergo reversible interaction or reaction with ammonia and carbon dioxide. The materials are useful for separating these gases from mixtures with hydrogen. Moreover, AT membranes have the unique property of possessing high permeability towards ammnonia and carbon dioxide but low permeability towards hydrogen and can thus be used to permeate these components from a gas stream while retaining hydrogen at high pressure.

  3. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rojas-Rueda

    Full Text Available Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64 in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163 annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104, Barcelona 37 (24-56, Paris 37 (18-64 and Basel 5 (3-9. An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris resulted in 19 (3-42 deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21 in Prague, 6 (4-9 in Basel, 3 (2-6 in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4 in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year. Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  4. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  5. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  6. Substrate regulation of ascorbate transport activity in astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrocytes possess a concentrative L-ascorbate (vitamin C) uptake mechanism involving a Na(+)-dependent L-ascorbate transporter located in the plasma membrane. The present experiments examined the effects of deprivation and supplementation of extracellular L-ascorbate on the activity of this transport system. Initial rates of L-ascorbate uptake were measured by incubating primary cultures of rat astrocytes with L-[14C]ascorbate for 1 min at 37 degrees C. We observed that the apparent maximal rate of uptake (Vmax) increased rapidly (less than 1 h) when cultured cells were deprived of L-ascorbate. In contrast, there was no change in the apparent affinity of the transport system for L-[14C]ascorbate. The increase in Vmax was reversed by addition of L-ascorbate, but not D-isoascorbate, to the medium. The effects of external ascorbate on ascorbate transport activity were specific in that preincubation of cultures with L-ascorbate did not affect uptake of 2-deoxy-D-[3H(G)]glucose. We conclude that the astroglial ascorbate transport system is modulated by changes in substrate availability. Regulation of transport activity may play a role in intracellular ascorbate homeostasis by compensating for regional differences and temporal fluctuations in external ascorbate levels

  7. Final Technical Report Transport Task Force Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transport Task Force has functioned as the primary scientific organization in the area of magnetic-fusion confinement and transport since its inception in 1988. It has defined and set research directions, coordinated broad research efforts, advocated new funding initiatives, and created a highly successful and widely admired interactive culture between experiment, theory and modeling. The Transport Task Force carries out its activities under the direction of its chair and the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee is comprised of the leaders and deputy leaders of the scientific working groups. The working groups are structured and organized according to research needs and priorities and have been organized around the areas of Core Transport, H Mode and Pedestal, Fast Particle Transport, Transient Transport Phenomena, and Modeling and Simulation. A steering committee provides advise on TTF activities. Further information on the working groups and the structure and management of the TTF can be found at http://psfcwww2.psfc.mit.edu/ttf/index.html. The TTF holds an annual workshop. A summary of the workshops held during the period of this report is given in Appendix I. During the period of this report the Transport Task Force was involved in several significant activities. Foremost of these was a sweeping review of the status of transport science, the key research tasks for progress during the next 5-10 years, and a proposal for a funding initiative to ensure application of adequate resources to these problems. The conclusions of this study were incorporated into a white paper, which is copied below in Appendix II. Other significant activities have included the introduction of an extended, ongoing discussion on verification and validation as a requisite for defining and codifying the path toward predictive capability, the orchestration of a gradual shift of focus from ion thermal confinement to electron thermal confinement, and a joining of efforts on edge

  8. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy....... No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Transport must be integrated into energy planning, as electricity and heating. In this paper, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energy planning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable...

  9. Transport Efficiency of Gas-jet Tape Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WandXudong; MaRuichang; XieYuanxiang; XingYebin; XuShuwei; LiZhankui

    2003-01-01

    The Gas-jet Tape Transport System (GTTS) was used in several on-line experiments. The transport efficiency of GTTS was studied with three different inorganic salts, PbI2, PbC12 and NaC1, by using a 252 Cf source. The fission fragments of 252Cf were transported and collected by the GTTS before measurement. Nitrogen gas was used as a substitute of cxpensive Helium gas, in consideration of longer stopping range of fragments. The fragments were also directly collected on Aluminum foils with thickness of 50μm for original yield measurement.

  10. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  11. A National MagLev Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The case for a national high-speed magnetic-levitation (MagLev) transportation system is presented. Focus is on current issues facing the country, such as national security, the economy, transportation, technology, and the environment. NASA s research into MagLev technology for launch assist is also highlighted. Further, current socio-cultural norms regarding motor-vehicle-based transportation systems are questioned in light of the problems currently facing the U.S. The multidisciplinary benefits of a long-distance MagLev system support the idea that such a system would be an important element of a truly multimodal U.S. transportation infrastructure.

  12. METHODS OF INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION MAGLEV TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate feasibility of the proposed integrated optimization of various MTS parameters to reduce capital investments as well as decrease any operational and maintenance expense. This will make use of MTS reasonable. At present, the Maglev Transport Systems (MTS for High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT almost do not apply. Significant capital investments, high operational and maintenance costs are the main reasons why Maglev Transport Systems (MTS are hardly currently used for the High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT. Therefore, this article justifies use of Theory of Complex Optimization of Transport (TCOT, developed by one of the co-authors, to reduce MTS costs. Methodology. According to TCOT, authors developed an abstract model of the generalized transport system (AMSTG. This model mathematically determines the optimal balance between all components of the system and thus provides the ultimate adaptation of any transport systems to the conditions of its application. To identify areas for effective use of MTS, by TCOT, the authors developed a dynamic model of distribution and expansion of spheres of effective use of transport systems (DMRRSEPTS. Based on this model, the most efficient transport system was selected for each individual track. The main estimated criterion at determination of efficiency of application of MTS is the size of the specific transportation tariff received from calculation of payback of total given expenses to a standard payback period or term of granting the credit. Findings. The completed multiple calculations of four types of MTS: TRANSRAPID, MLX01, TRANSMAG and TRANSPROGRESS demonstrated efficiency of the integrated optimization of the parameters of such systems. This research made possible expending the scope of effective usage of MTS in about 2 times. The achieved results were presented at many international conferences in Germany, Switzerland, United States, China, Ukraine, etc. Using MTS as an

  13. Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation...

  14. STARS: The Space Transportation Architecture Risk System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to perform comparisons between transportation systems that are likely to have significantly different levels of risk, both because of differing degrees of freedom in achieving desired performance levels and their different states of development and utilization, an approach has been developed for performing early comparisons of transportation architectures explicitly taking into account quantitative measures of uncertainty and resulting risk. The approach considers the uncertainty associated with the achievement of technology goals, the effect that the achieved level of technology will have on transportation system performance and the relationship between transportation system performance/capability and the ability to accommodate variations in payload mass. The consequences of system performance are developed in terms of expected values and associated standard deviations of nonrecurring, recurring and the present value of transportation system life cycle cost. Typical results are presented to illustrate the application of the methodology.

  15. Activity transport in nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to give a basic understanding of the operational limitations caused by radiation fields in the present design of CANDU-PHW reactors. A simple model of activity transport is described, and the significance of various radioisotopes identified. The impact which radiation fields have at the Divisional, Station Manager and Operation levels, is outlined in the context of typical work situations. (author)

  16. Emerging Applications for Cyber Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌旭; 侯云飞; 徐宏力; 黄刘生; 李旭; 乔春明; 张龙飞

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in connected vehicles and autonomous driving are going to change the face of ground trans-portation as we know it. This paper describes the design and evaluation of several emerging applications for such a cyber transportation system (CTS). These applications have been designed using holistic approaches, which consider the unique roles played by the human drivers, the transportation system, and the communication network. They can improve driver safety and provide on-road infotainment. They can also improve transportation operations and efficiency, thereby benefiting travelers and attracting investment from both government agencies and private businesses to deploy infrastructures and bootstrap the evolutionary process of CTS.

  17. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  18. Using accelerometers and global positioning system devices to assess gender and age differences in children's school, transport, leisure and home based physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinker, Charlotte D; Schipperijn, Jasper; Christian, Hayley;

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on domain-specific physical activity (PA) has the potential to advance public health interventions and inform new policies promoting children's PA. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess domains (leisure, school, transport, home) and subdomains (e.g., recess, playgrounds, a......, and urban green space) for week day moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) using objective measures and investigate gender and age differences....

  19. The SPX domain of the yeast low-affinity phosphate transporter Pho90 regulates transport activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hürlimann, Hans Caspar; Pinson, Benoît; Stadler-Waibel, Martha; Zeeman, Samuel C; Freimoser, Florian M

    2009-01-01

    Yeast has two phosphate-uptake systems that complement each other: the high-affinity transporters (Pho84 and Pho89) are active under phosphate starvation, whereas Pho87 and Pho90 are low-affinity transporters that function when phosphate is abundant. Here, we report new regulatory functions of the amino-terminal SPX domain of Pho87 and Pho90. By studying truncated versions of Pho87 and Pho90, we show that the SPX domain limits the phosphate-uptake velocity, suppresses phosphate efflux and aff...

  20. Thermally activated long range electron transport in living biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Matthew D; Golden, Joel P; Roy, Jared; Strycharz-Glaven, Sarah M; Tsoi, Stanislav; Erickson, Jeffrey S; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Calabrese Barton, Scott; Tender, Leonard M

    2015-12-28

    Microbial biofilms grown utilizing electrodes as metabolic electron acceptors or donors are a new class of biomaterials with distinct electronic properties. Here we report that electron transport through living electrode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms is a thermally activated process with incoherent redox conductivity. The temperature dependency of this process is consistent with electron-transfer reactions involving hemes of c-type cytochromes known to play important roles in G. sulfurreducens extracellular electron transport. While incoherent redox conductivity is ubiquitous in biological systems at molecular-length scales, it is unprecedented over distances it appears to occur through living G. sulfurreducens biofilms, which can exceed 100 microns in thickness. PMID:26611733

  1. The German Saenger space transportation system concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, D. E.; Kuczera, H.; Hoegenauer, E.

    The vehicle configuration, performance criteria, and technological problems of the Saenger space transportation system are reviewed. The vehicle consists of a two-stage system, including a hypersonic first stage employing turboramjet propulsion. The cruise speed is Mach 4.4, with the capability to accelerate to Mach 6.8 prior to separation of the upper stage. Two different upper stages are proposed to fulfull the different requirements of manned space flight and unmanned payload transportation.

  2. Iron Transport Systems in Neisseria meningitidis†

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins-Balding, Donna; Ratliff-Griffin, Melanie; Stojiljkovic, Igor

    2004-01-01

    Acquisition of iron and iron complexes has long been recognized as a major determinant in the pathogenesis of Neisseria meningitidis. In this review, high-affinity iron uptake systems, which allow meningococci to utilize the human host proteins transferrin, lactoferrin, hemoglobin, and haptoglobin-hemoglobin as sources of essential iron, are described. Classic features of bacterial iron transport systems, such as regulation by the iron-responsive repressor Fur and TonB-dependent transport act...

  3. Conceptual design of an RTG Facility Transportation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of an Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Facility Transportation System which is part of the overall RTG Transportation System has been completed and is described in detail. The Facility Transportation System serves to provide locomotion, cooling, shock protection and data acquisition for the RTG package during loading and unloading sequences. The RTG Facility Transportation System consists of a Transporter Subsystem, a Package Cooling Subsystem, and a Shock Limiting Transit Device Subsystem. The Transporter Subsystem is a uniquely designed welded steel cart combined with a pneumatically-driven hand tug for locomotion. The Package Cooling Subsystem provides five kilowatts of active liquid cooling via an on-board refrigeration system. The Shock limiting Transit Device Subsystem consists of a consumable honeycomb transit frame which provides shock protection for the 3855 kg (8500 LB) RTG package. These subsystems have been combined into an integrated system which will facilitate the unloading and loading of the RTG , of the Transport Trailer as well as meet ALARA radiation Package into and out exposure guidelines

  4. The WIPP transportation system: Dedicated to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When developing a transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites, the Department of Energy (DOE) recognized and addressed many challenges. Shipments of waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were to cover a twenty-five year period and utilize routes covering over twelve thousand miles in twenty-three states. Enhancing public safety by maximizing the payload, thus reducing the number of shipments, was the primary objective. To preclude the requirement for overweight permits, the DOE started with a total shipment weight limit of 80,000 pounds and developed an integrated transportation system consisting of a Type ''B'' package to transport the material, a lightweight tractor and trailer, stringent driver requirements, and a shipment tracking system referred to as ''TRANSCOM''

  5. Analysis of Common Governance Transport System Development Possibilities in the East-west Transport Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaras Darius

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Equitable access to efficient economic infrastructure and effective public services is essential to achieving the future economic growth. Insufficient transport infrastructure and long border crossing procedures limiting international accessibility for goods and passengers are the biggest present problems in the East-West transport corridor. The joint action plan must highlight the areas and components of the transport system, which are important for the effective interconnectivity of the individual networks, and/or for absorbing the steadily increasing intraregional and transcontinental freight flows. The successful East-West transport corridor activities' governance first of all needs to identify the corridor's administrative structure, non-governmental organizations' (NGO place in the management structure, partnerships between the transport hubs in the EWTC mechanism and the possibility of cooperation between private and public sectors.

  6. The WIPP transportation system: Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially- designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE ''TRANSCOM'' vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly-trained drivers. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the transportation system and concluded that: ''The system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The next challenge facing the DOE was demonstrating that this system was ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and in the safest manner possible. Not only did the DOE feel that is was necessary to convince itself that the system was safe, but also representatives of the 20 states through which it would travel

  7. The SPX domain of the yeast low-affinity phosphate transporter Pho90 regulates transport activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Hans Caspar; Pinson, Benoît; Stadler-Waibel, Martha; Zeeman, Samuel C; Freimoser, Florian M

    2009-01-01

    Yeast has two phosphate-uptake systems that complement each other: the high-affinity transporters (Pho84 and Pho89) are active under phosphate starvation, whereas Pho87 and Pho90 are low-affinity transporters that function when phosphate is abundant. Here, we report new regulatory functions of the amino-terminal SPX domain of Pho87 and Pho90. By studying truncated versions of Pho87 and Pho90, we show that the SPX domain limits the phosphate-uptake velocity, suppresses phosphate efflux and affects the regulation of the phosphate signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, split-ubiquitin assays and co-immunoprecipitation suggest that the SPX domain of both Pho90 and Pho87 interacts physically with the regulatory protein Spl2. This work suggests that the SPX domain inhibits low-affinity phosphate transport through a physical interaction with Spl2. PMID:19590579

  8. The Asymmetric Active Coupler: Stable Nonlinear Supermodes and Directed Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominis, Yannis; Bountis, Tassos; Flach, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric active coupler (AAC) consisting of two coupled dissimilar waveguides with gain and loss. We show that under generic conditions, not restricted by parity-time symmetry, there exist finite-power, constant-intensity nonlinear supermodes (NS), resulting from the balance between gain, loss, nonlinearity, coupling and dissimilarity. The system is shown to possess non-reciprocal dynamics enabling directed power transport functionality. PMID:27640818

  9. The Asymmetric Active Coupler: Stable Nonlinear Supermodes and Directed Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kominis, Yannis; Flach, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric active coupler (AAC) consisting of two coupled dissimilar waveguides with gain and loss. We show that under generic conditions, not restricted by parity-time symmetry, there exist finite-power, constant-intensity nonlinear supermodes (NS), resulting from the balance between gain, loss, nonlinearity, coupling and dissimilarity. The system is shown to possess nonreciprocal dynamics enabling directed power transport and optical isolation functionality.

  10. Design of a lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are

  11. The ttpC Gene Is Contained in Two of Three TonB Systems in the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, but Only One Is Active in Iron Transport and Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Kustusch, Ryan J.; Kuehl, Carole J.; Crosa, Jorge H.

    2012-01-01

    The TonB system of proteins is required for the energy-dependent active transport of iron-bound substrates across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. We have identified three TonB systems within the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. The TonB1 system contains the TonB1, ExbD1, and ExbB1 proteins, whereas both the TtpC2-TonB2 and TtpC3-TonB3 systems contain an additional fourth protein, TtpC. Here we report that TtpC3, although highly related to TtpC2, is inactive in iron transport, w...

  12. An ATP transport system in the intracellular bacterium, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby, E G; McCabe, J B

    1986-01-01

    The intracellularly growing bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J transports intact ATP by a specific, energy-requiring process. ATP transport does not involve either an ADP-ATP or an AMP-ATP exchange mechanism but, instead, has characteristics of an active transport permease. Kinetically distinct systems for ATP transport are expressed by the two developmental stages of the bdellovibrio life cycle.

  13. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA c...

  14. Transportation operations functions of the Federal Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses the functions that are required to accept the waste, transport the waste, and provide the mandatory support activities. These functions are independent of any organizational structure and reflect a conventional and generally accepted transportation system involving casks; ancillary equipment; truck, rail, and barge transporters; cask and vehicle maintenance facilities; traffic management activities; and other related support system subelements. Where appropriate, the functions are ordered to identify their relationship with each other. This relationship is depicted graphically in functional flow block diagrams (FFBDs). The FFBDs provide a definition of the functions that the systems must perform; a tool to aid in the identification of important issues and trade-off studies; an important method for tracing requirements and decisions back to essential functions; and a basis for allocating the functions, a process that will identify where, how, and by whom they will be performed. 22 refs., 13 figs

  15. The WIPP transportation system - Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a first-of-a-kind transportation system. Included is a total transport package that includes a Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved type B container, a lightweight tractor, a custom-designed trailer, specially trained drivers, and a satellite-based shipment tracking system. In the development effort, the DOE has been exceptionally sensitive and responsive to public concerns and the need for safety in the transport of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Having established the system, the next step was to demonstrate its readiness to transport TRU waste to the WIPP site. The paper discusses normal operations, off-normal events, adverse weather, safe parking areas, tractor replacement, accident notification, TRUPACT-2, route deviations, and vehicle inspections. The DOE, with the assistance of the various state organizations, has taken a close look at the preparation and implementation of the WIPP transportation system. These measures will ensure that it remains safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the US

  16. The potential application of military fleet scheduling tools to the Federal Waste Management System Transportation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the feasibility of adapting concepts and tools that were developed for the U.S. military's transportation management systems to the management of the Federal Waste Management System's (FWMS) Transportation System. Many of the lessons learned in the development of the planning and scheduling software for the U.S. military are applicable to the development of similar software for the FWMS Transportation System. The resulting system would be invaluable to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), both initially, for long-range planning, and later, in day-to-day scheduling and management activities

  17. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  18. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  19. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H- beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H- beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H- beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H- beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  20. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  1. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annewandter, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced gas transport and subsequent soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Generally, gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of radioxenons and radioiodines in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open peer-reviewed literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the multiple isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radionuclides, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different mass diffusivities due to mass differences between the radionuclides. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures or highly conductive faults which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a so-called ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which is recognized by the oil industry as leading in Discrete Fracture-Matrix (DFM) simulations. It has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations, fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, and Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic differential equations by a complementary finite

  2. Transportation systems analyses: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This executive summary of the transportation systems analyses (TSM) semi-annual report addresses the SSF logistics resupply. Our analysis parallels the ongoing NASA SSF redesign effort. Therefore, there could be no SSF design to drive our logistics analysis. Consequently, the analysis attempted to bound the reasonable SSF design possibilities (and the subsequent transportation implications). No other strategy really exists until after a final decision is rendered on the SSF configuration.

  3. Advanced technologies for intelligent transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Picone, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Ferrari, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on emerging technologies in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) namely efficient information dissemination between vehicles, infrastructures, pedestrians and public transportation systems. It covers the state-of-the-art of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), with centralized and decentralized (Peer-to-Peer) communication architectures, considering several application scenarios. With a detailed treatment of emerging communication paradigms, including cross networking  and distributed algorithms. Unlike most of the existing books, this book presents a multi-layer overview of information dissemination systems, from lower layers (MAC) to high layers (applications). All those aspects are investigated considering the use of mobile devices, such as smartphones/tablets and embedded systems, i.e. technologies that during last years completely changed the current market, the user expectations, and communication networks. The presented networking paradigms are supported and validate...

  4. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  5. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Clark

    2015-01-01

    Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models) that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our ...

  6. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Clark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.

  7. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  8. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) user's manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software User Guide (SUG) constitutes the user procedures for the ATMS System. Information in this document will be used by the user to operate the automated system. It is intended to be used as a reference manual to guide and direct the user(s) through the ATMS software product and its environment. The objectives of ATMS are as follows: to better support the Procurement function with freight rate information; to free Transportation Logistics personnel from routine activities such as the auditing and input of freight billing information; to comply with Headquarters Department of Energy-Inspector General (DOE-IG) audit findings to automate transportation management functions; to reduce the keying of data into the Shipment Mobility Accountability Collection (SMAC) database; and to provide automation for the preparing of Bill of Lading, Declaration of Dangerous Goods, Emergency Response Guide and shipping Labels using HM181 Retrieval of hazardous material table text information

  9. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  10. The role of volume-sensitive ion transport systems in regulation of epithelial transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Schettino, T; Marshall, W S

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on using the knowledge on volume-sensitive transport systems in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells and NIH-3T3 cells to elucidate osmotic regulation of salt transport in epithelia. Using the intestine of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) (an absorptive epithelium of the type......-induced activation of NKCC2 involves an interaction between the cytoskeleton and protein phosphorylation events via PKC and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) opercular epithelium is a Cl(-)-secreting epithelium of the type described in exocrine glands, having a CFTR channel...

  11. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Miller, Christopher Francis

    2010-08-10

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  12. DTS: The NOAO Data Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Semple, T.

    2014-05-01

    The NOAO Data Transport System (DTS) provides high-throughput, reliable, data transfer between telescopes, pipelines and archive centers located in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. It is a distributed application using XML-RPC for command and control, and either parallel-TCP or UDT protocols for bulk data transport. The system is data-agnostic, allowing arbitrary files or directories to be moved using the same infrastructure. Data paths are configurable in the system by connecting nodes as the source or destination of data in a queue. Each leg of a data path may be configured independently based on the network environment between the sites. A queueing model is currently implemented to manage the automatic movement of data, a streaming model is planned to support arbitrarily large transfers (e.g. as in a disk recovery scenario) or to provide a 'pass-thru' interface to minize overheads. A web-based monitor allows anyone to get a graphical overview of the DTS system as it runs, operators will be able to control individual nodes in the system. Through careful tuning of the network paths DTS is able to achieve in excess of 80-percent of the nominal wire speed using only commodity networks, making it ideal for long-haul transport of large volumes of data.

  13. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan

  14. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  15. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  16. Pedometer-determined physical activity and active transport in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Grant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the risk of insufficient physical activity is greater in girls than in boys, especially during the adolescent years. The promotion of active transport (AT to and from school has been posited as a practical and convenient solution for increasing girls' total daily activity. However, there is limited information describing the associations between AT choices and girls' physical activity across a range of age, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The objectives of this study were to (1 investigate physical activity patterns in a large multiethnic sample of female children and adolescents, and to (2 estimate the physical activity associated with AT to and from school. Methods A total of 1,513 girls aged 5–16 years wore sealed multiday memory (MDM pedometers for three weekdays and two weekend days. The ethnic composition of this sample was 637 European (42.1%, 272 Pacific Island (18.0%, 207 East Asian (13.7%, 179 Maori (11.8%, 142 South Asian (9.4%, and 76 from other ethnic groups (5%. Pedometer compliance and school-related AT were assessed by questionnaire. Results Mean weekday step counts (12,597 ± 3,630 were higher and less variable than mean weekend steps (9,528 ± 4,407. A consistent decline in daily step counts was observed with age: after adjustment for ethnicity and SES, girls in school years 9–10 achieved 2,469 (weekday and 4,011 (weekend fewer steps than girls in years 1–2. Daily step counts also varied by ethnicity, with Maori girls the most active and South Asian girls the least active. Overall, 44.9% of participants used AT for school-related travel. Girls who used AT to and from school averaged 1,052 more weekday steps than those who did not use AT. However, the increases in steps associated with AT were significant only in older girls (school years 5–10 and in those of Maori or European descent. Conclusion Our data suggest that adolescent-aged girls and girls of Asian descent are

  17. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M. [Engineering Computer Optecnomics, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  18. CDMA Technology for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, Rabindranath; Bera, Jitendranath; Sil, Sanjib; Mondal, Dipak; Dhar, Sourav; Kandar, Debdatta

    2007-01-01

    Scientists and Technologists involved in the development of radar and remote sensing systems all over the world are now trying to involve themselves in saving of manpower in the form of developing a new application of their ideas in Intelligent Transport system(ITS). The world statistics shows that by incorporating such wireless radar system in the car would decrease the world road accident by 8-10% yearly. The wireless technology has to be chosen properly which is capable of tackling the sev...

  19. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  20. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade there has been a trend towards studying ever smaller devices. Improved experimental techniques have made new experiments possible, one class of which is electron transport through molecules and artificially manufactured structures like quantum dots. In this type of systems...... spinless resonant 7 site chain, studying the effect of repulsive interaction inside the chain. We demonstrate that both weak and strong interactions inside the chain lead to Coulomb blockade renormalization of the resonances in the conductance spectrum. Additionally the strongly interacting case sharpens...... the resonances significantly, such that strong interaction inside the chain tends to suppress the off-resonance transport. Next we consider interacting resonant level models, studying the effect of repulsive interaction on the contact links. We demonstrate that even a small leak of the interaction in the system...

  1. Development of energy and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic development and the advancement of technology is presented as a process of substituting old forms of satisfying human needs by new ones or, more precisely, as a sequence of such substitutions. The examples, reconstructed from historical records, describe the quantitative, technological changes in energy and transport systems. The analysis of historical replacement of old by new technologies has shown that most of these processes can be described by simple rules that are captured in the logistic substitution model, and that technological substitution, expressed in terms of market shares, follows characteristic S-shaped curves. To illustrate the properties of the approach examples are given of how new energy forms replaced their predecessors. To further explore the method similar substitution processes in transport systems are described. 21 refs, 23 figs, 1 tab

  2. Development of cask and transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transportation of spent fuels to the AFR interim storage facility and disposal repository are necessary in Korea. Therefore, an emphasis has been concentrated to develop the design and fabrication technology of commercial casks. A conceptual design of the temperature and deformation measuring systems in the cask, which will be used for mock-up tests has been performed. Preliminary design data of the cask for 7 spent PWR fuels have been obtained in the course of study. (author)

  3. Behaviorally Mediated Larval Transport in Upwelling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Highly advective upwelling systems along the western margins of continents are widely believed to transport larvae far offshore in surface currents resulting in larval wastage, limited recruitment, and increased population connectivity. However, suites of larval behaviors effectively mediate interspecific differences in the extent of cross-shelf migrations between nearshore adult habitats and offshore larval habitats. Interspecific differences in behavior determining whether larvae complete d...

  4. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  5. Inhibition of System Xc(-) Transporter Attenuates Autoimmune Inflammatory Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evonuk, Kirsten S; Baker, Brandi J; Doyle, Ryan E; Moseley, Carson E; Sestero, Christine M; Johnston, Bryce P; De Sarno, Patrizia; Tang, Andrew; Gembitsky, Igor; Hewett, Sandra J; Weaver, Casey T; Raman, Chander; DeSilva, Tara M

    2015-07-15

    T cell infiltration into the CNS is a significant underlying pathogenesis in autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Several lines of evidence suggest that glutamate dysregulation in the CNS is an important consequence of immune cell infiltration in neuroinflammatory demyelinating diseases; yet, the causal link between inflammation and glutamate dysregulation is not well understood. A major source of glutamate release during oxidative stress is the system Xc(-) transporter; however, this mechanism has not been tested in animal models of autoimmune inflammatory demyelination. We find that pharmacological and genetic inhibition of system Xc(-) attenuates chronic and relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Remarkably, pharmacological blockade of system Xc(-) 7 d after induction of EAE attenuated T cell infiltration into the CNS, but not T cell activation in the periphery. Mice harboring a Slc7a11 (xCT) mutation that inactivated system Xc(-) were resistant to EAE, corroborating a central role for system Xc(-) in mediating immune cell infiltration. We next examined the role of the system Xc(-) transporter in the CNS after immune cell infiltration. Pharmacological inhibitors of the system Xc(-) transporter administered during the first relapse in a SJL animal model of relapsing-remitting EAE abrogated clinical disease, inflammation, and myelin loss. Primary coculture studies demonstrate that myelin-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells provoke microglia to release glutamate via the system Xc(-) transporter, causing excitotoxic death to mature myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Taken together, these studies support a novel role for the system Xc(-) transporter in mediating T cell infiltration into the CNS as well as promoting myelin destruction after immune cell infiltration in EAE.

  6. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software Project Management Plan (SPMP). Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a cabinet level federal agency with a diverse range of missions and an infrastructure spanning the United States, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has extensive freight transportation requirements. Performance and management of this freight activity is a critical function. DOE's Transportation Management Division (TMD) has an agency-wide responsibility for overseeing transportation activities. Actual transportation operations are handled by government or contractor staff at the field locations. These staff have evolved a diverse range of techniques and procedures for performing transportation functions. In addition to minimizing the economic impact of transportation on programs, facility transportation staff must be concerned with the increasingly complex task of complying with complex shipment safety regulations. Maintaining the department's safety record for shipping hazardous and radioactive materials is a primary goal. Use of automation to aid transportation functions is not widespread within DOE, though TMD has a number of software systems designed to gather and analyze data pertaining to field transportation activities. These systems are not integrated. Historically, most field facilities have accomplished transportation-related tasks manually or with minimal computer assistance. At best, information and decision support systems available to transportation staffs within the facilities are fragmented. In deciding where to allocate resources for automation, facility managers have not tended to give the needs of transportation departments a high priority. This diversity causes TMD significant difficulty in collecting data for use in managing department-wide transportation activities

  7. Activity is strength: More active systems are stronger glass formers

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Interplay between activity and passive transport processes in an active system may lead to complex spatio-temporal dynamics offering a rich and fascinating phenomenology compared to their passive counterparts. Understanding the properties of an active system in the dense limit is important both from biological as well as physical point of view. Here, we extend an immensely successful microscopic theory for the glassy dynamics of passive systems in their dense low-temperature limit, namely the Random First-Order Transition (RFOT) theory, for an active system generalizing and unifying the findings of recent simulations on such systems. The qualitative picture of glassy dynamics for a passive system survives when activity is introduced, however, a number interesting properties emerge. For example, activity changes the typical length scale and relaxation times, pushes the thermodynamic and dynamic glass transition points towards higher density or lower temperature and the fragility of the system changes as a func...

  8. Complexity of Multi-Modal Transportation and Systems of Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Karcanias, N.; Hessami, A. G.; Alonso, E

    2015-01-01

    The multi-modal transportation comprising diverse infrastructures, means & operations, energy resources, rules & regulations and a broad community of stakeholders constitute a complex yet real candidate for formalisation, analysis and optimization. It is shown that the complexity of the system is best described by viewing the challenges of its complexity as a System of Systems (SoS). The objective of this paper is to make an attempt to define and formalise the loose concept of “System of Syst...

  9. Heavy particle transport in sputtering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieschmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This contribution aims to discuss the theoretical background of heavy particle transport in plasma sputtering systems such as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS), high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), or multi frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (MFCCP). Due to inherently low process pressures below one Pa only kinetic simulation models are suitable. In this work a model appropriate for the description of the transport of film forming particles sputtered of a target material has been devised within the frame of the OpenFOAM software (specifically dsmcFoam). The three dimensional model comprises of ejection of sputtered particles into the reactor chamber, their collisional transport through the volume, as well as deposition of the latter onto the surrounding surfaces (i.e. substrates, walls). An angular dependent Thompson energy distribution fitted to results from Monte-Carlo simulations is assumed initially. Binary collisions are treated via the M1 collision model, a modified variable hard sphere (VHS) model. The dynamics of sputtered and background gas species can be resolved self-consistently following the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) approach or, whenever possible, simplified based on the test particle method (TPM) with the assumption of a constant, non-stationary background at a given temperature. At the example of an MFCCP research reactor the transport of sputtered aluminum is specifically discussed. For the peculiar configuration and under typical process conditions with argon as process gas the transport of aluminum sputtered of a circular target is shown to be governed by a one dimensional interaction of the imposed and backscattered particle fluxes. The results are analyzed and discussed on the basis of the obtained velocity distribution functions (VDF). This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 87.

  10. INFORMATION SUPPORT TRANSPORTATION PROCESS MULTIMODAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Filippova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: is to improve information support for the organization and functioning of multimodal systems delive-ry modes of transport in the northern regions of the Russian Federation on the basis of the development of theoretical and methodological and practical provisions, criteria, methods and mathematical models.Method or methodology of the work: a methodology placement vehicle logistics center (TLC in the Nordic region, providing links all transport modes involved in the delivery of energy, developed a model to optimize the parameters of the transport network, used for traffic, the most effective schemes of delivery of goods in multimodal report, taking into account the specifics of the Nordic region, and funding.Results: Studies have applied and may be used by the fe-deral and regional authorities and management in the deve-lopment of integrated programs for energy-Northern regions. Proposed in the theoretical research and methodological approaches are one way to increase the efficiency of the delivery of goods in the event of a little predictable situations on the route, TLC and transhipment points. The developed techniques are used and can be used to improve the northern region of the process control of cargo delivery.Conclusion: Therefore, based on the analysis of the status of the issue, it is quite obvious that the very topical area of optimization of the transport needs of the region to ensure the development and implementation of methods to improve the efficiency and quality of freight traffic by improving organizational structures and technology traffic control all transport space in the region.

