WorldWideScience

Sample records for active surveillance study

  1. Active prospective surveillance study with post-discharge surveillance of surgical site infections in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Barriers to the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines for surgical site infection (SSI surveillance have been described in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to estimate the SSI incidence rate in a Cambodian hospital and to compare different modalities of SSI surveillance. We performed an active prospective study with post-discharge surveillance. During the hospital stay, trained surveyors collected the CDC criteria to identify SSI by direct examination of the surgical site. After discharge, a card was given to each included patient to be presented to all practitioners examining the surgical site. Among 167 patients, direct examination of the surgical site identified a cumulative incidence rate of 14 infections per 100 patients. An independent review of medical charts presented a sensitivity of 16%. The sensitivity of the purulent drainage criterion to detect SSIs was 83%. After hospital discharge, 87% of the patients provided follow-up data, and nine purulent drainages were reported by a practitioner (cumulative incidence rate: 20%. Overall, the incidence rate was dependent on the surveillance modalities. The review of medical charts to identify SSIs during hospitalization was not effective; the use of a follow-up card with phone calls for post-discharge surveillance was effective. Keywords: Surgical wound infection, Cambodia, Infection control, Developing countries, Follow-up studies, Feasibility studies

  2. From active surveillance to active survivor: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo Pihl, Gitte; Øbro, Louise Faurholt; Ammentorp, Jette

    2018-01-01

    cancer patients in improving their lifestyle. Health communication research suggests that coaching can motivate lifestyle changes, but often the patients indicate that they do not find lifestyle changes relevant. The first step thus seemed to be improving the patients’ consciousness about own lifestyle....... For this step, we found self-tracking useful. Self-tracking is “the practice of systematically recording information about one’s diet, health, or activities, typically by means of a mobile phone, so as to discover behavioral patterns that may then be adjusted to help improve one’s physical or mental well...

  3. International Active Surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Dinger, Juergen C; Bardenheuer, Kristina; Assmann, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A 24-day regimen of contraceptive doses of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE 24d) was recently launched. This regimen has properties which may be beneficial for certain user populations (e.g., women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder or acne). However, it is unknown whether this extended regimen has an impact on the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). The INternational Active Surveillance study of women taking Oral...

  4. European active surveillance study of women taking HRT (EURAS-HRT: study protocol [NCT00214903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinemann Lothar AJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The post marketing safety surveillance program for a drug containing a new chemical entity should assess both, the safety outcomes that relate specifically to the targeted population, as well as those that could potentially be related to special pharmacological characteristics of the drug. Active safety surveillance using valid epidemiological study designs has been proven to be a pertinent and reliable method to approach this endeavor. Methods/design The primary objective of the study is to compare incidence rates of serious adverse events in users of all types of newly prescribed oral HRT products. This active surveillance study will assess pertinent cardiovascular outcomes - in particular venous and arterial thromboembolism - and other serious adverse events (SAEs in new HRT users over a period of several years. One product under surveillance is Angeliq®, which contains the novel progestagen drospirenone (DRSP combined with estradiol. In addition, all other oral combined HRT products with a novel progestagen or estrogen that will be newly marketed during the study period will be studied. These new HRT products will be compared with established HRT products. The combined cohort will include at least 30,000 women recruited in several European countries. At least 90,000 years of observation are expected from the field work which started in early 2002 and will end around 2008. The participating women will complete a baseline survey using a self-administered questionnaire to describe the baseline risk. After 6 months, 12 months, and then on an annual basis, they will fill out a questionnaire in which they record complaints and events during the use of the prescribed HRTs. All adverse outcomes occurring during the observational period will be evaluated. Discussion A complete lifetime medical history, individually validated SAEs over time, and a low loss to follow-up rate are essential for a robust safety assessment. Therefore

  5. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  6. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Sexual Dysfunction in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane M. Pearce, MD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA‐SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. Pearce SM, Wang CHE, Victorson DE, Helfand BT, Novakovic KR, Brendler CB, and Albaugh JA. A longitudinal study of predictors of sexual dysfunction in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. Sex Med 2015;3:156–164.

  8. International Active Surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assmann Anita

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 24-day regimen of contraceptive doses of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE 24d was recently launched. This regimen has properties which may be beneficial for certain user populations (e.g., women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder or acne. However, it is unknown whether this extended regimen has an impact on the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs. The INternational Active Surveillance study of women taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC is designed to investigate the short- and long-term safety of the new regimen in a population which is representative for the typical user of oral contraceptives. Methods/Design A large, prospective, controlled, non-interventional, long-term cohort study with active surveillance of the study participants has been chosen to ensure reliable and valid results. More than 2,000 gynecologists in the US and 5 European countries (Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden will recruit more than 80,000 OC users. The two to five year follow-up of these women will result in at least 220,000 documented women-years. The main clinical outcomes of interest for the follow-up are deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents. Secondary objectives are general safety, effectiveness and drug utilization pattern of DRSP/EE 24d, return to fertility after stop of OC use, as well as the baseline risk for users of individual OC formulations. Because of the non-interference character of this study, potential participants (first-time users or switchers are informed about the study only after the decision regarding prescription of a new OC. There are no specific medical inclusion or exclusion criteria. Study participation is voluntary and a written informed consent is required. After the baseline questionnaire, follow-up questionnaires will be mailed to the participants every 6 months for up to 5 years after

  9. International Active Surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Juergen C; Bardenheuer, Kristina; Assmann, Anita

    2009-11-18

    A 24-day regimen of contraceptive doses of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE 24d) was recently launched. This regimen has properties which may be beneficial for certain user populations (e.g., women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder or acne). However, it is unknown whether this extended regimen has an impact on the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). The INternational Active Surveillance study of women taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC) is designed to investigate the short- and long-term safety of the new regimen in a population which is representative for the typical user of oral contraceptives. A large, prospective, controlled, non-interventional, long-term cohort study with active surveillance of the study participants has been chosen to ensure reliable and valid results. More than 2,000 gynecologists in the US and 5 European countries (Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden) will recruit more than 80,000 OC users. The two to five year follow-up of these women will result in at least 220,000 documented women-years. The main clinical outcomes of interest for the follow-up are deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents. Secondary objectives are general safety, effectiveness and drug utilization pattern of DRSP/EE 24d, return to fertility after stop of OC use, as well as the baseline risk for users of individual OC formulations. Because of the non-interference character of this study, potential participants (first-time users or switchers) are informed about the study only after the decision regarding prescription of a new OC. There are no specific medical inclusion or exclusion criteria. Study participation is voluntary and a written informed consent is required. After the baseline questionnaire, follow-up questionnaires will be mailed to the participants every 6 months for up to 5 years after baseline. Self-reported serious adverse events

  10. Inventory of surveillance systems assessing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Europe: a DEDIPAC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Huybrechts, Inge; Thumann, Barbara F; Hebestreit, Antje; Abuja, Peter M; de Henauw, Stefaan; Dubuisson, Carine; Heuer, Thorsten; Murrin, Celine M; Lazzeri, Giacomo; van Rossum, Caroline; Andersen, Lene F; Szeklicki, Robert; Vioque, Jesús; Berry, Rachel; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for harmonized public health surveillance systems to monitor regional variations and temporal trends of health behaviours and health outcomes and to align policies, action plans and recommendations in terms of healthy diet and physical (in)activity within Europe. We provide an

  11. Active surveillance of bat rabies in France: a 5-year study (2004-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Picard-Meyer , Evelyne; Dubourg-Savage , Marie-Jo; Arthur , Laurent; Barataud , Michel; Bécu , David; Bracco , Sandrine; Borel , Christophe; Larcher , Gérald; Meme-Lafond , Benjamin; Moinet , Marie; Robardet , Emmanuelle; Wasniewski , Marine; Cliquet , Florence

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Active surveillance of bats in France started in 2004 with an analysis of 18 of the 45 bat species reported in Europe. Rabies antibodies were detected in six indigenous species, mainly in Eptesicus serotinus and Myotis myotis, suggesting previous contact with the EBLV-1 rabies virus. Nineteen of the 177 tested bats were shown serologically positive in seven sites, particularly in central and south-western France. Neither infectious viral particles nor viral genomes were de...

  12. Mining geographic variations of Plasmodium vivax for active surveillance: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Benyun; Tan, Qi; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liu, Jiming

    2015-05-27

    , the proposed space-time model is general and can readily be extended to investigate geographic variations of other diseases. Practically, such a computational model will offer new insights into active surveillance and strategic planning for disease surveillance and control.

  13. Active surveillance for clinically localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Brasso, Klaus; Klotz, Laurence H

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as an observational strategy to delay or avoid curative treatment without compromising long-term cancer-specific survival. The 10 studies included in this review, published between 2008 and 2013, generally agreed upon patients selection for the AS stra......Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as an observational strategy to delay or avoid curative treatment without compromising long-term cancer-specific survival. The 10 studies included in this review, published between 2008 and 2013, generally agreed upon patients selection...

  14. Incidence of transfusion reactions: a multi-center study utilizing systematic active surveillance and expert adjudication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Jeanne E.; Roubinian, Nareg H.; Chowdhury, Dhuly; Brambilla, Don; Murphy, Edward L.; Wu, Yanyun; Ness, Paul M.; Gehrie, Eric A.; Snyder, Edward L.; Hauser, R. George; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Kleinman, Steve; Kakaiya, Ram; Strauss, Ronald G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Prevalence estimates of serious hazards of transfusion vary widely. We hypothesized that the current reporting infrastructure in the United States fails to capture many transfusion reactions, and undertook a multi-center study utilizing active surveillance, data review, and adjudication to test this hypothesis. Study Design and Methods A retrospective record review was completed for a random sample of 17% of all inpatient transfusion episodes over 6 months at 4 academic tertiary care hospitals, with an episode defined as all blood products released to a patient in 6 hours. Data were recorded by trained clinical research nurses, and serious reactions were adjudicated by a panel of transfusion medicine experts. Results Of 4857 transfusion episodes investigated, 1.1% were associated with a serious reaction. Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) was the most frequent serious reaction noted, being identified in 1% of transfusion episodes. Despite clinical notes describing a potential transfusion association in 59% of these cases, only 5.1% were reported to the transfusion service. Suspected transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI/possible TRALI), anaphylactic, and hypotensive reactions were noted in 0.08%, 0.02%, and 0.02% of transfusion episodes. Minor reactions, including febrile non-hemolytic and allergic, were noted in 0.62% and 0.29% of transfusion episodes, with 30–50% reported to the transfusion service. Conclusion Underreporting of cardiopulmonary transfusion reactions is striking among academic, tertiary care hospitals. Complete and accurate reporting is essential to identify, define, establish pathogenesis, and mitigate/treat transfusion reactions. A better understanding of the failure to report may improve the accuracy of passive reporting systems. PMID:27460200

  15. Protocol for hospital based-surveillance of cerebral palsy (CP) in Hanoi using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance mechanism (PAEDS-Vietnam): a study towards developing hospital-based disease surveillance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Gulam; Van Bang, Nguyen; Dũng, Trịnh Quang; Giang, Nguyen Thi Huong; Chau, Cao Minh; Van Anh, Nguyen Thi; Van Thuong, Nguyen; Badawi, Nadia; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-11-09

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, management and outcomes of cerebral palsy (CP) in low-income and middle-income countries including Vietnam are unknown because of the lack of mechanisms for standardised collection of data. In this paper, we outline the protocol for developing a hospital-based surveillance system modelled on the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) system in Australia. Using PAEDS-Vietnam we will define the aetiology, motor function and its severity, associated impairments, and nutritional and rehabilitation status of children with CP in Hanoi, Vietnam. These essential baseline data will inform future health service planning, health professional education and training, and family support. This is a hospital-based prospective surveillance of children with CP presenting to the rehabilitation, neurology and general paediatric services at the National Children's Hospital and St Paul Hospital in Hanoi. We will use active, prospective daily case-finding for all children with CP aged CP, known risk factors for CP, and nutrition, immunisation, education and rehabilitation status. This study was approved by the Hanoi Medical University Institutional Review Board (decision no 1722) and The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (approval no 2016/456). Establishment of PAEDS-Vietnam will enable hospital-based surveillance of CP for the first time in Vietnam. It will identify preventable causes of CP, patient needs and service gaps, and facilitate early diagnosis and intervention. Study findings will be disseminated through local and international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Sexual Dysfunction in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Shane M; Wang, Chi-Hsiung E; Victorson, David E; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian R; Brendler, Charles B; Albaugh, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual dysfunction, repeat biopsies and other demographic and clinical factors in men on active surveillance (AS). Methods Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measures were administered at enrollment and every 6 months to assess quality of life (QOL), psychosocial and urological health outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we examined the impact of repeat biopsies, total number of cores taken, anxiety, age, and comorbidity on sexual function over the first 24 months of enrolling in AS. Main Outcome Measures PROs included the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26) Sexual Function (SF) subscale, the American Urological Association-Symptom Index (AUA-SI), and the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). Results At enrollment (n = 195), mean age was 66.5 ± 6.8 with a mean EPIC-26 SF score of 61.4 ± 30.4. EPIC-26 SF scores steadily decreased to 53.9 ± 30.7 at 24 months (P < 0.01). MAX-PC scores also progressively decreased over time (P = 0.03). Factors associated with lower EPIC-26 scores over time included age, unemployed status, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (all P < 0.05). Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was associated with a more rapid decline in EPIC-26 SF over time (P = 0.03). In multivariable analysis, age, diabetes, and PSA × time interaction remained significant predictors of diminished sexual function. Anxiety, number of biopsies, and total cores taken did not predict sexual dysfunction or change over time in our cohort. Conclusions Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA-SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. PMID:26468379

  17. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  18. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Berg, Kasper D; Røder, M Andreas

    2015-01-01

    and costs of AS in patients with localized PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 317 PCa patients were followed in a prospective, single-arm AS cohort. The primary outcomes were number of patient contacts, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, biopsies, hospital admissions due to biopsy complications......OBJECTIVE: Evidence supports active surveillance (AS) as a means to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The consequences of close and long-standing follow-up with regard to outpatient visits, tests and repeated biopsies are widely unknown. This study investigated the trajectory...

  19. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, Mathias; Thomsen, Frederik B; Iversen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    risk of biochemical recurrence were investigated and compared in men with very low-risk, low-risk and intermediate-risk PCa in the cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 451 men were followed on AS and monitored with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations and rebiopsies......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of active surveillance (AS) is to reduce overtreatment of men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) without compromising survival. The objective of this study was to update a large Scandinavian single-center AS cohort. Furthermore, the use of curative treatment and subsequent...

  20. Critical Surveillance Studies in the Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Allmer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to clarify how we can theorize and systemize economic surveillance. Surveillance studies scholars like David Lyon stress that economic surveillance such as monitoring consumers or the workplace are central aspects of surveillance societies. The approach that is advanced in this work recognizes the importance of the role of the economy in contemporary surveillance societies. The paper at hand constructs theoretically founded typologies in order to systemize the existing literature of surveillance studies and to analyze examples of surveillance. Therefore, it mainly is a theoretical approach combined with illustrative examples. This contribution contains a systematic discussion of the state of the art of surveillance and clarifies how different notions treat economic aspects of surveillance. In this work it is argued that the existing literature is insufficient for studying economic surveillance. In contrast, a typology of surveillance in the modern economy, which is based on foundations of a political economy approach, allows providing a systematic analysis of economic surveillance on the basis of current developments on the Internet. Finally, some political recommendations are drawn in order to overcome economic surveillance. This contribution can be fruitful for scholars who want to undertake a systematic analysis of surveillance in the modern economy and who want to study the field of surveillance critically.

  1. Reviewing surveillance activities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    This document provides guidance to Operational Safety Review Teams (OSARTs) for reviewing surveillance activities at a nuclear power plant. In addition, the document contains reference material to support the review of surveillance activities, to assist within the Technical Support area and to ensure consistency between individual reviews. Drafts of the document have already been used on several OSART missions and found to be useful. The document first considers the objectives of an excellent surveillance programme. Investigations to determine the quality of the surveillance programme are then discussed. The attributes of an excellent surveillance programme are listed. Advice follows on how to phrase questions so as to obtain an informative response on surveillance features. Finally, specific equipment is mentioned that should be considered when reviewing functional tests. Four annexes provide examples drawn from operating nuclear power plants. They were selected to supplement the main text of the document with the best international practices as found in OSART reviews. They should in no way limit the acceptance and development of alternative approaches that lead to equivalent or better results. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: Is it ready for primetime in the Caribbean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Persaud

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Active surveillance should not be universally rejected in black men and perhaps further study is needed to determine race-specific recommendations. Until then, discussion with the patient should reflect the potential pitfalls for black men on active surveillance.

  3. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer Patients Suitable for Active Surveillance: A North American Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschini, Marco; Fossati, Nicola; Sood, Akshay; Lee, Justin K; Sammon, Jesse; Sun, Maxine; Pucheril, Dan; Dalela, Deepansh; Montorsi, Francesco; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Briganti, Alberto; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Abdollah, Firas

    2016-06-14

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a recommended treatment option for prostate cancer (PCa) patients with clinically localized, low-risk disease; however, previous studies suggested that its utilization is uncommon in the United States. We evaluated the nationwide utilization rate of AS in the contemporary era. We relied on the 2010-2011 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database using all 18 SEER-based registries. We identified 9049 patients that fulfilled the University of California, San Francisco AS criteria (prostate-specific antigen level <10ng/ml, clinical T stage ≤2a, Gleason score ≤6 [no pattern 4 or 5], and percentage of positive biopsy cores <33%). Logistic regression analysis tested the relationship between receiving local treatment and all available predictors. Only 32% of AS candidates did not receive any active local treatment. This proportion varied widely among the SEER-based registries, ranging from 13% to 49% (p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, clinical stage T2a (odds ratio [OR]: 1.23; p=0.04) and percentage of positive cores (OR: 1.10 for each 2% increase; p<0.001) were associated with a higher probability of receiving local treatment. Conversely, older age (OR: 0.89 for each 2-yr increase; p<0.001), not being married (OR: 0.64; p<0.001), and uninsured status (OR: 0.55; p=0.008) were associated with a lower probability of receiving active local treatment. The study is limited by the fact that SEER does not distinguish among patients undergoing observation, AS, watchful waiting, or initial hormonal therapy. In the United States, a considerable proportion of patients suitable for AS receive local treatment for PCa. Proportions differ significantly among SEER registries. Having more extensive and palpable disease, having medical insurance, being married, and being younger are associated with an increased probability of receiving local treatment for low-risk prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 European

  4. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  5. Evaluation of health surveillance activities of hajj 2013 in the hajj embarkation Palangkaraya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan Virgo Hoesea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Meningococcal meningitis and MERS-CoV is a disease that can be transmitted to a wary pilgrim considering the high incidence of both diseases in the Middle East region. This study was conducted to evaluate the surveillance activities conducted at embarkation Palangkaraya pilgrimage between 2013 and assess the surveillance activities based on the attributes of surveillance and barriers that occur in the implementation of activities. Experiment was conducted with descriptive design using quantitative approach. Questionnaires were completed at 6 implementing surveillance activities. Interviews were conducted to obtain information about the variables under study includes data collection, processing, analysis and interpretation, dissemination of information and surveillance attributes such as simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, positive predictive value, representatif, timeliness, data quality and data stability. Implementation health surveillance in the hajj embarkation Palangkaraya in 2013 showed all stages of the surveillance activities have been conducted in accordance with the procedures as well as evaluating surveillance activities in accordance attribute shows all the attributes of surveillance can be assessed, unless the sensitivity and positive predictive value because no cases of meningococcal meningitis. Conclusion that the implementation of health surveillance activities Hajj has been running quite well based approach to surveillance and surveillance attributes. The report has been used by the agency activities related to the activities of hajj embarkation. Need to increase the quantity and quality of manpower resources and facilities Keywords: disease transmission, hajj health surveillance, assessment                             attributes

  6. Prospective Cohort Study with Active Surveillance for Fever in Four Dengue Endemic Countries in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Gustavo; Arredondo, Jose L.; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Deseda, Carmen C.; Dietze, Reynaldo; Luz, Kleber; Costa, Maria Selma N.; Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Rey, Luis C.; Morales, Javier; Reynales, Humberto; Miranda, Maria; Zambrano, Betzana; Rivas, Enrique; Garbes, Pedro; Noriega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To prepare for a Phase III dengue vaccine efficacy trial, 20 investigational sites were selected for this observational study to identify dengue infections in a closed cohort (N = 3,000 children 9–16 years of age). Of 255 acute febrile episodes experienced by 235 children, 50 (21.3%) were considered serologically probable dengue, and 18 (7.7%) were considered virologically confirmed (i.e., dengue NS1 antigen positive) dengue cases. Considering the disease-free and at-risk period from study start to onset of symptoms, the overall incidence density of acute febrile episodes was 17.7 per 100 person-years of follow-up, ranging from 15.3 in Colombia to 22.0 in Puerto Rico. This study showed that all sites were capable of capturing and following up acute febrile episodes within a specific timeframe among the established cohort and to detect dengue cases. PMID:26013373

  7. Decision Support and Shared Decision Making About Active Surveillance Versus Active Treatment Among Men Diagnosed with Low-Risk Prostate Cancer: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ronald E; Leader, Amy E; Censits, Jean Hoffman; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Keith, Scott W; Petrich, Anett M; Quinn, Anna M; Den, Robert B; Hurwitz, Mark D; Lallas, Costas D; Hegarty, Sarah E; Dicker, Adam P; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M; Giri, Veda N; Ayaz, Hasan; Gomella, Leonard G

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of a decision support intervention (DSI) and shared decision making (SDM) on knowledge, perceptions about treatment, and treatment choice among men diagnosed with localized low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). At a multidisciplinary clinic visit, 30 consenting men with localized low-risk PCa completed a baseline survey, had a nurse-mediated online DS session to clarify preference for active surveillance (AS) or active treatment (AT), and met with clinicians for SDM. Participants also completed a follow-up survey at 30 days. We assessed change in treatment knowledge, decisional conflict, and perceptions and identified predictors of AS. At follow-up, participants exhibited increased knowledge (p decision. Perceived support of the decision facilitated patient choice of AS.

  8. The SMART Study, a Mobile Health and Citizen Science Methodological Platform for Active Living Surveillance, Integrated Knowledge Translation, and Policy Interventions: Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun Reddy; Bhawra, Jasmin; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ferguson, Leah; Longo, Justin; Rainham, Daniel; Larouche, Richard; Osgood, Nathaniel

    2018-03-27

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)-enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let's move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions. This methodology paper enumerates the SMART Study platform's conceptualization, design, implementation, data collection procedures, analytical strategies, and potential for informing policy interventions. This longitudinal investigation was designed to engage participants (ie, citizen scientists) in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, in four different seasons across 3 years. In spring 2017, pilot data collection was conducted, where 317 adult citizen scientists (≥18 years) were recruited in person and online. Citizen scientists used a custom-built smartphone app, Ethica (Ethica Data Services Inc), for 8 consecutive days to provide a complex series of objective and subjective data. Citizen scientists answered a succession of validated surveys that were assigned different smartphone triggering mechanisms (eg, user-triggered and schedule-triggered). The validated surveys captured physical activity (PA), SB, motivation, perception of outdoor and indoor environment, and eudaimonic well-being. Ecological momentary assessments were employed on each day to capture not only PA but also physical and social contexts along with barriers and facilitators of PA, as relayed by citizen scientists using geo-coded pictures and audio files. To obtain a comprehensive objective picture of participant location, motion, and compliance, 6 types of sensor-based (eg, global positioning system and accelerometer) data

  9. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija

    2015-01-01

    by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases...

  10. The SMART Study, a Mobile Health and Citizen Science Methodological Platform for Active Living Surveillance, Integrated Knowledge Translation, and Policy Interventions: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ferguson, Leah; Longo, Justin; Rainham, Daniel; Larouche, Richard; Osgood, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)–enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). Objective The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let’s move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions. This methodology paper enumerates the SMART Study platform’s conceptualization, design, implementation, data collection procedures, analytical strategies, and potential for informing policy interventions. Methods This longitudinal investigation was designed to engage participants (ie, citizen scientists) in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, in four different seasons across 3 years. In spring 2017, pilot data collection was conducted, where 317 adult citizen scientists (≥18 years) were recruited in person and online. Citizen scientists used a custom-built smartphone app, Ethica (Ethica Data Services Inc), for 8 consecutive days to provide a complex series of objective and subjective data. Citizen scientists answered a succession of validated surveys that were assigned different smartphone triggering mechanisms (eg, user-triggered and schedule-triggered). The validated surveys captured physical activity (PA), SB, motivation, perception of outdoor and indoor environment, and eudaimonic well-being. Ecological momentary assessments were employed on each day to capture not only PA but also physical and social contexts along with barriers and facilitators of PA, as relayed by citizen scientists using geo-coded pictures and audio files. To obtain a comprehensive objective picture of participant location, motion, and compliance, 6 types of sensor-based (eg, global

  11. Current Management Strategy for Active Surveillance in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jamil S; Javier-Desloges, Juan; Tatzel, Stephanie; Bhagat, Ansh; Nguyen, Kevin A; Hwang, Kevin; Kim, Sarah; Sprenkle, Preston C

    2017-02-01

    Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings. Novel tools which include imaging, biomarkers, and genetic assays have been investigated as potential prognostic adjuncts; however, their role in active surveillance remains institutionally dependent. Although 30-50% of patients on active surveillance ultimately undergo delayed treatment, the vast majority will remain free of metastasis with a low risk of dying from prostate cancer. The optimal method for patient selection into active surveillance is unknown; however, cancer-specific mortality rates remain excellent. New prognostication tools are promising, and long-term prospective, randomized data regarding their use in active surveillance will be beneficial.

