WorldWideScience

Sample records for active transport systems

  1. Transport in active systems crowded by obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Schofield, Jeremy; Kapral, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    The reactive and diffusive dynamics of a single chemically powered Janus motor in a crowded medium of moving but passive obstacles is investigated using molecular simulation. It is found that the reaction rate of the catalytic motor reaction decreases in a crowded medium as the volume fraction of obstacles increases as a result of a reduction in the Smoluchowski diffusion-controlled reaction rate coefficient that contributes to the overall reaction rate. A continuum model is constructed and analyzed to interpret the dependence of the steady-state reaction rate observed in simulations on the volume fraction of obstacles in the system. The steady-state concentration fields of reactant and product are shown to be sensitive to the local structure of obstacles around the Janus motor. It is demonstrated that the active motor exhibits enhanced diffusive motion at long times with a diffusion constant that decreases as the volume fraction of crowding species increases. In addition, the dynamical properties of a passive tracer particle in a system containing many active Janus motors is studied to investigate how an active environment influences the transport of non-active species. The diffusivity of a passive tracer particle in an active medium is found to be enhanced in systems with forward-moving Janus motors due to the cooperative dynamics of these motors.

  2. Engineering intracellular active transport systems as in vivo biomolecular tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, George David; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2006-11-01

    Active transport systems provide essential functions in terms of cell physiology and metastasis. These systems, however, are also co-opted by invading viruses, enabling directed transport of the virus to and from the cell's nucleus (i.e., the site of virus replication). Based on this concept, fundamentally new approaches for interrogating and manipulating the inner workings of living cells may be achievable by co-opting Nature's active transport systems as an in vivo biomolecular tool. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the ability to engineer kinesin-based transport systems for in vivo applications, specifically the collection of effector proteins (e.g., transcriptional regulators) within single cells. In the first part of this project, a chimeric fusion protein consisting of kinesin and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody was successfully produced through a recombinant expression system. The kinesin-scFv retained both catalytic and antigenic functionality, enabling selective capture and transport of target antigens. The incorporation of a rabbit IgG-specific scFv into the kinesin established a generalized system for functionalizing kinesin with a wide range of target-selective antibodies raised in rabbits. The second objective was to develop methods of isolating the intact microtubule network from live cells as a platform for evaluating kinesin-based transport within the cytoskeletal architecture of a cell. Successful isolation of intact microtubule networks from two distinct cell types was demonstrated using glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation methods. This work provides a platform for inferring the ability of kinesin-scFv to function in vivo, and may also serve as a three-dimensional scaffold for evaluating and exploiting kinesin-based transport for nanotechnological applications. Overall, the technology developed in this project represents a first-step in engineering active transport system for in vivo

  3. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  4. Diagnosis of Transport Activity as a Component of the Enterprise Logistical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concept of “diagnosis of the enterprise transport activity”, by which there should be meant a process of evaluating the state of movement (transportation, carrying of freight (material resources, work in process or finished products by one type of transport facilities or their combination in accordance with the applied transport system and trends of its changes as well as determining the future prospects on the basis of sound management decisions in order to ensure a successful operation and development of the enterprise in the competitive environment. It has been found that the key business-indicators of the diagnosis system of transport activity as a component of the enterprise logistical system are: the coefficient of timeliness of freight transportation (delivery; coefficient of completeness of transportation; coefficient of freight safety conditions; coefficient of efficiency of freight transportation; coefficient of complexity of servicing freight owners; coefficient of satisfaction of freight owners’ demand, coefficient of readiness to operation of transport facilities per working day; coefficient of using vehicle kilometers travelled; coefficient of extensity of transport facility packing.

  5. Brucella abortus ure2 region contains an acid-activated urea transporter and a nickel transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Lobo Juan M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urease is a virulence factor that plays a role in the resistance of Brucella to low pH conditions, both in vivo and in vitro. Brucella contains two separate urease gene clusters, ure1 and ure2. Although only ure1 codes for an active urease, ure2 is also transcribed, but its contribution to Brucella biology is unknown. Results Re-examination of the ure2 locus showed that the operon includes five genes downstream of ureABCEFGDT that are orthologs to a nikKMLQO cluster encoding an ECF-type transport system for nickel. ureT and nikO mutants were constructed and analyzed for urease activity and acid resistance. A non-polar ureT mutant was unaffected in urease activity at neutral pH but showed a significantly decreased activity at acidic pH. It also showed a decreased survival rate to pH 2 at low concentration of urea when compared to the wild type. The nikO mutant had decreased urease activity and acid resistance at all urea concentrations tested, and this phenotype could be reverted by the addition of nickel to the growth medium. Conclusions Based on these results, we concluded that the operon ure2 codes for an acid-activated urea transporter and a nickel transporter necessary for the maximal activity of the urease whose structural subunits are encoded exclusively by the genes in the ure1 operon.

  6. The contribution of SNAT1 to system A amino acid transporter activity in human placental trophoblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desforges, M., E-mail: michelle.desforges@manchester.ac.uk [Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Developmental Biomedicine, School of Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, St. Mary' s Hospital, Level 5-Research, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Greenwood, S.L.; Glazier, J.D.; Westwood, M.; Sibley, C.P. [Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Developmental Biomedicine, School of Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, St. Mary' s Hospital, Level 5-Research, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} mRNA levels for SNAT1 are higher than other system A subtype mRNAs in primary human cytotrophoblast. {yields} SNAT1 knockdown in cytotrophoblast cells significantly reduces system A activity. {yields} SNAT1 is a key contributor to system A-mediated amino acid transport in human placenta. -- Abstract: System A-mediated amino acid transport across the placenta is important for the supply of neutral amino acids needed for fetal growth. All three system A subtypes (SNAT1, 2, and 4) are expressed in human placental trophoblast suggesting there is an important biological role for each. Placental system A activity increases as pregnancy progresses, coinciding with increased fetal nutrient demands. We have previously shown SNAT4-mediated system A activity is higher in first trimester than at term, suggesting that SNAT1 and/or SNAT2 are responsible for the increased system A activity later in gestation. However, the relative contribution of each subtype to transporter activity in trophoblast at term has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant subtype of system A in cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placenta, maintained in culture for 66 h, by: (1) measuring mRNA expression of the three subtypes and determining the Michaelis-Menten constants for uptake of the system A-specific substrate, {sup 14}C-MeAIB, (2) investigating the contribution of SNAT1 to total system A activity using siRNA. Results: mRNA expression was highest for the SNAT1 subtype of system A. Kinetic analysis of {sup 14}C-MeAIB uptake revealed two distinct transport systems; system 1: K{sub m} = 0.38 {+-} 0.12 mM, V{sub max} = 27.8 {+-} 9.0 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which resembles that reported for SNAT1 and SNAT2 in other cell types, and system 2: K{sub m} = 45.4 {+-} 25.0 mM, V{sub max} = 1190 {+-} 291 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which potentially represents SNAT4. Successful knockdown of SNAT1 mRNA using target-specific si

  7. Packaging design criteria (onsite) project W-520 immobilized low-activity waste transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2001-10-16

    A plan is currently in place to process the high-level radioactive wastes that resulted from uranium and plutonium recovery operations from Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Currently, millions of gallons of high-level radioactive waste in the form of liquids, sludges, and saltcake are stored in many large underground tanks onsite. This waste will be processed and separated into high-level and low-activity fractions. Both fractions will then be vitrified (i.e., blended with molten borosilicate glass) in order to encapsulate the toxic radionuclides. The immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass will be poured into LAW canisters, allowed to cool and harden to solid form, sealed by welding, and then transported to a double-lined trench in the 200 East Area for permanent disposal. This document presents the packaging design criteria (PDC) for an onsite LAW transportation system, which includes the ILAW canister, ILAW package, and transport vehicle and defines normal and accident conditions. This PDC provides the basis for the ILAW onsite transportation system design and fabrication and establishes the transportation safety criteria that the design will be evaluated against in the Package Specific Safety Document (PSSD). It provides the criteria for the ILAW canister, cask and transport vehicles and defines normal and accident conditions. The LAW transportation system is designed to transport stabilized waste from the vitrification facility to the ILAW disposal facility developed by Project W-520. All ILAW transport will take place within the 200 East Area (all within the Hanford Site).

  8. Statement of work for the immobilized low-activity waste transportation system -- Project W-465

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouette, P.

    1998-06-19

    The objective of this Statement of Work (SOW) is to present the scope, the deliverables, the organization, the technical and schedule expectations for the development of a Package Design Criteria (PDC), cost and schedule estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW).

  9. Effects of Some Management Practices on Electron Transport System (ETS) Activity in Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity in a paddy field soil was measured under a variety of incubation conditions using the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (INT) to iodonitrotetrazolium formazan (INTF). The results exhibited a high positive correlation between the ETS activity and the incubation temperature and soil moisture. Dehydrogenase/ETS activity displayed a negative correlation with insecticide concentrations, and the activity affected adversely as the concentration of the insecticide increased. The higher doses, 5 and 10 field rates (1 field rate = 1500 mL ha-1), of insecticide significantly inhibited ETS activity, while lower rates failed to produce any significant reducing effect. Inorganic N (as urea) of concentrations from 0 to 100 μg N g-1 soil showed a positive response to ETS activity. However, at concentrations of 200 and 400μg N g-1, the activity was reduced significantly.

  10. System Studies on Active Thermal Protection of a Hypersonic Suborbital Passenger Transport Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Schwanekamp, Tobias; Meyer, Frank; Reimer, Thomas; Petkov, Ivaylo; Tröltzsch, Anke; Siggel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic heating is a critical design aspect for the development of reusable hypersonic transport and reentry vehicles. The reliability in terms of thermal resistance is one of the major driving factors with respect to the design margins, the mass balance and finally the total costs of a configuration. Potential designs of active cooling systems for critical regions such as the vehicle nose and leading edges are presented as well as preliminary approaches for their impact on the total mass...

  11. Diagnosis of Transport Activity as a Component of the Enterprise Logistical System

    OpenAIRE

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.; Kostiuk Nataliia R.; Koval Nataliya M.; Haleliuk Mykola M.

    2016-01-01

    The article reveals the essence of the concept of “diagnosis of the enterprise transport activity”, by which there should be meant a process of evaluating the state of movement (transportation, carrying) of freight (material resources, work in process or finished products) by one type of transport facilities or their combination in accordance with the applied transport system and trends of its changes as well as determining the future prospects on the basis of sound manageme...

  12. Activity of the respiratory electron transport system and respiration rates within the oxygen minimum layer of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Shailaja, M.S.

    Measurements of the activity of the respirtory electron transport system (ETS) at 15 stations in the Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon (December 1988) yield high respiration rates that do not correlate with the trends in primary productivity...

  13. Multimotor transport in a system of active and inactive kinesin-1 motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharrel, Lara; Ma, Rui; Schneider, René; Jülicher, Frank; Diez, Stefan

    2014-07-15

    Long-range directional transport in cells is facilitated by microtubule-based motor proteins. One example is transport in a nerve cell, where small groups of motor proteins, such as kinesins and cytoplasmic dynein, work together to ensure the supply and clearance of cellular material along the axon. Defects in axonal transport have been linked to Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is not known in detail how multimotor-based cargo transport is impaired if a fraction of the motors are defective. To mimic impaired multimotor transport in vitro, we performed gliding motility assays with varying fractions of active kinesin-1 motors and inactive kinesin-1 motor mutants. We found that impaired transport manifests in multiple motility regimes: 1), a fast-motility regime characterized by gliding at velocities close to the single-molecule velocity of the active motors; 2), a slow-motility regime characterized by gliding at close-to zero velocity or full stopping; and 3), a regime in which fast and slow motilities coexist. Notably, the transition from the fast to the slow regime occurred sharply at a threshold fraction of active motors. Based on single-motor parameters, we developed a stochastic model and a mean-field theoretical description that explain our experimental findings. Our results demonstrate that impaired multimotor transport mostly occurs in an either/or fashion: depending on the ratio of active to inactive motors, transport is either performed at close to full speed or is out of action.

  14. Canine amino acid transport system Xc(-): cDNA sequence, distribution and cystine transport activity in lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takuya; Kanemaki, Nobuyuki; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Ichihara, Nobuteru; Ochiai, Hideharu

    2014-04-01

    The cystine transport activity of a lens epithelial cell line originated from a canine mature cataract was investigated. The distinct cystine transport activity was observed, which was inhibited to 28% by extracellular 1 mM glutamate. The cDNA sequences of canine cysteine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) and 4F2hc were determined. The predicted amino acid sequences were 527 and 533 amino acid polypeptides, respectively. The amino acid sequences of canine xCT and 4F2hc showed high similarities (>80%) to those of humans. The expression of xCT in lens epithelial cell line was confirmed by western blot analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed high level expression only in the brain, and it was below the detectable level in other tissues.

  15. Electron transport system activity of microfouling material: Relationships with biomass parameters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Tulaskar, A.; Wagh, A.B.

    Microfouling material developed on aluminium panels immersed in surface waters of the Dona Paula Bay, Goa India was analysed for biomass (measured as dry weight, organic crabon, protein and chlorophyll @ia@@) and electron transport system actitity...

  16. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective is to en......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...... is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection...... problem which can be formulated as a dynamic version of the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW)....

  17. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  18. Active Solute Transport across Frog Skin and Epithelial Cell Systems According to the Association-Induction Hypothesis,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    AD A136 163 ACTIVE SOLUTE TRANSPORT ACROSS FROG SKIN AND EPITHELIAL 1/1 CELL SYSTEMS ACCO..(U) PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA DEPT OF MOLECULAR...TEST CHART fi4TIOtM4. @I*AU OF STA’dAftOS. 43- A ACTIVE SOWTE TRANSPORT ACROSS FROG SKIN AND EPITH-IAL CELL SYSTEMS AC:ORC:NG TO THE ASSOCIATION...taken full account of the difference between unifacial solid cells typified by human red blood cells, frog muscle and squid awn, and bifacial hollow

  19. System data communication structures for active-control transport aircraft, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, A. L.; Martin, J. H.; Brock, L. D.; Jansson, D. G.; Serben, S.; Smith, T. B.; Hanley, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of communication structures to advanced transport aircraft are addressed. First, a set of avionic functional requirements is established, and a baseline set of avionics equipment is defined that will meet the requirements. Three alternative configurations for this equipment are then identified that represent the evolution toward more dispersed systems. Candidate communication structures are proposed for each system configuration, and these are compared using trade off analyses; these analyses emphasize reliability but also address complexity. Multiplex buses are recognized as the likely near term choice with mesh networks being desirable for advanced, highly dispersed systems.

  20. Activity and travel choice(s) in multimodal public transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krygsman, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Transport planners and policymakers are increasingly considering multimodal public transport and travel demand management (TDM) strategies to stem the unsustainable travel behaviour trends associated with modern-day, car-dominated travel. Multimodal public transport, however, implies that people cha

  1. A lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  2. Pickering UDM transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, P.J.; Vissers, J.J. [GE Canada Nuclear Products, Mechanical Engineering, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: patrick.brennan@cdnnuc.ge.com; jeff.vissers@cdnnuc.ge.com; Brown, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Inspection Services Div., Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The Universal Delivery Machine (UDM) is a new CANDU reactor maintenance tool that allows safe, timely, and cost-effective inspection and maintenance of fuel channels. The UDM had to be transported through the Pickering nuclear station and installed onto the reactor bridge. This involved lifting the UDM between station levels, navigating it through several challenging airlock and vault areas, and traversing the bridge opening directly in front of the reactor. This paper describes the system used to transport and install the Pickering UDM. (author)

  3. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  4. Characterization of a Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell line with increased system L amino acid transport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton, C D; Moreno, A; Oxender, D L

    1984-03-01

    We have studied leucine transport in several Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell lines obtained by fusion of a temperature-sensitive line of Chinese hamster ovary cells, ts025C1, and normal human leukocytes. A hybrid cell line exhibiting a twofold increase in L-leucine uptake over that in the parental cell line was found. This hybrid cell line, 158CnpT-1, was temperature resistant, whereas the parental Chinese hamster ovary mutant, ts025C1, contained a temperature-sensitive leucyl-tRNA synthetase mutation. An examination of the different amino acid transport systems in this hybrid cell line revealed a specific increase of system L activity with no significant changes in systems A and ASC. The Vmax for L-leucine uptake exhibited by the hybrid 158CnpT-1 was twice that in the CHO parental mutant, ts025C1. Cytogenetic analysis showed that the hybrid 158CnpT-1 contains four complete human chromosomes (numbers 4, 5, 10, and 21) and three interspecific chromosomal translocations in a total complement of 34 chromosomes. Biochemical and cytogenetic analysis of segregant clones obtained from hybrid 158CnpT-1 showed that the primary temperature resistance and high system L transport phenotypes can be segregated from this hybrid independently. The loss of the primary temperature resistance was associated with the loss of the human chromosome 5, as previously reported by other laboratories, whereas the loss of the high leucine transport phenotype, which is associated with a lesser degree of temperature resistance, was correlated with the loss of human chromosome 20.

  5. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wilson; R. Novotny

    1999-11-22

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

  6. Collective transport for active matter run-and-tumble disk systems on a traveling-wave substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Cs.; Libál, A.; Reichhardt, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson

    2017-01-01

    We examine numerically the transport of an assembly of active run-and-tumble disks interacting with a traveling-wave substrate. We show that as a function of substrate strength, wave speed, disk activity, and disk density, a variety of dynamical phases arise that are correlated with the structure and net flux of disks. We find that there is a sharp transition into a state in which the disks are only partially coupled to the substrate and form a phase-separated cluster state. This transition is associated with a drop in the net disk flux, and it can occur as a function of the substrate speed, maximum substrate force, disk run time, and disk density. Since variation of the disk activity parameters produces different disk drift rates for a fixed traveling-wave speed on the substrate, the system we consider could be used as an efficient method for active matter species separation. Within the cluster phase, we find that in some regimes the motion of the cluster center of mass is in the opposite direction to that of the traveling wave, while when the maximum substrate force is increased, the cluster drifts in the direction of the traveling wave. This suggests that swarming or clustering motion can serve as a method by which an active system can collectively move against an external drift.

  7. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower

  8. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  9. Vapor phase heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of various forms of a vapor transport system for solar space heating, which could also be applied to service water heating. Refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector, which may be located on the external wall or roof of a building. The vapor is condensed in a passively discharged thermal storage unit located within the building. The condensed liquid can be returned to the collector either by a motor-driven pump or by a completely passive self-pumping mechanism in which the vapor pressure lifts the liquid from the condenser to the collector. The theoretical investigation analyzes this self-pumping scheme. Experiments in solar test cells compare the operation of both passive and active forms of the vapor system with the operation of a passive water wall. The vapor system operates as expected, with potential advantages over other passive systems in design flexibility and energy yield.

  10. System data communication structures for active-control transport aircraft, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, A. L.; Martin, J. H.; Brock, L. D.; Jansson, D. G.; Serben, S.; Smith, T. B.; Hanley, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Candidate data communication techniques are identified, including dedicated links, local buses, broadcast buses, multiplex buses, and mesh networks. The design methodology for mesh networks is then discussed, including network topology and node architecture. Several concepts of power distribution are reviewed, including current limiting and mesh networks for power. The technology issues of packaging, transmission media, and lightning are addressed, and, finally, the analysis tools developed to aid in the communication design process are described. There are special tools to analyze the reliability and connectivity of networks and more general reliability analysis tools for all types of systems.

  11. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS ON SUBURBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Grigorovа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems that permit to solve such issue as organization of  transport service for suburban population with due account of passenger transport fatigue which is considered as one of subconscious criteria for selection of a travel mode. Improvement of transportation process entails an increase in demand for such service. Demands predetermine transport supply and situation on the market depends on supply-and-demand balance.  The paper presents an analysis of approaches to the estimation of  parameters for a suburban transport system with due regard for influence of transport process parameters on the rate of passenger transport fatigue.  This rate is estimated through value of an index which demonstrates an activity of passenger’s regulatory systems while performing every element of motion process. Nonlinear regression equation has been used to describe changes in the activity index of the passenger’s regulatory systems when a passenger is taking a standing position in a passenger compartment of a suburban transport facility. In this case value of activity index of regulatory systems  before transportation, passenger age, transportation duration,   operation factor of transport  capacity and ratio of new bus cost to nominal capacity have been taken as variables for calculations.The paper proposes an index change model for assessment of passenger’s transport fatigue when a passenger has a standing position in a transport facility. The model has shown that an impact of the activity index of passenger’s regulatory systems before  making any elemental motion is rather pertinent because this index provides information on an initial condition of a person before executing any other elemental motion. The influence of the activity index of passenger’s regulatory systems before  making any elemental motion is considered as an important characteristic because it has an impact on passenger’s condition after executing

  12. Reprint of “Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

    2014-10-01

    Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 μm) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

  13. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  14. Amino acid transport by prosthecae of Asticcacaulis biprosthecum: evidence for a broad-range transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, E; Pate, J L

    1985-10-01

    Prosthecae purified from cells of Asticcaulis biprosthecum possess active transport systems that transport all 20 amino acids tested. Using ascorbate-reduced phenazine methosulphate in the presence of oxygen, all 20 amino acids are accumulated against a concentration gradient by isolated prosthecae. Results of experiments testing the inhibition of transport of one amino acid by another, and of experiments testing the exchange of exogenous amino acids with those preloaded in prosthecae, along with characteristics of mutants defective in amino acid transport, suggest the presence in prosthecae of three amino acid transport systems. One, the general or G system, transports at least 18 of the 20 amino acids tested. Another system, referred to as the proline or P system, transports seven amino acids (including proline) that are also transported by the G system. The third system transports only glutamate and aspartate, and is referred to as the acidic amino acid transport system or A system.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNIQUE OF DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC BENEFIT OF ACTIVITY OF A CONGLOMERATE «THE INNOVATIVE-TECHNOLOGICAL CENTER OF DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF UKRAINE»

    OpenAIRE

    Tolstova, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the clause the basic advantages of creation of an innovative conglomerate «The is innovative-technological center of development of transport system of Ukraine» are considered, the technique of determination of economic benefit of its activity is developed.

  16. Signal focusing through active transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing—faster and more precise signaling—are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  17. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  18. Potential respiration estimated by electron transport system activity in deep-sea suprabenthic crustaceans off Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Reglero, P.; Blanco, E.; Barberá-Cebrián, C.

    2014-10-01

    ETS is an acronym for the activity of the respiratory electron transport system; the ETS assay is a biochemical method for estimating the “potential” respiration (Φ). We apply this technique to suprabenthic species captured at three depths (250 m, 650 m and 850 m) in two different locations: Cabrera (Algerian subbasin) and Sóller (Balearic subbasin) during the IDEADOS survey during summer 2010. The aim of this study was to compare specific Φ between areas and between three depths to identify differences in the suprabenthos physiological state related to nutritional conditions. Specific Φ, expressed in unit of μl O2 h- 1 mg prot- 1 was not significantly different between species. Mean values were for the decapods: Plesionika heterocarpus, 8.4 ± 7.9; Gennadas elegans, 8.3 ± 2.9; and Sergestes arcticus 7.3 ± 4.6. Within the euphausiids specific Φ averaged 6.5 ± 4.2 for Thysanopoda aequalis and 9.8 ± 5.1 for Meganyctiphanes norvegica; while for the mysids it ranged from 7.7 ± 4.4 for Boreomysis arctica and 2.1 ± 0.6 for Eucopia unguiculata. The comparison of specific potential respiration (Φ), with the pooling of the data of all the species, showed differences between the two locations, being higher in Cabrera. However, no significant differences between the different depths of each locality were found. The slope of the log Φ-log biomass plot was 0.93 ± 0.09 for Cabrera and 0.64 ± 0.11 in Sóller. We interpret these differences as indicating that the suprabenthos in the Cabrera area, as compared to the Sóller area, has been well-nourished.

  19. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  20. Common folds and transport mechanisms of secondary active transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yigong

    2013-01-01

    Secondary active transporters exploit the electrochemical potential of solutes to shuttle specific substrate molecules across biological membranes, usually against their concentration gradient. Transporters of different functional families with little sequence similarity have repeatedly been found to exhibit similar folds, exemplified by the MFS, LeuT, and NhaA folds. Observations of multiple conformational states of the same transporter, represented by the LeuT superfamily members Mhp1, AdiC, vSGLT, and LeuT, led to proposals that structural changes are associated with substrate binding and transport. Despite recent biochemical and structural advances, our understanding of substrate recognition and energy coupling is rather preliminary. This review focuses on the common folds and shared transport mechanisms of secondary active transporters. Available structural information generally supports the alternating access model for substrate transport, with variations and extensions made by emerging structural, biochemical, and computational evidence.

  1. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  2. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  3. TRANSIMS: Transportation analysis and simulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.; Beckman, R.; Baggerly, K. [and others

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes the TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System (TRANSIMS) Project, the system`s major modules, and the project`s near-term plans. TRANSIMS will employ advanced computational and analytical techniques to create an integrated regional transportation systems analysis environment. The simulation environment will include a regional population of individual travelers and freight loads with travel activities and plans, whose individual interactions will be simulated on the transportation system, and whose environmental impact will be determined. We will develop an interim operational capability (IOC) for each major TRANSIMS module during the five-year program. When the IOC is ready, we will complete a specific case study to confirm the IOC features, applicability, and readiness.

  4. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  5. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amun Qa-t-a

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental

  6. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Murdoch, Linda; Reeder, Anthony I; Amun, Qa-t-a

    2011-05-29

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  7. Coal transportation by MGR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daga, P.R.

    1980-08-01

    34000 tonnes of coal per day will need to be transported nearly 34 km by rail to India's coal-fired Korba Super Thermal Power Project. The Merry-go-Round rail system was adopted because it has a much higher rate of loading and unloading of wagons than the Tippler Arrangement. The route for the railway is described, together with regulations that the route has satisfied. Details are given of the track, wagons, locomotives, loading station, unloading station, signalling, telecommunications, maintenance workshop and total capital costs. The MGR system of coal transportation will provide greater reliability and reduced time factor.

  8. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  9. Activity assay of membrane transport proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xie

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins are integral membrane proteins and considered as potential drug targets. Activity assay of transport proteins is essential for developing drugs to target these proteins. Major issues related to activity assessment of transport proteins include availability of transporters,transport activity of transporters, and interactions between ligands and transporters. Researchers need to consider the physiological status of proteins (bound in lipid membranes or purified), availability and specificity of substrates, and the purpose of the activity assay (screening, identifying, or comparing substrates and inhibitors) before choosing appropriate assay strategies and techniques. Transport proteins bound in vesicular membranes can be assayed for transporting substrate across membranes by means of uptake assay or entrance counterflow assay. Alternatively, transport proteins can be assayed for interactions with ligands by using techniques such as isothermal titration calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or surface plasmon resonance. Other methods and techniques such as fluorometry, scintillation proximity assay, electrophysiological assay, or stopped-flow assay could also be used for activity assay of transport proteins. In this paper the major strategies and techniques for activity assessment of membrane transport proteins are reviewed.

  10. A role for tungsten in the biology of Campylobacter jejuni: tungstate stimulates formate dehydrogenase activity and is transported via an ultra-high affinity ABC system distinct from the molybdate transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jonathan P; Cliff, Matthew J; Kelly, David J

    2009-11-01

    The food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni possesses no known tungstoenzymes, yet encodes two ABC transporters (Cj0300-0303 and Cj1538-1540) homologous to bacterial molybdate (ModABC) uptake systems and the tungstate transporter (TupABC) of Eubacterium acidaminophilum respectively. The actual substrates and physiological role of these transporters were investigated. Tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry of the purified periplasmic binding proteins of each system revealed that while Cj0303 is unable to discriminate between molybdate and tungstate (K(D) values for both ligands of 4-8 nM), Cj1540 binds tungstate with a K(D) of 1.0 +/- 0.2 pM; 50 000-fold more tightly than molybdate. Induction-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy of single and double mutants showed that this large difference in affinity is reflected in a lower cellular tungsten content in a cj1540 (tupA) mutant compared with a cj0303c (modA) mutant. Surprisingly, formate dehydrogenase (FDH) activity was decreased approximately 50% in the tupA strain, and supplementation of the growth medium with tungstate significantly increased FDH activity in the wild type, while inhibiting known molybdoenzymes. Our data suggest that C. jejuni possesses a specific, ultra-high affinity tungstate transporter that supplies tungsten for incorporation into FDH. Furthermore, possession of two MoeA paralogues may explain the formation of both molybdopterin and tungstopterin in this bacterium.

  11. Thermal transport in fractal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...... data. The interpretation in the particle mode regime sheds light on the mechanisms for thermal conductivity in normal vitreous silica....

  12. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  13. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Decision making in early transportation planning must be responsive to complex value systems representing various policies and objectives. The assessment of alternative transportation concepts during the early initial phases of the system life cycle, when supportive research and technology development activities are defined, requires estimates of transportation, environmental, and socio-economic impacts throughout the system life cycle, which is a period of some 40 or 50 years. A unified methodological framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is described and is extended to include the comparison of long term transportation trends arising from implementation of the various R & D programs. The attributes of existing and future transportation systems are reviewed in order to establish measures for comparison, define value functions, and attribute weightings needed for comparing alternative policy actions for furthering transportation goals. Comparison criteria definitions and an illustrative example are included.

  14. Alterations in mitochondrial electron transport system activity in response to warm acclimation, hypoxia-reoxygenation and copper in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappal, Ravinder [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); MacDougald, Michelle [Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Health Sciences Centre, Prince Philip Drive, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3V6 (Canada); Fast, Mark [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); Stevens, Don [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); Kibenge, Fred [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada); Siah, Ahmed [British Columbia Centre for Aquatic Health Sciences, 871A Island Highway, Campbell River, BC, V9W 2C2 (Canada); Kamunde, Collins, E-mail: ckamunde@upei.ca [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Sequential inhibition and activation allows assessment of multiple segments of the electron transport system. • Warm acclimation and hypoxia-reoxygenation have global effects on the electron transport system. • Warm acclimation and hypoxia-reoxygenation sensitize the electron transport system to copper. • Thermal stress, hypoxia-reoxygenation and copper act additively to impair mitochondrial function. - Abstract: Fish expend significant amounts of energy to handle the numerous potentially stressful biotic and abiotic factors that they commonly encounter in aquatic environments. This universal requirement for energy singularizes mitochondria, the primary cellular energy transformers, as fundamental drivers of responses to environmental change. Our study probed the interacting effects of thermal stress, hypoxia-reoxygenation (HRO) and copper (Cu) exposure in rainbow trout to test the prediction that they act jointly to impair mitochondrial function. Rainbow trout were acclimated to 11 (controls) or 20 °C for 2 months. Liver mitochondria were then isolated and their responses in vitro to Cu (0–20 μM) without and with HRO were assessed. Sequential inhibition and activation of mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) enzyme complexes permitted the measurement of respiratory activities supported by complex I–IV (CI–IV) in one run. The results showed that warm acclimation reduced fish and liver weights but increased mitochondrial protein indicating impairment of energy metabolism, increased synthesis of defense proteins and/or reduced liver water content. Whereas acute rise (11 → 20 °C) in temperature increased mitochondrial oxidation rates supported by CI–IV, warm acclimation reduced the maximal (state 3) and increased the basal (state 4) respiration leading to global uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). HRO profoundly inhibited both maximal and basal respiration rates supported by CI–IV, reduced RCR for all except

  15. The Transport Properties of Activated Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Vittorio, S. L.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Endo, M.; Issi, J-P.; Piraux, L.

    1990-07-01

    The transport properties of activated isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers with surface area 1000 m{sup 2}/g have been investigated. We report preliminary results on the electrical conductivity, the magnetoresistance, the thermal conductivity and the thermopower of these fibers as a function of temperature. Comparisons are made to transport properties of other disordered carbons.

  16. Research on advanced transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  17. Mechanistic Coupling of Transport and Phosphorylation Activity by Enzyme IImtl of the Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate-Dependent Phosphotransferase System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.; Duurkens, Hinderika; Swaving Dijkstra, Dolf; Robillard, George T.

    1991-01-01

    Mannitol bound to enzyme II(mtl) could be trapped specifically by rapid phosphorylation with P-HPr. The assay was used to demonstrate transport of mannitol across the cytoplasmic membrane with and without phosphorylation of mannitol. The latter was 2-3 orders of magnitude slower. The fraction of bou

  18. Railway intelligent transportation system and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yong; Jia Limin; Zhang Yuan

    2011-01-01

    With the development of artificial intelligence, communication, computer and other related technologies, it becomes feasible to rebuild traditional railway with such advanced technologies in order to establish a new generation railway transport system. The railway intelligent transportation system is the trend of railway transportation system in China, and it is also the research focus of international railway transport industry. This paper presents the definition, characters, architecture, key technologies and developing pattern of the RITS (railway intelligent transportation system). Then three typical applications are introduced. Finally, the prospect of the RITS is summarized.

  19. Nonisothermal activation: nonlinear transport theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.; Maassen van den Brink, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present the statistical mechanical foundation of nonisothermal stochastic processes, thereby generalizing Kramers' Fokker-Planck model for thermal activation and providing a microscopic context for Rolf Landauer's original ideas on state-dependent diffusion. By applying projection operator method

  20. Interpretation of current-voltage relationships for "active" ion transport systems: I. Steady-state reaction-kinetic analysis of class-I mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, U P; Gradmann, D; Sanders, D; Slayman, C L

    1981-01-01

    This paper develops a simple reaction-kinetic model to describe electrogenic pumping and co- (or counter-) transport of ions. It uses the standard steady-state approach for cyclic enzyme- or carrier-mediated transport, but does not assume rate-limitation by any particular reaction step. Voltage-dependence is introduced, after the suggestion of Läuger and Stark (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 211:458-466, 1970), via a symmetric Eyring barrier, in which the charge-transit reaction constants are written as k12 = ko12 exp(zF delta psi/2RT) and k21 = ko21 exp(-zF delta psi/2RT). For interpretation of current-voltage relationships, all voltage-independent reaction steps are lumped together, so the model in its simplest form can be described as a pseudo-2-state model. It is characterized by the two voltage-dependent reaction constants, two lumped voltage-independent reaction constants (k12, k21), and two reserve factors (ri, ro) which formally take account of carrier states that are indistinguishable in the current-voltage (I-V) analysis. The model generates a wide range of I-V relationships, depending on the relative magnitudes of the four reaction constants, sufficient to describe essentially all I-V datas now available on "active" ion-transport systems. Algebraic and numerical analysis of the reserve factors, by means of expanded pseudo-3-, 4-, and 5-state models, shows them to be bounded and not large for most combinations of reaction constants in the lumped pathway. The most important exception to this rule occurs when carrier decharging immediately follows charge transit of the membrane and is very fast relative to other constituent voltage-independent reactions. Such a circumstance generates kinetic equivalence of chemical and electrical gradients, thus providing a consistent definition of ion-motive forces (e.g., proton-motive force, PMF). With appropriate restrictions, it also yields both linear and log-linear relationships between net transport velocity and either

  1. Classical transport in disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Antonios

    This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non- Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in one-dimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the long-time regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surface-to-volume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the

  2. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  3. Effect of surfactant-induced cell surface modifications on electron transport system and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activities and phenanthrene biodegradation by Citrobacter sp. SA01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Zhu, Lizhong

    2012-11-01

    In order to better understand how surfactants affect biodegradation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), were selected to investigate effects on cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), electron transport system (ETS) activities and phenanthrene biodegradation by Citrobacter sp. SA01. Tween 80 and SDBS increased CSH by 19.8-25.2%, ETS activities by 352.1-376.0μmol/gmin, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12) activities by 50.8-52.7U/L, and phenanthrene biodegradation by 8.9-17.2% separately in the presence of 50mg/L of surfactants as compared to in their absence. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release was 334.7μg/mg in the presence of both surfactants whereas in their absence only 8.6-44.4μg/mg of LPS was released. Thus, enhanced LPS release probably increased ETS and C12 activities as well as phenanthrene biodegradation by increasing CSH. The results demonstrate that surfactant-enhanced CSH provides a simple, yet effective strategy for field applications of surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of HOCs.

  4. First Cost Calculation Methods for Road Freight Transport Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács György

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport activity is one of the most expensive processes in the supply chain. Forwarding and transport companies focuses on the optimization of transportation and the reduction of transport costs.

  5. Transport Efficiency of Gas-jet Tape Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WandXudong; MaRuichang; XieYuanxiang; XingYebin; XuShuwei; LiZhankui

    2003-01-01

    The Gas-jet Tape Transport System (GTTS) was used in several on-line experiments. The transport efficiency of GTTS was studied with three different inorganic salts, PbI2, PbC12 and NaC1, by using a 252 Cf source. The fission fragments of 252Cf were transported and collected by the GTTS before measurement. Nitrogen gas was used as a substitute of cxpensive Helium gas, in consideration of longer stopping range of fragments. The fragments were also directly collected on Aluminum foils with thickness of 50μm for original yield measurement.

  6. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  7. METHODS OF INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION MAGLEV TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate feasibility of the proposed integrated optimization of various MTS parameters to reduce capital investments as well as decrease any operational and maintenance expense. This will make use of MTS reasonable. At present, the Maglev Transport Systems (MTS for High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT almost do not apply. Significant capital investments, high operational and maintenance costs are the main reasons why Maglev Transport Systems (MTS are hardly currently used for the High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT. Therefore, this article justifies use of Theory of Complex Optimization of Transport (TCOT, developed by one of the co-authors, to reduce MTS costs. Methodology. According to TCOT, authors developed an abstract model of the generalized transport system (AMSTG. This model mathematically determines the optimal balance between all components of the system and thus provides the ultimate adaptation of any transport systems to the conditions of its application. To identify areas for effective use of MTS, by TCOT, the authors developed a dynamic model of distribution and expansion of spheres of effective use of transport systems (DMRRSEPTS. Based on this model, the most efficient transport system was selected for each individual track. The main estimated criterion at determination of efficiency of application of MTS is the size of the specific transportation tariff received from calculation of payback of total given expenses to a standard payback period or term of granting the credit. Findings. The completed multiple calculations of four types of MTS: TRANSRAPID, MLX01, TRANSMAG and TRANSPROGRESS demonstrated efficiency of the integrated optimization of the parameters of such systems. This research made possible expending the scope of effective usage of MTS in about 2 times. The achieved results were presented at many international conferences in Germany, Switzerland, United States, China, Ukraine, etc. Using MTS as an

  8. Development of novel active transport membrande devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Air Products has undertaken a research program to fabricate and evaluate gas separation membranes based upon promising ``active-transport`` (AT) materials recently developed in our laboratories. Active Transport materials are ionic polymers and molten salts which undergo reversible interaction or reaction with ammonia and carbon dioxide. The materials are useful for separating these gases from mixtures with hydrogen. Moreover, AT membranes have the unique property of possessing high permeability towards ammnonia and carbon dioxide but low permeability towards hydrogen and can thus be used to permeate these components from a gas stream while retaining hydrogen at high pressure.