  11. Investments and Operation in an Integrated Power and Transport System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses an integrated power and road transport system. For analysing the influences of including passenger road transport in the energy system, a road transport model is developed. Based on this model, the benefits of integration of the two systems and using electric-drive vehicles...... as part of the energy system are quantified....

  12. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  13. Clinical application of transcriptional activators of bile salt transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdasaryan, Anna; Chiba, Peter; Trauner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hepatobiliary bile salt (BS) transporters are critical determinants of BS homeostasis controlling intracellular concentrations of BSs and their enterohepatic circulation. Genetic or acquired dysfunction of specific transport systems causes intrahepatic and systemic retention of potentially cytotoxic BSs, which, in high concentrations, may disturb integrity of cell membranes and subcellular organelles resulting in cell death, inflammation and fibrosis. Transcriptional regulation of canalicular...

  14. Evidence that insulin causes translocation of glucose transport activity to the plasma membrane from an intracellular storage site.

    OpenAIRE

    K. Suzuki; Kono, T.

    1980-01-01

    The glucose transport activity of fat cells was assayed in a cell-free system. The activity was solubilized and incorporated into egg-lecithin liposomes. The carrier-mediated glucose transport activity was estimated by subtracting the cytochalasin B-insensitive component from the total glucose uptake activity of the modified liposomes. When a crude microsomal preparation from fat cells was fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, two transport activities (peaks A and B) were s...

  15. Smart Transportation Application using Global Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf Mohammad Al Shammary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant increase is noticed in the utilization of mobile applications for different purposes in the past decade. These applications can improve any individual’s way of life in many aspects such as communication, collaborative work, learning, location services, data collection, exploring, testing and analysis. One of the most interesting mobile applications is using it for tracking by having personal locators. These locators can track children, people on work, the elderly for personal protection etc. The intention behind developing this mobile application is to provide a smart transportation system to it users and to track their movements. Some of the essential features of this application are • Getting familiar with the shortest path from source to destination in advance. • Aware of approximate time of arrival to destination. • Knowing the capacity of vehicle used for transportation. • Short Message Service.

  16. Oscillations and multiple steady states in active membrane transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F M; Bisch, P M

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of some non-linear extensions of the six-state alternating access model for active membrane transport is investigated. We use stoichio-metric network analysis to study the stability of steady states. The bifurcation analysis has been done through standard numerical methods. For the usual six-state model we have proved that there is only one steady state, which is globally asymptotically stable. When we added an autocatalytic step we found self-oscillations. For the competition between a monomer cycle and a dimer cycle, with steps of dimer formation, we have also found self-oscillations. We have also studied models involving the formation of a complex with other molecules. The addition of two steps for formation of a complex of the monomer with another molecule does not alter either the number or the stability of steady states of the basic six-state model. The model which combines the formation of a complex with an autocatalytic step shows both self-oscillations and multiple steady states. The results lead us to conclude that oscillations could be produced by active membrane transport systems if the transport cycle contains a sufficiently large number of steps (six in the present case) and is coupled to at least one autocatalytic reaction,. Oscillations are also predicted when the monomer cycle is coupled to a dimer cycle. In fact, the autocatalytic reaction can be seen as a simplification of the model involving competition between monomer and dimer cycles, which seems to be a more realistic description of biological systems. A self-regulation mechanism of the pumps, related to the multiple stationary states, is expected only for a combined effect of autocatalysis and formation of complexes with other molecules. Within the six-state model this model also leads to oscillation.

  17. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation

  18. Multi-stage LTL transport systems in supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to unify concepts and to describe the multi-stage transport systems and their integratyion to supply chain management. Multi-stage distribution systems are common logistics management, and often they are assimilated to multi-stage transport strategies. However, transport is often considered as an external operation or a specific stage, even when it is a multi-stage system. First, the paper presents the main concepts of multi-stage transport systems by defining the concept an m...

  19. The Acyl-CoA synthetases encoded within FAA1 and FAA4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as components of the fatty acid transport system linking import, activation, and intracellular Utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Black, P N; Zhao, X D;

    2001-01-01

    are essential for long-chain fatty acid import, suggesting that one or both of these enzymes are components of the fatty acid transport system, which also includes Fat1p. By monitoring the intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid analogue 4,4-difluoro-5-methyl-4-bora-3a,4a......-diaza-s-indacene-3-dodecanoic acid, long-chain fatty acid transport was shown to be severely restricted in a faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strain. These data established for the first time a mechanistic linkage between the import and activation of exogenous fatty acids in yeast. To investigate this linkage further, oleoyl...... enzymes acyl-CoA oxidase (POX1) and medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (FAA2). These data support the hypothesis that fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (Faa1p or Faa4p) functions as a component of the fatty acid import system by linking import and activation of exogenous fatty acids to intracellular utilization...

  20. Saenger space transportation system - Progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Kuczera, Heribert

    1992-10-01

    The first part of the Saenger System Definition Study within the German National Hypersonics Technology Program (1988 to 1992) was completed by mid-1990. This paper summarizes the progress made and the status of the project as of that milestone which was formally completed by the System Study Presentation in July 1990. For the second phase of the study (mid-1990 to end 1992) the original philosophy of different upper stages for manned space operations and for unmanned cargo/payloads transportation is being maintained, however, a winged unmanned Horus-C version has been found to be a better solution than the originally conceived expendable ballistic stage Cargus. The advantage of this twin-Horus Concept is the greater commonality of both upper stages as well as the new return capability of payloads up to 7 Mg. The maximum payload capability of the expendable stage was of course higher, but it is assumed that for larger payloads a complementary launch vehicle (i.e. Ariane 5) will be further available. The paper also presents new data about the Horus return flight trajectories as well as on the aerothermodynamic studies and experimental work. Finally, aspects of mission operations and economics are discussed which are of special importance for such an advanced reusable space transportation system.

  1. Transport system as an element of sustainable economic growth in the tourist region

    OpenAIRE

    Mrnjavac, Edna

    2001-01-01

    Transport system is a whole composed of technical, technological, organisational, economic and legislative elements with the aim to perform transfer, loading and unloading of goods and passengers. Taking in consideration that most economic activities demand participation of certain transport system elements, any economic growth is impossible without an adequate transport system development. In order to secure environmental sustainable economic growth the economic policy subjects have to pay s...

  2. Future Intelligent Transportation Systems and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Akio

    A road vehicle traffic contributes to the social improvement greatly, but it has big problems such as safety, congestion, environment, energy, elder people driving and adaptation to information society. ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) is expected as a direction solving these. The intellectual function about a road vehicle traffic depended on most of human beings. ITS helps intellectual functions such as information sensing, situation recognition, judgment, planning and operation. A sensor detecting information is an important key in ITS. I describe expectation to a sensor in ITS.

  3. Stochastic transport in complex systems from molecules to vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    What is common between a motor protein, an ant and a vehicle? Each can be modelled as a"self-propelled particle"whose forward movement can be hindered by another in front of it. Traffic flow of such interacting driven"particles"has become an active area of interdisciplinary research involving physics, civil engineering and computer science. We present a unified pedagogical introduction to the analytical and computational methods which are currently used for studying such complex systems far from equilibrium. We also review a number of applications ranging from intra-cellular molecular motor transport in living systems to ant trails and vehicular traffic. Researchers working on complex systems, in general, and on classical stochastic transport, in particular, will find the pedagogical style, scholarly critical overview and extensive list of references extremely useful.

  4. Functional requirements for the Automated Transportation Management System: TTP number: RL 439002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portsmouth, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    This requirements analysis, documents Department of Energy (DOE) transportation management procedures for the purpose of providing a clear and mutual understanding between users and designers of the proposed Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS). It is imperative that one understand precisely how DOE currently performs traffic management tasks; only then can an integrated system be proposed that successfully satisfies the major requirements of transportation managers and other system users. Accordingly, this report describes the current workings of DOE transportation organizations and then proposes a new system which represents a synthesis of procedures (both current and desired) which forms the basis for further systems development activities.

  5. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command

  6. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, D.C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command.

  7. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. Remediation of these sites requires extensive sampling to determine the extent of the contamination, to monitor clean-up and remediation progress, and for post-closure monitoring of facilities. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. Such systems would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of clean-up and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping and manpower associated with sample shipments. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site's specific needs

  8. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses spent fuel and high level waste transportation history and prospects, discusses accident histories of radioactive material transport, discusses emergency responder needs and provides a general description of the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS) design. The key objectives of the monitoring system are twofold: (1) to facilitate effective emergency response to accidents involving a radioactive waste transportation package, while minimizing risk to the public and emergency first-response personnel, and (2) to allow remote monitoring of transportation vehicle and payload conditions to enable research into radioactive material transportation for normal and accident conditions. (J.P.N.)

  9. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  10. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  11. Risk management model in road transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  12. THE TIME FACTOR IN MARITIME TRANSPORT AND PORT LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin NICOLAE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Execution of the carriage contract requires compliance to all the conditions in it, by all those involved in the transport. Main obligations incumbent upon the vessel, and obviously, to other transporters, who must provide transportation according to deadlines and safety. Contract compliance is certifying transport participants about their seriousness and an appropriate market quotation. Therefore, present work pragmatically sets schematics reference time associated implementation of the carriage contract. Also, are demonstrated relationships established between maritime transport “players” and sequence of activities related to the operation of the vessel in port. The authors propose a set of concepts and terms whose utility is established to solve practical problems in this area of activity.

  13. Unmanned transportation automating system; Mujin hanso jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashihara, I.; Takeichi, T.; Asai, M. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-18

    This paper introduces a small unmanned transportation automating system intended to automate production facilities. Small automated guided vehicles (AGV) are available in a small object transporting vehicle and an ultra low floor vehicle. A cylinder head material AGV transports materials from a casting process to an outdoor sand removing process, and the system was demanded to have a single line section and an optimal run to pass each other. Giving and receiving the signals became also necessary with other devices such as existing casting machines and automatic doors. The automotive parts transporting and storing system is a system to assemble parts accommodating buckets in an automatic warehouse, supply the buckets to assembly lines, and return empty buckets to the warehouse. In order to utilize the installation space effectively, the buckets should be moved onto a two-step conveyer, and because the lower conveyer has a part moving height as low as 220 mm above the ground, an ultra low floor AGV was used. Safety measures include a photo sensor to detect obstacles, stoppage of drive at bumper contact, and an area sensor equipped on both sides of the parts moving machine. 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF THE STRONGLY CORRELATED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Domanski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport properties of various systems are studied here in the context of three different models. These are: - the disordered Hubbard model applicable to correlated binary alloys with a general disorder, - the Anderson model used in describing the Kondo physics of a quantum dot connected to the external superconducting leads, and - the Ranninger-Robaszkiewicz model applied to the study of optical properties of the system with preformed electron pairs above the temperature of transition to the superconducting state. We calculate the density of states, specific heat, the Wilson ratio and conductivity of the correlated binary alloy with off-diagonal disorder. We investigate the conditions under which the Kondo peak appears in the density of states and in the conductance of a dot coupled to the external superconducting leads. We analyze the effect of the pseudogap on the optical spectra in the high temperature superconductors described by the boson-fermion model.

  15. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  16. Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Bao-Quan, E-mail: aibq@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, 510006 Guangzhou (China); He, Ya-Feng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, 071002 Baoding (China); Zhong, Wei-Rong, E-mail: wrzhong@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Siyuan Laboratory, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China)

    2014-11-21

    Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction.

  17. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengbo; Yang, Xiaojian; Lackeyram, Dale; Rideout, Todd C; Wang, Zirong; Stoll, Barbara; Yin, Yulong; Burrin, Douglas G; Fan, Ming Z

    2016-06-01

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA co-transporter (B(0)AT1, encoded by the SLC6A19 gene) plays a dominant role for apical uptake of large neutral AA including L-Gln, we hypothesized that high apical Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity, and B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) in co-expression with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) were expressed along the entire small intestinal crypt-villus axis in young animals via unique control mechanisms. Kinetics of Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity in the apical membrane vesicles, prepared from epithelial cells sequentially isolated along the jejunal crypt-villus axis from liquid formula-fed young pigs, were measured with the membrane potential being clamped to zero using thiocyanate. Apical maximal Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity was much higher (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus (by 29 %) and the crypt (by 30 %) cells, whereas Na(+)-Gln co-transport affinity was lower (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus and the crypt cells. The B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) mRNA abundance was lower (p < 0.05) in the crypt (by 40-47 %) than in the villus cells. There were no significant differences in B(0)AT1 and ACE2 protein abundances on the apical membrane among the upper villus, the middle villus and the crypt cells. Our study suggests that piglet fast growth is associated with very high intestinal apical Na(+)-neutral AA uptake activities via abundantly co-expressing B(0)AT1 and ACE2 proteins in the apical membrane and by transcribing the B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) gene in the epithelia along the entire crypt-villus axis. PMID:26984322

  18. Propagating fronts in reaction-transport systems with memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, A. [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail: ayadav1@lsu.edu; Fedotov, Sergei [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1DQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sergei.fedotov@manchester.ac.uk; Mendez, Vicenc [Grup de Fisica Estadistica, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: vicenc.mendez@uab.es; Horsthemke, Werner [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail: whorsthe@smu.edu

    2007-11-26

    In reaction-transport systems with non-standard diffusion, the memory of the transport causes a coupling of reactions and transport. We investigate the effect of this coupling for systems with Fisher-type kinetics and obtain a general analytical expression for the front speed. We apply our results to the specific case of subdiffusion.

  19. Optimal configuration of an integrated power and transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Integrating the power and transport system, in the future energy system planning, influences the economically optimal investments and optimal operation of the power system as well as the transport system. For analysing the integrated power and transport system a new model capable of calculating...... optimal investments in both power plants and vehicle technologies is presented in this article. The model includes the interactions between the power system and the transport system including the competition between flexibility measures such as hydrogen storage in combination with electrolysis, heat...

  20. CDMA Technology for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bera, Rabindranath; Sil, Sanjib; Mondal, Dipak; Dhar, Sourav; Kandar, Debdatta

    2007-01-01

    Scientists and Technologists involved in the development of radar and remote sensing systems all over the world are now trying to involve themselves in saving of manpower in the form of developing a new application of their ideas in Intelligent Transport system(ITS). The world statistics shows that by incorporating such wireless radar system in the car would decrease the world road accident by 8-10% yearly. The wireless technology has to be chosen properly which is capable of tackling the severe interferences present in the open road. A combined digital technology like Spread spectrum along with diversity reception will help a lot in this regard. Accordingly, the choice is for FHSS based space diversity system which will utilize carrier frequency around 5.8 GHz ISM band with available bandwidth of 80 MHz and no license. For efficient design, the radio channel is characterized on which the design is based. Out of two available modes e.g. Communication and Radar modes, the radar mode is providing the conditiona...

  1. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P; Walsh, Kathleen A; Feliciano, Gustavo T; Steidl, Rebecca J; Tessmer, Stuart H; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors. PMID:27009596

  2. Multi-Agent Systems for Transportation Planning and Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Moonen (Hans)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMany transportation problems are in fact coordination problems: problems that require communication, coordination and negotiation to be optimally solved. However, most software systems targeted at transportation have never approached it this way, and have instead concentrated on centrali

  3. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  4. Monju secondary heat transport system sodium leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Hiroi, Hiroshi; Usami, Shin [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Monju Construction Office; Iwata, Koji

    1996-10-01

    On December 8, 1995, the sodium leakage from the secondary heat transport system (SHTS) occurred in the piping room of the reactor auxiliary building in Monju. The secondary sodium leaked through a temperature sensor, due to the breakaway of the tip of the well tube of the sensor installed near the outlet of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the C loop of SHTS. The reactor core remained cooled and thus, from the viewpoint of radiological hazards, the safety of the reactor was secured. There were no adverse effects for operating personnel or the surrounding environment. The cause of the well tube failure is considered to result from high cycle fatigue due to flow induced vibrations. Delay in draining the sodium from the leaking loop increased the consequential effects from sodium combustion products. (author)

  5. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  6. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  7. Memoryless self-reinforcing directionality in endosomal active transport within living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kejia; Wang, Bo; Granick, Steve

    2015-06-01

    In contrast to Brownian transport, the active motility of microbes, cells, animals and even humans often follows another random process known as truncated Lévy walk. These stochastic motions are characterized by clustered small steps and intermittent longer jumps that often extend towards the size of the entire system. As there are repeated suggestions, although disagreement, that Lévy walks have functional advantages over Brownian motion in random searching and transport kinetics, their intentional engineering into active materials could be useful. Here, we show experimentally in the classic active matter system of intracellular trafficking that Brownian-like steps self-organize into truncated Lévy walks through an apparent time-independent positive feedback such that directional persistence increases with the distance travelled persistently. A molecular model that allows the maximum output of the active propelling forces to fluctuate slowly fits the experiments quantitatively. Our findings offer design principles for programming efficient transport in active materials.

  8. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Scharinger; Ulrich Rabl; Christian H. Kasess; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Tina Hofmaier; Kersten Diers; Lucie Bartova; Gerald Pail; Wolfgang Huf; Zeljko Uzelac; Beate Hartinger; Klaudius Kalcher; Thomas Perkmann; Helmuth Haslacher; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy...

  9. Activity-Based Costing Application in an Urban Mass Transport Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popesko Boris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic overview of the application of Activity-Based Costing in an urban mass transport company which operates land public transport via buses and trolleys within the city. The case study was conducted using the Activity-Based Methodology in order to calculate the true cost of individual operations and to measure the profitability of particular transport lines. The case study analysis showed the possible effects of the application of the Activity-Based Costing for an urban mass transport company as well as the limitations of using the ABC methodology in the service industry. With regards to the application of the ABC methodology, the primary limitation of the accuracy of the conclusions is the quality of the non-financial information which had to be gathered throughout the implementation process. A basic limitation of the accurate data acquisition is the nature of the fare system of the transport company which does not allow the identification of the route that is taken by an individual passenger. The study illustrates the technique of ABC in urban mass transport and provides a real company example of information outputs of the ABC system. The users indicated that, the ABC model is very useful for profitability reporting and profit management. Also, the paper shows specific application of the Activity-Based Methodology in conditions of urban mass transport companies with regional specifics.

  10. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  11. Numerical Modelling Approaches for Sediment Transport in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole

    constitute the basic modelling system necessary to give a discription of the most dominant physical transport processes concerning particles and dissolved matter in sewer systems: A surface model. An advection-dispersion model. A sediment transport model.......A study of the sediment transport processes in sewers has been carried out. Based on this study a mathematical modelling system has been developed to describe the transport processes of sediments and dissolved matter in sewer systems. The modelling system consists of three sub-models which...

  12. Intelligent transportation infrastructure deployment analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Harding, J.A. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Much of the work on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to date has emphasized technologies, standards/protocols, architecture, user services, core infrastructure requirements, and various other technical and institutional issues. ITS implementations in the United States and elsewhere in the world have demonstrated benefits in the areas of safety, productivity, efficiency, and environmental impact. However, quantitative benefits and satisfactory cost estimates are not available or cannot be derived for many components of the ITS, whether deployed individually or in some integrated fashion. The limitations of existing analysis and evaluation capabilities coupled with the lack of strong empirical evidence presents a major knowledge and data gap for infrastructure investment decisions involving ITS alternatives. This paper describes the over-arching issues and requirements associated with the analysis capabilities required for a systematic, faithful, and rigorous evaluation of the impacts of deploying ITS in a metropolitan area. It then describes the conceptual framework of a modeling system that will provide a preliminary analysis capability to support ITS deployment analysis and evaluation.

  13. SYSTEM OF BUSINESS-PROCESSES MANAGEMENT AT MOTOR-TRANSPORT ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Коgut, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The place of the system of business-processes management at motor-transport enterprise in the general system of management of the enterprise has been substantiated. The subsystems of strategic management, business-processes management of strategic orientation and current activity, processes of enterprise functioning management have been marked out. The system of motor-transport enterprise business-processes management has been formed, which, unlike the existing ones, is based on the system-cy...

  14. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenby Marieah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport

  15. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  16. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  17. Elevation of cortical serotonin transporter activity upon peripheral immune challenge is regulated independently of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and transporter phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamborn, Robert; Brown, Eric; Haase, Jana

    2016-05-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for high-affinity serotonin (5-HT) uptake from extracellular fluid and is a prominent pharmacological target in the treatment of depression. In recent years, depression has also been linked to immune system activation. Inflammatory conditions can cause sickness behaviour and depression-like symptoms in both animals and humans. Since SERT has been proposed as one of the molecular targets in inflammation-induced depression, we applied the widely used lipopolysaccharides (LPS) model to study the effects of peripheral inflammation on SERT activity in the brain. We show that 24 h after intraperitoneal LPS administration, SERT-mediated 5-HT uptake is significantly enhanced in the frontal cortex. Analysis of uptake kinetics revealed that the transport capacity (Vmax ) of cortical SERT was increased in LPS-injected animals, while the Km value remained unchanged. The increase in Vmax was neither due to increased SERT protein expression nor increased synaptic surface exposure. The suppression of SERT activity upon inhibition of p38 MAPK was not selective for LPS-induced enhancement of SERT function. In addition, SERT activity changes in LPS-treated rats are unaffected by nitric oxide synthase and protein kinase G inhibitors. Using the Phos-Tag method, we identified five SERT-specific protein bands representing distinct phosphorylation states of SERT. However, the enhancement of SERT activity in LPS-treated rats was not correlated with altered transporter phosphorylation. Together with previous studies by others, our results suggest that SERT is regulated by multiple mechanisms in response to peripheral immune system activation. Peripheral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces characteristic sickness and depression-like behaviour in rats over a period of at least 24 h. We show here that the activity of the serotonin transporter (SERT), a prominent antidepressant target, is up-regulated 24 h following LPS

  18. Long-term controlled GDNF over-expression reduces dopamine transporter activity without affecting tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the rat mesostriatal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Chinea, Pedro; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Castro-Hernández, Javier; Salas-Hernández, Josmar; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Luis-Ravelo, Diego; Humbert-Claude, Marie; Tenenbaum, Liliane; González-Hernández, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein expressed in dopaminergic (DA-) cells that takes back DA into presynaptic neurons after its release. DAT dysfunction has been involved in different neuro-psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). On the other hand, numerous studies support that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has a protective effect on DA-cells. However, studies in rodents show that prolonged GDNF over-expression may cause a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) decline. The evidence of TH down-regulation suggests that another player in DA handling, DAT, may also be regulated by prolonged GDNF over-expression, and the possibility that this effect is induced at GDNF expression levels lower than those inducing TH down-regulation. This issue was investigated here using intrastriatal injections of a tetracycline-inducible adeno-associated viral vector expressing human GDNF cDNA (AAV-tetON-GDNF) in rats, and doxycycline (DOX; 0.01, 0.03, 0.5 and 3mg/ml) in the drinking water during 5weeks. We found that 3mg/ml DOX promotes an increase in striatal GDNF expression of 12× basal GDNF levels and both DA uptake decrease and TH down-regulation in its native and Ser40 phosphorylated forms. However, 0.5mg/ml DOX promotes a GDNF expression increase of 3× basal GDNF levels with DA uptake decrease but not TH down-regulation. The use of western-blot under non-reducing conditions, co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assay revealed that the DA uptake decrease is associated with the formation of DAT dimers and an increase in DAT-α-synuclein interactions, without changes in total DAT levels or its compartmental distribution. In conclusion, at appropriate GDNF transduction levels, DA uptake is regulated through DAT protein-protein interactions without interfering with DA synthesis. PMID:26777664

  19. A multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same tran...

  20. Traffic Route Modelling and Assignment with Intelligent Transport System

    OpenAIRE

    Kunicina Nadezhda; Galkina Alina; Zabasta Anatolijs; Patlins Antons; Kondratjevs Kaspars

    2014-01-01

    The development of signal transmitting environment for multimodal traffic control will enhance the integration of emergency and specialized transport routing tools in usual traffic control paradigms - it is one of the opportunities offered by modern intelligent traffic control systems. The improvement of effective electric power use in public transport system is an advantage of Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The research is connected with the improvement of on-line traffic control and ad...

  1. The SIMPSONS project: An integrated Mars transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Carlson, Eric; Bradfute, Sherie; Allen, Kent; Duvergne, Francois; Hernandez, Bert; Le, David; Nguyen, Quan; Thornhill, Brett

    In response to the Request for Proposal (RFP) for an integrated transportation system network for an advanced Martian base, Frontier Transportation Systems (FTS) presents the results of the SIMPSONS project (Systems Integration for Mars Planetary Surface Operations Networks). The following topics are included: the project background, vehicle design, future work, conclusions, management status, and cost breakdown. The project focuses solely on the surface-to-surface transportation at an advanced Martian base.

  2. Active transport and cluster formation on 2D networks

    CERN Document Server

    Greulich, Philip

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model for active transport on inhomogeneous networks embedded in a diffusive environment and investigate the formation of particle clusters. In the presence of a hard-core interaction, cluster sizes exhibit an algebraically decaying distribution in a large parameter regime, indicating the existence of clusters on all scales. The results are compared with a diffusion limited aggregation model and active transport on a regular network. For both models we observe aggregation of particles to clusters which are characterized by a finite size-scale if the relevant time-scales and particle densities are considered.

  3. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2013-01-01

    in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13...... show the potential of drawing the transport demand to the more energy efficient vehicles; however, more initiatives are needed if the sustainable transport is the long term objective, such as the solutions to stabilise the private vehicle demands, to continuously improve the vehicle efficiency...

  4. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation. (DLC)

  5. Cybernetic Transportation Systems Design and Development: Simulation Software cybercars

    OpenAIRE

    Boissé, Sébastien; Benenson, Rodrigo; Bouraoui, Laurent; Parent, Michel; Vlacic, Ljubo

    2007-01-01

    The growing number of vehicles saturates cities in terms of congestion and pollution. A Cybernetic Transportation System (CTS) appears to be a way to resolve those problems. Based on a network of clean driverless vehicles (the cybercars), CTS aims to improve safety and organization of urban transport by providing a door-to-door complement to efficient and fast mass transport. The simulation software presented in this paper has a goal to facilitate the development of such a transportation syst...

  6. Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

  7. Structuring a Sustainable Transportation System in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> Since the implementation of the Master Plan of Beijing in 1993, Beijing has acquired economic development continually, and the construction of urban transportation has gained obvious achievements. But with the continually high-speed development of Beijing’s economy, the quickened tenor of urbanization and traffic motorization, the increasing need for transportation and amount of motor

  8. The Exchange Value Embedded In A Transport System

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Qinglan

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that a well designed transport system has an embedded exchange value by serving as a market for potential exchange between consumers. Under suitable conditions, one can improve the welfare of consumers in the system simply by allowing some exchange of goods between consumers during transportation without incurring additional transportation costs. We propose an explicit valuation formula to measure this exchange value for a given compatible transport system. This value is always nonnegative and bounded from above. Criteria based on transport structures, preferences and prices are provided to determine the existence of a positive exchange value. Finally, we study a new optimal transport problem with an objective taking into account of both transportation cost and exchange value.

  9. Evaluation of KFB-funded research on transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, D.; Knudsen, T.; Wegener, M.

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of two research projects on transport systems, which have been financed fully or partially by KFB. The projects are: l. Systems analysis of transport markets at the Division of Transport and Location Analysis in the Department of Infrastructure and Planning of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm; and 2. Planning, analysis and management in traffic networks - optimization models and methods at the Division of Optimization in the Department of Mathematics at Linkoeping University. The evaluation seeks to examine the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to the academic world and society. The two project teams prepared a self-assessment of their research activities and submitted copies of relevant publications. The evaluation committee visited both institutions and engaged the teams in discussions of their results and methodology. These visits occurred on June 1 and 2, 1999. This report is based on the self-assessments of the teams, the materials submitted and the meetings with the project teams. The evaluation and recommendations presented in the report are those of the reviewers and do not necessarily represent the views of KFB

  10. INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLIED TO TRANSPORT IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIAN ANDRES ZAPATA CORTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El transporte es uno de los elementos más relevantes para la competitividad de las empresas y las ciudades, pues un sistema de transporte inadecuado genera altos costos y bajos niveles de servicio al cliente, lo que fi nalmente produce un impacto económico para ambas partes. Este artículo presenta una revisión de herramientas tecnológicas que hacen parte de los sistemas de transporte inteligentes (ITS, sistemas utilizados para el mejoramiento del desempeño y seguridad del transporte, no solo de carga sino también de pasajeros y en diferentes modos. El artículo comienza con una descripción sobre los sistemas de transporte ITS, seguido por la presentación de los benefi cios de estos sistemas y fi nalmente se realiza una revisión de las diferentes herramientas que enmarcan los ITS.

  11. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/41n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Vaquer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay® (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2 trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology

  12. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13% of the energy saving and 12% of the CO2 emission reduction can be attained by accomplishing three strategies compared with the reference transport system. However, the energy demand of transport in 2020 with the implementation of three strategies will be about 1.7 times as much as today. The three strategies show the potential of drawing the transport demand to the more energy efficient vehicles; however, more initiatives are needed if the sustainable transport is the long term objective, such as the solutions to stabilise the private vehicle demands, to continuously improve the vehicle efficiency and to boost the alternative fuels produced from the renewable energy sources. - Highlights: • A Chinese transport model was created and three transport strategies were evaluated • Transport is the biggest driver of the oil demand in China not the industry • The energy demand of transport in 2020 will be twice as much as today • Strategies contribute 13% energy saving and 12% CO2 emission reduction • More initiatives are needed if a sustainable transport is the long-term objective

  13. Data security in Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transport Services expect availability of the secure seamless communications solutions typically covering widely spread areas. Different ITS solutions require different portfolio of telecommunications service quality. These parameters have to correspond with ITS service performance parameters required by specific service. Even though quite extensive range of public wireless data services with reasonable coverage are provided, most of them are provided with no guaranteed quality and security. ITS requirements can be in most parameters easier reached if multi-path communications systems are applied core solution is combined with both public as well as private ones where and when it is needed. Such solution requires implementation of relevant flexible system architecture supported by the efficient decision processes. This paper is concentrated the telecommunications security issues relevant to the ITS wide area networking. Expected level of security varies in dependence on relevant ITS service requirements. Data volumes transferred both in private data vehicle on board networks as well as between vehicles and infrastructure (C2I or other vehicles (C2C progressively grow. Such trend upsurges the fatal problems appearance probability in case security of the wide area networks is not relevantly treated. That is reason why relevant communications security treatment becomes crucial part of the ITS solution. Besides of available "off shelf" security tools we present solution based on non-public universal identifier with dynamical extension (time and position dependency as an autonomous variables and data selection according to actor role or category. Presented results were obtained within projects e-Ident1, DOTEK2 and SRATVU3.

  14. Transport of active ellipsoidal particles in ratchet potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Bao-Quan, E-mail: aibq@scnu.edu.cn; Wu, Jian-Chun [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, 510006 Guangzhou (China)

    2014-03-07

    Rectified transport of active ellipsoidal particles is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional asymmetric potential. The out-of-equilibrium condition for the active particle is an intrinsic property, which can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the perfect sphere particle can facilitate the rectification, while the needlelike particle destroys the directed transport. There exist optimized values of the parameters (the self-propelled velocity, the torque acting on the body) at which the average velocity takes its maximal value. For the ellipsoidal particle with not large asymmetric parameter, the average velocity decreases with increasing the rotational diffusion rate, while for the needlelike particle (very large asymmetric parameter), the average velocity is a peaked function of the rotational diffusion rate. By introducing a finite load, particles with different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities) will move to the opposite directions, which is able to separate particles of different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities)

  15. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α =2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  16. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed inter-event time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law inter-arrival time distribution with an exponent $\\alpha=2.5$ and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  17. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of groundwater contamination at a large number of industrial facilities is well known. Many US Army and Department of Energy (DOE) facilities share this problem of potentially contaminated water as a result of past disposal practices associated with military and energy source development activities. A wide range of contaminants are found at certain installations encompassing industrial pollutants and military-unique materials. The US Army Biomedical Research and Development Laboratory has been conducting research for a number of years on developing better means to determine the hazards associated with exposure to these types of complex mixtures. The methods involve the use of aquatic organisms together with in vitro mutagenicity assays and analytical chemistry in an integrated biological assessment of a specific site. Integrated Biological Assessment is an important development in the Army's continuing efforts to locate, clean and monitor sites contaminated as a result of military operations. This method provides meaningful hazard data regarding whether a test medium contains low levels of industrial or military-unique contaminants. This is an important advance in determining which sites are clean and which require remediation. It provides continuing monitoring of the effectiveness of remediation operations. Engineering Computer Opteconomics (ECO), Inc. was tasked, in a collaborative Army and DOE effort, to develop a transportable Integrated Biological Assessment Laboratory Complex. This multimodular Complex is designed to be taken into remote areas to provide the necessary long-term on-site research for determining hazards from low levels of contamination in the environment. Each module of the Complex is designed to be self-sufficient, to provide a safe environment for the operators, and a controlled environment for the test organisms and related critical chemical and biological analyses

  18. Geographic Information Systems-Transportation ISTEA management systems server-net prototype pooled fund study: Phase B summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Dean, C.D.; Armstrong, H.M. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Geographic Information System-Transportation (GIS-T) ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype Pooled Fund Study represents the first national cooperative effort in the transportation industry to address the management and monitoring systems as well as the statewide and metropolitan transportation planning requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The Study was initiated in November 1993 through the Alliance for Transportation Research and under the leadership of the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. Sandia National Laboratories, an Alliance partner, and Geographic Paradigm Computing. Inc. provided technical leadership for the project. In 1992, the Alliance for Transportation Research, the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, and Geographic Paradigm Computing, Inc., proposed a comprehensive research agenda for GIS-T. That program outlined a national effort to synthesize new transportation policy initiatives (e.g., management systems and Intelligent Transportation Systems) with the GIS-T server net ideas contained in the NCHRP project {open_quotes}Adaptation of GIS to Transportation{close_quotes}. After much consultation with state, federal, and private interests, a project proposal based on this agenda was prepared and resulted in this Study. The general objective of the Study was to develop GIS-T server net prototypes supporting the ISTEA requirements for transportation planning and management and monitoring systems. This objective can be further qualified to: (1) Create integrated information system architectures and design requirements encompassing transportation planning activities and data. (2) Encourage the development of functional GIS-T server net prototypes. (3) Demonstrate multiple information systems implemented in a server net environment.