  12. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...... of different tampering events. In order to assess the developed methods we have collected a large data set, which contains sequences from different active cameras at different scenarios. We evaluate our sys- tem on these data and the results are encouraging with a very high detecting rate and relatively few...

  13. Influence of Individual Determinants on Physical Activity at Work and During Leisure Time in Soldiers: A Prospective Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Goethel, Pauline; Müller, Marie; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Quantified physical activity is an important parameter for evaluating the risk of the incidence of internal and musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical activity of German Soldiers on duty and during leisure time with regard to individual determinants and to evaluate if factors associated with the risk of the incidence of internal or musculoskeletal disorders are of relevance for physical activity. For this purpose, we conducted activity measurements on 169 subjects. The accelerometer-based activity sensor was worn for 7 consecutive days. The number of steps taken was evaluated as an activity marker.We observed that a high body mass index and a large waist circumference were associated with a low activity level. Women were found to be more active than men, particularly during leisure time. Personnel under 25 years of age were more physically active than those between 25 and 50 years of age. Subjects with underlying musculoskeletal disorders were less active than those who had internal disorders or were healthy. Men and overweight people run a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal and internal disorders. Health promotion should focus on raising the physical activity level with the aim of exerting a positive influence on the associated risk factors.

  14. How has early testicular cancer affected your life? A study of sexual function in men attending active surveillance for stage one testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Sue; Williams, Hilary; Braybrooke, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men, it is frequently diagnosed at key times in relationship formation. In early stage disease the vast majority of tumours will be cured by surgery alone with patients being offered active surveillance rather than adjuvant therapies. To date, research has not evaluated how surveillance alone impacts on sexual function. The aim of this quantitative longitudinal study was to ascertain the sexual function of men with stage one disease at 3 and 12 months post diagnosis and to compare with normative data. Additional data was collected on the information men sought regarding sexual function and media they used to access this. This study shows that men's sexual function is altered at diagnosis and improves by 3 months. At 12 months, whilst not statistically significant, sexual function improves but not to the same level as normative data comparison. Men appear to find verbal information useful at 3 months, however men appear to be seeking written and online information at 12 months. The intricacies of sexual function together with the low number of participants may have been best met with a qualitative approach. However, the information data indicates the importance of further research into the effects of early stage testicular cancer on sexual function. Therefore, further qualitative research is recommended to explore the effects of early stage testicular cancer in relation to sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring activities review of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    The 1992 Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) is directed at the Radiological Environment Surveillance Program (RESP) activities at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of Idaho Engineering Laboratory (INEL). MAR panelists studied RESP documents and discussed their concerns with Environmental Monitoring Unit (EMU) staff and other panel members. These concerns were subsequently consolidated into a collection of recommendations with supporting discussions. Recommendations focus on specific monitoring activities, as well as the overall program. The MAR report also contains pertinent comments that should not require further action

  16. Evaluation of Aryoseven Safety (Recombinant Activated Factor VII) in Patients with Bleeding Disorders (An Observational Post-Marketing Surveillance Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogeh, Gholamreza; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Eshghi, Peyman; Managhchi, Mohammadreza; Shaverdi-Niasari, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Katayoon; Roostaei, Samin; Emran, Neda; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII induces hemostasis in patients with coagulopathy disorders. AryoSeven™ as a safe Iranian Recombinant activated factor VII has been available on our market. This study was performed to establish the safety of AryoSeven on patients with coagulopathy disorder. This single-center, descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out in Thrombus and Homeostasis Research Center ValiAsr Hospital during 2013-2014. Fifty one patients with bleeding disorders who received at least one dose of Aryoseven were enrolled. Patients' demographic data and adverse effect of drug and reaction related to Aryoseven or previous usage of Recombinant activated FVII were recorded in questionnaires. Finally data were analyzed to compare side effects of Aryoseven and other Recombinant activated FVII brands. Aryoseven was prescribed for 51 Patients. Of all participants with mean age 57.18+21.38 yr, 31 cases were male and 26 subjects had past history of recombinant activated FVII usage. Glanzman was the most frequent disorder followed by congenital FVII deficiency, hemophilia with inhibitors, factor 5 deficiency, acquired hemophilia, hemophilia A with inhibitor, and hemophilia A or B with inhibitor. The majority of bleeding episodes had occurred in joints. Three patients (5.9%) complained about adverse effects of Aryoseven vs. 11.5 % about adverse effects of other brands. However this difference was not significant, statistically. Based on monitor patients closely for any adverse events, we concluded that Aryoseven administration under careful weighing of benefit versus potential harm may comparable with other counterpart drugs.

  17. Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Abhinav; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-03-14

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains-work, travel and leisure-in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Adult participants (n=640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4-47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide encouragement across all sociodemographic groups.

  18. An 11-year study of shigellosis and Shigella species in Taiyuan, China: Active surveillance, epidemic characteristics, and molecular serotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A hospital-based surveillance of shigellosis was conducted in Taiyuan from 2005 to 2015. A total of 2655 stool cultures were collected from patients with diarrhea, 115 were identified as S. flexneri and 107 were S. sonnei. The highest infection rates were found among children under 5 years of age (34.2 %, and during the summer (61.0 %. ​Six serotypes were identified among S. flexneriisolates:1a, 2a, 2b, Xv, X and Y. Serotype 2a and Xv were the dominant serotypes in two periods, 2012–2015 and 2005–2008, respectively. High shigellosis rates over the past decade highlight shigellosis is still a major public health problem in Taiyuan. Keywords: Shigellosis, Shigella, Infection rate, Serotypes, Molecular serotyping

  19. Active surveillance for influenza vaccine adverse events: the integrated vaccine surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Greece, Jacey; Bozeman, Sam; Walker, Deborah Klein; Lewis, Faith; Gidudu, Jane

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study of the Integrated Vaccine Surveillance System (IVSS), a novel active surveillance system for monitoring influenza vaccine adverse events that could be used in mass vaccination settings. We recruited 605 adult vaccinees from a convenience sample of 12 influenza vaccine clinics conducted by public health departments of two U.S. metropolitan regions. Vaccinees provided daily reports on adverse reactions following immunization (AEFI) using an interactive voice response system (IVR) or the internet for 14 consecutive days following immunization. Followup with nonrespondents was conducted through computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). Data on vaccinee reports were available real-time through a dedicated secure website. 90% (545) of vaccinees made at least one daily report and 49% (299) reported consecutively for the full 14-day period. 58% (315) used internet, 20% (110) IVR, 6% (31) CATI, and 16% (89) used a combination for daily reports. Of the 545 reporters, 339 (62%) reported one or more AEFI, for a total of 594 AEFIs reported. The majority (505 or 85%) of these AEFIs were mild symptoms. It is feasible to develop a system to obtain real-time data on vaccine adverse events. Vaccinees are willing to provide daily reports for a considerable time post vaccination. Offering multiple modes of reporting encourages high response rates. Study findings on AEFIs showed that the IVSS was able to exhibit the emerging safety profile of the 2008 seasonal influenza vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  1. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for...

  2. Cross-sectional surveillance study to phenotype lorry drivers’ sedentary behaviours, physical activity and cardio-metabolic health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; O’Shea, Orlagh; King, James A; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacy A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Elevated risk factors for a number of chronic diseases have been identified in lorry drivers. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as a lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (sitting) likely contribute to this elevated risk. This study behaviourally phenotyped UK lorry drivers’ sedentary and non-sedentary behaviours during workdays and non-workdays and examined markers of drivers cardio-metabolic health. Setting A transport company from the East Midlands, UK. Participants A sample of 159 male heavy goods vehicle drivers (91% white European; (median (range)) age: 50 (24, 67) years) completed the health assessments. 87 (age: 50.0 (25.0, 65.0); body mass index (BMI): 27.7 (19.6, 43.4) kg/m2) provided objective information on sedentary and non-sedentary time. Outcomes Participants self-reported their sociodemographic information. Primary outcomes: sedentary behaviour and PA, assessed over 7 days using an activPAL3 inclinometer. Cardio-metabolic markers included: blood pressure (BP), heart rate, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, body composition and fasted capillary blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipopreotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels. These cardio-metabolic markers were treated as secondary outcomes. Results Lorry drivers presented an unhealthy cardio-metabolic health profile (median (IQR) systolic BP: 129 (108.5, 164) mm Hg; diastolic BP: 81 (63, 104) mm Hg; BMI: 29 (20, 47) kg/m2; WC: 102 (77.5, 146.5) cm; LDL-C: 3 (1, 6) mmol/L; TC: 4.9 (3, 7.5) mmol/L). 84% were overweight or obese, 43% had type 2 diabetes or prediabetes and 34% had the metabolic syndrome. The subsample of lorry drivers with objective postural data (n=87) accumulated 13 hours/day and 8 hours/day of sedentary behaviour on workdays and non-workdays (pdrivers accrued 12 min/day on workdays and 6 min/day on non-workdays of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Conclusion

  3. Cross-sectional surveillance study to phenotype lorry drivers' sedentary behaviours, physical activity and cardio-metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; O'Shea, Orlagh; King, James A; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacy A

    2017-06-21

    Elevated risk factors for a number of chronic diseases have been identified in lorry drivers. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as a lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (sitting) likely contribute to this elevated risk. This study behaviourally phenotyped UK lorry drivers' sedentary and non-sedentary behaviours during workdays and non-workdays and examined markers of drivers cardio-metabolic health. A transport company from the East Midlands, UK. A sample of 159 male heavy goods vehicle drivers (91% white European; (median (range)) age: 50 (24, 67) years) completed the health assessments. 87 (age: 50.0 (25.0, 65.0); body mass index (BMI): 27.7 (19.6, 43.4) kg/m 2 ) provided objective information on sedentary and non-sedentary time. Participants self-reported their sociodemographic information. Primary outcomes: sedentary behaviour and PA, assessed over 7 days using an activPAL3 inclinometer. Cardio-metabolic markers included: blood pressure (BP), heart rate, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, body composition and fasted capillary blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipopreotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels. These cardio-metabolic markers were treated as secondary outcomes. Lorry drivers presented an unhealthy cardio-metabolic health profile (median (IQR) systolic BP: 129 (108.5, 164) mm Hg; diastolic BP: 81 (63, 104) mm Hg; BMI: 29 (20, 47) kg/m 2 ; WC: 102 (77.5, 146.5) cm; LDL-C: 3 (1, 6) mmol/L; TC: 4.9 (3, 7.5) mmol/L). 84% were overweight or obese, 43% had type 2 diabetes or prediabetes and 34% had the metabolic syndrome. The subsample of lorry drivers with objective postural data (n=87) accumulated 13 hours/day and 8 hours/day of sedentary behaviour on workdays and non-workdays (pdrivers accrued 12 min/day on workdays and 6 min/day on non-workdays of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Lorry drivers demonstrate a high-risk cardio

  4. Patient perspectives on the promptness and quality of care of road traffic incident victims in Peru: a cross-sectional, active surveillance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background: Road injuries are the second-leading cause of disease and injury in the Andean region of South America. Adequate management of road traffic crash victims is important to prevent and reduce deaths and serious long-term injuries. Objective: To evaluate the promptness of health care services provided to those injured in road traffic incidents (RTIs) and the satisfaction with those services during the pre-hospital and hospital periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with active surveillance to recruit participants in emergency departments at eight health care facilities in three Peruvian cities: a large metropolitan city (Lima) and two provincial cities (an urban center in the southern Andes and an urban center in the rainforest region), between August and September 2009. The main outcomes of interest were promptness of care, measured by time between injury and each service offered, as well as patient satisfaction measured by the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) survey. We explored the association between outcomes and city, type of health care facility (HCF), and type of provider. Results: We recruited 644 adults seeking care for RTIs. This active surveillance strategy yielded 34% more events than anticipated, suggesting under-reporting in traditional registries. Median response time between a RTI and any care at a HCF was 33 minutes overall and only 62% of participants received professional care during the initial “golden” hour after the RTI. After adjustment for various factors, there was strong evidence of higher global dissatisfaction levels among those receiving care at public HCFs compared to private ones (odds ratio (OR) 5.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88-13.54). This difference was not observed when provincial sites were compared to Lima (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.42-4.70). Conclusions: Response time to RTIs was adequate overall, though a large proportion of RTI victims could have received more prompt care. Overall, dissatisfaction was

  5. Active surveillance strategy for patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Active surveillance - an initial observational strategy - offers a tailored management of patients with localised prostate cancer. The aim of the strategy is to appoint patients with potentially lethal prostate cancer to curatively intended treatment, while patients with slowly evolving...... measurements, repeated biopsies, and regular digital rectal examinations. The programme recommended change of management from active surveillance to curatively intended treatment based on PSA doubling time, deteriorating histopathology in repeated prostatic biopsies, and increased clinical tumour category...... with defined final histopathological findings at radical prostatectomy that was perceived as unacceptable for a continued observational strategy. CONCLUSION: The thesis has demonstrated that active surveillance is feasible and reduces the number of patients undergoing curative intended treatment. However...

  6. The Role of MRI in Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in American men, excluding skin cancer. The clinical behavior of prostate cancer varies from low-grade, slow growing tumors to high-grade aggressive tumors that may ultimately progress to metastases and cause death. Given the high incidence of men diagnosed with prostate cancer, conservative treatment strategies such as active surveillance are critical in the management of prostate cancer to reduce therapeutic complications of radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. In this review, we will review the role of multiparametric MRI in the selection and follow-up of patients on active surveillance.

  7. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  8. Active Transportation Surveillance - United States, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Paul, Prabasaj; Wendel, Arthur M

    2015-08-28

    Physical activity is a health-enhancing behavior, and most U.S. adults do not meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Active transportation, such as by walking or bicycling, is one way that persons can be physically active. No comprehensive, multiyear assessments of active transportation surveillance in the United States have been conducted. 1999-2012. Five surveillance systems assess one or more components of active transportation. The American Community Survey and the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) both assess the mode of transportation to work in the past week. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who reported walking or bicycling to work can be calculated. NHTS and the American Time Use Survey include 1-day assessments of trips or activities. With that information, the proportion of respondents who report any walking or bicycling for transportation can be calculated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey both assess recent (i.e., in the past week or past month) habitual physical activity behaviors, including those performed during active travel. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who report any recent habitual active transportation can be calculated. The prevalence of active transportation as the primary commute mode to work in the past week ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. The 1-day assessment indicated that the prevalence of any active transportation ranged from 10.5% to 18.5%. The prevalence of any habitual active transportation ranged from 23.9% to 31.4%. No consistent trends in active transportation across time periods and surveillance systems were identified. Among systems, active transportation was usually more common among men, younger respondents, and minority racial/ethnic groups. Among education groups, the highest prevalence of active transportation was usually among the least or most educated groups, and active transportation tended to be more

  9. Measles in Italy, laboratory surveillance activity during 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fortuna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO/Europe developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. This study describes the measles laboratory surveillance activity performed by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità during 2010. METHODS: Urine, oral fluid and capillary blood samples from 211 suspected measles cases arrived to the NRL from different regions of Italy for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Serological and/or molecular assays were performed; after molecular detection, positive samples were sequenced and genotyped. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 85% (180/211 of the specimens were confirmed as measles cases and 139 of these were analyzed phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a co-circulation of D4 and D8 genotypes for the reviewed period.

  10. Activity Level Change Detection for Persistent Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, F; Bush, L. A

    2004-01-01

    .... Instead of traditional target tracking, this approach utilizes GMTI data as moving spots on the ground to estimate the level of activities and detect unusual activities such as military deployments...

  11. The relationship between prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen variability: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Johns Hopkins Active Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John H; Loeb, Stacy; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi; Carter, H Ballentine

    2012-05-01

    Study Type--Prognostic (cohort). Level of Evidence 2b. What's known on the subject? And what does the study add? Previous studies have attempted to characterize the normal biological variability in PSA among men without prostate cancer. These reports suggest that PSA variability is unrelated to age, but there are conflicting data on its association with the baseline PSA level. There are limited published data regarding the effects of prostate volume on PSA variability. A prior study assessing whether prostate volume changes would confound the use of PSA velocity in clinical practice reported that prostate volume changes were not significantly related to PSA changes. This study did not directly address the effect of baseline prostate volume on serial PSA variability. The objective of the current study was to further examine the relationship between prostate volume and PSA variability. Our hypothesis was that larger baseline prostate volume would be associated with increased PSA variability in men without known prostate cancer and in those with suspected small-volume disease. The results of the study suggest that baseline PSA, not prostate volume, is the primary driver of PSA variability in these populations. • To clarify the relationship between serial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) variability and prostate volume in both cancer-free participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) and patients with low-risk prostate cancer from the Johns Hopkins Active Surveillance Program (AS). • In all, 287 men from the BLSA and 131 patients from the AS were included in the analysis, all with at least two PSA measurements and concurrent prostate volume measurements. • PSA variability was calculated in ng/mL per year, and a linear mixed-effects model was used to determine the relative effects of prostate volume, baseline PSA and age on PSA change over time. • In a model with prostate volume, age and baseline PSA, there was no significant relationship

  12. A conceptual framework for the evaluation of HLB surveillance activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveillance activities play an integral part in disease prevention and control, and underpin the three main stages of disease mitigation: the prevention of entry and establishment of exotic pathogens; the detailed investigation of more established pathogens; and the monitoring of disease control me...

  13. Active animal health surveillance in European Union Member States: gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorff, B; Schauer, B; Taylor, N; Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Comin, A; Brouwer, A; Dórea, F; Drewe, J; Hoinville, L; Lindberg, A; Martinez Avilés, M; Martínez-López, B; Peyre, M; Pinto Ferreira, J; Rushton, J; VAN Schaik, G; Stärk, K D C; Staubach, C; Vicente-Rubiano, M; Witteveen, G; Pfeiffer, D; Häsler, B

    2017-03-01

    Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.

  14. Monitoring influenza activity in the United States: a comparison of traditional surveillance systems with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Ortiz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections.Influenza activity data from 2003-04 through 2007-08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance, and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79. The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89. Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003-04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87 or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90.This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003-04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior.

  15. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  16. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    and models for interpreting surveillance data as part of ongoing control or eradication programmes. Two Danish examples are outlined. The first illustrates how models were used in documenting country freedom from disease (trichinellosis) and the second demonstrates how models were of assistance in predicting...... the risk of future cases, detected and undetected, of a waning infection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Both studies were successful in advancing European policy changes to reduce the cost of surveillance to appropriate levels given the magnitude of the respective hazards....

  17. Care Planning for Prostate Cancer Patients on Active Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    yes or no to each. READ EACH HEALTH PROBLEM AND CODE YES OR NO. HEALTH PROBLEM YES NO a) Arthritis 1 0 b) Hypertension /high blood pressure 1 0 c...outcome will be the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and adherence to active surveillance. Secondary outcomes are psychological distress...physical exams, and other non-care-related care (e.g., for hypertension , diabetes), I will document that in this section, along with dates and contact

  18. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD.

  19. Rule-based versus probabilistic selection for active surveillance using three definitions of insignificant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); C.H. Bangma (Chris); R.C.N. van den Bergh (Roderick); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); D. Nieboer (Daan); Godtman, R; J. Hugosson (Jonas); van der Kwast, T; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo study whether probabilistic selection by the use of a nomogram could improve patient selection for active surveillance (AS) compared to the various sets of rule-based AS inclusion criteria currently used. We studied Dutch and Swedish patients participating in the European Randomized

  20. Online Nonparametric Bayesian Activity Mining and Analysis From Surveillance Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Vahid; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S

    2016-05-01

    A method for online incremental mining of activity patterns from the surveillance video stream is presented in this paper. The framework consists of a learning block in which Dirichlet process mixture model is employed for the incremental clustering of trajectories. Stochastic trajectory pattern models are formed using the Gaussian process regression of the corresponding flow functions. Moreover, a sequential Monte Carlo method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for tracking and online classification as well as the detection of abnormality during the observation of an object. Experimental results on real surveillance video data are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in different tasks of trajectory clustering, classification, and abnormality detection.

  1. Patient and provider experiences with active surveillance: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kim

    Full Text Available Active surveillance (AS represents a fundamental shift in managing select cancer patients that initiates treatment only upon disease progression to avoid overtreatment. Given uncertain outcomes, patient engagement could support decision-making about AS. Little is known about how to optimize patient engagement for AS decision-making. This scoping review aimed to characterize research on patient and provider communication about AS, and associated determinants and outcomes.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched from 2006 to October 2016. English language studies that evaluated cancer patient or provider AS views, experiences or behavioural interventions were eligible. Screening and data extraction were done in duplicate. Summary statistics were used to describe study characteristics and findings.A total of 2,078 studies were identified, 1,587 were unique, and 1,243 were excluded based on titles/abstracts. Among 344 full-text articles, 73 studies were eligible: 2 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, 4 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, 6 renal cell carcinoma (RCC and 61 prostate cancer. The most influential determinant of initiating AS was physician recommendation. Others included higher socioeconomic status, smaller tumor size, comorbid disease, older age, and preference to avoid adverse treatment effects. AS patients desired more information about AS and reassurance about future treatment options, involvement in decision-making and assessment of illness uncertainty and supportive care needs during follow-up. Only three studies of prostate cancer evaluated interventions to improve AS communication or experience.This study revealed a paucity of research on AS communication for DCIS, RCC and CLL, but generated insight on how to optimize AS discussions in the context of routine care or clinical trials from research on AS for prostate cancer. Further research is needed on AS for patients with DCIS, RCC and CLL, and to evaluate

  2. Responses and relationship dynamics of men and their spouses during active surveillance for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayser, Lars; Hansen-Nord, Nete S; Osborne, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early stage prostate cancer patients may be allocated to active surveillance, where the condition is observed over time with no intervention. Living with a cancer diagnosis may impose stress on both the men and their spouses. In this study we explore whether the scores of and verbal...

  3. Spaces of Surveillance: A Study of Newspaper Articles on School Surveillance Cameras from 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannäs, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Today, school fires, vandalism, graffiti and bullying in school environments are common occurrences in Sweden. As a result, schools are faced with significant tangible and intangible costs for different types of measures, of which surveillance technology is one. This paper presents a study of newspaper articles mapping the occurrence and…

  4. National physical activity surveillance: Users of wearable activity monitors as a potential data source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Omura, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess usage patterns of wearable activity monitors among US adults and how user characteristics might influence physical activity estimates from this type of sample. We analyzed data on 3367 respondents to the 2015 HealthStyles survey, an annual consumer mail panel survey conducted on a nationwide sample. Approximately 1 in 8 respondents (12.5% reported currently using a wearable activity monitor. Current use varied by sex, age, and education level. Use increased with physical activity level from 4.3% for inactive adults to 17.4% for active adults. Overall, 49.9% of all adults met the aerobic physical activity guideline, while this prevalence was 69.5% among current activity monitor users. Our findings suggest that current users of wearable activity monitors are not representative of the overall US population. Estimates of physical activity levels using data from wearable activity monitors users may be an overestimate and therefore data from users alone may have a limited role in physical activity surveillance.

  5. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pharmacy study of natural health product adverse reactions (SONAR): a cross-sectional study using active surveillance in community pharmacies to detect adverse events associated with natural health products and assess causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necyk, Candace; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Boon, Heather; Foster, Brian C; Legatt, Don; Cembrowski, George; Murty, Mano; Barnes, Joanne; Charrois, Theresa L; Arnason, John T; Ware, Mark A; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Vohra, Sunita

    2014-03-28

    To investigate the rates and causality of adverse event(s) (AE) associated with natural health product (NHP) use, prescription drug use and concurrent NHP-drug use through active surveillance in community pharmacies. Cross-sectional study of screened patients. 10 community pharmacies across Alberta and British Columbia, Canada from 14 January to 30 July 2011. The participating pharmacy staff screened consecutive patients, or agents of patients, who were dropping or picking up prescription medications. Patients were screened to determine the proportions of them using prescription drugs and/or NHPs, as well as their respective AE rates. All AEs reported by the screened patients who took a NHP, consented to, and were available for, a detailed telephone interview (14%) were adjudicated fully to assess for causality. Over a total of 105 pharmacy weeks and 1118 patients screened, 410 patients reported taking prescription drugs only (36.7%; 95% CI 33.9% to 39.5%), 37 reported taking NHPs only (3.3%; 95% CI 2.4% to 4.5%) and 657 reported taking prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently (58.8%; 95% CI 55.9% to 61.6%). In total, 54 patients reported an AE, representing 1.2% (95% CI 0.51% to 2.9%), 2.7% (95% CI 0.4% to 16.9%) and 7.3% (95% CI 5.6% to 9.6%) of each population, respectively. Compared with patients who reported using prescription drugs, the patients who reported using prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently were 6.4 times more likely to experience an AE (OR; 95% CI 2.52 to 16.17; ppharmacies take NHPs and prescription drugs concurrently, and of those, 7.4% (95% CI 6.3% to 8.8%) report an AE. A substantial proportion of community pharmacy patients use prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently; these patients are at a greater risk of experiencing an AE. Active surveillance provides a means of detecting such AEs and collecting high-quality data on which causality assessment can be based.