  9. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rojas-Rueda

    Full Text Available Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64 in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163 annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104, Barcelona 37 (24-56, Paris 37 (18-64 and Basel 5 (3-9. An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris resulted in 19 (3-42 deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21 in Prague, 6 (4-9 in Basel, 3 (2-6 in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4 in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year. Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  10. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  11. Substrate regulation of ascorbate transport activity in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.X.; Jaworski, E.M.; Kulaga, A.; Dixon, S.J. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1990-10-01

    Astrocytes possess a concentrative L-ascorbate (vitamin C) uptake mechanism involving a Na(+)-dependent L-ascorbate transporter located in the plasma membrane. The present experiments examined the effects of deprivation and supplementation of extracellular L-ascorbate on the activity of this transport system. Initial rates of L-ascorbate uptake were measured by incubating primary cultures of rat astrocytes with L-(14C)ascorbate for 1 min at 37 degrees C. We observed that the apparent maximal rate of uptake (Vmax) increased rapidly (less than 1 h) when cultured cells were deprived of L-ascorbate. In contrast, there was no change in the apparent affinity of the transport system for L-(14C)ascorbate. The increase in Vmax was reversed by addition of L-ascorbate, but not D-isoascorbate, to the medium. The effects of external ascorbate on ascorbate transport activity were specific in that preincubation of cultures with L-ascorbate did not affect uptake of 2-deoxy-D-(3H(G))glucose. We conclude that the astroglial ascorbate transport system is modulated by changes in substrate availability. Regulation of transport activity may play a role in intracellular ascorbate homeostasis by compensating for regional differences and temporal fluctuations in external ascorbate levels.

  12. Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation...

  13. Stability and Transport in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weiland, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Stability and Transport in Magnetic Confinement Systems provides an advanced introduction to the fields of stability and transport in tokamaks. It serves as a reference for researchers with its highly-detailed theoretical background, and contains new results in the areas of analytical nonlinear theory of transport using kinetic theory and fluid closure. The use of fluid descriptions for advanced stability and transport problems provide the reader with a better understanding of this topic. In addition, the areas of nonlinear kinetic theory and fluid closure gives the researcher the basic knowledge of a highly relevant area to the present development of transport physics.

  14. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy......Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...

  15. STARS: The Space Transportation Architecture Risk System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to perform comparisons between transportation systems that are likely to have significantly different levels of risk, both because of differing degrees of freedom in achieving desired performance levels and their different states of development and utilization, an approach has been developed for performing early comparisons of transportation architectures explicitly taking into account quantitative measures of uncertainty and resulting risk. The approach considers the uncertainty associated with the achievement of technology goals, the effect that the achieved level of technology will have on transportation system performance and the relationship between transportation system performance/capability and the ability to accommodate variations in payload mass. The consequences of system performance are developed in terms of expected values and associated standard deviations of nonrecurring, recurring and the present value of transportation system life cycle cost. Typical results are presented to illustrate the application of the methodology.

  16. Emerging Applications for Cyber Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌旭; 侯云飞; 徐宏力; 黄刘生; 李旭; 乔春明; 张龙飞

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in connected vehicles and autonomous driving are going to change the face of ground trans-portation as we know it. This paper describes the design and evaluation of several emerging applications for such a cyber transportation system (CTS). These applications have been designed using holistic approaches, which consider the unique roles played by the human drivers, the transportation system, and the communication network. They can improve driver safety and provide on-road infotainment. They can also improve transportation operations and efficiency, thereby benefiting travelers and attracting investment from both government agencies and private businesses to deploy infrastructures and bootstrap the evolutionary process of CTS.

  17. Coupling of Active Motion and Advection Shapes Intracellular Cargo Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Trong, P Khuc; Goldstein, R E; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.028104

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular cargo transport can arise from passive diffusion, active motor-driven transport along cytoskeletal filament networks, and passive advection by fluid flows entrained by such motor/cargo motion. Active and advective transport are thus intrinsically coupled as related, yet different representations of the same underlying network structure. A reaction-advection-diffusion system is used here to show that this coupling affects the transport and localization of a passive tracer in a confined geometry. For sufficiently low diffusion, cargo localization to a target zone is optimized either by low reaction kinetics and decoupling of bound and unbound states, or by a mostly disordered cytoskeletal network with only weak directional bias. These generic results may help to rationalize subtle features of cytoskeletal networks, for example as observed for microtubules in fly oocytes.

  18. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  19. Diffusive gas transport through flooded rice systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Groot, T.; Hout, van de B.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Goudriaan, J.

    2001-01-01

    A fully mechanistic model based on diffusion equations for gas transport in a flooded rice system is presented. The model has transport descriptions for various compartments in the water-saturated soil and within the plant. Plant parameters were estimated from published data and experiments independ

  20. RELIABILITY OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS OF ROCK HAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of increasing of exploitation reliability of dump trucks with the aim of increasing of effectiveness of exploitation of transportation systems of rock heaps at coal mines.

  1. Optimization parameters system maintenance transport aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.І. Ліннік

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available  The algorithm of unconditional and conditional optimization Markov models of maintenance systems of transport airplanes of their programs of technical operation used at improvement is considered.

  2. Study of active cooling for supersonic transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The potential benefits of using the fuel heat sink of hydrogen fueled supersonic transports for cooling large portions of the aircraft wing and fuselage are examined. The heat transfer would be accomplished by using an intermediate fluid such as an ethylene glycol-water solution. Some of the advantages of the system are: (1) reduced costs by using aluminum in place of titanium, (2) reduced cabin heat loads, and (3) more favorable environmental conditions for the aircraft systems. A liquid hydrogen fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic transport aircraft design was used for the reference uncooled vehicle. The cooled aircraft designs were analyzed to determine their heat sink capability, the extent and location of feasible cooled surfaces, and the coolant passage size and spacing.

  3. The German Saenger space transportation system concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, D. E.; Kuczera, H.; Hoegenauer, E.

    The vehicle configuration, performance criteria, and technological problems of the Saenger space transportation system are reviewed. The vehicle consists of a two-stage system, including a hypersonic first stage employing turboramjet propulsion. The cruise speed is Mach 4.4, with the capability to accelerate to Mach 6.8 prior to separation of the upper stage. Two different upper stages are proposed to fulfull the different requirements of manned space flight and unmanned payload transportation.

  4. Transport and biological activities of bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Brittnee L; Agellon, Luis B

    2013-07-01

    Bile acids have emerged as important biological molecules that support the solubilization of various lipids and lipid-soluble compounds in the gut, and the regulation of gene expression and cellular function. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and eventually released into the small intestine. The majority of bile acids are recovered in the distal end of the small intestine and then returned to the liver for reuse. The components of the mechanism responsible for the recycling of bile acids within the enterohepatic circulation have been identified whereas the mechanism for intracellular transport is less understood. Recently, the ileal lipid binding protein (ILBP; human gene symbol FABP6) was shown to be needed for the efficient transport of bile acids from the apical side to the basolateral side of enterocytes in the distal intestine. This review presents an overview of the transport of bile acids between the liver and the gut as well as within hepatocytes and enterocytes. A variety of pathologies is associated with the malfunction of the bile acid transport system.

  5. Using accelerometers and global positioning system devices to assess gender and age differences in children's school, transport, leisure and home based physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinker, Charlotte D; Schipperijn, Jasper; Christian, Hayley

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on domain-specific physical activity (PA) has the potential to advance public health interventions and inform new policies promoting children's PA. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess domains (leisure, school, transport, home) and subdomains (e.g., recess, playgrounds......, and urban green space) for week day moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) using objective measures and investigate gender and age differences....

  6. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems....

  7. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a)...

  8. Variables Affecting Two Electron Transport System Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, G. Allen; Lanza, Guy R.

    1986-01-01

    Several methodological variables were critical in two commonly used electron transport activity assays. The dehydrogenase assay based on triphenyl formazan production exhibited a nonlinear relationship between formazan production (dehydrogenase activity) and sediment dilution, and linear formazan production occurred for 1 h in sediment slurries. Activity decreased with increased time of sediment storage at 4°C. Extraction efficiencies of formazan from sediment varied with alcohol type; methan...

  9. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Many developments are taking place in the area of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) for traffic purposes. Many of the current ITS applications are mainly aimed at increasing comfort while driving and at improving accessibility. In addition, systems like the alcolock and the seatbelt lock are being

  10. Berberine acutely activates the glucose transport activity of GLUT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Alexandra; Plaisier, Christina; Salie, Matthew J; Oram, Daniel S; Chenge, Jude; Louters, Larry L

    2011-07-01

    Berberine, which has a long history of use in Chinese medicine, has recently been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of diabetes. While the hypoglycemic effect of berberine has been clearly documented in animal and cell line models, such as 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotube cells, the mechanism of action appears complex with data implicating activation of the insulin signaling pathway as well as activation of the exercise or AMP kinase-mediated pathway. There have been no reports of the acute affects of berberine on the transport activity of the insulin-insensitive glucose transporter, GLUT1. Therefore, we examined the acute effects of berberine on glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells, a cell line that express only GLUT1. Berberine- activated glucose uptake reaching maximum stimulation of five-fold at >40 μM. Significant activation (P berberine effect was not additive to the maximal stimulation by other known stimulants, azide, methylene blue or glucose deprivation, suggesting shared steps between berberine and these stimulants. Berberine significantly reduced the K(m) of glucose uptake from 6.7 ± 1.9 mM to 0.55 ± 0.08 mM, but had no effect on the V(max) of uptake. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP kinase, did not affect berberine-stimulated glucose uptake, but inhibitors of downstream kinases partially blocked berberine stimulation. SB203580 (inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase) did not affect submaximal berberine activation, but did lower maximal berberine stimulation by 26%, while PD98059 (inhibitor of ERK kinase) completely blocked submaximal berberine activation and decreased the maximal stimulation by 55%. It appears from this study that a portion of the hypoglycemic effects of berberine can be attributed to its acute activation of the transport activity of GLUT1.

  11. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  12. The competitive advantage of a dual-transporter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sagi; Kafri, Moshe; Carmi, Miri; Barkai, Naama

    2011-12-09

    Cells use transporters of different affinities to regulate nutrient influx. When nutrients are depleted, low-affinity transporters are replaced by high-affinity ones. High-affinity transporters are helpful when concentrations of nutrients are low, but the advantage of reducing their abundance when nutrients are abundant is less clear. When we eliminated such reduced production of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae high-affinity transporters for phosphate and zinc, the elapsed time from the initiation of the starvation program until the lack of nutrients limited growth was shortened, and recovery from starvation was delayed. The latter phenotype was rescued by constitutive activation of the starvation program. Dual-transporter systems appear to prolong preparation for starvation and to facilitate subsequent recovery, which may optimize sensing of nutrient depletion by integrating internal and external information about nutrient availability.

  13. The Asymmetric Active Coupler: Stable Nonlinear Supermodes and Directed Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kominis, Yannis; Flach, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric active coupler (AAC) consisting of two coupled dissimilar waveguides with gain and loss. We show that under generic conditions, not restricted by parity-time symmetry, there exist finite-power, constant-intensity nonlinear supermodes (NS), resulting from the balance between gain, loss, nonlinearity, coupling and dissimilarity. The system is shown to possess nonreciprocal dynamics enabling directed power transport and optical isolation functionality.

  14. Bacterial ferrous iron transport: the Feo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl K Y; Krewulak, Karla D; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-03-01

    To maintain iron homeostasis within the cell, bacteria have evolved various types of iron acquisition systems. Ferric iron (Fe(3+)) is the dominant species in an oxygenated environment, while ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) is more abundant under anaerobic conditions or at low pH. For organisms that must combat oxygen limitation for their everyday survival, pathways for the uptake of ferrous iron are essential. Several bacterial ferrous iron transport systems have been described; however, only the Feo system appears to be widely distributed and is exclusively dedicated to the transport of iron. In recent years, many studies have explored the role of the FeoB and FeoA proteins in ferrous iron transport and their contribution toward bacterial virulence. The three-dimensional structures for the Feo proteins have recently been determined and provide insight into the molecular details of the transport system. A highly select group of bacteria also express the FeoC protein from the same operon. This review will provide a comprehensive look at the structural and functional aspects of the Feo system. In addition, bioinformatics analyses of the feo operon and the Feo proteins have been performed to complement our understanding of this ubiquitous bacterial uptake system, providing a new outlook for future studies. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  16. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2017-06-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (<10 year) flow paths. By better understanding the differences between pathogen and solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  17. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2016-12-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (<10 year) flow paths. By better understanding the differences between pathogen and solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  18. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA c...

  19. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-25

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein's ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter's mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na(+)-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures.

  20. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  1. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  2. Differential privacy in intelligent transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargl, Frank; Friedman, Arik; Boreli, Roksana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the concept of differential privacy can be applied to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), focusing on protection of Floating Car Data (FCD) stored and processed in central Traffic Data Centers (TDC). We illustrate an integration of differential privacy with

  3. Transportation systems analyses: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This executive summary of the transportation systems analyses (TSM) semi-annual report addresses the SSF logistics resupply. Our analysis parallels the ongoing NASA SSF redesign effort. Therefore, there could be no SSF design to drive our logistics analysis. Consequently, the analysis attempted to bound the reasonable SSF design possibilities (and the subsequent transportation implications). No other strategy really exists until after a final decision is rendered on the SSF configuration.

  4. Differential privacy in intelligent transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargl, Frank; Friedman, Arik; Boreli, Roksana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the concept of differential privacy can be applied to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), focusing on protection of Floating Car Data (FCD) stored and processed in central Traffic Data Centers (TDC). We illustrate an integration of differential privacy with pr

  5. Advanced technologies for intelligent transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Picone, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Ferrari, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on emerging technologies in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) namely efficient information dissemination between vehicles, infrastructures, pedestrians and public transportation systems. It covers the state-of-the-art of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), with centralized and decentralized (Peer-to-Peer) communication architectures, considering several application scenarios. With a detailed treatment of emerging communication paradigms, including cross networking  and distributed algorithms. Unlike most of the existing books, this book presents a multi-layer overview of information dissemination systems, from lower layers (MAC) to high layers (applications). All those aspects are investigated considering the use of mobile devices, such as smartphones/tablets and embedded systems, i.e. technologies that during last years completely changed the current market, the user expectations, and communication networks. The presented networking paradigms are supported and validate...

  6. Design of Large Momentum Acceptance Transport Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, David

    2005-01-01

    The use of energy recovery to enable high power linac operation often gives rise to an attendant challenge - the transport of high power beams subtending large phase space volumes. In particular applications - such as FEL driver accelerators - this manifests itself as a requirement for beam transport systems with large momentum acceptance. We will discuss the design, implementation, and operation of such systems. Though at times counterintuitive in behavior (perturbative descriptions may, for example, be misleading), large acceptance systems have been successfully utilized for generations as spectrometers and accelerator recirculators.* Such systems are in fact often readily designed using appropriate geometric descriptions of beam behavior; insight provided using such a perspective may in addition reveal inherent symmetries that simplify construction and improve operability. Our discussion will focus on two examples: the Bates-clone recirculator used in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR Upgrade FEL (which has an ob...

  7. Integration of a 'proton antenna' facilitates transport activity of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Sina Ibne; Pouyssegur, Jacques; Deitmer, Joachim W; Becker, Holger M

    2017-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate the proton-coupled transport of high-energy metabolites like lactate and pyruvate and are expressed in nearly every mammalian tissue. We have shown previously that transport activity of MCT4 is enhanced by carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), which has been suggested to function as a 'proton antenna' for the transporter. In the present study, we tested whether creation of an endogenous proton antenna by introduction of a cluster of histidine residues into the C-terminal tail of MCT4 (MCT4-6xHis) could facilitate MCT4 transport activity when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results show that integration of six histidines into the C-terminal tail does indeed increase transport activity of MCT4 to the same extent as did coexpression of MCT4-WT with CAII. Transport activity of MCT4-6xHis could be further enhanced by coexpression with extracellular CAIV, but not with intracellular CAII. Injection of an antibody against the histidine cluster into MCT4-expressing oocytes decreased transport activity of MCT4-6xHis, while leaving activity of MCT4-WT unaltered. Taken together, these findings suggest that transport activity of the proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 can be facilitated by integration of an endogenous proton antenna into the transporter's C-terminal tail.

  8. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Clark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.

  9. A Course in Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent, Multiphase, Reacting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, R. G.; Whitaker, S.

    1978-01-01

    This course concentrates on a rigorous development of the multicomponent transport equations, boundary conditions at phase interfaces, and volume-averaged transport equations for multiphase reacting systems. (BB)

  10. Associations between street connectivity and active transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickle Linda W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past studies of associations between measures of the built environment, particularly street connectivity, and active transportation (AT or leisure walking/bicycling have largely failed to account for spatial autocorrelation of connectivity variables and have seldom examined both the propensity for AT and its duration in a coherent fashion. Such efforts could improve our understanding of the spatial and behavioral aspects of AT. We analyzed spatially identified data from Los Angeles and San Diego Counties collected as part of the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. Results Principal components analysis indicated that ~85% of the variance in nine measures of street connectivity are accounted for by two components representing buffers with short blocks and dense nodes (PRIN1 or buffers with longer blocks that still maintain a grid like structure (PRIN2. PRIN1 and PRIN2 were positively associated with active transportation (AT after adjustment for diverse demographic and health related variables. Propensity and duration of AT were correlated in both Los Angeles (r = 0.14 and San Diego (r = 0.49 at the zip code level. Multivariate analysis could account for the correlation between the two outcomes. After controlling for demography, measures of the built environment and other factors, no spatial autocorrelation remained for propensity to report AT (i.e., report of AT appeared to be independent among neighborhood residents. However, very localized correlation was evident in duration of AT, particularly in San Diego, where the variance of duration, after accounting for spatial autocorrelation, was 5% smaller within small neighborhoods (~0.01 square latitude/longitude degrees = 0.6 mile diameter compared to within larger zip code areas. Thus a finer spatial scale of analysis seems to be more appropriate for explaining variation in connectivity and AT. Conclusions Joint analysis of the propensity and duration of AT behavior and an

  11. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  12. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Miller, Christopher Francis

    2010-08-10

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  13. DTS: The NOAO Data Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Semple, T.

    2014-05-01

    The NOAO Data Transport System (DTS) provides high-throughput, reliable, data transfer between telescopes, pipelines and archive centers located in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. It is a distributed application using XML-RPC for command and control, and either parallel-TCP or UDT protocols for bulk data transport. The system is data-agnostic, allowing arbitrary files or directories to be moved using the same infrastructure. Data paths are configurable in the system by connecting nodes as the source or destination of data in a queue. Each leg of a data path may be configured independently based on the network environment between the sites. A queueing model is currently implemented to manage the automatic movement of data, a streaming model is planned to support arbitrarily large transfers (e.g. as in a disk recovery scenario) or to provide a 'pass-thru' interface to minize overheads. A web-based monitor allows anyone to get a graphical overview of the DTS system as it runs, operators will be able to control individual nodes in the system. Through careful tuning of the network paths DTS is able to achieve in excess of 80-percent of the nominal wire speed using only commodity networks, making it ideal for long-haul transport of large volumes of data.

  14. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  15. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  16. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  17. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annewandter, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced gas transport and subsequent soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Generally, gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of radioxenons and radioiodines in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open peer-reviewed literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the multiple isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radionuclides, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different mass diffusivities due to mass differences between the radionuclides. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures or highly conductive faults which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a so-called ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which is recognized by the oil industry as leading in Discrete Fracture-Matrix (DFM) simulations. It has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations, fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, and Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic differential equations by a complementary finite

  18. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M. [Engineering Computer Optecnomics, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  19. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  20. Inelastic transport theory for nanoscale systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes theoretical and numerical investigations of inelastic scat- tering and energy dissipation in electron transport through nanoscale sys- tems. A computational scheme, based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF), has been...... the conductance. The methods have been applied to a number of specific systems, includ- ing monatomic gold chains, atomic point contacts, and metal-molecule-metal configurations. These studies have clarified the inelastic effects in the elec- tron transport and characterized the vibrational modes that couple...... to the current. For instance, the dominant scattering for gold chains could be traced back to the longitudinal “alternating bond-length” mode. Furthermore, the results have been compared critically with experimental measurements for the different systems, and provided a microscopic understanding for the im...

  1. Exploitation of Bile Acid Transport Systems in Prodrug Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Sievänen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is one of the most efficient recycling routes in the human body. It is a complex process involving numerous transport proteins, which serve to transport bile acids from the small intestine into portal circulation, from the portal circulation into the hepatocyte, from the hepatocyte into the bile, and from the gall bladder to the small intestine. The tremendous transport capacity and organ specificity of enterohepatic circulation combined with versatile derivatization possibilities, rigid steroidal backbone, enantiomeric purity, availability, and low cost have made bile acids attractive tools in designing pharmacological hybrid molecules and prodrugs with the view of improving intestinal absorption, increasing the metabolic stability of pharmaceuticals, specifically targeting drugs to organs involved in enterohepatic circulation, as well as sustaining therapeutically reasonable systemic concentrations of active agents. This article briefly describes bile acid transport proteins involved in enterohepatic circulation, summarizes the key factors affecting on the transport by these proteins, and reviews the use of bile acids and their derivatives in designing prodrugs capable of exploiting the bile acid transport system.

  2. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  3. The Efficiency of the Bimodal System Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of fast railway results in an increased applicationof Trailer Train bimodal system transportation. Thetraffic costs are multiply reduced, particularly the variablecosts. On the other hand the environmental pollution from exhaustgases is also reduced. Therefore, by the year 2010 cargotransport should be preponderant~v used which would be characterisedby fast electric trains producing less noise, at lowercosts and with clean environment.

  4. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  5. Video Analytics Algorithm for Automatic Vehicle Classification (Intelligent Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ArtaIftikhar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Automated Vehicle detection and classification is an important component of intelligent transport system. Due to significant importance in various fields such as traffic accidents avoidance, toll collection, congestion avoidance, terrorist activities monitoring, security and surveillance systems, intelligent transport system has become important field of study. Various technologies have been used for detecting and classifying vehicles automatically. Automated vehicle detection is broadly divided into two types- Hardware based and software based detection. Various algorithms have been implemented to classify different vehicles from videos. In this paper an efficient and economical solution for automatic vehicle detection and classification is proposed. The proposed system first isolates the object through background subtraction followed by vehicle detection using ontology. Vehicle detection is based on low level features such as shape, size, and spatial location. Finally system classifies vehicles into one of the known classes of vehicle based on size.

  6. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  7. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  8. Visualizing Mobility of Public Transportation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Fu, Chi-Wing; Arisona, Stefan Müller; Erath, Alexander; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    Public transportation systems (PTSs) play an important role in modern cities, providing shared/massive transportation services that are essential for the general public. However, due to their increasing complexity, designing effective methods to visualize and explore PTS is highly challenging. Most existing techniques employ network visualization methods and focus on showing the network topology across stops while ignoring various mobility-related factors such as riding time, transfer time, waiting time, and round-the-clock patterns. This work aims to visualize and explore passenger mobility in a PTS with a family of analytical tasks based on inputs from transportation researchers. After exploring different design alternatives, we come up with an integrated solution with three visualization modules: isochrone map view for geographical information, isotime flow map view for effective temporal information comparison and manipulation, and OD-pair journey view for detailed visual analysis of mobility factors along routes between specific origin-destination pairs. The isotime flow map linearizes a flow map into a parallel isoline representation, maximizing the visualization of mobility information along the horizontal time axis while presenting clear and smooth pathways from origin to destinations. Moreover, we devise several interactive visual query methods for users to easily explore the dynamics of PTS mobility over space and time. Lastly, we also construct a PTS mobility model from millions of real passenger trajectories, and evaluate our visualization techniques with assorted case studies with the transportation researchers.

  9. Inhibition of System Xc(-) Transporter Attenuates Autoimmune Inflammatory Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evonuk, Kirsten S; Baker, Brandi J; Doyle, Ryan E; Moseley, Carson E; Sestero, Christine M; Johnston, Bryce P; De Sarno, Patrizia; Tang, Andrew; Gembitsky, Igor; Hewett, Sandra J; Weaver, Casey T; Raman, Chander; DeSilva, Tara M

    2015-07-15

    T cell infiltration into the CNS is a significant underlying pathogenesis in autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Several lines of evidence suggest that glutamate dysregulation in the CNS is an important consequence of immune cell infiltration in neuroinflammatory demyelinating diseases; yet, the causal link between inflammation and glutamate dysregulation is not well understood. A major source of glutamate release during oxidative stress is the system Xc(-) transporter; however, this mechanism has not been tested in animal models of autoimmune inflammatory demyelination. We find that pharmacological and genetic inhibition of system Xc(-) attenuates chronic and relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Remarkably, pharmacological blockade of system Xc(-) 7 d after induction of EAE attenuated T cell infiltration into the CNS, but not T cell activation in the periphery. Mice harboring a Slc7a11 (xCT) mutation that inactivated system Xc(-) were resistant to EAE, corroborating a central role for system Xc(-) in mediating immune cell infiltration. We next examined the role of the system Xc(-) transporter in the CNS after immune cell infiltration. Pharmacological inhibitors of the system Xc(-) transporter administered during the first relapse in a SJL animal model of relapsing-remitting EAE abrogated clinical disease, inflammation, and myelin loss. Primary coculture studies demonstrate that myelin-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells provoke microglia to release glutamate via the system Xc(-) transporter, causing excitotoxic death to mature myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Taken together, these studies support a novel role for the system Xc(-) transporter in mediating T cell infiltration into the CNS as well as promoting myelin destruction after immune cell infiltration in EAE.

  10. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software Project Management Plan (SPMP). Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidert, R.S.

    1995-05-26

    As a cabinet level federal agency with a diverse range of missions and an infrastructure spanning the United States, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has extensive freight transportation requirements. Performance and management of this freight activity is a critical function. DOE`s Transportation Management Division (TMD) has an agency-wide responsibility for overseeing transportation activities. Actual transportation operations are handled by government or contractor staff at the field locations. These staff have evolved a diverse range of techniques and procedures for performing transportation functions. In addition to minimizing the economic impact of transportation on programs, facility transportation staff must be concerned with the increasingly complex task of complying with complex shipment safety regulations. Maintaining the department`s safety record for shipping hazardous and radioactive materials is a primary goal. Use of automation to aid transportation functions is not widespread within DOE, though TMD has a number of software systems designed to gather and analyze data pertaining to field transportation activities. These systems are not integrated. Historically, most field facilities have accomplished transportation-related tasks manually or with minimal computer assistance. At best, information and decision support systems available to transportation staffs within the facilities are fragmented. In deciding where to allocate resources for automation, facility managers have not tended to give the needs of transportation departments a high priority. This diversity causes TMD significant difficulty in collecting data for use in managing department-wide transportation activities.

  11. [Pneumatic tube system for transport of laboratory samples: preanalytical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Judit; Lenkey, Ágota; V Oláh, Anna; Köteles, Julianna; Kissné Sziráki, Valéria; Kerényi, Adrienne; Kappelmayer, János

    2014-07-13

    A considerable proportion of laboratory errors occurs in the preanalytical phase. The aims of the authors were to study preanalytical errors in routine and emergency laboratory diagnostics in a regional clinical laboratory and evaluate the effect of the pneumatic tube system on turnaround time and laboratory results. The ratio of preanalytical errors and reasons of test rejection were analysed. In addition, the effects of pneumatic tube and manual transport on the occurrence of hemolysis and platelet activation were compared. Using the pneumatic tube transport system, preanalytical error was below 1%. The main causes of test rejection were haemolysis in case of serum samples, and clot formation and citrate excess in anticoagulated samples. The pneumatic tube transport resulted in significantly faster sample transport, more equalized sample arrival and processing, hence the turnaround time became shorter both for routine and emergency tests. Autovalidation and proper control of preanalytical errors are essential for rapid and reliable laboratory service supported by the pneumatic tube system for sample transport.

  12. INFORMATION SUPPORT TRANSPORTATION PROCESS MULTIMODAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Filippova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: is to improve information support for the organization and functioning of multimodal systems delive-ry modes of transport in the northern regions of the Russian Federation on the basis of the development of theoretical and methodological and practical provisions, criteria, methods and mathematical models.Method or methodology of the work: a methodology placement vehicle logistics center (TLC in the Nordic region, providing links all transport modes involved in the delivery of energy, developed a model to optimize the parameters of the transport network, used for traffic, the most effective schemes of delivery of goods in multimodal report, taking into account the specifics of the Nordic region, and funding.Results: Studies have applied and may be used by the fe-deral and regional authorities and management in the deve-lopment of integrated programs for energy-Northern regions. Proposed in the theoretical research and methodological approaches are one way to increase the efficiency of the delivery of goods in the event of a little predictable situations on the route, TLC and transhipment points. The developed techniques are used and can be used to improve the northern region of the process control of cargo delivery.Conclusion: Therefore, based on the analysis of the status of the issue, it is quite obvious that the very topical area of optimization of the transport needs of the region to ensure the development and implementation of methods to improve the efficiency and quality of freight traffic by improving organizational structures and technology traffic control all transport space in the region.

  13. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  14. Reactive Chemical Transport Under Multiphase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Yeh, G.

    2001-12-01

    A numerical model, HYDROBIOGEOCHEM, is developed for modeling reactive chemical transport under multiphase flow systems. The chemistry part of this model is derived from BIOGEOCHEM, which is a general computer code that simulates biogeochemial processes from a reaction-based mechanistic point of view. To reduce primary dependent variables (PDVs), Gauss-Jordan decomposition is applied to the governing matrix equations for transport, resulting in mobile components and mobile kinetic variables as PDVs. Options of sequential iteration approach (SIA), predictor corrector and operator splitting method are incorporated in the code to make it versatile. The model is a practical tool for assessing migration of subsurface contamination and proper designing of remediation technologies. Examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of the new model.

  15. Smart Transportation Application using Global Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf Mohammad Al Shammary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant increase is noticed in the utilization of mobile applications for different purposes in the past decade. These applications can improve any individual’s way of life in many aspects such as communication, collaborative work, learning, location services, data collection, exploring, testing and analysis. One of the most interesting mobile applications is using it for tracking by having personal locators. These locators can track children, people on work, the elderly for personal protection etc. The intention behind developing this mobile application is to provide a smart transportation system to it users and to track their movements. Some of the essential features of this application are • Getting familiar with the shortest path from source to destination in advance. • Aware of approximate time of arrival to destination. • Knowing the capacity of vehicle used for transportation. • Short Message Service.

  16. Transport in low-dimensional mesoscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syzranov, Sergey

    2011-05-05

    The work is devoted to the physics of graphene-based optoelectronics and arrays of Josephson junctions. The first part deals with transport in a graphene p-n junction irradiated by an electromagnetic field. The photocurrent in such device is calculated analytically and compared to those observed in the recent experiments on graphene photodetectors. It is shown that in a clean effectively one-dimensional junction the photocurrent oscillates as a function of gate voltages due to the interference between electron paths accompanied by the resonant photon absorption. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the construction of a Drude-like theory for the transport of Cooper pairs in weakly disordered Josephson networks and to finding the conductivity and the characteristic temperature of the commencement of strong localization. Also, it is shown that the low-temperature superconductor-insulator transition is necessarily of the first order in all 3D and in most 2D systems.

  17. Pedelecs as a physically active transportation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, James E; Morris, Kalee L; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C

    2016-08-01

    Pedelecs are bicycles that provide electric assistance only when a rider is pedaling and have become increasingly popular. Our purpose was to quantify usage patterns over 4 weeks of real-world commuting with a pedelec and to determine if pedelec use would improve cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty sedentary commuters visited the laboratory for baseline physiological measurements [body composition, maximum oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), blood lipid profile, and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)]. The following 4 weeks, participants were instructed to commute using a pedelec at least 3 days week(-1) for 40 min day(-1) while wearing a heart rate monitor and a GPS device. Metabolic equivalents (METS) were estimated from heart rate data. Following the intervention, we repeated the physiological measurements. Average total distance and time were 317.9 ± 113.8 km and 15.9 ± 3.4 h, respectively. Participants averaged 4.9 ± 1.2 METS when riding. Four weeks of pedelec commuting significantly improved 2-h post-OGTT glucose (5.53 ± 1.18-5.03 ± 0.91 mmol L(-1), p < 0.05), [Formula: see text] (2.21 ± 0.48-2.39 ± 0.52 L min(-1), p < 0.05), and end of [Formula: see text] test power output (165.1 ± 37.1-189.3 ± 38.2 W, p < 0.05). There were trends for improvements in MAP (84.6 ± 10.5-83.2 ± 9.4 mmHg, p = 0.15) and fat mass (28.6 ± 11.3-28.2 ± 11.4 kg, p = 0.07). Participants rode a pedelec in the real world at a self-selected moderate intensity, which helped them meet physical activity recommendations. Pedelec commuting also resulted in significant improvements in 2-h post-OGTT glucose, [Formula: see text], and power output. Pedelecs are an effective form of active transportation that can improve some cardiometabolic risk factors within only 4 weeks.

  18. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  19. Active optical zoom system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  20. Progress in photonic transport network systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken-Ichi

    2002-07-01

    The network paradigm is changing rapidly spurred by the dramatic increase in IP traffic and recent progress in photonic network technologies. A key requirement, enhancing the performance of existing IP-based multimedia communication networks, can be most effectively achieved by introducing optical path technologies that exploit wavelength routing. Cost effective and reliable optical cross-connection is essential. Different optical switch technologies have been proposed and tested. Among them, the PLC (Planer Lightwave Circuit) switch has demonstrated excellent performance, particularly with regard to system reliability. Network control mechanisms based on the overlay and peer model models have been developed. The presentation will highlight some of the key system technologies. To develop very large scale and robust networks, effective traffic engineering capabilities are necessary. This will be achieved through optical path control. To develop future IP-centric networks, an operation mechanism based on distributed control is important. The degree to which the necessary transport and IP routing functions are integrated will determine system cost-effectiveness. The Photonic MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) router, which integrates all the functions and provides seamless operation between IP and optical layers, has been proposed and developed. The technical feasibility of a recent prototype system has been proven. Finally, some of the cutting-edge photonic transport technologies that we have recently developed are demonstrated; these technologies will enable us to achieve another level of network performance enhancement in the future.

  1. Accelerating technological change. Towards a more sustainable transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into the mechanisms of technological change by capturing the complexity that characterises the current technological transition of the transport system into existing evolutionary models of technological change. The transition towards a more sustainable transport system

  2. 78 FR 57454 - Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Maritime Administration Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for applications. SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration (MarAd) is seeking applications for membership on the Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council...

  3. Pedometer-determined physical activity and active transport in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Grant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the risk of insufficient physical activity is greater in girls than in boys, especially during the adolescent years. The promotion of active transport (AT to and from school has been posited as a practical and convenient solution for increasing girls' total daily activity. However, there is limited information describing the associations between AT choices and girls' physical activity across a range of age, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The objectives of this study were to (1 investigate physical activity patterns in a large multiethnic sample of female children and adolescents, and to (2 estimate the physical activity associated with AT to and from school. Methods A total of 1,513 girls aged 5–16 years wore sealed multiday memory (MDM pedometers for three weekdays and two weekend days. The ethnic composition of this sample was 637 European (42.1%, 272 Pacific Island (18.0%, 207 East Asian (13.7%, 179 Maori (11.8%, 142 South Asian (9.4%, and 76 from other ethnic groups (5%. Pedometer compliance and school-related AT were assessed by questionnaire. Results Mean weekday step counts (12,597 ± 3,630 were higher and less variable than mean weekend steps (9,528 ± 4,407. A consistent decline in daily step counts was observed with age: after adjustment for ethnicity and SES, girls in school years 9–10 achieved 2,469 (weekday and 4,011 (weekend fewer steps than girls in years 1–2. Daily step counts also varied by ethnicity, with Maori girls the most active and South Asian girls the least active. Overall, 44.9% of participants used AT for school-related travel. Girls who used AT to and from school averaged 1,052 more weekday steps than those who did not use AT. However, the increases in steps associated with AT were significant only in older girls (school years 5–10 and in those of Maori or European descent. Conclusion Our data suggest that adolescent-aged girls and girls of Asian descent are

  4. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  5. Protonic transport through solitons in hydrogen-bonded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, L.; Jayanthi, S.; Muniyappan, A.; Gopi, D.

    2011-09-01

    We offer an alternative route for investigating soliton solutions in hydrogen-bonded (HB) chains. We invoke the modified extended tangent hyperbolic function method coupled with symbolic computation to solve the governing equation of motion for proton dynamics. We investigate the dynamics of proton transfer in HB chains through bell-shaped soliton excitations, which trigger the bio-energy transport in most biological systems. This solitonic mechanism of proton transfer could play functional roles in muscular contraction, enzymatic activity and oxidative phosphorylation.

  6. Transport of BMAA into Neurons and Astrocytes by System xc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Rebecca; Lobner, Doug

    2017-05-03

    The study of the mechanism of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) neurotoxicity originally focused on its effects at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In recent years, it has become clear that its mechanism of action is more complicated. First, there are certain cell types, such as motor neurons and cholinergic neurons, where the dominate mechanism of toxicity is through action at AMPA receptors. Second, even in cortical neurons where the primary mechanism of toxicity appears to be activation of NMDA receptors, there are other mechanisms involved. We found that along with NMDA receptors, activation of mGLuR5 receptors and effects on the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) were involved in the toxicity. The effects on system xc- are of particular interest. System xc- mediates the transport of cystine into the cell in exchange for releasing glutamate into the extracellular fluid. By releasing glutamate, system xc- can potentially cause excitotoxicity. However, through providing cystine to the cell, it regulates the levels of cellular glutathione (GSH), the main endogenous intracellular antioxidant, and in this way may protect cells against oxidative stress. We have previously published that BMAA inhibits cystine uptake leading to GSH depletion and had indirect evidence that BMAA is transported into the cells by system xc-. We now present direct evidence that BMAA is transported into both astrocytes and neurons through system xc-. The fact that BMAA is transported by system xc- also provides a mechanism for BMAA to enter brain cells potentially leading to misincorporation into proteins and protein misfolding.

  7. Saenger space transportation system - Progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Kuczera, Heribert

    1992-10-01

    The first part of the Saenger System Definition Study within the German National Hypersonics Technology Program (1988 to 1992) was completed by mid-1990. This paper summarizes the progress made and the status of the project as of that milestone which was formally completed by the System Study Presentation in July 1990. For the second phase of the study (mid-1990 to end 1992) the original philosophy of different upper stages for manned space operations and for unmanned cargo/payloads transportation is being maintained, however, a winged unmanned Horus-C version has been found to be a better solution than the originally conceived expendable ballistic stage Cargus. The advantage of this twin-Horus Concept is the greater commonality of both upper stages as well as the new return capability of payloads up to 7 Mg. The maximum payload capability of the expendable stage was of course higher, but it is assumed that for larger payloads a complementary launch vehicle (i.e. Ariane 5) will be further available. The paper also presents new data about the Horus return flight trajectories as well as on the aerothermodynamic studies and experimental work. Finally, aspects of mission operations and economics are discussed which are of special importance for such an advanced reusable space transportation system.

  8. Investments and Operation in an Integrated Power and Transport System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses an integrated power and road transport system. For analysing the influences of including passenger road transport in the energy system, a road transport model is developed. Based on this model, the benefits of integration of the two systems and using electric-drive vehicles ...