  19. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenby Marieah; Reeder Anthony I; Murdoch Linda; Richards Rosalina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycl...

  20. Development trends in space transportation systems: From Hermes to Saenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontein, Volker; Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The criteria for the development of future space transportation systems are given. A trend in reducing transportation costs by reutilizing transportation systems is outlined. The European Hermes project represents a first step towards reutilization and manned winged apparatus. The technological and organizational requirements and the German participation in this project are described. The Saenger concept is shown as a logical advancement of this project, and of the corresponding technology. It consists of a two stage winged space tug with horizontal launch. A space transportation system with low launching costs, higher safety, and mission flexibility is expected. It should complete cargo rocket Ariane 5.

  1. Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angioni, C

    2001-10-01

    Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code

  2. Directed Transport of Interacting Particle Systems: Recent Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhi-Gang

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in studies of directed transport processes in interacting particle systems are retrospected. Due to the interactions among elements, the directed transport process exhibits complicated and novel cooperative dynamics. We considered various possibilities in achieving ratchet motion by breaking different symmetries of many-body systems. It is shown that the directional transport can even be induced by breaking the coupling symmetry and the spatiotemporal symmetries.

  3. Berberine acutely activates the glucose transport activity of GLUT1

    OpenAIRE

    Cok, Alexandra; Plaisier, Christina; Salie, Matthew J.; Oram, Daniel S.; Chenge, Jude; Louters, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Berberine, which has a long history of use in Chinese medicine, has recently been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of diabetes. While the hypoglycemic effect of berberine has been clearly documented in animal and cell line models, such as 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotube cells, the mechanism of action appears complex with data implicating activation of the insulin signaling pathway as well as activation of the exercise or AMP kinase-mediated pathway. There have been no reports of the a...

  4. Localization Transport in Granular and Nanoporous Carbon Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Alex Weng Pui

    Porous carbon materials have long since been used in industry to make capacitors and adsorption agents because of their high specific surface area. Although their adsorption properties have been extensively studied, we have not seen the same vigor in the investigation of their physical properties, which are important not only for providing complementary characterization methods, but also for understanding the physics which underlies the manufacturing process and motivates intelligent design of these materials. The study of the new physics in these novel nanoporous materials also straddles the scientific forefronts of nanodimensional and disordered systems. In this thesis, we study the structural and electrical properties of two nanoporous carbons, namely activated carbon fibers and carbon aerogels. Specifically, we perform Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, electrical transport and magnetotransport experiments. Results from other experiments reported in the literature or communicated to us by our collaborators, such as porosity and surface area measurements by adsorption methods, electron spin resonance, transmission electron microscopy, mechanical properties measurements and so on, are also frequently used in this thesis for additional characterization information. By correlating all the relevant results, we obtain the structure -property relationships in these nanoporous materials. This study shows that the transport properties of these porous materials can be used on one hand for sensitive characterization of complex materials, and on the other hand, for observing interesting and unusual physical phenomena. For example, as-prepared nanoporous carbon systems, exhibit in their low-temperature electrical conductivity a universal temperature dependence which is characteristic of a granular metallic system, despite their morphological differences. By studying further the magnetoresistance in these carbon materials, it is found that the

  5. Development of the OCRWM transportation geographic information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for disposing of the nation's high-level radioactive waste. Current plans call for OCRWM to ship commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 77 individual reactor sites to a central facility for disposal. The Transportation Geographic Information System (TGIS) is a valuable tool in planning for the SNF shipments and communicating with the public regarding the shipments. The TGIS consists of a geographic information system (GIS) combined with a set of databases that provide data on specific geographic areas, transportation networks, and point locations. Planning activities may include analyzing possible routing options or criteria, highlighting route-specific attributes such as the location of culturally sensitive areas, providing route-specific data such as accident statistics, determining the affected population density along a route to support risk assessment activities, or providing emergency response information such as responder locations and hospitals along the proposed routes. The TGIS is a useful communication tool in helping to address the public's concern over how the shipments will be managed, particularly in the area of route selection by providing graphic portrayals of potential routes in their true geographic contexts

  6. Identification of a novel system L amino acid transporter structurally distinct from heterodimeric amino acid transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ellappan; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Kim, Do Kyung; Iribe, Yuji; Tangtrongsup, Sahatchai; Jutabha, Promsuk; Li, Yuewei; Ahmed, Nesar; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Anzai, Naohiko; Nagamori, Seishi; Endou, Hitoshi

    2003-10-31

    A cDNA that encodes a novel Na+-independent neutral amino acid transporter was isolated from FLC4 human hepatocarcinoma cells by expression cloning. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the encoded protein designated LAT3 (L-type amino acid transporter 3) transported neutral amino acids such as l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-valine, and l-phenylalanine. The LAT3-mediated transport was Na+-independent and inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, consistent with the properties of system L. Distinct from already known system L transporters LAT1 and LAT2, which form heterodimeric complex with 4F2 heavy chain, LAT3 was functional by itself in Xenopus oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence of LAT3 was identical to the gene product of POV1 reported as a prostate cancer-up-regulated gene whose function was not determined, whereas it did not exhibit significant similarity to already identified transporters. The Eadie-Hofstee plots of LAT3-mediated transport were curvilinear, whereas the low affinity component is predominant at physiological plasma amino acid concentration. In addition to amino acid substrates, LAT3 recognized amino acid alcohols. The transport of l-leucine was electroneutral and mediated by a facilitated diffusion. In contrast, l-leucinol, l-valinol, and l-phenylalaninol, which have a net positive charge induced inward currents under voltage clamp, suggesting these compounds are transported by LAT3. LAT3-mediated transport was inhibited by the pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide, consistent with the property of system L2 originally characterized in hepatocyte primary culture. Based on the substrate selectivity, affinity, and N-ethylmaleimide sensitivity, LAT3 is proposed to be a transporter subserving system L2. LAT3 should denote a new family of organic solute transporters. PMID:12930836

  7. Analysis of Common Governance Transport System Development Possibilities in the East-west Transport Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Bazaras Darius; Yatskiv Irina; Mačiulis Alminas; Palšaitis Ramūnas

    2015-01-01

    Equitable access to efficient economic infrastructure and effective public services is essential to achieving the future economic growth. Insufficient transport infrastructure and long border crossing procedures limiting international accessibility for goods and passengers are the biggest present problems in the East-West transport corridor. The joint action plan must highlight the areas and components of the transport system, which are important for the effective interconnectivity of the ind...

  8. Status and Prospect of China's Space Transportation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LongLehao

    2004-01-01

    The space transportation system refers to all transportation vehicles carrying various paylaads and flying between the ground and space orbits or among orbits. It includes launch vehicle, space shuttle, space plane,emergency rescue vehicle and all kinds of auxiliary systems. The space

  9. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems : algorithms and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Matthieu; Ebben, Mark; Gademann, Noud; Harten, van Aart

    2000-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated

  10. Success and failures in urban transport planning in Europe — understanding the transport system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hermann Knoflacher

    2007-08-01

    Technological determinism has become a kind of religion for many people since it appears to offer solutions for societal problems as never before in history. Transport is one of the fascinating technology branches developed during the last 200 years. Effortless movement over long distances has become possible for car users as long as cheap fossil energy is available. However, the effect of fast transport on urban structures and society was not taken into account when developing these technical means. Technologists and economists have used indicators for expected benefits of these fast transport modes without taking into account the real system effects on society and urban structures. Plausible assumptions and hopes instead of scientific understanding of the complex system are used in practice. In contradiction to widely held beliefs of transportation planners, there is actually no growth of mobility if counted in number of trips per person per day, no time saving by increasing speed in the system, and no real freedom of modal choice. Modal choice is dependent on physical and other structures, the artificial environment built by urban planners, transport experts and political decisions. The core hypothesis of traditional urban and transport planning ‘growth of mobility’, ‘travel time saving by increasing speed’ and ‘freedom of modal choice’ are myths and do not exist in the real urban and transport system. This is the reason why urban planning and transport planning based on traditional non-scientific assumptions is creating continuously not only more transport problems, but also environmental and social as well as economic problems all over the world, where these principals are applied. Urban transport planning in Europe, understanding the transport system and the solutions are presented in this paper.

  11. Electrical transport in ethyl cellulose–chloranil system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Khare; R K Pandey; P L Jain

    2000-08-01

    The charge-transport behaviour in pure and chloranil (Chl) doped ethyl cellulose (EC) system has been studied by measuring the dependence of current on field, temperature, electrode material and dopant concentration. The role of doping molecular concentration in the polymer matrix and modification in the conduction characteristics are studied. Lowering of the activation energy due to doping was observed. The current was found to increase with an increase in the chloranil concentration. An explanation for this has been attempted on the basis of formation of molecular aggregates between chloranil molecules and ethoxy groups of ethyl cellulose. It is suggested that chloranil occupies interstitial positions between the polymer chains and assists in carrier transportation by reducing the hopping barriers. The current–voltage characteristics of different samples are analyzed using space charge limited current theory and quantitative information about the transport parameters is derived. The values of effective drift mobility and trapped charge carrier concentration which result in the build up of space charge have been calculated.

  12. Comparison of Conventional and Modern Urban Public Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moradi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the conventional and modern public transport systems for urban areas. Conventional public transport systems have been implemented in many metropolises and the cities with substantially large population but there are remarkable complications and disadvantages related to such systems which lead to lower level of efficiency and eventually lower capability to attract the citizens. Modern world can offer an advanced technology based public transport system which can be competitive with conventional systems. Personal Rapid Transit (PRT is a public transport system which could be among the several systems proposed for a particular urban area in planning and decision making process. An analytical tool is required to compare the characteristics of the conventional systems and the modern system in order to make the most suitable decision in selection of a public transport system for the area under consideration. A model considering social, technical and economical aspects of public transport based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method is given that describes the necessary factors which must be checked and considered in planning process of public transport in highly populated cities.

  13. Fluctuation driven active molecular transport in passive channel proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztin, Ioan

    2006-03-01

    Living cells interact with their extracellular environment through the cell membrane, which acts as a protective permeability barrier for preserving the internal integrity of the cell. However, cell metabolism requires controlled molecular transport across the cell membrane, a function that is fulfilled by a wide variety of transmembrane proteins, acting as either passive or active transporters. In this talk it is argued that, contrary to the general belief, in active cell membranes passive and spatially asymmetric channel proteins can act as active transporters by consuming energy from nonequilibrium fluctuations fueled by cell metabolism. This assertion is demonstrated in the case of the E. coli aquaglyceroporin GlpF channel protein, whose high resolution crystal structure is manifestly asymmetric. By calculating the glycerol flux through GlpF within the framework of a stochastic model, it is found that, as a result of channel asymmetry, glycerol uptake driven by a concentration gradient is enhanced significantly in the presence of non-equilibrium fluctuations. Furthermore, the enhancement caused by a ratchet-like mechanism is larger for the outward, i.e., from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, flux than for the inward one, suggesting that the same non-equilibrium fluctuations also play an important role in protecting the interior of the cell against poisoning by excess uptake of glycerol. Preliminary data on water and sugar transport through aquaporin and maltoporin channels, respectively, are indicative of the universality of the proposed nonequilibrium-fluctuation-driven active transport mechanism. This work was supported by grants from the Univ. of Missouri Research Board, the Institute for Theoretical Sciences and the Department of Energy (DOE Contract W-7405-ENG-36), and the National Science Foundation (FIBR-0526854).

  14. Radioprotector modifying influence upon the ion transport ATPase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of aminothiol and biogenic amine radioprotectors (β-mercaptoethylamine, AET, serotonin, dopamine, histamine) on the basic ion transport enzymes, such as Na, K-ATP ase and Mg, Ca-ATPase activities were investigated in the tissues of numerous organs, with different radiosensitivity in the wistar rats. Experimental results showed that intraperitoneal injection of the used radioprotectors caused preliminary inhibition of the Na, K-ATPase activity in tissues from organs with different radioresistance, but had no influence on the Mg, Ca-ATPase activity in membranes of erythrocytes and rat brain cells. (2 tabs.)

  15. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transportation system - dedicated to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of a first-of-a-kind transportation system. The total transport package includes a specially designed trailer, lightweight tractor, and type B container. In the development effort, the DOE has been exceptionally sensitive to public concerns and the need for safety in the transport of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Measures taken in the development of the transport system exceed all existing requirements and, in the interest of public safety, incorporate all precautionary measures possible

  16. An advanced control system for a next generation transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, J. J.; Davis, W. J; Grantham, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of modern control theory to develop a high-authority stability and control system for the next generation transport aircraft is described with examples taken from work performed on an advanced pitch active control system (PACS). The PACS was configured to have short-period and phugoid modes frequency and damping characteristics within the shaded S-plane areas, column force gradients with set bounds and with constant slope, and a blended normal-acceleration/pitch rate time history response to a step command. Details of the control law, feedback loop, and modal control syntheses are explored, as are compensation for the feedback gain, the deletion of the velocity signal, and the feed-forward compensation. Scheduling of the primary and secondary gains are discussed, together with control law mechanization, flying qualities analyses, and application on the L-1011 aircraft.

  17. Modular System to Enable Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to perform extravehicular activity (EVA), both human and robotic, has been identified as a key component to space missions to support such operations as assembly and maintenance of space systems (e.g. construction and maintenance of the International Space Station), and unscheduled activities to repair an element of the transportation and habitation systems that can only be accessed externally and via unpressurized areas. In order to make human transportation beyond lower Earth orbit (LEO) practical, efficiencies must be incorporated into the integrated transportation systems to reduce system mass and operational complexity. Affordability is also a key aspect to be considered in space system development; this could be achieved through commonality, modularity and component reuse. Another key aspect identified for the EVA system was the ability to produce flight worthy hardware quickly to support early missions and near Earth technology demonstrations. This paper details a conceptual architecture for a modular EVA system that would meet these stated needs for EVA capability that is affordable, and that could be produced relatively quickly. Operational concepts were developed to elaborate on the defined needs, and to define the key capabilities, operational and design constraints, and general timelines. The operational concept lead to a high level design concept for a module that interfaces with various space transportation elements and contains the hardware and systems required to support human and telerobotic EVA; the module would not be self-propelled and would rely on an interfacing element for consumable resources. The conceptual architecture was then compared to EVA Systems used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter, on the International Space Station to develop high level design concepts that incorporate opportunities for cost savings through hardware reuse, and quick production through the use of existing technologies and hardware designs. An upgrade option

  18. Development of a Techno-economic Model of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) for Deployment in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Tadayoni, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is about the development and deployment of advanced Traffic Management Systems, Traveler Information Systems, Commercial Vehicle Operations, Public and Private Transportation Systems, and Rural Transportation Systems. Several key technologies...

  19. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Harold E.; Bearden, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a ``DOE Alternative.'' The U.S. Department of Transportation has special ``double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained ``bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992.

  20. Information technology and systems in transport supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Olga ZHURAVLEVA

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the logistics processes in supply chain management,information technology in management and prospects for the use of informationtechnology in the transportation logistics segment, with particular attention paid to thekey factors in information technology that affects the efficiency of transport logisticssegment, as well as conclusions are reached regarding the importance of active use ofinformation technology in logistics.

  1. Information technology and systems in transport supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga ZHURAVLEVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the logistics processes in supply chain management,information technology in management and prospects for the use of informationtechnology in the transportation logistics segment, with particular attention paid to thekey factors in information technology that affects the efficiency of transport logisticssegment, as well as conclusions are reached regarding the importance of active use ofinformation technology in logistics.

  2. Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport System Planning:An Exploration of Sustainable Urban Transport Development on Condition of Limited Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With "integration" as the direction,Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport Planning integrates the plan,construction and management of all kinds of transport mode in the transport system,and integrates the transport with the social,economic and environment development.The planning specifies the strategic targets,key indicators,development strategies as well as major policies of the comprehensive transport system,which explores an alternative way for the sustainable urban transport development under the condition of limited resources in Shenzhen.

  3. Salt Repository Project transportation system interface requirements: Transportation system/repository receiving facility interface requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a preliminary review of the interface between the transportation system and the repository receiving facility for a nuclear waste mined geologic disposal system in salt. Criteria for generic cask and facility designs are developed. These criteria are derived by examining the interfaces that occur as a result of the operations needed to receive nuclear waste at a repository. These criteria provide the basis for design of a safe, operable, practical nuclear waste receiving facility. The processing functions required to move the shipping unit from the gate into the unloading area and back to the gate for dispatch are described. Criteria for a generic receiving facility are discussed but no specific facility design is presented or evaluated. The criteria are stated in general terms to allow application to a wide variety of cask and facility designs. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Innovating for a competitive and resource-efficient transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    Transport is vital to the economic prosperity and social integration of Europe. EU-transport policy is directed to developing a smart, efficient transport system with reduced dependency on fossil fuels and less environmental impacts that will enhance mobility in Europe and will underpin Europe's competitiveness in global markets. This includes the transport sector itself, which is an important part of the EU economy. In contributing to achieving these ambitious goals, extensive investments are made in research and development for sustainable and innovative solutions. This Policy Brochure, which is produced by the Transport Research and Innovation Portal (TRIP), highlights the contribution of research, development, and innovation in securing a competitive and resource-efficient transport system in Europe.

  5. Equilibrium models in multimodal container transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.; Viti, F.; Negenborn, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the performance of multimodal freight transport networks involves adequately balancing the interplay between costs, volumes, times of departure and arrival, and times of travel. In order to study this interplay, we propose an assignment model that is able to efficiently determine flows an

  6. Control of machine functions or transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, M.D.; Lee, M.J.; Jaeger, J.; King, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer code, COMFORT, has been developed at SLAC for on-line calculation of the strengths of magnetic elements in an electron storage ring or transport beam line, subject to first order fitting constraints on the ring or beam line parameters. This code can also be used off-line as an interactive lattice or beam line design tool.

  7. Transport for Stochastic System with Infinite Locally Coupled Oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ying-Kui; LI Jing-Hui; ZHAO Xian-Geng

    2003-01-01

    We consider the transport of particles for spatially periodic system with infinite locally coupled oscillatorsdriven by additive and multiplicative noises. A formula of the probability current derived by us shows that the couplingamong the infinite oscillators is an ingredient for transport. This coupling of the oscillators can induce transport ofparticles in the absence of the correlation of the additive and multiplicative noises, even without the multiplicative noise.

  8. Agricultural pricing systems and transportation policy in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gersovitz, M

    1991-01-01

    When agricultural production is taxed, the system of producer prices, transport logistics, and decisions on investments in transport for exports must be considered together. Many African states raise revenue by taxing export crops. A common tool for this purpose is marketing boards. Marketing boards purchase crops at depots established near areas of cultivation, at prices that yield a profit to the board. The boards also arrange for processing and the transport of the product from depots to p...

  9. SWOT ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN BUCHAREST

    OpenAIRE

    Bugheanu Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    European Capital-Bucharest is in a continuous development from all points of view, and the demand for more effective modes of transportation is constantly increasing. The population of the city has increased significantly in recent years, the number of passenger cars registered here exceeds 20% of the total of those registered at the country level, and the transport system has to face all the challenges. The aim of the present research is to conduct an analysis on the public transport network...

  10. A 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Po-Yi; Chen, Chia-Yi; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Ruan, Sheng-Siang; Wu, Kuan-Hung

    2014-02-10

    A 10-Gbps optical worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) transport system employing vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and spatial light modulator (SLM) with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulating signal is proposed. With the assistance of equalizer and low noise amplifier (LNA) at the receiving site, good bit error rate (BER) performance, clear constellation map, and clear eye diagram are achieved in the proposed systems. An optical WiMAX transport system, transmitting 16-QAM-OFDM signal over a 6-m free-space link, with a data rate of 10 Gbps is successfully demonstrated. Such a 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system would be attractive for providing services including Internet and telecommunication services. Our proposed system is suitable for the free-space lightwave transport system in visible light communication (VLC) application.

  11. Reaction-Transport Systems Mesoscopic Foundations, Fronts, and Spatial Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Horsthemke, Werner; Mendez, Vicenc

    2010-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the dynamics of reaction-diffusion systems, with a focus on fronts and stationary spatial patterns. Emphasis is on systems that are non-standard in the sense that either the transport is not simply classical diffusion (Brownian motion) or the system is not homogeneous. A important feature is the derivation of the basic phenomenological equations from the mesoscopic system properties. Topics addressed include transport with inertia, described by persistent random walks and hyperbolic reaction-transport equations and transport by anomalous diffusion, in particular subdiffusion, where the mean square displacement grows sublinearly with time. In particular reaction-diffusion systems are studied where the medium is in turn either spatially inhomogeneous, compositionally heterogeneous or spatially discrete. Applications span a vast range of interdisciplinary fields and the systems considered can be as different as human or animal groups migrating under external influences, population...

  12. Regulation of human hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by diesel exhaust particle extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Le Vee

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs are common environmental air pollutants primarily affecting the lung. DEPs or chemicals adsorbed on DEPs also exert extra-pulmonary effects, including alteration of hepatic drug detoxifying enzyme expression. The present study was designed to determine whether organic DEP extract (DEPe may target hepatic drug transporters that contribute in a major way to drug detoxification. Using primary human hepatocytes and transporter-overexpressing cells, DEPe was first shown to strongly inhibit activities of the sinusoidal solute carrier (SLC uptake transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 and of the canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC efflux pump multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, with IC50 values ranging from approximately 1 to 20 μg/mL and relevant to environmental exposure situations. By contrast, 25 μg/mL DEPe failed to alter activities of the SLC transporter organic cation transporter (OCT 1 and of the ABC efflux pumps P-glycoprotein and bile salt export pump (BSEP, whereas it only moderately inhibited those of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Treatment by 25 μg/mL DEPe was next demonstrated to induce expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in cultured human hepatic cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B3, OATP2B1, OCT1 and BSEP. Such changes in transporter expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR pathway. This suggests that DEPe, which is enriched in known ligands of AhR like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alters drug transporter expression via activation of the AhR cascade. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of organic chemicals containing in DEPs, which may contribute

  13. Activation of CFTR-mediated Cl- Transport by Magnolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ling-ling; LIU Xin; SUN Yan; LIN Sen; ZHOU Na; XU Li-na; YU BO; HOU Shu-guang; YANG Hong

    2008-01-01

    Magnolin is a herbal compound from Magnolia biondii Pamp.It possesses numerous biological activities.Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR)is all epithelial chloride channel that plays a key role in the fluid secretion of various exocrine organs.In the present study,the activation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport by magnolin is indentified and characterized.In CFTR stably trailsfected FRT cells.magnolin increases CFTR Cl- currents in a concentration-dependent manner.The activation of magnolin on CFTR is rapid,reversible,and cAMP-dependent.Magnolin does not elevate cellular cAMP level.indicating that it activates CFTR by direct binding and interaction with CFTR protein.Magnolin selectively activates wildtype CFTR rather than mutant CFTIL Magnolin may present a novel class of therapeutic lead compound for the treatment of diseases associated with reduced CFTR function such as keratoconjunctivitis sicca,idiopathic chronic pancreatiti,and chromc constipation.

  14. Electric Current Systems in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, B. J.; Mickey, D. L.

    2000-05-01

    The first study to show the persistence of local field-aligned current systems in active regions was reported by Pevtsov, Canfield, and Metcalf (Astrophys. J., 425, L117, 1994). Their work was limited to a sample of complex, flare-productive regions because of the sensitivity limit of the data from the Haleakala Stokes Polarimeter. I report here on a new survey of active regions with the Imaging Vector Magnetograph (IVM) at Mees Solar Observatory. The IVM data permit a look at current systems in simpler, more typical active regions, because of better sensitivity, temporal sampling, spatial resolution and field-of-view. Small scale current systems are commonly seen. Transport of current systems by advective processes is commonly seen over times of hours. This work was supported by NASA grant NAG5-4941 and by a subcontract with LMSAL in support of NASA contract NAS8-40801 for YOHKOH SXT.

  15. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  16. FEATURES FOR TRANSPORT AND AIR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dumitru BUSA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport of dangerous goods are regulated activities, they take place under the direction and control of the authorities and specialized bodies in an institutional framework determined by national and international law. Of economic, transport infrastructure is the crucial element without which both production and trade would become meaningless, it is an essential element of a civilization, is also a necessary accessory of other economic activities.

  17. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  18. Changes in ATP Content, Hexokinase Activity, and Glucose Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast tumours responding to chemotherapy exhibit decreased [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG incorporation. Underlying mechanisms of these changes is poorly understood. Here, in MCF-7 cells, responding to chemotherapy drugs commonly utilised in the treatment of breast cancer, [18F]FDG incorporation and several pivotal factors associated with [18F]FDG incorporation investigated. Methods. IC50 and subclinical doxorubicin, docetaxel, and tamoxifen doses determined using MTT assay. [18F]FDG incorporation by cells treated with IC50 drug doses for 48 hours and 72 hours were determined and FDG dephosphorylation estimated by measuring loss of 18F from [18F]FDG-preincubated cells (pulse-chase. Glucose transport determined by measuring initial uptake rate of non-metabolised glucose analogue omethylglucose; hexokinase activity and ATP content measured in cell homogenates; Cell cycle distribution determined using flow cytometry of propidium iodide stained nuclei. Results. [18F]FDG incorporation and ATP content decreased in cells after 72 hours treatment with IC50 doses of tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and docetaxel compared with untreated controls. Decreased glucose transport and/or hexokinase activity accompanied decreased [18F]FDG incorporation by MCF-7 cells treated with tamoxifen or doxorubicin but not docetaxel. Conclusions. Tumour cell [18F]FDG incorporation along with ATP content decreased by treatment with tamoxifen, doxorubicin and docetaxel paralleling clinical observations for solid tumours. Effect of each treatment on glucose transport and hexokinase activity was chemotherapy-drug dependent.

  19. Development of hotcell transportation system technology for high radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first stage of the research, the transportation and storage characteristics analysis of the pyroprocess materials, the development of horizontal type hot cell transportation system, and the design of interim storage system for the pyroprocess material are conducted. The optimized capacity, transportation frequency and operation period of pyroprocess facility are found using the logistics analysis program developed in this project. A new hot cell transportation system was designed. Through the safety analysis and test for the hot cell transportation system, the design license has been approved. A new type hot cell docking system with superior performance has been developed with a patented rotating lid system. We have reached to a unique concept of interim storage of pyroprocess materials and selected a system through a comparative evaluation of existing ones. In the second stage of the research, transportation/storage/sealing devices for PRIDE recovered material/wastes were developed. And test model for the devices in engineering scale facility were also developed. The design requirements for a vertical docking system were evaluated and the performance assessment using a scaled mock-up was conducted. Integrated storage management technology was evaluated for an efficient management of process materials. A heat transfer simulation and characteristics analysis for the storage system were conducted. The derivation of design requirements, design and fabrication of a canister test model, and preliminary safety assessment were conducted

  20. 78 FR 68908 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection); Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection); Activity... needed to evaluate the Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection program to ensure Veterans... Control No. 2900-NEW (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection)'' in any correspondence. During...

  1. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  2. Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovinec, Carl [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-09-07

    The study entitled, "Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems," (TDTFS) applied analytical theory and numerical computation to investigate topics of importance to confining plasma, the fourth state of matter, with magnetic fields. A central focus of the work is how non-thermal components of the ion particle distribution affect the "sawtooth" collective oscillation in the core of the tokamak magnetic configuration. Previous experimental and analytical research had shown and described how the oscillation frequency decreases and amplitude increases, leading to "monster" or "giant" sawteeth, when the non-thermal component is increased by injecting particle beams or by exciting ions with imposed electromagnetic waves. The TDTFS study applied numerical computation to self-consistently simulate the interaction between macroscopic collective plasma dynamics and the non-thermal particles. The modeling used the NIMROD code [Sovinec, Glasser, Gianakon, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] with the energetic component represented by simulation particles [Kim, Parker, Sovinec, and the NIMROD Team, Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 448 (2004)]. The computations found decreasing growth rates for the instability that drives the oscillations, but they were ultimately limited from achieving experimentally relevant parameters due to computational practicalities. Nonetheless, this effort provided valuable lessons for integrated simulation of macroscopic plasma dynamics. It also motivated an investigation of the applicability of fluid-based modeling to the ion temperature gradient instability, leading to the journal publication [Schnack, Cheng, Barnes, and Parker, Phys. Plasmas 20, 062106 (2013)]. Apart from the tokamak-specific topics, the TDTFS study also addressed topics in the basic physics of magnetized plasma and in the dynamics of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration. The basic physics work contributed to a study of two-fluid effects on interchange dynamics, where

  3. Use of MPEG transport stream in TV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sam

    1995-12-01

    This tutorial contribution covers the use of International Standard IS 13818-1 (MPEG-2 Systems) Transport Stream in Digital TV systems with main emphasis on broadcast systems. The Transport stream was developed by Working Group II of ISO/IEC JTC1 as a means for multiplexing and synchronizing multiple video and audio data as well as for transmission in a non-error resilient environment. This paper describes some salient features of the Transport Stream and details of how it is used to implement a complete end to end digital TV broadcast service with examples of functionality to support data, channel acquisition, navigation and near video on demand services.

  4. Transport for a System with Additive Temporal-Spatial Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui; HAN Yin-Xia; CHEN Shi-Gang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the transport of the system with the additive temporal-spatial noise, by two models, i.e., a spatial asymmetry model and a spatial symmetry model. The study shows that the correlation of the additive noise with the space and the spatial asymmetry are ingredients for the transport.

  5. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behdani, Behzad; Fan, Yun; Wiegmans, Bart; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Intermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromodal desig

  6. Transport of quantum states of periodically driven systems

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, H. P.; Dietz, K.; Holthaus, M.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the transport of quantum states on quasi-energy surfaces of periodically driven systems and establish their non-trivial structure. The latter is shown to be caused by diabatic transitions at lines of narrow avoided crossings. Some experimental consequences pertaining to adiabatic transport and Landau-Zener transitions among Floquet states are briefly sketched.

  7. Applying intelligent transport systems to manage noise impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, I.R.; Vonk, T.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution discusses how traffic management, and many other measures that can be categorised as Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS, i.e. all traffic and transport measures that use ICT) can help reduce noise levels by influencing mobility choices and driving behaviour. Several examples of suc

  8. Development of Impact Aggregation Procedure for Sustainable Transport System

    OpenAIRE

    Patļins, A; Kuņicina, N

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation, the problems of utility evaluation methodology application for transport development projects evaluation are described. The main steps of development of impact aggregation procedure for sustainable transport system are described in the article. The new 3 stage environmental impact aggregation procedure is suggested.

  9. Inhibition of Activity of GABA Transporter GAT1 by δ-Opioid Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Pu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analgesia is a well-documented effect of acupuncture. A critical role in pain sensation plays the nervous system, including the GABAergic system and opioid receptor (OR activation. Here we investigated regulation of GABA transporter GAT1 by δOR in rats and in Xenopus oocytes. Synaptosomes of brain from rats chronically exposed to opiates exhibited reduced GABA uptake, indicating that GABA transport might be regulated by opioid receptors. For further investigation we have expressed GAT1 of mouse brain together with mouse δOR and μOR in Xenopus oocytes. The function of GAT1 was analyzed in terms of Na+-dependent [3H]GABA uptake as well as GAT1-mediated currents. Coexpression of δOR led to reduced number of fully functional GAT1 transporters, reduced substrate translocation, and GAT1-mediated current. Activation of δOR further reduced the rate of GABA uptake as well as GAT1-mediated current. Coexpression of μOR, as well as μOR activation, affected neither the number of transporters, nor rate of GABA uptake, nor GAT1-mediated current. Inhibition of GAT1-mediated current by activation of δOR was confirmed in whole-cell patch-clamp experiments on rat brain slices of periaqueductal gray. We conclude that inhibition of GAT1 function will strengthen the inhibitory action of the GABAergic system and hence may contribute to acupuncture-induced analgesia.