  7. Repeated biopsies in prostate cancer patients on active surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebaek; Marcussen, Niels; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical implications of interobserver variation in the assessment of re-biopsies obtained during active surveillance (AS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 107 low-risk prostate cancer patients with a total of 93 diagnostic biopsy sets and 109 re-biopsy sets were...... included. The ISUP 2005 Gleason scoring system was applied for the histopathological assessment of all biopsies. Three different definitions of histopathological progression were applied. Unweighted and linear weighted Kappa statistics were used to compare the interobserver agreement. RESULTS: The overall...... recommendations would have changed in up to 10.1% (95% CI: 5.4%-17.7%) of the 109 re-biopsy sets. CONCLUSION: Kappa statistics demonstrated a strong agreement between the histological evaluations. Still, up to 10% of AS patients would receive different treatment recommendation depending upon which...

  8. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective.

  9. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of decision... to employ up to four Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar...

  10. Predictive factors of unfavorable prostate cancer in patients who underwent prostatectomy but eligible for active surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seol Ho Choo

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: A significant proportion of patients who were candidates for active surveillance had unfavorable prostate cancer. Age, PSA density, and two positive cores were independent significant predictive factors for unfavorable prostate cancer. These factors should be considered when performing active surveillance.

  11. Brucella abortus surveillance of cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and a case for active disease surveillance as a training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    There have been no surveys of the cattle population for brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) for more than 15 years. This study used disease surveillance as a capacity building training tool and to examine some of the constraints that impede surveillance in PICTs. The study also developed and implemented a series of surveys for detecting antibodies to B. abortus in cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands contributing to OIE requirements. The findings indicated lack of funds, lack of technical capacity, shortage of veterinarians, high turnover of in-country officials and lack of awareness on the impacts of animal diseases on public health that were constraining active disease surveillance. During the development and implementation of the surveys, constraints highlighted were outdated census data on farm numbers and cattle population, lack of funds for mobilisation of officials to carry out the surveys, lack of equipment for collecting and processing samples, lack of staff knowledge on blood sampling, geographical difficulties and security in accessing farms. Some of the reasons why these were constraints are discussed with likely solutions presented. The detection surveys had the objectives of building capacity for the country officials and demonstrating freedom from brucellosis in cattle for PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands all demonstrated freedom from bovine brucellosis in the areas surveyed using the indirect ELISA test. Fiji had an outbreak of brucellosis, and the objective was to determine its distribution and prevalence on untested farms. The Muaniweni district surveyed during the training had a 95 % confidence interval for true prevalence between 1.66 and 5.45 %. The study showed that active disease surveillance could be used as a tool for training officials thus, improves surveillance capacity in resource poor countries.

  12. Imaging Features of Patients Undergoing Active Surveillance for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Ghate, Sujata V; Hwang, E Shelley; Soo, Mary Scott

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the imaging appearance of patients undergoing active surveillance for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We retrospectively identified 29 patients undergoing active surveillance for DCIS from 2009 to 2014. Twenty-two patients (group 1) refused surgery or were not surgical candidates. Seven patients (group 2) enrolled in a trial of letrozole and deferred surgical excision for 6-12 months. Pathology and imaging results at the initial biopsy and follow-up were recorded. In group 1, the median follow-up was 2.7 years (range: 0.6-13.9 years). Fifteen patients (68%) remained stable. Seven patients (32%) underwent additional biopsies with invasive ductal carcinoma diagnosed in two patients after 3.9 and 3.6 years who developed increasing calcifications and new masses. In group 2, one patient (14%) was upstaged to microinvasive ductal carcinoma at surgery. Among the patients in both groups with calcifications (n = 26), there was no progression to invasive disease among those with stable (50%, 13/26) or decreased (19%, 5/26) calcifications. Among a DCIS active surveillance cohort, invasive disease progression presented as increasing calcifications and a new mass following more than 3.5 years of stable imaging. In contrast, there was no progression to invasive disease among cases of DCIS with stable or decreasing calcifications. Close imaging is a key follow-up component in active surveillance. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Participant-centred active surveillance of adverse events following immunisation: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Patrick; Macartney, Kristine; Khandaker, Gulam; King, Catherine; Gold, Michael; Durrheim, David N

    2017-05-01

    The importance of active, participant-centred monitoring of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is increasingly recognised as a valuable adjunct to traditional passive AEFI surveillance. The databases OVID Medline and OVID Embase were searched to identify all published articles referring to AEFI. Only studies which sought participant response after vaccination were included. A total of 6060 articles published since the year 2000 were identified. After the application of screening inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25 articles describing 23 post-marketing AEFI systems were identified. Most countries had a single system: Ghana, Japan, China, Korea, Netherlands, Singapore, Brazil, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Turkey and Cameroon except the USA (2), Canada (4) and Australia (6). Data were collected from participants with and without AEFI in all studies reviewed with denominator data enabling AEFI rate calculations. All studies considered either a single vaccine or specified vaccines or were time limited except one Australian system, which provides continuous automated participant-centred active surveillance of all vaccines. Post-marketing surveillance systems using solicited patient feedback are emerging as a novel AEFI monitoring tool. A number of exploratory systems utilising e-technology have been developed and their potential for scaling up and application in low and middle income countries deserves further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. An assessment of self-reported physical activity instruments in young people for population surveillance: Project ALPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of physical activity is an essential part of understanding patterns and influences of behaviour, designing interventions, and undertaking population surveillance and monitoring, but it is particularly problematic when using self-report instruments with young people. This study reviewed available self-report physical activity instruments developed for use with children and adolescents to assess their suitability and feasibility for use in population surveillance systems, particularly in Europe. Methods Systematic searches and review, supplemented by expert panel assessment. Results Papers (n = 437 were assessed as potentially relevant; 89 physical activity measures were identified with 20 activity-based measures receiving detailed assessment. Three received support from the majority of the expert group: Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children/Adolescents (PAQ-C/PAQ-A, Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance Survey (YRBS, and the Teen Health Survey. Conclusions Population surveillance of youth physical activity is strongly recommended and those involved in developing and undertaking this task should consider the three identified shortlisted instruments and evaluate their appropriateness for application within their national context. Further development and testing of measures suitable for population surveillance with young people is required.

  15. Safety surveillance of activities on nuclear pressure components in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ganjie; Li Tianshu; Yan Tianwen

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear pressure components, which perform the nuclear safety functions, are one of the key physical barriers for nuclear safety. For the national strategy on further development of nuclear power and localization of nuclear pressure components, there still exist some problems in preparedness on the localization. As for the technical basis, what can not be overlooked is the management. Aiming at the current problems, National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) has taken measures to strengthen the propagation and popularization of nuclear safety culture, adjust the review and approval policies for nuclear pressure components qualification license, establish more stringent management requirements, and enhance the surveillance of activities on nuclear pressure equipment. Meanwhile, NNSA has improved the internal management and the regulation efficiency on nuclear pressure components. At the same time, with the development and implementation of 'Rules on the Safety Regulation for Nuclear Safety Important Components' to be promulgated by the State Council of China, NNSA will complete and improve the regulation on nuclear pressure components and other nuclear equipment. (authors)

  16. Active epidemiological surveillance in the program of poliomyelitis eradication in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main strategy of the worldwide Program of Poliomyelitis Eradication is based on immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine and active epidemiological surveillance aimed to demonstrate the absence of wild poliovirus circulation. The specification of the surveillance in the program, reporting and investigation of certain syndrome – the acute flaccid paralysis - as a specific feature of surveillance of poliomyelitis, is a new experience both for clinicians and epidemiologists. Along with the achieved results, problems in conducting the active epidemiological surveillance in Serbia, applied measures, and suggestions for improving its quality were presented. This experience might help in implementing the active surveillance for some other diseases that could be prevented by vaccine immunization.

  17. Development of an active risk-based surveillance strategy for avian influenza in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, E; Alfonso, P; Ippoliti, C; Abeledo, M; Calistri, P; Blanco, P; Conte, A; Sánchez, B; Fonseca, O; Percedo, M; Pérez, A; Fernández, O; Giovannini, A

    2014-09-01

    The authors designed a risk-based approach to the selection of poultry flocks to be sampled in order to further improve the sensitivity of avian influenza (AI) active surveillance programme in Cuba. The study focused on the western region of Cuba, which harbours nearly 70% of national poultry holdings and comprise several wetlands where migratory waterfowl settle (migratory waterfowl settlements - MWS). The model took into account the potential risk of commercial poultry farms in western Cuba contracting from migratory waterfowl of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes through dispersion for pasturing of migratory birds around the MWS. We computed spatial risk index by geographical analysis with Python scripts in ESRI(®) ArcGIS 10 on data projected in the reference system NAD 1927-UTM17. Farms located closer to MWS had the highest values for the risk indicator pj and in total 31 farms were chosen for targeted surveillance during the risk period. The authors proposed to start active surveillance in the study area 3 weeks after the onset of Anseriformes migration, with additional sampling repeated twice in the same selected poultry farms at 15 days interval (Comin et al., 2012; EFSA, 2008) to cover the whole migration season. In this way, the antibody detectability would be favoured in case of either a posterior AI introduction or enhancement of a previous seroprevalence under the sensitivity level. The model identified the areas with higher risk for AIV introduction from MW, aiming at selecting poultry premises for the application of risk-based surveillance. Given the infrequency of HPAI introduction into domestic poultry populations and the relative paucity of occurrences of LPAI epidemics, the evaluation of the effectiveness of this approach would require its application for several migration seasons to allow the collection of sufficient reliable data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SODAS: Surveillance of Drugs of Abuse Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David J; Torrance, Hazel J; Ireland, Alastair J; Bloeck, Felix; Stevenson, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Novel psychoactive substance (NPS) as a form of recreational drug use has become increasingly popular. There is a paucity of information with regard to the prevalence and clinical sequelae of these drugs. The aim of this study was to detect NPS in patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected toxicological ingestion. The prospective study was performed in a large emergency department in the UK. During a 3-month period 80 patients were identified by clinicians as having potentially ingested a toxicological agent. Urine samples were analysed using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry, and basic clinical data was gathered. Eighty patients with a history of illicit or recreational drug consumption had urine screenings performed. Forty-nine per cent (39) of the patients undergoing a screen had more than one illicit substance detected. Twenty per cent (16) of the patients tested positive for at least one NPS. Almost half of the presented patients revealed ingestion of multiple substances, which correlated poorly with self-reporting of patients. Developing enhanced strategies to monitor evolving drug trends is crucial to the ability of clinicians to deliver care to this challenging group of patients.

  19. Quality-control activities of the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Jaquish, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to quality control (QC) has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program. The framework of quality control for the surveillance program has been documented in a QC implementation guide wherein QC requirements are specified and specific responsibilities and authorities are described. Subjects in the guide include the collection, analysis, and reporting of samples as well as equipment calibration and maintenance, training, audits, and record keeping. A QC file and library have been established to store pertinent documentation, records, and references for ready access

  20. Surveillance for Neisseria meningitidis Disease Activity and Transmission Using Information Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sohail Ahmed

    Full Text Available While formal reporting, surveillance, and response structures remain essential to protecting public health, a new generation of freely accessible, online, and real-time informatics tools for disease tracking are expanding the ability to raise earlier public awareness of emerging disease threats. The rationale for this study is to test the hypothesis that the HealthMap informatics tools can complement epidemiological data captured by traditional surveillance monitoring systems for meningitis due to Neisseria meningitides (N. meningitides by highlighting severe transmissible disease activity and outbreaks in the United States.Annual analyses of N. meningitides disease alerts captured by HealthMap were compared to epidemiological data captured by the Centers for Disease Control's Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs for N. meningitides. Morbidity and mortality case reports were measured annually from 2010 to 2013 (HealthMap and 2005 to 2012 (ABCs.HealthMap N. meningitides monitoring captured 80-90% of alerts as diagnosed N. meningitides, 5-20% of alerts as suspected cases, and 5-10% of alerts as related news articles. HealthMap disease alert activity for emerging disease threats related to N. meningitides were in agreement with patterns identified historically using traditional surveillance systems. HealthMap's strength lies in its ability to provide a cumulative "snapshot" of weak signals that allows for rapid dissemination of knowledge and earlier public awareness of potential outbreak status while formal testing and confirmation for specific serotypes is ongoing by public health authorities.The underreporting of disease cases in internet-based data streaming makes inadequate any comparison to epidemiological trends illustrated by the more comprehensive ABCs network published by the Centers for Disease Control. However, the expected delays in compiling confirmatory reports by traditional surveillance systems (at the time of writing, ABCs data

  1. Using a data fusion-based activity recognition framework to determine surveillance system requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, WH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A technique is proposed to extract system requirements for a maritime area surveillance system, based on an activity recognition framework originally intended for the characterisation, prediction and recognition of intentional actions for threat...

  2. Lessons learned during active epidemiological surveillance of Ebola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review epidemiological surveillance approaches used during Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Africa in the past fifteen years. Overall, 26 hemorrhagic epidemic outbreaks have been registered in 12 countries; 18 caused by the Ebola virus and eight by the Marburg virus. About 2551 cases ...

  3. Prediagnostic prostate-specific antigen kinetics and the risk of biopsy progression in active surveillance patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iremashvili, Viacheslav; Barney, Shane L; Manoharan, Murugesan; Kava, Bruce R; Parekh, Dipen J; Punnen, Sanoj

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the association between prediagnostic prostate-specific antigen kinetics and the risk of biopsy progression in prostate cancer patients on active surveillance, and to study the effect of prediagnostic prostate-specific antigen values on the predictive performance of prostate-specific antigen velocity and prostate-specific antigen doubling time. The study included 137 active surveillance patients with two or more prediagnostic prostate-specific antigen levels measured over a period of at least 3 months. Two sets of analyses were carried out. First, the association between prostate-specific antigen kinetics calculated using only the prediagnostic prostate-specific antigen values and the risk of biopsy progression was studied. Second, using the same cohort of patients, the predictive value of prostate-specific antigen kinetics calculated using only post-diagnostic prostate-specific antigens and compared with that of prostate-specific antigen kinetics based on both pre- and post-diagnostic prostate-specific antigen levels was analyzed. Of 137 patients included in the analysis, 37 (27%) had biopsy progression over a median follow-up period of 3.2 years. Prediagnostic prostate-specific antigen velocity of more than 2 ng/mL/year and 3 ng/mL/year was statistically significantly associated with the risk of future biopsy progression. However, after adjustment for baseline prostate-specific antigen density, these associations were no longer significant. None of the tested prostate-specific antigen kinetics based on combined pre- and post-diagnostic prostate-specific antigen values were statistically significantly associated with the risk of biopsy progression. Historical prediagnostic prostate-specific antigens seems to be not clinically useful in patients diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer on active surveillance. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. A simulation study comparing aberration detection algorithms for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Ian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection depends in part on effective statistical aberration detection. However, few published studies have compared different detection algorithms on identical data. In the largest simulation study conducted to date, we compared the performance of six aberration detection algorithms on simulated outbreaks superimposed on authentic syndromic surveillance data. Methods We compared three control-chart-based statistics, two exponential weighted moving averages, and a generalized linear model. We simulated 310 unique outbreak signals, and added these to actual daily counts of four syndromes monitored by Public Health – Seattle and King County's syndromic surveillance system. We compared the sensitivity of the six algorithms at detecting these simulated outbreaks at a fixed alert rate of 0.01. Results Stratified by baseline or by outbreak distribution, duration, or size, the generalized linear model was more sensitive than the other algorithms and detected 54% (95% CI = 52%–56% of the simulated epidemics when run at an alert rate of 0.01. However, all of the algorithms had poor sensitivity, particularly for outbreaks that did not begin with a surge of cases. Conclusion When tested on county-level data aggregated across age groups, these algorithms often did not perform well in detecting signals other than large, rapid increases in case counts relative to baseline levels.

  5. An assessment of Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) criteria for active surveillance of clinically low-risk prostate cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vitor; Cagiannos, Ilias; Lavallée, Luke T.; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Witiuk, Kelsey; Cnossen, Sonya; Eastham, James A.; Fergusson, Dean A.; Morash, Chris; Breau, Rodney H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Active surveillance is a strategy to delay or prevent treatment of indolent prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) criteria were developed to select patients for prostate cancer active surveillance. The objective of this study was to compare pathological findings from PRIAS-eligible and PRIAS-ineligible clinically low-risk prostate cancer patients. Methods A D’Amico low-risk cohort of 1512 radical prostatectomy patients treated at The Ottawa Hospital or Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre between January 1995 and December 2007 was reviewed. Pathological outcomes (pT3 tumours, Gleason sum ≥7, lymph node metastases, or a composite) and clinical outcomes (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] recurrence, secondary cancer treatments, and death) were compared between PRIAS-eligible and PRIAS-ineligible cohorts. Results The PRIAS-eligible cohort (n=945) was less likely to have Gleason score ≥7 (odds ratio [OR] 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–0.75), pT3 (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.31–0.55), nodal metastases (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.10–1.31), or any adverse feature (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45–0.69) compared to the PRIAS-ineligible cohort. The probability of any adverse pathology in the PRIAS-eligible cohort was 41% vs. 56% in the PRIAS-ineligible cohort. At median follow-up of 3.7 years, 72 (4.8%) patients had a PSA recurrence, 24 (1.6%) received pelvic radiation, and 13 (0.9%) received androgen deprivation. No difference was detected for recurrence-free and overall survival between groups (recurrence hazard ratio [HR] 0.71; 95% CI 0.46–1.09 and survival HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.36–1.47). Conclusions Low-risk prostate cancer patients who met PRIAS eligibility criteria are less likely to have higher-risk cancer compared to those who did not meet at least one of these criteria. PMID:28798822

  6. Tools to identify the men with prostate cancer most appropriate for active surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Getzenberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of effort is underway in order to identify those men with prostate cancer felicitous for active surveillance with greater precision than that afforded to us today. In the manuscript by Irshad et al. the authors evaluate a novel set of genes associated with senescence and aging as tools that can provide guidance regarding the indolent nature of an individual's prostate cancer with validation using both mRNA and protein analyses. While additional studies are required to understand the full impact of these findings, the innovative approach taken enhances our understanding of distinct phenotypes of prostate cancer.

  7. Incorporation of Novel MRI and Biomarkers into Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    outside the formal programs. Population-based data suggest limited lifestyle modifications after diagnosis and potentially a reduction in exercise ...periodic surveillance prostate biopsies. There were no lifestyle or behavioral components as part of the protocol. 1Department of Urology, University of...management strategy. Our broad objective is two-fold: [1] to improve the ability to select candidates who safely choose active surveillance as a

  8. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery versus active surveillance for oesophageal cancer: a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordman, Bo Jan; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; Boonstra, Jurjen J; Coene, Peter Paul L O; Dekker, Jan Willem T; Doukas, Michael; van der Gaast, Ate; Heisterkamp, Joos; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; Rosman, Camiel; van Sandick, Johanna W; van der Sangen, Maurice J C; Sosef, Meindert N; Spaander, Manon C W; Valkema, Roelf; van der Zaag, Edwin S; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van Lanschot, J Jan B

    2018-02-06

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) plus surgery is a standard treatment for locally advanced oesophageal cancer. With this treatment, 29% of patients have a pathologically complete response in the resection specimen. This provides the rationale for investigating an active surveillance approach. The aim of this study is to assess the (cost-)effectiveness of active surveillance vs. standard oesophagectomy after nCRT for oesophageal cancer. This is a phase-III multi-centre, stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial. A total of 300 patients with clinically complete response (cCR, i.e. no local or disseminated disease proven by histology) after nCRT will be randomised to show non-inferiority of active surveillance to standard oesophagectomy (non-inferiority margin 15%, intra-correlation coefficient 0.02, power 80%, 2-sided α 0.05, 12% drop-out). Patients will undergo a first clinical response evaluation (CRE-I) 4-6 weeks after nCRT, consisting of endoscopy with bite-on-bite biopsies of the primary tumour site and other suspected lesions. Clinically complete responders will undergo a second CRE (CRE-II), 6-8 weeks after CRE-I. CRE-II will include 18F-FDG-PET-CT, followed by endoscopy with bite-on-bite biopsies and ultra-endosonography plus fine needle aspiration of suspected lymph nodes and/or PET- positive lesions. Patients with cCR at CRE-II will be assigned to oesophagectomy (first phase) or active surveillance (second phase of the study). The duration of the first phase is determined randomly over the 12 centres, i.e., stepped-wedge cluster design. Patients in the active surveillance arm will undergo diagnostic evaluations similar to CRE-II at 6/9/12/16/20/24/30/36/48 and 60 months after nCRT. In this arm, oesophagectomy will be offered only to patients in whom locoregional regrowth is highly suspected or proven, without distant dissemination. The main study parameter is overall survival; secondary endpoints include percentage of patients who do not

  9. An overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.H.; Chew, E.W.; Hedahl, T.G.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG&G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities radiation is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, warer, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL.

  10. Overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Hedahl, T.G.; Wiersma, G.B.; Chew, E.W.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.

    1986-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), the US Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG and G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, water, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at the INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from the INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Advances in population surveillance for physical activity and sedentary behavior: reliability and validity of time use surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Merom, Dafna; Chau, Josephine Y; Bittman, Michael; Trost, Stewart G; Bauman, Adrian E

    2010-11-15

    Many countries conduct regular national time use surveys, some of which date back as far as the 1960s. Time use surveys potentially provide more detailed and accurate national estimates of the prevalence of sedentary and physical activity behavior than more traditional self-report surveillance systems. In this study, the authors determined the reliability and validity of time use surveys for assessing sedentary and physical activity behavior. In 2006 and 2007, participants (n = 134) were recruited from work sites in the Australian state of New South Wales. Participants completed a 2-day time use diary twice, 7 days apart, and wore an accelerometer. The 2 diaries were compared for test-retest reliability, and comparison with the accelerometer determined concurrent validity. Participants with similar activity patterns during the 2 diary periods showed reliability intraclass correlations of 0.74 and 0.73 for nonoccupational sedentary behavior and moderate/vigorous physical activity, respectively. Comparison of the diary with the accelerometer showed Spearman correlations of 0.57-0.59 and 0.45-0.69 for nonoccupational sedentary behavior and moderate/vigorous physical activity, respectively. Time use surveys appear to be more valid for population surveillance of nonoccupational sedentary behavior and health-enhancing physical activity than more traditional surveillance systems. National time use surveys could be used to retrospectively study nonoccupational sedentary and physical activity behavior over the past 5 decades.

  12. Syndromic surveillance and heat wave morbidity: a pilot study based on emergency departments in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filleul Laurent

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health impacts of heat waves are serious and have prompted the development of heat wave response plans. Even when they are efficient, these plans are developed to limit the health effects of heat waves. This study was designed to determine relevant indicators related to health effects of heat waves and to evaluate the ability of a syndromic surveillance system to monitor variations in the activity of emergency departments over time. The study uses data collected during the summer 2006 when a new heat wave occurred in France. Methods Data recorded from 49 emergency departments since July 2004, were transmitted daily via the Internet to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Items collected on patients included diagnosis (ICD10 codes, outcome, and age. Statistical t-tests were used to compare, for several health conditions, the daily averages of patients within different age groups and periods (whether 'on alert' or 'off alert'. Results A limited number of adverse health conditions occurred more frequently during hot period: dehydration, hyperthermia, malaise, hyponatremia, renal colic, and renal failure. Over all health conditions, the total number of patients per day remained equal between the 'on alert' and 'off alert' periods (4,557.7/day vs. 4,511.2/day, but the number of elderly patients increased significantly during the 'on alert' period relative to the 'off alert' period (476.7/day vs. 446.2/day p Conclusion Our results show the interest to monitor specific indicators during hot periods and to focus surveillance efforts on the elderly. Syndromic surveillance allowed the collection of data in real time and the subsequent optimization of the response by public health agencies. This method of surveillance should therefore be considered as an essential part of efforts to prevent the health effects of heat waves.