  9. Future Intelligent Transportation Systems and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Akio

    A road vehicle traffic contributes to the social improvement greatly, but it has big problems such as safety, congestion, environment, energy, elder people driving and adaptation to information society. ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) is expected as a direction solving these. The intellectual function about a road vehicle traffic depended on most of human beings. ITS helps intellectual functions such as information sensing, situation recognition, judgment, planning and operation. A sensor detecting information is an important key in ITS. I describe expectation to a sensor in ITS.

  10. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  11. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, D.C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command.

  12. Interplay of vacuolar transporters for coupling primary and secondary active transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Siek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary active transporters are driven by the proton motif force which is generated by primary active transporters such as the vacuolar proton pumps V-ATPase and V-PPase. The vacuole occupies up to 90 % of the mature cell and acidification of the vacuolar lumen is a challenging and energy-consuming task for the plant cell. Therefore, a direct coupling of primary and secondary active transporters is expected to enhance transport efficiency and to reduce energy consumption by transport processes across the tonoplast. This has been addressed by analyzing physical and functional interactions between the V-ATPase and a selection of vacuolar transporters including the primary active proton pump AVP1, the calcium ion/proton exchanger CAX1, the potassium ion/proton symporter KUP5, the sodium ion/proton exchanger NHX1, and the anion/proton exchanger CLC-c. Physical interaction was demonstrated in vivo for the V-ATPase and the secondary active transporters CAX1 and CLC-c, which are responsible for calcium- and anion-accumulation in the vacuole, respectively. Measurements of V-ATPase activity and vacuolar pH revealed a functional interaction of V-ATPase and CAX1, CLC-c that is likely caused by the observed physical interaction. The complex of the V-ATPase further interacts with the nitrate reductase 2, and as a result, nitrate assimilation is directly linked to the energization of vacuolar nitrate accumulation by secondary active anion/proton exchangers.

  13. Stochastic transport in complex systems from molecules to vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    What is common between a motor protein, an ant and a vehicle? Each can be modelled as a"self-propelled particle"whose forward movement can be hindered by another in front of it. Traffic flow of such interacting driven"particles"has become an active area of interdisciplinary research involving physics, civil engineering and computer science. We present a unified pedagogical introduction to the analytical and computational methods which are currently used for studying such complex systems far from equilibrium. We also review a number of applications ranging from intra-cellular molecular motor transport in living systems to ant trails and vehicular traffic. Researchers working on complex systems, in general, and on classical stochastic transport, in particular, will find the pedagogical style, scholarly critical overview and extensive list of references extremely useful.

  14. Functional requirements for the Automated Transportation Management System: TTP number: RL 439002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portsmouth, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    This requirements analysis, documents Department of Energy (DOE) transportation management procedures for the purpose of providing a clear and mutual understanding between users and designers of the proposed Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS). It is imperative that one understand precisely how DOE currently performs traffic management tasks; only then can an integrated system be proposed that successfully satisfies the major requirements of transportation managers and other system users. Accordingly, this report describes the current workings of DOE transportation organizations and then proposes a new system which represents a synthesis of procedures (both current and desired) which forms the basis for further systems development activities.

  15. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  16. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  17. Risk management model in road transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  18. Oscillations and multiple steady states in active membrane transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F M; Bisch, P M

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of some non-linear extensions of the six-state alternating access model for active membrane transport is investigated. We use stoichio-metric network analysis to study the stability of steady states. The bifurcation analysis has been done through standard numerical methods. For the usual six-state model we have proved that there is only one steady state, which is globally asymptotically stable. When we added an autocatalytic step we found self-oscillations. For the competition between a monomer cycle and a dimer cycle, with steps of dimer formation, we have also found self-oscillations. We have also studied models involving the formation of a complex with other molecules. The addition of two steps for formation of a complex of the monomer with another molecule does not alter either the number or the stability of steady states of the basic six-state model. The model which combines the formation of a complex with an autocatalytic step shows both self-oscillations and multiple steady states. The results lead us to conclude that oscillations could be produced by active membrane transport systems if the transport cycle contains a sufficiently large number of steps (six in the present case) and is coupled to at least one autocatalytic reaction,. Oscillations are also predicted when the monomer cycle is coupled to a dimer cycle. In fact, the autocatalytic reaction can be seen as a simplification of the model involving competition between monomer and dimer cycles, which seems to be a more realistic description of biological systems. A self-regulation mechanism of the pumps, related to the multiple stationary states, is expected only for a combined effect of autocatalysis and formation of complexes with other molecules. Within the six-state model this model also leads to oscillation.

  19. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF THE STRONGLY CORRELATED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Domanski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport properties of various systems are studied here in the context of three different models. These are: - the disordered Hubbard model applicable to correlated binary alloys with a general disorder, - the Anderson model used in describing the Kondo physics of a quantum dot connected to the external superconducting leads, and - the Ranninger-Robaszkiewicz model applied to the study of optical properties of the system with preformed electron pairs above the temperature of transition to the superconducting state. We calculate the density of states, specific heat, the Wilson ratio and conductivity of the correlated binary alloy with off-diagonal disorder. We investigate the conditions under which the Kondo peak appears in the density of states and in the conductance of a dot coupled to the external superconducting leads. We analyze the effect of the pseudogap on the optical spectra in the high temperature superconductors described by the boson-fermion model.

  20. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  1. Hemolysis associated with pneumatic tube system transport for blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, Aysegul; Ak, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Selim; Akinci, Murat; Agacayak, Ahmet; Marcil, Emine; Azap, Melih

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of hemolysis of blood samples may be increased by transport in a pneumatic tube system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pneumatic tube system transport on hemolysis of blood samples. Blood samples were transported from the emergency department to the hospital laboratory manually by hospital staff (49 patients) or with a pneumatic tube system (53 patients). The hemolysis index and serum chemistry studies were performed on the blood samples and compared between the different methods of transport. The blood samples that were transported by the pneumatic tube system had a greater frequency of hemolysis and greater mean serum potassium and median creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels than samples transported manually. Blood samples transported from the emergency department to the hospital laboratory by a pneumatic tube system may have a greater frequency of hemolysis than samples transported manually. This may necessitate repeat phlebotomy and cause a delay in completing the laboratory analysis.

  2. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  3. Activity is strength: More active systems are stronger glass formers

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Interplay between activity and passive transport processes in an active system may lead to complex spatio-temporal dynamics offering a rich and fascinating phenomenology compared to their passive counterparts. Understanding the properties of an active system in the dense limit is important both from biological as well as physical point of view. Here, we extend an immensely successful microscopic theory for the glassy dynamics of passive systems in their dense low-temperature limit, namely the Random First-Order Transition (RFOT) theory, for an active system generalizing and unifying the findings of recent simulations on such systems. The qualitative picture of glassy dynamics for a passive system survives when activity is introduced, however, a number interesting properties emerge. For example, activity changes the typical length scale and relaxation times, pushes the thermodynamic and dynamic glass transition points towards higher density or lower temperature and the fragility of the system changes as a func...

  4. TRISNET; a Network of Transportation Information Services and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Systems Development and Technology.

    A national Transportation Research Information Services Network (TRISNET) is being developed by the Department of Transportation (DOT) linking libraries, data bases, and retrieval services with DOT information activities. Core services provide switch and referral, indexing and abstracting, online retrieval, and document delivery. (JY)

  5. Propagating fronts in reaction-transport systems with memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, A. [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail: ayadav1@lsu.edu; Fedotov, Sergei [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1DQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sergei.fedotov@manchester.ac.uk; Mendez, Vicenc [Grup de Fisica Estadistica, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: vicenc.mendez@uab.es; Horsthemke, Werner [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail: whorsthe@smu.edu

    2007-11-26

    In reaction-transport systems with non-standard diffusion, the memory of the transport causes a coupling of reactions and transport. We investigate the effect of this coupling for systems with Fisher-type kinetics and obtain a general analytical expression for the front speed. We apply our results to the specific case of subdiffusion.

  6. Multi-Agent Systems for Transportation Planning and Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Moonen (Hans)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMany transportation problems are in fact coordination problems: problems that require communication, coordination and negotiation to be optimally solved. However, most software systems targeted at transportation have never approached it this way, and have instead concentrated on centrali

  7. A National Framework for Sustainable Urban Transport Systems : Proposals for Improving Urban Transportation in Russian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    In many Russian cities, these growing demands for mobility are not adequately met by the existing urban transport infrastructure and services. Most municipalities have had difficulties in planning and managing the development of their urban transport systems in a coherent manner, which is a precondition for successful resolution of the existing transport problems. In addition, there is a n...

  8. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  9. Schisandrin A and B induce organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 transporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng-Xian; Deng, Sheng; Yin, Ji-Ye; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is the most important transporter in the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. OATP1B1 plays an important role in the hepatic uptake of many endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, including many clinical drugs. At present, the combinational usage of Chinese traditional herbal medicines and conventional chemical pharmaceuticals may affect the activity of enzymes and transporters activity and cause absorption of their substrates and metabolic changes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of schisandrin A, schisandrin B and tanshinone IIA, which were extracted from medicinal plants, on OATP1B1 activity. HepG2 cells are used as in vitro models for OATP1B1 activity studies. A combination of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tertazolium bromide (MTT) assays, real-time RT-PCR, and transporter activity analysis were employed. We found that schisandrin A and B increased OATP1B1 mRNA levels by 1.81-fold (p Schisandrin A of 1 μM and 10 μM and schisandrin B of 10 μM significantly increased the uptake of [3H] estrone-3-sulfate (p schisandrin A and B induced OATP1B1 expression and increased its transporter activity in HepG2 cells.

  10. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2013-01-01

    in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13......Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport......% of the energy saving and 12% of the CO2 emission reduction can be attained by accomplishing three strategies compared with the reference transport system. However, the energy demand of transport in 2020 with the implementation of three strategies will be about 1.7 times as much as today. The three strategies...

  11. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein’s ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter’s mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na+-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21016.001 PMID:28121290

  12. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS ON SUBURBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Grigorovа

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers problems that permit to solve such issue as organization of  transport service for suburban population with due account of passenger transport fatigue which is considered as one of subconscious criteria for selection of a travel mode. Improvement of transportation process entails an increase in demand for such service. Demands predetermine transport supply and situation on the market depends on supply-and-demand balance.  The paper presents an analysis of approaches to the...

  13. The safe road transport system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollpracht Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1,24 million people die each year on the worlds roads and between 20 to 50 million suffer from nonfatal injuries. The UN Road Safety Collaboration Meetings under the leadership of WHO developed the Programme for the Decade of Actions for road safety taking nations into the responsibility of improving their accident figures by the five pillars of a national Road Safety Policy, safer Roads, safer Vehicles, safer Road Users and Post Crash Care. It is this Safe System Approach that takes into consideration the land use, infrastructure and transport planning, road user’s abilities and limitations and the close cooperation of all governmental and none governmental stakeholders involved.

  14. Adolescents who engage in active school transport are also more active in other contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Tom; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    and travel behaviours across time- and space-classified domains. METHODS: A total of 196 adolescents wore a Global Positioning System receiver and an accelerometer for 7 days. All data were classified into one of four domains: home, school, transport, or leisure. Generalized linear mixed models were used......BACKGROUND: Although active school travel (AST) is important for increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), it is unclear how AST is related to context-specific physical activity and non-school travel. This study investigated how school travel is related to physical activity...... to compare domain-specific PA and non-school trips between active and passive school travellers. RESULTS: Active travellers accumulated 13 and 14 more min of MVPA on weekdays and weekend days, respectively. They also spent 15min less time in vehicular travel during non-school trips, and accrued an additional...

  15. THE TIME FACTOR IN MARITIME TRANSPORT AND PORT LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin NICOLAE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Execution of the carriage contract requires compliance to all the conditions in it, by all those involved in the transport. Main obligations incumbent upon the vessel, and obviously, to other transporters, who must provide transportation according to deadlines and safety. Contract compliance is certifying transport participants about their seriousness and an appropriate market quotation. Therefore, present work pragmatically sets schematics reference time associated implementation of the carriage contract. Also, are demonstrated relationships established between maritime transport “players” and sequence of activities related to the operation of the vessel in port. The authors propose a set of concepts and terms whose utility is established to solve practical problems in this area of activity.

  16. Effects of a Danish multicomponent physical activity intervention on active school transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars; Toftager, Mette; Ersbøll, Annette K.;

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction Walking and bicycling to school yields great potential in increasing the physical activity levels of adolescents, but to date very few intervention studies have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multicomponent school-based physical activity...... activity, active transport and after-school fitness program. Transport mode to school was assessed through a 5-day transportation diary. Results The proportion of active transport was high at baseline (86.0%) and was maintained at the two-year follow-up (87.0%). There was no difference in active travel...

  17. Active Transportation Safety Features around Schools in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Pinkerton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers. Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  18. Active transportation safety features around schools in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Bryn; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers). Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  19. Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Bao-Quan, E-mail: aibq@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, 510006 Guangzhou (China); He, Ya-Feng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, 071002 Baoding (China); Zhong, Wei-Rong, E-mail: wrzhong@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Siyuan Laboratory, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China)

    2014-11-21

    Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction.

  20. Active urea transport in lower vertebrates and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankir, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Some unicellular organisms can take up urea from the surrounding fluids by an uphill pumping mechanism. Several active (energy-dependent) urea transporters (AUTs) have been cloned in these organisms. Functional studies show that active urea transport also occurs in elasmobranchs, amphibians, and mammals. In the two former groups, active urea transport may serve to conserve urea in body fluids in order to balance external high ambient osmolarity or prevent desiccation. In mammals, active urea transport may be associated with the need to either store and/or reuse nitrogen in the case of low nitrogen supply, or to excrete nitrogen efficiently in the case of excess nitrogen intake. There are probably two different families of AUTs, one with a high capacity able to establish only a relatively modest transepithelial concentration difference (renal tubule of some frogs, pars recta of the mammalian kidney, early inner medullary collecting duct in some mammals eating protein-poor diets) and others with a low capacity but able to maintain a high transepithelial concentration difference that has been created by another mechanism or in another organ (elasmobranch gills, ventral skin of some toads, and maybe mammalian urinary bladder). Functional characterization of these transporters shows that some are coupled to sodium (symports or antiports) while others are sodium-independent. In humans, only one genetic anomaly, with a mild phenotype (familial azotemia), is suspected to concern one of these transporters. In spite of abundant functional evidence for such transporters in higher organisms, none have been molecularly identified yet.

  1. The ttpC gene is contained in two of three TonB systems in the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, but only one is active in iron transport and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustusch, Ryan J; Kuehl, Carole J; Crosa, Jorge H

    2012-06-01

    The TonB system of proteins is required for the energy-dependent active transport of iron-bound substrates across the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. We have identified three TonB systems within the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. The TonB1 system contains the TonB1, ExbD1, and ExbB1 proteins, whereas both the TtpC2-TonB2 and TtpC3-TonB3 systems contain an additional fourth protein, TtpC. Here we report that TtpC3, although highly related to TtpC2, is inactive in iron transport, whereas TtpC2 is essential for the function of the TtpC2-TonB2 system in V. vulnificus. This protein, together with TonB2, is absolutely required for both the uptake of endogenously produced iron-bound siderophores as well as siderophores produced from other organisms. Through complementation we show that V. vulnificus is capable of using different TtpC2 proteins from other Vibrio species to drive the uptake of multiple siderophores. We have also determined that aerobactin, a common bacterial siderophore involved in virulence of enteric bacteria, can only be brought into the cell using the TtpC2-TonB2 system, indicating an important evolutionary adaptation of TtpC2 and TonB2. Furthermore, in the absence of TonB1, TtpC2 is essential for a fully virulent phenotype as demonstrated using 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) experiments in mice.

  2. ABC transporters : Lessons from a bacterial oligopeptide uptake system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven, Mark Koop

    2006-01-01

    ABC transporters are proteins that are involved in the uptake of nutrients and excretion of harmful substances in biological cells. Defects in human ABC transporters can result in severe diseases. Too high ABC transporter activity can lead to non-responsiveness of cancercells to chemotherapy, and

  3. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J

    2016-01-01

    impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter

  4. Numerical Modelling Approaches for Sediment Transport in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole

    A study of the sediment transport processes in sewers has been carried out. Based on this study a mathematical modelling system has been developed to describe the transport processes of sediments and dissolved matter in sewer systems. The modelling system consists of three sub-models which...... constitute the basic modelling system necessary to give a discription of the most dominant physical transport processes concerning particles and dissolved matter in sewer systems: A surface model. An advection-dispersion model. A sediment transport model....

  5. Pneumatic tube system transport does not alter platelet function in optical and whole blood aggregometry, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count and fibrinogen in patients on anti-platelet drug therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Mangge, Harald; Münch, Andreas; Niedrist, Tobias; Mahla, Elisabeth; Metzler, Helfried; Prüller, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess pneumatic tube system (PTS) alteration on platelet function by the light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and whole blood aggregometry (WBA) method, and on the results of platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen. Materials and methods Venous blood was collected into six 4.5 mL VACUETTE® 9NC coagulation sodium citrate 3.8% tubes (Greiner Bio-One International GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) from 49 intensive care unit (ICU) patients on dual anti-platelet therapy and immediately hand carried to the central laboratory. Blood samples were divided into 2 Groups: Group 1 samples (N = 49) underwent PTS (4 m/s) transport from the central laboratory to the distant laboratory and back to the central laboratory, whereas Group 2 samples (N = 49) were excluded from PTS forces. In both groups, LTA and WBA stimulated with collagen, adenosine-5’-diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA) and thrombin-receptor-activated-peptide 6 (TRAP-6) as well as platelet count, PT, APTT, and fibrinogen were performed. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between blood samples with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) PTS transport (P values from 0.064 – 0.968). The AA-induced LTA (bias: 68.57%) exceeded the bias acceptance limit of ≤ 25%. Conclusions Blood sample transportation with computer controlled PTS in our hospital had no statistically significant effects on platelet aggregation determined in patients with anti-platelet therapy. Although AA induced LTA showed a significant bias, the diagnostic accuracy was not influenced. PMID:28392742

  6. A cislunar transportation system fuelled by lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    A transportation system for a self sustaining economy in cislunar space is discussed. The system is based on liquid oxygen (LO2), liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion whose fuels are derived from ice mined at the polar regions of the Moon. The elements of the transportation system consist of the Advanced Cryogenic Evolved Stage (ACES) and the XEUS lander, both being developed by United Launch Alliance (ULA). The main propulsion elements and structures are common between ACES and XEUS. Both stages are fully reusable with refueling of their LO2/LH2 propellants. Utilization of lunar sourced propellants has the potential to dramatically lower the cost of transportation within the cislunar environs. These lower costs dramatically lower the barriers to entry of a number of promising cislunar based activities including space solar power. One early application of the architecture is providing lunar sourced propellant to refuel ACES for traditional spacecraft deployment missions. The business case for this application provides an economic framework for a potential lunar water mining operation.

  7. A smart system for surveillance of animal welfare during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresenbet, G; Wikner, I; Van de Water, G; Freson, L; Geers, R

    2003-12-01

    New welfare regulations will impose surveillance systems so that information on the quality of transport conditions is available. Moreover a route description is useful for optimisation of transport logistics, but also in relation to estimating of sanitary risk and food safety, including traceability of individual animals. Therefore a transport surveillance system has been developed which is integrating the following information: individual identification of animals, (un)loading place and time, air quality (temperature, relative humidity, emissions), vibration and behaviour of the animals. These data are collected by telemetry and GPS, and are transmitted to a dispatch centre by GSM. Hence, information is available on-line and on disk, so that the driver can be informed and corrected at the spot. Dynamic route optimization of cattle collection from farms and logistical activities of abattoirs are considered in relation to animal welfare. Another instrumentation package that comprises sensors of heart rate and vibration on the animal has been integrated. These sensors can be mounted on animals and the data is transferred to a database through a wireless network. Comprehensive field measurement has been made to evaluate the system and found that the package performs well. Hence, advice will be generated for vehicle manufacturers, hauliers, farmers, slaughterhouses and retailers.

  8. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  9. Intelligent transportation infrastructure deployment analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Harding, J.A. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Much of the work on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to date has emphasized technologies, standards/protocols, architecture, user services, core infrastructure requirements, and various other technical and institutional issues. ITS implementations in the United States and elsewhere in the world have demonstrated benefits in the areas of safety, productivity, efficiency, and environmental impact. However, quantitative benefits and satisfactory cost estimates are not available or cannot be derived for many components of the ITS, whether deployed individually or in some integrated fashion. The limitations of existing analysis and evaluation capabilities coupled with the lack of strong empirical evidence presents a major knowledge and data gap for infrastructure investment decisions involving ITS alternatives. This paper describes the over-arching issues and requirements associated with the analysis capabilities required for a systematic, faithful, and rigorous evaluation of the impacts of deploying ITS in a metropolitan area. It then describes the conceptual framework of a modeling system that will provide a preliminary analysis capability to support ITS deployment analysis and evaluation.

  10. Transport and Clogging of Particulate Flow in Fracture Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplik, Joel [City College of New York, NY (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The aim of the project is to understand the effects of confinement in narrow rough-walled fractures on the transport behavior of fluids and suspended particles in subsurface hydro- carbon reservoirs. A key motivation for the study is that such fracture systems provide the highest throughput in oil and gas extraction and have been the focus of recent industrial activity. The scientific challenge is to understand how the confined geometry alters transport phenomena, and in particular its influence on (diagnostic) tracer transport and the effects of flow channeling and clogging on fluid motion. An important complicating feature of geological fractures is the self-affine fractal nature of their surface roughness, leading to irregular but correlated fluid and particle motion. The key technique used is computer simulation, augmented by analytical calculations and collaboration with outside experimental colleagues when possible. The principal topics studied were fluid permeability, tracer dispersion, flow channeling and anisotropy, particle transport in narrow channels and particle trapping in tight fractures.

  11. SYSTEM OF BUSINESS-PROCESSES MANAGEMENT AT MOTOR-TRANSPORT ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The place of the system of business-processes management at motor-transport enterprise in the general system of management of the enterprise has been substantiated. The subsystems of strategic management, business-processes management of strategic orientation and current activity, processes of enterprise functioning management have been marked out. The system of motor-transport enterprise business-processes management has been formed, which, unlike the existing ones, is based on the system-cy...

  12. Thermally activated charge transport in microbial protein nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Veazey, Joshua P; Walsh, Kathleen A; Feliciano, Gustavo T; Steidl, Rebecca J; Tessmer, Stuart H; Reguera, Gemma

    2016-03-24

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive protein filaments or pili to respire extracellular electron acceptors such as iron oxides and uranium and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the contribution of the protein fiber to charge transport has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate efficient long-range charge transport along individual pili purified free of metal and redox organic cofactors at rates high enough to satisfy the respiratory rates of the cell. Carrier characteristics were within the orders reported for organic semiconductors (mobility) and inorganic nanowires (concentration), and resistivity was within the lower ranges reported for moderately doped silicon nanowires. However, the pilus conductance and the carrier mobility decreased when one of the tyrosines of the predicted axial multistep hopping path was replaced with an alanine. Furthermore, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy demonstrated the thermal dependence of the differential conductance at the low voltages that operate in biological systems. The results thus provide evidence for thermally activated multistep hopping as the mechanism that allows Geobacter pili to function as protein nanowires between the cell and extracellular electron acceptors.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamics and Quantum Transport in Small Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    Dynamics and Quantum Transport in Small Systems.” The PI is Ying-Cheng Lai from Arizona State University. The duration of the project was 12/1/2008...military systems may contain some graphene components. To understand various fundamental aspects of quantum transport dynamics is key to developing...conductance fluctuations, not seen previously in any quantum transport systems. This phenomenon has profound implications to the development of graphene

  14. Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika; Klingel, Karin; Kowalczuk, Sonja; Rasko, John E J; Cavanaugh, Juleen; Bröer, Stefan

    2004-06-04

    Resorption of amino acids in kidney and intestine is mediated by transporters, which prefer groups of amino acids with similar physico-chemical properties. It is generally assumed that most neutral amino acids are transported across the apical membrane of epithelial cells by system B(0). Here we have characterized a novel member of the Na(+)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family (B(0)AT1) isolated from mouse kidney, which shows all properties of system B(0). Flux experiments showed that the transporter is Na(+)-dependent, electrogenic, and actively transports most neutral amino acids but not anionic or cationic amino acids. Superfusion of mB(0)AT1-expressing oocytes with neutral amino acids generated inward currents, which were proportional to the fluxes observed with labeled amino acids. In situ hybridization showed strong expression in intestinal microvilli and in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Expression of mouse B(0)AT1 was restricted to kidney, intestine, and skin. It is generally assumed that mutations of the system B(0) transporter underlie autosomal recessive Hartnup disorder. In support of this notion mB(0)AT1 is located on mouse chromosome 13 in a region syntenic to human chromosome 5p15, the locus of Hartnup disorder. Thus, the human homologue of this transporter is an excellent functional and positional candidate for Hartnup disorder.

  15. Environmental analyses of land transportation systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Mirjan E.; Moll, Henri C.

    Environmental analyses of the impact of transportation systems on the environment from the cradle to the grave are rare. This article makes a comparison of various Dutch passenger transportation systems by studying their complete life-cycle energy use. Moreover, systems are compared according to

  16. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation. (DLC)

  17. The Exchange Value Embedded In A Transport System

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Qinglan

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that a well designed transport system has an embedded exchange value by serving as a market for potential exchange between consumers. Under suitable conditions, one can improve the welfare of consumers in the system simply by allowing some exchange of goods between consumers during transportation without incurring additional transportation costs. We propose an explicit valuation formula to measure this exchange value for a given compatible transport system. This value is always nonnegative and bounded from above. Criteria based on transport structures, preferences and prices are provided to determine the existence of a positive exchange value. Finally, we study a new optimal transport problem with an objective taking into account of both transportation cost and exchange value.

  18. Regional differences in rat conjunctival ion transport activities

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Active ion transport and coupled osmotic water flow are essential to maintain ocular surface health. We investigated regional differences in the ion transport activities of the rat conjunctivas and compared these activities with those of cornea and lacrimal gland. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (Slc5a1), transmembrane protein 16 (Tmem16a, b, f, and g), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr), and mucin (Muc4, 5ac, and 5b) mRNA expressio...

  19. System of Volcanic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HÉDERVARI

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made among the systems of B. G.
    Escher (3, of R. W. van Bemmelen (1 and that of the author (4. In this
    connection, on the basis of Esclier's classification, the terms of "constructiv
    e " and "destructive" eruptions are introduced into the author's system and
    at the same time Escher's concept on the possible relation between the depth
    of magma-chamber and the measure of the gas-pressure is discussed briefly.
    Three complementary remarks to the first paper (4 011 the subject of system
    of volcanic activity are added.

  20. Structuring a Sustainable Transportation System in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> Since the implementation of the Master Plan of Beijing in 1993, Beijing has acquired economic development continually, and the construction of urban transportation has gained obvious achievements. But with the continually high-speed development of Beijing’s economy, the quickened tenor of urbanization and traffic motorization, the increasing need for transportation and amount of motor

  1. Sintering as a process of transport of activated volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the fact that sintering is the consequence of the process of transport of activated volume, it has been shown how the kinetics of the sintering process can be defined. The activated volume was in principle defined as a parameter which describes a system’s deffectivity on an atomic level.

  2. Red cell amino acid transport. Evidence for the presence of system Gly in guinea pig reticulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, D A; Willis, J S; Young, J D

    1984-10-17

    Guinea pig reticulocytes are shown to possess an Na+-dependent glycine transporter which also requires Cl- for activity. Glycine transport by this route is saturable (apparent Km 98 microM; Vmax 24 mumol/g Hb per h) and inhibited by sarcosine. The properties of this carrier closely resemble those of System Gly previously demonstrated in pigeon and human erythrocytes. In contrast, no System Gly activity was detected in mature guinea pig erythrocytes.

  3. INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLIED TO TRANSPORT IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIAN ANDRES ZAPATA CORTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El transporte es uno de los elementos más relevantes para la competitividad de las empresas y las ciudades, pues un sistema de transporte inadecuado genera altos costos y bajos niveles de servicio al cliente, lo que fi nalmente produce un impacto económico para ambas partes. Este artículo presenta una revisión de herramientas tecnológicas que hacen parte de los sistemas de transporte inteligentes (ITS, sistemas utilizados para el mejoramiento del desempeño y seguridad del transporte, no solo de carga sino también de pasajeros y en diferentes modos. El artículo comienza con una descripción sobre los sistemas de transporte ITS, seguido por la presentación de los benefi cios de estos sistemas y fi nalmente se realiza una revisión de las diferentes herramientas que enmarcan los ITS.

  4. Evaluation of KFB-funded research on transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, D.; Knudsen, T.; Wegener, M.

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of two research projects on transport systems, which have been financed fully or partially by KFB. The projects are: l. Systems analysis of transport markets at the Division of Transport and Location Analysis in the Department of Infrastructure and Planning of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm; and 2. Planning, analysis and management in traffic networks - optimization models and methods at the Division of Optimization in the Department of Mathematics at Linkoeping University. The evaluation seeks to examine the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to the academic world and society. The two project teams prepared a self-assessment of their research activities and submitted copies of relevant publications. The evaluation committee visited both institutions and engaged the teams in discussions of their results and methodology. These visits occurred on June 1 and 2, 1999. This report is based on the self-assessments of the teams, the materials submitted and the meetings with the project teams. The evaluation and recommendations presented in the report are those of the reviewers and do not necessarily represent the views of KFB

  5. Activity-Based Costing Application in an Urban Mass Transport Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popesko Boris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic overview of the application of Activity-Based Costing in an urban mass transport company which operates land public transport via buses and trolleys within the city. The case study was conducted using the Activity-Based Methodology in order to calculate the true cost of individual operations and to measure the profitability of particular transport lines. The case study analysis showed the possible effects of the application of the Activity-Based Costing for an urban mass transport company as well as the limitations of using the ABC methodology in the service industry. With regards to the application of the ABC methodology, the primary limitation of the accuracy of the conclusions is the quality of the non-financial information which had to be gathered throughout the implementation process. A basic limitation of the accurate data acquisition is the nature of the fare system of the transport company which does not allow the identification of the route that is taken by an individual passenger. The study illustrates the technique of ABC in urban mass transport and provides a real company example of information outputs of the ABC system. The users indicated that, the ABC model is very useful for profitability reporting and profit management. Also, the paper shows specific application of the Activity-Based Methodology in conditions of urban mass transport companies with regional specifics.

  6. Highly reusable space transportation system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    To significantly increase demand for launch services by stimulating existing and planned markets as well as enabling new markets, the cost to orbit needs to be reduced a factor of ten below projected Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) goals. This will place the recurring operations cost around 200 per payload pound to low earth orbit (LEO). Methods for reducing the cost include: increasing relative vehicle performance, increasing vehicle reusability, and decreasing recurring operations. A study was conducted for NASA in support of its Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) initiative to identify for further assessment and development, those launch strategies that hold the greatest potential with respect to meeting this goal. During this study a number of candidate strategies were evaluated associated with access to space. Both technical and cost trades were performed, and concluded that there are two airbreathing propulsion concepts utilizing launch assist that appear promising in achieving the HRST-cost goals. These concepts employ both turbine based combine cycle (TBCC) and rocket based combine cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. The launch assist selected uses electromagnetic propulsion and a guideway to provide both delta velocity and altitude. A first order investigation of system level requirements associated with HRST launch assist for a magnetically launched vehicle including guideway concept and requirements as well as magnetic levitation and propulsion concepts and requirements were also conducted. This study concluded that the HRST goals of total recurring operations cost of 200 per payload pound to Low Earth Orbit based on a ten year operational period were feasible if the required technology was matured. The most promising concept to achieve these goals is based on a RBCC powered vehicle with electromagnetic launch assist.

  7. Data security in Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transport Services expect availability of the secure seamless communications solutions typically covering widely spread areas. Different ITS solutions require different portfolio of telecommunications service quality. These parameters have to correspond with ITS service performance parameters required by specific service. Even though quite extensive range of public wireless data services with reasonable coverage are provided, most of them are provided with no guaranteed quality and security. ITS requirements can be in most parameters easier reached if multi-path communications systems are applied core solution is combined with both public as well as private ones where and when it is needed. Such solution requires implementation of relevant flexible system architecture supported by the efficient decision processes. This paper is concentrated the telecommunications security issues relevant to the ITS wide area networking. Expected level of security varies in dependence on relevant ITS service requirements. Data volumes transferred both in private data vehicle on board networks as well as between vehicles and infrastructure (C2I or other vehicles (C2C progressively grow. Such trend upsurges the fatal problems appearance probability in case security of the wide area networks is not relevantly treated. That is reason why relevant communications security treatment becomes crucial part of the ITS solution. Besides of available "off shelf" security tools we present solution based on non-public universal identifier with dynamical extension (time and position dependency as an autonomous variables and data selection according to actor role or category. Presented results were obtained within projects e-Ident1, DOTEK2 and SRATVU3.

  8. Frozen steady states in active systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Volker; Hammerich, Benjamin; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R

    2011-01-01

    Even simple active systems can show a plethora of intriguing phenomena and often we find complexity were we would have expected simplicity. One striking example is the occurrence of a quiescent or absorbing state with frozen fluctuations that at first sight seems to be impossible for active matter driven by the incessant input of energy. While such states were reported for externally driven systems through macroscopic shear or agitation, the investigation of frozen active states in inherently active systems like cytoskeletal suspensions or active gels is still at large. Using high density motility assay experiments, we demonstrate that frozen steady states can arise in active systems if active transport is coupled to growth processes. The experiments are complemented by agent-based simulations which identify the coupling between self-organization, growth and mechanical properties to be responsible for the pattern formation process.

  9. Geographic Information Systems-Transportation ISTEA management systems server-net prototype pooled fund study: Phase B summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Dean, C.D.; Armstrong, H.M. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Geographic Information System-Transportation (GIS-T) ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype Pooled Fund Study represents the first national cooperative effort in the transportation industry to address the management and monitoring systems as well as the statewide and metropolitan transportation planning requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The Study was initiated in November 1993 through the Alliance for Transportation Research and under the leadership of the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. Sandia National Laboratories, an Alliance partner, and Geographic Paradigm Computing. Inc. provided technical leadership for the project. In 1992, the Alliance for Transportation Research, the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, and Geographic Paradigm Computing, Inc., proposed a comprehensive research agenda for GIS-T. That program outlined a national effort to synthesize new transportation policy initiatives (e.g., management systems and Intelligent Transportation Systems) with the GIS-T server net ideas contained in the NCHRP project {open_quotes}Adaptation of GIS to Transportation{close_quotes}. After much consultation with state, federal, and private interests, a project proposal based on this agenda was prepared and resulted in this Study. The general objective of the Study was to develop GIS-T server net prototypes supporting the ISTEA requirements for transportation planning and management and monitoring systems. This objective can be further qualified to: (1) Create integrated information system architectures and design requirements encompassing transportation planning activities and data. (2) Encourage the development of functional GIS-T server net prototypes. (3) Demonstrate multiple information systems implemented in a server net environment.

  10. Geographic Information Systems-Transportation ISTEA management systems server-net prototype pooled fund study: Phase B summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Dean, C.D.; Armstrong, H.M. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Geographic Information System-Transportation (GIS-T) ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype Pooled Fund Study represents the first national cooperative effort in the transportation industry to address the management and monitoring systems as well as the statewide and metropolitan transportation planning requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The Study was initiated in November 1993 through the Alliance for Transportation Research and under the leadership of the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. Sandia National Laboratories, an Alliance partner, and Geographic Paradigm Computing. Inc. provided technical leadership for the project. In 1992, the Alliance for Transportation Research, the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, and Geographic Paradigm Computing, Inc., proposed a comprehensive research agenda for GIS-T. That program outlined a national effort to synthesize new transportation policy initiatives (e.g., management systems and Intelligent Transportation Systems) with the GIS-T server net ideas contained in the NCHRP project {open_quotes}Adaptation of GIS to Transportation{close_quotes}. After much consultation with state, federal, and private interests, a project proposal based on this agenda was prepared and resulted in this Study. The general objective of the Study was to develop GIS-T server net prototypes supporting the ISTEA requirements for transportation planning and management and monitoring systems. This objective can be further qualified to: (1) Create integrated information system architectures and design requirements encompassing transportation planning activities and data. (2) Encourage the development of functional GIS-T server net prototypes. (3) Demonstrate multiple information systems implemented in a server net environment.

  11. Development trends in space transportation systems: From Hermes to Saenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontein, Volker; Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The criteria for the development of future space transportation systems are given. A trend in reducing transportation costs by reutilizing transportation systems is outlined. The European Hermes project represents a first step towards reutilization and manned winged apparatus. The technological and organizational requirements and the German participation in this project are described. The Saenger concept is shown as a logical advancement of this project, and of the corresponding technology. It consists of a two stage winged space tug with horizontal launch. A space transportation system with low launching costs, higher safety, and mission flexibility is expected. It should complete cargo rocket Ariane 5.

  12. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed inter-event time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law inter-arrival time distribution with an exponent $\\alpha=2.5$ and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  13. Directed Transport of Interacting Particle Systems: Recent Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhi-Gang

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in studies of directed transport processes in interacting particle systems are retrospected. Due to the interactions among elements, the directed transport process exhibits complicated and novel cooperative dynamics. We considered various possibilities in achieving ratchet motion by breaking different symmetries of many-body systems. It is shown that the directional transport can even be induced by breaking the coupling symmetry and the spatiotemporal symmetries.

  14. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  15. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenby Marieah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport

  16. Dwight David Eisenhower Transportation Fellowship Program System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — DDETFP is a web-based application used to measure the performance of the DDETFP program, enhance reporting, and evaluate the programs' effectiveness in meeting goals...

  17. 2015 International Conference on Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Zhao, Xiangmo

    2017-01-01

    This volume includes the proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITITS 2015) which was held in Xi’an on December 12-13, 2015. The conference provided a platform for all professionals and researchers from industry and academia to present and discuss recent advances in the field of Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems. The presented information technologies are connected to intelligent transportation systems including wireless communication, computational technologies, floating car data/floating cellular data, sensing technologies, and video vehicle detection. The articles focusing on intelligent transport systems vary in the technologies applied, from basic management systems to more application systems including topics such as emergency vehicle notification systems, automatic road enforcement, collision avoidance systems and some cooperative systems. The conference hosted 12 invited speakers and over 200 part...

  18. Iontophoretic Transport Across a Multiple Membrane System

    OpenAIRE

    Molokhia, Sarah A.; Zhang, Yanhui; Higuchi, William I.; Li, S. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the iontophoretic transport behavior across multiple membranes of different barrier properties. Spectra/Por® (SP) and Ionac membranes were the synthetic membranes and sclera was the biomembrane in this model study. The barrier properties of SP membranes were determined individually in passive and iontophoresis transport experiments with tetraethylammonium ion (TEA), chloride ion (Cl), and mannitol as the model permeants. Passive and iontop...