  10. Simulation model for the WIPP transportation and delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation modelling is a powerful analysis tool used to evaluate complex systems or processes. The modeling concept was utilized to evaluate the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation and delivery system. The model will assist in analyzing the responsiveness of the components in the system to the variations in waste generation schedule, system failures, and material handling options. (author)

  11. Economic analysis of new space transportation systems: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    An economic analysis of alternative space transportation systems is presented. Results indicate that the expendable systems represent modest investments, but the recurring costs of operation would remain high. The space shuttle and tug system requires a substantial investment, but would substantially reduce the recurring costs of operation. Economic benefits and costs of the different systems are also analyzed. Findings are summarized.

  12. Multi-Agent Competition Simulation of Integrated Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation networks have been developed during the recent decades with the rapid growth of economy. At the same time, the conflicts between different transportation modes were getting more and more intense. To describe the competition relationship in integrated transportation system, a multi-agent competition model was presented. It is important to provide decision support for regulators to lead more reasonable distribution of resources for planning and operating the integrated transportation network. Thus, a simulation program was developed to implement the proposed model and provide computer-aid decision support. Finally, several experiments were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of this technique.

  13. The WIPP transportation system -- ''Safer than any other''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE TRANSCOM satellite-based vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly trained drivers. The DOE has demonstrated that this system is ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and safely. Since the system was put in place in November 1988, it has been repeatedly upgraded and enhanced to incorporate additional safety measures. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) reviewed the transportation system and concluded that ''the system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The NAS conclusion was made before the DOE implemented the Enhanced Driver Training Course for carrier drivers. The challenge facing the DOE was to examine the transportation system objectively and determine what additional improvements could be made to further enhance safety

  14. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation.

  15. Biologically mediated transport of contaminants to aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Jules M; Macdonald, Robie W; Mackay, Donald; Webster, Eva; Harvey, Colin; Smol, John P

    2007-02-15

    The prevailing view is that long-range transport of semivolatile contaminants is primarily conducted by the physical system (e.g., winds, currents), and biological transport is typically ignored. Although this view may be correct in terms of bulk budgets and fluxes, it neglects the potential of animals to focus contaminants into foodwebs due to their behaviors and lifecycles. In particular, gregarious animals that biomagnify and bioaccumulate certain contaminants and then migrate and congregate can become the predominant pathway for contaminants in many circumstances. Fish and birds provide prominent examples for such behavior. This review examines the potential for biovector transport to expose populations to contaminants. In addition, we apply a modeling approach to compare the potential of biovector transport to other physical transport pathways for a hypothetical lake receiving large numbers of fish. We conclude that biovector transport should not be neglected when considering environmental risks of biomagnifying contaminants.

  16. Cesium transport data for HTGR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium transport data on the release of cesium from HTGR fuel elements are reviewed and discussed. The data available through 1976 are treated. Equations, parameters, and associated variances describing the data are presented. The equations and parameters are in forms suitable for use in computer codes used to calculate the release of metallic fission products from HTGR fuel elements into the primary circuit. The data cover the following processes: (1) diffusion of cesium in fuel kernels and pyrocarbon, (2) sorption of cesium on fuel rod matrix material and on graphite, and (3) migration of cesium in graphite. The data are being confirmed and extended through work in progress

  17. Elements of transport and emplacement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, undertaken to review proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high-level radioactive wastes in an underground repository, appropriate to the U.K. context, falls under the headings: basic design concepts; waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially shielded blocks; concept of emplacement in long boreholes; concept of emplacement in short boreholes; concept of emplacement in tunnels; methods of emplacement; stages of disposal; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; handling techniques within repository; conventional and radiological safety; costs; areas for further research and development. (U.K.)

  18. Mass transport in annular spherical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Helmut F.

    The mass transport between two concentric spheres with inlet and outlet at the poles was determined for ideal liquid flow (plug flow) and laminar flow for constant concentration at the spherical walls and constant concentration at the inlet. Velocity distribution and local concentration profiles were determined analytically for various widths of the annular spherical conduit and various diffusive flow parameters. It is found that with the increase of this parameter, the decay becomes quite rapid and that the same effect occurs for increasing diameter ratio of the spheres. This configuration may possibly be used as a basic element of an artificial kidney.

  19. Inelastic transport theory for nanoscale systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes theoretical and numerical investigations of inelastic scat- tering and energy dissipation in electron transport through nanoscale sys- tems. A computational scheme, based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF), has been......-voltage characteristics in the weak coupling limit. When a current is passed through a nanoscale device, such as a single molecule or an atomic-size contact, it will heat up due to excitations of the nuclear vibrations. The developed scheme is able to quantify this local heating effect and to predict how it affects...

  20. 20-Gbps optical LiFi transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Cheng, Chun-Jen; Peng, Peng-Chun; Ho, Wen-Jeng

    2015-07-15

    A 20-Gbps optical light-based WiFi (LiFi) transport system employing vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and external light injection technique with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulating signal is proposed. Good bit error rate (BER) performance and clear constellation map are achieved in our proposed optical LiFi transport systems. An optical LiFi transport system, delivering 16-QAM-OFDM signal over a 6-m free-space link, with a data rate of 20 Gbps, is successfully demonstrated. Such a 20-Gbps optical LiFi transport system provides the advantage of a free-space communication link for high data rates, which can accelerate the visible laser light communication (VLLC) deployment. PMID:26176448

  1. MRS [monitored retrievable storage] to transportation system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1987, the US Department of Energy presented to Congress the proposal to construct and operate a facility for the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of spent fuel at a site on the Clinch River in the Roane County portions of Oak Ridge. In discussing the MRS to Transportation System Interfaces, the authors provide a blending of the technical and institutional issues, for they do not believe the solutions to success of this enterprise lie wholly in one area. The authors cover: early chronology of the MRS; comparison of total-system life cycle cost estimates of the authorized system and improved-performance system (i.e., the system that includes a facility for MRS); transportation costs resulting from shipping, security and cask; assumptions for dedicated rail transport from MRS to repository; and significant results from the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) analysis of the improved performance system. (AT)

  2. Active transport improves the precision of linear long distance molecular signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Molecular signalling in living cells occurs at low copy numbers and is thereby inherently limited by the noise imposed by thermal diffusion. The precision at which biochemical receptors can count signalling molecules is intimately related to the noise correlation time. In addition to passive thermal diffusion, messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signalling molecules can transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported across biological cells. Active transport is most beneficial when trafficking occurs over large distances, for instance up to the order of 1 metre in neurons. Here we explain how intermittent active transport allows for faster equilibration upon a change in concentration triggered by biochemical stimuli. Moreover, we show how intermittent active excursions induce qualitative changes in the noise in effectively one-dimensional systems such as dendrites. Thereby they allow for significantly improved signalling precision in the sense of a smaller relative deviation in the concentration read-out by the receptor. On the basis of linear response theory we derive the exact mean field precision limit for counting actively transported molecules. We explain how intermittent active excursions disrupt the recurrence in the molecular motion, thereby facilitating improved signalling accuracy. Our results provide a deeper understanding of how recurrence affects molecular signalling precision in biological cells and novel medical-diagnostic devices.

  3. Platelet serotonin transporter function predicts default-mode network activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scharinger

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence.A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activity and platelet Vmax.The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity.This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation.

  4. An environmentally sustainable transport system in Sweden. A scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokking, P.; Emmelin, L.; Engstroem, M-G.; Nilsson, Jan-Evert; Eriksson, Gunnar; Wikberg, O.

    1997-02-01

    This is a short version of a scenario study concerning the possibilities to reach an Environmentally Sustainable Transport system in Sweden in a perspective of 30 years. The aim of the scenario study has been to describe one of several possible paths from today`s transport system to an environmentally adopted one. However, this does not imply that the task is to predict how such a transformation can be accomplished. The aim is rather to illustrate what such transformation require in the form of political decisions. The transformation of the transport system in to an environmentally adopted one, is primarily treated as a political problem, and a political perspective has accordingly been chosen for the study. In this English version of the scenario, the carbon dioxide problem is used to illuminate the many conflicts in goals and other problem that will attend an environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, and to highlight the analytical points of departure for the scenario study. The analysis shows that it is possible to reach the national environmental goals that characterise, with given definitions, an environmentally sustainable transport system. However, this implies many severe political decisions over a long period of time, which in turn, implies a long term national consensus about the importance to reach the overall goal. Other results the scenario points out, is the risk that a policy focused on one sector leads to `solving` a problem by moving it outside systems limitations, and the limitations on a national environmental policy: Being able to count on assistance from other countries through an environmental adoption of the transport system in the European Union or globally, would drastically facilitate the environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, through, among other things, a more rapid technological development. This indicates the necessity of promoting issues involving transportation and the environment in international

  5. Coherent Structures and Larval Transport in the California Current System

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Cheryl S.

    2012-01-01

    In the California Current system (CCS), coherent structures such as jets and eddies strongly control the biological response to coastal upwelling. One of the outstanding problems in marine ecology is to understand the mechanisms of larval transport. Details of transport dynamics from nearshore to offshore, and subsequent delivery of coastally spawned propagules back to favorable settlement areas, strongly control marine population dynamics. Recent developments in applied dynamical systems all...

  6. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems : algorithms and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, van der, T.G.C.; Ebben, MJR; Gademann, AJRM Noud; Harten, van, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated Guided Vehicles CAGV s), we developed several rules and algorithms for empty vehicle management, varying from trivial First-Come, First-Served (FCFS) via look-ahead rules to integral planning. For ...

  7. Optimizing interactive program for charged particle transport system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program for charged particle transport system design is described. The program is written in the BASIC language and allows one to make calculations in dialogue with the computer. The BASTRA program permits to get output information both in digital and in graphical forms. The method for optimization is described, that allows one to put 10 limitation on beam parameters in arbitrary places of the transport system. The program can be adapted on every computer having the BASIC language in its software

  8. Challenges in Securing VANET: The Intelligent Transportation System

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Anil Kumar Dhami; Miss Neha Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    With the advancement in the wireless communication technologies that have been deployed to manage efficient vehicular communication, this can be considered as an intelligent transportation system. VANET (Vehicular Ad hoc Network) is an emerging and most challenging technology integrating Ad hoc Network, WLAN and Cellular technology that is helpful in developing intelligent transportation system for improving traffic management, roadside safety, cooperative driving etc. VANET is an application...

  9. Pneumatic transport systems for TRIGA reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main parameters and advantages of pneumatically operated systems, primarily those operated by gas pressure are discussed. The special irradiation ends for the TRIGA reactor are described. To give some idea of the complexity of some modern systems, the author presents the large system currently operating at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington. In this system, 13 stations are located throughout the radiochemistry laboratories and three irradiation ends are located in the reactor, which is a 14-megawatt unit. The system incorporates practically every fail-safe device possible, including ball valves located on all capsule lines entering the reactor area, designed to close automatically in the event of a reactor scram, and at that time capsules within the reactor would be diverted by means of switches located on the inside of the reactor wall. The whole system is under final control of a permission control panel located in the reactor control room. Many other safety accessories of the system are described

  10. Saharan Dust, Transport Processes, and Possible Impacts on Hurricane Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present observational evidence of significant relationships between Saharan dust outbreak, and African Easterly wave activities and hurricane activities. We found two dominant paths of transport of Saharan dust: a northern path, centered at 25degN associated with eastward propagating 6-19 days waves over northern Africa, and a southern path centered at 15degN, associated with the AEW, and the Atlantic ITCZ. Seasons with stronger dust outbreak from the southern path are associated with a drier atmosphere over the Maximum Development Region (MDR) and reduction in tropical cyclone and hurricane activities in the MDR. Seasons with stronger outbreak from the northern path are associated with a cooler N. Atlantic, and suppressed hurricane in the western Atlantic basin.

  11. Morse Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, M.B.

    1975-02-01

    The report contains sections containing descriptions of the MORSE and PICTURE codes, input descriptions, sample problems, deviations of the physical equations and explanations of the various error messages. The MORSE code is a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry may be used with an albedo option available at any material surface. The PICTURE code provide aid in preparing correct input data for the combinatorial geometry package CG. It provides a printed view of arbitrary two-dimensional slices through the geometry. By inspecting these pictures one may determine if the geometry specified by the input cards is indeed the desired geometry. 23 refs. (WRF)

  12. Workshop on technology issues of superconducting Maglev transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegrzyn, J.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Shaw, D.T. (New York State Inst. of Superconductivity, Buffalo, NY (United States))

    1991-09-27

    There exists a critical need in the United States to improve its ground transportation system. One suggested system that offers many advantages over the current transportation infrastructure is Maglev. Maglev represents the latest evolution in very high and speed ground transportation, where vehicles are magnetically levitated, guided, and propelled over elevated guideways at speeds of 300 miles per hour. Maglev is not a new concept but is, however, receiving renewed interest. The objective of this workshop was to further promote these interest by bringing together a small group of specialists in Maglev technology to discuss Maglev research needs and to identify key research issues to the development of a successful Maglev system. The workshop was organized into four sessions based on the following technical areas: Materials, Testing, and Shielding; Magnet Design and Cryogenic Systems; Propulsion and Levitation Systems; and, System Control and Integration.

  13. Workshop on technology issues of superconducting Maglev transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists a critical need in the United States to improve its ground transportation system. One suggested system that offers many advantages over the current transportation infrastructure is Maglev. Maglev represents the latest evolution in very high and speed ground transportation, where vehicles are magnetically levitated, guided, and propelled over elevated guideways at speeds of 300 miles per hour. Maglev is not a new concept but is, however, receiving renewed interest. The objective of this workshop was to further promote these interest by bringing together a small group of specialists in Maglev technology to discuss Maglev research needs and to identify key research issues to the development of a successful Maglev system. The workshop was organized into four sessions based on the following technical areas: Materials, Testing, and Shielding; Magnet Design and Cryogenic Systems; Propulsion and Levitation Systems; and, System Control and Integration

  14. Computational Intelligence and its Role in Enhancing Sustainable Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Goodyer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available DeMontfort University’s (DMU Centre for Computational Intelligence (CCI is engaged in a range of programmes applying modern Computational Intelligence (CI techniques to provide superior analysis of complex real-time data sets that arise within transport systems. Better use of existing transport infrastructures can achieve positive sustainable outcomes, reducing congestion, improving air quality, providing real-time travel information and supporting low carbon vehicles. This is exemplified by the following examples: • ITRAQ, an integrated CI system that uses live feeds to determine the optimum use of the road system to reduce congestion and to improve air quality. • Sustainable Airport development Decision Support Systems. A CI based model that interfaces with a GIS system to model the environmental impact of flight paths. • The application of CI to solve multi-variable systems, logistics and passenger information. • VenusSim. The use of CI to model the dynamics of customer flows in transport terminals.

  15. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  16. The beam transport system in the SRS-1200

    CERN Document Server

    Ivashchenko, V E

    2002-01-01

    In NSC KIPT the synchrotron radiation source SRS-1200 for the Ukrainian national synchrotron center (Kiev) is developed. An injector for a storage ring is the electron linear accelerator with energy 180 MeV. For compactness of a complex LUE-180 dispose under a storage ring. The transport system provides transport of electron beam from linear accelerator without losses and injection him in the storage ring. The calculations of the performances of transport systems with five-lens and three-lens variants of translation line, and also with use 42 and 45-th of degree rectangular and sector bending magnets were carried out. As a result of the comparative analysis the five-lens symmetric variant of translation line with 42-th degree sector bending magnets was chosen. In the report the basic results of calculations, parameters and performances of transport system of electron beam are submitted.

  17. A multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aleta, Alberto; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  18. Simulation model for the WIPP transportation and delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, F. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Lippis, J. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office; Quinn, D. [Systems Modeling Corp., Sewickley, PA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a first of its kind repository designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste in bedded salt 2150 feet underground. Contact-handled (CH) TRU waste, waste with low beta or gamma emitting radionuclides that can be handled without protective clothing or additional shielding, will be transported to WIPP in Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified containers known as TRUPACT-IIs. The TRUPACT-II is the cornerstone of a transportation system designed for extraordinarily safe transport of TRU waste from ten DOE production and research sites to WIPP. This paper describes the complexities of the transportation system and discusses how a simulation model can be utilized as a tool to develop economical operating parameters for the system.

  19. Evaluation of a prototype air transport system for use in a crate handling and size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes in detail the design features and evaluation, under simulated active conditions, of a purpose designed remotely operated air transporter system. The paper concludes by recommending that an air transporter, based on this concept, is considered for the alpha active facility. (author)

  20. Evaluation of a prototype air transport system for use in a crate handling and size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design features and evaluation, under simulated active conditions, of a purpose designed remotely operated air transporter system. The paper concludes by recommending that an air transporter, based on this concept, is considered for the alpha active facility. (author)

  1. Artemisinin inhibits chloroplast electron transport activity: mode of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyasha Bharati

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo, behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

  2. The WIPP transportation system - the first four years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began developing an integrated system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consisted of a type B container, a specially designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE TRANSCOM satellite-based vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly trained drivers. In June 1989, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) reviewed this transportation system and concluded that open-quotes The system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels.close quotes Since the June 1989 statement by the NAS, numerous improvements have been made in equipment, satellite tracking, computer software, driver qualifications, training and evaluation, emergency response procedures, daily operational procedures, and most of all, safety. A major lesson that has been learned over time is that two of the public's major concerns are the integrity of the package and the quality (safety) of the drivers used to transport the TRU waste. For the most part, the public is comfortable with the proposed burial method in a deep geologic salt repository. Efforts are now being expanded in the form of a TRU Waste Transportation Outreach Program to inform educators as well as the general public about the safety of the TRU waste transportation program

  3. Traffic Route Modelling and Assignment with Intelligent Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina Nadezhda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of signal transmitting environment for multimodal traffic control will enhance the integration of emergency and specialized transport routing tools in usual traffic control paradigms - it is one of the opportunities offered by modern intelligent traffic control systems. The improvement of effective electric power use in public transport system is an advantage of Intelligent Transport System (ITS. The research is connected with the improvement of on-line traffic control and adaptation of special traffic lighting alternatives by ITS. The assignment of the nearest appropriate transport will be done by passenger request, but unlike information system, the transport planning is done on demand. The task can be solved with the help of modern technical methods and equipment, as well as by applying control paradigms of the distributed systems. The problem is solved with the help of calculations hyper-graph and scheduling theory. The goal of the research is to develop methods, which support scheduling of the emergency transport, using high performance computing.

  4. Transport Information System using Query Centric Cyber Physical Systems (QCPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Ankit; Rathee, Geetanjali; Chawla, Meenu; Soni, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    To incorporate the computation and communication with the physical world, next generation architecture i.e. CPS is viewed as a new technology. To improve the better interaction with the physical world or to perk up the electricity delivery usage, various CPS based approaches have been introduced. Recently several GPS equipped smart phones and sensor based frameworks have been proposed which provide various services i.e. environment estimation, road safety improvement but encounter certain limitations like elevated energy consumption and high computation cost. To meet the high reliability and safety requirements, this paper introduces a novel approach based on QCPS model which provides several users services (discussed in this paper). Further, this paper proposed a Transport Information System (TIS), which provide the communication with lower cost overhead by arranging the similar sensors in the form of grids. Each grid has a coordinator which interacts with cloud to process the user query. In order to evaluate the performance of proposed approach we have implemented a test bed of 16 wireless sensor nodes and have shown the performance in terms of computation and communication cost.

  5. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (soil profile depth). In the vadose zone of advanced system, heterotrophic and autrotrophic denitrification reduced nitrate-N concentrations to 20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater

  6. A Configurable, Object-Oriented, Transportation System Software Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY,SUZANNE M.; MYRE,JOHN W.; PRICE,MARK H.; RUSSELL,ERIC D.; SCOTT,DAN W.

    2000-08-01

    The Transportation Surety Center, 6300, has been conducting continuing research into and development of information systems for the Configurable Transportation Security and Information Management System (CTSS) project, an Object-Oriented Framework approach that uses Component-Based Software Development to facilitate rapid deployment of new systems while improving software cost containment, development reliability, compatibility, and extensibility. The direction has been to develop a Fleet Management System (FMS) framework using object-oriented technology. The goal for the current development is to provide a software and hardware environment that will demonstrate and support object-oriented development commonly in the FMS Central Command Center and Vehicle domains.

  7. US Department of Energy automated transportation management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 80 facilities throughout the United States that specialize in either scientific research, engineering, technology, production, and/or waste management activities. These facilities can best be described as Government Owned, Contractor Operated (GOCO) sites, and vary in size from very small laboratories to large industrial plant type facilities. Each of these GOCO's have varying needs for transportation of materials into and/or out of their facility. Therefore, Traffic Management operations will differ from site to site due to size and the internal or site specific mission. The DOE Transportation Management Division (TMD) has the corporate responsibility to provide a well managed transportation management program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of all DOE-owned materials. To achieve this mission, TMD provides oversight, and when necessary, resources to assist in ensuring regulatory compliance in the packaging and shipment of DOE-owned materials. A large part of TMD's responsibility is to develop, administer, and provide policies and guidance concerning department-wide transportation and packaging operations. This responsibility includes overall Transportation Management policies and programs for the packaging and movement of all DOE materials, including radioactive materials, other hazardous materials/substances, and hazardous wastes. TMD formulates policies and guidance that assist the DOE Field Elements and GOCO's in meeting TMD's goal for safe, efficient and economical transportation. Considering there are at least 80 shipping and receiving sites, the challenge encountered by TMD has been the difficulty in managing such a diverse transportation community

  8. Active transport and accumulation of bicarbonate by a unicellular cyanobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A G; Colman, B

    1980-09-01

    The rates of inorganic carbon accumulation and carbon fixation in light by the unicellular cyanobacterim Coccohloris peniocystis have been determined. Cells incubated in the light in medium containing H14CO3- were rapidly separated from the medium by centrifugation through silicone oil into a strongly basic terminating solution. Samples of these inactivated cells were assayed to determine total 14C accumulation, and acid-treated samples were assayed to determine 14C fixation. The rate of transport of inorganic into illuminated cells was faster than the rate of CO2 production in the medium from HCO3- dehydration. This evidence for HCO3- transport in these cells is in agreement with our previous results based upon measurements of photosynthetic O2 evolution. A substantial pool of inorganic carbon was bulit up within the cells presumably as HCO3- before the onset of the maximum rate of photosynthesis. Large accumulation ratios were observed, greater than 1,000 times the external HCO3- concentration. Accumulation did not occur in the dark and was greatly suppressed by the photosynthesis inhibitors 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea and 3-chloro-carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone. These results indicate that the accumulation of inorganic carbon in these cells involves a light-dependent active transport process. PMID:6773925

  9. Improved Active Vibration Isolation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The control force, feedback gain, and actuator stroke of several active vibration isolation systems were analyzed based on a single-layer active vibration isolation system. The analysis shows that the feedback gain and actuator stroke cannot be selected independently and the active isolation system design must make a compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The performance of active isolation systems can be improved by the joint vibration reduction using an active vibration isolation system with an adaptive dynamic vibration absorber. The results show that the joint vibration reduction method can successfully avoid the compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The control force and the object vibration amplitude are also greatly reduced.

  10. TRANSPORT MECHANISM STUDIES OF CHITOSAN ELECTROLYTE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of ion-conduction mechanisms in polymers is important for designing better polymer electrolytes for electrochemical devices. In this work, chitosan-ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate (chitosan-EC/PC) system with lithium acetate (LiCH3COO) and lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) as salts were prepared and characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the ion-conduction mechanism. It was found that the electrolyte system using LiCF3SO3 salt had a higher ionic conductivity, greater dielectric constant and dielectric loss value compared to system using LiCH3COO at room temperature. Hence, it may be inferred that the system incorporated with LiCF3SO3 dissociated more readily than LiCH3COO. Conductivity mechanism for the systems, 42 wt.% chitosan- 28 wt.% LiCF3SO3-30 wt.% EC/PC (CLT) and 42 wt.% chitosan-28 wt.% LiCH3COO-30 wt.% EC/PC (CLA) follows the overlapping large polaron tunneling (OLPT) model. Results show that the nature of anion size influences the ionic conduction of chitosan based polymer electrolytes. The conductivity values of the CLA system are found to be higher than that of CLT system at higher temperatures. This may be due to the vibration of bigger triflate anions would have hindered the lithium ion movements. FTIR results show that lithium ions can form complexation with polymer host which would provide a platform for ion hopping

  11. A flexible micro fluid transport system featuring magnetorheological elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Majid; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a flexible magnetically-actuated micro fluid transport system utilizing an isotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). Theoretical modeling and analysis of this system is presented for a two-dimensional model. This fluid transport system can propel the fluid by applying a fluctuating magnetic field on the MRE. The magneto-fluid-structure interaction analysis is employed to determine movement of the solid domain and the velocity of the fluid under a controllable magnetic field. The effects of key material, geometric, and magnetic parameters on the behavior of this system are examined. It is demonstrated that the proposed system can propel the fluid unidirectionally, and the volume of the transported fluid is significantly affected by some of the design parameters.

  12. Modular transportable superconducting magnetic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieurance, Dennis; Kimball, Foster; Rix, Craig

    1995-01-01

    Design and cost studies were performed for the magnet components of mid-size (1-5 MWh), cold supported SMES systems using alternative configurations. The configurations studied included solenoid magnets, which required onsite assembly of the magnet system, and toroid and racetrack configurations which consisted of factory assembled modules. For each configuration, design concepts and cost information were developed for the major features of the magnet system including the conductor, electrical insulation, and structure. These studies showed that for mid-size systems, the costs of solenoid and toroid magnet configurations are comparable and that the specific configuration to be used for a given application should be based upon customer requirements such as limiting stray fields or minimizing risks in development or construction.

  13. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  14. Modular transportable superconducting magnetic Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieurance, D.; Kimball, F.; Rix, C. [Martin Marietta Space Magnetics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Design and cost studies were performed for the magnet components of mid-size (1-5 MWh), cold supported SMES systems using alternative configurations. The configurations studied included solenoid magnets, which required onsite assembly of the magnet system, and toroid and racetrack configurations which consisted of factory assembled modules. For each configuration, design concepts and cost information were developed for the major features of the magnet system including the conductor, electrical insulation, and structure. These studies showed that for mid-size systems, the costs of solenoid and toroid magnet configurations are comparable and that the specific configuration to be used for a given application should be based upon customer requirements such as limiting stray fields or minimizing risks in development or construction.

  15. Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network for Transportation System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Selvarajah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The important innovations in wireless and digital electronics will support many applications in the areas of safety, environmental and emissions control, driving assistance, diagnostics, and maintenance in the transport domain. The last few years have seen the emergence of many new technologies that can potentially have major impacts on transportation systems. One of these technologies is Wireless Sensor Networks. A wireless sensor device is typically composed of a processing unit, memory, and a radio chip which allows it to communicate wirelessly with other devices within range. The Embedded Middleware in Mobility Applications (EMMA project delivers a middleware that aims to facilitate the interaction between sensing technologies in transportation systems. This paper outlines our experience in the EMMA project and provides an illustration of the important role that wireless sensor technology can play in future transportation system. The paper discusses our experience of using heterogeneous sensors to develop transportation system applications in the EMMA project and focuses on how cooperation between vehicle and infrastructure can be addressed. It also presents encouraging results obtained from the experiments in investigating the feasibility of utilising wireless sensor in vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication in real transportation applications.

  16. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: an analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Fishman

    Full Text Available Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling.Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 - 2012, this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics.The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel.The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of environments and cultures that

  17. Integration of the Paratransit in Urban Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Verseckienė

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand of transport grows along with road traffic. Congestion costs 1% of the GDP of European Union (European Union 2014 and also causes significant emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. This problem could be solved by transfering a part of passengers from private modes of transport to the public transport. But the essential condition is a sustainable development which means the accessibility on equal terms. Therefore, attention to the focus group – people with movement impairements, is neccessary. Since even under ideal conditions some of those people will not be able to use the ordinary public transport services, a special transportation service, called paratransit, should be offered. In this paper the parameters of paratransit as well as their variations are analyzed. Also the wider application possibilities are considered. The aspects of integration of paratransit into the existing system, pottential barriers for the integration and conditions for the integration are highlighted. The main purpose of this paper is to formulate the scenarios for the integration of paratransit into the existing public transport system based on the analysis of the scientific literature and the best practices, which could be used to form a policy of improving the accessibility of the public transport for people with movement impairments.

  18. The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model

    OpenAIRE

    Joreintje Dingena Mackenbach; Edward Randal; Pengjun Zhao; Philippa Howden-Chapman

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and active commuting (walking or cycling to work) can help meet physical activity recommendations. This study investigated socioeconomic differences in active commuting, and assessed the impact of urban land-use and public transport policies on active commuting in the Wellington region in New Zealand. We combined data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey and GIS data on land-use and public transport facilities with th...

  19. Preliminary Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A Kouts

    2006-11-22

    This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system. A list of system specified components and ancillary components are included in Section 1.2. The TAD canister, in conjunction with specialized overpacks will accomplish a number of functions in the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of these functions will be accomplished at purchaser sites where commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) is stored, and some will be performed within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation and disposal system. This document contains only those requirements unique to applications within Department of Energy's (DOE's) system. DOE recognizes that TAD canisters may have to perform similar functions at purchaser sites. Requirements to meet reactor functions, such as on-site dry storage, handling, and loading for transportation, are expected to be similar to commercially available canister-based systems. This document is intended to be referenced in the license application for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). As such, the requirements cited herein are needed for TAD system use in OCRWM's disposal system. This document contains specifications for the TAD canister, transportation overpack and aging overpack. The remaining components and equipment that are unique to the OCRWM system or for similar purchaser applications will be supplied by others.

  20. A method for a comparison of bulk energy transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalov, Alexandre; Lave, Lester B; Reza, Muhamad; Bahrman, Michael P

    2009-10-15

    We model alternatives for moving bulk energy, including both private costs and accounting for environmental externalities by requiring the transport system to satisfy environment health, and safety standards. In particular, we focus on the cost and environmental trade-offs between "coal by wire," mine-mouth generation with electricity transmission, and transporting the primary energy resources with generation near the customer. Having the bulk energy transport model satisfy standards avoids the controversy associated with estimating dollar costs for constrained visibility, noise, and 50/60 Hz electromagnetic fields. A sensitivity analysis examines the implications of a range of carbon-dioxide discharge charges. PMID:19921870

  1. Algorithm to quantify energy consumption and pollutant emissions in ground transportation of persons for alternative transportation system structures. Contribution to an objectification of transportation policy measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golling, B.

    1978-01-01

    A calculation system, consisting of a frame model MACSIM and a core model MICSIM, is developed in order to quantify the effects of changes in the transportation system structure in ground transportation of persons on energy consumption and pollutant emissions. This system is an aid in analyzing the efficiency of measures to reduce energy consumption and pollutant emissions in this field of transportation, and it helps in making more accurate prognoses on energy demand in transportation.

  2. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  3. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Current system simulations are mature, difficult to modify, and poorly documented. Probabilistic life prediction techniques for space applications are in their early application stage. Many parts of the full system, variable fidelity simulation, have been demonstrated individually or technology is available from aeronautical applications. A 20% reduction in time to design with improvements in performance and risk reduction is anticipated. GRC software development will proceed with similar development efforts in aeronautical simulations. Where appropriate, parallel efforts will be encouraged/tracked in high risk areas until success is assured.

  4. Correlation of laboratory and installed drainage system solid transport measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Bokor, Shaun

    1982-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The transport of solids in 'horizontal' above ground drainage pipes was the subject of an investigation, based upon the measurement of both sterile 'model' solid velocity and 'live' waste load velocity, aimed at the establishment of a sound basis for the development of a comprehensive empirical drainage design method linked directly to installed drainage system solid transport measurements...

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document

  6. Transportation Infrastructure and the Asia-Pacific Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Walter J.; Coyle, William T.

    2005-01-01

    Adequate, well maintained transportation infrastructure is a critical element of the Pacific food system in addressing challenges of rapid urbanization. Policymakers must invest either in streamlining domestic supply chains and/or in facilitating food imports through market opening measures. Economic incentives, competitive transportation and logistic services, and policy reforms, both within the borders of individual economies as well as across the Asia-Pacific region, are also necessary. Im...

  7. Evaluation and Modelling of Short Haul Intermodal Transport Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kordnejad, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Conventional intermodal rail freight transport systems have proved themselves competitive and able to offer cost-leadership on long distances and in endpoint relations between two nodes. Several studies within intermodal transports have made contributions in finding the minimum distance, the “break-even” distance that an intermodal door-to-door shipment can compete with unimodal road. The results for European conditions are found in the range 300-800 km. The main aim of this doctoral thesis h...