  13. A novel framework for intelligent surveillance system based on abnormal human activity detection in academic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nawashi, Malek; Al-Hazaimeh, Obaida M; Saraee, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal activity detection plays a crucial role in surveillance applications, and a surveillance system that can perform robustly in an academic environment has become an urgent need. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for an automatic real-time video-based surveillance system which can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment. To develop our system, we have divided the work into three phases: preprocessing phase, abnormal human activity detection phase, and content-based image retrieval phase. For motion object detection, we used the temporal-differencing algorithm and then located the motions region using the Gaussian function. Furthermore, the shape model based on OMEGA equation was used as a filter for the detected objects (i.e., human and non-human). For object activities analysis, we evaluated and analyzed the human activities of the detected objects. We classified the human activities into two groups: normal activities and abnormal activities based on the support vector machine. The machine then provides an automatic warning in case of abnormal human activities. It also embeds a method to retrieve the detected object from the database for object recognition and identification using content-based image retrieval. Finally, a software-based simulation using MATLAB was performed and the results of the conducted experiments showed an excellent surveillance system that can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment with no human intervention.

  14. A Systematic Approach to Discussing Active Surveillance with Patients with Low-risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehdaie, Behfar; Assel, Melissa; Benfante, Nicole; Malhotra, Deepak; Vickers, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Physicians report difficulty convincing patients with prostate cancer about the merits of active surveillance (AS); as a result, a majority of patients unnecessarily choose to undergo radical treatment. To develop and evaluate a systematic approach for physicians to counsel patients with low-risk prostate cancer to increase acceptance of AS. A systematic counseling approach was developed and piloted in one clinic. Then five surgeons participated in a 1-h training session in which they learned about the approach. A total of 1003 patients with Gleason 3+3 prostate cancer were included in the study. We compared AS rates for 761 patients who were counseled over a 24-mo period before the training intervention with AS rates for 242 patients who were counseled over a 12-mo period afterwards, controlling for temporal trends and case mix. A systematic approach for communicating the merits of AS using appropriate framing techniques derived from principles studied by negotiation scholars. The rate of AS acceptance by patients for management of low-risk prostate cancer. In the pilot phase, 81 of 86 patients (94%) accepted AS after counseling by the physician who developed the counseling approach. In the subsequent study, the cohort for the training intervention comprised 1003 consecutive patients, 80% of whom met the Epstein criteria for very low-risk disease. The proportion of patients who selected AS increased from 69% before the training intervention to 81% afterwards. After adjusting for time trends and case mix, the rate of AS after the intervention was 9.1% higher (95% confidence interval -0.4% to 19.4%) than expected, a relative reduction of approximately 30% in the risk of unnecessary curative treatment. A systematic approach to counseling can be taught to physicians in a 1-h lecture. We found evidence that even this minimal intervention can decrease overtreatment. Our novel approach offers a framework to help address cancer screening-related overtreatment that occurs

  15. EASY-An Instrument for Surveillance of Physical Activity in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry; Dowda, Marsha; Schenkelberg, Michaela A; Beets, Michael; DiStefano, Christine

    2018-01-23

    Physical activity (PA) promotion among youth is a public health priority and there is a need for robust surveillance systems to help support such initiatives. Existing youth PA self-report instruments that are used for surveillance lack information regarding the types and contexts of activity. Further, these instruments have limited validity with accelerometry. The purpose of the present study was to develop a self-report instrument, with sound psychometric properties, for monitoring compliance with PA guidelines in youth. In focus groups, 162 middle school students identified 30 forms of PA that are highly prevalent in that age group. We incorporated these activities into three preliminary forms of a self-report instrument. An independent sample of middle school students (n = 537) was randomly assigned to complete one of the three preliminary versions of the instrument. Rasch analysis was applied to the responses to the three formats, and a yes/no plus frequency format emerged as the preferred method. A third sample of 342 middle school students then completed the yes/no plus frequency instrument twice following a seven-day period during which they wore an accelerometer. Using both Rasch analysis and traditional correlational methods, validity and reliability of a 14-item instrument were established. Data were collected during 2012 - 2015. Spearman correlation coefficient for the association between the cumulative score for the 14 items and minutes per day of accelerometry-derived moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 0.33 (95% CI 0.22, 0.43; pCommercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  16. Active screening and surveillance in the United Kingdom for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in returning travellers and pilgrims from the Middle East: a prospective descriptive study for the period 2013–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowsan F. Atabani

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Respiratory tract infections in travellers/pilgrims returning to the UK from the Middle East are mainly due to rhinoviruses, influenza A, and influenza B. Whilst MERS-CoV was not detected in the 202 patients studied, heightened awareness of the possibility of MERS-CoV and continuous proactive surveillance are essential to rapidly identify cases of MERS-CoV and other seasonal respiratory tract viruses such as avian influenza, in patients presenting to hospital. Early identification and isolation may prevent outbreaks in nosocomial settings.

  17. Activity Recognition Using A Combination of Category Components And Local Models for Video Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Weiyao; Sun, Ming-Ting; Poovendran, Radha; Zhang, Zhengyou

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for automatic recognition of human activities for video surveillance applications. We propose to represent an activity by a combination of category components, and demonstrate that this approach offers flexibility to add new activities to the system and an ability to deal with the problem of building models for activities lacking training data. For improving the recognition accuracy, a Confident-Frame- based Recognition algorithm is also proposed, where th...

  18. Development of reconstitution method for surveillance specimens using surface activated joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Terumi; Kaihara, Shoichiro; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sato, Akira [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Onizawa, Kunio; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Masahide

    1996-03-01

    Evaluation of embrittlement of reactor vessel steel due to irradiation requires surveillance tests. However, many surveillance specimens are necessary for nuclear plants life extension. Therefore, a specimen reconstitution technique has become important to provide the many specimens for continued surveillance. A surface activated joining (SAJ) method has been developed to join various materials together at low temperatures with little deformation, and is useful to bond irradiated specimens. To assess the validity of this method, Charpy impact tests were carried out, and the characteristics caused by heating during joining were measured. The test results showed the Charpy impact values were almost the same as base materials, and surface activated joining reduced heat affected zone to less than 2 mm. (author).

  19. Is active surveillance a safe alternative in the management of localized prostate cancer? Pathological features of radical prostatectomy specimens in potential candidates for active surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano Norman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectiveActive surveillance (AS has become an accepted alternative for patients with low risk prostate cancer. The purpose of AS is to defer definitive therapy in these patients to avoid treatment-related complications. Our aim was to determine the pathological features of the surgical specimen from potential AS candidates that underwent radical prostatectomy (RP.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed a group of patients submitted to RP who met criteria for AS: Gleason score (GS ≤ 3+3 = 6, PSA ≤ 10ng/mL, T1c - T2a, 6 in the RPS (GS 7 n = 49; GS 8 n = 3. Extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle and lymph node involvement was found in 6.1%, 3.1% and 1.2% of the specimens, respectively.ConclusionIn this study a significant proportion of potential candidates for AS showed features of aggressive and/or high-risk tumors in the RPS. Therefore, before considering a patient for an AS protocol, a proper and strict selection must be performed, and informed consent is crucial for these patients.

  20. Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data. PMID:24155907

  1. Sexual function with localized prostate cancer: active surveillance vs radical therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Korfage, Ida J.; Roobol, Monique J.; Bangma, Chris H.; de Koning, Harry J.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare sexual function of men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) on active surveillance (AS) with similar patients who received radical therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two groups of men with screening-detected localized PCa were compared. The first were men on AS within the prospective

  2. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  3. Disease insight and treatment perception of men on active surveillance for early prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; van Vugt, Heidi A.; Korfage, Ida J.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Roobol, Monique J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the levels of knowledge of prostate cancer and the perception of active surveillance (AS) in men on AS, as AS for early prostate cancer instead of radical treatment might partly solve the over-treatment dilemma in this disease, but might be experienced as a complex and

  4. Active surveillance can reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Røder, Martin Andreas; Hvarness, Helle

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer in Denmark rose approximately 50% from 2000 to 2009 in parallel with the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-testing. Available evidence indicates a significant overtreatment of patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Active surveillance has been...

  5. Radiological accident of cesium-137 in brazil activities of surveillance and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a serious radiological accident occurred in Goiania, Brazil. Four inhabitants died and about 250 persons were internally or externally contaminated with 137 Cs released from a removed and then broken source vessel. In this report, outline of the accident and, activities on surveillance of contamination and works for decontamination are described. (author)

  6. A retrospective study of owner-requested testing as surveillance for equine infectious anemia in Canada (2009-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Sara N; Howden, Krista J; James, Carolyn R; Epp, Tasha; Lohmann, Katharina L

    2017-12-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to estimate i) the surveillance coverage for equine infectious anemia (EIA) based on owner-requested testing, and ii) the incidence of case detection from this surveillance activity to inform a review of Canada's national disease control strategy. Based on sample submissions by accredited veterinarians to laboratories CFIA-approved for EIA testing between 2009 and 2012, the estimated national surveillance coverage was 14% for all years, and 72 cases of EIA were detected. The annual national incidence of EIA detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.08 cases/1000 horses. On average, a greater proportion of the horse population was tested in eastern Canada (32%) than in western Canada (6%, P Canada (0.25 cases/1000 horses) than in eastern Canada (0.02 cases/1000 horses, P < 0.0001). This study identified regional differences in owner-requested EIA testing and case detection resulting from this testing activity.

  7. Prostate Cancer Imaging and Biomarkers Guiding Safe Selection of Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A. Glaser

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundActive surveillance (AS is a widely adopted strategy to monitor men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer (PCa. Current AS inclusion criteria may misclassify as many as one in four patients. The advent of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI and novel PCa biomarkers may offer improved risk stratification. We performed a review of recently published literature to characterize emerging evidence in support of these novel modalities.MethodsAn English literature search was conducted on PubMed for available original investigations on localized PCa, AS, imaging, and biomarkers published within the past 3 years. Our Boolean criteria included the following terms: PCa, AS, imaging, biomarker, genetic, genomic, prospective, retrospective, and comparative. The bibliographies and diagnostic modalities of the identified studies were used to expand our search.ResultsOur review identified 222 original studies. Our expanded search yielded 244 studies. Among these, 70 met our inclusion criteria. Evidence suggests mpMRI offers improved detection of clinically significant PCa, and MRI-fusion technology enhances the sensitivity of surveillance biopsies. Multiple studies demonstrate the promise of commercially available screening assays for prediction of AS failure, and several novel biomarkers show promise in this setting.ConclusionIn the era of AS for men with low-risk PCa, improved strategies for proper stratification are needed. mpMRI has dramatically enhanced the detection of clinically significant PCa. The advent of novel biomarkers for prediction of aggressive disease and AS failure has shown some initial promise, but further validation is warranted.

  8. An overview of the Environmental Response Team's air surveillance procedures at emergency response activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Campagna, P.R. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (USA))

    The Safety and Air Surveillance Section of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team responds to emergency air releases such as tire fires and explosions. The air surveillance equipment and procedures used by the organization are described, and case studies demonstrating the various emergency response activities are presented. Air response activities include emergency air responses, occupational and human health air responses and remedial air responses. Monitoring and sampling equipment includes photoionization detectors, combustible gas meters, real-time aerosol monitors, personal sampling pumps, and high flow pumps. Case histories presented include disposal of dioxane from a cotton plant, response to oil well fires in Kuwait, disposal of high pressure cylinders in American Samoa, and response to hurricane Hugo. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Pathological upgrading in prostate cancer patients eligible for active surveillance: Does prostate-specific antigen density matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Byung-Soo; Kang, Seok-Hyun; Kim, Duk-Yoon; Oh, Hoon-Gyu; Kim, Chun-Il; Moon, Gi-Hak; Kwon, Tae-Gyun; Park, Jae-Shin

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate prospectively the role of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density in predicting Gleason score upgrading in prostate cancer patients eligible for active surveillance (T1/T2, biopsy Gleason score≤6, PSA≤10 ng/mL, and ≤2 positive biopsy cores). Between January 2010 and November 2013, among patients who underwent greater than 10-core transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy, 60 patients eligible for active surveillance underwent radical prostatectomy. By use of the modified Gleason criteria, the tumor grade of the surgical specimens was examined and compared with the biopsy results. Tumor upgrading occurred in 24 patients (40.0%). Extracapsular disease and positive surgical margins were found in 6 patients (10.0%) and 8 patients (17.30%), respectively. A statistically significant correlation between PSA density and postoperative upgrading was found (p=0.030); this was in contrast with the other studied parameters, which failed to reach significance, including PSA, prostate volume, number of biopsy cores, and number of positive cores. Tumor upgrading was also highly associated with extracapsular cancer extension (p=0.000). The estimated optimal cutoff value of PSA density was 0.13 ng/mL(2), obtained by receiver operating characteristic analysis (area under the curve=0.66; p=0.020; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.78). PSA density is a strong predictor of Gleason score upgrading after radical prostatectomy in patients eligible for active surveillance. Because tumor upgrading increases the potential for postoperative pathological adverse findings and prognosis, PSA density should be considered when treating and consulting patients eligible for active surveillance.

  10. [Active etiological surveillance for foodborne diseases in Guangdong province, 2013-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, B X; He, D M; Tan, H L; Zeng, H H; Yang, T; Li, B S; Liang, Y H; Lu, L L; Liang, J H; Huang, Q; Ke, C W

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To study the infection status, serotypes, drug resistance and molecular characteristics of Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio parahemolyticus , enterotoxigenic Escherichia ( E. ) coli (ETEC), pathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) collected from diarrhea patients in Guangdong. Methods: The strains of Salmonella, Shigella, V. parahemolyticus and 4 kinds of E. coli isolated from foodborne diseases surveillance during 2013-2014 were collected to conduct serotyping, drug resistance test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: A total of 3 372 stains of pathogens were isolated from 57 834 stool samples during 2013-2014, the overall positive rate was 5.83 % and the positive rate of Salmonella was highest, followed by that of V. parahemolyticus , 4 kinds of E. coli and Shigella . And 3 213 strains of Salmonella were divided into 143 serotypes. The most prevalent serotypes were Salmonella typhimurium , 4, 5, 12: i:-, Enteritidis , Stanley and Derby . Salmonella was sensitive to cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones, and showed significant differences in drug resistance rate among different serotypes. In top 10 common serotypes, S. enteritidis and S. derby were most resistant to cephalosporin and ciprofloxacin respectively. PFGE was performed for 2 289 strains of Salmonella , showing distribution diversity and significant fingerprint polymorphisms. The 85 strains of V. parahemolyticus were divided into 10 serotypes, O3∶K6 (61.18 % ) was the most common serotype, followed by O4∶K8. The results showed that the carrying rate of virulence genes tdh (81.18 % ) was high, while the carrying rate of trh was low (7.06 % ), and there were 10 strains carrying no the two kinds of virulence genes. The sensitive rate of V. parahemolyticus to imipenem, nalidixic acid, SMZ-TMP, chloramphenicol and tetracycline were more than 95 % . Thirteen strains of Shigella were detected, including 9 strains of Shigella

  11. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T M; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-09-01

    This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions.

  12. Active surveillance for intussusception in a phase III efficacy trial of an oral monovalent rotavirus vaccine in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jacob; Kawade, Anand; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bavdekar, Ashish; Bhandari, Nita; Taneja, Sunita; Antony, Kalpana; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Gupta, Arun; Kabra, Madhulika; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-08-11

    Post licensure studies have identified an increased risk of intussusception following vaccination with currently licensed rotavirus vaccines, raising safety concerns generic to all rotavirus vaccines. We describe the surveillance for intussusception in a phase III clinical trial with an oral monovalent rotavirus vaccine developed from the neonatal 116E strain. Using broad screening criteria and active surveillance, the incidence of intussusception between 6 weeks and 2 years of age was measured in 4532 children who received three doses of vaccine and 2267 children who received a placebo in the clinical trial. Possible intussusceptions were evaluated with a screening ultrasonogram. An independent intussusception case adjudication committee reviewed all intussusceptions and graded them on Brighton Collaboration criteria for diagnostic certainty. We identified twenty-three intussusceptions on ultrasound from 1361 evaluated sentinel events. Eleven were of level 1 diagnostic certainty as determined by the independent intussusception case adjudication committee. None required surgical intervention, and the earliest identified intussusception was at 36 days following the third dose in a placebo recipient. Among vaccine recipients the first event of intussusception occurred 112 days after the third dose. The incidence of ultrasound-diagnosed intussusception was 200/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 120, 320) among those receiving the vaccine and 141/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 50, 310) among those receiving the placebo. The incidence rate of confirmed intussusception among vaccine recipients was 94/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 41, 185) and 71/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 15, 206) among those receiving the placebo. In this licensure study, 23 cases of intussusception were identified through an active surveillance system, but there was no temporal association with rotavirus vaccination. The use of active surveillance with broad criteria intended for ensuring safety of children

  13. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  14. Active and passive surveillance of yellow fever vaccine 17D or 17DD-associated serious adverse events: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Spragins, Wendy; Jackson, Dave; Williamson, Tyler

    2011-06-20

    To identify the rate of serious adverse events attributable to yellow fever vaccination with 17D and 17DD strains reported in active and passive surveillance data. We conducted a systematic review of published literature on adverse events associated with yellow fever. We searched 9 electronic databases for peer reviewed and grey literature in all languages. There were no restrictions on date of publication. Reference lists of key studies were also reviewed to identify additional studies. We identified 66 relevant studies: 24 used active, 17 a combination of passive and active (15 of which were pharmacovigilance databases), and 25 passive surveillance. ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE: A total of 2,660,929 patients in general populations were followed for adverse events after vaccination, heavily weighted (97.7%) by one large Brazilian study. There were no observed cases of viscerotropic or neurotropic disease, one of anaphylaxis and 26 cases of urticaria (hypersensitivity). We also identified four studies of infants and children (n=2199), four studies of women (n=1334), and one study of 174 HIV+, and no serious adverse events were observed. PHARMACOVIGILANCE DATABASES: 10 of the 15 databases contributed data to this review, with 107,621,154 patients, heavily weighted (94%) by the Brazilian database. The estimates for Australia were low at 0/210,656 for "severe neurological disease" and 1/210,656 for YEL-AVD, and also low for Brazil with 9 hypersensitivity events, 0.23 anaphylactic shock events, 0.84 neurologic syndrome events and 0.19 viscerotropic events cases/million doses. The five analyses of partly overlapping periods for the US VAERS database provided an estimate of 6.6 YEL-AVD and YEL-AND cases per million, and estimates between 11.1 and 15.6 of overall "serious adverse events" per million. The estimates for the UK were higher at 34 "serious adverse events" and also for Switzerland with 14.6 "neurologic events" and 40 "serious events not neurological"/million doses

  15. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  16. Annual report on surveillance and maintenance activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1995, the sites and facilities from both the Remedial Action (RA) and Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) programs were combined to form the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program. Surveillance and Maintenance activities were conducted throughout FY 1996 at the RA facilities. Overall, the RA S and M Program consists of approximately 650 acres that include 14 waste area groupings with approximately 200 sites. These sites include 46 major facilities, several leak and contaminated soil sites, 38 inactive tanks, approximately 50 environmental study areas and approximately 2,973 wells and boreholes. Site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the RA S and M Program in accordance with the established S and M FY 1996 Incentive Task Order (ITO)

  17. A study on the microbiological surveillance before irradiaton sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Qiuhua

    1988-01-01

    The results of the microbiological surveillance of workshops in seven factories are repoted. The data obtained showed that the use of the general sterile measures are the better methods for microbiological surveillance. The microbes in the environment can be controlled at the permitted number (≤ 500 CFU/m 3 ) and the high standard of the biological load (≤ 1 CFU/m 3 ) in medical instruments is ensured. The resistance among the common micro-organisms has not been found. This can provide a scientific basis for selecting the dosage of irradiation and safe clinical use

  18. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) versus Active MRI Surveillance for Small Cell Lung Cancer: The Case for Equipoise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusthoven, Chad G; Kavanagh, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for SCLC offers a consistent reduction in the incidence of brain metastases at the cost of measurable toxicity to neurocognitive function and quality of life, in the setting of characteristic pathologic changes to the brain. The sequelae of PCI have historically been justified by the perception of an overall survival advantage specific to SCLC. This rationale has now been challenged by a randomized trial in extensive-stage SCLC demonstrating equivalent progression-free survival and a trend toward improved overall survival with PCI omission in the context of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging and surveillance. In this article, we critically examine the randomized trials of PCI in extensive-stage SCLC and discuss their implications on the historical data supporting PCI for limited-stage SCLC from the pre-MRI era. Further, we review the toxicity of moderate doses of radiation to the entire brain that underlie the growing interest in active MRI surveillance and PCI omission. Finally, the evidence supporting prospective investigation of radiosurgery for limited brain metastases in SCLC is reviewed. Overall, our aim is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the debate over PCI versus active MRI surveillance and to highlight the need for contemporary trials evaluating optimal central nervous system management in SCLC. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear

  20. A methodological framework for the evaluation of syndromic surveillance systems: a case study of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-González, Felipe J; Lake, Iain R; Morbey, Roger A; Elliot, Alex J; Pebody, Richard; Smith, Gillian E

    2018-04-24

    Syndromic surveillance complements traditional public health surveillance by collecting and analysing health indicators in near real time. The rationale of syndromic surveillance is that it may detect health threats faster than traditional surveillance systems permitting more timely, and hence potentially more effective public health action. The effectiveness of syndromic surveillance largely relies on the methods used to detect aberrations. Very few studies have evaluated the performance of syndromic surveillance systems and consequently little is known about the types of events that such systems can and cannot detect. We introduce a framework for the evaluation of syndromic surveillance systems that can be used in any setting based upon the use of simulated scenarios. For a range of scenarios this allows the time and probability of detection to be determined and uncertainty is fully incorporated. In addition, we demonstrate how such a framework can model the benefits of increases in the number of centres reporting syndromic data and also determine the minimum size of outbreaks that can or cannot be detected. Here, we demonstrate its utility using simulations of national influenza outbreaks and localised outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. Influenza outbreaks are consistently detected with larger outbreaks being detected in a more timely manner. Small cryptosporidiosis outbreaks (framework constitutes a useful tool for public health emergency preparedness in multiple settings. The proposed framework allows the exhaustive evaluation of any syndromic surveillance system and constitutes a useful tool for emergency preparedness and response.