  19. The Adaptation of Ways and Methods of Risk Minimization in Local Payment Systems in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdaev Mausar Yushaevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of risk management gain special relevance in the conditions of payment systems development in public passenger transport in Russia. The risk carriers as well as the sources of their occurrence are revealed; the characteristics of private risks of individual participants in the system of public passenger transport are presented. The directions of risk management in relation to the payment system in public transport are reasoned and structured. It is proved that the choice of specific ways to minimize the risks in local payment systems in public transport is conditioned by the following factors – the nature of the payment system integration in public transport areas, the temporary nature of risk components effect due to the improvement of organizational, economic and technological factors, the change of the stages of payment systems development, the evaluation of risks effects. The article reasons the possibility of using and adjusting traditional ways (risk evasion, risk compensation, decrease in risk level, risk transfer, distribution of risk between participants and the methods of risk management in the payment systems in public transport according to the stages of their development and functioning for the processing center, passenger motor transport organizations, financial center and passengers (payers. The authors justify the directions of integrating the local payment systems of public transport in the national payment system, taking into account the risks involved in the activity of its members.

  20. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems : algorithms and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Matthieu; Ebben, Mark; Gademann, Noud; Harten, van Aart

    2000-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated

  1. Urban Transportation Systems in Bogotá and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore the socio-technical dynamics of developing new urban transport systems. Based on the analysis of empirical material from the study of the Transmilenio in Bogotá and the Metro in Copenhagen, we propose that the design, construction and operation of urban transport systems...

  2. Status and Prospect of China's Space Transportation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LongLehao

    2004-01-01

    The space transportation system refers to all transportation vehicles carrying various paylaads and flying between the ground and space orbits or among orbits. It includes launch vehicle, space shuttle, space plane,emergency rescue vehicle and all kinds of auxiliary systems. The space

  3. Success and failures in urban transport planning in Europe — understanding the transport system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hermann Knoflacher

    2007-08-01

    Technological determinism has become a kind of religion for many people since it appears to offer solutions for societal problems as never before in history. Transport is one of the fascinating technology branches developed during the last 200 years. Effortless movement over long distances has become possible for car users as long as cheap fossil energy is available. However, the effect of fast transport on urban structures and society was not taken into account when developing these technical means. Technologists and economists have used indicators for expected benefits of these fast transport modes without taking into account the real system effects on society and urban structures. Plausible assumptions and hopes instead of scientific understanding of the complex system are used in practice. In contradiction to widely held beliefs of transportation planners, there is actually no growth of mobility if counted in number of trips per person per day, no time saving by increasing speed in the system, and no real freedom of modal choice. Modal choice is dependent on physical and other structures, the artificial environment built by urban planners, transport experts and political decisions. The core hypothesis of traditional urban and transport planning ‘growth of mobility’, ‘travel time saving by increasing speed’ and ‘freedom of modal choice’ are myths and do not exist in the real urban and transport system. This is the reason why urban planning and transport planning based on traditional non-scientific assumptions is creating continuously not only more transport problems, but also environmental and social as well as economic problems all over the world, where these principals are applied. Urban transport planning in Europe, understanding the transport system and the solutions are presented in this paper.

  4. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  5. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/41n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Vaquer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay® (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2 trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology

  6. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  7. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  8. research efforts on intelligent transportation system in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Intelligent Transportation Systems, Policy formulation, Research product deployment, Funding,. System performance ... vehicles and among different vehicles (c) data ... plan and the use of traffic analysis tools to assist in evaluating ...

  9. Inhibition of Human Drug Transporter Activities by the Pyrethroid Pesticides Allethrin and Tetramethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedik, Lisa; Bruyere, Arnaud; Le Vee, Marc; Stieger, Bruno; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Potin, Sophie; Fardel, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Pyrethroids are widely-used chemical insecticides, to which humans are commonly exposed, and known to alter functional expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. Limited data have additionally suggested that drug transporters, that constitute key-actors of the drug detoxification system, may also be targeted by pyrethroids. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the potential regulatory effects of these pesticides towards activities of main ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters, using transporter-overexpressing cells. The pyrethroids allethrin and tetramethrin were found to inhibit various ABC and SLC drug transporters, including multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion transporter polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, organic anion transporter (OAT) 3, multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter (MATE) 1, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and OCT2, with IC50 values however ranging from 2.6 μM (OCT1 inhibition by allethrin) to 77.6 μM (OAT3 inhibition by tetramethrin) and thus much higher than pyrethroid concentrations (in the nM range) reached in environmentally pyrethroid-exposed humans. By contrast, allethrin and tetramethrin cis-stimulated OATP2B1 activity and failed to alter activities of OATP1B3, OAT1 and MATE2-K, whereas P-glycoprotein activity was additionally moderately inhibited. Twelve other pyrethoids used at 100 μM did not block activities of the various investigated transporters, or only moderately inhibited some of them (inhibition by less than 50%). In silico analysis of structure-activity relationships next revealed that molecular parameters, including molecular weight and lipophilicity, are associated with transporter inhibition by allethrin/tetramethrin and successfully predicted transporter inhibition by the pyrethroids imiprothrin and prallethrin. Taken together, these data fully demonstrated that two pyrethoids, i.e., allethrin and tetramethrin, can

  10. Inhibition of Human Drug Transporter Activities by the Pyrethroid Pesticides Allethrin and Tetramethrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedik, Lisa; Bruyere, Arnaud; Le Vee, Marc; Stieger, Bruno; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Potin, Sophie; Fardel, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Pyrethroids are widely-used chemical insecticides, to which humans are commonly exposed, and known to alter functional expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. Limited data have additionally suggested that drug transporters, that constitute key-actors of the drug detoxification system, may also be targeted by pyrethroids. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the potential regulatory effects of these pesticides towards activities of main ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters, using transporter-overexpressing cells. The pyrethroids allethrin and tetramethrin were found to inhibit various ABC and SLC drug transporters, including multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion transporter polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, organic anion transporter (OAT) 3, multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter (MATE) 1, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and OCT2, with IC50 values however ranging from 2.6 μM (OCT1 inhibition by allethrin) to 77.6 μM (OAT3 inhibition by tetramethrin) and thus much higher than pyrethroid concentrations (in the nM range) reached in environmentally pyrethroid-exposed humans. By contrast, allethrin and tetramethrin cis-stimulated OATP2B1 activity and failed to alter activities of OATP1B3, OAT1 and MATE2-K, whereas P-glycoprotein activity was additionally moderately inhibited. Twelve other pyrethoids used at 100 μM did not block activities of the various investigated transporters, or only moderately inhibited some of them (inhibition by less than 50%). In silico analysis of structure-activity relationships next revealed that molecular parameters, including molecular weight and lipophilicity, are associated with transporter inhibition by allethrin/tetramethrin and successfully predicted transporter inhibition by the pyrethroids imiprothrin and prallethrin. Taken together, these data fully demonstrated that two pyrethoids, i.e., allethrin and tetramethrin, can

  11. Effects of surfactants and thermodynamic activity of model active ingredient on transport over plant leaf cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerström, Anton; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Westbye, Peter; Bergström, Karin; Engblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of molecular transport across the cuticle of Clivia leaves. In vitro diffusion methodology was used to investigate the transport of a systemic fungicide, tebuconazole, over a model silicone membrane, enzymatically isolated cuticle membranes, and dermatomed leaves. It was shown that dermatomed leaves may replace enzymatically isolated cuticles. Furthermore, the effects of two surfactants, C(10)EO(7) and C(8)G(1.6), on the fungicide transport were investigated. Tebuconazole cuticle permeation was described using Fick's first law of diffusion, expressed by the thermodynamic activity of the solute in the membrane. A new method for calculation of diffusion coefficients in the membrane is proposed. To access the thermodynamic activity of the fungicide in the membranes, sorption isotherms of tebuconazole in the membrane materials studied were recorded. The thermodynamic activity of the fungicide in aqueous solutions was calculated from solubility data. For that purpose, the effect of surfactants on tebuconazole solubility was studied. The results show that addition of surfactants allows for higher concentrations of tebuconazole available for penetration. Nonetheless, at a fixed fungicide thermodynamic activity, all formulations produced the same flux over the silicone membrane independently on the fungicide concentration. This shows that the driving force across non-responding membranes is the gradient of thermodynamic activity, rather than the gradient of the fungicide concentration. In case of leaves, surfactants induced the same quantitative increase in both flux and diffusion coefficient of solute in the cuticle, while the cuticle-water partition coefficient was unaffected.

  12. Carbonless footprints: promoting health and climate stabilization through active transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lawrence D; Greenwald, Michael J; Winkelman, Steve; Chapman, James; Kavage, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to describe how active transportation can help meet health and greenhouse gas emissions goals, and the ability of urban form strategies to impact both issues. In addition, we wanted to assess if there is an inverse relationship between active and motorized forms of travel. A cross-sectional analysis of travel diary data was used to measure relationships among energy (kcal) burned from walking, energy (kcal) burned from motorized transportation, and the ratio of the two (the transport energy index) with regional accessibility and local walkability when adjusting for demographic factors. Multiple linear regression and descriptive statistics were employed to estimate these relationships. Transit accessibility, residential density, and intersection density were positive predictors of walk energy and the energy index and inverse predictors of motorized energy. The land use mix variable was negatively and significantly associated with energy burned from walking and from motorized transportation, with no significant impact on the transport energy index. Because a mixed land use pattern places destinations closer together, it reduces distances and thus energy demands for both walking and driving. The results support the concept, previously untested empirically, that similar urban form strategies can have cobenefits for both physical activity and climate change.

  13. Electrical transport in ethyl cellulose–chloranil system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Khare; R K Pandey; P L Jain

    2000-08-01

    The charge-transport behaviour in pure and chloranil (Chl) doped ethyl cellulose (EC) system has been studied by measuring the dependence of current on field, temperature, electrode material and dopant concentration. The role of doping molecular concentration in the polymer matrix and modification in the conduction characteristics are studied. Lowering of the activation energy due to doping was observed. The current was found to increase with an increase in the chloranil concentration. An explanation for this has been attempted on the basis of formation of molecular aggregates between chloranil molecules and ethoxy groups of ethyl cellulose. It is suggested that chloranil occupies interstitial positions between the polymer chains and assists in carrier transportation by reducing the hopping barriers. The current–voltage characteristics of different samples are analyzed using space charge limited current theory and quantitative information about the transport parameters is derived. The values of effective drift mobility and trapped charge carrier concentration which result in the build up of space charge have been calculated.

  14. Environment-assisted quantum transport in ordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kassal, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Noise-assisted transport in quantum systems occurs when quantum time-evolution and decoherence conspire to produce a transport efficiency that is higher than what would be seen in either the purely quantum or purely classical cases. It has been understood as the suppression of coherent quantum localization through noise, which brings detuned quantum levels into resonance and thus facilitates transport. We report several new mechanisms of environment-assisted transport in ordered systems, in which there is no localization to be overcome.

  15. Transport of active ellipsoidal particles in ratchet potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Bao-Quan, E-mail: aibq@scnu.edu.cn; Wu, Jian-Chun [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, 510006 Guangzhou (China)

    2014-03-07

    Rectified transport of active ellipsoidal particles is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional asymmetric potential. The out-of-equilibrium condition for the active particle is an intrinsic property, which can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the perfect sphere particle can facilitate the rectification, while the needlelike particle destroys the directed transport. There exist optimized values of the parameters (the self-propelled velocity, the torque acting on the body) at which the average velocity takes its maximal value. For the ellipsoidal particle with not large asymmetric parameter, the average velocity decreases with increasing the rotational diffusion rate, while for the needlelike particle (very large asymmetric parameter), the average velocity is a peaked function of the rotational diffusion rate. By introducing a finite load, particles with different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities) will move to the opposite directions, which is able to separate particles of different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities)

  16. Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport System Planning:An Exploration of Sustainable Urban Transport Development on Condition of Limited Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With "integration" as the direction,Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport Planning integrates the plan,construction and management of all kinds of transport mode in the transport system,and integrates the transport with the social,economic and environment development.The planning specifies the strategic targets,key indicators,development strategies as well as major policies of the comprehensive transport system,which explores an alternative way for the sustainable urban transport development under the condition of limited resources in Shenzhen.

  17. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Harold E.; Bearden, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a ``DOE Alternative.'' The U.S. Department of Transportation has special ``double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained ``bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992.

  18. Innovating for a competitive and resource-efficient transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    Transport is vital to the economic prosperity and social integration of Europe. EU-transport policy is directed to developing a smart, efficient transport system with reduced dependency on fossil fuels and less environmental impacts that will enhance mobility in Europe and will underpin Europe's competitiveness in global markets. This includes the transport sector itself, which is an important part of the EU economy. In contributing to achieving these ambitious goals, extensive investments are made in research and development for sustainable and innovative solutions. This Policy Brochure, which is produced by the Transport Research and Innovation Portal (TRIP), highlights the contribution of research, development, and innovation in securing a competitive and resource-efficient transport system in Europe.

  19. Control of machine functions or transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, M.D.; Lee, M.J.; Jaeger, J.; King, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer code, COMFORT, has been developed at SLAC for on-line calculation of the strengths of magnetic elements in an electron storage ring or transport beam line, subject to first order fitting constraints on the ring or beam line parameters. This code can also be used off-line as an interactive lattice or beam line design tool.

  20. Equilibrium models in multimodal container transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.; Viti, F.; Negenborn, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the performance of multimodal freight transport networks involves adequately balancing the interplay between costs, volumes, times of departure and arrival, and times of travel. In order to study this interplay, we propose an assignment model that is able to efficiently determine flows an

  1. Transport for Stochastic System with Infinite Locally Coupled Oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ying-Kui; LI Jing-Hui; ZHAO Xian-Geng

    2003-01-01

    We consider the transport of particles for spatially periodic system with infinite locally coupled oscillatorsdriven by additive and multiplicative noises. A formula of the probability current derived by us shows that the couplingamong the infinite oscillators is an ingredient for transport. This coupling of the oscillators can induce transport ofparticles in the absence of the correlation of the additive and multiplicative noises, even without the multiplicative noise.

  2. Reaction-Transport Systems Mesoscopic Foundations, Fronts, and Spatial Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Horsthemke, Werner; Mendez, Vicenc

    2010-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the dynamics of reaction-diffusion systems, with a focus on fronts and stationary spatial patterns. Emphasis is on systems that are non-standard in the sense that either the transport is not simply classical diffusion (Brownian motion) or the system is not homogeneous. A important feature is the derivation of the basic phenomenological equations from the mesoscopic system properties. Topics addressed include transport with inertia, described by persistent random walks and hyperbolic reaction-transport equations and transport by anomalous diffusion, in particular subdiffusion, where the mean square displacement grows sublinearly with time. In particular reaction-diffusion systems are studied where the medium is in turn either spatially inhomogeneous, compositionally heterogeneous or spatially discrete. Applications span a vast range of interdisciplinary fields and the systems considered can be as different as human or animal groups migrating under external influences, population...

  3. Transport and Power System Scenarios for Northern Europe in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Meibom, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Increasing focus on sustainability affects all parts of the energy system. Integrating the power and transport system in future energy system planning, influences the economically optimal investments and optimal operation of the power system as well as the transport system. This work presents...... analysis of the optimal configuration and operation of the integrated power and transport system in Northern Europe. Optimal configuration and operation is obtained using the optimisation model, Balmorel [1], with a transport model extension. For electric drive vehicles with plug-in capabilities...... it is assumed that power can go both from grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid. Oil prices are assumed to be $120/barrel, and CO2 price 40 €/ton. This results in an optimal investment path with a large increase in sustainable energy; primarily wind energy, as well as an increase in the electric drive vehicles...

  4. A 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Po-Yi; Chen, Chia-Yi; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Ruan, Sheng-Siang; Wu, Kuan-Hung

    2014-02-10

    A 10-Gbps optical worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) transport system employing vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and spatial light modulator (SLM) with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulating signal is proposed. With the assistance of equalizer and low noise amplifier (LNA) at the receiving site, good bit error rate (BER) performance, clear constellation map, and clear eye diagram are achieved in the proposed systems. An optical WiMAX transport system, transmitting 16-QAM-OFDM signal over a 6-m free-space link, with a data rate of 10 Gbps is successfully demonstrated. Such a 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system would be attractive for providing services including Internet and telecommunication services. Our proposed system is suitable for the free-space lightwave transport system in visible light communication (VLC) application.

  5. Transport and Power System Scenarios for Northern Europe in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Meibom, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Increasing focus on sustainability affects all parts of the energy system. Integrating the power and transport system in future energy system planning, influences the economically optimal investments and optimal operation of the power system as well as the transport system. This work presents...... analysis of the optimal configuration and operation of the integrated power and transport system in Northern Europe. Optimal configuration and operation is obtained using the optimisation model, Balmorel [1], with a transport model extension. For electric drive vehicles with plug-in capabilities...... it is assumed that power can go both from grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid. Oil prices are assumed to be $120/barrel, and CO2 price 40 €/ton. This results in an optimal investment path with a large increase in sustainable energy; primarily wind energy, as well as an increase in the electric drive vehicles...

  6. Public Transport Information System for Visually Impaired and Blind People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Michał; Skomorowski, Marek

    This paper presents an assistive system for the visually impaired and blind people which helps them using public transport means. The proposed system uses mobile phones as a medium for passenger information system and GPS (Global Positioning System), GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and Bluetooth technologies for location and communication purposes. In the proposed system sound messages are given to the blind people via mobile phones which have dedicated software installed. This system has been implemented and tested in public transport in two pilot cities.

  7. Demand-responsive public transportation re-scheduling for adjusting to the joint leisure activity demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Gkiotsalitis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fixed daily trips such as trips to work/school have fixed departure/arrival times and destination points. The recurrent nature of fixed activities facilitates individuals on making more well-informed decisions about the transport mode selection. On the contrary, selecting a transportation mode for non-recurrent leisure trips, which can account for up to 60% of trips in some cities (Transport for London, 2014, is a more complex task due to the fact that individuals have little knowledge about the alternative modal options. In this paper, we try to improve the operations of demand-responsive public transportation systems by increasing their service quality and their ridership related to joint-leisure-trips via timetable rescheduling. First, we model the public transport service re-scheduling problem considering operational regulations and the quality of service. Then, a sequential heuristic method is introduced for re-scheduling the timetables of demand-responsive public transport modes in near-real time and accommodating the joint leisure activity demand without deteriorating the quality of service. The public transport re-scheduling for increasing the joint leisure activity ridership was tested in a case study using user-generated data from social media in Stockholm and the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS data from Sweden focusing especially on central bus lines 1 and 4.

  8. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  9. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  10. Influence of excipients on drug absorption via modulation of intestinal transporters activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal P Thakkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major factors affecting oral drug bioavailability is the activity of intestinal transport proteins, particularly for the drugs that undergo absorption by active transport mechanism. Many of the active pharmacological agents and the excipients used in their formulation are reported to modulate the activity of these transporters thereby either enhancing or decreasing the drug absorption and its systemic availability. These excipients are considered pharmacologically "inert" and have been used since years in pharmaceutical formulations. Appreciable interest is developing on the data demonstrating the role of excipients in altering the drug absorption across the intestine. Careful selection of the excipients thus is very important. A correctly chosen excipient can enhance the drug bioavailability and thus its therapeutic efficacy without increasing its dose. For locally acting drugs having systemic side effects, a proper excipient could lead to a decrease in its systemic absorption, thus reducing its side effects. This review focuses on the current findings of the excipients identified to modulate the activity of transporters, their mechanism of modulating the transporter′s activity and various formulation strategies using these excipients to enhance drug absorption.

  11. Use of MPEG transport stream in TV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sam

    1995-12-01

    This tutorial contribution covers the use of International Standard IS 13818-1 (MPEG-2 Systems) Transport Stream in Digital TV systems with main emphasis on broadcast systems. The Transport stream was developed by Working Group II of ISO/IEC JTC1 as a means for multiplexing and synchronizing multiple video and audio data as well as for transmission in a non-error resilient environment. This paper describes some salient features of the Transport Stream and details of how it is used to implement a complete end to end digital TV broadcast service with examples of functionality to support data, channel acquisition, navigation and near video on demand services.

  12. The process of motor transport technology development in intelligent transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzinska O.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is now regarded as one of the most complicated components of social and economic development in cities and suburban regions. The most advanced technologies for collecting and processing information about traffic parameters (density, speed, rolling stock should be used in these areas to ensure non-stop traffic flow on the roads. Methodological formation of ITS is based on the systematic approach, which considers the development of ITS services as a system rather than individual modules. Therefore a single open system architecture, protocols, information exchange, form of transport documents, standardization of means of communication parameters used for monitoring and control of vehicles are formed. Some specifications for the list of functions and service groups were made while searching for a solution of transport technology domain problems - commercial vehicles. Typical issues solved in service groups, on organisation of trucking transportations using the intelligent transport systems were defined – interpretation, diagnosis, monitoring, synthesis, forecasting, training and supporting the decisions already taken.

  13. Transport for a System with Additive Temporal-Spatial Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui; HAN Yin-Xia; CHEN Shi-Gang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the transport of the system with the additive temporal-spatial noise, by two models, i.e., a spatial asymmetry model and a spatial symmetry model. The study shows that the correlation of the additive noise with the space and the spatial asymmetry are ingredients for the transport.

  14. Applying intelligent transport systems to manage noise impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, I.R.; Vonk, T.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution discusses how traffic management, and many other measures that can be categorised as Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS, i.e. all traffic and transport measures that use ICT) can help reduce noise levels by influencing mobility choices and driving behaviour. Several examples of suc

  15. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behdani, Behzad; Fan, Yun; Wiegmans, Bart; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Intermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromodal desig

  16. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Behdani (Behzad); Y. Fan (Yun); B.W. Wiegmans (Bart); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromo

  17. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates the active transport of serotonin into human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosin, T.R. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the active transport of serotonin (5-HT) by human platelets was investigated. Platelets were exposed to either a single dose of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated by the glucose/glucose oxidase or xanthine/xanthine oxidase enzyme systems. H{sub 2}{sub 2} produced a rapid, dose-dependent and time-dependent increase in 5-HT transport which was maximal after a 2 min incubation and decreased with continued incubation. Catalase completely prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced stimulation and fluoxetine totally blocked 5-HT uptake into stimulated platelets. The glucose/glucose oxidase and the xanthine/xanthine oxidase generating systems produced a similar response to that of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, superoxide dismutase failed to alter the stimulation, while catalase effectively prevented the response. The kinetics of 5-HT transport indicated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment did not alter the K{sub m} of 5-HT transport but significantly increased the maximal rate of 5-HT transport. These data demonstrated that exposure of human platelets to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resulted in a stimulation of the active transport of 5-HT and suggested that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may function to regulate this process.

  18. Transport phenomena in disordered interacting electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, Karen

    We develop a user friendly scheme based on the quantum kinetic equation for studying electric and thermal transport phenomena in the presence of interactions and disorder. We demonstrate that this scheme is suitable for both a systematic perturbative calculation as well as a general analysis. The work was motivated by the growing number of experiments of thermal and thermoelectric transport, and the absence of adequate theoretical tools for studying them. In particular, for thermal transport, the widely used Kubo formula is rather cumbersome. In this thesis, we present a systematic derivation of the quantum kinetic approach which we believe can be a good alternative to the Kubo formula. One main advantage of the kinetic approach is that it provides us with an intuitive picture for both electric and thermal transport. The strength of our scheme is in its generality that allow us to apply it for different kinds of interactions. We study the effect of the superconducting fluctuations on the Hall and Nernst effects. We show that the strong Nernst effect observed recently in amorphous superconducting films far above the critical temperature is caused by the fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter. We demonstrate that in the limit T → 0 the contribution of the magnetization ensures the vanishing of the Nernst signal in accordance with the third law of thermodynamics. We obtained a striking agreement between our theoretical calculations and the experimental data in a broad region of temperatures and magnetic fields. In addition, we present the calculation of the Hall conductivity in the vicinity of the superconducting transition driven by a magnetic field. We discuss the peculiar feature of both the Hall coefficient and Nernst signal anticipated near the quantum phase transition.

  19. Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovinec, Carl [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-09-07

    The study entitled, "Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems," (TDTFS) applied analytical theory and numerical computation to investigate topics of importance to confining plasma, the fourth state of matter, with magnetic fields. A central focus of the work is how non-thermal components of the ion particle distribution affect the "sawtooth" collective oscillation in the core of the tokamak magnetic configuration. Previous experimental and analytical research had shown and described how the oscillation frequency decreases and amplitude increases, leading to "monster" or "giant" sawteeth, when the non-thermal component is increased by injecting particle beams or by exciting ions with imposed electromagnetic waves. The TDTFS study applied numerical computation to self-consistently simulate the interaction between macroscopic collective plasma dynamics and the non-thermal particles. The modeling used the NIMROD code [Sovinec, Glasser, Gianakon, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] with the energetic component represented by simulation particles [Kim, Parker, Sovinec, and the NIMROD Team, Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 448 (2004)]. The computations found decreasing growth rates for the instability that drives the oscillations, but they were ultimately limited from achieving experimentally relevant parameters due to computational practicalities. Nonetheless, this effort provided valuable lessons for integrated simulation of macroscopic plasma dynamics. It also motivated an investigation of the applicability of fluid-based modeling to the ion temperature gradient instability, leading to the journal publication [Schnack, Cheng, Barnes, and Parker, Phys. Plasmas 20, 062106 (2013)]. Apart from the tokamak-specific topics, the TDTFS study also addressed topics in the basic physics of magnetized plasma and in the dynamics of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration. The basic physics work contributed to a study of two-fluid effects on interchange dynamics, where

  20. FEATURES FOR TRANSPORT AND AIR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dumitru BUSA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport of dangerous goods are regulated activities, they take place under the direction and control of the authorities and specialized bodies in an institutional framework determined by national and international law. Of economic, transport infrastructure is the crucial element without which both production and trade would become meaningless, it is an essential element of a civilization, is also a necessary accessory of other economic activities.

  1. Berberine acutely activates the glucose transport activity of GLUT1

    OpenAIRE

    Cok, Alexandra; Plaisier, Christina; Salie, Matthew J.; Oram, Daniel S.; Chenge, Jude; Louters, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Berberine, which has a long history of use in Chinese medicine, has recently been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of diabetes. While the hypoglycemic effect of berberine has been clearly documented in animal and cell line models, such as 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotube cells, the mechanism of action appears complex with data implicating activation of the insulin signaling pathway as well as activation of the exercise or AMP kinase-mediated pathway. There have been no reports of the a...

  2. Multi-Agent Competition Simulation of Integrated Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation networks have been developed during the recent decades with the rapid growth of economy. At the same time, the conflicts between different transportation modes were getting more and more intense. To describe the competition relationship in integrated transportation system, a multi-agent competition model was presented. It is important to provide decision support for regulators to lead more reasonable distribution of resources for planning and operating the integrated transportation network. Thus, a simulation program was developed to implement the proposed model and provide computer-aid decision support. Finally, several experiments were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of this technique.

  3. The integration of transportation with the energy system in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Beella, Satish Kumar;

    were carried out in sequence. Firstly, a Chinese transport model has been created and approach reliability has been examined. Secondly, two scenarios, continued improvement (CI) scenario and accelerated improvement (AI) scenario, have been designed and evaluated. The results indicate that evident fuel......Energy security and climate change are forcing China to change its inappropriate energy structure. Today, transport is the second largest energy consumer in China. No single method can achieve a fossil fuel independent transport and it is necessary to propose a comprehensive strategy which can...... benefit both transport and the energy system. This paper aims to evaluate different transport development strategies in terms of their effects on fossil fuel demand reduction and to explore to what extent renewable energy can contribute to the transport sector. With this objective, three investigations...

  4. Biologically mediated transport of contaminants to aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Jules M; Macdonald, Robie W; Mackay, Donald; Webster, Eva; Harvey, Colin; Smol, John P

    2007-02-15

    The prevailing view is that long-range transport of semivolatile contaminants is primarily conducted by the physical system (e.g., winds, currents), and biological transport is typically ignored. Although this view may be correct in terms of bulk budgets and fluxes, it neglects the potential of animals to focus contaminants into foodwebs due to their behaviors and lifecycles. In particular, gregarious animals that biomagnify and bioaccumulate certain contaminants and then migrate and congregate can become the predominant pathway for contaminants in many circumstances. Fish and birds provide prominent examples for such behavior. This review examines the potential for biovector transport to expose populations to contaminants. In addition, we apply a modeling approach to compare the potential of biovector transport to other physical transport pathways for a hypothetical lake receiving large numbers of fish. We conclude that biovector transport should not be neglected when considering environmental risks of biomagnifying contaminants.

  5. Pore mutations in ammonium transporter AMT1 with increased electrogenic ammonium transport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loqué, Dominique; Mora, Silvia I; Andrade, Susana L A; Pantoja, Omar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2009-09-11

    AMT/Mep ammonium transporters mediate high affinity ammonium/ammonia uptake in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The Arabidopsis AMT1 proteins mediate uptake of the ionic form of ammonium. AMT transport activity is controlled allosterically via a highly conserved cytosolic C terminus that interacts with neighboring subunits in a trimer. The C terminus is thus capable of modulating the conductivity of the pore. To gain insight into the underlying mechanism, pore mutants suppressing the inhibitory effect of mutations in the C-terminal trans-activation domain were characterized. AMT1;1 carrying the mutation Q57H in transmembrane helix I (TMH I) showed increased ammonium uptake but reduced capacity to take up methylammonium. To explore whether the transport mechanism was altered, the AMT1;1-Q57H mutant was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and analyzed electrophysiologically. AMT1;1-Q57H was characterized by increased ammonium-induced and reduced methylammonium-induced currents. AMT1;1-Q57H possesses a 100x lower affinity for ammonium (K(m)) and a 10-fold higher V(max) as compared with the wild type form. To test whether the trans-regulatory mechanism is conserved in archaeal homologs, AfAmt-2 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was expressed in yeast. The transport function of AfAmt-2 also depends on trans-activation by the C terminus, and mutations in pore-residues corresponding to Q57H of AMT1;1 suppress nonfunctional AfAmt-2 mutants lacking the activating C terminus. Altogether, our data suggest that bacterial and plant AMTs use a conserved allosteric mechanism to control ammonium flux, potentially using a gating mechanism that limits flux to protect against ammonium toxicity.

  6. Modulation Effects of Curcumin on Erythrocyte Ion-Transporter Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin ((1E,6E-1,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, the yellow biphenolic pigment isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa, has various medicinal benefits through antioxidation, anti-inflammation, cardiovascular protection, immunomodulation, enhancing of the apoptotic process, and antiangiogenic property. We explored the effects of curcumin in vitro (10−5 M to 10−8 M and in vivo (340 and 170 mg/kg b.w., oral on Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA, Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE activity, and membrane lipid hydroperoxides (ROOH in control and experimental oxidative stress erythrocytes of Wistar rats. As a result, we found that curcumin potently modulated the membrane transporters activity with protecting membrane lipids against hydro-peroxidation in control as well as oxidatively challenged erythrocytes evidenced by stimulation of NKA, downregulation of NHE, and reduction of ROOH in the membrane. The observed results corroborate membrane transporters activity with susceptibility of erythrocyte membrane towards oxidative damage. Results explain the protective mechanism of curcumin against oxidative stress mediated impairment in ions-transporters activity and health beneficial effects.

  7. A multimodal transportation system routing implemented in waste collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste collection is an important municipal service that charges large expenditures to waste management (WM system. In this study, a hierarchical structure is proposed in order to minimize total cost of waste collection routing problem. Moreover, in second stage destructive environmental effects of waste transportation are minimized concurrently through taking advantage of a road/rail transportation system. In the proposed multimodal transportation system, waste packs are transferred to final destination while travel time and risk of environmental threatening is minimized. The discussed problem is formulated mathematically in two stages. In the first stage, a household waste collection routing problem is formulated while, in second stage a multimodal transportation system is routed to transfer waste packs to final destination through roads and railroads. In order to solve the proposed NP hard models, an improved genetic algorithm is developed. Comparison of the obtained results with those of GAMS for small-size samples validates the proposed models.

  8. Advances in dynamic network modeling in complex transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ukkusuri, Satish V

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest in dynamic network modeling, including route guidance and traffic control in transportation systems and other complex infrastructure networks. Covers dynamic traffic assignment, flow modeling, mobile sensor deployment and more.

  9. Regulation of human hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by diesel exhaust particle extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Le Vee

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs are common environmental air pollutants primarily affecting the lung. DEPs or chemicals adsorbed on DEPs also exert extra-pulmonary effects, including alteration of hepatic drug detoxifying enzyme expression. The present study was designed to determine whether organic DEP extract (DEPe may target hepatic drug transporters that contribute in a major way to drug detoxification. Using primary human hepatocytes and transporter-overexpressing cells, DEPe was first shown to strongly inhibit activities of the sinusoidal solute carrier (SLC uptake transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 and of the canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC efflux pump multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, with IC50 values ranging from approximately 1 to 20 μg/mL and relevant to environmental exposure situations. By contrast, 25 μg/mL DEPe failed to alter activities of the SLC transporter organic cation transporter (OCT 1 and of the ABC efflux pumps P-glycoprotein and bile salt export pump (BSEP, whereas it only moderately inhibited those of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Treatment by 25 μg/mL DEPe was next demonstrated to induce expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in cultured human hepatic cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B3, OATP2B1, OCT1 and BSEP. Such changes in transporter expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR pathway. This suggests that DEPe, which is enriched in known ligands of AhR like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alters drug transporter expression via activation of the AhR cascade. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of organic chemicals containing in DEPs, which may contribute

  10. An environmentally sustainable transport system in Sweden. A scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokking, P.; Emmelin, L.; Engstroem, M-G.; Nilsson, Jan-Evert; Eriksson, Gunnar; Wikberg, O.

    1997-02-01

    This is a short version of a scenario study concerning the possibilities to reach an Environmentally Sustainable Transport system in Sweden in a perspective of 30 years. The aim of the scenario study has been to describe one of several possible paths from today`s transport system to an environmentally adopted one. However, this does not imply that the task is to predict how such a transformation can be accomplished. The aim is rather to illustrate what such transformation require in the form of political decisions. The transformation of the transport system in to an environmentally adopted one, is primarily treated as a political problem, and a political perspective has accordingly been chosen for the study. In this English version of the scenario, the carbon dioxide problem is used to illuminate the many conflicts in goals and other problem that will attend an environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, and to highlight the analytical points of departure for the scenario study. The analysis shows that it is possible to reach the national environmental goals that characterise, with given definitions, an environmentally sustainable transport system. However, this implies many severe political decisions over a long period of time, which in turn, implies a long term national consensus about the importance to reach the overall goal. Other results the scenario points out, is the risk that a policy focused on one sector leads to `solving` a problem by moving it outside systems limitations, and the limitations on a national environmental policy: Being able to count on assistance from other countries through an environmental adoption of the transport system in the European Union or globally, would drastically facilitate the environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, through, among other things, a more rapid technological development. This indicates the necessity of promoting issues involving transportation and the environment in international

  11. An environmentally sustainable transport system in Sweden. A scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokking, P.; Emmelin, L.; Engstroem, M-G.; Nilsson, Jan-Evert; Eriksson, Gunnar; Wikberg, O.

    1997-02-01

    This is a short version of a scenario study concerning the possibilities to reach an Environmentally Sustainable Transport system in Sweden in a perspective of 30 years. The aim of the scenario study has been to describe one of several possible paths from today`s transport system to an environmentally adopted one. However, this does not imply that the task is to predict how such a transformation can be accomplished. The aim is rather to illustrate what such transformation require in the form of political decisions. The transformation of the transport system in to an environmentally adopted one, is primarily treated as a political problem, and a political perspective has accordingly been chosen for the study. In this English version of the scenario, the carbon dioxide problem is used to illuminate the many conflicts in goals and other problem that will attend an environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, and to highlight the analytical points of departure for the scenario study. The analysis shows that it is possible to reach the national environmental goals that characterise, with given definitions, an environmentally sustainable transport system. However, this implies many severe political decisions over a long period of time, which in turn, implies a long term national consensus about the importance to reach the overall goal. Other results the scenario points out, is the risk that a policy focused on one sector leads to `solving` a problem by moving it outside systems limitations, and the limitations on a national environmental policy: Being able to count on assistance from other countries through an environmental adoption of the transport system in the European Union or globally, would drastically facilitate the environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, through, among other things, a more rapid technological development. This indicates the necessity of promoting issues involving transportation and the environment in international

  12. Development of Monte Carlo decay gamma-ray transport calculation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Kawasaki, Nobuo [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kume, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    In the DT fusion reactor, it is critical concern to evaluate the decay gamma-ray biological dose rates after the reactor shutdown exactly. In order to evaluate the decay gamma-ray biological dose rates exactly, three dimensional Monte Carlo decay gamma-ray transport calculation system have been developed by connecting the three dimensional Monte Carlo particle transport calculation code and the induced activity calculation code. The developed calculation system consists of the following four functions. (1) The operational neutron flux distribution is calculated by the three dimensional Monte Carlo particle transport calculation code. (2) The induced activities are calculated by the induced activity calculation code. (3) The decay gamma-ray source distribution is obtained from the induced activities. (4) The decay gamma-rays are generated by using the decay gamma-ray source distribution, and the decay gamma-ray transport calculation is conducted by the three dimensional Monte Carlo particle transport calculation code. In order to reduce the calculation time drastically, a biasing system for the decay gamma-ray source distribution has been developed, and the function is also included in the present system. In this paper, the outline and the detail of the system, and the execution example are reported. The evaluation for the effect of the biasing system is also reported. (author)

  13. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  14. Plasma transport simulation modeling for helical confinement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K.; Amano, T.

    1991-08-01

    New empirical and theoretical transport models for helical confinement systems are developed based on the neoclassical transport theory including the effect of radial electric field and multi-helicity magnetic components, and the drift wave turbulence transport for electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, or the anomalous semi-empirical transport. These electron thermal diffusivities are compared with CHS (Compact Helical System) experimental data, which indicates that the central transport coefficient of the ECH plasma agrees with the neoclassical axi-symmetric value and the transport outside the half radius is anomalous. On the other hand, the transport of NBI-heated plasmas is anomalous in the whole plasma region. This anomaly is not explained by the electrostatic drift wave turbulence models in these flat-density-profile discharges. For the detailed prediction of plasma parameters in LHD (Large Helical Device), 3-D(dimensional) equilibrium/1-D transport simulations including empirical or drift wave turbulence models are carried out, which suggests that the global confinement time of LHD is determined mainly by the electron anomalous transport near the plasma edge region rather than the helical ripple transport in the core region. Even if the ripple loss can be eliminated, the increase of the global confinement is 10%. However, the rise in the central ion temperature is more than 20%. If the anomalous loss can be reduced to the half level of the present scaling, like so-called `H-mode` of the tokamak discharge, the neoclassical ripple loss through the ion channel becomes important even in the plasma core. The 5% radial inward shift of the plasma column with respect to the major radius is effective for improving plasma confinement and raising more than 50% of the fusion product by reducing this neoclassical asymmetric ion transport loss and increasing 10% in the plasma radius. (author).

  15. Workshop on technology issues of superconducting Maglev transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegrzyn, J.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Shaw, D.T. (New York State Inst. of Superconductivity, Buffalo, NY (United States))

    1991-09-27

    There exists a critical need in the United States to improve its ground transportation system. One suggested system that offers many advantages over the current transportation infrastructure is Maglev. Maglev represents the latest evolution in very high and speed ground transportation, where vehicles are magnetically levitated, guided, and propelled over elevated guideways at speeds of 300 miles per hour. Maglev is not a new concept but is, however, receiving renewed interest. The objective of this workshop was to further promote these interest by bringing together a small group of specialists in Maglev technology to discuss Maglev research needs and to identify key research issues to the development of a successful Maglev system. The workshop was organized into four sessions based on the following technical areas: Materials, Testing, and Shielding; Magnet Design and Cryogenic Systems; Propulsion and Levitation Systems; and, System Control and Integration.