  8. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  9. [The diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodtsov, R N; Shemetova, G N

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the epidemiologic and medical social aspects of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport in 2000-2010 exemplified by Privolzhskiy railroad. The established tendencies in prevalence of pathology of cardio-vascular system in railroad workers makes the issues of practical implementation of priority of prevention in the organization of medical care to this group of patients to come to foreground. The main directions for complex prevention of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport are presented.

  10. Physiologic activities of the contact activation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, Alvin H

    2014-05-01

    The plasma contact activation (CAS) and kallikrein/kinin (KKS) systems consist of 4 proteins: factor XII, prekallikrein, high molecular weight kininogen, and the bradykinin B2 receptor. Murine genetic deletion of factor XII (F12(-/-)), prekallikrein (Klkb1(-/-)), high molecular weight kininogen (Kgn1(-/-)) and the bradykinin B2 receptor (Bdkrb2(-/-)) yield animals protected from thrombosis. With possible exception of F12(-/-) and Kgn1(-/-) mice, the mechanism(s) for thrombosis protection is not reduced contact activation. Bdkrb2(-/-) mice are best characterized and they are protected from thrombosis through over expression of components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) leading to elevated prostacyclin with vascular and platelet inhibition. Alternatively, prolylcarboxypeptidase, a PK activator and degrader of angiotensin II, when deficient in the mouse leads to a prothrombotic state. Its mechanism for increased thrombosis also is mediated in part by components of the RAS. These observations suggest that thrombosis in mice of the CAS and KKS are mediated in part through the RAS and independent of reduced contact activation. PMID:24759141

  11. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  12. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  13. Space Transportation Systems Life Cycle Cost Assessment and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Donahue, Benjaamin B.; Knuth, William

    2008-01-01

    Civil and military applications of space transportation have been pursued for just over 50 years and there has been, and still is, a need for safe, dependable, affordable, and sustainable space transportation systems. Fully expendable and partially reusable space transportation systems have been developed and put in operation that have not adequately achieved this need. Access to space is technically achievable, but presently very expensive and will remain so until there is a breakthrough in the way we do business. Since 1991 the national Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) has reviewed and assessed the lessons learned from the major U.S. space programs of the past decades focusing on what has been learned from the assessment and control of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) from these systems. This paper presents the results of a selected number of studies and analyses that have been conducted by the SPST addressing the need, as well as the solutions, for improvement in LCC. The major emphasis of the SPST processes is on developing the space transportation system requirements first (up front). These requirements must include both the usual system flight performance requirements and also the system functional requirements, including the infrastructure on Earth's surface, in-space and on the Moon and Mars surfaces to determine LCC. This paper describes the development of specific innovative engineering and management approaches and processes. This includes a focus on flight hardware maturity for reliability, ground operations approaches, and business processes between contractor and government organizations. A major change in program/project cost control is being proposed by the SPST to achieve a sustainable space transportation system LCC - controlling cost as a program metric in addition to the existing practice of controlling performance and weight. Without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that an affordable and sustainable space

  14. THE UNCONVENTIONAL DESIGN OF THE ELECTRODYNAMIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dzenzersjkyj

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The arrangements of electro-dynamic transport systems with the flat track structure are described and the fluctuations and stability of levitation motion of their vehicles are evaluated. It is shown that under rational choice of main parameters of the systems a stable levitation motion of the vehicles in straight-line and curvilinear sections of the track is provided.

  15. Development of City Transport System and Twowheel Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫焕久; 李理光

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study on the city transport systems of some typical cities worldwide,this paper put forward that each city transport system has its own development mode,which is influenced by the city development plan,economic development level,traveling vehicle composition etc..When some problems occur,such as the congestions caused by contradiction between the road capacity and vehicle composition,the city transport system may come into temporary maturity period.If the improvement for road system is limited meanwhile,optimized structure of vehicle composition should be an effective solution in this case.With the development of economy-internationalization,the development speed of city transport modernization is rapid.When traveling easiness is conflicting with efficiency,the advantages of public transport system become more obvious.Correspondingly,the superiority of two-wheel vehicles will reappear.Though the important function of two-wheel vehicles for alleviating city traffic problems is obvious,however,their development strategy must be reasonably proposed,and operation regulations must be performed accordingly.

  16. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  17. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  18. Conceptual design of an RTG shipping and receiving facility transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of an RTG Facility Transportation System which is part of the overall RTG Transportation System has been completed and is described in detail. The Facility Transportation System serves to provide locomotion, cooling, shock protection and data acquisition for the RTG package during onloading and offloading sequences. The RTG Shipping ampersand Receiving Facility Transportation System consists of a Transporter Subsystem, a Package Cooling Subsystem, and a Shock Limiting Transit Device Subsystem. The Transporter Subsystem is a custom designed welded steel cart combined with a pneumatically-driven hand tug for locomotion. The Package Cooling Subsystem provides five kilowatts of active liquid cooling via an on-board refrigeration system. The Shock Limiting Transit Device Subsystem consists of a consumable honeycomb anti-shock frame which provides shock protection for the 3855 kg (8500 LB) RTG package. These subsystems have been combined into an integrated system which will facilitate the offloading and onloading of the RTG Package into and out of the semitrailer as well as meet ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) radiation exposure guidelines. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Conceptual design of an RTG Shipping and Receiving Facility Transportation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of an RTG Facility Transportation System which is part of the overall RTG Transportation System has been completed and is described in detail. The Facility Transportation System serves to provide locomotion, cooling, shock protection and data acquisition for the RTG package during onloading and offloading sequences. The RTG Shipping ampersand Receiving Facility Transportation System consists of a Transporter Subsystem, a Package Cooling Subsystem, and a Shock Limiting Transit Device Subsystem. The Transporter Subsystem is a custom designed welded steel cart combined with a pneumatically-driven hand tug for locomotion. The Package Cooling Subsystem provides five kilowatts of active liquid cooling via an on-board refrigeration system. The Shock Limiting Transit Device Subsystem consists of a consumable honeycomb anti-shock frame which provides shock protection for the 3855 kg (8500 LB) RTG package. These subsystems have been combined into an integrated system which will facilitate the offloading and onloading of the RTG Package into and out of the semitrailer as well as meet ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) radiation exposure guidelines

  20. Copper transport systems are involved in multidrug resistance and drug transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Komatsu, Masaharu; Ikeda, Ryuji; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Akiyama, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    metabolism modulate drug transport appears to involve modulation of drug cellular localization via modulation of the vesicle transport system. In ATP7A overexpressing cells, Dox accumulates in the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, in the parental cells, Dox is localized in the nuclei, where the target molecules of Dox, topoisomerase II and DNA, are found. Disruption of the intracellular vesicle transport system with monensin, a Na+/H+ ionophore, induced the relocalization of Dox from the Golgi apparatus to the nuclei in the ATP7A overexpressing cells. These data suggested that ATP7A-related drug transport is dependent on the vesicle transport system. Thus copper transport systems play important roles in drug transport as well as in copper metabolism. Components of copper metabolism are therefore likely to include target molecules for the modulation of drug potency of not only anti-cancer agents but also of other drugs.

  1. Modeling Reactive Transport in Coupled Groundwater-Conduit Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, S. M.; Sauter, M.; Zheng, C.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2002-05-01

    Modeling reactive transport in coupled groundwater-conduit systems requires consideration of two transport time scales in the flow and transport models. Consider for example a subsurface mine consisting of a network of highly conductive shafts, drifts or ventilation raises (i.e., conduits) within the considerably less permeable ore material (i.e., matrix). In the conduits, potential contaminants can travel much more rapidly than in the background aquifer (matrix). Since conduits cannot necessarily be regarded as a continuum, double continuum models are only of limited use for simulation of contaminant transport in such coupled groundwater-conduit systems. This study utilizes a "hybrid" flow and transport model in which contaminants can in essence be transported at a slower time scale in the matrix and at a faster time scale in the conduits. The hybrid flow model uses an approach developed by Clemens et al. (1996), which is based on the modelling of flow in a discrete pipe network, coupled to a continuum representing the low-permeability inter-conduit matrix blocks. Laminar or turbulent flow can be simulated in the different pipes depending on the flow conditions in the model domain. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW (Harbaugh and McDonald, 1996) is used to simulate flow in the continuum. Contaminant transport within the matrix is simulated with a continuum approach using the three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999), while that in the conduit system is simulated with a one-dimensional advective transport model. As a first step for reactive transport modeling in such systems, only equilibrium reactions among multiple species are considered by coupling the hybrid transport model to a geochemical speciation package. An idealized mine network developed by Viswanathan and Sauter (2001) is used as a test problem in this study. The numerical experiment is based on reference date collected from

  2. SECURE TRACKING AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM USING RWP AND GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silky Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present era where technology has become a part of our life, every day new applications are developed in every field to serve mankind. Many applications have been developed using GPS (globalpositioning system such as aquatic and spacecraft routing, surveying and mapping, precise time reference etc. GPS (global positioning system enables everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids by allowing well harmonized hand-off switching and accurate time. The main contribution of this paper is tracking and transportation of object in a secured way using RWP and GPS. To assure the security of the tracking and tracing application we introduce a method to evaluate the one-hop distance between the target object and all the cooperative nodes in the object’s view. A key factor that increases the project’s accuracy and performance is GPS, a common example of wireless which can be interfaced to provide location and time information in all weather conditions. GPS has become a widely adopted and useful tool for commerce, scientific uses, tracking, and investigation. We control the ground session with RWP (random way point using AODV routing protocol. DOP (dilution of precision.

  3. Mass transport model through the skin by microencapsulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Núria; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Lis, Manel J

    2015-01-01

    Skin drug delivery can be subdivided into topical and transdermal administration. Transdermal administration can take advantage of chemical and physical strategies that can improve skin permeability and allow drug penetration. In this study, the development of a skin penetration profile was carried out by an in vitro technique for a microencapsulated system of ibuprofen. Release experiments were performed using percutaneous absorption tests to determine the evolution of the principle present in each of the different skin compartments as a function of time. A general kinetic model for a microencapsulated structure as a mass transport system through the skin was applied: [Formula: see text] This model could predict the penetration profile of encapsulated substances through skin from biofunctional textiles as well as estimate the dosage profile of the active principle. The apparent diffusion coefficients found were 1.20 × 10(-7 )cm/s for the stratum corneum and higher for the rest of the skin 6.67 × 10(-6 )cm/s. PMID:26004367

  4. Regulation of the transferrin-independent iron transport system in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J; Jordan, I; Sturrock, A

    1991-02-15

    Mammalian cells accumulate iron via the binding of transferrin to high affinity surface receptors, or through a transferrin-independent pathway which involves the uptake of iron-organic anion chelates by a membrane-based transport system. Previously we determined that the transferrin-independent transport system was present on a wide variety of cultured cells (Sturrock, A., Alexander, J., Lamb, J., Craven, C. M., and Kaplan, J. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 3139-3145). In this communication we demonstrate that the transferrin-independent iron uptake system is regulated differently than the transferrin-mediated pathway. The activity of the transferrin-independent system was unaffected by changes in cellular growth rate, induction of DNA synthesis and cell division, or depletion of cellular iron. Exposure of cells to ferric or ferrous iron, however, resulted in a time-dependent increase in transport activity, due to a change in Vmax with no change in Km. Increased transport activity was seen in a variety of cultured cell types, occurred in the presence of cycloheximide, and persisted for hours after removal of iron. The ability of other transition metals to induce changes in transport, or to compete with iron for accumulation by the transferrin-independent uptake system, was critically dependent on the composition of the media in which the cells were incubated. Metals such as Cu2+ or Zn2+, but not Cd2+ or Mn2+, when dissolved in a balanced salt solution buffered with 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid, induced changes in the transferrin-independent iron transport system. The same metals which induced changes in transport were ineffective in media containing amino acids, ascorbate, or N-[2-hydroxy-1,1-bis(hydroxymethyl)ethyl]glycine. The Vmax of the transferrin-independent iron transport system was also elevated by increases in intracellular Ca2+. The effect of iron on transport activity, however, did not result from an iron-induced release of

  5. The glucose transport system of the hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, M.Y.; Noll, K.M.; Romano, A.H. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The glucose transport system of the extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana was studied with the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG). T. neapolitana accumulated 2-DOG against a concentration gradient in an intracellular free sugar pool that was exchangeable with external D-glucose. This active transport of 2-DOG was dependent upon the presence of sodium ion and an external source of energy, such as pyruvate, and was inhibited by arsenate and gramicidin D. There was no phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of glucose, 2-DOG, or fructose by cell extracts or toluene-treated cells, indicating the absence of a phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. These data indicate that D-glucose is taken up by T.neapolitana via an active transport system that is energized by an ion gradient generated by ATP, derived from substrate-level phosphorylation. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Estimation of Performance Indices for the Planning of Sustainable Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable transportation systems, previous studies have either focused only on the transportation system or have not used a methodology that enables the treatment of incomplete, vague, and qualitative information associated with the available data. This study proposes a system of systems (SOS and a fuzzy logic modeling approach. The SOS includes the Transportation, Activity, and Environment systems. The fuzzy logic modeling approach enables the treatment of the vagueness associated with some of the relevant data. Performance Indices (PIs are computed for each system using a number of performance measures. The PIs illustrate the aggregated performance of each system as well as the interactions among them. The proposed methodology also enables the estimation of a Composite Sustainability Index to summarize the aggregated performance of the overall SOS. Existing data was used to analyze sustainability in the entire United States. The results showed that the Transportation and Activity systems follow a positive trend, with similar periods of growth and contractions; in contrast, the environmental system follows a reverse pattern. The results are intuitive and are associated with a series of historic events, such as depressions in the economy as well as policy changes and regulations.

  7. GPS and GPRS Based Telemonitoring System for Emergency Patient Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Satyanarayana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Telemonitoring during the golden hour of patient transportation helps to improve medical care. Presently there are different physiological data acquisition and transmission systems using cellular network and radio communication links. Location monitoring systems and video transmission systems are also commercially available. The emergency patient transportation systems uniquely require transmission of data pertaining to the patient, vehicle, time of the call, physiological signals (like ECG, blood pressure, a body temperature, and blood oxygen saturation, location information, a snap shot of the patient, and voice. These requirements are presently met by using separate communication systems for voice, physiological data, and location that result in a lot of inconvenience to the technicians, maintenance related issues, in addition to being expensive. This paper presents design, development, and implementation of such a telemonitoring system for emergency patient transportation employing ARM 9 processor module. This system is found to be very useful for the emergency patient transportation being undertaken by organizations like the Emergency Management Research Institute (EMRI.

  8. Transports of acetate and haloacetate in Burkholderia species MBA4 are operated by distinct systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xianbin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetate is a commonly used substrate for biosynthesis while monochloroacetate is a structurally similar compound but toxic and inhibits cell metabolism by blocking the citric acid cycle. In Burkholderia species MBA4 haloacetate was utilized as a carbon and energy source for growth. The degradation of haloacid was mediated by the production of an inducible dehalogenase. Recent studies have identified the presence of a concomitantly induced haloacetate-uptake activity in MBA4. This uptake activity has also been found to transport acetate. Since acetate transporters are commonly found in bacteria it is likely that haloacetate was transported by such a system in MBA4. Results The haloacetate-uptake activity of MBA4 was found to be induced by monochloroacetate (MCA and monobromoacetate (MBA. While the acetate-uptake activity was also induced by MCA and MBA, other alkanoates: acetate, propionate and 2-monochloropropionate (2MCPA were also inducers. Competing solute analysis showed that acetate and propionate interrupted the acetate- and MCA- induced acetate-uptake activities. While MCA, MBA, 2MCPA, and butyrate have no effect on acetate uptake they could significantly quenched the MCA-induced MCA-uptake activity. Transmembrane electrochemical potential was shown to be a driving force for both acetate- and MCA- transport systems. Conclusions Here we showed that acetate- and MCA- uptake in Burkholderia species MBA4 are two transport systems that have different induction patterns and substrate specificities. It is envisaged that the shapes and the three dimensional structures of the solutes determine their recognition or exclusion by the two transport systems.

  9. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Variability and seasonality of active transportation in USA: evidence from the 2001 NHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham C Raymond

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transportation including walking and bicycling is an important source of physical activity. Promoting active transportation is a challenge for the fields of public health and transportation. Descriptive data on the predictors of active transportation, including seasonal patterns in active transportation in the US as a whole, is needed to inform interventions and policies. Methods This study analyzed monthly variation in active transportation for the US using National Household Travel Survey 2001 data. For each age group of children, adolescents, adults and elderly, logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of the odds of active transportation including gender, race/ethnicity, household income level, geographical region, urbanization level, and month. Results The probability of engaging in active transportation was generally higher for children and adolescents than for adults and the elderly. Active transportation was greater in the lower income groups (except in the elderly, was lower in the South than in other regions of the US, and was greater in areas with higher urbanization. The percentage of people using active transportation exhibited clear seasonal patterns: high during summer months and low during winter months. Children and adolescents were more sensitive to seasonality than other age groups. Women, non-Caucasians, persons with lower household income, who resided in the Midwest or Northeast, and who lived in more urbanized areas had greater seasonal variation. Conclusions These descriptive results suggest that interventions and policies that target the promotion of active transportation need to consider socio-demographic factors and seasonality.

  12. The Role of the Transport System in the National Management of Life Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berveno Oksana V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the development prospects of transport system in Ukraine as a lever for national economic development capable of providing a sustainable quality of life and to search for mechanisms of their activation in national development. Transport is one of the leading sectors of material production, it participates in the formation of its branch structure, placement of production capacity and price formation. Through the economic channels the transport industry affects all indicators of life quality creating benefits for economic growth of the region and the country, developing national infrastructure. The transport industry performs a range of services to improve the life quality of the population: providing access to all members of society to socio-economic infrastructure by increasing the degree of transport accessibility, increasing labor force mobility, increasing availability of any objects, simplifying the implementation of many vital processes and expanding opportunities for social interaction. The quality of the social environment formation depends on the operation quality and development level of the transport system. A higher mobility and saving of time as the most important resource of modern time create more opportunities for human development. But the transport system also increases the risk level and risk of human existence because of environmental degradation, technogenity and increasing accident rates. The potential of the transport system development in Ukraine, which, provided the right management decisions, can be implemented as a competitive advantage, should include a favorable geographical position. In order to give the transport development a dynamic nature, it is necessary to combine technological and technical renewal of the industry with the improvement of the state regulation system on the basis of forming innovative transport strategies. It is this approach that not only will allow solving

  13. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ. METHODS: The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. RESULTS: In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland

  14. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  15. Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

  16. The ascidian prophenoloxidase activating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cammarata

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenoloxidases/tyrosinases initiate melanin synthesis in almost all organisms, and are involved in different biological activities such as the colour change of human hair and the browning or blackening of fruit skin etc. In many invertebrates, defence reactions are linked to phenoloxidase activity and/or melanization. Contacts with foreign molecules are able to trigger the prophenoloxidase (proPO system that requires serine protease cleavage for activating the zymogen to phenoloxidase (PO. It is generally accepted that the proPO system is fully expressed in arthropods, and, recently, progress in the regulation of crustacean and insect proPO activation steps have been achieved. After cells were stimulated by components of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP, proPO activation takes place via zimogenic serine proteinase in turn activated by PAMPs followed by cascade, spatial and temporal control.The proPO activating system plays a defensive role in arthropods, molluscs, annelids, ascidians and the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri.In the present paper, we report on ascidian proPO system and related molecules, with particular focus on the biochemical, cellular and molecular aspects of the Ciona intestinalis, proPO system of circulating hemocytes from naïve ascidians as well as of body wall following LPS inflammatory challenge.

  17. Effects of a Danish multicomponent physical activity intervention on active school transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars; Toftager, Mette; Ersbøll, Annette K.;

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction Walking and bicycling to school yields great potential in increasing the physical activity levels of adolescents, but to date very few intervention studies have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multicomponent school-based physical activity...... intervention on adolescent active school transport (AST) and three intermediate outcomes: perceived school route safety, parent support and attitude towards bicycling. Methods In total, 1014 adolescents at 14 schools filled in a transport diary at baseline and at a two-year follow-up and were included...... in the primary outcome analysis. Mean age at baseline was 12.6 years (range: 11.0–14.4 years). Seven of the schools were randomized to the intervention which was designed to change the organizational and structural environment at the schools, thereby increasing non-curricular physical activity i.e. recess...

  18. Environmental assessment of 9 European public bus transportation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanaki, Eva; Koroneos, Christophis; Roset, Jaume;

    2017-01-01

    that affect the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as of air pollutants, in 9 major European cities, aiming to provide a comprehensive overview of the actual knowledge on the atmospheric pollution from public transportation systems. CO2 emissions as well as air pollutants, such as CO, HC, PM, NOx......The transportation sector is one of the largest sources of EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. In 2011, transportation represented approximately 25 percent of total EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. Urban mobility accounts for 40% of all CO2 emissions of road transport and up to 70% of other pollutants...... are calculated for the diesel and CNG bus fleets of the European cities under study. Finally the environmental benefits, in terms of CO2 and CO, HC, PM, NOx emissions reductions, from the penetration of different biodiesel blends (from B10 to B100) to the bus fleets are estimated....

  19. The Swedish sea transportation system for safety reasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden began to design and build a sea transportation system. The ship M/S SIGYN is specially designed for transports of radioactive waste. It is a combined roll-on/roll-off and lift-on/lift-off vessel. It is built for world wide operation and with the highest requirements of two independent classification societies, Lloyds Register of Shipping and Bureau Veritas. The ship is also designed to conform to the Swedish/Finish ice class 1A. The transport cask for spent fuel, TN 17/2, and core component TN 17-CC are designed as type (B) casks and manufactured to comply with the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, 1973. (J.P.N.)

  20. Design, operation, and evaluation of the transportable vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a transportable melter system designed to demonstrate the treatment of low-level and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes such as wastewater treatment sludges, contaminated soils and incinerator ash. The TVS is a large-scale, fully integrated vitrification system consisting of melter feed preparation, melter, offgas, service, and control modules. The TVS was tested with surrogate waste at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Department's (ESED) DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research prior to being shipped to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) K-25 site for treatment of mixed waste. This testing, along with additional testing at ORR, proved that the TVS would be able to successfully treat mixed waste. These surrogate tests consistently produced glass that met the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Performance of the system resulted in acceptable emissions of regulated metals from the offgas system. The TVS is scheduled to begin mixed waste operations at ORR in June 1997

  1. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  2. Recent developments in the Los Alamos radiation transport code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, R.A.; Parsons, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A brief progress report on updates to the Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) for solving criticality and fixed-source problems is provided. LARTCS integrates the Diffusion Accelerated Neutral Transport (DANT) discrete ordinates codes with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The LARCTS code is being developed with a graphical user interface for problem setup and analysis. Progress in the DANT system for criticality applications include a two-dimensional module which can be linked to a mesh-generation code and a faster iteration scheme. Updates to MCNP Version 4A allow statistical checks of calculated Monte Carlo results.

  3. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  4. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal-magma systems: energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardee, H.C.

    1980-09-01

    A comparative assessment of five sites is being prepared as part of a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) review of thermal regimes for the purpose of scoping areas for future research and drilling activities. This background report: discusses the various energy transport processes likely to be encountered in a hydrothermal-magma system, reviews related literature, discusses research and field data needs, and reviews the sites from an energy transport viewpoint. At least three major zones exist in the magma-hydrothermal transport system: the magma zone, the hydrothermal zone, and the transition zone between the two. Major energy transport questions relate to the nature and existence of these zones and their evolution with time. Additional energy transport questions are concerned with the possible existence of critical state and super-critical state permeable convection in deep geothermal systems. A review of thermal transport models emphasizes the fact that present transport models and computational techniques far outweigh the scarcity and quality of deep field data.

  5. Implementing the Transport Layer Security Protocol for Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Werstén, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Web servers are increasingly being used in embedded devices as a communication medium. As more systems connect to the Internet, the need for security is increasing. The Transport Layer Protocol (TLS) is the successor of Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and provides security in almost all secure Internet transactions. This thesis aims to investigate if TLS can be adapted to embedded systems without sacrificing much of the system resources available. A literature study and an implementation of TLS hav...

  6. Development of a transport system for the copper source of the Texas Intense Positron Source facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, O.; Biegalski, S. R.; O'Kelly, S.; Hurst, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    The transport system design and construction for The Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS) facility has been completed. This facility is located on beam port 1 of The University of Texas at Austin TRIGA Mark II 1.1 MW research reactor. The TIPS will provide a high intensity, variable energy positron beam for use in material studies. The natural copper source is transported into beam port 1 of the reactor where it is irradiated at close proximity to the reactor core. The transport system is an L-shaped aluminum channel that utilizes pulleys to drive a source cart. The copper source is transported on the cart into and out of the beam port for irradiation. After removal from the beam port, the activated copper positron source will be placed into a vacuum chamber where the positrons are moderated with annealed tungsten foil and electrostatically extracted.

  7. An adaptive robust controller for time delay maglev transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Reza Hamidi; Zarabadipour, Hassan; Shahnazi, Reza

    2012-12-01

    For engineering systems, uncertainties and time delays are two important issues that must be considered in control design. Uncertainties are often encountered in various dynamical systems due to modeling errors, measurement noises, linearization and approximations. Time delays have always been among the most difficult problems encountered in process control. In practical applications of feedback control, time delay arises frequently and can severely degrade closed-loop system performance and in some cases, drives the system to instability. Therefore, stability analysis and controller synthesis for uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems are important both in theory and in practice and many analytical techniques have been developed using delay-dependent Lyapunov function. In the past decade the magnetic and levitation (maglev) transportation system as a new system with high functionality has been the focus of numerous studies. However, maglev transportation systems are highly nonlinear and thus designing controller for those are challenging. The main topic of this paper is to design an adaptive robust controller for maglev transportation systems with time-delay, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, an adaptive robust control (ARC) is designed for this purpose. It should be noted that the adaptive gain is derived from Lyapunov-Krasovskii synthesis method, therefore asymptotic stability is guaranteed.

  8. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  9. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, H.; Meibom, P. (and others)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid-vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power system and the transport sector. (Author)

  10. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  11. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... of ISD, abandoning the idea of a monolithic approach to knowledge and presenting a pluralistic approach based on the idea that different inquiring systems can support micro-level ISD activities. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theoretical development of the framework...... based on ISD literature and on Churchman's (1971) inquiring systems. The second part presents the use of the framework in an ISD project. The case is used to show the applicability of the framework and to highlight the advantages of this approach. The main theoretical implication is that the framework...

  12. Rope Transport Systems as Elements for Urban and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Simeone

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility and mobility have an important role in urban and regional development strategies, in a particular way for the touristic uses of territories. Transport infrastructures constitute in fact necessary elements for the use of urban areas, but assume an extra function related to the valorization of the territory. Furthermore structures for mobility are a component of the touristic supply system especially the rope transport structures that offer dynamic and unique point of views. Cable ways in urban area have this characteristic more than other rope transport systems. Starting from this assume, the article describes four projects developed in the last years in Campania Region and a transport system carry out in Perugia. The five study cases demonstrate how an increasing attention rope transport technology is diffusing in different contest especially for tourism uses. The first case is the Giffoni Valle Piana inclined lift that should connect the city centre in the valley with the medieval Castle. This project is strictly related to a general touristic strategy of the whole municipality. The second project regards the Ravello-Minori cable way and the objective to offer a sustainable alternative to the private car for travelling around two of the most beautiful areas in the Amalfi coast. The third project is located in the centre of the city of Naples and regards a cable way for the connection between the principal museums of the metropolitan area: the National and the Capodimonte museums. The new infrastructure is well integrated in the multimodal transport network and will offer spectacular visuals for tourists and residents. The Perugia Minimetro is the fourth study case and constitute an example of good integration between sustainable transport and urban planning development. The last project is the Fisciano people mover that has the aim of connecting two university campus with the interchange station of the National rail network. The

  13. Transportation systems analyses. Volume 2: Technical/programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This report documents the three principal transportation systems analyses (TSA) efforts during the period 7 November 92 - 6 May 93. The analyses are as follows: Mixed-Fleet (STS/ELV) strategies for SSF resupply; Transportation Systems Data Book - overview; and Operations Cost Model - overview/introduction.

  14. Viability of a Reusable In-Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Nufer, Brian M.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Merrill, Raymond G.; North, David D.; Martin, John G.; Komar, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing options for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) that expands human presence from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) into the solar system and to the surface of Mars. The Hybrid in-space transportation architecture is one option being investigated within the EMC. The architecture enables return of the entire in-space propulsion stage and habitat to cis-lunar space after a round trip to Mars. This concept of operations opens the door for a fully reusable Mars transportation system from cis-lunar space to a Mars parking orbit and back. This paper explores the reuse of in-space transportation systems, with a focus on the propulsion systems. It begins by examining why reusability should be pursued and defines reusability in space-flight context. A range of functions and enablers associated with preparing a system for reuse are identified and a vision for reusability is proposed that can be advanced and implemented as new capabilities are developed. Following this, past reusable spacecraft and servicing capabilities, as well as those currently in development are discussed. Using the Hybrid transportation architecture as an example, an assessment of the degree of reusability that can be incorporated into the architecture with current capabilities is provided and areas for development are identified that will enable greater levels of reuse in the future. Implications and implementation challenges specific to the architecture are also presented.

  15. Effect of Cholesterol on the Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport System of Streptococcus cremoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Tan; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wilhelmus

    1988-01-01

    The effect of cholesterol on the activity of the branched-chain amino acid transport system of Streptococcus cremoris was studied in membrane vesicles of S. cremoris fused with liposomes made of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, soybean phosphatidylethanolamine, and various amounts of cholesterol. Chole

  16. Controlled Spin Transport in Planar Systems Through Topological Exciton

    CERN Document Server

    Abhinav, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that a charge-neutral spin-1 exciton, possibly realizable only in planar systems like graphene and topological insulators, can be effectively used for controlled spin transport in such media. The effect of quantum and thermal fluctuations yield a parametric excitation threshold for its realization. This planar exciton differs from the conventional ones, as it owes its existence to the topological Chern-Simons (CS) term. The parity and time-reversal violating CS term can arise from quantum effects in systems with parity-breaking mass-gap. The spinning exciton naturally couples to magnetic field, leading to the possibility of controlled spin transport. Being neutral, it is immune to a host of effect, which afflicts spin transport through charged fermions.

  17. Knowledge Based Expert Advisory System for Transport Demand Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resdiansyah Mansyur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that supply strategies alone could not solve urban congestion, many cities around the globe have adopted Transport Demand Management (TDM strategies as part and partial of their congestion mitigation plan. TDM comprises several strategies and policies that aim to modifying travelers behaviour. TDM comprises strategies and policies that are different in nature which can be divided into several categories according to  how they affect travelers’ behavior. Selecting and determining suitable TDM strategies for a particular congestion mitigation goal can be a complex task; thus requires expertise. In this regards, the effectiveness of a TDM strategy is primarily depending on whether its selection was appropriately examined prior to its field implementation. This paper presents the development of a Knowledge based expert advisory system for TDM. The process of organizing the available knowledge of TDM strategies, as well as the process leading to the selection of one or more strategy advice, is encoded in the knowledge based expert system shell developed for the purpose by using shell expert system Kappa-PC version 2.4 which was adopted object oriented and high resolution graphical user interface. The advice given from the working system was evaluated and validated by comparing the output of the system against the recommendations made by transportation professionals. The evaluations indicate favourable results for the system. The expert advisory system can be used as a decision support system as well as a teaching tool for junior transportation engineers, planners, private developers, and government officials.

  18. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of...

  19. Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide inhibit cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Bing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cherr, Gary N

    2016-06-01

    Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are considered to be environmentally safe. In this study, we analyzed the potential effects of graphene and GO at relatively low concentrations on cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters. The results showed that graphene (<0.5 μg/mL) and GO (<20 μg/mL) did not decrease cell viability, generate reactive oxygen species, or disrupt mitochondrial function. However, graphene and GO at the nontoxic concentrations could increase calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter) activity) accumulation, indicating inhibition of ABC transporters' efflux capabilities. This inhibition was observed even at 0.005 μg/mL graphene and 0.05 μg/mL GO, which are 100 times and 400 times lower than their lowest toxic concentration from cytotoxicity experiments, respectively. The inhibition of ABC transporters significantly increased the toxicity of paraquat and arsenic, known substrates of ABC transporters. The inhibition of ABC transporters was found to be based on graphene and GO damaging the plasma membrane structure and fluidity, thus altering functions of transmembrane ABC transporters. This study demonstrates that low levels of graphene and GO are not environmentally safe since they can significantly make cell more susceptible to other xenobiotics, and this chemosensitizing activity should be considered in the risk assessment of graphene and GO. PMID:26554512

  20. Neutron and photon transport calculations in fusion system. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    On the application of MCNP to the neutron and {gamma}-ray transport calculations for fusion reactor system, the wide range design calculation has been carried out in the engineering design activities for the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER) being developed jointly by Japan, USA, EU and Russia. As the objects of shielding calculation for fusion reactors, there are the assessment of dose equivalent rate for living body shielding and the assessment of the nuclear response for the soundness of in-core structures. In the case that the detailed analysis of complicated three-dimensional shapes is required, the assessment using MCNP has been carried out. Also when the nuclear response of peripheral equipment due to the gap streaming between blanket modules is evaluated with good accuracy, the calculation with MCNP has been carried out. The analyses of the shieldings for blanket modules and NBI port are explained, and the examples of the results of analyses are shown. In the blanket modules, there are penetrating holes and continuous gap. In the case of the NBI port, shielding plug cannot be installed. These facts necessitate the MCNP analysis with high accuracy. (K.I.)