  1. Quality of life of nursing-home residents with dementia subject to surveillance technology versus physical restraints: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Boekhorst, S; Depla, M F I A; Francke, A L; Twisk, J W R; Zwijsen, S A; Hertogh, C M P M

    2013-04-01

    As physical restraints should only be used in exceptional cases, there is an urgent need for alternatives to restraint use. Surveillance technology could be such an alternative. This study explored whether nursing-home residents with dementia subjected to surveillance technology had better quality of life scores for mood, behavioral and societal dimensions than residents with physical restraints. Quality of life was assessed longitudinally, with three measurements in six psychogeriatric nursing homes of residents with surveillance technology (n = 170) and residents with physical restraints (n = 22). QUALIDEM subscales were used to measure five dimensions of quality of life. Multilevel longitudinal univariate and multivariate regression techniques were used to analyze the data. Because physical restraints were almost exclusively used in residents with low activities of daily living (ADL) independency (18 of the 22), we restricted the regression analyses to residents with a Barthel Index score ≤ 5 (overall n = 53). Univariate results showed that highly ADL-dependent residents with surveillance technology had significantly more positive affect than highly ADL-dependent residents with physical restraints. However, this difference proved to be no longer significant after adjustment for the confounders: age, sex and stage of dementia. Quality of life of highly ADL-dependent nursing-home residents with dementia seems to be unrelated to the use of surveillance technology as opposed to physical restraints. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiyi; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2010-11-17

    In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs). A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), measles and tuberculosis (TB) surveillance systems got relatively high recognition both at province level and county level. China has

  3. Integrated Detection and Prediction of Influenza Activity for Real-Time Surveillance: Algorithm Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreco, Armin; Eriksson, Olle; Dahlström, Örjan; Cowling, Benjamin John; Timpka, Toomas

    2017-06-15

    Influenza is a viral respiratory disease capable of causing epidemics that represent a threat to communities worldwide. The rapidly growing availability of electronic "big data" from diagnostic and prediagnostic sources in health care and public health settings permits advance of a new generation of methods for local detection and prediction of winter influenza seasons and influenza pandemics. The aim of this study was to present a method for integrated detection and prediction of influenza virus activity in local settings using electronically available surveillance data and to evaluate its performance by retrospective application on authentic data from a Swedish county. An integrated detection and prediction method was formally defined based on a design rationale for influenza detection and prediction methods adapted for local surveillance. The novel method was retrospectively applied on data from the winter influenza season 2008-09 in a Swedish county (population 445,000). Outcome data represented individuals who met a clinical case definition for influenza (based on International Classification of Diseases version 10 [ICD-10] codes) from an electronic health data repository. Information from calls to a telenursing service in the county was used as syndromic data source. The novel integrated detection and prediction method is based on nonmechanistic statistical models and is designed for integration in local health information systems. The method is divided into separate modules for detection and prediction of local influenza virus activity. The function of the detection module is to alert for an upcoming period of increased load of influenza cases on local health care (using influenza-diagnosis data), whereas the function of the prediction module is to predict the timing of the activity peak (using syndromic data) and its intensity (using influenza-diagnosis data). For detection modeling, exponential regression was used based on the assumption that the beginning

  4. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  5. Dengue incidence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirenda Vong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19-year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006-2008. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV infections for incidences of 13.4-57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons and lowest among the 16-to-19-year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons. The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5-211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5. During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The large-scale active surveillance study for dengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly

  6. The use of syndromic surveillance for decision-making during the H1N1 pandemic: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anna; Savage, Rachel; Willison, Don; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Rosella, Laura C; Sider, Doug; Garay, Jason; Gemmill, Ian; Winter, Anne-Luise; Davies, Richard F; Johnson, Ian

    2012-10-30

    Although an increasing number of studies are documenting uses of syndromic surveillance by front line public health, few detail the value added from linking syndromic data to public health decision-making. This study seeks to understand how syndromic data informed specific public health actions during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with participants from Ontario's public health departments, the provincial ministry of health and federal public health agency to gather information about syndromic surveillance systems used and the role of syndromic data in informing specific public health actions taken during the pandemic. Responses were compared with how the same decisions were made by non-syndromic surveillance users. Findings from 56 interviews (82% response) show that syndromic data were most used for monitoring virus activity, measuring impact on the health care system and informing the opening of influenza assessment centres in several jurisdictions, and supporting communications and messaging, rather than its intended purpose of early outbreak detection. Syndromic data had limited impact on decisions that involved the operation of immunization clinics, school closures, sending information letters home with school children or providing recommendations to health care providers. Both syndromic surveillance users and non-users reported that guidance from the provincial ministry of health, communications with stakeholders and vaccine availability were driving factors in these public health decisions. Syndromic surveillance had limited use in decision-making during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Ontario. This study provides insights into the reasons why this occurred. Despite this, syndromic data were valued for providing situational awareness and confidence to support public communications and recommendations. Developing an understanding of how syndromic data are utilized during public health events provides valuable evidence

  7. A novel thermometric biosensor for fast surveillance of β-lactamase activity in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mecklenburg, Michael; Yang, Dajin; Xie, Bin

    2013-11-15

    Regulatory restrictions on antibiotic residues in dairy products have resulted in the illegal addition of β-lactamase to lower antibiotic levels in milk in China. Here we demonstrate a fast, sensitive and convenient method based on enzyme thermistor (ET) for the surveillance of β-lactamase in milk. A fixed amount of penicillin G, which is a specific substrate of β-lactamase, was incubated with the milk sample, and an aliquot of the mixture was directly injected into the ET system to give a temperature change corresponding to the remained penicillin G. The amount of β-lactamase present in sample was deduced by the penicillin G consumed during incubation. This method was successfully applied to quantify β-lactamase in milk with the linear range of 1.1-20 UmL(-1) and the detection limit of 1.1 UmL(-1). The recoveries ranged from 93% to 105%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8%. The stability of the column equipped in ET was also studied, and only 5% decrease of activity was observed after 60 days of use. Compared with the conventional culture-based assay, the advantages of high throughput, timesaving and accurate quantification have made this method an ideal alternative for routine use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Active Surveillance of Hansen's Disease (Leprosy): Importance for Case Finding among Extra-domiciliary Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Maria L. N.; Dupnik, Kathryn M.; Sampaio, Gabriel A. A.; Nóbrega, Priscilla F. C.; Jeronimo, Ana K.; do Nascimento-Filho, Jose M.; Miranda Dantas, Roberta L.; Queiroz, Jose W.; Barbosa, James D.; Dias, Gutemberg; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Souza, Marcia C. F.; Nobre, Maurício L.

    2013-01-01

    Hansen's disease (leprosy) remains an important health problem in Brazil, where 34,894 new cases were diagnosed in 2010, corresponding to 15.3% of the world's new cases detected in that year. The purpose of this study was to use home visits as a tool for surveillance of Hansen's disease in a hyperendemic area in Brazil. A total of 258 residences were visited with 719 individuals examined. Of these, 82 individuals had had a previous history of Hansen's disease, 209 were their household contacts and 428 lived in neighboring residences. Fifteen new Hansen's disease cases were confirmed, yielding a detection rate of 2.0% of people examined. There was no difference in the detection rate between household and neighbor contacts (p = 0.615). The two groups had the same background in relation to education (p = 0.510), household income (p = 0.582), and the number of people living in the residence (p = 0.188). Spatial analysis showed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously diagnosed multibacillary cases. Active case finding is an important tool for Hansen's disease control in hyperendemic areas, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment, decrease in disability from Hansen's disease and potentially less spread of Mycobacterium leprae. PMID:23516645

  9. The effects of synoptic weather on influenza infection incidences: a retrospective study utilizing digital disease surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K.; Vecellio, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance-particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology-provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.

  10. Annual Assessment of Longitudinal Studies and Injury Surveillance for Gender Integration in the Army, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    each Service to develop and implement validated, occupation-specific physical performance requirements (i.e., gender -neutral occupational standards...Studies and Injury Surveillance for Gender Integration in the Army, 2016 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Health Surveillance Branch, Defense Health Agency) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER WBS 0047783 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING

  11. A systematic review of job-specific workers' health surveillance activities for fire-fighting, ambulance, police and military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plat, M J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2011-12-01

    Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to describe (1) the existing job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) activities and (2) the effectiveness of job-specific WHS interventions with respect to work functioning, for selected jobs. The search strategy systematically searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and OSH-update databases. The search strategy consisted of several synonyms of the job titles of interest, combined with synonyms for workers' health surveillance. The methodological quality was checked. At least one study was found for each of the following occupations fire fighters, ambulance personnel, police personnel and military personnel. For the first objective, 24 studies described several job-specific WHS activities aimed at aspects of psychological, 'physical' (energetic, biomechanical and balance), sense-related, environmental exposure or cardiovascular requirements. The seven studies found for the second objective measured different outcomes related to work functioning. The methodological quality of the interventions varied, but with the exception of one study, all scored over 55% of the maximum score. Six studies showed effectiveness on at least some of the defined outcomes. The studies described several job-specific interventions: a trauma resilience training, healthy lifestyle promotion, physical readiness training, respiratory muscle training, endurance and resistance training, a physical exercise programme and comparing vaccines. Several examples of job-specific WHS activities were found for the four occupations. Compared to studies focusing on physical tasks, a few studies were found that focus on psychological tasks. Effectiveness studies for job-specific WHS interventions were scarce, although their results were promising. We recommend studying

  12. RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, H A P; Rankin, A T; Webb, M; Nicholas, R; Eames, N W A; Wilson, R K; Henderson, L A; Heyes, G J; Bleakley, C M

    2017-04-01

    To examine injury patterns in adolescent rugby players and determine factors associated with injury risk. Prospective injury surveillance study. N=28 Grammar Schools in Ulster, Ireland (2014-2015 playing season). 825 adolescent rugby players, across in 28 school first XV rugby squads; mean age 16.9 years. Injuries were classified by body part and diagnosis, and injury incidence using injuries per 1000 match hours of exposure. HRs for injury were calculated through Cox proportional hazard regression after correction for influential covariates. A total of n=426 injuries were reported across the playing season. Over 50% of injuries occurred in the tackle situation or during collisions (270/426), with few reported during set plays. The 3 most common injury sites were head/face (n=102, 23.9%), clavicle/shoulder (n=65, 15.3%) and the knee (n=56, 13.1%). Sprain (n=133, 31.2%), concussion (n=81, 19%) and muscle injury (n=65, 15.3%) were the most common diagnoses. Injury incidence is calculated at 29.06 injuries per 1000 match hours. There were no catastrophic injuries. A large percentage of injuries (208/424) resulted in absence from play for more than 28 days. Concussion carried the most significant time out from play (n=33; 15.9%), followed by dislocations of the shoulder (n=22; 10.6%), knee sprains (n=19, 9.1%), ankle sprains (n=14, 6.7%), hand/finger/thumb (n=11; 5.3%). 36.8% of participants in the study (304/825) suffered at least one injury during the playing season. Multivariate models found higher risk of injury (adjusted HR (AHR); 95% CI) with: higher age (AHR 1.45; 1.14 to 1.83), heavier weight (AHR 1.32; 1.04 to 1.69), playing representative rugby (AHR 1.42; 1.06 to 1.90) and undertaking regular strength training (AHR 1.65; 1.11 to 2.46). Playing for a lower ranked team (AHR 0.67; 0.49 to 0.90) and wearing a mouthguard (AHR 0.70; 0.54 to 0.92) were associated with lower risk of injury. There was a high incidence of severe injuries, with concussion, ankle and

  13. Who is Surveilling Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns the particular form of counter-surveillance termed “sousveillance”, which aims to turn surveillance at the institutions responsible for surveillance. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives “mediatization” and “aerial surveillance,” the article studies WikiLeaks’ publication...

  14. Identifying barriers to patient acceptance of active surveillance: content analysis of online patient communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Mark V; Bennett, Michele; Vincent, Armon; Lee, Olivia T; Lallas, Costas D; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Gomella, Leonard G; Dicker, Adam P; Showalter, Timothy N

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research aimed at identifying patient acceptance of active surveillance (AS) has been identified as a public health research priority. The primary objective of this study was to determine if analysis of a large-sample of anonymous internet conversations (ICs) could be utilized to identify unmet public needs regarding AS. English-language ICs regarding prostate cancer (PC) treatment with AS from 2002-12 were identified using a novel internet search methodology. Web spiders were developed to mine, aggregate, and analyze content from the world-wide-web for ICs centered on AS. Collection of ICs was not restricted to any specific geographic region of origin. NLP was used to evaluate content and perform a sentiment analysis. Conversations were scored as positive, negative, or neutral. A sentiment index (SI) was subsequently calculated according to the following formula to compare temporal trends in public sentiment towards AS: [(# Positive IC/#Total IC)-(#Negative IC/#Total IC) x 100]. A total of 464 ICs were identified. Sentiment increased from -13 to +2 over the study period. The increase sentiment has been driven by increased patient emphasis on quality-of-life factors and endorsement of AS by national medical organizations. Unmet needs identified in these ICs include: a gap between quantitative data regarding long-term outcomes with AS vs. conventional treatments, desire for treatment information from an unbiased specialist, and absence of public role models managed with AS. This study demonstrates the potential utility of online patient communications to provide insight into patient preferences and decision-making. Based on our findings, we recommend that multidisciplinary clinics consider including an unbiased specialist to present treatment options and that future decision tools for AS include quantitative data regarding outcomes after AS.

  15. Standardised surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection in European acute care hospitals: a pilot study, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, Sofie M; Kinross, Pete; Gastmeier, Petra; Behnke, Michael; Kola, Axel; Delmée, Michel; Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Mentula, Silja; Barbut, Frédéric; Hajdu, Agnes; Ingebretsen, André; Pituch, Hanna; Macovei, Ioana S; Jovanović, Milica; Wiuff, Camilla; Schmid, Daniela; Olsen, Katharina Ep; Wilcox, Mark H; Suetens, Carl; Kuijper, Ed J

    2016-07-21

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains poorly controlled in many European countries, of which several have not yet implemented national CDI surveillance. In 2013, experts from the European CDI Surveillance Network project and from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control developed a protocol with three options of CDI surveillance for acute care hospitals: a 'minimal' option (aggregated hospital data), a 'light' option (including patient data for CDI cases) and an 'enhanced' option (including microbiological data on the first 10 CDI episodes per hospital). A total of 37 hospitals in 14 European countries tested these options for a three-month period (between 13 May and 1 November 2013). All 37 hospitals successfully completed the minimal surveillance option (for 1,152 patients). Clinical data were submitted for 94% (1,078/1,152) of the patients in the light option; information on CDI origin and outcome was complete for 94% (1,016/1,078) and 98% (294/300) of the patients in the light and enhanced options, respectively. The workload of the options was 1.1, 2.0 and 3.0 person-days per 10,000 hospital discharges, respectively. Enhanced surveillance was tested and was successful in 32 of the hospitals, showing that C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 was predominant (30% (79/267)). This study showed that standardised multicountry surveillance, with the option of integrating clinical and molecular data, is a feasible strategy for monitoring CDI in Europe. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  16. Active SMS-based influenza vaccine safety surveillance in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Alexis; Quinn, Helen; Cashman, Patrick; Leeb, Alan; Macartney, Kristine

    2017-12-18

    Australia's novel, active surveillance system, AusVaxSafety, monitors the post-market safety of vaccines in near real time. We analysed cumulative surveillance data for children aged 6 months to 4 years who received seasonal influenza vaccine in 2015 and/or 2016 to determine: adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) rates by vaccine brand, age and concomitant vaccine administration. Parent/carer reports of AEFI occurring within 3 days of their child receiving an influenza vaccine in sentinel immunisation clinics were solicited by Short Message Service (SMS) and/or email-based survey. Retrospective data from 2 years were combined to examine specific AEFI rates, particularly fever and medical attendance as a proxy for serious adverse events (SAE), with and without concomitant vaccine administration. As trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) were funded in Australia's National Immunisation Program (NIP) in 2015 and quadrivalent (QIV) in 2016, respectively, we compared their safety profiles. 7402 children were included. Data were reported weekly through each vaccination season; no safety signals or excess of adverse events were detected. More children who received a concomitant vaccine had fever (7.5% versus 2.8%; p vaccine was associated with the highest increase in AEFI rates among children receiving a specified concomitant vaccine: 30.3% reported an AEFI compared with 7.3% who received an influenza vaccine alone (p safety profiles included low and expected AEFI rates (fever: 4.3% for TIV compared with 3.2% for QIV (p = .015); injection site reaction: 1.9% for TIV compared with 3.0% for QIV (p safety profile between brands. Active participant-reported data provided timely vaccine brand-specific safety information. Our surveillance system has particular utility in monitoring the safety of influenza vaccines, given that they may vary in composition annually. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Active Surveillance Versus Watchful Waiting for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Model to Inform Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Zhou, Qinlian; Siebert, Uwe; Rochau, Ursula; Jahn, Beate; Mühlberger, Nikolai; Carter, H Ballentine; Lepor, Herbert; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2017-12-01

    An increasing proportion of prostate cancer is being managed conservatively. However, there are no randomized trials or consensus regarding the optimal follow-up strategy. To compare life expectancy and quality of life between watchful waiting (WW) versus different strategies of active surveillance (AS). A Markov model was created for US men starting at age 50, diagnosed with localized prostate cancer who chose conservative management by WW or AS using different testing protocols (prostate-specific antigen every 3-6 mo, biopsy every 1-5 yr, or magnetic resonance imaging based). Transition probabilities and utilities were obtained from the literature. Primary outcomes were life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Secondary outcomes include radical treatment, metastasis, and prostate cancer death. All AS strategies yielded more life years compared with WW. Lifetime risks of prostate cancer death and metastasis were, respectively, 5.42% and 6.40% with AS versus 8.72% and 10.30% with WW. AS yielded more QALYs than WW except in cohorts age >65 yr at diagnosis, or when treatment-related complications were long term. The preferred follow-up strategy was also sensitive to whether people value short-term over long-term benefits (time preference). Depending on the AS protocol, 30-41% underwent radical treatment within 10 yr. Extending the surveillance biopsy interval from 1 to 5 yr reduced life years slightly, with a 0.26 difference in QALYs. AS extends life more than WW, particularly for men with higher-risk features, but this is partly offset by the decrement in quality of life since many men eventually receive treatment. More intensive active surveillance protocols extend life more than watchful waiting, but this is partly offset by decrements in quality of life from subsequent treatment. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated Video Surveillance for the Study of Marine Mammal Behavior and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Karnowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems for detecting and tracking social marine mammals, including dolphins, can provide data to help explain their social dynamics, predict their behavior, and measure the impact of human interference. Data collected from video surveillance methods can be consistently and systematically sampled for studies of behavior, and frame-by-frame analyses can uncover insights impossible to observe from real-time, freely occurring natural behavior. Advances in boat-based, aerial, and underwater recording platforms provide opportunities to document the behavior of marine mammals and create massive datasets. The use of human experts to detect, track, identify individuals, and recognize activity in video demands significant time and financial investment. This paper examines automated methods designed to analyze large video corpora containing marine mammals. While research is converging on best solutions for some automated tasks, particularly detection and classification, many research domains are ripe for exploration.

  19. The role of governmental authorities in the surveillance activities for quality assurance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsky, J.; Hrdlicka, Z.; Beranek, J.; Becvar, J.

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with the legal and organizational aspects as well as with the principles and procedures of the quality assurance (QA) system for particular equipment of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia, and the role of governmental authorities in surveillance activities. The basic governmental document is the Decree No.5 (1979) of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission (CzAEC) on the QA of particular equipment in nuclear power plants with regard to nuclear safety. It is divided into ten sections: opening provisions; classification of the particular equipment; QA programmes; procedures of final elaboration of QA programme documentation; QA principles; QA during design; QA during manufacture, procurement, installation and commissioning; in-service inspection; QA during repair and modifications; and concluding provisions. Governmental surveillance is based on Governmental Resolution No.195 (1977). According to this resolution, inspection must be carried out by an organization which is independent of the manufacturing and operating organizations. This inspection is performed by the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission (for nuclear safety) and by the Czech Safety Work Office and the Slovak Safety Work Office (for technical safety), together with subordinated regional divisions. The activities of these authorities are discussed. (author)

  20. Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Patrick; Moberley, Sarah; Dalton, Craig; Stephenson, Jody; Elvidge, Elissa; Butler, Michelle; Durrheim, David N

    2014-09-22

    Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n=21), and piloted during the 2012 (n=200) and 2013 (n=477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n=113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Five-year decreased incidence of surgical site infections following gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement surgery through active surveillance by the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Adiyani, L; Sung, J; Choi, J Y; Kim, H B; Kim, Y K; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, Sang-Oh; Han, S H; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H M; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Yoo, J D; Koo, H-S; Cho, E H; Lee, K W

    2016-08-01

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection has been associated with a reduction in surgical site infection (SSI). To evaluate the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KONIS) in order to assess its effects on SSI since it was introduced. SSI data after gastrectomy, total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 2008 and 2012 were analysed. The pooled incidence of SSI was calculated for each year; the same analyses were also conducted from hospitals that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years. Standardized SSI rates for each year were calculated by adjusting for SSI risk factors. SSI trends were analysed using the Cochran-Armitage test. The SSI rate following gastrectomy was 3.12% (522/16,918). There was a significant trend of decreased crude SSI rates over five years. This trend was also evident in analysis of hospitals that had participated for more than three years. The SSI rate for THA was 2.05% (157/7656), which decreased significantly from 2008 to 2012. The risk factors for SSI after THA included the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance risk index, trauma, reoperation, and age (60-69 years). The SSI rate for TKA was 1.90% (152/7648), which also decreased significantly during a period of five years. However, the risk-adjusted analysis of SSI did not show a significant decrease for all surgical procedures. The SSI incidence of gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement declined over five years as a result of active surveillance by KONIS. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting Pathological Features at Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer Eligible for Active Surveillance by Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottavio de Cobelli

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS score in predicting pathologic features in a cohort of patients eligible for active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy.A total of 223 patients who fulfilled the criteria for "Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance", were included. Mp-1.5 Tesla MRI examination staging with endorectal coil was performed at least 6-8 weeks after TRUS-guided biopsy. In all patients, the likelihood of the presence of cancer was assigned using PIRADS score between 1 and 5. Outcomes of interest were: Gleason score upgrading, extra capsular extension (ECE, unfavorable prognosis (occurrence of both upgrading and ECE, large tumor volume (≥ 0.5 ml, and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and Decision Curve Analyses (DCA were performed for models with and without inclusion of PIRADS score.Multivariate analysis demonstrated the association of PIRADS score with upgrading (P < 0.0001, ECE (P < 0.0001, unfavorable prognosis (P < 0.0001, and large tumor volume (P = 0.002. ROC curves and DCA showed that models including PIRADS score resulted in greater net benefit for almost all the outcomes of interest, with the only exception of SVI.mpMRI and PIRADS scoring are feasible tools in clinical setting and could be used as decision-support systems for a more accurate selection of patients eligible for AS.

  3. Surveillance as a complement to irradiation embrittlement studies: Status and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    The history of the study of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels has gone through three stages in the USA. 1) A scientific curiosity. 2) Empirical or laboratory evaluation of typical steels, and 3) Integration of the scientific and empirical to advance status and evolve standard techniques. The current stage is one in which surveillance data compliments the laboratory studies which characterized Stage 3. The early USA surveillance programs were generally analyzed by the same people who were the primary laboratory investigators. An effort must be made to continue this type of collaboration as a useful two-way learning procedure though it will become more and more difficult as nuclear power is broadly commercialized. The current status of both types of USA programs will be presented to encourage the most advantageous use of data from both sources. At this time about 25 USA nuclear power reactors have operated long enough to have provided initial surveillance or dosimetry results. An effort will be made to summarize the general status of these in order to: 1) Provide complimentary data to laboratory studies. 2) Assess directions in handling the problems of radiation embrittlement. 3) Note lessons learned for improving surveillance efforts in the future. 4) Identify possible research tasks for the future to support in-service surveillance and other measures. 5) Justify facts advancing surveillance requirements to status of national codes and standards. 6) Justify facts requiring changes in current national codes and standards. A plan will be presented along with an introduction of each member of the USA delegation for systematic presentation of the status of reactor vessel surveillance in the USA. (author)

  4. Quality of life in active surveillance and the associations with decision-making-a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichetti, Julia; Valdagni, Riccardo; Bellardita, Lara

    2018-02-01

    Several studies have been conducted on the quality of life (QoL) in men with low risk prostate cancer (PCa) who choose active surveillance (AS). While recent reviews have shown a lack of consistency among the available QoL-studies, a few key points have been identified, including decision-making (DM)-related issues and their potential effect on QoL. The importance of this theme has also been recently highlighted by the international task force of the European School of Oncology. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that have specifically marshalled scientific knowledge on the association between DM and QoL among men with low-risk PCa undergoing AS. We performed a literature review to fill this gap, taking a systematic approach to retrieving and selecting articles that included both DM and QoL measures. Among the 272 articles retrieved, we selected nine observational, quantitative articles with both DM and QoL measures. The most considered DM aspects within these studies were decisional conflict and preference for the patient's role in the DM process, as well as health-related QoL aspects. The studies included 42 assessments of the relationship between an empirical measure of DM and an empirical measure of QoL. Among these assessments, 23 (55%) were both positive and significant. They mostly concerned the relationship between patient-related (decisional self-efficacy, decisional control and knowledge) and external (presence of social support, collaborative role within the DM process, and influence of different physicians) DM aspects, as well as the QoL after choice. The findings of these studies revealed key challenges to research and clinical practice related to DM and QoL in AS. These include adopting a person-centred perspective where clinicians, caregivers and their interactions are also included in evaluations and where the psychosocial existential experience of individuals within the DM and AS journey is considered. Much more attention needs to be

  5. The use of surveillance data and market research to promote physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridinger, Fred; Macera, Carol; Cordell, H Ken

    2002-08-01

    Using various types of data sources for assessing and monitoring physical activity behaviors on a population level adds to our ability to explain the relationships between individuals and their surrounding social and physical environments. This article presents the findings from part of a panel presentation on available data sets at the 2001 Cooper Conference on Innovative Approaches to Understanding and Influencing Physical Activity. First, an overview of large national epidemiologic and surveillance data sets is offered, followed by a discussion on the use of market segmentation data to complement more traditional sources of data by adding new dimensions to our understanding of target groups and potential intervention strategies. The relative advantages and disadvantages of using each type of data are also given, as well as recommendations for further use.