  16. Computational Intelligence and its Role in Enhancing Sustainable Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Goodyer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available DeMontfort University’s (DMU Centre for Computational Intelligence (CCI is engaged in a range of programmes applying modern Computational Intelligence (CI techniques to provide superior analysis of complex real-time data sets that arise within transport systems. Better use of existing transport infrastructures can achieve positive sustainable outcomes, reducing congestion, improving air quality, providing real-time travel information and supporting low carbon vehicles. This is exemplified by the following examples: • ITRAQ, an integrated CI system that uses live feeds to determine the optimum use of the road system to reduce congestion and to improve air quality. • Sustainable Airport development Decision Support Systems. A CI based model that interfaces with a GIS system to model the environmental impact of flight paths. • The application of CI to solve multi-variable systems, logistics and passenger information. • VenusSim. The use of CI to model the dynamics of customer flows in transport terminals.

  17. Activation of CFTR-mediated Cl- Transport by Magnolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ling-ling; LIU Xin; SUN Yan; LIN Sen; ZHOU Na; XU Li-na; YU BO; HOU Shu-guang; YANG Hong

    2008-01-01

    Magnolin is a herbal compound from Magnolia biondii Pamp.It possesses numerous biological activities.Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR)is all epithelial chloride channel that plays a key role in the fluid secretion of various exocrine organs.In the present study,the activation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport by magnolin is indentified and characterized.In CFTR stably trailsfected FRT cells.magnolin increases CFTR Cl- currents in a concentration-dependent manner.The activation of magnolin on CFTR is rapid,reversible,and cAMP-dependent.Magnolin does not elevate cellular cAMP level.indicating that it activates CFTR by direct binding and interaction with CFTR protein.Magnolin selectively activates wildtype CFTR rather than mutant CFTIL Magnolin may present a novel class of therapeutic lead compound for the treatment of diseases associated with reduced CFTR function such as keratoconjunctivitis sicca,idiopathic chronic pancreatiti,and chromc constipation.

  18. Morse Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, M.B.

    1975-02-01

    The report contains sections containing descriptions of the MORSE and PICTURE codes, input descriptions, sample problems, deviations of the physical equations and explanations of the various error messages. The MORSE code is a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry may be used with an albedo option available at any material surface. The PICTURE code provide aid in preparing correct input data for the combinatorial geometry package CG. It provides a printed view of arbitrary two-dimensional slices through the geometry. By inspecting these pictures one may determine if the geometry specified by the input cards is indeed the desired geometry. 23 refs. (WRF)

  19. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    describes the leads in momentum-space. We benchmark each of these schemes against exact Greens function results for the conductance in the non-interacting limit, thus demonstrating the accuracy of the lead descriptions. We first use the DMRG implementations to calculate the conductance of an interacting...... suppression when having the interaction inside the chain, and conjecture that the enhancement by interacting contacts is universal. This result challenges the commonly used division between interacting transport region and non-interacting leads, and shows that care should be taken when making....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...

  20. A multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aleta, Alberto; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  1. The beam transport system in the SRS-1200

    CERN Document Server

    Ivashchenko, V E

    2002-01-01

    In NSC KIPT the synchrotron radiation source SRS-1200 for the Ukrainian national synchrotron center (Kiev) is developed. An injector for a storage ring is the electron linear accelerator with energy 180 MeV. For compactness of a complex LUE-180 dispose under a storage ring. The transport system provides transport of electron beam from linear accelerator without losses and injection him in the storage ring. The calculations of the performances of transport systems with five-lens and three-lens variants of translation line, and also with use 42 and 45-th of degree rectangular and sector bending magnets were carried out. As a result of the comparative analysis the five-lens symmetric variant of translation line with 42-th degree sector bending magnets was chosen. In the report the basic results of calculations, parameters and performances of transport system of electron beam are submitted.

  2. A Multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-03-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  3. A Multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements. PMID:28295015

  4. Freight Transport Time Savings and Organizational Performance: A Systemic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Sambracos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of freight transport time savings (FTTS on the performance of transport consuming companies. In the first part existing methods on FTTS valuation are critically discussed and their limitations are identified. Following, a conceptual model is built introducing an alternative approach for the valuation of FTTS that is based on the system perspective of firms, integrating the disciplines of systems thinking, performance measurement, transport and logistics decision making. Evidence from a Systems Dynamics’ simulation experiment on a retailer suggests that the effect of FTTS on performance depends highly on the structure of the firm's transport related processes and decision making process. Through the development and simulation of several scenarios concerning the reaction of the firm to the FTTS, it is concluded that the value of FTTS is sensitive to the type of the reaction and its time profile.

  5. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  6. Simulation model for the WIPP transportation and delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, F. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Lippis, J. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office; Quinn, D. [Systems Modeling Corp., Sewickley, PA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a first of its kind repository designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste in bedded salt 2150 feet underground. Contact-handled (CH) TRU waste, waste with low beta or gamma emitting radionuclides that can be handled without protective clothing or additional shielding, will be transported to WIPP in Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified containers known as TRUPACT-IIs. The TRUPACT-II is the cornerstone of a transportation system designed for extraordinarily safe transport of TRU waste from ten DOE production and research sites to WIPP. This paper describes the complexities of the transportation system and discusses how a simulation model can be utilized as a tool to develop economical operating parameters for the system.

  7. Inhibition of Activity of GABA Transporter GAT1 by δ-Opioid Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Pu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analgesia is a well-documented effect of acupuncture. A critical role in pain sensation plays the nervous system, including the GABAergic system and opioid receptor (OR activation. Here we investigated regulation of GABA transporter GAT1 by δOR in rats and in Xenopus oocytes. Synaptosomes of brain from rats chronically exposed to opiates exhibited reduced GABA uptake, indicating that GABA transport might be regulated by opioid receptors. For further investigation we have expressed GAT1 of mouse brain together with mouse δOR and μOR in Xenopus oocytes. The function of GAT1 was analyzed in terms of Na+-dependent [3H]GABA uptake as well as GAT1-mediated currents. Coexpression of δOR led to reduced number of fully functional GAT1 transporters, reduced substrate translocation, and GAT1-mediated current. Activation of δOR further reduced the rate of GABA uptake as well as GAT1-mediated current. Coexpression of μOR, as well as μOR activation, affected neither the number of transporters, nor rate of GABA uptake, nor GAT1-mediated current. Inhibition of GAT1-mediated current by activation of δOR was confirmed in whole-cell patch-clamp experiments on rat brain slices of periaqueductal gray. We conclude that inhibition of GAT1 function will strengthen the inhibitory action of the GABAergic system and hence may contribute to acupuncture-induced analgesia.

  8. Traffic Route Modelling and Assignment with Intelligent Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina Nadezhda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of signal transmitting environment for multimodal traffic control will enhance the integration of emergency and specialized transport routing tools in usual traffic control paradigms - it is one of the opportunities offered by modern intelligent traffic control systems. The improvement of effective electric power use in public transport system is an advantage of Intelligent Transport System (ITS. The research is connected with the improvement of on-line traffic control and adaptation of special traffic lighting alternatives by ITS. The assignment of the nearest appropriate transport will be done by passenger request, but unlike information system, the transport planning is done on demand. The task can be solved with the help of modern technical methods and equipment, as well as by applying control paradigms of the distributed systems. The problem is solved with the help of calculations hyper-graph and scheduling theory. The goal of the research is to develop methods, which support scheduling of the emergency transport, using high performance computing.

  9. Organelle-localized potassium transport systems in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Shin; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-15

    Some intracellular organelles found in eukaryotes such as plants have arisen through the endocytotic engulfment of prokaryotic cells. This accounts for the presence of plant membrane intrinsic proteins that have homologs in prokaryotic cells. Other organelles, such as those of the endomembrane system, are thought to have evolved through infolding of the plasma membrane. Acquisition of intracellular components (organelles) in the cells supplied additional functions for survival in various natural environments. The organelles are surrounded by biological membranes, which contain membrane-embedded K(+) transport systems allowing K(+) to move across the membrane. K(+) transport systems in plant organelles act coordinately with the plasma membrane intrinsic K(+) transport systems to maintain cytosolic K(+) concentrations. Since it is sometimes difficult to perform direct studies of organellar membrane proteins in plant cells, heterologous expression in yeast and Escherichia coli has been used to elucidate the function of plant vacuole K(+) channels and other membrane transporters. The vacuole is the largest organelle in plant cells; it has an important task in the K(+) homeostasis of the cytoplasm. The initial electrophysiological measurements of K(+) transport have categorized three classes of plant vacuolar cation channels, and since then molecular cloning approaches have led to the isolation of genes for a number of K(+) transport systems. Plants contain chloroplasts, derived from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria. A novel K(+) transport system has been isolated from cyanobacteria, which may add to our understanding of K(+) flux across the thylakoid membrane and the inner membrane of the chloroplast. This chapter will provide an overview of recent findings regarding plant organellar K(+) transport proteins.

  10. Associations between built environment and active transport in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars

    Introduction: Active commuting to school in Denmark is common but differentiates between schools. What is the association between the surrounding school environment assessed with a three component index and active commuting in adolescents? Methods: Materials: The study material consists of 1348...... adolescents (11-13 years) attending 5th or 6th grade in 14 different schools in Region Southern Denmark. Measures: - 5-day commuting diary. Mode of transport was reported from home to school and return (walk, bike, car, bus, train and other). - Web based questionnaire to asses perceived safety of bike route...

  11. A Configurable, Object-Oriented, Transportation System Software Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY,SUZANNE M.; MYRE,JOHN W.; PRICE,MARK H.; RUSSELL,ERIC D.; SCOTT,DAN W.

    2000-08-01

    The Transportation Surety Center, 6300, has been conducting continuing research into and development of information systems for the Configurable Transportation Security and Information Management System (CTSS) project, an Object-Oriented Framework approach that uses Component-Based Software Development to facilitate rapid deployment of new systems while improving software cost containment, development reliability, compatibility, and extensibility. The direction has been to develop a Fleet Management System (FMS) framework using object-oriented technology. The goal for the current development is to provide a software and hardware environment that will demonstrate and support object-oriented development commonly in the FMS Central Command Center and Vehicle domains.

  12. Gathering Information from Transport Systems for Processing in Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodym, Oldřich; Unucka, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Paper deals with complex system for processing information from means of transport acting as parts of train (rail or road). It focuses on automated information gathering using AutoID technology, information transmission via Internet of Things networks and information usage in information systems of logistic firms for support of selected processes on MES and ERP levels. Different kinds of gathered information from whole transport chain are discussed. Compliance with existing standards is mentioned. Security of information in full life cycle is integral part of presented system. Design of fully equipped system based on synthesized functional nodes is presented.

  13. Transport Information System using Query Centric Cyber Physical Systems (QCPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Ankit; Rathee, Geetanjali; Chawla, Meenu; Soni, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    To incorporate the computation and communication with the physical world, next generation architecture i.e. CPS is viewed as a new technology. To improve the better interaction with the physical world or to perk up the electricity delivery usage, various CPS based approaches have been introduced. Recently several GPS equipped smart phones and sensor based frameworks have been proposed which provide various services i.e. environment estimation, road safety improvement but encounter certain limitations like elevated energy consumption and high computation cost. To meet the high reliability and safety requirements, this paper introduces a novel approach based on QCPS model which provides several users services (discussed in this paper). Further, this paper proposed a Transport Information System (TIS), which provide the communication with lower cost overhead by arranging the similar sensors in the form of grids. Each grid has a coordinator which interacts with cloud to process the user query. In order to evaluate the performance of proposed approach we have implemented a test bed of 16 wireless sensor nodes and have shown the performance in terms of computation and communication cost.

  14. A flexible micro fluid transport system featuring magnetorheological elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Majid; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a flexible magnetically-actuated micro fluid transport system utilizing an isotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). Theoretical modeling and analysis of this system is presented for a two-dimensional model. This fluid transport system can propel the fluid by applying a fluctuating magnetic field on the MRE. The magneto-fluid-structure interaction analysis is employed to determine movement of the solid domain and the velocity of the fluid under a controllable magnetic field. The effects of key material, geometric, and magnetic parameters on the behavior of this system are examined. It is demonstrated that the proposed system can propel the fluid unidirectionally, and the volume of the transported fluid is significantly affected by some of the design parameters.

  15. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation.

  16. Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angioni, C

    2001-10-01

    Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code

  17. Modular transportable superconducting magnetic Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieurance, D.; Kimball, F.; Rix, C. [Martin Marietta Space Magnetics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Design and cost studies were performed for the magnet components of mid-size (1-5 MWh), cold supported SMES systems using alternative configurations. The configurations studied included solenoid magnets, which required onsite assembly of the magnet system, and toroid and racetrack configurations which consisted of factory assembled modules. For each configuration, design concepts and cost information were developed for the major features of the magnet system including the conductor, electrical insulation, and structure. These studies showed that for mid-size systems, the costs of solenoid and toroid magnet configurations are comparable and that the specific configuration to be used for a given application should be based upon customer requirements such as limiting stray fields or minimizing risks in development or construction.

  18. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  19. Energy coupling to periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems: stoichiometry of ATP hydrolysis during transport in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Mimmack, M L; Gallagher, M P; Pearce, S R; Hyde, S C; Booth, I R; Higgins, C F

    1989-01-01

    Periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems mediate the accumulation of many diverse substrates in prokaryotic cells. Similar transport systems, including the P-glycoprotein responsible for multidrug resistance in human tumors, are also found in eukaryotes. The mechanism by which energy is coupled to the accumulation of substrate by these transport systems has been controversial. In this paper we demonstrate that ATP hydrolysis occurs in vivo concomitantly with transport. These da...

  20. Transportation of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in a closed system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Gomes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of density, duration and the use of additives to the water during the transportation of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and use of this data to establish a safe transportation protocol for the species. The tested products and dosages were: salt (1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/L, gypsum (100, 300 and 500 mg/L and benzocaine (10, 20 and 30 mg/L. Fish were transported in closed systems (plastic bag at different densities and time periods of up to 24 h. Fish survival (FS and water quality parameters were monitored immediately after transportation. The remaining fish were kept in floating cages in order to evaluate mortality which occurred up to 96 h after transportation (S96. The best fish density, additives dosages and time period of the transportation was estimated with a general linear model. The effect of the condition factor on FS and S96 was also evaluated. As expected, FS and S96 were significantly related to time and density. FS but not S96, were also were significantly related to treatment. FS with gypsum treatment was not different from controls and FS with table salt and benzocaine treatments were significantly reduced. The condition factor was not related to either FS or S96. FS was inversely correlated with carbon dioxide concentration. It was concluded that the additives did not improve fish transportation survival. Linear models were developed to predict the best transportation densities as a function of time.

  1. Active transport improves the precision of linear long distance molecular signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Molecular signalling in living cells occurs at low copy numbers and is thereby inherently limited by the noise imposed by thermal diffusion. The precision at which biochemical receptors can count signalling molecules is intimately related to the noise correlation time. In addition to passive thermal diffusion, messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signalling molecules can transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported across biological cells. Active transport is most beneficial when trafficking occurs over large distances, for instance up to the order of 1 metre in neurons. Here we explain how intermittent active transport allows for faster equilibration upon a change in concentration triggered by biochemical stimuli. Moreover, we show how intermittent active excursions induce qualitative changes in the noise in effectively one-dimensional systems such as dendrites. Thereby they allow for significantly improved signalling precision in the sense of a smaller relative deviation in the concentration read-out by the receptor. On the basis of linear response theory we derive the exact mean field precision limit for counting actively transported molecules. We explain how intermittent active excursions disrupt the recurrence in the molecular motion, thereby facilitating improved signalling accuracy. Our results provide a deeper understanding of how recurrence affects molecular signalling precision in biological cells and novel medical-diagnostic devices.

  2. Integration of the Paratransit in Urban Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Verseckienė

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand of transport grows along with road traffic. Congestion costs 1% of the GDP of European Union (European Union 2014 and also causes significant emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. This problem could be solved by transfering a part of passengers from private modes of transport to the public transport. But the essential condition is a sustainable development which means the accessibility on equal terms. Therefore, attention to the focus group – people with movement impairements, is neccessary. Since even under ideal conditions some of those people will not be able to use the ordinary public transport services, a special transportation service, called paratransit, should be offered. In this paper the parameters of paratransit as well as their variations are analyzed. Also the wider application possibilities are considered. The aspects of integration of paratransit into the existing system, pottential barriers for the integration and conditions for the integration are highlighted. The main purpose of this paper is to formulate the scenarios for the integration of paratransit into the existing public transport system based on the analysis of the scientific literature and the best practices, which could be used to form a policy of improving the accessibility of the public transport for people with movement impairments.

  3. Electricity for Road Transport, Flexible Power Systems and Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, Hans; Meibom, Peter;

    -vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid...... (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power......The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles...

  4. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  5. Preliminary Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A Kouts

    2006-11-22

    This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system. A list of system specified components and ancillary components are included in Section 1.2. The TAD canister, in conjunction with specialized overpacks will accomplish a number of functions in the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of these functions will be accomplished at purchaser sites where commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) is stored, and some will be performed within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation and disposal system. This document contains only those requirements unique to applications within Department of Energy's (DOE's) system. DOE recognizes that TAD canisters may have to perform similar functions at purchaser sites. Requirements to meet reactor functions, such as on-site dry storage, handling, and loading for transportation, are expected to be similar to commercially available canister-based systems. This document is intended to be referenced in the license application for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). As such, the requirements cited herein are needed for TAD system use in OCRWM's disposal system. This document contains specifications for the TAD canister, transportation overpack and aging overpack. The remaining components and equipment that are unique to the OCRWM system or for similar purchaser applications will be supplied by others.

  6. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  7. Curcumin directly inhibits the transport activity of GLUT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnink, Leesha K; Alabi, Ola D; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Gunnink, Stephen M; Schuiteman, Sam J; Strohbehn, Lauren E; Hamilton, Kathryn E; Wrobel, Kathryn E; Louters, Larry L

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin, a major ingredient in turmeric, has a long history of medicinal applications in a wide array of maladies including treatment for diabetes and cancer. Seemingly counterintuitive to the documented hypoglycemic effects of curcumin, however, a recent report indicates that curcumin directly inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes. The major glucose transporter in adipocytes is GLUT4. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of curcumin in cell lines where the major transporter is GLUT1. We report that curcumin has an immediate inhibitory effect on basal glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells with a maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 75 μM curcumin. Curcumin also blocks activation of glucose uptake by azide, glucose deprivation, hydroxylamine, or phenylarsine oxide. Inhibition does not increase with exposure time and the inhibitory effects reverse within an hour. Inhibition does not appear to involve a reaction between curcumin and the thiol side chain of a cysteine residue since neither prior treatment of cells with iodoacetamide nor curcumin with cysteine alters curcumin's inhibitory effects. Curcumin is a mixed inhibitor reducing the Vmax of 2DG transport by about half with little effect on the Km. The inhibitory effects of curcumin are not additive to the effects of cytochalasin B and 75 μM curcumin actually reduces specific cytochalasin B binding by 80%. Taken together, the data suggest that curcumin binds directly to GLUT1 at a site that overlaps with the cytochalasin B binding site and thereby inhibits glucose transport. A direct inhibition of GLUT proteins in intestinal epithelial cells would likely reduce absorption of dietary glucose and contribute to a hypoglycemic effect of curcumin. Also, inhibition of GLUT1 activity might compromise cancer cells that overexpress GLUT1 and be another possible mechanism for the documented anticancer effects of curcumin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Current system simulations are mature, difficult to modify, and poorly documented. Probabilistic life prediction techniques for space applications are in their early application stage. Many parts of the full system, variable fidelity simulation, have been demonstrated individually or technology is available from aeronautical applications. A 20% reduction in time to design with improvements in performance and risk reduction is anticipated. GRC software development will proceed with similar development efforts in aeronautical simulations. Where appropriate, parallel efforts will be encouraged/tracked in high risk areas until success is assured.

  9. Growth and dispersal with inertia: Hyperbolic reaction-transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Vicenç; Campos, Daniel; Horsthemke, Werner

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the behavior of five hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations most commonly employed to describe systems of interacting organisms or reacting particles where dispersal displays inertia. We first discuss the macroscopic or mesoscopic foundation, or lack thereof, of these reaction-transport equations. This is followed by an analysis of the temporal evolution of spatially uniform states. In particular, we determine the uniform steady states of the reaction-transport systems and their stability properties. We then address the spatiotemporal behavior of pure death processes. We end with a unified treatment of the front speed for hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations with Kolmogorov-Petrosvskii-Piskunov kinetics. In particular, we obtain an exact expression for the front speed of a general class of reaction correlated random walk systems. Our results establish that three out of the five hyperbolic reaction-transport equations provide physically acceptable models of biological and chemical systems.

  10. Pump-lockage ore transportation system for deep sea flexible mining system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-liang; YIN Ping-wei; XU Shao-jun; YANG Fang-qiong

    2008-01-01

    Based on characteristics of deep sea flexible mining system, a new pump-lockage ore transportation system was designed. According to Bernoulli equation and two-phase hydrodynamics theory, parameters of the new system were obtained and four ore transportation systems were analyzed. The results indicate that the pump head of 1000 m mining system is 100-150 m and that of 5 000 m mining system is 660-750 m. In addition, based on similarity theory, a model of the new transportation system was made,which can simulate more than 5 000 m actual ore transportation system. So both theory and experiment prove that the new pump-lockage ore transportation system is an ideal design for deep sea flexible mining system.

  11. [The diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodtsov, R N; Shemetova, G N

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the epidemiologic and medical social aspects of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport in 2000-2010 exemplified by Privolzhskiy railroad. The established tendencies in prevalence of pathology of cardio-vascular system in railroad workers makes the issues of practical implementation of priority of prevention in the organization of medical care to this group of patients to come to foreground. The main directions for complex prevention of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport are presented.

  12. Evaluation of the physical activity biography: sport and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogen, Sandra; Hofmann, Peter; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Müller, Wolfram

    2014-05-01

    Beside the genetic disposition, physical activity (PA) is one of the major health factors and can play a large role in the prevention and therapy of many diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity-related diseases etc.). In contrast to the genetic disposition, PA can be deliberately influenced by lifestyle. Therefore, it is of high importance to assess PA patterns. In order to assess PA reliably and validly, a new questionnaire (Physical Activity Biography, PAB) was created. The PAB assesses recreational PA (sport and transport) and enables to distinguish between endurance intensity levels and considers strength and high speed activity patterns throughout life. This study aims to evaluate the PAB by means of item analysis, retest-reliability and validity (criteria were physical fitness assessed by the questionnaire FFB-mot and by exercise tests). 141 participants answered the PAB. For deriving retest-reliability, 81 participants completed the PAB after a retest-interval of one month again. 55 participated in exercise tests and answered the FFB-mot to determine construct validity. Retest-reliability (ICC) above 0.7 was found for most items. For the items assessing recent PA, the criteria of convergent and discriminant validity were given. Despite the complexity of the question under study, the results fulfilled the expectations concerning reliability and validity. The PAB enables to assess the amount of sport and locomotion a person has accomplished during different life time frames and, because of the protective effects of PA on various diseases, may become an important tool for risk assessment. Key pointsThe risk of chronic diseases depends largely on physical activity biography.A new questionnaire (PAB) assessing recent and lifetime physical activity was created.The PAB assesses physical activity during sports and transport.The results of the evaluation of the PAB fulfilled the expectations.The PAB enables to determine a person's amount of recreational

  13. Renal amino acid transport systems and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Vanda; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-08-01

    Several clinical and animal studies suggest that "blood pressure goes with the kidney," that is, a normotensive recipient of a kidney genetically programmed for hypertension will develop hypertension. Intrarenal dopamine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension by regulating epithelial sodium transport. The candidate transport systems for L-DOPA, the source for dopamine, include the sodium-dependent systems B(0), B(0,+), and y(+)L, and the sodium-independent systems L (LAT1 and LAT2) and b(0,+). Renal LAT2 is overexpressed in the prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), which might contribute to enhanced L-DOPA uptake in the proximal tubule and increased dopamine production, as an attempt to overcome the defect in D1 receptor function. On the other hand, it has been recently reported that impaired arginine transport contributes to low renal nitric oxide bioavailability observed in the SHR renal medulla. Here we review the importance of renal amino acid transporters in the kidney and highlight pathophysiological changes in the expression and regulation of these transporters in essential hypertension. The study of the regulation of renal amino acid transporters may help to define the underlying mechanisms predisposing individuals to an increased risk for development of hypertension.

  14. The plasma membrane transport systems and adaptation to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mohamed Magdy F

    2014-11-15

    Salt stress represents one of the environmental challenges that drastically affect plant growth and yield. Evidence suggests that glycophytes and halophytes have a salt tolerance mechanisms working at the cellular level, and the plasma membrane (PM) is believed to be one facet of the cellular mechanisms. The responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in contrasting species/cultivars were discussed. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances describing the crucial roles that the PM transport systems have in plant adaptation to salt. Several lines of evidence were presented to demonstrate the correlation between the PM transport proteins and adaptation of plants to high salinity. How alterations in these transport systems of the PM allow plants to cope with the salt stress was also addressed. Although inconsistencies exist in some of the information related to the responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in different species/cultivars, their key roles in adaptation of plants to high salinity is obvious and evident, and cannot be precluded. Despite the promising results, detailed investigations at the cellular/molecular level are needed in some issues of the PM transport systems in response to salinity to further evaluate their implication in salt tolerance.

  15. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  16. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  17. Space Transportation Systems Life Cycle Cost Assessment and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Donahue, Benjaamin B.; Knuth, William

    2008-01-01

    Civil and military applications of space transportation have been pursued for just over 50 years and there has been, and still is, a need for safe, dependable, affordable, and sustainable space transportation systems. Fully expendable and partially reusable space transportation systems have been developed and put in operation that have not adequately achieved this need. Access to space is technically achievable, but presently very expensive and will remain so until there is a breakthrough in the way we do business. Since 1991 the national Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) has reviewed and assessed the lessons learned from the major U.S. space programs of the past decades focusing on what has been learned from the assessment and control of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) from these systems. This paper presents the results of a selected number of studies and analyses that have been conducted by the SPST addressing the need, as well as the solutions, for improvement in LCC. The major emphasis of the SPST processes is on developing the space transportation system requirements first (up front). These requirements must include both the usual system flight performance requirements and also the system functional requirements, including the infrastructure on Earth's surface, in-space and on the Moon and Mars surfaces to determine LCC. This paper describes the development of specific innovative engineering and management approaches and processes. This includes a focus on flight hardware maturity for reliability, ground operations approaches, and business processes between contractor and government organizations. A major change in program/project cost control is being proposed by the SPST to achieve a sustainable space transportation system LCC - controlling cost as a program metric in addition to the existing practice of controlling performance and weight. Without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that an affordable and sustainable space

  18. Development of City Transport System and Twowheel Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫焕久; 李理光

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study on the city transport systems of some typical cities worldwide,this paper put forward that each city transport system has its own development mode,which is influenced by the city development plan,economic development level,traveling vehicle composition etc..When some problems occur,such as the congestions caused by contradiction between the road capacity and vehicle composition,the city transport system may come into temporary maturity period.If the improvement for road system is limited meanwhile,optimized structure of vehicle composition should be an effective solution in this case.With the development of economy-internationalization,the development speed of city transport modernization is rapid.When traveling easiness is conflicting with efficiency,the advantages of public transport system become more obvious.Correspondingly,the superiority of two-wheel vehicles will reappear.Though the important function of two-wheel vehicles for alleviating city traffic problems is obvious,however,their development strategy must be reasonably proposed,and operation regulations must be performed accordingly.

  19. THE UNCONVENTIONAL DESIGN OF THE ELECTRODYNAMIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dzenzersjkyj

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The arrangements of electro-dynamic transport systems with the flat track structure are described and the fluctuations and stability of levitation motion of their vehicles are evaluated. It is shown that under rational choice of main parameters of the systems a stable levitation motion of the vehicles in straight-line and curvilinear sections of the track is provided.

  20. Optimal configuration of an integrated power and transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    optimal investments in both power plants and vehicle technologies is presented in this article. The model includes the interactions between the power system and the transport system including the competition between flexibility measures such as hydrogen storage in combination with electrolysis, heat...

  1. Copper transport systems are involved in multidrug resistance and drug transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Komatsu, Masaharu; Ikeda, Ryuji; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Akiyama, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    metabolism modulate drug transport appears to involve modulation of drug cellular localization via modulation of the vesicle transport system. In ATP7A overexpressing cells, Dox accumulates in the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, in the parental cells, Dox is localized in the nuclei, where the target molecules of Dox, topoisomerase II and DNA, are found. Disruption of the intracellular vesicle transport system with monensin, a Na+/H+ ionophore, induced the relocalization of Dox from the Golgi apparatus to the nuclei in the ATP7A overexpressing cells. These data suggested that ATP7A-related drug transport is dependent on the vesicle transport system. Thus copper transport systems play important roles in drug transport as well as in copper metabolism. Components of copper metabolism are therefore likely to include target molecules for the modulation of drug potency of not only anti-cancer agents but also of other drugs.

  2. ''Swap trough'' combined transport system. A system solution for rail freight transport; Kombiverkehrssystem Wechseltrog-Transport. Eine Systemloesung fuer den Eisenbahngueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windsinger, J. [Freundekreis Koenigsberg/Kalinigrad, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fasterding, G. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen

    2005-07-01

    Representatives of the German, Polish and Russian railways have held several discussions on the subject of freight transport from Germany via Poland to Kaliningrad and onwards to Russia. On 20 February 2004, the Friends of Koenigsberg - Kaliningrad in turn founded to 'Swap Trough Transport (STT) Consortium' in Celle, Germany. The aim of the consortium is to develop and implement a new, cost-effective combined transport system. The objective is to set up a trans-Eurasian WTT system using a continuous rail link all the way from Vladivostok to Lisbon. (orig.)

  3. Home transport and wastage: environmentally relevant household activities in the life cycle of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonesson, Ulf; Anteson, Frida; Davis, Jennifer; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2005-06-01

    In environmental systems analysis of food production systems, the consumer phase (home transport, cooking, storing, and wastage) is an important contributor to the total life-cycle environmental impact. However, households are the least investigated part of the food chain. Information gathering about households involves difficulties; the number of households is large, and food-related activities are embedded in other household activities. In cooperation between researchers from environmental systems analysis and consumer research, Swedish households were surveyed by questionnaire, diary, and interviews. Data on home transport of food and wastage were collected. The average weekly driving distance was 28 to 63 km per household, depending on how trips made in conjunction with other errands are allocated. The wastage of prepared food ranged between 0 and 34% for different food categories, and wastage from storing between 0 and 164% (more food was discarded, e.g. by cleaning out a cupboard, than consumed). In both cases dairy products scored highest.

  4. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  5. Modeling Reactive Transport in Coupled Groundwater-Conduit Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, S. M.; Sauter, M.; Zheng, C.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2002-05-01

    Modeling reactive transport in coupled groundwater-conduit systems requires consideration of two transport time scales in the flow and transport models. Consider for example a subsurface mine consisting of a network of highly conductive shafts, drifts or ventilation raises (i.e., conduits) within the considerably less permeable ore material (i.e., matrix). In the conduits, potential contaminants can travel much more rapidly than in the background aquifer (matrix). Since conduits cannot necessarily be regarded as a continuum, double continuum models are only of limited use for simulation of contaminant transport in such coupled groundwater-conduit systems. This study utilizes a "hybrid" flow and transport model in which contaminants can in essence be transported at a slower time scale in the matrix and at a faster time scale in the conduits. The hybrid flow model uses an approach developed by Clemens et al. (1996), which is based on the modelling of flow in a discrete pipe network, coupled to a continuum representing the low-permeability inter-conduit matrix blocks. Laminar or turbulent flow can be simulated in the different pipes depending on the flow conditions in the model domain. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW (Harbaugh and McDonald, 1996) is used to simulate flow in the continuum. Contaminant transport within the matrix is simulated with a continuum approach using the three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999), while that in the conduit system is simulated with a one-dimensional advective transport model. As a first step for reactive transport modeling in such systems, only equilibrium reactions among multiple species are considered by coupling the hybrid transport model to a geochemical speciation package. An idealized mine network developed by Viswanathan and Sauter (2001) is used as a test problem in this study. The numerical experiment is based on reference date collected from

  6. Dopamine Transporter Activity Is Modulated by α-Synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Brittany; Saha, Kaustuv; Rana, Tanu; Becker, Jonas P; Sambo, Danielle; Davari, Paran; Goodwin, J Shawn; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2015-12-04

    The duration and strength of the dopaminergic signal are regulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). Drug addiction and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases have all been associated with altered DAT activity. The membrane localization and the activity of DAT are regulated by a number of intracellular proteins. α-Synuclein, a protein partner of DAT, is implicated in neurodegenerative disease and drug addiction. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the interaction between DAT and α-synuclein, the cellular location of this interaction, and the functional consequences of this interaction on the basal, amphetamine-induced DAT-mediated dopamine efflux, and membrane microdomain distribution of the transporter. Here, we found that the majority of DAT·α-synuclein protein complexes are found at the plasma membrane of dopaminergic neurons or mammalian cells and that the amphetamine-mediated increase in DAT activity enhances the association of these proteins at the plasma membrane. Further examination of the interaction of DAT and α-synuclein revealed a transient interaction between these two proteins at the plasma membrane. Additionally, we found DAT-induced membrane depolarization enhances plasma membrane localization of α-synuclein, which in turn increases dopamine efflux and enhances DAT localization in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains.

  7. Artemisinin inhibits chloroplast electron transport activity: mode of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyasha Bharati

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo, behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

  8. GPS and GPRS Based Telemonitoring System for Emergency Patient Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Satyanarayana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Telemonitoring during the golden hour of patient transportation helps to improve medical care. Presently there are different physiological data acquisition and transmission systems using cellular network and radio communication links. Location monitoring systems and video transmission systems are also commercially available. The emergency patient transportation systems uniquely require transmission of data pertaining to the patient, vehicle, time of the call, physiological signals (like ECG, blood pressure, a body temperature, and blood oxygen saturation, location information, a snap shot of the patient, and voice. These requirements are presently met by using separate communication systems for voice, physiological data, and location that result in a lot of inconvenience to the technicians, maintenance related issues, in addition to being expensive. This paper presents design, development, and implementation of such a telemonitoring system for emergency patient transportation employing ARM 9 processor module. This system is found to be very useful for the emergency patient transportation being undertaken by organizations like the Emergency Management Research Institute (EMRI.

  9. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change : Opportunities to replace short car trips with active transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maibach, E.; Steg, L.; Anable, J.

    2009-01-01

    Automobile use is a significant contributor to climate change, local air pollution, pedestrian injuries and deaths, declines in physical activity and obesity. A significant proportion of car use is for short trips that can relatively easily be taken with active transportation options - walking or

  10. Isotope effects on particle transport in the Compact Helical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Okamura, S.; Minami, T.; Ida, K.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Osakabe, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Isobe, M.; Morita, S.; Matsuoka, K.

    2016-05-01

    The hydrogen isotope effects of particle transport were studied in the hydrogen and deuterium dominant plasmas of the Compact Helical System (CHS). Longer decay time of electron density after the turning-off of the gas puffing was observed in the deuterium dominant plasma suggesting that the recycling was higher and/or the particle confinement was better in the deuterium dominant plasma. Density modulation experiments showed the quantitative difference of the particle transport coefficients. Density was scanned from 0.8  ×  1019 m-3 to 4  ×  1019 m-3 under the same magnetic field and almost the same heating power. In the low density regime (line averaged density  2.5  ×  1019 m-3) no clear difference was observed. This result indicates that the isotope effects of particle transport exist only in the low density regime. Comparison with neoclassical transport coefficients showed that the difference of particle transport is likely to be due to the difference of turbulence driven anomalous transport. Linear character of the ion scale turbulence was studied. The smaller linear growth rate qualitatively agreed with the reduced particle transport in the deuterium dominant plasma of the low density regime.

  11. CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

  12. Decentralized control of multi-agent aerial transportation system

    KAUST Repository

    Toumi, Noureddine

    2017-04-01

    Autonomous aerial transportation has multiple potential applications including emergency cases and rescue missions where ground intervention may be difficult. In this context, the following work will address the control of multi-agent Vertical Take-off and Landing aircraft (VTOL) transportation system. We develop a decentralized method. The advantage of such a solution is that it can provide better maneuverability and lifting capabilities compared to existing systems. First, we consider a cooperative group of VTOLs transporting one payload. The main idea is that each agent perceive the interaction with other agents as a disturbance while assuming a negotiated motion model and imposing certain magnitude bounds on each agent. The theoretical model will be then validated using a numerical simulation illustrating the interesting features of the presented control method. Results show that under specified disturbances, the algorithm is able to guarantee the tracking with a minimal error. We describe a toolbox that has been developed for this purpose. Then, a system of multiple VTOLs lifting payloads will be studied. The algorithm assures that the VTOLs are coordinated with minimal communication. Additionally, a novel gripper design for ferrous objects is presented that enables the transportation of ferrous objects without a cable. Finally, we discuss potential connections to human in the loop transportation systems.

  13. Mass transport model through the skin by microencapsulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Núria; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Lis, Manel J

    2015-01-01

    Skin drug delivery can be subdivided into topical and transdermal administration. Transdermal administration can take advantage of chemical and physical strategies that can improve skin permeability and allow drug penetration. In this study, the development of a skin penetration profile was carried out by an in vitro technique for a microencapsulated system of ibuprofen. Release experiments were performed using percutaneous absorption tests to determine the evolution of the principle present in each of the different skin compartments as a function of time. A general kinetic model for a microencapsulated structure as a mass transport system through the skin was applied: [Formula: see text] This model could predict the penetration profile of encapsulated substances through skin from biofunctional textiles as well as estimate the dosage profile of the active principle. The apparent diffusion coefficients found were 1.20 × 10(-7 )cm/s for the stratum corneum and higher for the rest of the skin 6.67 × 10(-6 )cm/s.

  14. SECURE TRACKING AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM USING RWP AND GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silky Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present era where technology has become a part of our life, every day new applications are developed in every field to serve mankind. Many applications have been developed using GPS (globalpositioning system such as aquatic and spacecraft routing, surveying and mapping, precise time reference etc. GPS (global positioning system enables everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids by allowing well harmonized hand-off switching and accurate time. The main contribution of this paper is tracking and transportation of object in a secured way using RWP and GPS. To assure the security of the tracking and tracing application we introduce a method to evaluate the one-hop distance between the target object and all the cooperative nodes in the object’s view. A key factor that increases the project’s accuracy and performance is GPS, a common example of wireless which can be interfaced to provide location and time information in all weather conditions. GPS has become a widely adopted and useful tool for commerce, scientific uses, tracking, and investigation. We control the ground session with RWP (random way point using AODV routing protocol. DOP (dilution of precision.