  1. 3-Chlorobenzoate is taken up by a chromosomally encoded transport system in Cupriavidus necator JMP134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, T; Aceituno, F; González, B

    2009-08-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134(pJP4) is able to grow on 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CB), a model chloroaromatic pollutant. Catabolism of 3-CB is achieved via the expression of the chromosomally encoded benABCD genes and the tfd genes from plasmid pJP4. Since passive diffusion of benzoic acid derivatives at physiological pH is negligible, the uptake of this compound should be facilitated by a transport system. However, no transporter has so far been described to perform this function, and identification of chloroaromatic compound transporters has been limited. In this work, uptake experiments using 3-[ring-UL-(14)C]CB showed an inducible transport system in strain JMP134, whose expression is activated by 3-CB and benzoate. A similar level of 3-CB uptake was found for a mutant strain of JMP134, defective in chlorobenzoate degradation, indicating that metabolic drag is not an important component of the measured uptake rate. Competitive inhibitor assays showed that uptake of 3-CB was inhibited by benzoate and, to a lesser degree, by 3-CB and 3,5-dichlorobenzoate, but not by any of 12 other substituted benzoates tested. The expression of several gene candidates for this transport function was analysed by RT-PCR, including both permease-type and ABC-type ATP-dependent transporters. Induction of a chromosomally encoded putative permease transporter (benP gene) was found specifically in the presence of 3-CB or benzoate. A benP knockout mutant of strain JMP134 displayed an almost complete loss of 3-CB transport activity. This is to our knowledge the first report of a 3-CB transporter. PMID:19423632

  2. Carbon transport in a bimetallic sodium loop simulating the intermediate heat transport system of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon transport data from a bimetallic sodium loop simulating the intermediate heat transport system of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor are discussed. The results of bulk carbon analyses after 15,000 hours' exposure indicate a pattern of carburization of Type 304 stainless steel foils which is independent of loop sodium temperature. A model based on carbon activity gradients accounting for this behavior is proposed. Data also indicate that carburization of Type 304 stainless steel is a diffusion-controlled process; however, decarburization of the ferritic 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel is not. It is proposed that the decarburization of the ferritic steel is controlled by the dissolution of carbides in the steel matrix. The differences in the sodium decarburization behavior of electroslag remelted and vacuum-arc remelted 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel are also highlighted

  3. Intelligent Public Transport System with Information Forensics and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Nagaraj

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To increase the usability of a public transport system it needs to go under revolutionary changes in its operating procedure. It is an attempt to make this possible using recent computer technology, mobile computing advancements and Wi-Fi or GPRS.The Intelligent Public Transport Information System will be specifically developed for Commercial public Transport. In this System passenger can get information about all buses, routes, timings of buses and all stops in any particular route. This system includes two phases. One is for user and other for administrator. At user side, user can request for information about all buses, routes, timings of buses and all stops in any particular route using Wi-Fi or GPRS technology from his mobile or PDA. At administrator side, administrator can update, delete and insert information about all buses, routes, timings of buses, all stops in any particular route and helpline numbers. Administrator can have all rights about database operations .The administrator requires the authentication of smart card for addition or deletion of information from commercial public transport

  4. Transport properties of the Fermi hard-sphere system

    CERN Document Server

    Mecca, Angela; Benhar, Omar; Polls, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The transport properties of neutron star matter play an important role in a variety of astrophysical processes. We report the results of a calculation of the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of the hard-sphere fermion system of degeneracy $\

  5. Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this summer school is to provide a set of extended and pedagogical lectures, on the major present-day topics in dynamical systems and statistical mechanics including applications. Some articles are dedicated to chaotic transport in plasma turbulence and to quantum chaos. This document gathers the summaries of some presentations.

  6. Water activated doping and transport in multilayered germanane crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of germanane (GeH) has opened the door for covalently functionalizable 2D materials in electronics. Herein, we demonstrate that GeH can be electronically doped by incorporating stoichiometric equivalents of phosphorus dopant atoms into the CaGe2 precursor. The electronic properties of these doped materials show significant atmospheric sensitivity, and we observe a reduction in resistance by up to three orders of magnitude when doped samples are measured in water-containing atmospheres. This variation in resistance is a result of water activation of the phosphorus dopants. Transport measurements in different contact geometries show a significant anisotropy between in-plane and out-of-plane resistances, with a much larger out-of-plane resistance. These measurements along with finite element modeling results predict that the current distribution in top-contacted crystals is restricted to only the topmost, water activated crystal layers. Taken together, these results pave the way for future electronic and optoelectronic applications utilizing group IV graphane analogues. (paper)

  7. Hydraulic calculation of gravity transportation pipeline system for backfill slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; HU Guan-yu; WANG Xin-min

    2008-01-01

    Taking cemented coal gangue pipeline transportation system in Suncun Coal Mine, Xinwen Mining Group, Shandong Province, China, as an example, the hydraulic calculation approaches and process about gravity pipeline transportation of backfill slurry were investigated. The results show that the backfill capability of the backfill system should be higher than 74.4m3/h according to the mining production and backfill times in the mine; the minimum velocity (critical velocity) and practical working velocity of the backfill slurry are 1.44 and 3.82m/s, respectively. Various formulae give the maximum ratio of total length to vertical height of pipeline (L/H ratio) of the backfill system of 5.4, and then the reliability and capability of the system can be evaluated.

  8. The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joreintje Dingena Mackenbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and active commuting (walking or cycling to work can help meet physical activity recommendations. This study investigated socioeconomic differences in active commuting, and assessed the impact of urban land-use and public transport policies on active commuting in the Wellington region in New Zealand. We combined data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey and GIS data on land-use and public transport facilities with the Wellington Integrated Land-Use, Transportation and Environment (WILUTE model, and forecasted changes in active commuter trips associated with changes in the built environment. Results indicated high income individuals were more likely to commute actively than individuals on low income. Several land-use and transportation factors were associated with active commuting and results from the modelling showed a potential increase in active commuting following an increase in bus frequency and parking fees. In conclusion, regional level policies stimulating environmental factors that directly or indirectly affect active commuting may be a promising strategy to increase population level physical activity. Access to, and frequency of, public transport in the neighbourhood can act as a facilitator for a more active lifestyle among its residents without negatively affecting disadvantaged groups.

  9. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  10. Multi-Dimensional Geometric Complexity in Urban Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Peiravian, Farideddin; Derrible, Sybil

    2015-01-01

    Transportation networks serve as windows into the complex world of urban systems. By properly characterizing a road network, we can therefore better understand its encompassing urban system. This study offers a geometrical approach towards capturing inherent properties of urban road networks. It offers a robust and efficient methodology towards defining and extracting three relevant indicators of road networks: area, line, and point thresholds, through measures of their grid equivalents. By a...

  11. Traffic Root Modelling and Assignment with Intelligent Transport System

    OpenAIRE

    Kunicina, Nadezhda; Galkina, Alina; Zabasta, Anatolijs; Patlins, Antons; Kondratjevs, Kaspars

    2014-01-01

    The integration of emergency and specialized transport rooting tools in the usual traffic control paradigms is one of the opportunities offered by modern intelligent traffic control systems. The research is connected with improvement of on – line traffic control and adaptation of special traffic lighting alternatives by ITS The task can be solved with the help of modern technical methods and equipment as well as applying control paradigms of the distributed systems. The problem is solved with...

  12. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  13. On generating neutron transport tables with the NJOY system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, Alexandre D.; Claro, Luiz H., E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: luizhenu@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Incorrect values for the product of the average number of neutrons released per fission and the fission microscopic cross-section were detected in several energy groups of a neutron transport table generated with the most updated version of the NJOY system. It was verified that the problem persists when older versions of this system are utilized. Although this problem exists for, at least, ten years, it is still an open question. (author)

  14. Transport and deposition of activation products in a helium cooled fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport and deposition of neutron activation products in a helium cooled tokamak fusion power plant are investigated. Stainless steel is used as coolant channel material for a helium/steam system. The important gamma emitting nuclides 56Mn, 54Mn, 57Co, 58Co, 60Co, 51Cr, and 99Mo are considered. The dominant release mechanism identified is direct daughter recoil emission from (n,x) type reactions. Corrosion and evaporation are discussed. The radionuclide inventory released by these mechanisms is predicted to exceed 1 x 104 Ci for a reference reactor design after only several days of operation, and approach 3.5 x 104 Ci in equilibrium. A mass transport model is then used to predict the deposition pattern of this inventory in the reactor cooling system

  15. Saenger II, a hypersonic flight and space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The paper presents the actual design status of the Saenger advanced space transportation system which comprises a hypersonic aircraft as first stage (EHTV). This vehicle (European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle) has been conceived for a dual purpose: to serve as the first stage of a launch vehicle with cruise capability, which is required to reach the space station orbit (28.5 deg) from Europe, and in the same basic configuration as passenger plane with some 230 passengers for a range of more than 10,000 km. The optimum cruise speed seems to be Mach 4.4 in 24.5 km altitude for economic and environmental reasons.

  16. Macroscopic diffusive transport in a microscopically integrable Hamiltonian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosen, Tomaž; Zunkovič, Bojan

    2013-07-26

    We demonstrate that a completely integrable classical mechanical model, namely the lattice Landau-Lifshitz classical spin chain, supports diffusive spin transport with a finite diffusion constant in the easy-axis regime, while in the easy-plane regime, it displays ballistic transport in the absence of any known relevant local or quasilocal constant of motion in the symmetry sector of the spin current. This surprising finding should open the way towards analytical computation of diffusion constants for integrable interacting systems and hints on the existence of new quasilocal classical conservation laws beyond the standard soliton theory.

  17. Transport properties of the Fermi hard-sphere system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecca, Angela; Lovato, Alessandro; Benhar, Omar; Polls, Artur

    2016-03-01

    The transport properties of neutron star matter play an important role in many astrophysical processes. We report the results of a calculation of the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of the hard-sphere fermion system of degeneracy ν = 2, that can be regarded as a model of pure neutron matter. Our approach is based on the effective interaction obtained from the formalism of correlated basis functions and the cluster expansion technique. The resulting transport coefficients show a strong sensitivity to the quasiparticle effective mass, reflecting the effect of second-order contributions to the self-energy that are not taken into account in nuclear matter studies available in the literature.

  18. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    of propositions that links headquarters unbundling and relocation to complexity and rising coordination costs. Moreover, we argue that the coordination costs are often neglected in the headquarters reconfiguration process. In sum, we provide a novel perspective on modern MNC headquarters configurations, derive......Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set...... consequences for MNC research, and develop a model that aims at explaining the stability of such systems....

  19. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Larsen, Marcus M.

    of propositions that links headquarters unbundling and relocation to complexity and rising coordination costs. Moreover, we argue that the coordination costs are often neglected in the headquarters reconfiguration process. In sum, we provide a novel perspective on modern MNC headquarters configurations, derive......Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set...... consequences for MNC research, and develop a model that aims at explaining the stability of such systems....

  20. Efficient and powerful batteries for driverless transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-11-01

    In driverless transportation systems batteries are playing an essential role. The capacitive operation or cycling of driverless systems require the use of different battery systems. Energy supply concepts have to be based on the perspective functional descriptions. The required data comprise full details on discharging processes (temporal current flows), intermediate and complete charging, ambient temperature ranges (which determine the type of battery to be used), and the minimum discharge voltage. Data on the exchange of batteries as well as on the maximum weight and volume of batteries complete the list of data. Any systems evaluation of the batteries to be used has to take account of the operating conditions.

  1. Hazardous Materials Transportation Expert System (HaMTES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Materials Transportation Expert System (HaMTES) was developed to provide straightforward and error-free application of hazardous materials transportation regulations. The interactive system is designed to give users access to knowledge and skills that previously could be obtained only from a highly trained and experienced expert in the hazardous materials shipping regulations. The HaMTES, Version 1.0, was based on the 1995 regulations. HaMTES, Version 2.0, includes the US regulatory changes recently enacted to align the US regulations with 1985 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series (SS) 6. Version 2.0 also includes several other enhancements suggested during the beta testing of Version 1.0. As DOE funding allows, it is anticipated that HaMTES will be the core of the hazardous materials module of the Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS), which was developed to provide field offices and site contractors with the automated tools necessary for transacting the increasingly complex transportation management tasks. This paper describes the development of HaMTES, its operating environment and architecture, enhancements to HaMTES, and the use of HaMTES

  2. The energy logistic model for analyses of transportation- and energy systems; Energilogistikmodell foer systemberaekningar av transport- och energifoersoerjningssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinge, M.

    1995-05-01

    The Energy Logistic Model has been improved to become a tool for analysis of all production processes, transportation systems and systems including several energy users and several fuels. Two cases were studied. The first case deals with terminal equipment for inter modal transport systems and the second case deals with diesel fuelled trucks, cranes and machines in the Goeteborg area. In both cases, the environmental improvements of the city air quality are analyzed when natural gas is substituted for diesel oil. The comparison between inter modal transport and road haulage shows that the environmental impacts from the operations at the terminal are limited, and that the potential for environmental benefits when using inter modal transport is improving with the transportation distance. The choice of electricity production system is of great importance when calculating the environmental impact from railway traffic in the total analysis of the transportation system. 13 refs, 27 tabs

  3. A new approach to tracer transport analysis: From fracture systems to strongly heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1989-02-01

    Many current development and utilization of groundwater resources include a study of their flow and transport properties. These properties are needed in evaluating possible changes in groundwater quality and potential transport of hazardous solutes through the groundwater system. Investigation of transport properties of fractured rocks is an active area of research. Most of the current approaches to the study of flow and transport in fractured rocks cannot be easily used for analysis of tracer transport field data. A new approach is proposed based on a detailed study of transport through a fracture of variable aperture. This is a two-dimensional strongly heterogeneous permeable system. It is suggested that tracer breakthrough curves can be analyzed based on an aperture or permeability probability distribution function that characterizes the tracer flow through the fracture. The results are extended to a multi-fracture system and can be equally applied to a strongly heterogeneous porous medium. Finally, the need for multi-point or line and areal tracer injection and observation tests is indicated as a way to avoid the sensitive dependence of point measurements on local permeability variability. 30 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Evaluation of Proposed In Vivo Probe Substrates and Inhibitors for Phenotyping Transporter Activity in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momper, Jeremiah D; Tsunoda, Shirley M; Ma, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    Drug transporters are present in various tissues and have a significant role in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination. The International Transporter Consortium has identified 7 transporters of increasing importance from evidence of clinically significant transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. The transporters are P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 2, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1, and OAT3. Decision trees were created based on in vitro experiments to determine whether an in vivo transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction study is needed. Phenotyping is a methodology that evaluates real-time in vivo transporter activity, whereby changes in a probe substrate or probe inhibitor reflect alternations in the activity of the specified transporter. In vivo probe substrates and/or probe inhibitors have been proposed for each aforementioned transporter. In vitro findings and animal models provide the strongest evidence regarding probe specificity. However, such findings have not conclusively correlated with human phenotyping studies. Furthermore, the extent of contribution from multiple transporters in probe disposition complicates the ability to discern if study findings are the result of a specific transporter and thus provide a recommendation for a preferred probe for a drug transporter. PMID:27385182

  5. Electricity for Road Transport, Flexible Power Systems and Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, Hans; Meibom, Peter;

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles...... (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power....... The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid...

  6. Survey of computer vision in roadway transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikoth, Natesh; Loce, Robert; Bernal, Edgar; Wu, Wencheng

    2012-01-01

    There is a world-wide effort to apply 21st century intelligence to evolving our transportation networks. The goals of smart transportation networks are quite noble and manifold, including safety, efficiency, law enforcement, energy conservation, and emission reduction. Computer vision is playing a key role in this transportation evolution. Video imaging scientists are providing intelligent sensing and processing technologies for a wide variety of applications and services. There are many interesting technical challenges including imaging under a variety of environmental and illumination conditions, data overload, recognition and tracking of objects at high speed, distributed network sensing and processing, energy sources, as well as legal concerns. This conference presentation and publication is brief introduction to the field, and will be followed by an in-depth journal paper that provides more details on the imaging systems and algorithms.

  7. Transport coefficients for dense hard-disk systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, Ramón; Luding, Stefan; Brey, J Javier

    2006-12-01

    A study of the transport coefficients of a system of elastic hard disks based on the use of Helfand-Einstein expressions is reported. The self-diffusion, the viscosity, and the heat conductivity are examined with averaging techniques especially appropriate for event-driven molecular dynamics algorithms with periodic boundary conditions. The density and size dependence of the results are analyzed, and comparison with the predictions from Enskog's theory is carried out. In particular, the behavior of the transport coefficients in the vicinity of the fluid-solid transition is investigated and a striking power law divergence of the viscosity with density is obtained in this region, while all other examined transport coefficients show a drop in that density range in relation to the Enskog's prediction. Finally, the deviations are related to shear band instabilities and the concept of dilatancy. PMID:17280060

  8. Physics Design Considerations of Diagnostic X Beam Transport System

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Y J; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Paul, Arthur C.

    2000-01-01

    Diagnostic X (D-X) transport system would extract the beam from the downstream transport line of the second- axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-II) and transport this beam to the D-X firing point via four branches of the beamline in order to provide four lines of sight for x-ray radiography. The design goal is to generate four DARHT-II-like x-ray pulses on each line of sight. In this paper, we discuss several potential beam quality degradation processes in the passive magnet lattice beamline and indicate how they constrain the D-X beamline design parameters, such as the background pressure, the pipe size, and the pipe material

  9. Information systems and technology in the marketing of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Zharska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to improve the system of theoretical, methodological and methodic background for the implementation of information technology in the marketing system of the railway undertaking. The article identifies the necessity of marketing use in companies which are natural monopolies. Besides the general system of railway transport is described and its place in the marketing system is defined. The existing deficiencies of marketing system have been detected.The results of the analysis. The main computerized control systems, which have been introduced into the system of marketing services in the field of railway transport, were given full consideration in recent years. In particular it has been examined the integration of the automated control system into the system of services associated with freight and the transition from paper to electronic transport documents. Such advantages of system for consumers were determined: time reduction, the possibility of clearance from any station and information received in the automatic mode concerning the freight traffic. The organizational transformation that took place on the railway transport as a result of the specified system integration was considered. The need to create such system for freight crossing the border was defined.System of passenger train tickets sale online in Ukraine has been considered the and its basic shortcomings, including the inability to print previously reserved ticket and the complexity and incomprehensibility of ticket purchase technology online for the consumers was found. The experience of sales system delivering of the passenger railway services has been examined in different European countries and it has been found out that in many countries for tickets sales is used modern information technology: the Internet, via mobile communications, with start-card, etc.Moreover a comparative analysis of web-sites of the Ukrainian and foreign

  10. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Djurhuus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928. Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.

  11. 76 FR 6841 - ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of... (FACA) (Pub. L. 72-363; 5 U.S.C. app. 2), a meeting of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS... study, development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor,...

  12. School Travel Planning: Mobilizing School and Community Resources to Encourage Active School Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buliung, Ron; Faulkner, Guy; Beesley, Theresa; Kennedy, Jacky

    2011-01-01

    Background: Active school transport (AST), school travel using an active mode like walking, may be important to children's overall physical activity. A "school travel plan" (STP) documents a school's transport characteristics and provides an action plan to address school and neighborhood barriers to AST. Methods: We conducted a pilot STP…

  13. Activity-Based Costing Application in an Urban Mass Transport Company

    OpenAIRE

    Popesko Boris; Novák Petr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic overview of the application of Activity-Based Costing in an urban mass transport company which operates land public transport via buses and trolleys within the city. The case study was conducted using the Activity-Based Methodology in order to calculate the true cost of individual operations and to measure the profitability of particular transport lines. The case study analysis showed the possible effects of the application of the Activity-Based...

  14. Alkaline pH activates the transport activity of GLUT1 in L929 fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnink, Stephen M; Kerk, Samuel A; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Alabi, Ola D; Kuipers, David P; Praamsma, Riemer C; Wrobel, Kathryn E; Louters, Larry L

    2014-04-01

    The widely expressed mammalian glucose transporter, GLUT1, can be acutely activated in L929 fibroblast cells by a variety of conditions, including glucose deprivation, or treatment with various respiration inhibitors. Known thiol reactive compounds including phenylarsine oxide and nitroxyl are the fastest acting stimulators of glucose uptake, implicating cysteine biochemistry as critical to the acute activation of GLUT1. In this study, we report that in L929 cells glucose uptake increases 6-fold as the pH of the uptake solution is increased from 6 to 9 with the half-maximal activation at pH 7.5; consistent with the pKa of cysteine residues. This pH effect is essentially blocked by the pretreatment of the cells with either iodoacetamide or cinnamaldehyde, compounds that form covalent adducts with reduced cysteine residues. In addition, the activation by alkaline pH is not additive at pH 8 with known thiol reactive activators such as phenylarsine oxide or hydroxylamine. Kinetic analysis in L929 cells at pH 7 and 8 indicate that alkaline conditions both increases the Vmax and decreases the Km of transport. This is consistent with the observation that pH activation is additive to methylene blue, which activates uptake by increasing the Vmax, as well as to berberine, which activates uptake by decreasing the Km. This suggests that cysteine biochemistry is utilized in both methylene blue and berberine activation of glucose uptake. In contrast a pH increase from 7 to 8 in HCLE cells does not further activate glucose uptake. HCLE cells have a 25-fold higher basal glucose uptake rate than L929 cells and the lack of a pH effect suggests that the cysteine biochemistry has already occurred in HCLE cells. The data are consistent with pH having a complex mechanism of action, but one likely mediated by cysteine biochemistry. PMID:24333987

  15. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  16. Regulation of dopamine transporter activity by carboxypeptidase E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dopamine transporter (DAT plays a critical role in terminating the action of dopamine by rapid reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. Previous studies have revealed that the DAT carboxyl terminus (DAT-CT can directly interact with other cellular proteins and regulate DAT function and trafficking. Results Here, we have identified that carboxypeptidase E (CPE, a prohormone processing exopeptidase and sorting receptor for the regulated secretory pathway, interacts with the DAT-CT and affects DAT function. Mammalian cell lines coexpressing CPE and DAT exhibited increased DAT-mediated dopamine uptake activity compared to cells expressing DAT alone. Moreover, coexpression of an interfering DAT-CT minigene inhibited the effects of CPE on DAT. Functional changes caused by CPE could be attributed to enhanced DAT expression and subsequent increase in DAT cell surface localization, due to decreased DAT degradation. In addition, CPE association could reduce the phosphorylation state of DAT on serine residues, potentially leading to reduced internalization, thus stabilizing plasmalemmal DAT localization. Conclusion Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for CPE in the regulation of DAT trafficking and DAT-mediated DA uptake, which may provide a novel target in the treatment of dopamine-governed diseases such as drug addiction and obesity.

  17. Motion-base simulator results of advanced supersonic transport handling qualities with active controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, J. B.; Joshi, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    Handling qualities of the unaugmented advanced supersonic transport (AST) are deficient in the low-speed, landing approach regime. Consequently, improvement in handling with active control augmentation systems has been achieved using implicit model-following techniques. Extensive fixed-based simulator evaluations were used to validate these systems prior to tests with full motion and visual capabilities on a six-axis motion-base simulator (MBS). These tests compared the handling qualities of the unaugmented AST with several augmented configurations to ascertain the effectiveness of these systems. Cooper-Harper ratings, tracking errors, and control activity data from the MBS tests have been analyzed statistically. The results show the fully augmented AST handling qualities have been improved to an acceptable level.

  18. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor); Robertson, S. H.; Johnson, N. B.; Hall, D. S.; Rimson, I. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S. Army, which ultimately led to the current state of the art in CRFS technology. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations and production efforts which have led to the highly successful military CRFS, which has saved many lives and reduced costs of accidents. Current CRFS technology used in transport category airplanes is defined and compared to the available state-of-the-art technology. The report provides information to the FAA and other government organizations which can help them plan their efforts to improve the state of crash fire protection in the transport airplane fleet. The report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems, analysis tools to use for product improvement, and a summary of current and proposed regulations for transport category airplane fuel systems.

  19. Adaptive fuzzy-neural-network control for maglev transportation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Lee, Jeng-Dao

    2008-01-01

    A magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation system including levitation and propulsion control is a subject of considerable scientific interest because of highly nonlinear and unstable behaviors. In this paper, the dynamic model of a maglev transportation system including levitated electromagnets and a propulsive linear induction motor (LIM) based on the concepts of mechanical geometry and motion dynamics is developed first. Then, a model-based sliding-mode control (SMC) strategy is introduced. In order to alleviate chattering phenomena caused by the inappropriate selection of uncertainty bound, a simple bound estimation algorithm is embedded in the SMC strategy to form an adaptive sliding-mode control (ASMC) scheme. However, this estimation algorithm is always a positive value so that tracking errors introduced by any uncertainty will cause the estimated bound increase even to infinity with time. Therefore, it further designs an adaptive fuzzy-neural-network control (AFNNC) scheme by imitating the SMC strategy for the maglev transportation system. In the model-free AFNNC, online learning algorithms are designed to cope with the problem of chattering phenomena caused by the sign action in SMC design, and to ensure the stability of the controlled system without the requirement of auxiliary compensated controllers despite the existence of uncertainties. The outputs of the AFNNC scheme can be directly supplied to the electromagnets and LIM without complicated control transformations for relaxing strict constrains in conventional model-based control methodologies. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes for the maglev transportation system is verified by numerical simulations, and the superiority of the AFNNC scheme is indicated in comparison with the SMC and ASMC strategies. PMID:18269938

  20. Development of BERMUDA: a radiation transport code system, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation transport code system BERMUDA has been developed for one-, two- and three-dimensional geometries. The time-independent transport equation is numerically solved using a direct integration method in a multigroup model, to obtain spatial, angular and energy distributions of neutron, gamma rays or adjoint neutron flux. As to group constants, a library with an any structure of energy groups is capable to be produced from a data base JSSTDL, or by a processing code PROF-GROUCH-G/B, selecting objective nuclear data through a retrieval system EDFSRS. Validity of the present code system has been tested by analyzing the shielding benchmark experiments. The test has shown that accurate results are obtainable with this system especially in deep penetration calculation. Described are the devised calculation method and the results of validity tests. Input data specification, job control languages and output data are also described as a user's manual for the following four neutron transport codes: BERMUDA-1DN : sphere, slab(S20), BERMUDA-2DN : cylinder (S8), BERMUDA-2DN-S16 : cylinder (S16), and BERMUDA-3DN : rectangular parallelpiped (S8). (J.P.N.)

  1. Salmonella typhimurium proP gene encodes a transport system for the osmoprotectant betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, J; Booth, I R; Higgins, C F

    1985-12-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) can be accumulated to high intracellular concentrations and serves an important osmoprotective function in enteric bacteria. We found that the proP gene of Salmonella typhimurium, originally identified as encoding a minor transport system for proline (permease PP-II), plays an important role in betaine uptake. Mutations in proP reduced the ability of betaine to serve as an osmoprotectant. Transport of betaine into the cells was also severely impaired in these mutants. The kinetics of uptake via PP-II suggest that betaine, rather than proline, is the important physiological substrate for this transport system. Betaine uptake via PP-II was regulated by osmotic pressure at two different levels: transcription of the proP gene was increased by increasing osmolarity, and, in addition, activity of the transport system itself was dependent upon the osmotic pressure of the medium. The specificity of the transport system was also altered by increasing osmolarity which enhanced the affinity for betaine while reducing that for proline. PMID:3905767

  2. 75 FR 6250 - ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of... Systems (ITS) Program Advisory Committee (ITSPAC). The Web conference will be held on February 24, 2010... to the study, development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through...

  3. Transportation of drug-gold nanocomposites by actinomyosin motor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Harsimran, E-mail: microsimbac@gmail.com; Chaudhary, Archana; Kaur, Inderpreet [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organization - CSIO (India); Singh, Kashmir [Panjab University, Department of Biotechnology (India); Bharadwaj, Lalit M. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organization - CSIO (India)

    2011-06-15

    Nanotechnology is playing an important role in drug delivery to overcome limitations of conventional drug delivery systems in terms of solubility, in vivo stability, pharmacokinetics, and bio-distribution. The controlled transportation of drug into the cell and within the cell is a major challenge to be addressed. Cellular molecular motors have been exploited for their cargo carrying capacity for various applications including engineering and health care. Combination of nanotechnology and biomolecular motors can address some of the challenges in drug delivery. In the present study, transportation of drug nanocomposites has been demonstrated. Nanocomposites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa drugs (cancer and Parkinson's disease, respectively) were prepared with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by covalent attachment and these nanocomposites were attached to actin filaments. These nanocomposites were in-turn transported by actin filaments on myosin tracks. Characterization of drug nanocomposites formation was done by UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. GNP composites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa were formed by sulfide and amide bond formation, respectively. Average velocity of actin filament attached to nanocomposites was found to be 3.17 and 3.89 {mu}m/s for levodopa and 6-mercaptopurine, respectively, as compared to actin filaments with velocity of 4.0-6.0 {mu}m/s. Three concepts have been proposed for the study of drug transportation into the cell based on polycationic complex formation, interaction of actin with cellular myosin and Biomolecular Adaptor for Retrograde Transport (BART) technology. The aspects of this study heads toward the development of an approach to utilize molecular motors for nanoscale transportation endogenously.

  4. SMS Tracking System with Doppler Radar to Enhance Car Security for Intelligent Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Shome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The World report on road traffic injury prevention presents some assessments and conclusions regarding road traffic accidents, in which they state that more than 1.2 million deaths per year occur on the world’s roads and around 50 million more of injured people. To prevent this people are working for intelligent transport system (ITS. ITS is trying to make an intelligent car which will be able to avoid collation. In this paper we have tried to add a new goal in ITS system which will be activated in the intelligence fails. This SMS system will help to locate a car using GPS, if the car collides. Our total development work is divided into two parts. In first part we have tried to develop a system which will help the driver by providing the road scenario using dopple radar. Doppler radar will measure the velocity of the nearby car or passing by car, depending upon the information our car will be controlled. In second part of development we have developed a auto generated SMS sending system to a specific number if the Car collide. Both systems are described in details in next part of this article.

  5. From microsystems technology to the Saenger II space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    The role of space projects as drivers and catalysts of technology advances is discussed and illustrated from the perspective of the West German aerospace industry, summarizing a talk presented at the 1986 meeting of the German aerospace society DGLR. The history of space-transportation-system (STS) technology since the 1950s is traced, emphasizing the needs for greater payload weights and lower costs, and the design concept of Saenger II, a proposed two-stage ESA STS employing a hypersonic jet transport aircraft as its first stage, is outlined. It is argued that experience gained in developing the rocket-launched Hermes STS will be applicable to the second stage of Saenger II. Recent developments in microsystems (combining microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics), advanced materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, metals, and ceramics), and energy technology (hydrogen-based systems and solar cells) are surveyed, and their applicability to STSs is considered.

  6. Directed transport of coupled systems in symmetric periodic potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志刚; 刘凤芝; 高建

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the damped unidirectional motions of a coupled lattice in a periodic potential. Each particle in the lattice is subject to a time-periodic ac force. Our studies reveal that a directed transport process can be observed when the ac forces acting on the coupled lattice have a phase shift (mismatch). This directed motion is a collaboration of the coupling, the substrate potential, and the periodic force, which are all.symmetric. The absence of any one of these three factors will not give rise to a directed current. We discuss the complex relations between the directed current and parameters in the system. Results in this paper can be accomplished in experiments. Moreover,our results can be generalized to the studies of directed transport processes in more complicated spatially extended systems.

  7. Test run of biodiesel in public transport system in Belgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems related to our strong dependency on fossil fuels, i.e. greenhouse effect, energy dependency, urban pollution, are of growing importance in recent years. European Union (EU) Action plan of 2003, which had originated from Kyoto Agreement, defined a strategy for substitution of 20% of conventional fuel with the alternative one by 2020. Proved advantages of biodiesel usage in the system of public transport of passengers, with regard to exhaust gases emission above all, have been the decisive determinants for the actual promotion of biodiesel as ecologically 'clean' fuel, while its wider usage gives important contribution to sustainable development of cities. This paper presents results of biodiesel-test run in Belgrade, as a part of the project BIO-PEX, which relates to the usage of this alternative fuel in real operating conditions in urban public transport system, with special emphasis on technical, ecological and operational aspects of biofuel usage.

  8. Wind Turbine Blade Nondestructive Testing with a Transportable Radiography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming widely used as they are an environmentally friendly way for energy production without emissions; however, they are exposed to a corrosive environment. In addition, as wind turbines typically are the tallest structures in the surrounding area of a wind farm, it is expected that they will attract direct lightning strikes several times during their operating life. The purpose of this paper is to show that the radiography with a transportable unit is a solution to find defects in the wind turbine blade and reduce the cost of inspection. A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating an Sb–Be source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. The simulated system has a wide range of radiography parameters.