  6. Is anatomic complexity associated with renal tumor growth kinetics under active surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrazin, Reza; Smaldone, Marc C; Egleston, Brian; Tomaszewski, Jeffrey J; Concodora, Charles W; Ito, Timothy K; Abbosh, Philip H; Chen, David Y T; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G

    2015-04-01

    Linear growth rate (LGR) is the most commonly employed trigger for definitive intervention in patients with renal masses managed with an initial period of active surveillance (AS). Using our institutional cohort, we explored the association between tumor anatomic complexity at presentation and LGR in patients managed with AS. Enhancing renal masses managed expectantly for at least 6 months were included for analysis. The association between Nephrometry Score and LGR was assessed using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for the age, Charlson score, race, sex, and initial tumor size. Overall, 346 patients (401 masses) met the inclusion criteria (18% ≥ cT1b), with a median follow-up of 37 months (range: 6-169). Of these, 44% patients showed progression to definitive intervention with a median duration of 27 months (range: 6-130). On comparing patients managed expectantly to those requiring intervention, no difference was seen in median tumor size at presentation (2.2 vs. 2.2 cm), whereas significant differences in median age (74 vs. 65 y, P anatomic tumor complexity at presentation and renal masses of LGR of clinical stage 1 under AS may afford a clinically useful cue to tailor individual patient radiographic surveillance schedules and warrants further evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    2001-02-01

    In view of necessity and importance of criticality surveillance systems for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel manufacturing and reprocessing plants, 5-year basic studies and 4 year R and D studies on an on-line criticality surveillance system were carried out since 1991. This report is a summary of these series of studies. Noticing that the signal from a neutron detector is random in principle, these series of studies aimed to accumulate knowledge for developing an inexpensive criticality surveillance system with quick response based on the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model identification algorithm. During five-year basic studies on criticality surveillance system since 1991, we obtained knowledge required for developing a criticality surveillance system based on the ARMA model identification algorithm through 1) studies on recursive ARMA model identification algorithms most appropriate for estimating subcriticality form time series data under a steady state condition, 2) studies on pre-processing of signal from neutron detectors, 3) developing a new recursive ARMA model identification algorithm with small time delay to estimate time-dependent subcriticality, 4) proposing a basic concept for the elements required for an on-line criticality surveillance system, and 5) numerical analysis of data from the DCA experiments. During next four-year R and D studies on a criticality surveillance system since 1996, we 1) proposed modules required for a no-line criticality surveillance system, 2) revealed effectiveness of a adaptive digital filter (ADF) algorithm, as an important redundancy to the recursive ARMA model identification algorithm to be used in the signal processing module through numerical analysis of real data, 3) proposed a module of the Feynman-α method over γ ray signal and a fast signal processing module for γ ray signal, 4) developed a line-noise removal filter(Notch filter) and revealed its effectiveness for the DCA data corrupted with power

  8. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  9. Expressed prostatic secretion biomarkers improve stratification of NCCN active surveillance candidates: performance of secretion capacity and TMPRSS2:ERG models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Christopher; Kawachi, Mark; Smith, David D; Linehan, Jennifer; Babilonia, Gail; Mejia, Rosa; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven S

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance is a viable patient option for prostate cancer provided that a clinical determination of low risk and presumably organ confined disease can be made. To standardize risk stratification schemes the NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) provides guidelines for the active surveillance option. We determined the effectiveness of expressed prostatic secretion biomarkers for detecting occult risk factors in NCCN active surveillance candidates. Expressed prostatic secretion specimens were obtained before robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Secretion capacity biomarkers, including total RNA and expressed prostatic secretion specimen volume, were measured by standard techniques. RNA expression biomarkers, including TXNRD1 mRNA, prostate specific antigen mRNA, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion mRNA and PCA3 mRNA, were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Of the 528 patients from whom expressed prostatic secretions were collected 216 were eligible for active surveillance under NCCN guidelines. Variable selection on logistic regression identified 2 models, including one featuring types III and VI TMPRSS2:ERG variants, and one featuring 2 secretion capacity biomarkers. Of the 2 high performing models the secretion capacity model was most effective for detecting cases in this group that were up-staged or up-staged plus upgraded. It decreased the risk of up-staging in patients with a negative test almost eightfold and decreased the risk of up-staging plus upgrading about fivefold while doubling the prevalence of up-staging in the positive test group. Noninvasive expressed prostatic secretion testing may improve patient acceptance of active surveillance by dramatically reducing the presence of occult risk factors among those eligible for active surveillance under NCCN guidelines. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Data visualisation in surveillance for injury prevention and control: conceptual bases and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ramon; Ordunez, Pedro; Soliz, Patricia N; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of current injury-related health issues demands the usage of diverse and massive data sets for comprehensive analyses, and application of novel methods to communicate data effectively to the public health community, decision-makers and the public. Recent advances in information visualisation, availability of new visual analytic methods and tools, and progress on information technology provide an opportunity for shaping the next generation of injury surveillance. To introduce data visualisation conceptual bases, and propose a visual analytic and visualisation platform in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. The paper introduces data visualisation conceptual bases, describes a visual analytic and visualisation platform, and presents two real-world case studies illustrating their application in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. Application of visual analytic and visualisation platform is presented as solution for improved access to heterogeneous data sources, enhance data exploration and analysis, communicate data effectively, and support decision-making. Applications of data visualisation concepts and visual analytic platform could play a key role to shape the next generation of injury surveillance. Visual analytic and visualisation platform could improve data use, the analytic capacity, and ability to effectively communicate findings and key messages. The public health surveillance community is encouraged to identify opportunities to develop and expand its use in injury prevention and control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Diagnostic approach to urinary tract infections in male general practice patients: a national surveillance study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Dongen, M.C.J.M. van; Donker, G.A.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic urinary tract infection (UTI) studies have primarily been performed among female patients. Aim: To create a diagnostic algorithm for male general practice patients suspected of UTI. Design and setting: Surveillance study in the Dutch Sentinel General Practice Network. Method:

  12. Rugby World Cup 2015: World Rugby injury surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Kemp, Simon P T; Raftery, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. A prospective, whole population study. 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries. Incidence of injury was 90.1 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 100.4; forwards: 81.1) and 1.0 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (backs: 0.9; forwards: 1.2). The mean severity of injuries was 29.8 days-absence (backs: 30.4; forwards: 29.1) during matches and 14.4 days-absence (backs: 6.3; forwards: 19.8) during training. During matches, head/face (22.0%), knee (16.2%), muscle-strain (23.1%) and ligament-sprain (23.1%) and, during training, lower limb (80.0%) and muscle-strain (60.0%) injuries were the most common locations and types of injury. Being-tackled (24.7%) was the most common inciting event for injury during matches and rugby-skills-contact activities (70.0%) the most common during training. While the incidence, nature and inciting events associated with match injuries at RWC 2015 were similar to those reported previously for RWCs 2007 and 2011, there were increasing trends in the mean severity and total days-absence through injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. A new paradigm in low-risk papillary microcarcinoma: active surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex González Bóssolo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Classical papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC is a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC known to have excellent prognosis. It has a mortality of 0.3%, even in the presence of distance metastasis. The latest American Thyroid Association guidelines state that although lobectomy is acceptable, active surveillance can be considered in the appropriate setting. We present the case of a 37-year-old female with a history of PTMC who underwent surgical management consisting of a total thyroidectomy. Although she has remained disease-free, her quality of life has been greatly affected by the sequelae of this procedure. This case serves as an excellent example of how first-line surgical treatment may result more harmful than the disease itself.

  14. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like ductal prostatic adenocarcinoma: A case suitable for active surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Rais-Bahrami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to typical prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of prostate cancer with low-grade clinical behavior. We report a case of a 66-year-old African-American male with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen who underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MRI/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsies. Pathology demonstrated low-volume Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 (Grade Group 1, acinar adenocarcinoma involving one core and PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma on a separate core. Herein, we discuss the potential role of active surveillance for patients with this rare variant of prostate cancer found in the era of advanced imaging with multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer.

  15. Can Confirmatory Biopsy be Omitted in Patients with Prostate Cancer Favorable Diagnostic Features on Active Surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satasivam, Prassannah; Poon, Bing Ying; Ehdaie, Behfar; Vickers, Andrew J; Eastham, James A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated whether initial diagnostic parameters could predict the confirmatory biopsy result in patients initiating active surveillance for prostate cancer, to determine whether some men at low risk for disease reclassification could be spared unnecessary biopsy. The cohort included 392 men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer on initial biopsy undergoing confirmatory biopsy. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression to assess if high grade cancer (Gleason 7 or greater) on confirmatory biopsy could be predicted from initial diagnostic parameters (prostate specific antigen density, magnetic resonance imaging result, percent positive cores, percent cancer in positive cores and total tumor length). Median patient age was 62 years (IQR 56-66) and 47% of patients had a dominant or focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 392 patients 44 (11%) had high grade cancer on confirmatory biopsy, of whom 39 had Gleason 3+4, 1 had 4+3, 3 had Gleason 8 and 1 had Gleason 9 disease. All predictors were significantly associated with high grade cancer at confirmatory biopsy on univariate analysis. However, in the multivariable model only prostate specific antigen density and total tumor length were significantly associated (AUC 0.85). Using this model to select patients for confirmatory biopsy would generally provide a higher net benefit than performing confirmatory biopsy in all patients, across a wide range of threshold probabilities. If externally validated, a model based on initial diagnostic criteria could be used to avoid confirmatory biopsy in many patients initiating active surveillance. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Can Confirmatory Biopsy be Omitted in Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance Patients with Favorable Diagnostic Features?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satasivam, Prassannah; Poon, Bing Ying; Ehdaie, Behfar; Vickers, Andrew J.; Eastham, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated whether initial diagnostic parameters could predict the confirmatory biopsy result in patients initiating active surveillance for prostate cancer, to determine whether some men at low risk of reclassification could be spared unnecessary biopsy. Materials and Methods The cohort included 392 men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer on initial biopsy undergoing confirmatory biopsy. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression to assess if high-grade cancer (Gleason ≥ 7) on confirmatory biopsy could be predicted from initial diagnostic parameters (prostate-specific antigen density, magnetic resonance imaging result, percent positive cores, percent cancer in positive cores, and total tumor length). Results Median age was 62 years (IQR 56–66) and 47% of patients were found to have a dominant or focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 392 patients, 44 (11%) were found to have high-grade cancer on confirmatory biopsy, among whom 39 had 3+4, 1 had 4+3, 3 had Gleason 8, and 1 patient had Gleason 9 disease. All predictors were significantly associated with high-grade cancer at confirmatory biopsy on univariate analysis. However, in the multivariable model only prostate-specific antigen density and total tumor length were significantly associated (AUC of 0.85). Using this model to select patients for confirmatory biopsy would generally provide a higher net benefit than performing confirmatory biopsy in all patients, across a wide range of threshold probabilities. Conclusion If externally validated, a model based on initial diagnostic criteria could be used to avoid confirmatory biopsy in many patients initiating active surveillance. PMID:26192258

  17. Definitive pathology at radical prostatectomy is commonly favorable in men following initial active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kyu; Sternberg, Itay A; Keren Paz, Gal E; Kim, Philip H; Touijer, Karim A; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2014-08-01

    Limited data are currently available regarding the outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with low-risk prostate cancer who were initially managed by active surveillance (AS). To evaluate the pathologic outcomes of patients who underwent RP following initial AS. We analyzed the records of 67 patients who underwent RP following initial AS begun between 1993 and 2011. All patients underwent confirmatory biopsy to reassess eligibility for AS. RP was recommended for disease progression suggested by follow-up biopsies or imaging. Unfavorable disease was defined as having at least one of the following pathologic findings: Gleason score (GS) ≥4+3, extracapsular extension of tumor, seminal vesicle invasion, or lymph node involvement. A descriptive analysis was performed to assess pathologic features. Median time from confirmatory biopsy to RP was 1.7 yr (range: 0.3-7.8). Reasons for discontinuing AS to undergo RP included evidence of increased tumor volume or grade on follow-up biopsy, patient preference/anxiety, and findings on follow-up imaging in 46 patients (68.7%), 17 patients (25.3%), and 4 patients (6.0%), respectively. Pathologic analyses revealed organ-confined disease in 55 patients (82.1%), and GS was ≥4+3 in 9 (13.4%). Positive nodes were observed in three patients (4.4%) and positive surgical margin in two (3.0%). Overall, 19 patients (28.4%) had unfavorable disease. Of the biopsy criteria for triggering RP, Gleason patterns >3 were the most frequently associated with unfavorable disease (43.3%). One patient (1.5%) experienced biochemical recurrence during postoperative follow-up (median: 3.2 yr). Our study may be limited by its retrospective and single-institution nature. Most patients who started initially on AS after undergoing confirmatory biopsy showed pathologically organ-confined disease with a low GS at RP. Such findings provide further evidence that, overall, AS is a safe treatment approach. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Weighted Activity and Costing of Surveillance and Control in Animal Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duboz Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity based modeling and simulation is a very promising field. It has recently demonstrated its potential from modeling software development methods [9] to the design of low energy sensors. In this position paper, I would like to initiate a reflexion on the use of the weighted activity in the context of financial costing using the formulation recently proposed by X. Hu and B.P. Zeigler [5]. I propose here to formalize a recent approach of costing, the Time-Driven Activity Based Costing [3], using the theoretical modeling framework initiated by B.P. Zeigler [6]. I argue that this specification can potentially improve the traditional model of Time-Driven Activity Based Costing. I illustrate the approach in the context of surveillance and control in animal epidemiology. The demonstration of its effectiveness is not done in this position paper. Nevertheless, as the existing costing systems are designed to support decision making in business management, the scenario based approach proposed in this paper should be very useful to support decisions in complex management situations.

  19. Space-Based Space Surveillance Logistics Case Study: A Qualitative Product Support Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SPACE-BASED SPACE SURVEILLANCE LOGISTICS CASE STUDY: A QUALITATIVE ...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT This research provides a qualitative analysis of the logistics impacts, effects, and sustainment challenges...provides a qualitative product support element-by-element review for both research questions. Chapters IV and V present the findings, results

  20. Representativeness and response rates from the Domestic/International Gastroenterology Surveillance Study (DIGEST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Domestic/international Gastroenterology Surveillance Study (DIGEST) examined the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms among the general population in 10 countries, and the impact of these symptoms on healthcare usage and quality of life. This report discusses the validation

  1. Characteristics of national and statewide health care-associated infection surveillance programs: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Havers, Sally M; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Hall, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    There are many well-established national health care-associated infection surveillance programs (HAISPs). Although validation studies have described data quality, there is little research describing important characteristics of large HAISPs. The aim of this study was to broaden our understanding and identify key characteristics of large HAISPs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively selected leaders from national and state-based HAISPs. Interview data were analyzed following an interpretive description process. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted over a 6-month period during 2014-2015. Analysis of the data generated 5 distinct characteristics of large HAISPs: (1) triggers: surveillance was initiated by government or a cooperative of like-minded people, (2) purpose: a clear purpose is needed and determines other surveillance mechanisms, (3) data measures: consistency is more important than accuracy, (4) processes: a balance exists between the volume of data collected and resources, and (5) implementation and maintenance: a central coordinating body is crucial for uniformity and support. National HAISPs are complex and affect a broad range of stakeholders. Although the overall goal of health care-associated infection surveillance is to reduce the incidence of health care-associated infection, there are many crucial factors to be considered in attaining this goal. The findings from this study will assist the development of new HAISPs and could be used as an adjunct to evaluate existing programs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Traumatic orodental injuries and the development of an orodental injury surveillance system: a pilot study in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Rachel Catherine Anne; Cassell, Erin; Calache, Hanny

    2009-02-01

    Traumatic orodental injuries are common dental public health problems that have complex aetiology and significant impact on those affected. It is important to understand the frequency, pattern and causes of traumatic orodental injuries so that appropriate and effective treatment services are made available and injury prevention interventions are designed and implemented. The aims of this study were to measure the frequency, causes and patterns of traumatic orodental injuries in patients of all ages treated at the Royal Dental Hospital of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia, over a 12-month period and to investigate the feasibility of establishing an orodental injury surveillance system. For which, a retrospective audit of 304 patient records was undertaken and injury surveillance data were extracted and analysed. Males represented 67% of cases. Three-quarters of all cases were aged less than 24 years. The most frequent cause of orodental injury was falls from less than 1 m or being struck by or colliding with a person or object. Injuries occurred most commonly around the home, on the road, street or footpath, the sports ground and places for recreation and were most often associated with leisure and sports activities. Orodental injuries sustained in one traumatic incident were often multiple and serious. Many severe orodental trauma injury cases present at this public dental hospital are expensive to treat, require long-term management and may be preventable. The findings from this study have led to the development and planned implementation of an enhanced electronic orodental injury structured history form that incorporates the collection of key injury surveillance data. These prospective data are to be combined with injury surveillance data that are routinely collected by all Victorian public hospital emergency departments in order to improve understanding of the nature of orodental injuries impacting Victorian communities and assist with appropriate service

  3. [Active surveillance of adverse drug reaction in the era of big data: challenge and opportunity for control selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S F; Zhan, S Y

    2016-07-01

    Electronic healthcare databases have become an important source for active surveillance of drug safety in the era of big data. The traditional epidemiology research designs are needed to confirm the association between drug use and adverse events based on these datasets, and the selection of the comparative control is essential to each design. This article aims to explain the principle and application of each type of control selection, introduce the methods and parameters for method comparison, and describe the latest achievements in the batch processing of control selection, which would provide important methodological reference for the use of electronic healthcare databases to conduct post-marketing drug safety surveillance in China.

  4. Differences in physical activity prevalence and trends from 3 U.S. surveillance systems: NHIS, NHANES, and BRFSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Susan A; Densmore, Dianna; Fulton, Janet E; Yore, Michelle M; Kohl, Harold W

    2009-01-01

    Three U.S. surveillance systems-National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)--estimate physical activity prevalence. Survey differences were examined qualitatively. Prevalence estimates by sex, age, and race/ethnicity were assessed for comparable survey periods. Trends were examined from NHIS 1998 to 2007, NHANES 1999 to 2006, and BRFSS 2001 to 2007. Age-adjusted prevalence estimates appeared most similar for NHIS 2005 (physically active: 30.2%, inactive: 40.7%) and NHANES 2005 to 2006 (physically active: 33.5%, inactive: 32.4%). In BRFSS 2005, prevalence of being physically active was 48.3% and inactive was 13.9%. Across all systems, men were more likely to be active than women; non-Hispanic whites were most likely to be active; as age increased, overall prevalence of being active decreased. Prevalence of being active exhibited a significant increasing trend only in BRFSS 2001 to 2007 (P < .001), while prevalence of being inactive decreased significantly in NHANES 1999 to 2006 (P < .001) and BRFSS 2001 to 2007 (P < .001). Different ways of assessing physical activity in surveillance systems result in different prevalence estimates. Before comparing estimates from different systems, all aspects of data collection and data analysis should be examined to determine if comparisons are appropriate.

  5. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  6. Radiological surveillance of Remedial Action activities at the processing site, Falls City, Texas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project's Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological surveillance of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site in Falls City, Texas. This surveillance was conducted March 22--26, 1993. No findings were identified during the surveillance. Three site-specific observations and three programmatic observations are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the surveillance is that the radiological aspects of the Falls City, Texas, remedial action program are performed adequately. However, some of the observations identify that there is potential for improving certain aspects of the occupational radiological air sampling, ensuring analytical data quality, and in communicating with the DOE and TAC on the ore sampling methods. The TAC has also received and is currently reviewing the RAC's responses regarding the observations identified during the radiological surveillance performed October 29--30, 1992

  7. Epigenetic Signature: A New Player as Predictor of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer (PCa) in Patients on Active Surveillance (AS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Ungaro, Paola; Cimmino, Amelia; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Busetto, Gian Maria; Cantiello, Francesco; Damiano, Rocco; Terracciano, Daniela

    2017-05-27

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing notably increased the number of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnoses. However, about 30% of these patients have low-risk tumors that are not lethal and remain asymptomatic during their lifetime. Overtreatment of such patients may reduce quality of life and increase healthcare costs. Active surveillance (AS) has become an accepted alternative to immediate treatment in selected men with low-risk PCa. Despite much progress in recent years toward identifying the best candidates for AS in recent years, the greatest risk remains the possibility of misclassification of the cancer or missing a high-risk cancer. This is particularly worrisome in men with a life expectancy of greater than 10-15 years. The Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study showed that, in addition to age and PSA at diagnosis, both PSA density (PSA-D) and the number of positive cores at diagnosis (two compared with one) are the strongest predictors for reclassification biopsy or switching to deferred treatment. However, there is still no consensus upon guidelines for placing patients on AS. Each institution has its own protocol for AS that is based on PRIAS criteria. Many different variables have been proposed as tools to enrol patients in AS: PSA-D, the percentage of freePSA, and the extent of cancer on biopsy (number of positive cores or percentage of core involvement). More recently, the Prostate Health Index (PHI), the 4 Kallikrein (4K) score, and other patient factors, such as age, race, and family history, have been investigated as tools able to predict clinically significant PCa. Recently, some reports suggested that epigenetic mapping differs significantly between cancer patients and healthy subjects. These findings indicated as future prospect the use of epigenetic markers to identify PCa patients with low-grade disease, who are likely candidates for AS. This review explores literature data about the potential of

  8. Digital dashboard design using multiple data streams for disease surveillance with influenza surveillance as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin K Y; Ip, Dennis K M; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M; Lau, Eric H Y

    2011-10-14

    Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public health actions.

  9. [TV, overweight and nutritional surveillance. Ads content, food intake and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, T D; Bioletti, L; Bo, C; Formigatti, M

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between television viewing and obesity in children and adults was examined in a large number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Some randomised, controlled trials confirmed the evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness. It seems of utility in nutritional surveillance to esteem time spent by children and adults in television watching and to evaluate ads contents and food preferences suggested by them. This editorial shows a two-years long analysis of food commercials broadcasted by the main Italian TV networks; food ads targeted on children, housewives and sport fans were evaluated; the relationship between television viewing, commercials and food intake or global lifestyle was investigated in a Piedmont's population (from Northern Italy). School projects aimed to reduce television viewing represent a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity.

  10. Surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionising radiation: Rimed pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The project so-called RIMED aimed to set up epidemiological surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionizing radiation. A pilot study was conducted in a sample of hospital personnel to examine the possibility of identifying exposed subjects in order to analyse mortality patterns according to occupational characteristics such as medical departments or occupations in a historical cohort. Seven hospitals participated in this pilot study. Health-care workers who had worn a dosimeter up to December 2003 were to be included in this cohort. The subjects' identification data were obtained from the SISERI (Systeme d'information de la surveillance de l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants - Ionizing Radiation Exposure Monitoring Information System) database managed by the Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN). The SISERI system was in a 'pilot' phase in 2004. According to SISERI database, a total of 5126 subjects were found to have worn a dosimeter up to December 2003. The subjects' identification data were completed by the administrative services of the hospitals and occupational physicians searched for subjects' occupational data. Information required for the vital status search was satisfactorily completed only for 38% of the cohort subjects. This pilot study showed that obtaining data from SISERI database completed by hospital administrative data in 2004 led to a database of insufficient quality for epidemiological surveillance. The Institut de veille sanitaire (French Institute of Public Health Surveillance) recommends that transmission by the employers of some specific personal or occupational data of the exposed subjects should be made compulsory. In this way, SISERI system should be able to constitute any database with required quality for epidemiological surveillance of ionizing radiation exposed subjects. (authors)

  11. Involvement of Mitanins (female health volunteers) in active malaria surveillance, determinants and challenges in tribal populated malaria endemic villages of Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Mehul Kumar; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Bhatt, Rajendra Mohan; Swain, Dipak Kumar; Dutta, G D P; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2017-07-11

    Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA), female health volunteers working at village level have become an integral component of National Health Mission (NHM) in India in the past two decades. Mitanin (meaning female friend in local dialect), a precursor of ASHA, play an indispensable role in early detection of health related problems and are helping in improving overall community health status in Chhattisgarh state. The current study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of involving Mitanin in active malaria surveillance work in 80 tribal villages of Chhattisgarh and to explore the challenges and determinants to perform malaria surveillance activities by the Mitanins. A total of 162 Mitanins were selected and divided into two age and village matched groups. The first group (training plus) of Mitanins were given additional training in malaria surveillance activities in whilst the second (standard) group received routine training. All Mitanins were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. In-depth interviews were also conducted among randomly selected sub groups of Mitanins (five from each group) after the completion of the quantitative survey. Performance of Mitanins was evaluated using pre-defined grading scores (A-E) which included various factors such as educational qualifications and knowledge about malaria, its signs and symptoms and knowledge, attitude and treatment practices. More number of Mitanins in training plus group has showed better performance (≥ B) than those in the standard group of Mitanins (80% vs 43.5%, p = 0.001) after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Based on the outcome of in-depth interviews, Mitanin's lack of adequate support from supervisors, delayed payment of incentives and lack of appreciation were the major challenges mentioned. Mitanins can play an effective role in active fever surveillance for malaria besides performing other health related tasks at sub-village level after focused education on malaria

  12. Quality of life of nursing-home residents with dementia subject ot surveillance technology versus physical restraints: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Boekhorst, S.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Francke, A.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Zwijsen, S.A.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective As physical restraints should only be used in exceptional cases, there is an urgent need for alternatives to restraint use. Surveillance technology could be such an alternative. This study explored whether nursing-home residents with dementia subjected to surveillance technology had better

  13. Quality of life of nursing-home residents with dementia subject to surveillance technology versus physical restraints: an explorative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, S. te; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Francke, A.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Zwijsen, S.A.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As physical restraints should only be used in exceptional cases, there is an urgent need for alternatives to restraint use. Surveillance technology could be such an alternative. This study explored whether nursing-home residents with dementia subjected to surveillance technology had

  14. Methodological challenges to multivariate syndromic surveillance: a case study using Swiss animal health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Flavie; Wei, Wei; Held, Leonhard

    2016-12-20

    In an era of ubiquitous electronic collection of animal health data, multivariate surveillance systems (which concurrently monitor several data streams) should have a greater probability of detecting disease events than univariate systems. However, despite their limitations, univariate aberration detection algorithms are used in most active syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems because of their ease of application and interpretation. On the other hand, a stochastic modelling-based approach to multivariate surveillance offers more flexibility, allowing for the retention of historical outbreaks, for overdispersion and for non-stationarity. While such methods are not new, they are yet to be applied to animal health surveillance data. We applied an example of such stochastic model, Held and colleagues' two-component model, to two multivariate animal health datasets from Switzerland. In our first application, multivariate time series of the number of laboratories test requests were derived from Swiss animal diagnostic laboratories. We compare the performance of the two-component model to parallel monitoring using an improved Farrington algorithm and found both methods yield a satisfactorily low false alarm rate. However, the calibration test of the two-component model on the one-step ahead predictions proved satisfactory, making such an approach suitable for outbreak prediction. In our second application, the two-component model was applied to the multivariate time series of the number of cattle abortions and the number of test requests for bovine viral diarrhea (a disease that often results in abortions). We found that there is a two days lagged effect from the number of abortions to the number of test requests. We further compared the joint modelling and univariate modelling of the number of laboratory test requests time series. The joint modelling approach showed evidence of superiority in terms of forecasting abilities. Stochastic modelling approaches offer the

  15. Intelligent agents for adaptive security market surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Li, Xin; Xu, Baoxun; Yan, Jiaqi; Wang, Huaiqing

    2017-05-01

    Market surveillance systems have increasingly gained in usage for monitoring trading activities in stock markets to maintain market integrity. Existing systems primarily focus on the numerical analysis of market activity data and generally ignore textual information. To fulfil the requirements of information-based surveillance, a multi-agent-based architecture that uses agent intercommunication and incremental learning mechanisms is proposed to provide a flexible and adaptive inspection process. A prototype system is implemented using the techniques of text mining and rule-based reasoning, among others. Based on experiments in the scalping surveillance scenario, the system can identify target information evidence up to 87.50% of the time and automatically identify 70.59% of cases depending on the constraints on the available information sources. The results of this study indicate that the proposed information surveillance system is effective. This study thus contributes to the market surveillance literature and has significant practical implications.