  15. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-07-11

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  16. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-01-10

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  18. Estimation of Performance Indices for the Planning of Sustainable Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable transportation systems, previous studies have either focused only on the transportation system or have not used a methodology that enables the treatment of incomplete, vague, and qualitative information associated with the available data. This study proposes a system of systems (SOS and a fuzzy logic modeling approach. The SOS includes the Transportation, Activity, and Environment systems. The fuzzy logic modeling approach enables the treatment of the vagueness associated with some of the relevant data. Performance Indices (PIs are computed for each system using a number of performance measures. The PIs illustrate the aggregated performance of each system as well as the interactions among them. The proposed methodology also enables the estimation of a Composite Sustainability Index to summarize the aggregated performance of the overall SOS. Existing data was used to analyze sustainability in the entire United States. The results showed that the Transportation and Activity systems follow a positive trend, with similar periods of growth and contractions; in contrast, the environmental system follows a reverse pattern. The results are intuitive and are associated with a series of historic events, such as depressions in the economy as well as policy changes and regulations.

  19. The Role of the Transport System in the National Management of Life Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berveno Oksana V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the development prospects of transport system in Ukraine as a lever for national economic development capable of providing a sustainable quality of life and to search for mechanisms of their activation in national development. Transport is one of the leading sectors of material production, it participates in the formation of its branch structure, placement of production capacity and price formation. Through the economic channels the transport industry affects all indicators of life quality creating benefits for economic growth of the region and the country, developing national infrastructure. The transport industry performs a range of services to improve the life quality of the population: providing access to all members of society to socio-economic infrastructure by increasing the degree of transport accessibility, increasing labor force mobility, increasing availability of any objects, simplifying the implementation of many vital processes and expanding opportunities for social interaction. The quality of the social environment formation depends on the operation quality and development level of the transport system. A higher mobility and saving of time as the most important resource of modern time create more opportunities for human development. But the transport system also increases the risk level and risk of human existence because of environmental degradation, technogenity and increasing accident rates. The potential of the transport system development in Ukraine, which, provided the right management decisions, can be implemented as a competitive advantage, should include a favorable geographical position. In order to give the transport development a dynamic nature, it is necessary to combine technological and technical renewal of the industry with the improvement of the state regulation system on the basis of forming innovative transport strategies. It is this approach that not only will allow solving

  20. Development of an analysis capability for the National Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anson, D.; Nelson, R.

    1997-10-24

    The purpose of this report is to examine the Department of Transportation`s (DOT) National Transportation System (NTS) initiative, to document what has been learned, and to outline a National Transportation Network Analysis Capability (NTNAC) based on a ``TRANSIMS-like`` approach. This study was conducted over a two month period at the end of FY1997. The scope of the effort was carefully defined to accommodate the short time horizon and to provide focus to a very large analytical problem. The objectives were to: (1) define the NTS and the NTS problem; (2) identify problem characteristics; (3) describe an analytical solution based on the TRANSIMS approach; (4) identify data requirements and availability; (5) develop criteria for a scenario to be used in a prototype demonstration; and (6) select a scenario for the prototype demonstration.

  1. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  2. Information transport in classical statistical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wetterich, C

    2016-01-01

    In many materials or equilibrium statistical systems the information of boundary conditions is lost inside the bulk of the material. In contrast, we describe here static classical statistical probability distributions for which bulk properties depend on boundary conditions. Such "static memory materials" can be realized if no unique equilibrium state exists. The propagation of information from the boundary to the bulk is described by a classical wave function or a density matrix, which obey generalized Schr\\"odinger or von Neumann equations. For static memory materials the evolution within a subsector is unitary, as characteristic for the time evolution in quantum mechanics. The space-dependence in static memory materials can be used as an analogue representation of the time evolution in quantum mechanics - such materials are "quantum simulators". For example, an asymmetric Ising model represents the time evolution of relativistic fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space.

  3. Transports of acetate and haloacetate in Burkholderia species MBA4 are operated by distinct systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xianbin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetate is a commonly used substrate for biosynthesis while monochloroacetate is a structurally similar compound but toxic and inhibits cell metabolism by blocking the citric acid cycle. In Burkholderia species MBA4 haloacetate was utilized as a carbon and energy source for growth. The degradation of haloacid was mediated by the production of an inducible dehalogenase. Recent studies have identified the presence of a concomitantly induced haloacetate-uptake activity in MBA4. This uptake activity has also been found to transport acetate. Since acetate transporters are commonly found in bacteria it is likely that haloacetate was transported by such a system in MBA4. Results The haloacetate-uptake activity of MBA4 was found to be induced by monochloroacetate (MCA and monobromoacetate (MBA. While the acetate-uptake activity was also induced by MCA and MBA, other alkanoates: acetate, propionate and 2-monochloropropionate (2MCPA were also inducers. Competing solute analysis showed that acetate and propionate interrupted the acetate- and MCA- induced acetate-uptake activities. While MCA, MBA, 2MCPA, and butyrate have no effect on acetate uptake they could significantly quenched the MCA-induced MCA-uptake activity. Transmembrane electrochemical potential was shown to be a driving force for both acetate- and MCA- transport systems. Conclusions Here we showed that acetate- and MCA- uptake in Burkholderia species MBA4 are two transport systems that have different induction patterns and substrate specificities. It is envisaged that the shapes and the three dimensional structures of the solutes determine their recognition or exclusion by the two transport systems.

  4. Recent developments in the Los Alamos radiation transport code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, R.A.; Parsons, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A brief progress report on updates to the Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) for solving criticality and fixed-source problems is provided. LARTCS integrates the Diffusion Accelerated Neutral Transport (DANT) discrete ordinates codes with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The LARCTS code is being developed with a graphical user interface for problem setup and analysis. Progress in the DANT system for criticality applications include a two-dimensional module which can be linked to a mesh-generation code and a faster iteration scheme. Updates to MCNP Version 4A allow statistical checks of calculated Monte Carlo results.

  5. Directly modulated cable television transport systems using negative dispersion fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Liaw, Je-Wei; Lee, Yi-Shiuan; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Ji, Yu-Jie

    2005-03-01

    A directly modulated AM-VSB cable-television transport system using negative dispersion fiber (NDF) as the transmission medium is proposed and successfully demonstrated. Good performances of carrier-to-noise radio, composite second order, and composite triple beat were obtained over a 70-km NDF transport without optical amplification. The directly modulated laser has a positive chirp, while NDF has a negative dispersion property in the transmission fiber. This negative dispersion property compensates for the laser chirp and results in a system with better transmission performance.

  6. Optical free-space wavelength-division-multiplexing transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Chen, Chia-Yi; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Chen, Min-Chou

    2014-01-15

    An optical free-space wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transport system employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers and spatial light modulators with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulating signals over a 17.5 m free-space link is proposed and demonstrated. With the help of a low-noise amplifier and data comparator, good bit error rate performance is obtained for each optical channel. Such an optical free-space WDM transport system would be attractive for providing services including data and telecommunication services.

  7. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  8. Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal-magma systems: energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardee, H.C.

    1980-09-01

    A comparative assessment of five sites is being prepared as part of a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) review of thermal regimes for the purpose of scoping areas for future research and drilling activities. This background report: discusses the various energy transport processes likely to be encountered in a hydrothermal-magma system, reviews related literature, discusses research and field data needs, and reviews the sites from an energy transport viewpoint. At least three major zones exist in the magma-hydrothermal transport system: the magma zone, the hydrothermal zone, and the transition zone between the two. Major energy transport questions relate to the nature and existence of these zones and their evolution with time. Additional energy transport questions are concerned with the possible existence of critical state and super-critical state permeable convection in deep geothermal systems. A review of thermal transport models emphasizes the fact that present transport models and computational techniques far outweigh the scarcity and quality of deep field data.

  9. Assessing Barriers and Motivators for Use of a Trail for Active Transportation in a College Town

    OpenAIRE

    FitzPatrick, Timothy Michael

    2017-01-01

    A high amount of the US population is not physically active, contributing to rates of heart disease and obesity. One strategy to increase physical activity is to use more active transportation, defined as walking or biking for transit. Besides increasing physical activity levels, active transportation can provide other benefits such as decreased air pollution from cars. College campuses provide opportunities for active transportation as most residences are close to campus. Therefore, we exami...

  10. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, H.; Meibom, P. (and others)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid-vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power system and the transport sector. (Author)

  11. An adaptive robust controller for time delay maglev transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Reza Hamidi; Zarabadipour, Hassan; Shahnazi, Reza

    2012-12-01

    For engineering systems, uncertainties and time delays are two important issues that must be considered in control design. Uncertainties are often encountered in various dynamical systems due to modeling errors, measurement noises, linearization and approximations. Time delays have always been among the most difficult problems encountered in process control. In practical applications of feedback control, time delay arises frequently and can severely degrade closed-loop system performance and in some cases, drives the system to instability. Therefore, stability analysis and controller synthesis for uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems are important both in theory and in practice and many analytical techniques have been developed using delay-dependent Lyapunov function. In the past decade the magnetic and levitation (maglev) transportation system as a new system with high functionality has been the focus of numerous studies. However, maglev transportation systems are highly nonlinear and thus designing controller for those are challenging. The main topic of this paper is to design an adaptive robust controller for maglev transportation systems with time-delay, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, an adaptive robust control (ARC) is designed for this purpose. It should be noted that the adaptive gain is derived from Lyapunov-Krasovskii synthesis method, therefore asymptotic stability is guaranteed.

  12. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  13. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey, we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making

  14. Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Hundeep; Lakatos-Karoly, Andrea; Vogel, Ramona; Nöll, Anne; Tampé, Robert; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a superfamily of integral membrane proteins, catalyse the translocation of substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. Here we demonstrate by nucleotide turnover and binding studies based on 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy that the ABC exporter and lipid A flippase MsbA can couple ATP hydrolysis to an adenylate kinase activity, where ADP is converted into AMP and ATP. Single-point mutations reveal that both ATPase and adenylate kinase mechanisms are associated with the same conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding domain. Based on these results, we propose a model for the coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase mechanism, involving the canonical and an additional nucleotide-binding site. We extend these findings to other prokaryotic ABC exporters, namely LmrA and TmrAB, suggesting that the coupled activities are a general feature of ABC exporters. PMID:28004795

  15. Survival of vaginal microorganisms in three commercially available transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Allison L; Rabe, Lorna K; Austin, Michele N; Stoner, Kevin A; Avolia, Hilary A; Meyn, Leslie A; Hillier, Sharon L

    2017-06-01

    Transport systems are used to collect and maintain the viability of microorganisms. Two Amies media based transport systems, BD CultureSwab™ MaxV(+) Amies Medium without Charcoal (MaxV(+)) and Fisherfinest(®) with Amies gel Transport Medium without charcoal (Fisherfinest(®)) were compared to a Cary-Blair media based transport system, Starswab(®) Anaerobic Transport System (Starswab(®)), for their capacity to maintain the viability of 17 clinical microorganisms commonly isolated from the vagina (Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, L. iners, group B streptococci, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Atopobium vaginae, Peptoniphilus harei, Mycoplasma hominis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Dialister microaerophilus, Mobiluncus curtisii, Prevotella amnii, P. timonensis, P. bivia, and Porphyromonas uenonis). Single swabs containing mixtures of up to five different species were inoculated in triplicate and held at 4 °C and room temperature for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h (h). At each time point, swabs were eluted into a sterile salt solution, serially diluted, inoculated onto selected media, and incubated. Each colony type was quantified and identified. A change in sample stability was reported as a ≥1 log increase or decrease in microorganism density from baseline. Overall, the viability of fastidious anaerobes was maintained better at 4 °C than room temperature. At 4 °C all three transport systems maintained the viability and prevented replication of C. albicans, E. faecalis, GBS, and E. coli. Microorganisms having a ≥1 log decrease in less than 24 h at 4 °C included A. vaginae, G. vaginalis, and P. uenonis in Starswab(®), L. iners, A. vaginae, and P. amnii in MaxV(+), and A. vaginae, G. vaginalis, P. bivia, and P. amnii in Fisherfinest(®). At 48 h at 4 °C, a ≥1 log decrease in concentration density was observed for P. harei and P. amnii in Starswab(®), G. vaginalis, P. bivia and P. uenonis in MaxV(+), and L

  16. Cargo-towing synthetic nanomachines: towards active transport in microchip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    2012-05-08

    This review article discusses the use of synthetic catalytic nano motors for cargo manipulations and for developing miniaturized lab-on-chip systems based on autonomous transport. The ability of using chemically-powered artificial nanomotors to capture, transport and release therapeutic payloads or nanostructured biomaterials represents one of the next major prospects for nanomotor development. The increased cargo-towing force of such self-propelled nanomotors, along with their precise motion control within microchannel networks, versatility and facile functionalization, pave the way to new integrated functional lab-on-a-chip powered by active transport and perform a series of tasks. Such use of cargo-towing artificial nanomotors has been inspired by on-chip kinesin molecular shuttles. Functionalized nano/microscale motors can thus be used to pick a selected nano/microscale chemical or biological payload target at the right place, transport and deliver them to a target location in a timely manner. Key challenges for using synthetic nanomachines for driving transport processes along microchannel networks are discussed, including loading and unloading of cargo and precise motion control, along with recent examples of related cargo manipulation processes and guided transport in lab-on-a-chip formats. The exciting research area of cargo-carrying catalytic man-made nanomachines is expected to grow rapidly, to lead to new lab-on-a-chip formats and to provide a wide range of future microchip opportunities.

  17. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: an analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Fishman

    Full Text Available Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling.Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 - 2012, this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics.The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel.The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of environments and cultures that

  18. Viability of a Reusable In-Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Nufer, Brian M.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Merrill, Raymond G.; North, David D.; Martin, John G.; Komar, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing options for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) that expands human presence from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) into the solar system and to the surface of Mars. The Hybrid in-space transportation architecture is one option being investigated within the EMC. The architecture enables return of the entire in-space propulsion stage and habitat to cis-lunar space after a round trip to Mars. This concept of operations opens the door for a fully reusable Mars transportation system from cis-lunar space to a Mars parking orbit and back. This paper explores the reuse of in-space transportation systems, with a focus on the propulsion systems. It begins by examining why reusability should be pursued and defines reusability in space-flight context. A range of functions and enablers associated with preparing a system for reuse are identified and a vision for reusability is proposed that can be advanced and implemented as new capabilities are developed. Following this, past reusable spacecraft and servicing capabilities, as well as those currently in development are discussed. Using the Hybrid transportation architecture as an example, an assessment of the degree of reusability that can be incorporated into the architecture with current capabilities is provided and areas for development are identified that will enable greater levels of reuse in the future. Implications and implementation challenges specific to the architecture are also presented.

  19. Controlled Spin Transport in Planar Systems Through Topological Exciton

    CERN Document Server

    Abhinav, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that a charge-neutral spin-1 exciton, possibly realizable only in planar systems like graphene and topological insulators, can be effectively used for controlled spin transport in such media. The effect of quantum and thermal fluctuations yield a parametric excitation threshold for its realization. This planar exciton differs from the conventional ones, as it owes its existence to the topological Chern-Simons (CS) term. The parity and time-reversal violating CS term can arise from quantum effects in systems with parity-breaking mass-gap. The spinning exciton naturally couples to magnetic field, leading to the possibility of controlled spin transport. Being neutral, it is immune to a host of effect, which afflicts spin transport through charged fermions.

  20. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... provides a new way to see the development of a system in terms of the knowledge created in the process. The main practical implication of the framework is that it improves the managers' ability to guide ISD activities as knowledge activities embedded in a knowledge process, a crucial element in development...... of ISD, abandoning the idea of a monolithic approach to knowledge and presenting a pluralistic approach based on the idea that different inquiring systems can support micro-level ISD activities. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theoretical development of the framework...

  1. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... provides a new way to see the development of a system in terms of the knowledge created in the process. The main practical implication of the framework is that it improves the managers' ability to guide ISD activities as knowledge activities embedded in a knowledge process, a crucial element in development...... of ISD, abandoning the idea of a monolithic approach to knowledge and presenting a pluralistic approach based on the idea that different inquiring systems can support micro-level ISD activities. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theoretical development of the framework...

  2. ABA control of plant macroelement membrane transport systems in response to water deficit and high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-04-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic stressors and plants develop a wide range of adaptive mechanisms to cope with these adverse conditions, including adjustment of growth and development brought about by changes in stomatal activity. Membrane ion transport systems are involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis during exposure to stress and ion transport activity is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation networks that respond to stress conditions. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which is produced rapidly in response to drought and salinity stress, plays a critical role in the regulation of stress responses and induces a series of signaling cascades. ABA signaling involves an ABA receptor complex, consisting of an ABA receptor family, phosphatases and kinases: these proteins play a central role in regulating a variety of diverse responses to drought stress, including the activities of membrane-localized factors, such as ion transporters. In this review, recent research on signal transduction networks that regulate the function ofmembrane transport systems in response to stress, especially water deficit and high salinity, is summarized and discussed. The signal transduction networks covered in this review have central roles in mitigating the effect of stress by maintaining plant homeostasis through the control of membrane transport systems.

  3. Hydrophobic membrane thickness and lipid-protein interactions of the leucine transport system of Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in t Veld, Gerda; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Kamp, Jos A.F. op den; Konings, Wil N.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the phospholipid acyl chain carbon number on the activity of the branched-chain amino acid transport system of Lactococcus lactis has been investigated. Major fatty acids identified in a total lipid extract of L. lactis membranes are palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1) and the cycl

  4. Na+- and Cl−-coupled active transport of carnitine by the amino acid transporter ATB0,+ from mouse colon expressed in HRPE cells and Xenopus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Hatanaka, Takahiro; Huang, Wei; Prasad, Puttur D; Leibach, Frederick H; Ganapathy, Malliga E; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2001-01-01

    ATB0,+ is an amino acid transporter energized by transmembrane gradients of Na+ and Cl− and membrane potential. We cloned this transporter from mouse colon and expressed the clone functionally in mammalian (human retinal pigment epithelial, HRPE) cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes to investigate the interaction of carnitine and its acyl esters with the transporter. When expressed in mammalian cells, the cloned ATB0,+ was able to transport carnitine, propionylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine. The transport process was Na+ and Cl− dependent and inhibitable by the amino acid substrates of the transporter. The Michaelis constant for carnitine was 0.83 ± 0.08 mm and the Hill coefficient for Na+ activation was 1.6 ± 0.1. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the cloned ATB0,+ was able to induce inward currents in the presence of carnitine and propionylcarnitine under voltage-clamped conditions. There was no detectable current in the presence of acetylcarnitine. Carnitine-induced currents were obligatorily dependent on the presence of Na+ and Cl−. The currents were saturable with carnitine and the Michaelis constant was 1.8 ± 0.4 mm. The analysis of Na+- and Cl−-activation kinetics revealed that 2 Na+ and 1 Cl− were involved in the transport of carnitine via the transporter. These studies describe the identification of a novel function for the amino acid transporter ATB0,+. Since this transporter is expressed in the intestinal tract, lung and mammary gland, it is likely to play a significant role in the handling of carnitine in these tissues. A Na+-dependent transport system for carnitine has already been described. This transporter, known as OCTN2 (novel organic cation transporter 2), is expressed in most tissues and transports carnitine with high affinity. It is energized, however, only by a Na+ gradient and membrane potential. In contrast, ATB0,+ is a low-affinity transporter for carnitine, but exhibits much higher concentrative capacity than OCTN2 because

  5. Supply chain and innovation activity in transport related enterprises in Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ioppolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  Background: One of the development strategies uses R&D activity as the main source of innovation, which is often carried out in cooperation with other units, but in particular in the supply chain, and therefore applies to cooperation between enterprises and their customers and suppliers. The aim of the study was to identify the variable determinants of the impact of the character of relationships among enterprises and their suppliers and customers on their innovative performance, within regional industrial systems and to define the constraints for a model regional structure of innovation network tailored to the needs of Poland and its regions. Methods: 167 enterprises belonging to the transport sector and operating in the area of Eastern Poland took part. In order to determine the impact of relationships with suppliers and customers on innovation activity, models based on probability analysis - probit models - were used. Results: It can be clearly stated that the cooperation of industrial enterprises in the transport sector with customers and suppliers activates innovation activity and its specified attributes. However, the probability varies depending on the test variable adopted. Conclusions: The cooperation with suppliers and customers is the cognitive aspect in the development of innovation activity in industrial enterprises representing the transport-related sector. Such cooperation has a stimulating effect on expenditures on innovation activity and on the implementation of innovative solutions in the field of technological innovation (products and processes.  

  6. Improved Active Vibration Isolation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The control force, feedback gain, and actuator stroke of several active vibration isolation systems were analyzed based on a single-layer active vibration isolation system. The analysis shows that the feedback gain and actuator stroke cannot be selected independently and the active isolation system design must make a compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The performance of active isolation systems can be improved by the joint vibration reduction using an active vibration isolation system with an adaptive dynamic vibration absorber. The results show that the joint vibration reduction method can successfully avoid the compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The control force and the object vibration amplitude are also greatly reduced.

  7. The transport performance evaluation system building of logistics enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: modern logistics has a significant role in today’s society, logistics cost accounts for 35% to 50% of total logistics costs, so it’s great significance to improve the transport performance of logistics enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: the authors select the transportation performance evaluation index of logistics enterprise, with the aid of the fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, adopt the combining method of quantitative and qualitative analysis, construct the transport performance evaluation system of logistics enterprises. Findings: the choice of transport performance evaluation indicator system for Logistics enterprise is in a state of "high", which indicates the indicator selection is reasonable. Research limitations/implications: the selected indicators with experts’ subjective factors can not accurately quantify. Practical implications: it has important practical significance to promote the development of modern logistics enterprises and save social cost. Originality/value: current research methods mainly include the PDCA cycle model, key performance indicators (KPI and benchmarking method, principal component analysis method, etc. The authors for the first time with the aid of fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, adopt the combining method of quantitative and qualitative research on transport performance problems.

  8. Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide inhibit cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Bing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cherr, Gary N

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are considered to be environmentally safe. In this study, we analyzed the potential effects of graphene and GO at relatively low concentrations on cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters. The results showed that graphene (graphene and GO at the nontoxic concentrations could increase calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter) activity) accumulation, indicating inhibition of ABC transporters' efflux capabilities. This inhibition was observed even at 0.005 μg/mL graphene and 0.05 μg/mL GO, which are 100 times and 400 times lower than their lowest toxic concentration from cytotoxicity experiments, respectively. The inhibition of ABC transporters significantly increased the toxicity of paraquat and arsenic, known substrates of ABC transporters. The inhibition of ABC transporters was found to be based on graphene and GO damaging the plasma membrane structure and fluidity, thus altering functions of transmembrane ABC transporters. This study demonstrates that low levels of graphene and GO are not environmentally safe since they can significantly make cell more susceptible to other xenobiotics, and this chemosensitizing activity should be considered in the risk assessment of graphene and GO.

  9. A novel glutamate transport system in poly(γ-glutamic acid)-producing strain Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 0833.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Dan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2011-08-01

    Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 0833 is a poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA)-producing strain. It has the capacity to tolerate high concentration of extracellular glutamate and to utilize glutamate actively. Such a high uptake capacity was owing to an active transport system for glutamate. Therefore, a specific transport system for L-glutamate has been observed in this strain. It was a novel transport process in which glutamate was symported with at least two protons, and an inward-directed sodium gradient had no stimulatory effect on it. K(m) and V(m) for glutamate transport were estimated to be 67 μM and 152 nmol⁻¹ min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ of protein, respectively. The transport system showed structural specificity and stereospecificity and was strongly dependent on extracellular pH. Moreover, it could be stimulated by Mg²⁺, NH₄⁺, and Ca²⁺. In addition, the glutamate transporter in this strain was studied at the molecular level. As there was no important mutation of the transporter protein, it appeared that the differences of glutamate transporter properties between this strain and other B. subtilis strains were not due to the differences of the amino acid sequence and the structure of transporter protein. This is the first extensive report on the properties of glutamate transport system in γ-PGA-producing strain.

  10. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildballe, Dorte L; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an in...

  11. Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this summer school is to provide a set of extended and pedagogical lectures, on the major present-day topics in dynamical systems and statistical mechanics including applications. Some articles are dedicated to chaotic transport in plasma turbulence and to quantum chaos. This document gathers the summaries of some presentations.

  12. Cost Analysis for Regional Transportation System. CRTR-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Edward T.

    The Education Cooperative (TEC) composed of nine contiguous Massachusetts towns (Dedham, Natick, Needham, Norwood, Walpole, Wayland, Wellesley, Weston, and Westwood) is exploring the possible development of a regional transportation system to serve the special education pupils within these communities. This report describes the planning required…

  13. Transport properties of the Fermi hard-sphere system

    CERN Document Server

    Mecca, Angela; Benhar, Omar; Polls, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The transport properties of neutron star matter play an important role in a variety of astrophysical processes. We report the results of a calculation of the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of the hard-sphere fermion system of degeneracy $\

  14. Intelligent Public Transport System with Information Forensics and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Nagaraj

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To increase the usability of a public transport system it needs to go under revolutionary changes in its operating procedure. It is an attempt to make this possible using recent computer technology, mobile computing advancements and Wi-Fi or GPRS.The Intelligent Public Transport Information System will be specifically developed for Commercial public Transport. In this System passenger can get information about all buses, routes, timings of buses and all stops in any particular route. This system includes two phases. One is for user and other for administrator. At user side, user can request for information about all buses, routes, timings of buses and all stops in any particular route using Wi-Fi or GPRS technology from his mobile or PDA. At administrator side, administrator can update, delete and insert information about all buses, routes, timings of buses, all stops in any particular route and helpline numbers. Administrator can have all rights about database operations .The administrator requires the authentication of smart card for addition or deletion of information from commercial public transport

  15. Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

  16. 3-Chlorobenzoate is taken up by a chromosomally encoded transport system in Cupriavidus necator JMP134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, T; Aceituno, F; González, B

    2009-08-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134(pJP4) is able to grow on 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CB), a model chloroaromatic pollutant. Catabolism of 3-CB is achieved via the expression of the chromosomally encoded benABCD genes and the tfd genes from plasmid pJP4. Since passive diffusion of benzoic acid derivatives at physiological pH is negligible, the uptake of this compound should be facilitated by a transport system. However, no transporter has so far been described to perform this function, and identification of chloroaromatic compound transporters has been limited. In this work, uptake experiments using 3-[ring-UL-(14)C]CB showed an inducible transport system in strain JMP134, whose expression is activated by 3-CB and benzoate. A similar level of 3-CB uptake was found for a mutant strain of JMP134, defective in chlorobenzoate degradation, indicating that metabolic drag is not an important component of the measured uptake rate. Competitive inhibitor assays showed that uptake of 3-CB was inhibited by benzoate and, to a lesser degree, by 3-CB and 3,5-dichlorobenzoate, but not by any of 12 other substituted benzoates tested. The expression of several gene candidates for this transport function was analysed by RT-PCR, including both permease-type and ABC-type ATP-dependent transporters. Induction of a chromosomally encoded putative permease transporter (benP gene) was found specifically in the presence of 3-CB or benzoate. A benP knockout mutant of strain JMP134 displayed an almost complete loss of 3-CB transport activity. This is to our knowledge the first report of a 3-CB transporter.

  17. Neutron and photon transport calculations in fusion system. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    On the application of MCNP to the neutron and {gamma}-ray transport calculations for fusion reactor system, the wide range design calculation has been carried out in the engineering design activities for the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER) being developed jointly by Japan, USA, EU and Russia. As the objects of shielding calculation for fusion reactors, there are the assessment of dose equivalent rate for living body shielding and the assessment of the nuclear response for the soundness of in-core structures. In the case that the detailed analysis of complicated three-dimensional shapes is required, the assessment using MCNP has been carried out. Also when the nuclear response of peripheral equipment due to the gap streaming between blanket modules is evaluated with good accuracy, the calculation with MCNP has been carried out. The analyses of the shieldings for blanket modules and NBI port are explained, and the examples of the results of analyses are shown. In the blanket modules, there are penetrating holes and continuous gap. In the case of the NBI port, shielding plug cannot be installed. These facts necessitate the MCNP analysis with high accuracy. (K.I.)

  18. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  19. Variability and seasonality of active transportation in USA: evidence from the 2001 NHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham C Raymond

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transportation including walking and bicycling is an important source of physical activity. Promoting active transportation is a challenge for the fields of public health and transportation. Descriptive data on the predictors of active transportation, including seasonal patterns in active transportation in the US as a whole, is needed to inform interventions and policies. Methods This study analyzed monthly variation in active transportation for the US using National Household Travel Survey 2001 data. For each age group of children, adolescents, adults and elderly, logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of the odds of active transportation including gender, race/ethnicity, household income level, geographical region, urbanization level, and month. Results The probability of engaging in active transportation was generally higher for children and adolescents than for adults and the elderly. Active transportation was greater in the lower income groups (except in the elderly, was lower in the South than in other regions of the US, and was greater in areas with higher urbanization. The percentage of people using active transportation exhibited clear seasonal patterns: high during summer months and low during winter months. Children and adolescents were more sensitive to seasonality than other age groups. Women, non-Caucasians, persons with lower household income, who resided in the Midwest or Northeast, and who lived in more urbanized areas had greater seasonal variation. Conclusions These descriptive results suggest that interventions and policies that target the promotion of active transportation need to consider socio-demographic factors and seasonality.

  20. Active transport and obesity prevention - A transportation sector obesity impact scoping review and assessment for Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V; Moodie, M; Mantilla Herrera, A M; Veerman, J L; Carter, R

    2017-03-01

    Given the alarming prevalence of obesity worldwide and the need for interventions to halt the growing epidemic, more evidence on the role and impact of transport interventions for obesity prevention is required. This study conducts a scoping review of the current evidence of association between modes of transport (motor vehicle, walking, cycling and public transport) and obesity-related outcomes. Eleven reviews and thirty-three primary studies exploring associations between transport behaviours and obesity were identified. Cohort simulation Markov modelling was used to estimate the effects of body mass index (BMI) change on health outcomes and health care costs of diseases causally related to obesity in the Melbourne, Australia population. Results suggest that evidence for an obesity effect of transport behaviours is inconclusive (29% of published studies reported expected associations, 33% mixed associations), and any potential BMI effect is likely to be relatively small. Hypothetical scenario analyses suggest that active transport interventions may contribute small but significant obesity-related health benefits across populations (approximately 65 health adjusted life years gained per year). Therefore active transport interventions that are low cost and targeted to those most amenable to modal switch are the most likely to be effective and cost-effective from an obesity prevention perspective. The uncertain but potentially significant opportunity for health benefits warrants the collection of more and better quality evidence to fully understand the potential relationships between transport behaviours and obesity. Such evidence would contribute to the obesity prevention dialogue and inform policy across the transportation, health and environmental sectors.

  1. Hydraulic calculation of gravity transportation pipeline system for backfill slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; HU Guan-yu; WANG Xin-min

    2008-01-01

    Taking cemented coal gangue pipeline transportation system in Suncun Coal Mine, Xinwen Mining Group, Shandong Province, China, as an example, the hydraulic calculation approaches and process about gravity pipeline transportation of backfill slurry were investigated. The results show that the backfill capability of the backfill system should be higher than 74.4m3/h according to the mining production and backfill times in the mine; the minimum velocity (critical velocity) and practical working velocity of the backfill slurry are 1.44 and 3.82m/s, respectively. Various formulae give the maximum ratio of total length to vertical height of pipeline (L/H ratio) of the backfill system of 5.4, and then the reliability and capability of the system can be evaluated.

  2. On generating neutron transport tables with the NJOY system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, Alexandre D.; Claro, Luiz H., E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: luizhenu@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Incorrect values for the product of the average number of neutrons released per fission and the fission microscopic cross-section were detected in several energy groups of a neutron transport table generated with the most updated version of the NJOY system. It was verified that the problem persists when older versions of this system are utilized. Although this problem exists for, at least, ten years, it is still an open question. (author)

  3. Video upload from public transport vehicles using multihomed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mellia, Marco; Safari Khatouni, Ali; Ajmone Marsan, Marco Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: We consider a surveillance system for public transport vehicles, which is based on the collection of on-board videos, and the upload via mobile network to a central security system of video segments corresponding to those cameras and time intervals involved in an accident. We assume that vehicles are connected to several wireless interfaces, provided by different Mobile Network Operators (MNOs), each charging a different cost. Both the cost and the upload rate for each network inter...

  4. Recent trends in intelligent transportation systems: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bhupendra; GUPTA, Ankit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Managing the increasing traffic is a big problem all over the world. Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) provides solution to these problems with the help of new technologies. ITS is an integrated system that implements a broad range of communication, control, vehicle sensing and electronics technologies to solve and manage the traffic problems. ITS is being used in the developed countries since past two decades, but it is still a new concept when developing countries like India,...

  5. Boundary conditions on faster-than-light transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Knowles, H. B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to be consistent with current physical theories, any proposal of a faster-than light (FTL) transportation system must satisfy several critical conditions. It must predict the mass, space, and time dimensional changes predicted by relativity physics when velocity falls below the speed of light. It must also not violate causality, and remain consistent with quantum physics in the limit of microscopic systems. It is also essential that the proposal conserve energy.

  6. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  7. THE EFFICIENCY FORMATION MECHANISM OF THE FREIGHT TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN TERMS OF THE VARIABLE NATURE OF DEMANDS FOR TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Smyrnova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of formation of efficiency of freight motor transport system in conditions of variable character of demand for freightage is developed on the basis of space-time approach development to efficiency formation for difficult systems. In the article the definitions of the notions of freight motor transport system adaptability, standard operation conditions are given.

  8. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  9. Macroscopic diffusive transport in a microscopically integrable Hamiltonian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosen, Tomaž; Zunkovič, Bojan

    2013-07-26

    We demonstrate that a completely integrable classical mechanical model, namely the lattice Landau-Lifshitz classical spin chain, supports diffusive spin transport with a finite diffusion constant in the easy-axis regime, while in the easy-plane regime, it displays ballistic transport in the absence of any known relevant local or quasilocal constant of motion in the symmetry sector of the spin current. This surprising finding should open the way towards analytical computation of diffusion constants for integrable interacting systems and hints on the existence of new quasilocal classical conservation laws beyond the standard soliton theory.

  10. Markov-Tree model of intrinsic transport in Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, J. D.; Ott, E.

    1985-01-01

    A particle in a chaotic region of phase space can spend a long time near the boundary of a regular region since transport there is slow. This 'stickiness' of regular regions is thought to be responsible for previous observations in numerical experiments of a long-time algebraic decay of the particle survival probability, i.e., survival probability approximately t to the (-z) power for large t. This paper presents a global model for transport in such systems and demonstrates the essential role of the infinite hierarchy of small islands interspersed in the chaotic region. Results for z are discussed.

  11. Transport properties of the Fermi hard-sphere system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecca, Angela; Lovato, Alessandro; Benhar, Omar; Polls, Artur

    2016-03-01

    The transport properties of neutron star matter play an important role in many astrophysical processes. We report the results of a calculation of the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of the hard-sphere fermion system of degeneracy ν = 2, that can be regarded as a model of pure neutron matter. Our approach is based on the effective interaction obtained from the formalism of correlated basis functions and the cluster expansion technique. The resulting transport coefficients show a strong sensitivity to the quasiparticle effective mass, reflecting the effect of second-order contributions to the self-energy that are not taken into account in nuclear matter studies available in the literature.

  12. Anomalous transport in low-dimensional systems with correlated disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izrailev, F M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla, Pue., 72570 (Mexico); Makarov, N M [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Priv. 17 Norte No 3417, Col. San Miguel Hueyotlipan, Puebla, Pue., 72050 (Mexico)

    2005-12-09

    We review recent results on the anomalous transport in one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional systems with bulk and surface disorder. Principal attention is paid to the role of long-range correlations in random potentials for the bulk scattering and in corrugated profiles for the surface scattering. It is shown that with the proper type of correlations one can construct such a disorder that results in a selective transport with given properties. Of particular interest is the possibility to arrange windows of a complete transparency (or reflection) with dependence on the wave number of incoming classical waves or electrons.

  13. Saenger II, a hypersonic flight and space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The paper presents the actual design status of the Saenger advanced space transportation system which comprises a hypersonic aircraft as first stage (EHTV). This vehicle (European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle) has been conceived for a dual purpose: to serve as the first stage of a launch vehicle with cruise capability, which is required to reach the space station orbit (28.5 deg) from Europe, and in the same basic configuration as passenger plane with some 230 passengers for a range of more than 10,000 km. The optimum cruise speed seems to be Mach 4.4 in 24.5 km altitude for economic and environmental reasons.

  14. REDESIGN OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ON HIGHWAYS, STREETS AND AVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi OGUCHI

    2008-01-01

    The handling of transport demands, especially in urban areas with traffic congestion, is important because the prediction of demand is very difficult under such conditions the true demand possibly becoming a potentiality caused by traffic congestion. One of the solutions of this difficulty is also proposed. The junction treatments, including traffic signal control, dominate over the LOS of the road transport system network in urban streets and avenues. The process of design, control, and operation of junctions at critical intersections is proposed. A tentative evaluation method for highway LOS is also discussed.

  15. Measuring the performance of multi-agency programmatic permits for Washington State Department of Transportation activities

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the Washington State Legislature established the Transportation Permit Efficiency and Accountability Committee (TPEAC) to identify measures to streamline permit procedures for transportation activities and improve environmental outcomes. A programmatic subcommittee was created to develop a multi-agency approach for developing programmatic permits that would cover 60 to 70 percent of Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) activities (mostly maintenance and preservation ...

  16. The energy logistic model for analyses of transportation- and energy systems; Energilogistikmodell foer systemberaekningar av transport- och energifoersoerjningssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinge, M.

    1995-05-01

    The Energy Logistic Model has been improved to become a tool for analysis of all production processes, transportation systems and systems including several energy users and several fuels. Two cases were studied. The first case deals with terminal equipment for inter modal transport systems and the second case deals with diesel fuelled trucks, cranes and machines in the Goeteborg area. In both cases, the environmental improvements of the city air quality are analyzed when natural gas is substituted for diesel oil. The comparison between inter modal transport and road haulage shows that the environmental impacts from the operations at the terminal are limited, and that the potential for environmental benefits when using inter modal transport is improving with the transportation distance. The choice of electricity production system is of great importance when calculating the environmental impact from railway traffic in the total analysis of the transportation system. 13 refs, 27 tabs

  17. Formal Vulnerability Assessment of a maritime transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berle, Oyvind, E-mail: berle@ntnu.n [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Marine Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Asbjornslett, Bjorn Egil [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Marine Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Rice, James B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Transportation and Logistics, Cambridge (United States)

    2011-06-15

    World trade increasingly relies on longer, larger and more complex supply chains, where maritime transportation is a vital backbone of such operations. Long and complex supply chain systems are more prone to being vulnerable, though through reviews, no specific methods have been found to assess vulnerabilities of a maritime transportation system. Most existing supply chain risk assessment frameworks require risks to be foreseen to be mitigated, rather than giving transportation systems the ability to cope with unforeseen threats and hazards. In assessing cost-efficiency, societal vulnerability versus industrial cost of measures should be included. This conceptual paper presents a structured Formal Vulnerability Assessment (FVA) methodology, seeking to transfer the safety-oriented Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) framework into the domain of maritime supply chain vulnerability. To do so, the following two alterations are made: (1) The focus of the assessment is defined to ensure the ability of the transportation to serve as a throughput mechanism of goods, and to survive and recover from disruptive events. (2) To cope with low-frequency high-impact disruptive scenarios that were not necessarily foreseen, two parallel tracks of risk assessments need to be pursued-the cause-focused risk assessment as in the FSA, and a consequence-focused failure mode approach.