  9. Challenges in Securing VANET: The Intelligent Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Anil Kumar Dhami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement in the wireless communication technologies that have been deployed to manage efficient vehicular communication, this can be considered as an intelligent transportation system. VANET (Vehicular Ad hoc Network is an emerging and most challenging technology integrating Ad hoc Network, WLAN and Cellular technology that is helpful in developing intelligent transportation system for improving traffic management, roadside safety, cooperative driving etc. VANET is an application or subset of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET. For the implementation of VANET, security is an important constraint. Most of the research concerted efforts in academics and industry are focused to provide efficient security architecture for VANET, for protecting the network from adversary nodes and attacks. This paper focuses on the security challenges in VANET, especially for achieving privacy and their possible solutions.

  10. Hand calculations for transport of radioactive aerosols through sampling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Mark; Thompson, Martha; Farfan, Eduardo; Hadlock, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Workplace air monitoring programs for sampling radioactive aerosols in nuclear facilities sometimes must rely on sampling systems to move the air to a sample filter in a safe and convenient location. These systems may consist of probes, straight tubing, bends, contractions and other components. Evaluation of these systems for potential loss of radioactive aerosols is important because significant losses can occur. However, it can be very difficult to find fully described equations to model a system manually for a single particle size and even more difficult to evaluate total system efficiency for a polydispersed particle distribution. Some software methods are available, but they may not be directly applicable to the components being evaluated and they may not be completely documented or validated per current software quality assurance requirements. This paper offers a method to model radioactive aerosol transport in sampling systems that is transparent and easily updated with the most applicable models. Calculations are shown with the R Programming Language, but the method is adaptable to other scripting languages. The method has the advantage of transparency and easy verifiability. This paper shows how a set of equations from published aerosol science models may be applied to aspiration and transport efficiency of aerosols in common air sampling system components. An example application using R calculation scripts is demonstrated. The R scripts are provided as electronic attachments. PMID:24667389

  11. Hand calculations for transport of radioactive aerosols through sampling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Mark; Thompson, Martha; Farfan, Eduardo; Hadlock, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Workplace air monitoring programs for sampling radioactive aerosols in nuclear facilities sometimes must rely on sampling systems to move the air to a sample filter in a safe and convenient location. These systems may consist of probes, straight tubing, bends, contractions and other components. Evaluation of these systems for potential loss of radioactive aerosols is important because significant losses can occur. However, it can be very difficult to find fully described equations to model a system manually for a single particle size and even more difficult to evaluate total system efficiency for a polydispersed particle distribution. Some software methods are available, but they may not be directly applicable to the components being evaluated and they may not be completely documented or validated per current software quality assurance requirements. This paper offers a method to model radioactive aerosol transport in sampling systems that is transparent and easily updated with the most applicable models. Calculations are shown with the R Programming Language, but the method is adaptable to other scripting languages. The method has the advantage of transparency and easy verifiability. This paper shows how a set of equations from published aerosol science models may be applied to aspiration and transport efficiency of aerosols in common air sampling system components. An example application using R calculation scripts is demonstrated. The R scripts are provided as electronic attachments.

  12. Active Image Authentication System (AIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Nikam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Today’s networking age provides greater importance to the authentication mechanism for security. Authentication is the process of identification of user or client respect to service parameters. These service parameters consist of unique combination of password associated with username or userid. Graphical based authentication mechanism had provided strong alternative for knowledge based, token based {&} biometric authentication mechanism. In this paper we are going to propose new graphical based authentication mechanism. This Active Image Authentication System (AIAS provides strong solution on guessing attack using random positioning of Active Points (AP with respect to time domain

  13. News on Accounting and Tax Treatment Related to the Activity of Intracommunitarian Goods Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Pravãþ Ionela-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The economical activity of transport fits within the broad category of services, but in terms of taxation, transport services are treated as an exception, compared to how services are approached in general. Among the categories of transportation services, intracommunitarian transport shows certain particularities. Therefore, we proposed in this work to address from a theoretical point of view a series of news occured in the tax and accounting treatment of specific business operations of intra...

  14. Strategic analysis of wireless innovation in intelligent transportations systems

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Katherine Ann

    2007-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) present strategic opportunities for B.C. wireless companies. This project identifies a strategic development framework for the emerging ITS industry in BC. The goal is to facilitate the entry of BC wireless companies into the ITS market to create an ITS industrial base that can compete in this new and rapidly growing global niche market. The project recommends that the Wireless Innovation Network of BC (WINBC), a wireless industry association, formulat...

  15. Periodic inspection for safety of CANDU heat transport piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach has been developed for the prediction of the risk of failure or the survival of heat transport piping systems in a nuclear power plant. The effects of various inspection schemes on the risk of failure have been investigated and an inspection method proposed. A list of input data required to apply this method to real situations is specified. Using an example of a pressurized pipe containing a defect, it is shown that the required data can be obtained easily

  16. Staging queues in material handling and transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gue, Kevin R.; Kang, Keebom

    2001-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2001 Winter Simulation Conference B. A. Peters, J. S. Smith, D. J. Medeiros, and M. W. Rohrer, eds. In most physical queueing applications, customers join a queue andmove forward after each service, leaving room for others to join behind them. Some queues found in material handling and transportation systems do not operate like this because the queued entities (pallets or unoccupied cars, for example) are incapable of moving forward autonomously. We ...

  17. Heavy-flavour transport: from large to small systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beraudo, A; Monteno, M; Nardi, M; Prino, F

    2015-01-01

    Predictions for heavy-flavour production in relativistic heavy-ion experiments provided by the POWLANG transport setup, including now also an in-medium hadronization model, are displayed, After showing some representative findings for the Au-Au and Pb-Pb cases, a special focus will be devoted to the results obtained in the small systems formed in proton(deuteron)-nucleus collisions, where recent experimental data suggest the possible formation of a medium featuring a collective behaviour.

  18. Transport in nanoscale systems: hydrodynamics, turbulence, and local electron heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    Transport in nanoscale systems is usually described as an open-boundary scattering problem. This picture, however, says nothing about the dynamical onset of steady states, their microscopic nature, or their dependence on initial conditions [1]. In order to address these issues, I will first describe the dynamical many-particle state via an effective quantum hydrodynamic theory [2]. This approach allows us to predict a series of novel phenomena like turbulence of the electron liquid [2], local electron heating in nanostructures [3], and the effect of electron viscosity on resistance [4]. I will provide both analytical results and numerical examples of first-principles electron dynamics in nanostructures using the above approach. I will also discuss possible experimental tests of our predictions. Work supported in part by NSF and DOE. [1] N. Bushong, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Approach to steady-state transport in nanoscale systems'' Nano Letters, 5 2569 (2005); M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov, ``Transport in nanoscale systems: the microcanonical versus grand-canonical picture,'' J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004). [2] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, ``Hydrodynamic approach to transport and turbulence in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/05123326; J. Phys. Cond. Matt., in press. [3] R. D'Agosta, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Local electron heating in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/0605312; Nano Letters, in press. [4] N. Sai, M. Zwolak, G. Vignale and M. Di Ventra, ``Dynamical corrections to the DFT-LDA electron conductance in nanoscale systems,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186810 (2005).

  19. Structure of the TatC core of the twin-arginine protein transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollauer, Sarah E; Tarry, Michael J; Graham, James E; Jääskeläinen, Mari; Jäger, Franziska; Johnson, Steven; Krehenbrink, Martin; Liu, Sai-Man; Lukey, Michael J; Marcoux, Julien; McDowell, Melanie A; Rodriguez, Fernanda; Roversi, Pietro; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Robinson, Carol V; Sansom, Mark S P; Palmer, Tracy; Högbom, Martin; Berks, Ben C; Lea, Susan M

    2012-12-13

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is one of two general protein transport systems found in the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and is conserved in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. The defining, and highly unusual, property of the Tat pathway is that it transports folded proteins, a task that must be achieved without allowing appreciable ion leakage across the membrane. The integral membrane TatC protein is the central component of the Tat pathway. TatC captures substrate proteins by binding their signal peptides. TatC then recruits TatA family proteins to form the active translocation complex. Here we report the crystal structure of TatC from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This structure provides a molecular description of the core of the Tat translocation system and a framework for understanding the unique Tat transport mechanism. PMID:23201679

  20. JOVIAN STRATOSPHERE AS A CHEMICAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM: BENCHMARK ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xi; Shia Runlie; Yung, Yuk L., E-mail: xiz@gps.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We systematically investigated the solvable analytical benchmark cases in both one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) chemical-advective-diffusive systems. We use the stratosphere of Jupiter as an example but the results can be applied to other planetary atmospheres and exoplanetary atmospheres. In the 1D system, we show that CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} are mainly in diffusive equilibrium, and the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} profile can be approximated by modified Bessel functions. In the 2D system in the meridional plane, analytical solutions for two typical circulation patterns are derived. Simple tracer transport modeling demonstrates that the distribution of a short-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) is dominated by the local chemical sources and sinks, while that of a long-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) is significantly influenced by the circulation pattern. We find that an equator-to-pole circulation could qualitatively explain the Cassini observations, but a pure diffusive transport process could not. For slowly rotating planets like the close-in extrasolar planets, the interaction between the advection by the zonal wind and chemistry might cause a phase lag between the final tracer distribution and the original source distribution. The numerical simulation results from the 2D Caltech/JPL chemistry-transport model agree well with the analytical solutions for various cases.

  1. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  2. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  3. Future space transportation systems systems analysis study, phase 1 technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The requirements of projected space programs (1985-1995) for transportation vehicles more advanced than the space shuttle are discussed. Several future program options are described and their transportation needs are analyzed. Alternative systems approaches to meeting these needs are presented.

  4. Excess Surface Area in Bioelectrochemical Systems Causes ion Transport Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Timothy D.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Davenport, Emily K.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-05-01

    We investigated ion transport limitations on 3D graphite felt electrodes by growing Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms with advection to eliminate external mass transfer limitations. We characterized ion transport limitations by: (i) showing that serially increasing NaCl concentration up to 200mM increased current linearly up to a total of þ273% vs. 0mM NaCl under advective conditions; (ii) growing the biofilm with a starting concentration of 200mM NaCl, which led to a maximum current increase of 400% vs. current generation without NaCl, and (iii) showing that un-colonized surface area remained even after steadystate current was reached. After accounting for iR effects, we confirmed that the excess surface area existed despite a non-zero overpotential. The fact that the biofilm was constrained from colonizing and producing further current under these conditions confirmed the biofilms under study here were ion transport-limited. Our work demonstrates that the use of high surface area electrodes may not increase current density when the system design allows ion transport limitations to become dominant.

  5. Excess surface area in bioelectrochemical systems causes ion transport limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Timothy D.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Davenport, Emily K.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    We investigated ion transport limitations on 3D graphite felt electrodes by growing Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms with advection to eliminate external mass transfer limitations. We characterized ion transport limitations by: 1) showing that serially increasing NaCl concentration up to 200 mM increased current linearly up to a total of +273% vs. 0 mM NaCl under advective conditions, 2) growing the biofilm with a starting concentration of 200 mM NaCl, which led to a maximum current increase of 400% vs. current generation without NaCl, and 3) showing that un-colonized surface area remained even after steady-state current was reached. After accounting for iR effects, we confirmed that the excess surface area existed despite a non-zero overpotential at the electrode surface. The fact that the biofilm was constrained from colonizing and producing further current under these conditions confirmed the biofilms under study here were ion transport-limited. Our work demonstrates that the use of high surface area electrodes may not increase current density when the system design allows ion transport limitations to become dominant. PMID:25421463

  6. LCLS XTOD Tunnel Vacuum Transport System (XVTS) Final Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S

    2006-10-16

    The design of the X-Ray Vacuum Transport System (XVTS) for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. A preliminary design review was held on 11/14/05 [1][2]. This FDR (Final Design Report) presents system configuration, detailed analyses and selection of the mechanical and electrical components for the XTOD tunnel section, as well as the response to all issues raised in the review committee report. Also included are the plans for procurement, mechanical integration, schedule and the cost estimates. It should be noticed that, after the XVTS PDR, LCLS management has decided to lower the number of beamlines from three to one, and shorten the tunnel length from 212 m to 184 m. [3][4] The final design of XVTS system is completed. The major subjects presented in this report are: (1) Design of the complete system. (2) System analysis results. (3) ES&H issues and plan. (4) Project cost estimates and schedule.

  7. The UMTS-AKA Protocols for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Min-Shiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of communication protocols into transport systems is a much adored research area today. Much of seminal work has been reported on the topic of intelligent transportation systems (ITS in the recent years. Many advanced techniques have been garnered to improve online communication and to promote the security, comfort, and efficiency of ITS. Of primary importance to the effective application of ITS is the communication protocol used. A fascinating development is that the yesterday's Global System for Mobile Communication protocol is being replaced by the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System protocol, which is the third-generation mobile technology. This article attempts to identify a suitable communication system for ITS applications. It is impracticable to substantially modify the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol which is in practice because it can disturb the operation of the current system, and thus we explore other possibilities through this research. We investigate a novel protocol to make the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol compliant with ITS as well as adaptable into the current UMTS protocol.

  8. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  9. 49 CFR 37.27 - Transportation for elementary and secondary education systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation for elementary and secondary education systems. 37.27 Section 37.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... elementary and secondary education systems. (a) The requirements of this part do not apply to public...

  10. Development of Library Processing System for Neutron Transport Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J. S.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    A system for library generation was developed for the lattice neutron transport program for pressurized water reactor core analysis. The system extracts multi energy group nuclear data for requested nuclides from ENDF/B whose data are based on continuous energy, generates hydrogen equivalent factor and resonance integral table as functions of temperature and background cross section for resonance nuclides, generates subgroup data for the lattice program to treat resonance exactly as possible, and generates multi-group neutron library file including nuclide depletion data for use of the lattice program.

  11. Blood-Brain Barrier Active Efflux Transporters: ATP-Binding Cassette Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Löscher, Wolfgang; Potschka, Heidrun

    2005-01-01

    Summary: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) contributes to brain homeostasis by protecting the brain from potentially harmful endogenous and exogenous substances. BBB active drug efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family are increasingly recognized as important determinants of drug distribution to, and elimination from, the CNS. The ABC efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been demonstrated as a key element of the BBB that can actively transport a huge variety of lip...

  12. Transportation system (TRUPACT) for contact-handled transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact-handled transuranic defense waste is being, and will continue to be, moved between a number of locations in the United States. The DOE is sponsoring development of safe, efficient, licensable, and cost-effective transportation systems to handle this waste. The systems being developed have been named TRUPACT which stands for TRansUranic PACkage Transporter. The system will be compatible with Type A packagings used by waste generators, interim storage facilities, and repositories. TRUPACT is required to be a Type B packaging since larger than Type A quantities of some radionuclides (particularly plutonium) may be involved in the collection of Type A packagings. TRUPACT must provide structural and thermal protection to the waste in hypothetical accident environments specified in DOT regulations 49CFR173 and NRC regulations 10CFR71. Preliminary design of the systems has been completed and final design for a truck system is underway. The status of the development program is reviewed in this paper and the reference design is described. Tests that have been conducted are discussed and long-term program objectives are reviewed

  13. Transport of micropollutants in a riverbank filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driezum, Inge; Oudega, Thomas; Reiner, Philipp; Zessner, Matthias; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater locations at alluvial backwaters are essential for public water supply. Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems are widely used as a means of obtaining public water supplies. Riverbank filtration is an effective way to remove micropollutants from the receiving surface water. The efficiency of the RBF system strongly depends on the residence time of the water in the aquifer and on the soil properties (Ray, 2011). In order to understand all bio- and geochemical processes within the hyporheic zone (e.g. the region were mixing of surface water and groundwater occurs), exchange rates and flow patterns need to be quantified. The main study area covers the porous groundwater aquifer study site (PGWA) - an urban floodplain extending on the left bank of the River Danube downstream of the City of Vienna. It is one of the main groundwater bodies in Austria. Groundwater quality in the PGWA is influenced by a combination of anthropogenic activities, industry, wastewater treatment plants, heavy precipitation events and floodings. The upper layer of the DPA is impermeable, preventing pollution originating from the surface. The upper layer consists of silt. The underlying confined aquifer consists of sand and gravel layers. Hydraulic conductivities range from 5 x 10-2 m/s up to 5 x 10-5 m/s. Underneath the aquifer are alternating sand an clay/silt layers. Samples are taken from two transects in the DPA. These transects consist of four piezometers in the first few meters of the groundwater aquifer. Several other piezometers are placed downstream from the river-groundwater interface. The behaviour of the micropollutants in the hyporheic zone can therefore be studied intensively. The transport behaviour of several micropollutants is modeled using carbamazepine (CBZ) and acesulfame (ACE) as natural tracers. Furthermore, temperature and electrical conductivity data was used for modeling. The micropollutants are measured using an in house developed online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS method

  14. Overview of particle and heavy ion transport code system PHITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We developed a general-purpose Monte Carlo particle transport code PHITS. • PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles over wide energy ranges. • More than 1500 researchers have been used PHITS for various applications. • Physics models and special functions implemented in PHITS are briefly summarized. - Abstract: A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1500 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions

  15. Public Transportation System at the Southern Cone: New projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schweitzer

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the international restructuration of the economy and the regional integration process, according to the claim of accelerating the trade circulation, there is emerging a kind of transporting subestructure project with different characteristics from other times, which are producing a new territorial configuration.The present study has the objective to analyze the evolution of the transportation system in the South Cone and, in the context of the integration process and the economic restructuration, the new demans and which are the transformations of the involved territories since the concretion of this new actions. It is analyzed the regional transportation system related to the territory estructuration in those countries integrating the Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Uruguay and Paraguay, as well as in the associated nations (Bolivia and Chile.Based on the relief and diagnosis of the situation, and considering those new projects, we make a reflection about the tendency to reconcentrate the subestructure and the inversions, with the following territorial inequality that gets deeper and reproduces the territorial fragmentation in regions that receive the new projects obeying to external goals without considering the global impact in the territories’ group.

  16. Modelling of Cadmium Transport in Soil-Crop System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for simulating cadmium transport in a soil-plant system was built using a commercial simu lating program named Powersim on the basis of input-output processes happening in the soil-plant system.Convective and dispersive transport processes of cadmium in soil profile are embedded. Simulations on a daily base have been done up to a total simulating time of 250 years. Results show that applications of sewage sludge and fertilizer at the simulated rates would only cause slight cadmium accumulations in each layer of the soil, and cadmium accumulation would be levelling off, reaching an equilibrium concentrations layer by layer downward after certain time. The time scale to reach an equilibrium concentration varies from 10 years for the top three layers to over 250 years for the bottom layers. Plant cadmium uptake would increase from 52 ug m-2 under initial soil cadmium concentrations to 65 μg m-2 under equilibrium soil cadmium concentrations, which would not exceed the maximum allowable cadmium concentration in wheat grains. Main parameters which influence cadmium accumulation and transport in soil are total cadmium input, rainfall, evaporation, plant uptake and soil properties.

  17. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  18. Analysis on the Synergy Evolutionary Development of the Collecting, Distributing, and Transporting System of Railway Heavy Haul Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenling Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A synergy evolutionary model of the collecting, distributing, and transporting system of railway heavy haul transportation is built by introducing synergy-related concepts and applying synergy evolutionary theory. Then spline interpolation method, numerical differential five-point formula, and method of least squares are used to solve synergistic coefficient, while fourth-order Rugge-kutta method and fourth-order Adams linear implicit formula method are used to solve coevolutionary curve of the system. Finally, the heavy load transportation of Daqin Railway is an example of the empirical analysis. The research result shows that the degree of order of the system and its three subsystems—collecting, transporting, and distributing—increases as the synergetic coefficient of the subsystems increases; otherwise, the degree of the order will decrease. It also shows that this model can better analyze the coevolutionary process of the heavy load collecting, distributing, and transporting system of Daqin Railway, with its rationality and applicability verified.

  19. Physical Activity Associated with Public Transport Use—A Review and Modelling of Potential Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Greenaway; Adrian Bauman; Nada Curac; Chris Rissel

    2012-01-01

    Active travel, particularly walking and cycling, has been recommended because of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity. Use of public transport generally involves some walking to bus stops or train stations. This paper is a systematic review of how much time is spent in physical activity among adults using public transport. It also explores the potential effect on the population level of physical activity if inactive adults in NSW, Australia, increased their walking ...

  20. Applications of Chaos Sequence in Intelligent Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET is an essential technology to improve safety and efficiency of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS, it provides vehicle to vehicle as well as vehicle to roadside unit (RSU wireless communications, so that on board unit (OBU located in vehicles can share messages related to road traffic with not only other OBU in the same VANET but also transportation management centre depending on retransmission of RSU. It is very important to detect and transmit real time messages of road traffic condition in VANET. This paper presents two application schemes for VANET based on chaos sequence: traffic flow forecast and vehicle secret communications. The principles of these schemes are introduced separately, and performances are verified by theoretical analysis and simulation.  

  1. Nucleocytoplasmic Transport: A Paradigm for Molecular Logistics in Artificial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujica, Suncica; Zelmer, Christina; Panatala, Radhakrishnan; Lim, Roderick Y H

    2016-01-01

    Artificial organelles, molecular factories and nanoreactors are membrane-bound systems envisaged to exhibit cell-like functionality. These constitute liposomes, polymersomes or hybrid lipo-polymersomes that display different membrane-spanning channels and/or enclose molecular modules. To achieve more complex functionality, an artificial organelle should ideally sustain a continuous influx of essential macromolecular modules (i.e. cargoes) and metabolites against an outflow of reaction products. This would benefit from the incorporation of selective nanopores as well as specific trafficking factors that facilitate cargo selectivity, translocation efficiency, and directionality. Towards this goal, we describe how proteinaceous cargoes are transported between the nucleus and cytoplasm by nuclear pore complexes and the biological trafficking machinery in living cells (i.e. nucleocytoplasmic transport). On this basis, we discuss how biomimetic control may be implemented to selectively import, compartmentalize and accumulate diverse macromolecular modules against concentration gradients in artificial organelles.

  2. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Minford, Eric; Waldron, William Emil

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  3. Hidden symmetries enhance quantum transport in Light Harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zech, Tobias; Wellens, Thomas; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    For more than 50 years we have known that photosynthetic systems harvest solar energy with almost unit {\\it quantum efficiency}. However, recent experimental evidence of {\\it quantum coherence} during the excitonic energy transport in photosynthetic organisms challenges our understanding of this fundamental biological function. Currently, and despite numerous efforts, the causal connection between coherence and efficiency is still a matter of debate. We show, through the study of extensive simulations of quantum coherent transport on networks, that three dimensional structures characterized by centro-symmetric Hamiltonians are statistically more efficient than random arrangements. Moreover, we demonstrate that the experimental data available for the electronic Hamiltonians of the Fenna-Mathew-Olson (FMO) complex of sulfur bacteria and of the crypophyte PC645 complex of marine algae are consistent with this strong correlation of centro-symmetry with quantum efficiency. These results show that what appears to b...

  4. Impairment of GABA transporter GAT-1 terminates cortical recurrent network activity via enhanced phasic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simon Razik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, GABA transporters (GATs very efficiently clear synaptically released GABA from the extracellular space, and thus exert a tight control on GABAergic inhibition. In neocortex, GABAergic inhibition is heavily recruited during recurrent phases of spontaneous action potential activity which alternate with neuronally quiet periods. Therefore, such activity should be quite sensitive to minute alterations of GAT function. Here, we explored the effects of a gradual impairment of GAT-1 and GAT-2/3 on spontaneous recurrent network activity – termed network bursts and silent periods – in organotypic slice cultures of rat neocortex. The GAT-1 specific antagonist NO-711 depressed activity already at nanomolar concentrations (IC50 for depression of spontaneous multiunit firing rate of 42 nM, reaching a level of 80% at 500-1000 nM. By contrast, the GAT-2/3 preferring antagonist SNAP-5114 had weaker and less consistent effects. Several lines of evidence pointed towards an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition as the dominant activity-depressing mechanism: network bursts were drastically shortened, phasic GABAergic currents decayed slower, and neuronal excitability during ongoing activity was diminished. In silent periods, NO-711 had little effect on neuronal excitability or membrane resistance, quite in contrast to the effects of muscimol, a GABA mimetic which activates GABAA receptors tonically. Our results suggest that an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition efficiently curtails cortical recurrent activity and may mediate antiepileptic effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of GAT-1 antagonists.

  5. A framework for the exergy analysis of future transport pathways: Application for the United Kingdom transport system 2010–2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exergy analysis has been used to quantify the historical resource use efficiency and environmental impact of transport systems. However, few exergy studies have explored future transport pathways. This study aims to, (a) develop a conceptual framework for the exergy analysis of multiple future transport and electricity pathways, (b) apply this framework to quantify future resource consumption and service delivery patterns, (c) discuss the policy-relevant results that exergy studies of future transport systems can offer. Multiple transport and electricity pathways developed by the UK Government are used to explore changes in energy use, useful work delivery and greenhouse gas emissions. In passenger transport, ambitious electrification results in a 20% increase of useful work delivery, whilst reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption by 65%. For freight, international shipping and aviation, smaller exergy efficiency improvements make useful work delivery and greenhouse gas emissions highly dependent on transport demand. Passenger transport electrification brings a step-change in useful work delivery, which if accompanied by low-carbon electricity, significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The efficiency of low-carbon electricity systems is significant for useful work delivery, but not dominant across the scenarios explored. High penetration of renewables and electrified transport is the most resource-efficient combination in this context. - Highlights: • Develop an exergy analysis framework of future transport pathways and apply it to UK. • Electrification of personal transport brings step change in useful work delivery. • Efficiency of electricity supply becomes significant once transport is electrified. • High electrification increases useful work (+20%) and reduces emissions (−65%). • High penetration of renewables and electrified transport is most resource efficient

  6. Multi-Dimensional Geometric Complexity in Urban Transportation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Peiravian, Farideddin

    2015-01-01

    Transportation networks serve as windows into the complex world of urban systems. By properly characterizing a road network, we can therefore better understand its encompassing urban system. This study offers a geometrical approach towards capturing inherent properties of urban road networks. It offers a robust and efficient methodology towards defining and extracting three relevant indicators of road networks: area, line, and point thresholds, through measures of their grid equivalents. By applying the methodology to 50 U.S. urban systems, we successfully observe differences between eastern versus western, coastal versus inland, and old versus young, cities. Moreover, we show that many socio-economic characteristics as well as travel patterns within urban systems are directly correlated with their corresponding area, line, and point thresholds.

  7. The new control system of HLS linac and transport line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gong-Fa; LI Wei-Min; LI Jing-Yi; LI Chuan; CHEN Li-Ping; BAO Xun; WANG Ji-Gang; XUAN Ke

    2005-01-01

    The new linac and transport line control system of Hefei Light Source (HLS) is a distributed control system based on EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System). Industrial PC (IPC) is widely used as not only Input/Output Controller (IOC) but also device controller. Besides industrial PC, PLC and microcontroller are also used as device controllers. The software for industrial PC based device controller is developed based on VxWorks real-time operating system. The software for PLC and microcontroller are written with ladder software package and assemble language, respectively. PC with Linux and SUN workstation with Solaris are used as operator interfaces (OPI). High level control is made up of some EPICS tools and Tcl/Tk scripts.

  8. Photosynthetic electron transport system promotes synthesis of Au-nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabnam, Nisha; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a novel, green, efficient and economically viable light mediated protocol for generation of Au-nanoparticles using most vital organelle, chloroplasts, of the plant system is portrayed. Thylakoids/chloroplasts isolated from Potamogeton nodosus (an aquatic plant) and Spinacia oleracea (a terrestrial plant) turned Au³⁺ solutions purple in presence of light of 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ photon flux density (PFD) and the purple coloration intensified with time. UV-Vis spectra of these purple colored solutions showed absorption peak at ∼545 nm which is known to arise due to surface plasmon oscillations specific to Au-nanoparticles. However, thylakoids/chloroplasts did not alter color of Au³⁺ solutions in dark. These results clearly demonstrated that photosynthetic electron transport can reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ which nucleate to form Au-nanoparticles in presence of light. Transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that Au-nanoparticles generated by light driven photosynthetic electron transport system of thylakoids/chloroplasts were in range of 5-20 nm. Selected area electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction indicated crystalline nature of these nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray confirmed that these nanoparticles were composed of Au. To confirm the potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in generation of Au-nanoparticles, thylakoids/chloroplasts were tested for their efficacy to generate Au-nanoparticles in presence of light of PFD ranging from 60 to 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The capacity of thylakoids/chloroplasts to generate Au-nanoparticles increased remarkably with increase in PFD, which further clearly demonstrated potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in reduction of Au³⁺ to Au⁰ to form nanoparticles. The light driven donation of electrons to metal ions by thylakoids/chloroplasts can be exploited for large scale production of nanoparticles. PMID:23976990

  9. Photosynthetic electron transport system promotes synthesis of Au-nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Shabnam

    Full Text Available In this communication, a novel, green, efficient and economically viable light mediated protocol for generation of Au-nanoparticles using most vital organelle, chloroplasts, of the plant system is portrayed. Thylakoids/chloroplasts isolated from Potamogeton nodosus (an aquatic plant and Spinacia oleracea (a terrestrial plant turned Au³⁺ solutions purple in presence of light of 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ photon flux density (PFD and the purple coloration intensified with time. UV-Vis spectra of these purple colored solutions showed absorption peak at ∼545 nm which is known to arise due to surface plasmon oscillations specific to Au-nanoparticles. However, thylakoids/chloroplasts did not alter color of Au³⁺ solutions in dark. These results clearly demonstrated that photosynthetic electron transport can reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ which nucleate to form Au-nanoparticles in presence of light. Transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that Au-nanoparticles generated by light driven photosynthetic electron transport system of thylakoids/chloroplasts were in range of 5-20 nm. Selected area electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction indicated crystalline nature of these nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray confirmed that these nanoparticles were composed of Au. To confirm the potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in generation of Au-nanoparticles, thylakoids/chloroplasts were tested for their efficacy to generate Au-nanoparticles in presence of light of PFD ranging from 60 to 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The capacity of thylakoids/chloroplasts to generate Au-nanoparticles increased remarkably with increase in PFD, which further clearly demonstrated potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in reduction of Au³⁺ to Au⁰ to form nanoparticles. The light driven donation of electrons to metal ions by thylakoids/chloroplasts can be exploited for large scale production of nanoparticles.

  10. Digital Advertising System in Urban Transport System of Žilina Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madleňák Radovan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and information and communication technologies (ICT have changed everything: news, commerce, advertising, relating to others, getting information and transport too. It has changed how the people work, how they practice religion, how they date, how they spend the free time and how they travel. One of the technological innovations that are based on usage ICT in advertising space is digital signage. This article presents the results of research dedicated to investigate the relationships between customers-passengers and this new ICT technology in real environment. The results of the research stimulate the discussion about the future advertising practices in Žilina town. Based on the wide analysis of opportunities the digital signage technology in advertising practices, the presented marketing research investigates how passengers accept virtual advertising technology in urban transport system of Žilina town. Authors highlight the advantages of interactivity between digital signage technology and consumers. The conclusions of this article triggers further investigations in the area of the interactions between the digital advertising technology and passengers, and the passengers’ perception and acceptation of shopping activities on the basis of advertising in digital signage medias.

  11. Modelling of dynamical systems in transportation using the modyfit application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Żółkiewski

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to present a numerical application for analysis and modelling dynamical flexible systems in transportation. This application enables controlling and regulation of rotating systems with the interaction between the working motion and local vibrations of elements.Design/methodology/approach: Numerical calculations are based onto mathematical models derived in other publications. The objectives of making this application were connected with emerging wants of analyzing and modelling rotating systems with taking into consideration relation between main and local motions. Theoretical considerations were made by classical methods and by the Galerkin’s method.Findings: In way of increasing the value of angular velocity we can observe creating additional poles in the characteristic of dynamical flexibility and after increasing it is evident that created modes are symmetrically propagated from the original mode. It is evident, instead of modes there are created zeros.Research limitations/implications: Analyzed systems were limited to simple linear type beams and rods. Main motion is plane motion. Future research should consider complex systems and nonlinearity.Practical implications: of the application are possibilities of numerical analysis of beam and rod systems both the free-free ones and fixed ones. Engineers thank to this application can derived the stability zones of analyzed systems and can observe eigenfrequencies and zeros in the way of changing the value of angular velocity. In practice we should implement more adequate models such as those presented in this paper.Originality/value: This paper consist the description of the application called the Modyfit. The Modyfit is an implementation of derived models in a numerical environment. Those models are rotating flexible systems with consideration the transportation effect.