  16. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission in a Ghanaian Burn Unit: The Importance of Active Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Ama Amissah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Staphylococcus aureus infections in burn patients can lead to serious complications and death. The frequency of S. aureus infection is high in low- and middle-income countries presumably due to limited resources, misuse of antibiotics and poor infection control. The objective of the present study was to apply population genomics to precisely define, for the first time, the transmission of antibiotic resistant S. aureus in a resource-limited setting in sub-Saharan Africa.Methods:Staphylococcus aureus surveillance was performed amongst burn patients and healthcare workers during a 7-months survey within the burn unit of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana.Results: Sixty-six S. aureus isolates (59 colonizing and 7 clinical were obtained from 31 patients and 10 healthcare workers. Twenty-one of these isolates were ST250-IV methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Notably, 25 (81% of the 31 patients carried or were infected with S. aureus within 24 h of admission. Genome comparisons revealed six distinct S. aureus clones circulating in the burn unit, and demonstrated multiple transmission events between patients and healthcare workers. Further, the collected S. aureus isolates exhibited a wide range of genotypic resistances to antibiotics, including trimethoprim (21%, aminoglycosides (33%, oxacillin (33%, chloramphenicol (50%, tetracycline (59% and fluoroquinolones (100%.Conclusion: Population genomics uncovered multiple transmission events of S. aureus, especially MRSA, within the investigated burn unit. Our findings highlight lapses in infection control and prevention, and underscore the great importance of active surveillance to protect burn victims against multi-drug resistant pathogens in resource-limited settings.

  17. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission in a Ghanaian Burn Unit: The Importance of Active Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Buultjens, Andrew H; Ablordey, Anthony; van Dam, Lieke; Opoku-Ware, Ampomah; Baines, Sarah L; Bulach, Dieter; Tetteh, Caitlin S; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S; Friedrich, Alexander W; Seemann, Torsten; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje; Stinear, Timothy P; Rossen, John W

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus infections in burn patients can lead to serious complications and death. The frequency of S. aureus infection is high in low- and middle-income countries presumably due to limited resources, misuse of antibiotics and poor infection control. The objective of the present study was to apply population genomics to precisely define, for the first time, the transmission of antibiotic resistant S. aureus in a resource-limited setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Staphylococcus aureus surveillance was performed amongst burn patients and healthcare workers during a 7-months survey within the burn unit of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Results: Sixty-six S. aureus isolates (59 colonizing and 7 clinical) were obtained from 31 patients and 10 healthcare workers. Twenty-one of these isolates were ST250-IV methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Notably, 25 (81%) of the 31 patients carried or were infected with S. aureus within 24 h of admission. Genome comparisons revealed six distinct S. aureus clones circulating in the burn unit, and demonstrated multiple transmission events between patients and healthcare workers. Further, the collected S. aureus isolates exhibited a wide range of genotypic resistances to antibiotics, including trimethoprim (21%), aminoglycosides (33%), oxacillin (33%), chloramphenicol (50%), tetracycline (59%) and fluoroquinolones (100%). Conclusion: Population genomics uncovered multiple transmission events of S. aureus , especially MRSA, within the investigated burn unit. Our findings highlight lapses in infection control and prevention, and underscore the great importance of active surveillance to protect burn victims against multi-drug resistant pathogens in resource-limited settings.

  18. Hit by waves-living with local advanced or localized prostate cancer treated with endocrine therapy or under active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervik, Bente; Nordøy, Tone; Asplund, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of living with prostate cancer have shown that the illness and the treatment cause physical as well as psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to illuminate men's experiences living with localized or local advanced prostate cancer when curative treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy is not an option at the time of diagnosis. The study was conducted via qualitative interviews, using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Ten men treated with endocrine therapy or under active surveillance were interviewed. Being diagnosed with prostate cancer was described as a shock, with different aspects of the illness revealed gradually. The limited amount of time available for meeting with health care providers contributed to patients' feelings of being left alone with difficulty getting information and help. Sexual and urinary problems were perceived as a threat to their manhood. The spouses provided the closest everyday support. The life situation of these patients can be understood as living in a "state of readiness," expecting something to happen regarding their illness, and not always knowing where to get help. The results confirm existing knowledge of patient's experiences in living with prostate cancer regarding the initial shock perceived by the patients, the bodily alterations, and the important role of their spouses. Nurses, as well as general practitioners, must play a more active role in follow-up to ensure that the men and their spouses receive better help and support.

  19. Intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan: a pilot study using the Emergency Departments surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadeem; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Shamim, Nudrat; Khan, Uzma; Naseer, Naureen; Feroze, Asher; Razzak, Junaid; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning is one of the most common reasons for emergency department visits around the world. In Pakistan, the epidemiological data on poisoning is limited due to an under developed poison information surveillance system. We aim to describe the characteristics associated with intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan presenting to emergency departments. The data was extracted from the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) which was an active surveillance conducted between November 2010 and March 2011. All patients, regardless of age, who presented with poisoning to any of Pakistan's seven major tertiary care centers' emergency departments, were included. Information about patient demographics, type of poisoning agent, reason for poisoning and outcomes were collected using a standard questionnaire. Acute poisoning contributed to 1.2% (n = 233) of patients with intentional and unintentional injuries presenting to EDs of participating centers. Of these, 68% were male, 54% were aged 19 to 44 and 19% were children and adolescents (<18 years). Types of poisoning included chemical/gas (43.8%), drug/medicine (27%), alcohol (16.7%) and food/plant (6%). In half of all patients the poisoning was intentional. A total of 11.6% of the patients were admitted and 6.6% died. Poisoning causes more morbidity and mortality in young adults in Pakistan compared to other age groups, half of which is intentional. Improving mental health, regulatory control for hazardous chemicals and better access to care through poison information centers and emergency departments will potentially help control the problem.

  20. Recruiting Colorectal Cancer Survivors to a Surveillance Study: Barriers and Successful Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E.; Sterba, Katherine R.; Bearden, James; Gansauer, Lucy; Moore, Leslie A.; Zapka, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) survival rates are increasing. Effective strategies to recruit CRC survivors to surveillance studies are needed. Objective We analyzed the barriers encountered while recruiting CRC survivors to a study assessing their surveillance care experiences. Methods The study included three phases: (I) focus groups/key informant interviews; (II) cognitive interviews; and (III) a statewide population-based telephone survey. Participants In Phases I-II, clinic-based data and cancer center registries were used to identify CRC survivors who had received CRC resection within the past 18 months. In Phase III, survivors who had received CRC resection within the past two years were identified via a statewide, population-based cancer registry. Results In Phase I, 16 survivors participated in focus groups at two National Cancer Center-affiliated sites (response rate=29.6%). Eighteen additional survivors participated in individual interviews (response rate=50%). In Phase II, 11 survivors participated in cognitive interviews (response rate=81.8%). In Phase III, 150 survivors participated in the statewide survey (response rate=62.2%). Conclusions Group-based/ in-person recruitment efforts were unsuccessful due to scheduling barriers, lack of transportation, and remaining discomfort from previous resection surgery. Telephone-based data collection strategies produced higher response rates. Practice Implications To enhance CRC surveillance research, future studies could incorporate CRC survivor-centered recruitment strategies. PMID:28277291

  1. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    2000-02-01

    Developing an inexpensive on-line criticality surveillance system is required for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Based on the series of researches for five years, R and D study on On-line Criticality Surveillance system has been carried out since 1996. The concept of this Criticality Surveillance System is based on the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model identification algorithms to the time series of signal fluctuation of a neutron detector. We have proposed several new ideas of modification to the original design of the Criticality Surveillance System, and also reported some results of numerical analysis over the DCA experiments. In those days, DOS/V personal computers with Microsoft Windows have came into wide use instead of those based on the MS-DOS, which have been popular in Japan. NEC, a major maker of MS-DOS computers, stopped the production of MS-DOS computers and changed their management policy toward production of DOS/V personal computers. Our researches have been developed using MS-DOS computers. For the effective use of these important results, it became an urgent theme to transplant all programs developed on MS-DOS computers into computers with the OS, which is not easily affected by commercialism. Since the design concept should be based on high reliability, electromagnetic disturbance-free and high expandability, and also computers have achieved remarkably high performance as well as low price in these days, these computers should be used not only as a simple signal processing unit but also a totally integrated signal analyzing system along with conventional signal analyzing software in stead of IC chips with analyzing soft wares. This configuration enables us to easily introduce newly developed techniques and to provide supplement information. Then, this approach can enhance the reliability of the Criticality Surveillance System without addition of any special devices, and also provide the flexibility of the system

  2. [Study on smoking-attributed mortality by using all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guohong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Wei; Wang, Dezheng; Xu, Zhongliang; Song, Guide; Zhang, Ying; Shen, Chengfeng; Zheng, Wenlong; Xue, Xiaodan; Shen, Wenda

    2016-03-01

    To understand the smoking-attributed mortality by inclusion of smoking information into all causes of death surveillance. Since 2010, the information about smoking status, smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily had been added in death surveillance system. The measures of training, supervision, check, sampling survey and telephone verifying were taken to increase death reporting rate and reduce data missing rate and underreporting rate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for smoking-attributed mortality. During the study period (2010-2014), the annual death reporting rates ranged from 6.5‰ to 7.0‰. The reporting rates of smoking status, smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily were 95.53%, 98.63% and 98.58%, respectively. Compared with the nonsmokers, the RR of males was 1.38 (1.33-1.43) for all causes of death and 3.07 (2.91-3.24) for lung cancer due to smoking, the RR of females was 1.46 (1.39-1.54) for all causes of death and 4.07 (3.81-4.35) for lung cancer due to smoking, respectively. The study of smoking attributed mortality can be developed with less investment by using the stable and effective all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin.

  3. Internet surveillance, regulation, and chilling effects online: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon W. Penney

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With internet regulation and censorship on the rise, states increasingly engaging in online surveillance, and state cyber-policing capabilities rapidly evolving globally, concerns about regulatory “chilling effects” online—the idea that laws, regulations, or state surveillance can deter people from exercising their freedoms or engaging in legal activities on the internet have taken on greater urgency and public importance. But just as notions of “chilling effects” are not new, neither is skepticism about their legal, theoretical, and empirical basis; in fact, the concept remains largely un-interrogated with significant gaps in understanding, particularly with respect to chilling effects online. This work helps fill this void with a first-of-its-kind online survey that examines multiple dimensions of chilling effects online by comparing and analyzing responses to hypothetical scenarios involving different kinds of regulatory actions—including an anti-cyberbullying law, public/private sector surveillance, and an online regulatory scheme, based on the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA, enforced through personally received legal threats/notices. The results suggest not only the existence and significance of regulatory chilling effects online across these different scenarios but also evidence a differential impact—with personally received legal notices and government surveillance online consistently having the greatest chilling effect on people’s activities online—and certain online activities like speech, search, and personal sharing also impacted differently. The results also offer, for the first time, insights based on demographics and other similar factors about how certain people and groups may be more affected than others, including findings that younger people and women are more likely to be chilled; younger people and women are less likely to take steps to resist regulatory actions and defend themselves; and anti

  4. Role of prostate specific antigen and immediate confirmatory biopsy in predicting progression during active surveillance for low risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamy, Ari; Yee, David S; Matsushita, Kazuhito; Maschino, Alexandra; Cronin, Angel; Vickers, Andrew; Guillonneau, Bertrand; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2011-02-01

    We evaluated predictors of progression after starting active surveillance, especially the role of prostate specific antigen and immediate confirmatory prostate biopsy. A total of 238 men with prostate cancer met active surveillance eligibility criteria and were analyzed for progression with time. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate predictors of progression. Progression was evaluated using 2 definitions, including no longer meeting 1) full and 2) modified criteria, excluding prostate specific antigen greater than 10 ng/ml as a criterion. Using full criteria 61 patients progressed during followup. The 2 and 5-year progression-free probability was 80% and 60%, respectively. With prostate specific antigen included in progression criteria prostate specific antigen at confirmatory biopsy (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.14-1.46, p <0.0005) and positive confirmatory biopsy (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.01-3.04, p = 0.047) were independent predictors of progression. Of the 61 cases 34 failed due to increased prostate specific antigen, including only 5 with subsequent progression by biopsy criteria. When prostate specific antigen was excluded from progression criteria, only 32 cases progressed, and 2 and 5-year progression-free probability was 91% and 76%, respectively. Using modified criteria as an end point positive confirmatory biopsy was the only independent predictor of progression (HR 3.16, 95% CI 1.41-7.09, p = 0.005). Active surveillance is feasible in patients with low risk prostate cancer and most patients show little evidence of progression within 5 years. There is no clear justification for treating patients in whom prostate specific antigen increases above 10 ng/ml in the absence of other indications of tumor progression. Patients considering active surveillance should undergo confirmatory biopsy to better assess the risk of progression. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards data justice? The ambiguity of anti-surveillance resistance in political activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Dencik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Snowden leaks, first published in June 2013, provided unprecedented insights into the operations of state-corporate surveillance, highlighting the extent to which everyday communication is integrated into an extensive regime of control that relies on the ‘datafication’ of social life. Whilst such data-driven forms of governance have significant implications for citizenship and society, resistance to surveillance in the wake of the Snowden leaks has predominantly centred on techno-legal responses relating to the development and use of encryption and policy advocacy around privacy and data protection. Based on in-depth interviews with a range of social justice activists, we argue that there is a significant level of ambiguity around this kind of anti-surveillance resistance in relation to broader activist practices, and critical responses to the Snowden leaks have been confined within particular expert communities. Introducing the notion of ‘data justice’, we therefore go on to make the case that resistance to surveillance needs to be (reconceptualized on terms that can address the implications of this data-driven form of governance in relation to broader social justice agendas. Such an approach is needed, we suggest, in light of a shift to surveillance capitalism in which the collection, use and analysis of our data increasingly comes to shape the opportunities and possibilities available to us and the kind of society we live in.

  6. Mathematical models used to inform study design or surveillance systems in infectious diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sereina A; Blaizot, Stéphanie; Hens, Niel

    2017-12-18

    Mathematical models offer the possibility to investigate the infectious disease dynamics over time and may help in informing design of studies. A systematic review was performed in order to determine to what extent mathematical models have been incorporated into the process of planning studies and hence inform study design for infectious diseases transmitted between humans and/or animals. We searched Ovid Medline and two trial registry platforms (Cochrane, WHO) using search terms related to infection, mathematical model, and study design from the earliest dates to October 2016. Eligible publications and registered trials included mathematical models (compartmental, individual-based, or Markov) which were described and used to inform the design of infectious disease studies. We extracted information about the investigated infection, population, model characteristics, and study design. We identified 28 unique publications but no registered trials. Focusing on compartmental and individual-based models we found 12 observational/surveillance studies and 11 clinical trials. Infections studied were equally animal and human infectious diseases for the observational/surveillance studies, while all but one between humans for clinical trials. The mathematical models were used to inform, amongst other things, the required sample size (n = 16), the statistical power (n = 9), the frequency at which samples should be taken (n = 6), and from whom (n = 6). Despite the fact that mathematical models have been advocated to be used at the planning stage of studies or surveillance systems, they are used scarcely. With only one exception, the publications described theoretical studies, hence, not being utilised in real studies.

  7. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care.Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated.Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development.Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  8. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  9. A focused ethnographic study of Sri Lankan government field veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sawford

    Full Text Available The global public health community is facing the challenge of emerging infectious diseases. Historically, the majority of these diseases have arisen from animal populations at lower latitudes where many nations experience marked resource constraints. In order to minimize the impact of future events, surveillance of animal populations will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Many surveillance systems targeting animals rely on veterinarians to submit cases to a diagnostic laboratory or input clinical case data. Therefore understanding veterinarians' decision-making process that guides laboratory case submission and their perceptions of infectious disease surveillance is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance initiatives. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with twelve field veterinary surgeons that participated in a mobile phone-based surveillance pilot project in Sri Lanka. Each participant agreed to an individual in-depth interview that was recorded and later transcribed to enable thematic analysis of the interview content. Results found that field veterinarians in Sri Lanka infrequently submit cases to laboratories--so infrequently that common case selection principles could not be described. Field veterinarians in Sri Lanka have a diagnostic process that operates independently of laboratories. Participants indicated a willingness to take part in surveillance initiatives, though they highlighted a need for incentives that satisfy a range of motivations that vary among field veterinarians. This study has implications for the future of animal health surveillance, including interpretation of disease patterns reported, system design and implementation, and engagement of data providers.

  10. The Italian National Register of infants with congenital hypothyroidism: twenty years of surveillance and study of congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri Antonella

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All the Italian Centres in charge of screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of infants with congenital hypothyroidism participate in the Italian National Registry of affected infants, which performs the nationwide surveillance of the disease. It was established in 1987 as a program of the Health Ministry and is coordinated by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The early diagnosis performed by the nationwide newborn screening programme, the prompt treatment and the appropriate clinical management of the patients carried out by the Follow-up Centres, and the surveillance of the disease performed by the National Register of infants with congenital hypothyroidism are the components of an integrated approach to the disease which has been successfully established in our country. The aim of the Register is to monitor efficiency and effectiveness of neonatal screening, to provide disease surveillance and to allow identification of possible aetiological risk factors for the disease. During the past twenty years the active and continuous collaboration between the Register and the Italian Screening and Follow up Centres for Congenital Hypothyroidism allowed to perform a standardization of screening procedures and considerable improvements in the time at starting treatment and in the dose of therapy. Furthermore, the large amount and the high quality of information collected in the Register provided a unique opportunity for research into the disease. This because data collected in the Register are highly representative as referred to the entire Italian population with congenital hypothyroidism. The results derived from the epidemiological studies performed in these years, by using the Register database, contributed to deepen the knowledge of congenital hypothyroidism, to start identifying the most important risk factors for the disease, and to orient molecular studies aimed at identifying new genes involved in the aetiology of this condition.

  11. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che, Moo Seong; Cheong, Chang Hyeon; Lee, Byeong Cheol

    1996-07-01

    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assessing the optimizes Surveillance Test Interval(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korea nuclear power plants safety. In the first year of this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modeling and results performed by domestic and international researches is performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method

  12. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Moo Seong; Cheong, Chang Hyeon; Lee, Byeong Cheol [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1996-07-15

    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assessing the optimizes Surveillance Test Interval(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korea nuclear power plants safety. In the first year of this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modeling and results performed by domestic and international researches is performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method.

  13. Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program CDC Feature: Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks Top ...

  14. The relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Marks, Leonard S.; Hoyt, Michael A.; Kwan, Lorna; Filson, Christopher P.; Macairan, Malu; Lieu, Patricia; Litwin, Mark S.; Stanton, Annette L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anxiety may serve as a major barrier to participation in AS. Intolerance of uncertainty—the tendency to perceive the potential for negative events as threatening—has been linked to cancer-related worry. Accordingly, we explored prospectively the relationship of intolerance of uncertainty with anxiety along with other clinical factors among men managed with AS for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods From 2011–2014, 119 men with D’Amico low-risk prostate cancer participating in active surveillance completed the HADS, MAX-PC, IUS, and IPSS surveys. We evaluated the relationship between anxiety and IUS score after adjusting for patient characteristics, cancer information, and IPSS score using bivariable and multivariable analyses. Results A number of men reported clinically significant anxiety on the generalized (n=18, 15.1%) and prostate-cancer-specific (n=17, 14.3%) scales. In bivariable analyses, men with moderate/severe urinary symptoms and higher IUS scores reported more generalized and prostate-cancer-specific anxiety than men with mild urinary symptoms and lower IUS scores, respectively (p≤0.008). Men with depressive symptoms (p=0.024) or family history of prostate cancer (p=0.006) experienced greater generalized anxiety. In multivariable analysis, IUS score was significantly associated with generalized (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09–1.38) and prostate-cancerspecific anxiety (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.13–1.49) while moderate/severe urinary symptoms were associated with prostate-cancer-specific anxiety (OR 6.89, 95% CI 1.33–35.68). Conclusions Intolerance of uncertainty and urinary symptoms may promote anxiety among men on AS for prostate cancer. Patient education, management of lower urinary tract symptoms, and behavioral interventions may lessen anxiety related to uncertainty intolerance and help maintain patient engagement in AS. PMID:26872841

  15. A bacterial cyclic dinucleotide activates the cytosolic surveillance pathway and mediates innate resistance to tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Bappaditya; Dey, Ruchi Jain; Cheung, Laurene S; Pokkali, Supriya; Guo, Haidan; Lee, Jong-Hee; Bishai, William R

    2015-04-01

    Detection of cyclic-di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP), a bacterial second messenger, by the host cytoplasmic surveillance pathway (CSP) is known to elicit type I interferon (IFN) responses, which are crucial to antimicrobial defense. However, the mechanisms and role of c-di-AMP signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence remain unclear. Here we show that resistance to tuberculosis requires CSP-mediated detection of c-di-AMP produced by M. tuberculosis and that levels of c-di-AMP modulate the fate of infection. We found that a di-adenylate cyclase (disA or dacA)-overexpressing M. tuberculosis strain that secretes excess c-di-AMP activates the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) pathway with enhanced levels of IFN-β, elicits increased macrophage autophagy, and exhibits substantial virulence attenuation in mice. We show that c-di-AMP-mediated IFN-β induction during M. tuberculosis infection requires stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-signaling. We observed that c-di-AMP induction of IFN-β is independent of the cytosolic nucleic acid receptor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), but cGAS nevertheless contributes substantially to the overall IFN-β response to M. tuberculosis infection. In sum, our results reveal c-di-AMP to be a key mycobacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) driving host type I IFN responses and autophagy. These findings suggest that modulating the levels of this small molecule may lead to novel immunotherapeutic strategies against tuberculosis.