  18. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ. METHODS: The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. RESULTS: In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland

  19. Active patterning and asymmetric transport in a model actomyosin network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2013-12-01

    Cytoskeletal networks, which are essentially motor-filament assemblies, play a major role in many developmental processes involving structural remodeling and shape changes. These are achieved by nonequilibrium self-organization processes that generate functional patterns and drive intracellular transport. We construct a minimal physical model that incorporates the coupling between nonlinear elastic responses of individual filaments and force-dependent motor action. By performing stochastic simulations we show that the interplay of motor processes, described as driving anti-correlated motion of the network vertices, and the network connectivity, which determines the percolation character of the structure, can indeed capture the dynamical and structural cooperativity which gives rise to diverse patterns observed experimentally. The buckling instability of individual filaments is found to play a key role in localizing collapse events due to local force imbalance. Motor-driven buckling-induced node aggregation provides a dynamic mechanism that stabilizes the two-dimensional patterns below the apparent static percolation limit. Coordinated motor action is also shown to suppress random thermal noise on large time scales, the two-dimensional configuration that the system starts with thus remaining planar during the structural development. By carrying out similar simulations on a three-dimensional anchored network, we find that the myosin-driven isotropic contraction of a well-connected actin network, when combined with mechanical anchoring that confers directionality to the collective motion, may represent a novel mechanism of intracellular transport, as revealed by chromosome translocation in the starfish oocyte.

  20. Verification of ARES transport code system with TAKEDA benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Penghe; Chen, Mengteng; Zhao, Jingchang; Zhang, Shun; Chen, Yixue

    2015-10-01

    Neutron transport modeling and simulation are central to many areas of nuclear technology, including reactor core analysis, radiation shielding and radiation detection. In this paper the series of TAKEDA benchmarks are modeled to verify the critical calculation capability of ARES, a discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code system. SALOME platform is coupled with ARES to provide geometry modeling and mesh generation function. The Koch-Baker-Alcouffe parallel sweep algorithm is applied to accelerate the traditional transport calculation process. The results show that the eigenvalues calculated by ARES are in excellent agreement with the reference values presented in NEACRP-L-330, with a difference less than 30 pcm except for the first case of model 3. Additionally, ARES provides accurate fluxes distribution compared to reference values, with a deviation less than 2% for region-averaged fluxes in all cases. All of these confirms the feasibility of ARES-SALOME coupling and demonstrate that ARES has a good performance in critical calculation.

  1. Information systems and technology in the marketing of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Zharska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to improve the system of theoretical, methodological and methodic background for the implementation of information technology in the marketing system of the railway undertaking. The article identifies the necessity of marketing use in companies which are natural monopolies. Besides the general system of railway transport is described and its place in the marketing system is defined. The existing deficiencies of marketing system have been detected.The results of the analysis. The main computerized control systems, which have been introduced into the system of marketing services in the field of railway transport, were given full consideration in recent years. In particular it has been examined the integration of the automated control system into the system of services associated with freight and the transition from paper to electronic transport documents. Such advantages of system for consumers were determined: time reduction, the possibility of clearance from any station and information received in the automatic mode concerning the freight traffic. The organizational transformation that took place on the railway transport as a result of the specified system integration was considered. The need to create such system for freight crossing the border was defined.System of passenger train tickets sale online in Ukraine has been considered the and its basic shortcomings, including the inability to print previously reserved ticket and the complexity and incomprehensibility of ticket purchase technology online for the consumers was found. The experience of sales system delivering of the passenger railway services has been examined in different European countries and it has been found out that in many countries for tickets sales is used modern information technology: the Internet, via mobile communications, with start-card, etc.Moreover a comparative analysis of web-sites of the Ukrainian and foreign

  2. 76 FR 6841 - ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of... (FACA) (Pub. L. 72-363; 5 U.S.C. app. 2), a meeting of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS... study, development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor,...

  3. Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.

  4. Backcasting sustainable freight transport systems for Europe in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattila, Tuomas, E-mail: tuomas.mattila@ymparisto.f [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Antikainen, Riina [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-03-15

    European freight transport emissions and fuel consumption are projected to increase. This study focuses on long distance freight transport (LDFT) and explores possible sustainable futures through quantitative modeling. The evaluation was part of European foresight process between researchers, policy makers and freight companies (FREIGHTVISION). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand of road, rail and inland waterways were estimated for an EU-27 in 2005. Development was extrapolated to 2050 based on technology and freight performance forecasts. Stakeholders found the forecasted GHG emissions and fossil fuel share unsustainable, so alternative futures were developed with backcasting. The developed emission model was run with random parameter combinations to screen a set of sustainable futures, with an 80% reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel share. Freight transport performance was not controlled in the backcasts, but several sustainable futures were found if significant changes in transport efficiency and energy mix are implemented. In spite of agreeing on the importance of reducing emissions, stakeholders had difficulties in choosing a preferred technological future. Simple models were found to be an effective tool for communicating the influence of various measures. Further research is recommended to screen preferable technological roadmaps from the broad range of available futures. - Research highlights: {yields} Sustainable transport systems were explored with modeling and stakeholder workshops. {yields} Backcasting identified technological options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80%. {yields} Improving road vehicle efficiency, engine efficiency and fuel mix showed the greatest potential.

  5. Structure of a Type-1 Secretion System ABC Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jacob L W; Acheson, Justin F; Zimmer, Jochen

    2017-03-07

    Type-1 secretion systems (T1SSs) represent a widespread mode of protein secretion across the cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria. The T1SS is composed of an inner-membrane ABC transporter, a periplasmic membrane-fusion protein, and an outer-membrane porin. These three components assemble into a complex spanning both membranes and providing a conduit for the translocation of unfolded polypeptides. We show that ATP hydrolysis and assembly of the entire T1SS complex is necessary for protein secretion. Furthermore, we present a 3.15-Å crystal structure of AaPrtD, the ABC transporter found in the Aquifex aeolicus T1SS. The structure suggests a substrate entry window just above the transporter's nucleotide binding domains. In addition, highly kinked transmembrane helices, which frame a narrow channel not observed in canonical peptide transporters, are likely involved in substrate translocation. Overall, the AaPrtD structure supports a polypeptide transport mechanism distinct from alternating access.

  6. Transport signatures in topological systems coupled to ac fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Leonard; Gómez-León, Álvaro

    2017-02-01

    We study the transport properties of a topological system coupled to an ac electric field by means of Floquet-Keldysh formalism. We consider a semi-infinite chain of dimers coupled to a semi-infinite metallic lead and obtain the density of states and current when the system is out of equilibrium. Our formalism is nonperturbative and allows us to explore, in the thermodynamic limit, a wide range of regimes for the ac field, arbitrary values of the coupling strength to the metallic contact and corrections to the wide-band limit (WBL). We find that hybridization with the contact can change the dimerization phase, and that the current dependence on the field amplitude can be used to discriminate between them. We also show the appearance of side bands and nonequilibrium zero-energy modes, characteristic of the Floquet systems. Our results directly apply to the stability of nonequilibrium topological phases, when transport measurements are used for their detection.

  7. Computational transport phenomena of fluid-particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arastoopour, Hamid; Abbasi, Emad

    2017-01-01

    This book concerns the most up-to-date advances in computational transport phenomena (CTP), an emerging tool for the design of gas-solid processes such as fluidized bed systems. The authors examine recent work in kinetic theory and CTP and illustrate gas-solid processes’ many applications in the energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. They also discuss the kinetic theory approach in developing constitutive equations for gas-solid flow systems and how it has advanced over the last decade as well as the possibility of obtaining innovative designs for multiphase reactors, such as those needed to capture CO2 from flue gases. Suitable as a concise reference and a textbook supplement for graduate courses, Computational Transport Phenomena of Gas-Solid Systems is ideal for practitioners in industries involved with the design and operation of processes based on fluid/particle mixtures, such as the energy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. Explains how to couple the population balance e...

  8. Safety and Health Perceptions in Work-related Transport Activities in Ghanaian Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Atombo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: OSH culture is not fully complied in industries transport activities. This study, therefore, supports the use of safety seminars and training sessions for industry workers responsible for transport operations for better integration of safety standards.

  9. Modular transportation system with a three dimensional routeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löffler Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In intra-enterprise logistics and automation of manufacturing processes general a rising productivity by high flexibility is required. Existing transportation systems exclusively use two-dimensional track sections, because they can be served with standard drives. Because of these simple structures the transport speed is limited and thereby also the throughput. In this paper now a modular transportation system is presented which could reach higher speeds with a direct drive and the use of centrifugal force compensating curves. Simultaneously the system also can change the altitude. All this succeeds with the integration of three-dimensional track sections. Therefore a two piped guiding system with a long stator linear motor was designed. To combine the linear motor with the three dimensional track special stator elements were developed which allow a bending of the stator to follow the route course. The current work deals with the implementation of a mechanical passive switch, which is operated by the electromagnetic forces of the linear motor. So no additional mechanical actors or a separate electromagnetic system are necessary.

  10. Isolation systems for electronic black-box transportation to orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrich, Nicholas M.; Pendleton, Scott C.

    1998-06-01

    Servicing the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) requires the safe transportation of electronic Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) on the Space Transportation System (STS) to replace or enhance the capability of existing units. The delicate design of these electronic ORUs makes it imperative to provide isolation from the STS launch random vibration, while maintaining fundamental modes above the transient load environment. Two methods were developed and used exclusively, on Servicing Mission 2 (SM2), to isolate the ORUs from the environmental launch loads imposed by the STS. The first load isolation system utilizes a refined open/closed cell foam design to provide the required damping and corner frequency, while the second method uses an innovative Viscoelastic Material (VEM) design. This paper addresses both systems as initially designed including finite element (FE) model analysis of the VEM system. Vibration testing of prototype systems and modifications to the design resulting from test will be discussed. The final design as flown on HST SM2 with recommendations for future applications of these technologies in transporting electronic black boxes to orbit will conclude the paper.

  11. Making sense of a new transport system: an ethnographic study of the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline H D; Cohn, Simon; Ogilvie, David

    2013-01-01

    An increase in public transport use has the potential to contribute to improving population health, and there is growing interest in innovative public transport systems. Yet how new public transport infrastructure is experienced and integrated (or not) into daily practice is little understood. We investigated how the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway, UK, was used and experienced in the weeks following its opening, using the method of participant observation (travelling on the busway and observing and talking to passengers) and drawing on Normalization Process Theory to interpret our data. Using excerpts of field notes to support our interpretations, we describe how the ease with which the new transport system could be integrated into existing daily routines was important in determining whether individuals would continue to use it. It emerged that there were two groups of passengers with different experiences and attitudes. Passengers who had previously travelled frequently on regular bus services did not perceive the new system to be an improvement; consequently, they were frustrated that it was differentiated from and not coherent with the regular system. In contrast, passengers who had previously travelled almost exclusively by car appraised the busway positively and perceived it to be a novel and superior form of travel. Our rich qualitative account highlights the varied and creative ways in which people learn to use new public transport and integrate it into their everyday lives. This has consequences for the introduction and promotion of future transport innovations. It is important to emphasise the novelty of new public transport, but also the ways in which its use can become ordinary and routine. Addressing these issues could help to promote uptake of other public transport interventions, which may contribute to increasing physical activity and improving population health.

  12. Longitudinal vibrations of mechanical systems with the transportation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buchacz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: this thesis purpose is a new way of modelling systems working with high speeds of mechanisms. Systems are analyzed with taking into consideration the rotational movement and with criterions of using materials with high flexibility and high precision of work. The dynamical analysis was done with giving into consideration the interaction between working motion and local vibrations. During the motion a model is loaded by longitudinal forces.Design/methodology/approach: equations of motion were derived by the Lagrange method, with generalized coordinates and generalized velocities assumed as orthogonal projections of individual quantities of the rod and manipulators to axes of the global reference frame.Findings: the model of longitudinally vibrating systems in plane motion was derived, after that the model can be transformed to the dynamical flexibility of these systems. Derived equations are the beginning of analysis of complex systems, especially can be used in deducing of the substitute dynamical flexibility of multilinked systems in motion.Research limitations/implications: mechanical systems vibrating longitudinally in terms of rotation were considered in this thesis. Successive problem of the dynamical analysis is the analysis of systems in spatial transportation and systems loaded by transversal forces.Practical implications: effects of presented calculations can be applied into machines and mechanisms in transportation such as: high speed turbines, wind power plant, water-power plants, manipulators, aerodynamics issues, and in different rotors etc.Originality/value: the contemporary analysis of beams and rods were made in a separate way, first working motion of the main system and next the local vibrations. A new way of modelling took into consideration the interaction between those two displacement. There was defined the transportation effect for models vibrating longitudinally in this paper.

  13. Prosthecae of Asticcacaulis biprosthecum: system for the study of membrane transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J S; Pate, J L

    1975-06-01

    Prosthecae removed from cells of Asticcacaulis biprosthecum were examined for their ability to accumulate proline, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and glucose against a concentration gradient. The transport of all of these compounds into prosthecae was stimulated by the nonphysiological electron donors phenazine methosulfate and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylene diamine dihydrochloride. Reduced pyridine nucleotides caused very slight stimulation of transport of proline and glucose. Other physiological electron donors did not stimulate uptake. Evidence is presented indicating that the failure of certain potential electron donors to drive respiratory chain-linked transport is due to the inabilityof these compounds to enter prosthecae rather than to the absence of enzymes for their oxidation in prosthecae. Inhibition of respiration and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, with the exception of arsenate, inhibit active transport systems of prosthecae.

  14. Effects of magnetic field on photon-induced quantum transport in a single dot-cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Fatah, Aziz H.; Fatah, Jabar M. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we show how a static magnetic field can control photon-induced electron transport through a quantum dot system coupled to a photon cavity. The quantum dot system is connected to two electron reservoirs and exposed to an external perpendicular static magnetic field. The propagation of electrons through the system is thus influenced by the static magnetic and the dynamic photon fields. It is observed that the photon cavity forms photon replica states controlling electron transport in the system. If the photon field has more energy than the cyclotron energy, then the photon field is dominant in the electron transport. Consequently, the electron transport is enhanced due to activation of photon replica states. By contrast, the electron transport is suppressed in the system when the photon energy is smaller than the cyclotron energy.

  15. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  16. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  17. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  18. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor); Robertson, S. H.; Johnson, N. B.; Hall, D. S.; Rimson, I. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S. Army, which ultimately led to the current state of the art in CRFS technology. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations and production efforts which have led to the highly successful military CRFS, which has saved many lives and reduced costs of accidents. Current CRFS technology used in transport category airplanes is defined and compared to the available state-of-the-art technology. The report provides information to the FAA and other government organizations which can help them plan their efforts to improve the state of crash fire protection in the transport airplane fleet. The report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems, analysis tools to use for product improvement, and a summary of current and proposed regulations for transport category airplane fuel systems.

  19. Perceived risk and modal choice: risk compensation in transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R B

    1995-08-01

    A transportation mode choice analysis is performed that examines behavioral responses to perceived risk in the choice of mode for daily commute trips. This methodology provides a technique for examining, by means of disaggregate individual level data, risk-compensating effects in transportation systems. Various measures of perceived risk are examined for explaining modal choice. Other studies have described how safety regulations have resulted in increases in "driving intensity." This study defines one component of driving intensity to be the increased probability of commuting by automobile. The results show that modal shifts occur when risk perceptions for a given mode are reduced. To demonstrate potential risk-compensating effects within the transportation system, an estimate of changes in accident fatalities due to commuting is derived using rough estimates of fatalities per person-mile travelled. It is shown that a given change in the perceived risk of commuting by automobile results in a less than proportionate change in net commuting fatalities. The relative magnitude is dependent on how objective reductions in risk translate into perceived reductions in risk. This study also shows that perceived safety improvements in bicycle transportation have an aggregate elasticity value that is greater than one. This means that bicycle safety improvements attract proportionately more people to bicycle commuting (i.e. a 10% increase in safety results in a greater than 10% increase in the share of people bicycle commuting).

  20. Adaptive fuzzy-neural-network control for maglev transportation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Lee, Jeng-Dao

    2008-01-01

    A magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation system including levitation and propulsion control is a subject of considerable scientific interest because of highly nonlinear and unstable behaviors. In this paper, the dynamic model of a maglev transportation system including levitated electromagnets and a propulsive linear induction motor (LIM) based on the concepts of mechanical geometry and motion dynamics is developed first. Then, a model-based sliding-mode control (SMC) strategy is introduced. In order to alleviate chattering phenomena caused by the inappropriate selection of uncertainty bound, a simple bound estimation algorithm is embedded in the SMC strategy to form an adaptive sliding-mode control (ASMC) scheme. However, this estimation algorithm is always a positive value so that tracking errors introduced by any uncertainty will cause the estimated bound increase even to infinity with time. Therefore, it further designs an adaptive fuzzy-neural-network control (AFNNC) scheme by imitating the SMC strategy for the maglev transportation system. In the model-free AFNNC, online learning algorithms are designed to cope with the problem of chattering phenomena caused by the sign action in SMC design, and to ensure the stability of the controlled system without the requirement of auxiliary compensated controllers despite the existence of uncertainties. The outputs of the AFNNC scheme can be directly supplied to the electromagnets and LIM without complicated control transformations for relaxing strict constrains in conventional model-based control methodologies. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes for the maglev transportation system is verified by numerical simulations, and the superiority of the AFNNC scheme is indicated in comparison with the SMC and ASMC strategies.

  1. 75 FR 6250 - ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of... Systems (ITS) Program Advisory Committee (ITSPAC). The Web conference will be held on February 24, 2010... to the study, development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through...

  2. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Larsen, Marcus M.

    Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set of ...

  3. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set of ...

  4. Transportation of drug-gold nanocomposites by actinomyosin motor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Harsimran, E-mail: microsimbac@gmail.com; Chaudhary, Archana; Kaur, Inderpreet [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organization - CSIO (India); Singh, Kashmir [Panjab University, Department of Biotechnology (India); Bharadwaj, Lalit M. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organization - CSIO (India)

    2011-06-15

    Nanotechnology is playing an important role in drug delivery to overcome limitations of conventional drug delivery systems in terms of solubility, in vivo stability, pharmacokinetics, and bio-distribution. The controlled transportation of drug into the cell and within the cell is a major challenge to be addressed. Cellular molecular motors have been exploited for their cargo carrying capacity for various applications including engineering and health care. Combination of nanotechnology and biomolecular motors can address some of the challenges in drug delivery. In the present study, transportation of drug nanocomposites has been demonstrated. Nanocomposites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa drugs (cancer and Parkinson's disease, respectively) were prepared with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by covalent attachment and these nanocomposites were attached to actin filaments. These nanocomposites were in-turn transported by actin filaments on myosin tracks. Characterization of drug nanocomposites formation was done by UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. GNP composites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa were formed by sulfide and amide bond formation, respectively. Average velocity of actin filament attached to nanocomposites was found to be 3.17 and 3.89 {mu}m/s for levodopa and 6-mercaptopurine, respectively, as compared to actin filaments with velocity of 4.0-6.0 {mu}m/s. Three concepts have been proposed for the study of drug transportation into the cell based on polycationic complex formation, interaction of actin with cellular myosin and Biomolecular Adaptor for Retrograde Transport (BART) technology. The aspects of this study heads toward the development of an approach to utilize molecular motors for nanoscale transportation endogenously.

  5. Association of serotonin transporter promoter regulatory region polymorphism and cerebral activity to visual presentation of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurijoki, Salla; Kuikka, Jyrki T; Niskanen, Eini; Carlson, Synnöve; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Pesonen, Ullamari; Kaprio, Jaakko M; Rissanen, Aila; Tiihonen, Jari; Karhunen, Leila

    2008-07-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed links between genetic polymorphisms and cognitive and behavioural processes. Serotonin is a classical neurotransmitter of central nervous system, and it is connected to the control of appetite and satiety. In this study, the relationship between the functional variation in the serotonin transporter gene and the activity in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a brain area activated by visual food stimuli was explored. Thirty subjects underwent serial fMRI studies and provided DNA for genetic analyses. Subjects homozygous for the long allele exhibited greater left PCC activity in the comparison food > non-food compared with individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the short allele. The association between genotype and activation was linear, the subjects with two copies of the long allele variant having the strongest activation. These results demonstrate the possible genetically driven variation in the response of the left PCC to visual presentation of food in humans.

  6. Directed transport of coupled systems in symmetric periodic potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志刚; 刘凤芝; 高建

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the damped unidirectional motions of a coupled lattice in a periodic potential. Each particle in the lattice is subject to a time-periodic ac force. Our studies reveal that a directed transport process can be observed when the ac forces acting on the coupled lattice have a phase shift (mismatch). This directed motion is a collaboration of the coupling, the substrate potential, and the periodic force, which are all.symmetric. The absence of any one of these three factors will not give rise to a directed current. We discuss the complex relations between the directed current and parameters in the system. Results in this paper can be accomplished in experiments. Moreover,our results can be generalized to the studies of directed transport processes in more complicated spatially extended systems.

  7. Wind Turbine Blade Nondestructive Testing with a Transportable Radiography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming widely used as they are an environmentally friendly way for energy production without emissions; however, they are exposed to a corrosive environment. In addition, as wind turbines typically are the tallest structures in the surrounding area of a wind farm, it is expected that they will attract direct lightning strikes several times during their operating life. The purpose of this paper is to show that the radiography with a transportable unit is a solution to find defects in the wind turbine blade and reduce the cost of inspection. A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating an Sb–Be source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. The simulated system has a wide range of radiography parameters.

  8. From microsystems technology to the Saenger II space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    The role of space projects as drivers and catalysts of technology advances is discussed and illustrated from the perspective of the West German aerospace industry, summarizing a talk presented at the 1986 meeting of the German aerospace society DGLR. The history of space-transportation-system (STS) technology since the 1950s is traced, emphasizing the needs for greater payload weights and lower costs, and the design concept of Saenger II, a proposed two-stage ESA STS employing a hypersonic jet transport aircraft as its first stage, is outlined. It is argued that experience gained in developing the rocket-launched Hermes STS will be applicable to the second stage of Saenger II. Recent developments in microsystems (combining microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics), advanced materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, metals, and ceramics), and energy technology (hydrogen-based systems and solar cells) are surveyed, and their applicability to STSs is considered.

  9. Methylphenidate and its ethanol transesterification metabolite ethylphenidate: brain disposition, monoamine transporters and motor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williard, Robin L; Middaugh, Lawrence D; Zhu, Hao-Jie B; Patrick, Kennerly S

    2007-02-01

    Ethylphenidate is formed by metabolic transesterification of methylphenidate and ethanol. Study objectives were to (a) establish that ethylphenidate is formed in C57BL/6 (B6) mice; (b) compare the stimulatory effects of ethylphenidate and methylphenidate enantiomers; (c) determine methylphenidate and ethylphenidate plasma and brain distribution and (d) establish in-vitro effects of methylphenidate and ethylphenidate on monoamine transporter systems. Experimental results were that: (a) coadministration of ethanol with the separate methylphenidate isomers enantioselectively produced l-ethylphenidate; (b) d and dl-forms of methylphenidate and ethylphenidate produced dose-responsive increases in motor activity with stimulation being less for ethylphenidate; (c) plasma and whole-brain concentrations were greater for ethylphenidate than methylphenidate and (d) d and DL-methylphenidate and ethylphenidate exhibited comparably potent low inhibition of the dopamine transporter, whereas ethylphenidate was a less potent norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. These experiments establish the feasibility of the B6 mouse model for examining the interactive effects of ethanol and methylphenidate. As reported for humans, concurrent exposure of B6 mice to methylphenidate and ethanol more readily formed l-ethylphenidate than d-ethylphenidate, and the l-isomers of both methylphenidate and ethylphenidate were biologically inactive. The observed reduced stimulatory effect of d-ethylphenidate relative to d-methylphenidate appears not to be the result of brain dispositional factors, but rather may be related to its reduced inhibition of the norepinephrine transporter, perhaps altering the interaction of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neural systems.

  10. The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joreintje Dingena Mackenbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and active commuting (walking or cycling to work can help meet physical activity recommendations. This study investigated socioeconomic differences in active commuting, and assessed the impact of urban land-use and public transport policies on active commuting in the Wellington region in New Zealand. We combined data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey and GIS data on land-use and public transport facilities with the Wellington Integrated Land-Use, Transportation and Environment (WILUTE model, and forecasted changes in active commuter trips associated with changes in the built environment. Results indicated high income individuals were more likely to commute actively than individuals on low income. Several land-use and transportation factors were associated with active commuting and results from the modelling showed a potential increase in active commuting following an increase in bus frequency and parking fees. In conclusion, regional level policies stimulating environmental factors that directly or indirectly affect active commuting may be a promising strategy to increase population level physical activity. Access to, and frequency of, public transport in the neighbourhood can act as a facilitator for a more active lifestyle among its residents without negatively affecting disadvantaged groups.

  11. Hand calculations for transport of radioactive aerosols through sampling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Mark; Thompson, Martha; Farfan, Eduardo; Hadlock, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Workplace air monitoring programs for sampling radioactive aerosols in nuclear facilities sometimes must rely on sampling systems to move the air to a sample filter in a safe and convenient location. These systems may consist of probes, straight tubing, bends, contractions and other components. Evaluation of these systems for potential loss of radioactive aerosols is important because significant losses can occur. However, it can be very difficult to find fully described equations to model a system manually for a single particle size and even more difficult to evaluate total system efficiency for a polydispersed particle distribution. Some software methods are available, but they may not be directly applicable to the components being evaluated and they may not be completely documented or validated per current software quality assurance requirements. This paper offers a method to model radioactive aerosol transport in sampling systems that is transparent and easily updated with the most applicable models. Calculations are shown with the R Programming Language, but the method is adaptable to other scripting languages. The method has the advantage of transparency and easy verifiability. This paper shows how a set of equations from published aerosol science models may be applied to aspiration and transport efficiency of aerosols in common air sampling system components. An example application using R calculation scripts is demonstrated. The R scripts are provided as electronic attachments.

  12. A Decision Support System to Compare the Transportation Modes in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Özceylan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection of an optimal transportation mode is one of the most important factors in supply chain and logistic planning. Furthermore, the selection transportation mode is a complex, multi-criteria decision problem. The decision makers have to face and take attention with a lot of criteria; such as cost, quality, delivery time, safety, accessibility and etc while choosing the best mode. Under these criteria, there must be a selection between motorway, seaway, airway, pipeline, railway and also intermodal modes. Selection the transportation mode is very promising issue because it affects about 60-65 % of total logistic cake. There are some techniques which can be heuristics and logical approaches are used to reach the best option. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP which is one of the mathematical methods can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal transportation mode using an AHP-based model was evaluated for logistic activities. To solve this transportation mode selection problem, we developed a decision support system based AHP. By using the developed decision support system, the best transportation modes is determined and discussed.

  13. The Myriad Roles of Miro in the Nervous System: Axonal Transport of Mitochondria and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingwei eLu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial rho GTPase (Miro is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein containing two GTPase domains and two helix-loop-helix Ca2+-binding domains called EF hands. Pioneering genetic studies in Drosophila first revealed a key function of Miro in regulating the axonal transport of mitochondria, during which Miro forms a multi-protein transport complex with Milton and Kinesin heavy chain (KHC to link trafficking mitochondria with the microtubule cytoskeleton. Recent studies showed that through binding to the EF hands of Miro and causing conformational changes of Miro and alteration of protein-protein interactions within the transport complex, Ca2+ can alter the engagement of mitochondria with the microtubule (MT/kinesin network, offering one mechanism to match mitochondrial distribution with neuronal activity. Despite the importance of the Miro/Milton/Kinesin complex in regulating mitochondrial transport in metazoans, not all components of the transport complex are conserved in lower organisms, and transport-independent functions of Miro are emerging. Here we review the diverse functions of the evolutionarily conserved Miro proteins that are relevant to the development, maintenance, and functioning of the nervous system and discuss the potential contribution of Miro dysfunction to the pathogenesis of diseases of the nervous system.

  14. Transport in nanoscale systems: hydrodynamics, turbulence, and local electron heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    Transport in nanoscale systems is usually described as an open-boundary scattering problem. This picture, however, says nothing about the dynamical onset of steady states, their microscopic nature, or their dependence on initial conditions [1]. In order to address these issues, I will first describe the dynamical many-particle state via an effective quantum hydrodynamic theory [2]. This approach allows us to predict a series of novel phenomena like turbulence of the electron liquid [2], local electron heating in nanostructures [3], and the effect of electron viscosity on resistance [4]. I will provide both analytical results and numerical examples of first-principles electron dynamics in nanostructures using the above approach. I will also discuss possible experimental tests of our predictions. Work supported in part by NSF and DOE. [1] N. Bushong, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Approach to steady-state transport in nanoscale systems'' Nano Letters, 5 2569 (2005); M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov, ``Transport in nanoscale systems: the microcanonical versus grand-canonical picture,'' J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004). [2] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, ``Hydrodynamic approach to transport and turbulence in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/05123326; J. Phys. Cond. Matt., in press. [3] R. D'Agosta, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Local electron heating in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/0605312; Nano Letters, in press. [4] N. Sai, M. Zwolak, G. Vignale and M. Di Ventra, ``Dynamical corrections to the DFT-LDA electron conductance in nanoscale systems,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186810 (2005).

  15. Transportations Systems Modeling and Applications in Earthquake Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    earthquake (Japan) The 1995 Hanshin-Awaji earthquake ( wM 6.8) in the Osaka -Kobe area had an even greater impact on the transportation systems compared...with the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes in the U.S. The span collapses of the elevated Osaka -Kobe expressway (Route 3) caused long- time...nation’s economy and society. The numerical case study focuses on the road network in the Memphis metropolitan area. The road network information

  16. Frontiers in transport phenomena research and education: Energy systems, biological systems, security, information technology and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, T.L.; Faghri, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Viskanta, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    A US National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop entitled ''Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research and Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology, and Nanotechnology'' was held in May of 2007 at the University of Connecticut. The workshop provided a venue for researchers, educators and policy-makers to identify frontier challenges and associated opportunities in heat and mass transfer. Approximately 300 invited participants from academia, business and government from the US and abroad attended. Based upon the final recommendations on the topical matter of the workshop, several trends become apparent. A strong interest in sustainable energy is evident. A continued need to understand the coupling between broad length (and time) scales persists, but the emerging need to better understand transport phenomena at the macro/mega scale has evolved. The need to develop new metrology techniques to collect and archive reliable property data persists. Societal sustainability received major attention in two of the reports. Matters involving innovation, entrepreneurship, and globalization of the engineering profession have emerged, and the responsibility to improve the technical literacy of the public-at-large is discussed. Integration of research thrusts and education activities is highlighted throughout. Specific recommendations, made by the panelists with input from the international heat transfer community and directed to the National Science Foundation, are included in several reports. (author)

  17. Opposite temperature effect on transport activity of KCC2/KCC4 and N(KCCs in HEK-293 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Anna-Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cation chloride cotransporters play essential roles in many physiological processes such as volume regulation, transepithelial salt transport and setting the intracellular chloride concentration in neurons. They consist mainly of the inward transporters NCC, NKCC1, and NKCC2, and the outward transporters KCC1 to KCC4. To gain insight into regulatory and structure-function relationships, precise determination of their activity is required. Frequently, these analyses are performed in HEK-293 cells. Recently the activity of the inward transporters NKCC1 and NCC was shown to increase with temperature in these cells. However, the temperature effect on KCCs remains largely unknown. Findings Here, we determined the temperature effect on KCC2 and KCC4 transport activity in HEK-293 cells. Both transporters demonstrated significantly higher transport activity (2.5 fold for KCC2 and 3.3 fold for KCC4 after pre-incubation at room temperature compared to 37°C. Conclusions These data identify a reciprocal temperature dependence of cation chloride inward and outward cotransporters in HEK-293 cells. Thus, lower temperature should be used for functional characterization of KCC2 and KCC4 and higher temperatures for N(KCCs in heterologous mammalian expression systems. Furthermore, if this reciprocal effect also applies to neurons, the action of inhibitory neurotransmitters might be more affected by changes in temperature than previously thought.

  18. Uterine activity, sperm transport, and the role of boar stimuli around insemination in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes changes in spontaneous myometrial activity around estrus, factors that affect myometrial activity, and the possible role of uterine contractions in the process of (artificial) insemination, sperm transport and fertilization. Myometrial activity in the sow increases during estrus

  19. Collaborative Approaches in Developing Environmental and Safety Management Systems for Commercial Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Stacey; Murray, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) licenses and permits U.S. commercial space launch and reentry activities, and licenses the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites. ASTs mission is to ensure the protection of the public, property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States during commercial space transportation activities and to encourage, facilitate, and promote U.S. commercial space transportation. AST faces unique challenges of ensuring the protection of public health and safety while facilitating and promoting U.S. commercial space transportation. AST has developed an Environmental Management System (EMS) and a Safety Management System (SMS) to help meet its mission. Although the EMS and SMS were developed independently, the systems share similar elements. Both systems follow a Plan-Do-Act-Check model in identifying potential environmental aspects or public safety hazards, assessing significance in terms of severity and likelihood of occurrence, developing approaches to reduce risk, and verifying that the risk is reduced. This paper will describe the similarities between ASTs EMS and SMS elements and how AST is building a collaborative approach in environmental and safety management to reduce impacts to the environment and risks to the public.

  20. Collaborative Approaches in Developing Environmental and Safety Management Systems for Commercial Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Stacey; Murray, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) licenses and permits U.S. commercial space launch and reentry activities, and licenses the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites. ASTs mission is to ensure the protection of the public, property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States during commercial space transportation activities and to encourage, facilitate, and promote U.S. commercial space transportation. AST faces unique challenges of ensuring the protection of public health and safety while facilitating and promoting U.S. commercial space transportation. AST has developed an Environmental Management System (EMS) and a Safety Management System (SMS) to help meet its mission. Although the EMS and SMS were developed independently, the systems share similar elements. Both systems follow a Plan-Do-Act-Check model in identifying potential environmental aspects or public safety hazards, assessing significance in terms of severity and likelihood of occurrence, developing approaches to reduce risk, and verifying that the risk is reduced. This paper will describe the similarities between ASTs EMS and SMS elements and how AST is building a collaborative approach in environmental and safety management to reduce impacts to the environment and risks to the public.

  1. Scaling of flow and transport behavior in heterogeneous groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Timothy; Yabusaki, Steven

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a detailed synthetic hydraulic conductivity field developed from geological considerations provide insight into the scaling of subsurface flow and transport processes. Flow and advective transport in the highly resolved heterogeneous field were modeled using massively parallel computers, providing a realistic baseline for evaluation of the impacts of parameter scaling. Upscaling of hydraulic conductivity was performed at a variety of scales using a flexible power law averaging technique. A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of varying the scaling exponent on a number of metrics of flow and transport behavior. Flow and transport simulation on high-performance computers and three-dimensional scientific visualization combine to form a powerful tool for gaining insight into the behavior of complex heterogeneous systems. Many quantitative groundwater models utilize upscaled hydraulic conductivity parameters, either implicitly or explicitly. These parameters are designed to reproduce the bulk flow characteristics at the grid or field scale while not requiring detailed quantification of local-scale conductivity variations. An example from applied groundwater modeling is the common practice of calibrating grid-scale model hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity parameters so as to approximate observed hydraulic head and boundary flux values. Such parameterizations, perhaps with a bulk dispersivity imposed, are then sometimes used to predict transport of reactive or non-reactive solutes. However, this work demonstrates that those parameters that lead to the best upscaling for hydraulic conductivity and head do not necessarily correspond to the best upscaling for prediction of a variety of transport behaviors. This result reflects the fact that transport is strongly impacted by the existence and connectedness of extreme-valued hydraulic conductivities, in contrast to bulk flow which depends more strongly on

  2. JOVIAN STRATOSPHERE AS A CHEMICAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM: BENCHMARK ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xi; Shia Runlie; Yung, Yuk L., E-mail: xiz@gps.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We systematically investigated the solvable analytical benchmark cases in both one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) chemical-advective-diffusive systems. We use the stratosphere of Jupiter as an example but the results can be applied to other planetary atmospheres and exoplanetary atmospheres. In the 1D system, we show that CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} are mainly in diffusive equilibrium, and the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} profile can be approximated by modified Bessel functions. In the 2D system in the meridional plane, analytical solutions for two typical circulation patterns are derived. Simple tracer transport modeling demonstrates that the distribution of a short-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) is dominated by the local chemical sources and sinks, while that of a long-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) is significantly influenced by the circulation pattern. We find that an equator-to-pole circulation could qualitatively explain the Cassini observations, but a pure diffusive transport process could not. For slowly rotating planets like the close-in extrasolar planets, the interaction between the advection by the zonal wind and chemistry might cause a phase lag between the final tracer distribution and the original source distribution. The numerical simulation results from the 2D Caltech/JPL chemistry-transport model agree well with the analytical solutions for various cases.

  3. Evaluation of the Physical Activity Biography: Sport and Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rogen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Beside the genetic disposition, physical activity (PA is one of the major health factors and can play a large role in the prevention and therapy of many diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity-related diseases etc.. In contrast to the genetic disposition, PA can be deliberately influenced by lifestyle. Therefore, it is of high importance to assess PA patterns. In order to assess PA reliably and validly, a new questionnaire (Physical Activity Biography, PAB was created. The PAB assesses recreational PA (sport and transport and enables to distinguish between endurance intensity levels and considers strength and high speed activity patterns throughout life. This study aims to evaluate the PAB by means of item analysis, retest-reliability and validity (criteria were physical fitness assessed by the questionnaire FFB-mot and by exercise tests. 141 participants answered the PAB. For deriving retest-reliability, 81 participants completed the PAB after a retest-interval of one month again. 55 participated in exercise tests and answered the FFB-mot to determine construct validity. Retest-reliability (ICC above 0.7 was found for most items. For the items assessing recent PA, the criteria of convergent and discriminant validity were given. Despite the complexity of the question under study, the results fulfilled the expectations concerning reliability and validity. The PAB enables to assess the amount of sport and locomotion a person has accomplished during different life time frames and, because of the protective effects of PA on various diseases, may become an important tool for risk assessment.

  4. TRANSPORT PLANNING MODEL FOR WIDE AREA RECYCLING SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE PLASTIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Hisashi; Koizumi, Akira; Mogi, Satoshi

    To date, the majority of industrial waste plastic generated in an urban city has been processed into landfill. However, it is now necessary to actively utilize that plastic as a useful resource to create a recycling society with a low environment influence. In order to construct a reasonable recycling system, it is necessary to address the "transportation problem," which means determining how much industrial waste plastic is to be transported to what location. With the goal of eliminating landfill processing, this study considers a transport planning model for industrial waste plastic applying linear programming. The results of running optimized calculations under given scenarios clarified not only the possibilities for recycle processing in the Metropolitan area, but also the validity of wide area recycling system.