  12. Beam transport optics for high-power laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam transport optics receive output energy from the laser cavity and deliver it to the work site. Depending on the application, this may require a few simple elements or large complex systems. Collection of the laser energy depends on the spatial and temporal energy distribution as well as the wavelength and polarization of the laser cavity and output coupler. Transport optics can perform a variety of functions, including beam formatting, frequency doubling, and distribution to one or more work sites while maintaining or even improving the beam quality. The beam may be delivered to work sites as focused spots or images, projected to distant targets, or propagated through various media for sensing or photochemical processing. Design may involve optical modeling of the system, including diffraction effects and thermal management. A Gaussian beam profile is often used for convenience in modeling. When deviations from this ideal profile need to be considered, it is necessary to characterize the laser beam in detail. Design of the transport system requires understanding of the interaction of the laser energy with optical materials and components. Practical considerations include mounting the optics without stress and with the stability suitable for the intended application. Requirements for beam direction, stability, size, shape, and quality dictate the design approach for each specific situation. Attention also must be given to reliability, environmental, and commercial requirements. Damage to optics in high-power laser systems is a common concern. Environmental problems such as atmospheric turbulence, contamination by dust or vapor from the work site or other sources, or absorption of water vapor can directly degrade beam quality. Other potentially significant optical performance effects may result from instability and aging of the optics, temperature, humidity, pressure, transmitted vibration, and contamination from the work site or other sources

  13. Driverless operation for local transport systems; Fahrerloser Betrieb in Nahverkehrssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehl, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    With the increasing need for local public transport on the one hand and the overloading and threatening collapse of many local transport systems in the conurbations on the other, the automation of new and existing lines is seen as a possible solution. It has been shown that driverless automatic operation can make systems more flexible and attractive. Existing passenger capacity can be significantly increased by automation and more passengers attracted. Driverless operation offers potential for cost savings, which can offset the higher investment for the automation systems. Possibilities for reducing investment and operating costs are also shown. In addition to discussing the prospects for automation the article considers the technical realization of the concept from the standpoint of the vehicle manufacturer. Specially described are those components that have to meet the special safety requirements. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter dem Eindruck der steigenden Notwendigkeit des oeffentlichen Nahverkehrs einerseits und der Ueberlastung und dem drohenden Kollaps vieler Nahverkehrssysteme in Ballungszentren andererseits wird die Automatisierung neuer und bestehender Strecken als moegliche Loesung vorgestellt. Es zeigt sich, dass der fahrerlose automatische Betrieb sich dazu eignet, Systeme flexibler und attraktiver zu gestalten. Bestehende Befoerderungskapazitaeten koennen durch Automatisierung signifikant erhoeht und somit Fahrgaeste gewonnen werden. (orig.)

  14. What Moves Them? Active Transport among Inhabitants of Dutch Deprived Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Saris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Active modes of transport like walking and cycling have been shown to be valuable contributions to daily physical activity. The current study investigates associations between personal and neighbourhood environmental characteristics and active transport among inhabitants of Dutch deprived districts. Method. Questionnaires about health, neighbourhoods, and physical activity behaviour were completed by 742 adults. Data was analysed by means of multivariate linear regression analyses. Results. Being younger, female, and migrant and having a normal weight were associated with more walking for active transport. Being younger, male, and native Dutch and having a normal weight were associated with more cycling for active transport. Neighbourhood characteristics were generally not correlated with active transport. Stratified analyses, based on significant person-environment interactions, showed that migrants and women walked more when cars did not exceed maximum speed in nearby streets and that younger people walked more when speed of traffic in nearby streets was perceived as low. Among migrants, more cycling was associated with the perceived attractiveness of the neighbourhood surroundings. Discussion and Conclusion. Results indicated that among inhabitants of Dutch deprived districts, personal characteristics were associated with active transport, whereas neighbourhood environmental characteristics were generally not associated with active transport. Nevertheless, interaction effects showed differences among subgroups that should be considered in intervention development.

  15. Stimulation of Na+/K+ ATPase activity and Na+ coupled glucose transport by β-catenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The oncogenic transcription factor β-catenin stimulates the Na+/K+-ATPase. → β-Catenin stimulates SGLT1 dependent Na+, glucose cotransport. → The effects are independent of transcription. → β-Catenin sensitive transport may contribute to properties of proliferating cells. -- Abstract: β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein stimulating as oncogenic transcription factor several genes important for cell proliferation. β-Catenin-regulated genes include the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1, which is known to stimulate a variety of transport systems. The present study explored the possibility that β-catenin influences membrane transport. To this end, β-catenin was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without SGLT1 and electrogenic transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. As a result, expression of β-catenin significantly enhanced the ouabain-sensitive current of the endogeneous Na+/K+-ATPase. Inhibition of vesicle trafficking by brefeldin A revealed that the stimulatory effect of β-catenin on the endogenous Na+/K+-ATPase was not due to enhanced stability of the pump protein in the cell membrane. Expression of β-catenin further enhanced glucose-induced current (Ig) in SGLT1-expressing oocytes. In the absence of SGLT1 Ig was negligible irrespective of β-catenin expression. The stimulating effect of β-catenin on both Na+/K+ ATPase and SGLT1 activity was observed even in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. The experiments disclose a completely novel function of β-catenin, i.e. the regulation of transport.

  16. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  17. Structure-activity-relationships (SAR) in pyrimidine nucleoside transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several series of pyrimidine nucleosides were evaluated as part of a larger program to develop non-invasive brain imaging agents. The interaction of these antitumor/antiviral nucleosides with an NBMPR-sensitive murine erythroctye nucleoside transporter was evaluated by determining their inhibitory effect (Ki) on zero-trans influx of thymidine. Within each series of compounds, which had F, Cl, Br or I as halogen substituents, an increase in size of the halogen atom or a decrease in electronegativity decreased affinity for the transporter. Partition coefficients (P) of these pyrimidine nucleosides were measured to determine their potential to diffuse across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Most of the pyrimidine nucleosides had lower P values (log P i for nucleosides with a particular sugar moiety. Within a nucleoside series with a given sugar component, the binding affinity for the transporter was inversely proportional to lipophilicity. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Are characteristics of the school district associated with active transportation to school in Danish adolescents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Bloomfield, Kim; Ejstrud, Bo;

    2012-01-01

    models determined the effects of individual (gender, family affluence, enjoyment of school and academic performance) and school district factors (educational level, household savings, land use and size) on active transportation to school (by foot, bicycle or other active means) among 10 380 pupils aged...... 13-15 years nested in 407 school districts. RESULTS: Of all students, 64.4% used active transportation to school daily. Boys, those with perceived higher school performance and those with lower family affluence were more likely to use active transportation to school. After adjustment for all...

  19. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  20. Performance Impacts through Intelligent Transport Systems : An Assessment of how to Measure and Evaluate

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeister, Patrick; Kadner, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses how to measure and evaluate performance impacts of IntelligentTransport Systems (ITS) in the transport chain.The importance of transportation in global trade has increased significantly in the lastdecades. Cost pressure, rising customer demand for sophisticated logistics services, sustainabilityand security as well as safety issues have boosted the need for more efficient,effective and differentiated transport operations. Intelligent Transport Systems werefound to have the...

  1. Geometric feasibility of flexible cask transportation system for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, P.; Ribeiro, M.I.; Aparicio, P. [Instituto Superior Tecnico-Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1998-07-01

    One of the remote operations that has to be carried out in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the transportation of sealed casks between the various ports of the Tokamak Building (TB) and the Hot Cell Building (HCB). The casks may contain different in-vessel components (e.g. blanket modules, divertors) and are designed for a maximum load of about 80 ton. To improve the safety and flexibility of ITER Remote Handling (RH) transport vehicles, the cask is not motorized by itself, but instead, a motorized platform carrying the cask was proposed. This paper addresses the geometric feasibility of the flexible cask transportation system, taking into account the vehicle kinematics. The feasibility issues studied include planning smooth paths to increase safety, the discussion of building constraints by the evaluation of the vehicle spanned areas when following a planned path, and the analysis of the clearance required to remove the platform from underneath the cask at different possible failure locations. Simulation results are presented for the recommended trajectory, the spanned area and the rescue manoeuvres at critical locations along the path. (authors)

  2. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications. The important functions of PHITS are an event generator mode for low-energy neutron interaction, beam transport functions, a function for calculating the displacement per atom (DPA), and a microdosimetric tally function. PHITS has been used by more than 1,000 users in various research and development fields, such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research

  3. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  4. Geometric feasibility of flexible cask transportation system for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the remote operations that has to be carried out in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the transportation of sealed casks between the various ports of the Tokamak Building (TB) and the Hot Cell Building (HCB). The casks may contain different in-vessel components (e.g. blanket modules, divertors) and are designed for a maximum load of about 80 ton. To improve the safety and flexibility of ITER Remote Handling (RH) transport vehicles, the cask is not motorized by itself, but instead, a motorized platform carrying the cask was proposed. This paper addresses the geometric feasibility of the flexible cask transportation system, taking into account the vehicle kinematics. The feasibility issues studied include planning smooth paths to increase safety, the discussion of building constraints by the evaluation of the vehicle spanned areas when following a planned path, and the analysis of the clearance required to remove the platform from underneath the cask at different possible failure locations. Simulation results are presented for the recommended trajectory, the spanned area and the rescue manoeuvres at critical locations along the path. (authors)

  5. Intelligent transportation systems dependable vehicular communications for improved road safety

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Joaquim; Fonseca, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge work on the most challenging research issues concerning intelligent transportation systems (ITS), introducing selected, highly relevant advanced research on scheduling and real-time communication for vehicular networks, as well as fault tolerance, test beds and simulations for ITS. The authors define new architectures that support cooperative sensing in ITS and offer guidance for the development of a reference end-to-end implementation. The presented results allow advanced traffic and travel management strategies to be formulated on the basis of reliable and real-time input data. The effectiveness of these new strategies, together with the proposed systems, is assessed in field trials and via simulations. The chapters in this book detail new research findings, algorithms, protocols, and the development of an implementation platform for ITS that merges and integrates heterogeneous data sources into a common system. In addition, they provide a set of advanced tools for the contro...

  6. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Fayez K. Ghishan; Liqun Bai

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas,skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestivesystem have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs.

  7. Energetic Macroscopic Representation Applied To An Electrical Urban Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia POPESCU

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available An energetic description of the electric transport urban system ASTRAIK 415T is proposed according to a specific formalism. This is used to simulate the trolleybus system, equipped with a chopper and a direct current series motor. DC series motor is still used for trolleybus and metro, driven by a GTO or IGBT chopper µC-controlled, which allows the implementation of command algorithms. From this synthetically representation a complete model of the electromechanical system was implemented using the Matlab-Simulink simulation environment. A control structure was deduced through model inversion. This will allow the study of the transient phenomena and the implementation of different command laws taking into account the minimum energy losses

  8. Applicability of the SCALE code system to MOX fuel transport systems for criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Naito, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Takasugi, Masahiro; Natsume, Toshihiro; Tsuda, Kazuaki

    1996-11-01

    In order to ascertain feasibilities of the SCALE code system for MOX fuel transport systems, criticality analyses were performed for MOX fuel (Pu enrichment; 3.0 wt.%) criticality experiments at JAERI`s TCA and for infinite fuel rod arrays as parameters of Pu enrichment and lattice pitch. The comparison with a combination of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP and JENDL-3.2 indicated that the SCALE code system with GAM-THERMOS 123-group library can produce feasible results. Though HANSEN-ROACH 16-group library gives poorer results for MOS fuel transport systems, the errors are conservative except for high enriched fuels. (author)

  9. Transport diffusion in one dimensional molecular systems: Power law and validity of Fick's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-cheng; Zheng, Dong-qin; Ai, Bao-quan; Hu, Bambi; Zhong, Wei-rong

    2015-10-01

    The transport diffusion in one-dimensional molecular systems is investigated through non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. We have proposed the power law relationship of the transport diffusion coefficient with the temperature, the mass and the transport length, D* ∝ T*m*-1L*β, where β equals to 0.8 for small systems and zero for large systems. It is found that Fick's law is valid in long transport length but invalid in short transport length. Our results can provide a new perspective for understanding the microscopic mechanism of the molecular transport phenomena in low-dimensional systems.

  10. New magnet transport system for the LHC beam transfer lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system (pictured here in one of the tunnels) is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The lead vehicle is powered by an electric rail set into the roof of the tunnel. The system is backed up by electrical batteries that enable it to operate in the absence of an outside power source or in the event of power failure. Last but not least, for the long-distance transport of magnets, it can be optically guided by a line traced on the tunnel floor. The convoy moves through the particularly narr...

  11. Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of Intelligent Transport Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUAN Zhicai; WU Jianping; Mike McDonald

    2006-01-01

    A general review of the socio-economic impact of the intelligent transport system (ITS) is presented with a case study to demonstrate the data envelopment analysis method. Cost-benefit analyses are still the dominant method for evaluating ITS and other transport engineering projects, while cost effective analyses and multi-criteria appraisals are widely used to define and prioritize objectives by providing useful information for the most promising policy decisions. Both cost-benefit analyses and a data envelopment analysis method are applied to analyze the socio-economic impact of convoy driving systems. The main findings are that a convoy provides a worthwhile benefit-cost ratio when more than 30% of the traffics in the convoys and the traffic load exceeds 5500 vehicles/h for a three-lane motorway. The results also show that for a fixed percentage of convoys, increased demand will increase the data envelopment analysis method relative efficiency and that the neglect of certain output indicators of an ITS may result in underestimation of the system effects.

  12. Personnel transportation systems between Earth and Mars: Project Camelot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Based on previous design studies the 1986-87 design team developed a personnel transportation system between Earth and Mars in support of an established manned Mars base. The vehicle designed, an interplanetary space station, will make use of specialized trajectories known as 'circulating orbits'. These trajectories have the property of periodically repeating encounters with Earth and Mars. They have been studied in the past, but have attracted renewed interest since the National Commission on Space has proposed the idea of placing large interplanetary space stations in such orbits. During planetary flybys, small, austere, taxi vehicles from the planet surface will rendezvous with the station and transfer the personnel to it. Here the space travelers will have roomier, more elaborate living quarters for the long journey. This method of manned travel is visualized to be more economical for supporting a manned Mars surface operation than others thus far conceived. The Aerospace System Design class produced a conceptual design of a circulating orbit transportation system. The design included the station configuration, other usual subsystems treated to the necessary degree e.g., propulsion, power, attitude and thermal control, and communications. Special attention was given the gravity environment and the human needs for the long trip. An operational scenario was developed which included the initial construction and establishment in orbit as well as provisions for maintenance of replenishment of consumables.

  13. Aerothermodynamic challenges of the Saenger space-transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschel, E. H.

    1991-09-01

    The two-stage-to-orbit Saenger space transportation system is the reference concept of the German hypersonics technology program. The technology development concentrates first on the needs of the lower stage. Its requirements on aerothermodynamics and propulsion integration are sketched. The aerothermodynamic design challenge is discussed and the design tools and the design methodology are reviewed. The calibration of both the computational and the experimental methods, as well as the test of vehicle components like the inlet, control surfaces etc., make the Hypersonic Technology Experimental vehicle (HYTEX) mandatory. Contents and workplan of the technology program 'aerothermodynamics and propulsion integration' are laid out. Selected results from the current work are presented.

  14. Effect of Burstiness on the Air Transportation System

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    The effect of burstiness in complex networks has received considerable attention. In particular, its effect on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system is significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two indexes of temporal distance based on passengers' behavior and analyze the effect. As a result, we find that burstiness shortens the temporal distance while delays are increased. Moreover, we discover that the positive effect of burstiness is lost when flight schedules get overcrowded.

  15. A geometric approach for radiation transport inside complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeron, S. [Groupe de Recherche en Ingenierie des Procedes et Systemes, Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada)]. E-mail: sebastien_fumeron@uqac.ca

    2006-09-04

    The aim of this Letter is to extend the phenomenological theory of radiation transfer to complex systems. For elastic or electromagnetic waves, one presents a geometrization of matter based on relativistic gravitation models. In this approach, particles experience material media as curved spacetimes, which locally affect the energetic processes. The general form of Clausius invariant is calculated and the curved radiative transfer equation is derived. An application to phonon transport in solids shows that the presence of a defect can amplify the elastic energy carried in particular directions of propagation.

  16. Diffusion of Container Packaging Method into the Nigerian Transport System

    OpenAIRE

    ADERAMO A.J.; ADEYANJU J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the diffusion of container method of packaging for the period 1968 – 2005 in Nigeria with a view to adopting the method in the Nigerian Transport System. This was done by collecting a comprehensive data set of import and export container traffic from seven selected ports in Nigeria. These are Apapa Bulkship terminal; AP Molers terminal, Ro-Ro terminal, Tin Can Island, Delta Port, Rivers Ports and Calabar Port. The collected data were used to determine the trend of import an...

  17. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  18. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  19. The development of a natural gas transportation logistics management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient management of the natural gas business chain - based on pipeline transmission networks and taking into consideration the interaction among the main players (e.g., shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies) - requires the use of decision-making support systems. These support systems maximise resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages and market demand shortfalls. This study presents a practical use for technologies, such as a thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, a Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies, an economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for the maximisation of income and the minimisation of contractual penalties. The proposed system allows the optimum availability level to be defined and maintained by the Transporter (by installing reserve capacity) to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. It also economically identifies, quantifies and justifies the installation of stand-by compressor units that can mitigate the Transporter's exposure to losses caused by capacity shortfalls as a consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. - Highlights: → We present a DSS to help the decision on investments on spare compressor units of pipelines systems. → The system may be applied to new or existing projects. → The system is able to estimate the revenue losses and the contractual penalties. → An economical evaluation shows the NPV for each configuration of spare units. → The method was applied to the case study of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline.

  20. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  1. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  2. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II)

  3. Accessibility of a Destination-Based Transportation System: A Large Airport Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jing; YING Xiwen

    2008-01-01

    The accessibility of a destination-based transportation system is defined to quantify the perform-ance of transportation systems which access a distinct destination. The access cost is used to reflect the utility of the transportation system including the fatigue and inconvenience in the total cost. The cost is quan-tified by two coefficients which represent the different characteristics of various people. The average cost and the income-relative accessibility are used to describe various aspects of the accessibility and to evaluate the accessibility of a destination-based system. A case study uses data from the Kunming transpor-tation system to evaluate the accessibility of the present city airport. The calibrated coefficients are then used to evaluate the transportation system to the new Kunming international airport. The results show that this transportation accessibility evaluation can be combined with transportation planning to study transporta-tion sub-systems.

  4. 75 FR 13643 - ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of... (FACA) (Pub. L. 72-363; 5 U.S.C. app. 2), a meeting of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS... implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office...

  5. Implemented Scheme and Value of Beijing Urban Public Transportation Ticket Price System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YonganZhang

    2004-01-01

    The main effect factor of Beijing urban public transportation ticket price system foundation is analyzed by applying system analysis method. Feasible scheme of public transportation ticket price syscem is proposed. 3 implemented scheme of public transportation ticket price system is valued by applying fuzzy method.

  6. Solute transport modelling in a coupled water and heat flow system applied to cold regions hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Andrew; Destouni, Georgia

    2016-04-01

    In cold regions, flow in the unsaturated zone is highly dynamic with seasonal variability and changes in temperature, moisture, and heat and water fluxes, all of which affect ground freeze-thaw processes and influence transport of inert and reactive waterborne substances. In arctic permafrost environments, near-surface groundwater flow is further restricted to a relatively shallow and seasonally variable active layer, confined by perennially frozen ground below. The active layer is typically partially saturated with ice, liquid water and air, and is strongly dependent on seasonal temperature fluctuations, thermal forcing and infiltration patterns. Here there is a need for improved understanding of the mechanisms controlling subsurface solute transport in the partially saturated active layer zone. Studying solute transport in cold regions is relevant to improve the understanding of how natural and anthropogenic pollution may change as activities in arctic and sub-arctic regions increase. It is also particularly relevant for understanding how dissolved carbon is transported in coupled surface and subsurface hydrological systems under climate change, in order to better understand the permafrost-hydrological-carbon climate feedback. In this contribution subsurface solute transport under surface warming and degrading permafrost conditions is studied using a physically based model of coupled cryotic and hydrogeological flow processes combined with a particle tracking method. Changes in subsurface water flows and solute transport travel times are analysed for different modelled geological configurations during a 100-year warming period. Results show that for all simulated cases, the minimum and mean travel times increase non-linearly with warming irrespective of geological configuration and heterogeneity structure. The travel time changes are shown to depend on combined warming effects of increase in pathway length due to deepening of the active layer, reduced transport

  7. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, TImothy C.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that management and engineering understand the need for an availability requirement for the customer's space transportation system as it enables the meeting of his needs, goal, and objectives. There are three types of availability, e.g., operational availability, achieved availability, or inherent availability. The basic definition of availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. The major difference is the inclusiveness of the functions within the mean downtime and the mean uptime. This paper will address tIe inherent availability which only addresses the mean downtime as that mean time to repair or the time to determine the failed article, remove it, install a replacement article and verify the functionality of the repaired system. The definitions of operational availability include the replacement hardware supply or maintenance delays and other non-design factors in the mean downtime. Also with inherent availability the mean uptime will only consider the mean time between failures (other availability definitions consider this as mean time between maintenance - preventive and corrective maintenance) that requires the repair of the system to be functional. It is also essential that management and engineering understand all influencing attributes relationships to each other and to the resultant inherent availability requirement. This visibility will provide the decision makers with the understanding necessary to place constraints on the design definition for the major drivers that will determine the inherent availability, safety, reliability, maintainability, and the life cycle cost of the fielded system provided the customer. This inherent availability requirement may be driven by the need to use a multiple launch approach to placing humans on the moon or the desire to control the number of spare parts required to support long stays in either orbit or on the surface of the moon or mars. It is

  8. Transforming growth factor β signaling upregulates the expression of human GDP-fucose transporter by activating transcription factor Sp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu-Xin; Ma, Anna; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    GDP-fucose transporter plays a crucial role in fucosylation of glycoproteins by providing activated fucose donor, GDP-fucose, for fucosyltransferases in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. Fucose-containing glycans are involved in many biological processes, which are essential for growth and development. Mutations in the GDP-fucose transporter gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome II, a disease characterized by slow growth, mental retardation and immunodeficiency. However, no information is available regarding its transcriptional regulation. Here, by using human cells, we show that TGF-β1 specifically induces the GDP-fucose transporter expression, but not other transporters tested such as CMP-sialic acid transporter, suggesting a diversity of regulatory pathways for the expression of these transporters. The regulatory elements that are responsive to the TGF-β1 stimulation are present in the region between bp -330 and -268 in the GDP-fucose transporter promoter. We found that this region contains two identical octamer GC-rich motifs (GGGGCGTG) that were demonstrated to be essential for the transporter expression. We also show that the transcription factor Sp1 specifically binds to the GC-rich motifs in vitro and Sp1 coupled with phospho-Smad2 is associated with the promoter region covering the Sp1-binding motifs in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. In addition, we further confirmed that Sp1 is essential for the GDP-fucose transporter expression stimulated by TGF-β1 using a luciferase reporter system. These results highlight the role of TGF-β signaling in regulation of the GDP-fucose transporter expression via activating Sp1. This is the first transcriptional study for any nucleotide sugar transporters that have been identified so far. Notably, TGF-β1 receptor itself is known to be modified by fucosylation. Given the essential role of GDP-fucose transporter in fucosylation, the finding that TGF-β1 stimulates the expression of

  9. Transport of methylmercury—cysteine conjugate by system L—tpye amino acid transporters and its transportermediated toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KanaY; KimDK

    2002-01-01

    Methylmercury(MeHg) is widely known for its potent neurotoxicity and the causal substance of Minamata disease.Since the conjugates of MeHg with thiol compounds are easily formed in vivo,the metabolism and transport of glutathione,cysteine and their derivatives are important determinants of tissue distribution and elimination of MeHg.It has been proposed that the amino acid transport system L,which transports large neutral amino acids,is one of the major routes for MeHg mobilization.We have identified two isoforms of system L amino acid transporters:L-type amino acid transkporter-1(LAT1) and LAT2 and found that they transport MeHg as a cysteine-conjugate (MeHg-Cys).We have further found that a classical system L inhibitor BCH[2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid] rescued T24 human bladder carcinoma cells expressing LAT1 form the toxicity of MeHg-Cysl.We concluded that the cytotoxicity of MeHg is mediated by system L transporters.The fact that BCH reduced the toxicity of MeHg-Cys suggests that the high-affinity inhibitors of system L transporters could be a new rationable to avoid MeHg-toxicity.

  10. Physical Activity Associated with Public Transport Use—A Review and Modelling of Potential Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Greenaway

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Active travel, particularly walking and cycling, has been recommended because of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity. Use of public transport generally involves some walking to bus stops or train stations. This paper is a systematic review of how much time is spent in physical activity among adults using public transport. It also explores the potential effect on the population level of physical activity if inactive adults in NSW, Australia, increased their walking through increased use of public transport. Of 1,733 articles, 27 met the search criteria, and nine reported on absolute measures of physical activity associated with public transport. A further 18 papers reported on factors associated with physical activity as part of public transport use. A range of 8–33 additional minutes of walking was identified from this systematic search as being attributable to public transport use. Using “bootstrapping” statistical modelling, if 20% of all inactive adults increased their walking by only 16 minutes a day for five days a week, we predict there would be a substantial 6.97% increase in the proportion of the adult population considered “sufficiently active”. More minutes walked per day, or a greater uptake of public transport by inactive adults would likely lead to significantly greater increases in the adult population considered sufficiently active.

  11. Improvement Possibilities of City Transportation System by Using PINAVIA Interchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušrius Juozapavičius

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The article analyzes transportation system problems of a common city by taking an example of Vilnius city and reveals drawbacks of street infrastructure and traffic organization which are responsible for traffic congestion and its consequences in many cities including Vilnius. A new high capacity Pinavia road interchange is presented. Mathematical model of the new interchange is described enabling transport specialists to optimize and adapt it to a given location. Unique features of the new Pinavia interchange are used to develop an improvement strategy of a city transportation system.

  12. USE OF 137CS ACTIVITY TO INVESTIGATE SEDIMENT MOVEMENT AND TRANSPORT MODELING IN RIVER COASTAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Toriman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts between human and environment always triggered to sedimentation and erosion problems within the coastal areas, Therefore understanding sediment transport processes in a river estuary and coastal waters was important when studying sediment transport and mobility within the river coastal environment. This article aims to investigate the sediment transport and mobility of the Kemaman River estuary, Terengganu Malaysia. In this article, it was demonstrated that anthropogenic activities within a watershed, such as agriculture and urbanization affected the sediment yield from the watershed. Over four months observation (November 2008-February 2009, the delivery of suspended sediment from the Kemaman River to the Kemaman Estuary had increased by about 25%. Based on the in-situ measurement of 137Cs activity, the measure activity ranged between 5638-22421 cpm for backshore while for foreshore was between 2655-13354 cpm. The mean values for backshore and foreshore were 15153 and 6261 cpm respectively with suspended sediment concentration, recorded from 17 November to 10 February was between 110.5-218.8 mg L-1. Using flow and suspended sediment discharge data provided by the Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID revealed were possible increasing trend in suspended sediment discharge and concentration, particularly during the monsoon season. Temporal analysis indicates that the trend of sediment yield was increased during the monsoon season resulting over sediment supply adjacent to the river mouth and causing difficulty for fisherman to navigate the boats. In a broader context, this study can underscores the need to address the anthropogenic impacts and flood monsoon on sediment yield in the Kemaman-Chendor estuary system.

  13. The impact of smarter choices of the use of active travel and public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Preston, John; Wong, Alan; Hickford, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the Local Sustainable Transport Fund (LSTF) and the Better Bus Area Fund (BBAF), with a particular focus on South Hampshire. In particular, it examines the impact on the extent of active travel (walking and cycling) and public transport usage. In so doing, the nudge hypothesis is critically examined. This hypothesis suggests that small changes in choice architecture can lead to large changes in behaviour. In the local transport context, this has meant an emp...

  14. Alternative electron transports participate in the maintenance of violaxanthin De-epoxidase activity of Ulva sp. under low irradiance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Xie

    Full Text Available The xanthophyll cycle (Xc, which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP, is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx to zeaxanthin (Zx via antheraxanthin (Ax. However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ΔpH required for activation of VDE is built. In this study, we used salicylaldoxime (SA to inhibit ZEP activity in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta and then characterized VDE under low light and dark conditions with various metabolic inhibitors. With inhibition of ZEP by SA, VDE remained active under low light and dark conditions, as indicated by large accumulations of Ax and Zx at the expense of Vx. When PSII-mediated linear electron transport systems were completely inhibited by SA and DCMU, alternative electron transport systems (i.e., cyclic electron transport and chlororespiration could maintain VDE activity. Furthermore, accumulations of Ax and Zx decreased significantly when SA, DCMU, or DBMIB together with an inhibitor of chlororespiration (i.e., propyl gallate (PG were applied to Ulva sp. This result suggests that chlororespiration not only participates in the build-up of the necessary ΔpH, but that it also possibly influences VDE activity indirectly by diminishing the oxygen level in the chloroplast.

  15. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  16. WASTES: Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation--Version 2:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation (WASTES) Technical Reference Manual was written to describe and document the algorithms used within the WASTES model as implemented in Version 2.23. The manual will serve as a reference for users of the WASTES system. The intended audience for this manual are knowledgeable users of WASTES who have an interest in the underlying principles and algorithms used within the WASTES model. Each algorithm is described in nonprogrammers terminology, and the source and uncertainties of the constants in use by these algorithms are described. The manual also describes the general philosophy and rules used to: 1) determine the allocation and priority of spent fuel generation sources to facility destinations, 2) calculate transportation costs, and 3) estimate the cost of at-reactor ex-pool storage. A detailed description of the implementation of many of the algorithms is also included in the WASTES Programmers Reference Manual (Shay and Buxbaum 1986a). This manual is separated into sections based on the general usage of the algorithms being discussed. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Analysis of Intelligent Transportation Systems Using Model-Driven Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernández-Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs integrate information, sensor, control, and communication technologies to provide transport related services. Their users range from everyday commuters to policy makers and urban planners. Given the complexity of these systems and their environment, their study in real settings is frequently unfeasible. Simulations help to address this problem, but present their own issues: there can be unintended mistakes in the transition from models to code; their platforms frequently bias modeling; and it is difficult to compare works that use different models and tools. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes a framework for a model-driven development of these simulations. It is based on a specific modeling language that supports the integrated specification of the multiple facets of an ITS: people, their vehicles, and the external environment; and a network of sensors and actuators conveniently arranged and distributed that operates over them. The framework works with a model editor to generate specifications compliant with that language, and a code generator to produce code from them using platform specifications. There are also guidelines to help researchers in the application of this infrastructure. A case study on advanced management of traffic lights with cameras illustrates its use.

  18. Analysis of Intelligent Transportation Systems Using Model-Driven Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Isabel, Alberto; Fuentes-Fernández, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) integrate information, sensor, control, and communication technologies to provide transport related services. Their users range from everyday commuters to policy makers and urban planners. Given the complexity of these systems and their environment, their study in real settings is frequently unfeasible. Simulations help to address this problem, but present their own issues: there can be unintended mistakes in the transition from models to code; their platforms frequently bias modeling; and it is difficult to compare works that use different models and tools. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes a framework for a model-driven development of these simulations. It is based on a specific modeling language that supports the integrated specification of the multiple facets of an ITS: people, their vehicles, and the external environment; and a network of sensors and actuators conveniently arranged and distributed that operates over them. The framework works with a model editor to generate specifications compliant with that language, and a code generator to produce code from them using platform specifications. There are also guidelines to help researchers in the application of this infrastructure. A case study on advanced management of traffic lights with cameras illustrates its use. PMID:26083232

  19. A fully resolved active musculo-mechanical model for esophageal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kou, Wenjun; Griffith, Boyce E; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal transport is a physiological process that mechanically transports an ingested food bolus from the pharynx to the stomach via the esophagus, a multi-layered muscular tube. This process involves interactions between the bolus, the esophagus, and the neurally coordinated activation of the esophageal muscles. In this work, we use an immersed boundary (IB) approach to simulate peristaltic transport in the esophagus. The bolus is treated as a viscous fluid that is actively transported by the muscular esophagus, which is modeled as an actively contracting, fiber-reinforced tube. A simplified version of our model is verified by comparison to an analytic solution to the tube dilation problem. Three different complex models of the multi-layered esophagus, which differ in their activation patterns and the layouts of the mucosal layers, are then extensively tested. To our knowledge, these simulations are the first of their kind to incorporate the bolus, the multi-layered esophagus tube, and muscle activation i...

  20. Proposal of Permanent Magnet Repulsive Maglev Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Shin-Ichi

    This paper describes a maglev transportation system for automobile. The track is an array of permanent magnet blocks, and the levitating body is the bedplate which consists of permanent magnet plates, propulsion coils, levitation coils and guidance coils. The feature of this system is that the automobile equipped with the bedplate is free to approach into the track or to swerve from the track by using four wheels with the lift. The force acting on the levitating body is calculated on the assumption that each permanent magnet can be expressed as a surface current. From the calculation results, it is proven that the automobile of 4.35m length, 1.8m width and 1700kg weight can run at speed of 500km/h against the air resistance force of 3704N on the condition that the battery has an output of 337.5V and a capacity of 190Ah.