  5. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  6. Advanced Launch System (ALS) Space Transportation Expert System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    CONTROL ELECTRONICS DEVELOPMENT ENGR CONTROL SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT BRANCH DAVID K. BOWSER ASST CHIEF FLIGHT CONTROL DIVISION IF YOUR ADDRESS HAS CHANGED...Routers) to Processed Facts ato Conclusions. high& -- %sm memcry) omands . lee requestslevel KNOWLEDGE-BASE SYSTEMS Internal World (Layered Structure) kw...Kaiser, Gail E. and David Garlan ttl: MELDIng Data Flow and Object Oriented Programming - OPSLA 󈨛 Proceedings, October 1987 -eoories: Object Oriented

  7. The importance of transport parameter cross correlations in natural systems radioactive transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-03

    Transport parameter cross correlations are rarely considered in models used to predict radionuclide transport in natural systems. In this paper, it is shown that parameter cross correlations could have a significant impact on radionuclide transport predictions in saturated media. In fractured rock, the positive correlation between fracture apertures and groundwater residence times is shown to result in significantly less retardation due to matrix diffusion than is predicted without the correlation. The suppression of matrix diffusion is further amplified by a tendency toward larger apertures, smaller matrix diffusion coefficients, and less sorption capacity in rocks of lower matrix porosity. In a hypothetical example, strong cross correlations between these parameters result in a decrease in predicted radionuclide travel times of an order of magnitude or more relative to travel times calculated with uncorrelated parameters. In porous media, expected correlations between permeability, porosity, and sorption capacity also result in shorter predicted travel times than when the parameters are assumed to be uncorrelated. Individual parameter standard deviations can also have a significant influence on predicted radionuclide travel times, particularly when cross correlations are considered.

  8. Excess Surface Area in Bioelectrochemical Systems Causes ion Transport Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Timothy D.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Davenport, Emily K.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-05-01

    We investigated ion transport limitations on 3D graphite felt electrodes by growing Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms with advection to eliminate external mass transfer limitations. We characterized ion transport limitations by: (i) showing that serially increasing NaCl concentration up to 200mM increased current linearly up to a total of þ273% vs. 0mM NaCl under advective conditions; (ii) growing the biofilm with a starting concentration of 200mM NaCl, which led to a maximum current increase of 400% vs. current generation without NaCl, and (iii) showing that un-colonized surface area remained even after steadystate current was reached. After accounting for iR effects, we confirmed that the excess surface area existed despite a non-zero overpotential. The fact that the biofilm was constrained from colonizing and producing further current under these conditions confirmed the biofilms under study here were ion transport-limited. Our work demonstrates that the use of high surface area electrodes may not increase current density when the system design allows ion transport limitations to become dominant.

  9. Analysis of mechanical systems with transversal vibrations in transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buchacz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this article are modelling and dynamic analysis of mechanical systems during the rotationalmovement. Nowadays technical problems are tied with high speeds of mechanisms, high precision of work,using lower density materials, and many other high demands for elements of work. Objective of this paper wasthe analysis with giving into consideration the interaction between working motion and local vibrations. Themodel is loaded by transverse forces and transformed to the global reference frame.Design/methodology/approach: derived equations of motion were made by the Lagrange equations methodwith generalized coordinates and generalized velocities assumed as orthogonal projections of individualcoordinates and velocities of each beam to axes of the global reference frame.Findings: systems of equations of motion of transversally vibrating systems in two-dimensional motion willbe put to use to derivation of the dynamical flexibility of these systems and complex systems. Those equationsare the beginning of the analysis of complex systems. They can also be used to derivation of the substitutedynamical flexibility of n-linked systems.Research limitations/implications: mechanical systems vibrating transversally in terms of two-dimensionalmotion were considered in the thesis. The consecutive problem of dynamical analysis is modelling of systemsin spatial motion and also the analysis of systems loaded by longitudinal forces.Practical implications: mathematical effects of this article can be put to use into many mechanisms andmachines running in rotational transportation. For example applications are: high speed turbines, wind powerplants, rotors, manipulators and in aerodynamics issues, etc. Of course results should be adopted and modifiedto appropriate system.Originality/value: High demands for parameters of work of mechanisms and machines are the postulation fornew research and new ways of modelling and analyzing those type systems. The example way

  10. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Djurhuus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928. Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.

  11. LCLS XTOD Tunnel Vacuum Transport System (XVTS) Final Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S

    2006-10-16

    The design of the X-Ray Vacuum Transport System (XVTS) for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. A preliminary design review was held on 11/14/05 [1][2]. This FDR (Final Design Report) presents system configuration, detailed analyses and selection of the mechanical and electrical components for the XTOD tunnel section, as well as the response to all issues raised in the review committee report. Also included are the plans for procurement, mechanical integration, schedule and the cost estimates. It should be noticed that, after the XVTS PDR, LCLS management has decided to lower the number of beamlines from three to one, and shorten the tunnel length from 212 m to 184 m. [3][4] The final design of XVTS system is completed. The major subjects presented in this report are: (1) Design of the complete system. (2) System analysis results. (3) ES&H issues and plan. (4) Project cost estimates and schedule.

  12. The UMTS-AKA Protocols for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Min-Shiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of communication protocols into transport systems is a much adored research area today. Much of seminal work has been reported on the topic of intelligent transportation systems (ITS in the recent years. Many advanced techniques have been garnered to improve online communication and to promote the security, comfort, and efficiency of ITS. Of primary importance to the effective application of ITS is the communication protocol used. A fascinating development is that the yesterday's Global System for Mobile Communication protocol is being replaced by the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System protocol, which is the third-generation mobile technology. This article attempts to identify a suitable communication system for ITS applications. It is impracticable to substantially modify the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol which is in practice because it can disturb the operation of the current system, and thus we explore other possibilities through this research. We investigate a novel protocol to make the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol compliant with ITS as well as adaptable into the current UMTS protocol.

  13. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  14. BicaudalD actively regulates microtubule motor activity in lipid droplet transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer S Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A great deal of sub-cellular organelle positioning, and essentially all minus-ended organelle transport, depends on cytoplasmic dynein, but how dynein's function is regulated is not well understood. BicD is established to play a critical role in mediating dynein function-loss of BicD results in improperly localized nuclei, mRNA particles, and a dispersed Golgi apparatus-however exactly what BicD's role is remains unknown. Nonetheless, it is widely believed that BicD may act to tether dynein to cargos. Here we use a combination of biophysical and biochemical studies to investigate BicD's role in lipid droplet transport during Drosophila embryogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Functional loss of BicD impairs the embryo's ability to control the net direction of droplet transport; the developmentally controlled reversal in transport is eliminated. We find that minimal BicD expression (near-BicD(null decreases the average run length of both plus and minus end directed microtubule (MT based transport. A point mutation affecting the BicD N-terminus has very similar effects on transport during cellularization (phase II, but in phase III (gastrulation motion actually appears better than in the wild-type. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to a simple static tethering model of BicD function, or a role only in initial dynein recruitment to the cargo, our data uncovers a new dynamic role for BicD in actively regulating transport. Lipid droplets move bi-directionally, and our investigations demonstrate that BicD plays a critical-and temporally changing-role in balancing the relative contributions of plus-end and minus-end motors to control the net direction of transport. Our results suggest that while BicD might contribute to recruitment of dynein to the cargo it is not absolutely required for such dynein localization, and it clearly contributes to regulation, helping activation/inactivation of the motors.

  15. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  16. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  17. Development of Library Processing System for Neutron Transport Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J. S.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    A system for library generation was developed for the lattice neutron transport program for pressurized water reactor core analysis. The system extracts multi energy group nuclear data for requested nuclides from ENDF/B whose data are based on continuous energy, generates hydrogen equivalent factor and resonance integral table as functions of temperature and background cross section for resonance nuclides, generates subgroup data for the lattice program to treat resonance exactly as possible, and generates multi-group neutron library file including nuclide depletion data for use of the lattice program.

  18. Integrated Enhanced and Synthetic Vision System for Transport Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shantha Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new avionics concept called integrated enhanced and synthetic vision system (IESVS is being developed to enable flight operations during adverse weather/visibility conditions even in non precision airfields. This paper presents the latest trends in IESVS, design concept of the system and the work being carried out at National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore towards indigenous development of the same for transport aircraft.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.157-163, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4258

  19. Mixing it up: Corals take an active role in mass transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Vicente; Shapiro, Orr; Brumley, Douglas; Garren, Melissa; Guasto, Jeffrey; Kramarski-Winter, Esti; Vardi, Assaf; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    The growth and health of reef-building corals are limited by corals' ability to exchange nutrients and oxygen with the surrounding, sometimes quiescent, seawater. Mass transport in coral systems has long been considered to occur passively as a result of molecular diffusion and the ambient fluid flow over the coral. Through a combination of microscale visualization experiments and numerical modeling, we demonstrate instead that motile cilia densely covering the coral surface - previously thought to serve cleaning and feeding purposes- actively stir the coral boundary layer by generating persistent vortices above the coral surface. This active mixing was observed over a variety of corals with differing surface geometries. We have quantified the contribution of ciliary surface vortices to mass transport, finding oxygen flux enhancements of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude under environmentally relevant ambient flow conditions. These results reveal a new, active role of the coral animal in regulating its mass transport by engineering its local hydrodynamic environment, an ability that may have an important role in the evolutionary success of reef corals.

  20. Development of a Techno-economic Model of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) for Deployment in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Tadayoni, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is about the development and deployment of advanced Traffic Management Systems, Traveler Information Systems, Commercial Vehicle Operations, Public and Private Transportation Systems, and Rural Transportation Systems. Several key technologies....... The results show that deployment of Intelligent Vehicle Tracking Technology (IVTT) will address the problems of inefficiencies experienced in the Ghanaian road transport haulage tracking industry. Research for ITS development and eployment in these countries should be cost effective....

  1. Analysis on the Synergy Evolutionary Development of the Collecting, Distributing, and Transporting System of Railway Heavy Haul Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenling Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A synergy evolutionary model of the collecting, distributing, and transporting system of railway heavy haul transportation is built by introducing synergy-related concepts and applying synergy evolutionary theory. Then spline interpolation method, numerical differential five-point formula, and method of least squares are used to solve synergistic coefficient, while fourth-order Rugge-kutta method and fourth-order Adams linear implicit formula method are used to solve coevolutionary curve of the system. Finally, the heavy load transportation of Daqin Railway is an example of the empirical analysis. The research result shows that the degree of order of the system and its three subsystems—collecting, transporting, and distributing—increases as the synergetic coefficient of the subsystems increases; otherwise, the degree of the order will decrease. It also shows that this model can better analyze the coevolutionary process of the heavy load collecting, distributing, and transporting system of Daqin Railway, with its rationality and applicability verified.

  2. Regulation of dopamine transporter activity by carboxypeptidase E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dopamine transporter (DAT plays a critical role in terminating the action of dopamine by rapid reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. Previous studies have revealed that the DAT carboxyl terminus (DAT-CT can directly interact with other cellular proteins and regulate DAT function and trafficking. Results Here, we have identified that carboxypeptidase E (CPE, a prohormone processing exopeptidase and sorting receptor for the regulated secretory pathway, interacts with the DAT-CT and affects DAT function. Mammalian cell lines coexpressing CPE and DAT exhibited increased DAT-mediated dopamine uptake activity compared to cells expressing DAT alone. Moreover, coexpression of an interfering DAT-CT minigene inhibited the effects of CPE on DAT. Functional changes caused by CPE could be attributed to enhanced DAT expression and subsequent increase in DAT cell surface localization, due to decreased DAT degradation. In addition, CPE association could reduce the phosphorylation state of DAT on serine residues, potentially leading to reduced internalization, thus stabilizing plasmalemmal DAT localization. Conclusion Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for CPE in the regulation of DAT trafficking and DAT-mediated DA uptake, which may provide a novel target in the treatment of dopamine-governed diseases such as drug addiction and obesity.

  3. Public Transportation System at the Southern Cone: New projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schweitzer

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the international restructuration of the economy and the regional integration process, according to the claim of accelerating the trade circulation, there is emerging a kind of transporting subestructure project with different characteristics from other times, which are producing a new territorial configuration.The present study has the objective to analyze the evolution of the transportation system in the South Cone and, in the context of the integration process and the economic restructuration, the new demans and which are the transformations of the involved territories since the concretion of this new actions. It is analyzed the regional transportation system related to the territory estructuration in those countries integrating the Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Uruguay and Paraguay, as well as in the associated nations (Bolivia and Chile.Based on the relief and diagnosis of the situation, and considering those new projects, we make a reflection about the tendency to reconcentrate the subestructure and the inversions, with the following territorial inequality that gets deeper and reproduces the territorial fragmentation in regions that receive the new projects obeying to external goals without considering the global impact in the territories’ group.

  4. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  5. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  6. A Privacy-Preserving NFC Mobile Pass for Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Arfaoui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the NFC (Near Field Communication technology brings new capacities to the next generation of smartphones, but also new security and privacy challenges. Indeed through its contactless interactions with external entities, the smartphone of an individual will become an essential authentication tool for service providers such as transport operators. However, from the point of view of the user, carrying a part of the service through his smartphone could be a threat for his privacy. Indeed, an external attacker or the service provider himself could be tempted to track the actions of the user. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving contactless mobile service, in which a user’s identity cannot be linked to his actions when using the transport system. The security of our proposition relies on the combination of a secure element in the smartphone and on a privacy-enhancing cryptographic protocol based on a variant of group signatures. In addition, although a user should remain anonymous and his actions unlinkable in his daily journeys, we designed a technique for lifting his anonymity in extreme circumstances. In order to guarantee the usability of our solution, we implemented a prototype demonstrating that our solution meets the major functional requirements for real transport systems: namely that the mobile pass can be validated at a gate in less than 300 ms, and this even if the battery of the smartphone is exhausted.

  7. Modelling of Cadmium Transport in Soil-Crop System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for simulating cadmium transport in a soil-plant system was built using a commercial simu lating program named Powersim on the basis of input-output processes happening in the soil-plant system.Convective and dispersive transport processes of cadmium in soil profile are embedded. Simulations on a daily base have been done up to a total simulating time of 250 years. Results show that applications of sewage sludge and fertilizer at the simulated rates would only cause slight cadmium accumulations in each layer of the soil, and cadmium accumulation would be levelling off, reaching an equilibrium concentrations layer by layer downward after certain time. The time scale to reach an equilibrium concentration varies from 10 years for the top three layers to over 250 years for the bottom layers. Plant cadmium uptake would increase from 52 ug m-2 under initial soil cadmium concentrations to 65 μg m-2 under equilibrium soil cadmium concentrations, which would not exceed the maximum allowable cadmium concentration in wheat grains. Main parameters which influence cadmium accumulation and transport in soil are total cadmium input, rainfall, evaporation, plant uptake and soil properties.

  8. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  9. Phosphorylation regulates NCC stability and transporter activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Sen; Fang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Min-Hua; Chu, Pei-Yi; Yu, I-Shing; Wu, Han-Chung; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chau, Tom; Uchida, Shinichi; Sasaki, Sei; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2013-10-01

    A T60M mutation in the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is common in patients with Gitelman's syndrome (GS). This mutation prevents Ste20-related proline and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress responsive kinase-1 (OSR1)-mediated phosphorylation of NCC and alters NCC transporter activity in vitro. Here, we examined the physiologic effects of NCC phosphorylation in vivo using a novel Ncc T58M (human T60M) knock-in mouse model. Ncc(T58M/T58M) mice exhibited typical features of GS with a blunted response to thiazide diuretics. Despite expressing normal levels of Ncc mRNA, these mice had lower levels of total Ncc and p-Ncc protein that did not change with a low-salt diet that increased p-Spak. In contrast to wild-type Ncc, which localized to the apical membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells, T58M Ncc localized primarily to the cytosolic region and caused an increase in late distal convoluted tubule volume. In MDCK cells, exogenous expression of phosphorylation-defective NCC mutants reduced total protein expression levels and membrane stability. Furthermore, our analysis found diminished total urine NCC excretion in a cohort of GS patients with homozygous NCC T60M mutations. When Wnk4(D561A/+) mice, a model of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II expressing an activated Spak/Osr1-Ncc, were crossed with Ncc(T58M/T58M) mice, total Ncc and p-Ncc protein levels decreased and the GS phenotype persisted over the hypertensive phenotype. Overall, these data suggest that SPAK-mediated phosphorylation of NCC at T60 regulates NCC stability and function, and defective phosphorylation at this residue corrects the phenotype of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II.

  10. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Perchoux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were (1 to define physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviors (SB patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2 to identify pattern(s of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii sedentary transportation, (iv sedentary occupation and leisure, (v active transportation, and (vi active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the “active transportation” cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with “active transportation” included “high availability of destinations around home,” “presence of bicycle paths,” and “low traffic.” A “positive image of walking/cycling,” the “individual feeling of being physically active,” and a “high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends” were positively related to “active transportation,” identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors’ complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.

  11. SELECTED ASPECTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE MARKETING CAMPAIGN TO RAISE AWARENESS AND PROMOTE PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna NOSAL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents selected aspects of the implementation of the EU’s SmartMove project, which aims to promote feeder public transport systems in rural areas through the implementation of an active marketing campaign (AMC. Campaigns of this type are connected with providing general and personalized information concerning the functioning of public transport services. In the article, characteristics of one of the implementation areas of the project are presented, namely, the Liszki district near Cracow. Transport services were also evaluated. In addition, selected results are presented from a survey that was conducted among residents of the area from the point of view of the implementation of the AMC. The results concerned data about the means of transport that were currently used for travelling, the knowledge of bus services, the reasons for their use and the factors that might encourage residents to use public transport

  12. Applications of Chaos Sequence in Intelligent Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET is an essential technology to improve safety and efficiency of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS, it provides vehicle to vehicle as well as vehicle to roadside unit (RSU wireless communications, so that on board unit (OBU located in vehicles can share messages related to road traffic with not only other OBU in the same VANET but also transportation management centre depending on retransmission of RSU. It is very important to detect and transmit real time messages of road traffic condition in VANET. This paper presents two application schemes for VANET based on chaos sequence: traffic flow forecast and vehicle secret communications. The principles of these schemes are introduced separately, and performances are verified by theoretical analysis and simulation.  

  13. Modeling reactive flow and transport in natural systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtner, P.C. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, S.Antonio, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A general formulation of reactive transport equations in a porous medium has been presented including homogeneous reactions of aqueous species, heterogenous reactions of minerals, and microbiological processes. The canonical form of chemical reactions was introduced and the transformation between primary or basis species derived. The use of parallel linearly-dependent reactions was discussed for incorporating different reaction rate mechanisms. It was demonstrated how the electron may be used in reactive transport equations with redox reactions formulated in terms of half-cell reactions. A single component system was investigated for both a one-dimensional porous medium and a two-dimensional geometry incorporating fracture-matrix interaction. Finally two multicomponent examples were considered using the computer code MULTIFLO of in situ leaching of copper ore and acid mine drainage.

  14. Information System for the Goods Transport Service Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caj Holm

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal transport can reduce the load of the road infrastructure.Knowledge gives it the necessary competitiveness andhelps to control its costs. Fast reaction to changing conditions,opportunities and requirements gives remarkable advantage.Setting up integrated logistic chains using alternative transportmodes requires the trust and close interaction of a variety of actorsinvolved in managing the chain. Especially in the dynamicmobile environment, knowledge has so far not been effectivelyused. FREIGHTWISE tackles this complexity by developing aframework architecture anchored and validated in a range ofdemonstration cases involving commercial and public actors.This paper discusses the general FREIGHTWISE objectivesand its North-East Case, the Logistiikkainfo goods transportservice network information system to be implemented for theEstonian - Finnish transport chain.

  15. Nucleocytoplasmic Transport: A Paradigm for Molecular Logistics in Artificial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujica, Suncica; Zelmer, Christina; Panatala, Radhakrishnan; Lim, Roderick Y H

    2016-01-01

    Artificial organelles, molecular factories and nanoreactors are membrane-bound systems envisaged to exhibit cell-like functionality. These constitute liposomes, polymersomes or hybrid lipo-polymersomes that display different membrane-spanning channels and/or enclose molecular modules. To achieve more complex functionality, an artificial organelle should ideally sustain a continuous influx of essential macromolecular modules (i.e. cargoes) and metabolites against an outflow of reaction products. This would benefit from the incorporation of selective nanopores as well as specific trafficking factors that facilitate cargo selectivity, translocation efficiency, and directionality. Towards this goal, we describe how proteinaceous cargoes are transported between the nucleus and cytoplasm by nuclear pore complexes and the biological trafficking machinery in living cells (i.e. nucleocytoplasmic transport). On this basis, we discuss how biomimetic control may be implemented to selectively import, compartmentalize and accumulate diverse macromolecular modules against concentration gradients in artificial organelles.

  16. Hidden symmetries enhance quantum transport in Light Harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zech, Tobias; Wellens, Thomas; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    For more than 50 years we have known that photosynthetic systems harvest solar energy with almost unit {\\it quantum efficiency}. However, recent experimental evidence of {\\it quantum coherence} during the excitonic energy transport in photosynthetic organisms challenges our understanding of this fundamental biological function. Currently, and despite numerous efforts, the causal connection between coherence and efficiency is still a matter of debate. We show, through the study of extensive simulations of quantum coherent transport on networks, that three dimensional structures characterized by centro-symmetric Hamiltonians are statistically more efficient than random arrangements. Moreover, we demonstrate that the experimental data available for the electronic Hamiltonians of the Fenna-Mathew-Olson (FMO) complex of sulfur bacteria and of the crypophyte PC645 complex of marine algae are consistent with this strong correlation of centro-symmetry with quantum efficiency. These results show that what appears to b...

  17. Characterization of ferric and ferrous iron transport systems in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Mey, Alexandra R; Leimbach, Andreas; Fisher, Carolyn F; Payne, Shelley M

    2006-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae has multiple iron acquisition systems, including TonB-dependent transport of heme and of the catechol siderophore vibriobactin. Strains defective in both of these systems grow well in laboratory media and in the infant mouse intestine, indicating the presence of additional iron acquisition systems. Previously uncharacterized potential iron transport systems, including a homologue of the ferrous transporter Feo and a periplasmic binding protein-dependent ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport system, termed Fbp, were identified in the V. cholerae genome sequence. Clones encoding either the Feo or the Fbp system exhibited characteristics of iron transporters: both repressed the expression of lacZ cloned under the control of a Fur-regulated promoter in Escherichia coli and also conferred growth on a Shigella flexneri mutant that has a severe defect in iron transport. Two other ABC transporters were also evaluated but were negative by these assays. Transport of radioactive iron by the Feo system into the S. flexneri iron transport mutant was stimulated by the reducing agent ascorbate, consistent with Feo functioning as a ferrous transporter. Conversely, ascorbate inhibited transport by the Fbp system, suggesting that it transports ferric iron. The growth of V. cholerae strains carrying mutations in one or more of the potential iron transport genes indicated that both Feo and Fbp contribute to iron acquisition. However, a mutant defective in the vibriobactin, Fbp, and Feo systems was not attenuated in a suckling mouse model, suggesting that at least one other iron transport system can be used in vivo.

  18. Multi-Dimensional Geometric Complexity in Urban Transportation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Peiravian, Farideddin

    2015-01-01

    Transportation networks serve as windows into the complex world of urban systems. By properly characterizing a road network, we can therefore better understand its encompassing urban system. This study offers a geometrical approach towards capturing inherent properties of urban road networks. It offers a robust and efficient methodology towards defining and extracting three relevant indicators of road networks: area, line, and point thresholds, through measures of their grid equivalents. By applying the methodology to 50 U.S. urban systems, we successfully observe differences between eastern versus western, coastal versus inland, and old versus young, cities. Moreover, we show that many socio-economic characteristics as well as travel patterns within urban systems are directly correlated with their corresponding area, line, and point thresholds.

  19. The new control system of HLS linac and transport line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gong-Fa; LI Wei-Min; LI Jing-Yi; LI Chuan; CHEN Li-Ping; BAO Xun; WANG Ji-Gang; XUAN Ke

    2005-01-01

    The new linac and transport line control system of Hefei Light Source (HLS) is a distributed control system based on EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System). Industrial PC (IPC) is widely used as not only Input/Output Controller (IOC) but also device controller. Besides industrial PC, PLC and microcontroller are also used as device controllers. The software for industrial PC based device controller is developed based on VxWorks real-time operating system. The software for PLC and microcontroller are written with ladder software package and assemble language, respectively. PC with Linux and SUN workstation with Solaris are used as operator interfaces (OPI). High level control is made up of some EPICS tools and Tcl/Tk scripts.

  20. Macropore system characteristics controls on non-reactive solute transport at different flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsbo, Mats; Koestel, John

    2014-05-01

    Preferential flow and transport in macroporous soils are important pathways for the leaching of agrochemicals through soils. Preferential solute transport in soil is to a large extent determined by the macropore system characteristics and the water flow conditions. The importance of different characteristics of the macropore system is likely to vary with the flow conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which properties of the macropore system that control the shape of non-reactive tracer solute breakthrough curves at different steady-state flow rates. We sampled five undisturbed columns (20 cm high, 20 cm diameter) from the soil surface of four soils with clay contents between 21 and 50 %. Solute transport experiments were carried out under unsaturated conditions at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 mm h-1 flow rates. For each flow rate a pulse of potassium bromide solution was applied at the soil surface and the electrical conductivity was measured with high temporal resolution in the column effluent. We used the 5 % arrival time and the holdback factor to estimate the degree of preferential transport from the resulting breakthrough curves. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivities were measured at the soil surface of the columns using a tension disc infiltrometer. The macropore system was imaged by industrial X-ray computed tomography at a resolution of 125 μm in all directions. Measures of the macropore system characteristics including measures of pore continuity were calculated from these images using the ImageJ software. Results show that the degree of preferential transport is generally increasing with flow rate when larger pores become active in the transport. The degree of preferential flow was correlated to measures of macropore topology. This study show that conclusions drawn from experiments carried out at one flow rate should generally not be extrapolated to other flow rates.

  1. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  2. Towards a reference architecture for a collaborative intelligent transport system infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osório, A.L.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The intelligent transport systems, which aim at providing smarter transport infrastructures and sustainable mobility, are deeply grounded on the Information and Communication Technologies. Current trends in the development of integrated complex systems, such as integrated road/highway concessions ma

  3. Benomyl inhibits phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phosphatase activity in a Glomus–cucumber symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Thingstrup, Ida; Jakobsen, Iver

    1996-01-01

    Short-term effects of benomyl on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus caledonium (Nicol. & Gerd.) Trappe and Gerdeman associated with Cucumis sativus L. were studied by measuring effects on fungal P transport and on fungal alkaline phosphatase activity. Mycorrhizal plants were grown in three...... compartment systems where nylon mesh was used to separate n root-free hyphal compartment (HC) and a root + hyphal compartment(RHC) from The main root compartment (RC). Non-mycorrhizal control plants were grown in similar growth units. After 6 wk benomyl was applied to the plants in three ways: as soil...... drenches to RHC or HC, or as u spray to the leaves. Benomyl was added in three concentrations. Equal amounts of 32P and 33P were added to the HC and to the RHC respectively, immediately after the application of benomyl. Plants were harvested 4–6 d later. Hyphal transport of 32P from the HC was inhibited...

  4. Digital Advertising System in Urban Transport System of Žilina Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madleňák Radovan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and information and communication technologies (ICT have changed everything: news, commerce, advertising, relating to others, getting information and transport too. It has changed how the people work, how they practice religion, how they date, how they spend the free time and how they travel. One of the technological innovations that are based on usage ICT in advertising space is digital signage. This article presents the results of research dedicated to investigate the relationships between customers-passengers and this new ICT technology in real environment. The results of the research stimulate the discussion about the future advertising practices in Žilina town. Based on the wide analysis of opportunities the digital signage technology in advertising practices, the presented marketing research investigates how passengers accept virtual advertising technology in urban transport system of Žilina town. Authors highlight the advantages of interactivity between digital signage technology and consumers. The conclusions of this article triggers further investigations in the area of the interactions between the digital advertising technology and passengers, and the passengers’ perception and acceptation of shopping activities on the basis of advertising in digital signage medias.

  5. Modeling elements of energy systems for thermal energy transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurygin A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heating industrial facilities and the residential sector in recent years is the economic and technical challenge. It has been noted that the efficiency of the heat generating equipment depends not only on its sophistication, fuel type, but also on work of the distributing network taking into account the thermal, hydraulic losses, characteristics and modes of use of heating objects – buildings and technological processes. Possibility of supplying maximum heat flow from the heating system considering mismatch of highs and types of resources consumed from individual consumers should be provided by the right choice of energy equipment set, as well as bandwidth of transport systems and possibility of its regulation. It is important not just to configure the system to work effectively in the current mode (usually at the maximum load, but in the entire load range, as the calculated mode often takes a relatively small portion of the operating time. Thus, the efficiency of heating systems is largely determined by the method used for its control, including the possibility of regulating the main units and elements of the system. The paper considers the factors affecting the system efficiency. Mathematical models of the system elements allowing adjust the amount of released heat energy for consumers have been presented. Separately the mathematical model of the control system of electric drive vehicles used in the system has been considered and implemented.

  6. Hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems for transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.; Doss, E.D.; Kumar, R.

    1998-10-19

    The performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system that is fueled directly by hydrogen has been evaluated for transportation vehicles. The performance was simulated using a systems analysis code and a vehicle analysis code. The results indicate that, at the design point for a 50-kW PEFC system, the system efficiency is above 50%. The efficiency improves at partial load and approaches 60% at 40% load, as the fuel cell operating point moves to lower current densities on the voltage-current characteristic curve. At much lower loads, the system efficiency drops because of the deterioration in the performance of the compressor, expander, and, eventually, the fuel cell. The results also indicate that the PEFC system can start rapidly from ambient temperatures. Depending on the specific weight of the fuel cell (1.6 kg/kW in this case), the system takes up to 180s to reach its design operating conditions. The PEFC system has been evaluated for three mid-size vehicles: the 1995 Chrysler Sedan, the near-term Ford AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, and the future P2000 vehicle. The results show that the PEFC system can meet the demands of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule and the Highway driving cycles, for both warm and cold start-up conditions. The results also indicate that the P2000 vehicle can meet the fuel economy goal of 80 miles per gallon of gasoline (equivalent).

  7. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts ...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  8. An Interactive Energy System with Grid, Heating and Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker

    is required. The models developed in this thesis include different features (thermal, mechanical, chemical…) which are not normally considered in the traditional power system modelling. In this sense, they are intended to serve as a reference for the new researchers starting in the field. Moreover, the grid......: thermostatic loads (electric water heaters and heat pumps), loads for hydrogen generation (alkaline electrolyzers) and load for electric mobility (plug-in and vehicle-to-grid concepts). Many of these are considered domestic loads and they fulfill certain need to the household they belong. Depending on the user...... requirements, these may perform a different power consumption patterns. In this context, the thermal comfort or mobility needs from Danish users are statistically analyzed. The outcome is used to generate random profiles that define the different thermal and mobility requirements from the users of a network...

  9. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-06-27

    To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. By using data from the Health section of 2008's Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil's National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making. Apresentar estimativas nacionais sobre o deslocamento a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho no Brasil e em 10 de suas regiões metropolitanas. Utilizando dados do Suplemento sobre Saúde da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios de 2008, estimamos a frequência de pessoas empregadas que se deslocam a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho estratificada por sexo, e segundo faixa etária, escolaridade, renda domiciliar per capita, residência em área urbana ou rural, regiões metropolitanas e macrorregiões do país. Adicionalmente, estimamos a distribuição da mesma frequ

  10. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  11. Geometric feasibility of flexible cask transportation system for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, P.; Ribeiro, M.I.; Aparicio, P. [Instituto Superior Tecnico-Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1998-07-01

    One of the remote operations that has to be carried out in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the transportation of sealed casks between the various ports of the Tokamak Building (TB) and the Hot Cell Building (HCB). The casks may contain different in-vessel components (e.g. blanket modules, divertors) and are designed for a maximum load of about 80 ton. To improve the safety and flexibility of ITER Remote Handling (RH) transport vehicles, the cask is not motorized by itself, but instead, a motorized platform carrying the cask was proposed. This paper addresses the geometric feasibility of the flexible cask transportation system, taking into account the vehicle kinematics. The feasibility issues studied include planning smooth paths to increase safety, the discussion of building constraints by the evaluation of the vehicle spanned areas when following a planned path, and the analysis of the clearance required to remove the platform from underneath the cask at different possible failure locations. Simulation results are presented for the recommended trajectory, the spanned area and the rescue manoeuvres at critical locations along the path. (authors)

  12. Flow Transport in Microtubes Inspired by Insect Respiratory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelkaasem, Yasser; Staples, Anne

    2010-11-01

    The mechanics of insect respiration and tracheal ventilation generally follow either highly discontinuous, or cyclic gas exchange patterns. In the former, gases are exchanged by diffusion, while in the latter, recent imaging of internal respiratory flow dynamics in insects performed at the x-ray synchrotron imaging facility at Argonne indicates that convective gas exchange is accomplished by changes in internal pressure due to rhythmic compressions of the tracheal tubes that comprise the respiratory network. These localized tracheal compressions are induced by global body movements and are used to enhance the oxygen transport to the tissue. Inspired by the dynamics of insect respiratory networks in the cyclic gas exchange regime, we study fluid transport in a mixed rigid/elastic microtube that undergoes localized single and multiple periodic collapses. The latter induces a streaming of flows and therefore enhances convection and flow transport in the tube downstream of the collapse site. The shape of the microtube, the material properties, and the compression and reinflation spatial and temporal profiles are selected to mimic those observed in insect tracheal tubes. A low Reynolds number assumption and lubrication theory are used to develop a mathematical model for the system. The effects of tube shape, collapse amplitude, collapse-to-collapse distance, and collapse phase lags on the net flow rate, pressure gradient, wall shear stress, velocity are investigated.

  13. Transport diffusion in one dimensional molecular systems: Power law and validity of Fick's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-cheng; Zheng, Dong-qin; Ai, Bao-quan; Hu, Bambi; Zhong, Wei-rong

    2015-10-01

    The transport diffusion in one-dimensional molecular systems is investigated through non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. We have proposed the power law relationship of the transport diffusion coefficient with the temperature, the mass and the transport length, D* ∝ T*m*-1L*β, where β equals to 0.8 for small systems and zero for large systems. It is found that Fick's law is valid in long transport length but invalid in short transport length. Our results can provide a new perspective for understanding the microscopic mechanism of the molecular transport phenomena in low-dimensional systems.

  14. Multi-level examination of correlates of active transportation to school among youth living within 1 mile of their school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gropp Kathleen M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transportation to school is a method by which youth can build physical activity into their daily routines. We examined correlates of active transportation to school at both individual- (characteristics of the individual and family and area- (school and neighborhood levels amongst youth living within 1 mile (1.6 km of their school. Methods Using the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC survey, we selected records of students (n = 3 997 from 161 schools that resided in an urban setting and lived within 1 mile from their school. Student records were compiled from: (1 individual-level HBSC student questionnaires; (2 area-level administrator (school questionnaires; and (3 area-level geographic information system data sources. The outcome, active transportation to school, was determined via a questionnaire item describing the method of transportation that individual students normally use to get to school. Analyses focused on factors at multiple levels that potentially contribute to student decisions to engage in active transportation. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were employed. Results Approximately 18% of the variance in active transportation was accounted for at the area-level. Several individual and family characteristics were associated with engagement in active transportation to school including female gender (RR vs. males = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.91, having ≥2 cars in the household (RR vs. no cars = 0.87, 0.74-0.97, and family socioeconomic status (RR for ‘not well off’ vs. ‘very well off’ = 1.14, 1.01-1.26. Neighborhood characteristics most strongly related to active transportation were: the length of roads in the 1 km buffer (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.23, 1.00-1.42, the amount of litter in the neighborhood (RR for ‘major problem’ vs. ‘no problem’ = 1.47, 1.16-1.57, and relatively hot climates (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1

  15. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  16. Fano interference governs wave transport in disordered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubny, Alexander N; Rybin, Mikhail V; Limonov, Mikhail F; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-06-26

    Light localization in disordered systems and Bragg scattering in regular periodic structures are considered traditionally as two entirely opposite phenomena: disorder leads to degradation of coherent Bragg scattering whereas Anderson localization is suppressed by periodicity. Here we reveal a non-trivial link between these two phenomena, through the Fano interference between Bragg scattering and disorder-induced scattering, that triggers both localization and de-localization in random systems. We find unexpected transmission enhancement and spectrum inversion when the Bragg stop-bands are transformed into the Bragg pass-bands solely owing to disorder. Fano resonances are always associated with coherent scattering in regular systems, but our discovery of disorder-induced Fano resonances may provide novel insights into many features of the transport phenomena of photons, phonons, and electrons. Owning to ergodicity, the Fano resonance is a fingerprint feature for any realization of the structure with a certain degree of disorder.

  17. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Fayez K. Ghishan; Liqun Bai

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas,skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestivesystem have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs.

  18. Intelligent transportation systems dependable vehicular communications for improved road safety

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Joaquim; Fonseca, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge work on the most challenging research issues concerning intelligent transportation systems (ITS), introducing selected, highly relevant advanced research on scheduling and real-time communication for vehicular networks, as well as fault tolerance, test beds and simulations for ITS. The authors define new architectures that support cooperative sensing in ITS and offer guidance for the development of a reference end-to-end implementation. The presented results allow advanced traffic and travel management strategies to be formulated on the basis of reliable and real-time input data. The effectiveness of these new strategies, together with the proposed systems, is assessed in field trials and via simulations. The chapters in this book detail new research findings, algorithms, protocols, and the development of an implementation platform for ITS that merges and integrates heterogeneous data sources into a common system. In addition, they provide a set of advanced tools for the contro...

  19. Accessibility of a Destination-Based Transportation System: A Large Airport Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jing; YING Xiwen

    2008-01-01

    The accessibility of a destination-based transportation system is defined to quantify the perform-ance of transportation systems which access a distinct destination. The access cost is used to reflect the utility of the transportation system including the fatigue and inconvenience in the total cost. The cost is quan-tified by two coefficients which represent the different characteristics of various people. The average cost and the income-relative accessibility are used to describe various aspects of the accessibility and to evaluate the accessibility of a destination-based system. A case study uses data from the Kunming transpor-tation system to evaluate the accessibility of the present city airport. The calibrated coefficients are then used to evaluate the transportation system to the new Kunming international airport. The results show that this transportation accessibility evaluation can be combined with transportation planning to study transporta-tion sub-systems.

  20. Applicability of the SCALE code system to MOX fuel transport systems for criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Naito, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Takasugi, Masahiro; Natsume, Toshihiro; Tsuda, Kazuaki

    1996-11-01

    In order to ascertain feasibilities of the SCALE code system for MOX fuel transport systems, criticality analyses were performed for MOX fuel (Pu enrichment; 3.0 wt.%) criticality experiments at JAERI`s TCA and for infinite fuel rod arrays as parameters of Pu enrichment and lattice pitch. The comparison with a combination of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP and JENDL-3.2 indicated that the SCALE code system with GAM-THERMOS 123-group library can produce feasible results. Though HANSEN-ROACH 16-group library gives poorer results for MOS fuel transport systems, the errors are conservative except for high enriched fuels. (author)