  16. A novel use of LIMS for surveillance activities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogier, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The current mission of the Savannah River Site is focused primarily on cleanup and disposal of waste associated with more than 40 years of nuclear material production. However, SRS continues to provide tritium processing for the Department of Energy. Tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen gas, is used to boost the explosive power of nuclear weapons. The tritium container, processed by SRS, is known as a reservoir. Part of the SRS tritium mission is to assure the safety and reliability of tritium reservoirs by conducting a series of thorough surveillance tests on a sampling of fielded reservoirs. Data from these tests have historically been stored in a database archive and reporting system known as QUADSTAR. This system was developed at the Mound Facility in the mid-1980s when Mound performed the reservoir surveillance mission for DOE. The surveillance mission and the QUADSTAR database were transferred to SRS during the downsizing of the Nuclear Weapon Complex in the mid-1990s

  17. Two years of surveillance of influenza a virus infection in a swine herd. Results of virological, serological and pathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Javier; Dibarbora, Marina; Lozada, Inés; Quiroga, Alejandra; Olivera, Valeria; Dángelo, Marta; Pérez, Estefanía; Barrales, Hernán; Perfumo, Carlos; Pereda, Ariel; Pérez, Daniel R

    2017-02-01

    Swine farms provide a dynamic environment for the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAVs). The present report shows the results of a surveillance effort of IAV infection in one commercial swine farm in Argentina. Two cross-sectional serological and virological studies (n=480) were carried out in 2011 and 2012. Virus shedding was detected in nasal samples from pigs from ages 7, 21 and 42-days old. More than 90% of sows and gilts but less than 40% of 21-days old piglets had antibodies against IAV. In addition, IAV was detected in 8/17 nasal swabs and 10/15 lung samples taken from necropsied pigs. A subset of these samples was further processed for virus isolation resulting in 6 viruses of the H1N2 subtype (δ2 cluster). Pathological studies revealed an association between suppurative bronchopneumonia and necrotizing bronchiolitis with IAV positive samples. Statistical analyses showed that the degree of lesions in bronchi, bronchiole, and alveoli was higher in lungs positive to IAV. The results of this study depict the relevance of continuing long-term active surveillance of IAV in swine populations to establish IAV evolution relevant to swine and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human features detection in video surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Patrícia Margarida Silva de Castro Neves

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Eletrónica Industrial e Computadores Human activity recognition algorithms have been studied actively from decades using a sequence of 2D and 3D images from a video surveillance. This new surveillance solutions and the areas of image processing and analysis have been receiving special attention and interest from the scientific community. Thus, it became possible to witness the appearance of new video compression techniques, the tr...

  19. Advanced Integrated Multi-Sensor Surveillance (AIMS. Operator Machine Interface (OMI) Definition Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Kevin; Youngson, Gord

    2007-01-01

    To enhance the capability of airborne search and rescue (SAR) and surveillance, particularly at night and in poor weather, a multi sensor electro optical imaging system, the Advanced Integrated Multi sensor Surveillance (AIMS...

  20. Validation of an automated surveillance approach for drain-related meningitis : A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mourik, Maaike S M; Troelstra, Annet; Van Der Sprenkel, Jan Willem Berkelbach; Van Der Jagt-Zwetsloot, Marischka C E; Nelson, Jolande H.; Vos, Piet; Arts, Mark P.; Dennesen, Paul J W; Moons, K. (Carl) G.M.; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Manual surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is cumbersome and vulnerable to subjective interpretation. Automated systems are under development to improve efficiency and reliability of surveillance, for example by selecting high-risk patients requiring manual chart review. In

  1. A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sawford

    Full Text Available The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.

  2. Pharmacotherapy follow-up: Role in active malaria surveillance in a travel medicine centre outside the transmission area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, R S; Brasil, P; Pina-Costa, A; Machado, C R; Damasceno, L S; Daniel-Ribeiro, C T; Guaraldo, L

    2017-12-01

    (87.1%) cure occurred less than 72 hours after treatment initiation. Pharmacotherapy follow-up of malaria treatment by surveillance activities is therefore important regarding information about treatment outcomes as well as patient safety, resulting in better patient care and reducing the chance of relapses. The results underscore its use as a tool for monitoring adherence and drug resistance outside an endemic area. Pharmacotherapy follow-up should be considered a useful malaria surveillance tool that can be developed by reference centres for comprehensive health care assistance and monitoring of therapeutic resistance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    1999-02-01

    The Criticality Surveillance System should have high reliability and high expandability enable to apply new approaches. Under this basic concept, a basic design of the Criticality Surveillance System has been proposed in 1997. We propose here several new ideas of modification to the original design of the Criticality Surveillance System, and also reports some results of numerical analysis over the DCA experiments in 1996. In this report, first, we proposed the modification of the Criticality Surveillance System by adding a series of modules for the usage of the Feynman-α method over the γ-ray signal, because recent studies revealed that the statistical analysis of the γ-ray signal in time domain can provide very good information of the reactor decay constant even in the case of low count rate. This modification could increase the reliability of the Criticality Surveillance System over the wide range of amount of the reprocessed fuel in the tank. Last year we have developed an executable ADF program based on the Least Mean Squares, as the redundancy to the recursive ARMA model identification algorithm. However, this algorithm has a property that the convergence rate of parameter estimation becomes very slow when input data is corrupted with colored noise. To cope with this problem, we introduced a new ADF algorithm called Block ADF algorithm, which is developed to improve the convergence rate with less computational load to the computer. In Chapter 2, we showed the basic theory and a fast adaptive filter algorithm using eigenvalue reciprocals as stepsizes in Chapter 3. This new algorithm provides a stable parameter estimates with less computation as fast as the Recursive Least Squares Method. Thirdly, we introduced a notch filter for power line noise and a software. This filter has to be developed for each specific sampling frequency and specific power line frequency, however, this filter can remove not only the line spectrum of the power line frequency but also

  4. Annual summary report on the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Rige National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Annual Summary Report on the Surveillance and Maintenance Activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 1995 was prepared to communicate the accomplishments of the Program during fiscal year 1995. This work was performed under work breakdown structure element 1.4.12.6.1.14.20 (activity data sheet 3314, ''Remedial Action Surveillance and Maintenance''). Publication of this document meets the Life Cycle Baseline milestone date of November 30, 1995. This document provides the accomplishments for both the Remedial Action and Decontamination and Decommissioning Surveillance and Maintenance programs

  5. How Can We Identify the Elimination of Infectious Diseases? Experience From an Active Measles Laboratory Surveillance System in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Un; Kang, Hae Ji; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Young-Joon; Park, Ok; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Sung Soon; Jeong, Eun Kyeong

    2015-11-01

    Global efforts have markedly decreased the disease burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Many countries have made considerable progress toward the elimination of measles. As elimination is approached, the very low incidence achieved by high vaccination coverage has underscored the need for a sensitive and timely surveillance system. In the Republic of Korea, an active laboratory surveillance system (ALSS) was implemented to supplement the existing passive surveillance system in 2006. The ALSS connects 5 major commercial laboratories and the national measles reference laboratory, where referred samples with positive or equivocal results are retested. Annually, from 2009 to 2013, 3714 suspected cases were detected through the ALSS, an expansion of 8- to 57-fold, compared with only the passive surveillance system. The ALSS, with its sensitivity and timeliness, is a reasonable strategy to supplement the existing measles surveillance system and to help identify the elimination of measles. © 2015 APJPH.

  6. Does the Reliability of Reporting in Injury Surveillance Studies Depend on Injury Definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P.T.; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Background: Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. Purpose: To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. Results: The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. Conclusion: There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency. PMID:29581994

  7. Recommendations for postmarketing surveillance studies in haemophilia and other bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, R; Rothschild, C; De Moerloose, P; Richards, M; Perez, R; Gajek, H

    2005-07-01

    Prospective surveillance studies to monitor drug safety in the postapproval period are rarely employed systematically, although they are of greatest value for caregivers, drug users and regulatory authorities. Safety issues have affected not only conventional pharmaceuticals, but also especially coagulation factors in haemophilia treatment. The reputation of postmarketing surveillance (PMS) studies has been questionable, mainly due to their misuse to solicit prescriptions. Other weaknesses include inappropriate design, lack of standardized observation, limited follow-up periods, absence of rigour in identifying potential adverse drug effects, and infrequent publication. Although well-designed clinical trials represent the gold standard for generating sound clinical evidence, a number of aspects would make PMS studies valuable, if properly conducted. One of their main advantages is broader inclusion, and absence of an 'experimental' design. Lack of proper guidelines, and standardization may constitute a reason for the generally low quality of PMS studies. This paper proposes guidelines for haemophilia-specific PMS studies, in order to improve the acceptance of a basically valuable tool. In the absence of consistent regulatory guidance it will be especially important that the design and supervision of PMS studies involves physicians from the beginning. This will not only make such studies more scientifically relevant, but also help to implement them into daily clinical practice. Specifically in haemophilia, PMS studies may provide valuable data on clinical outcomes, or Quality of Life, which is of great importance when considering adequate standards of care in haemophilia patients.

  8. Disease Burden of Dengue in the Philippines: Adjusting for Underreporting by Comparing Active and Passive Dengue Surveillance in Punta Princesa, Cebu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Edillo, Frances E.; Erasmo, Jonathan Neil V.; Alera, Maria Theresa P.; Yoon, In-Kyu; Largo, Francisco M.; Shepard, Donald S.

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a serious threat to public health. Having reliable estimates of the burden of dengue is important to inform policy and research, but surveillance systems are not designed to capture all symptomatic DENV infections. We derived the rate of reporting of dengue by comparing active surveillance of symptomatic DENV infections in a prospective community-based seroepidemiological cohort study (N = 1008) of acute febrile illness in Punta Princesa, Cebu City, Philippines, with passive surveillance data from the Cebu City Health Department. Febrile episodes detected in a weekly follow-up of participants were tested for serotype-specific DENV by hemi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR) and acute/convalescent blood samples tested by dengue IgM/IgG enzyme immunoassay. We estimated the burden of dengue in the Philippines in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and conducted a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte-Carlo simulations to address uncertainty. The results showed a 21% cumulative reporting rate of symptomatic DENV infections, equivalent to an expansion factor of 4.7 (95% certainty level [CL]: 2.2–15.1). Based on surveillance data in the Philippines for 2010–2014, we estimated 794,255 annual dengue episodes (95% CL: 463,000–2,076,000) and a disease burden of 535 (95% CL: 380–994) DALYs per million population using age weights and time discounting and 997 (95% CL: 681–1,871) DALYs per million population without age and time adjustments. Dengue imposes a substantial burden in the Philippines; almost 10 times higher than estimated for rabies, about twice the burden of intestinal fluke infections, and about 10% of the burden of tuberculosis. Our estimates should inform policy makers and raise awareness among the public. PMID:28093542

  9. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of insignificant prostate cancer in potential candidates for active surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Heon; Jeong, Jae Yong; Lee, Sin Woo; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Jeon, Seong Soo; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) could help improve the prediction of insignificant prostate cancer in candidates for active surveillance (AS). Enrolled in this retrospective study were 287 AS candidates who underwent DW-MRI before radical prostatectomy. Patients were stratified into two groups; Group A consisted of patients with no visible tumour or a suspected tumour ADC value > 0.830 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec and Group B consisted of patients with a suspected tumour ADC value < 0.830 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec. We compared pathological outcomes in each group. Group A had 243 (84.7 %) patients and Group B had 44 (15.3 %) patients. The proportion of organ-confined Gleason ≤ 6 disease and insignificant prostate cancer was significantly higher in Group A than Group B (61.3 % vs. 38.6 %, p = 0.005 and 47.7 % vs. 25.0 %, p = 0.005, respectively). On multivariate analysis, a high ADC value was the independent predictor of organ-confined Gleason ≤ 6 disease and insignificant prostate cancer (odds ratio = 2.43, p = 0.011 and odds ratio = 2.74, p = 0.009, respectively). Tumour ADC values may be a useful marker for predicting insignificant prostate cancer in candidates for AS. (orig.)

  10. Patient-reported quality of life progression in men with prostate cancer following primary cryotherapy, cyberknife, or active holistic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Glenn T; Kongnyuy, Michael; Halpern, Daniel M; Salcedo, Jose M; Kosinski, Kaitlin E; Haas, Jonathan A; Schiff, Jeffrey T; Corcoran, Anthony T; Katz, Aaron E

    2017-12-07

    Technological advancements have led to the success of minimally invasive treatment modalities for prostate cancer such as CyberKnife and Cryotherapy. Here, we investigate patient-reported urinary function, bowel habits, and sexual function in patients following CyberKnife (CK) or Cryotherapy treatment, and compare them with active holistic surveillance (AHS) patients. An IRB-approved institutional database was retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent CK, Cryotherapy, or AHS. Quality of life (QoL) survey responses were collected every three months and the mean function scores were analyzed in yearly intervals over the 4 years post-treatment. 279 patients (767 survey sets) were included in the study. There was no difference among groups in urinary function scores. The CyberKnife group had significantly lower bowel habit scores in the early years following treatment (year 2 mean difference: -5.4, P treatment. A history of hormonal therapy was associated with a lower sexual function scores relative to those patients who did not receive hormones in both CyberKnife (-18.45, P < 0.01) and Cryotherapy patients (-14.6, P < 0.05). After initial lower bowel habits and sexual function scores, CyberKnife or Cryotherapy-treated patients had no significant difference in QoL relative to AHS patients. These results highlight the benefit of CyberKnife and Cryotherapy in the management of organ-confined prostate cancer.

  11. National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System–based study in north eastern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Ziaee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available among about 10% of hospitalized patients. HAIs increase mortality and morbidity and prolonged hospital stay not to mention considerable costs they impose on the health care system. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the prevalence of HAIs based on National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System in hospitals of Mashhad, Iran.  Methods: The current prevalence study of HAI was carried out in 26 hospitals using a protocol updated yearly in Mashhad, Iran. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance were used to define four HAIs. All patients admitted to the hospitals during a one-year period (March 1, 2015-February 30, 2016 were recruited in the study. Data was extracted using Iranian nosocomial infection surveillance software.  Results: The overall prevalence rate of HAI in our study was 0.8% among the hospitals with the most frequent HAIs found to be pneumonia (25%, followed by urinary tract infections (20%, and blood stream infections (19%. The highest prevalence rate was observed in 15- to 65-year old patients with more than 50% related to surgical site infection. Also, the most frequently isolated micro-organism was acinetobacter. In addition, the highest seasonal prevalence was seen in winter with pneumonia as the most frequent infection. A total of 4988 pathogens were isolated with 30.33% of clinical confirmation and 69.66% of positive culture.  Conclusion: These findings emphasize the need for appropriate measures for prevention, screening, labeling, and isolation precautions for infected patients.

  12. Does the Reliability of Reporting in Injury Surveillance Studies Depend on Injury Definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P T; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2018-03-01

    Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency.

  13. Improving antimicrobial prescribing in Irish primary care through electronic data collection and surveillance: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Sandra; Callan, Aoife; Cormican, Martin; Duane, Sinead; Bennett, Kathleen; Murphy, Andrew W; Vellinga, Akke

    2015-07-02

    The increase in the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens and limited availability of new antimicrobials places immense pressure on general practitioners (GPs) to prescribe appropriately. Currently, electronic antimicrobial prescribing data is not routinely collected from GPs in Ireland for surveillance purposes to assess regional specific fluctuations or trends in antimicrobial prescribing. The current study aimed to address this issue by assessing the feasibility of remotely extracting antimicrobial prescribing data from primary care practices in Ireland, for the purpose of assessing prescribing quality using the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) drug specific quality indicators. Participating practices (n = 30) uploaded data to the Irish Primary Care Research Network (IPCRN). The IPCRN data extraction facility is integrated within the practice patient management software system and permitted the extraction of anonymised patient prescriptions for a one year period, from October 2012 to October 2013. The quality of antimicrobial prescribing was evaluated using the twelve ESAC drug specific quality indicators using the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) methodology. National and European prescribing surveillance data (based on total pharmacy sales) was obtained for a comparative analysis. Antimicrobial prescriptions (n = 57,079) for 27,043 patients were obtained from the thirty study practices for a one year period. On average, study practices prescribed a greater proportion of quinolones (37 % increase), in summer compared with winter months, a variation which was not observed in national and European data. In comparison with national data, study practices prescribed higher proportions of β-lactamase-sensitive penicillins (4.98 % vs. 4.3 %) and a greater use of broad spectrum compared to narrow-spectrum antimicrobials (ratio = 9.98 vs. 6.26) was observed. Study practices exceeded the

  14. Antenatal surveillance through estimates of the sources underlying the abdominal phonogram: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-González, A; James, C J

    2013-01-01

    Today, it is generally accepted that current methods for biophysical antenatal surveillance do not facilitate a comprehensive and reliable assessment of foetal well-being and that continuing research into alternative methods is necessary to improve antenatal monitoring procedures. In our research, attention has been paid to the abdominal phonogram, a signal that is recorded by positioning an acoustic sensor on the maternal womb and contains valuable information about foetal status, but which is hidden by maternal and environmental sources. To recover such information, previous work has used single-channel independent component analysis (SCICA) on the abdominal phonogram and successfully retrieved estimates of the foetal phonocardiogram, the maternal phonocardiogram, the maternal respirogram and noise. The availability of these estimates made it possible for the current study to focus on their evaluation as sources for antenatal surveillance purposes. To this end, the foetal heart rate (FHR), the foetal heart sounds morphology, the maternal heart rate (MHR) and the maternal breathing rate (MBR) were collected from the estimates retrieved from a dataset of 25 abdominal phonograms. Next, these parameters were compared with reference values to quantify the significance of the physiological information extracted from the estimates. As a result, it has been seen that the instantaneous FHR, the instantaneous MHR and the MBR collected from the estimates consistently followed the trends given by the reference signals, which is a promising outcome for this preliminary study. Thus, as far as this study has gone, it can be said that the independent traces retrieved by SCICA from the abdominal phonogram are likely to become valuable sources of information for well-being surveillance, both foetal and maternal. (paper)

  15. Neurological manifestations of influenza infection in children and adults: results of a National British Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Anu; Michael, Benedict D; Ledger, Elizabeth; Hart, Ian J; Absoud, Michael; Chow, Gabriel; Lilleker, James; Lunn, Michael; McKee, David; Peake, Deirdre; Pysden, Karen; Roberts, Mark; Carrol, Enitan D; Lim, Ming; Avula, Shivaram; Solomon, Tom; Kneen, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 was met with increased reports of associated neurological manifestations. We aimed to describe neurological manifestations of influenza in adults and children in the United Kingdom that presented at this time. A 2-year surveillance study was undertaken through the British adult and pediatric neurological surveillance units from February 2011. Patients were included if they met clinical case definitions within 1 month of proven influenza infection. Twenty-five cases were identified: 21 (84%) in children and 4 (16%) in adults. Six (29%) children had preexisting neurological disorders. Polymerase chain reaction of respiratory secretions identified influenza A in 21 (81%; 20 of which [95%] were H1N1) and influenza B in 4 (15%). Twelve children had encephalopathy (1 with movement disorder), 8 had encephalitis, and 1 had meningoencephalitis. Two adults had encephalopathy with movement disorder, 1 had encephalitis, and 1 had Guillain-Barré syndrome. Seven individuals (6 children) had specific acute encephalopathy syndromes (4 acute necrotizing encephalopathy, 1 acute infantile encephalopathy predominantly affecting the frontal lobes, 1 hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy, 1 acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy). Twenty (80%) required intensive care, 17 (68%) had poor outcome, and 4 (16%) died. This surveillance study described a cohort of adults and children with neurological manifestations of influenza. The majority were due to H1N1. More children than adults were identified; many children had specific encephalopathy syndromes with poor outcomes. None had been vaccinated, although 8 (32%) had indications for this. A modified classification system is proposed based on our data and the increasing spectrum of recognized acute encephalopathy syndromes.

  16. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  17. Integration of molecular typing results into tuberculosis surveillance in Germany-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Göhring-Zwacka, Elke; Fiebig, Lena; Priwitzer, Martin; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Haas, Walter; Niemann, Stefan; Brodhun, Bonita

    2017-01-01

    An integrated molecular surveillance for tuberculosis (TB) improves the understanding of ongoing TB transmission by combining molecular typing and epidemiological data. However, the implementation of an integrated molecular surveillance for TB is complex and requires thoughtful consideration of feasibility, demand, public health benefits and legal issues. We aimed to pilot the integration of molecular typing results between 2008 and 2010 in the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg (population 10.88 Million) as preparation for a nationwide implementation. Culture positive TB cases were typed by IS6110 DNA fingerprinting and results were integrated into routine notification data. Demographic and clinical characteristics of cases and clusters were described and new epidemiological links detected after integrating typing data were calculated. Furthermore, a cross-sectional survey was performed among local public health offices to evaluate their perception and experiences. Overall, typing results were available for 83% of notified culture positive TB cases, out of which 25% were clustered. Age Germany (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.44-2.80) were associated with clustering. At cluster level, molecular typing information allowed the identification of previously unknown epidemiological links in 11% of the clusters. In 59% of the clusters it was not possible to identify any epidemiological link. Clusters extending over different counties were less likely to have epidemiological links identified among their cases (OR = 11.53, 95% CI: 3.48-98.23). The majority of local public health offices found molecular typing useful for their work. Our study illustrates the feasibility of integrating typing data into the German TB notification system and depicts its added public health value as complementary strategy in TB surveillance, especially to uncover transmission events among geographically separated TB patients. It also emphasizes that special efforts are required to strengthen the

  18. Integration of molecular typing results into tuberculosis surveillance in Germany—A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Lena; Priwitzer, Martin; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Haas, Walter; Niemann, Stefan; Brodhun, Bonita

    2017-01-01

    An integrated molecular surveillance for tuberculosis (TB) improves the understanding of ongoing TB transmission by combining molecular typing and epidemiological data. However, the implementation of an integrated molecular surveillance for TB is complex and requires thoughtful consideration of feasibility, demand, public health benefits and legal issues. We aimed to pilot the integration of molecular typing results between 2008 and 2010 in the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg (population 10.88 Million) as preparation for a nationwide implementation. Culture positive TB cases were typed by IS6110 DNA fingerprinting and results were integrated into routine notification data. Demographic and clinical characteristics of cases and clusters were described and new epidemiological links detected after integrating typing data were calculated. Furthermore, a cross-sectional survey was performed among local public health offices to evaluate their perception and experiences. Overall, typing results were available for 83% of notified culture positive TB cases, out of which 25% were clustered. Age typing information allowed the identification of previously unknown epidemiological links in 11% of the clusters. In 59% of the clusters it was not possible to identify any epidemiological link. Clusters extending over different counties were less likely to have epidemiological links identified among their cases (OR = 11.53, 95% CI: 3.48–98.23). The majority of local public health offices found molecular typing useful for their work. Our study illustrates the feasibility of integrating typing data into the German TB notification system and depicts its added public health value as complementary strategy in TB surveillance, especially to uncover transmission events among geographically separated TB patients. It also emphasizes that special efforts are required to strengthen the communication between local public health offices in different counties to enhance TB control

  19. Horizontal infection control strategy decreases methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and eliminates bacteremia in a surgical ICU without active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traa, Maria X; Barboza, Lorena; Doron, Shira; Snydman, David R; Noubary, Farzad; Nasraway, Stanley A

    2014-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients worldwide. Numerous healthcare bodies in Europe and the United States have championed active surveillance per the "search and destroy" model. However, this strategy is associated with significant economic, logistical, and patient costs without any impact on other hospital-acquired pathogens. We evaluated whether horizontal infection control strategies could decrease the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection in the ICU, without the need for active surveillance. Retrospective, observational study in the surgical ICU of a tertiary care medical center in Boston, MA, from 2005 to 2012. A total of 6,697 patients in the surgical ICU. Evidence-based infection prevention strategies were implemented in an iterative fashion, including 1) hand hygiene program with refresher education campaign, 2) chlorhexidine oral hygiene program, 3) chlorhexidine bathing, 4) catheter-associated bloodstream infection program, and 5) daily goals sheets. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection fell from 2.66 to 0.69 per 1,000 patient days from 2005 to 2012, an average decrease of 21% per year. The biggest decline in rate of infection was detected in 2008, which may suggest that the catheter-associated bloodstream infection prevention program was particularly effective. Among 4,478 surgical ICU admissions over the last 5 years, not a single case of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia was observed. Aggressive multifaceted horizontal infection control is an effective strategy for reducing the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection and eliminating methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia in the ICU without the need for active surveillance and decontamination.

  20. [Post-marketing surveillance of antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates--II. Gram-negative bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

    2003-10-01

    As a post-marketing surveillance, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, carbapenems, monobactams, and penicillins. Changes in CZOP susceptibility among bacteria were also evaluated with the bacterial resistance ratio calculated from the breakpoint MIC. Twenty-five species (4,154 strains) of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from 1996 to 2001, and consisted of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Serratia liquefaciens, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter Iwoffii, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Bacteroides fragilis group, and Prevotella/Porphyromonas. CZOP preserved its antibacterial activity against M. (B.) catarrhalis (MIC90: 4 micrograms/mL) and showed comparable activity to carbapenems against H. influenzae (MIC90: 1 microgram/mL). The antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. coli was preferable (MIC90: 0.125 microgram/mL) and comparable to those of cefpirome (CPR), cefepime (CFPM), and imipenem (IPM). The MIC90 of CZOP against K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca was 1 and 0.25 microgram/mL, respectively. The MIC90 of CZOP against E. cloacae increased during 6 years (32 to 128 micrograms/mL). The antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. aerogenes was preferable (MIC90: 1 microgram/mL). The antibacterial activities of CZOP against S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens were relatively potent (MIC90: 0.5 and 0.25 microgram/mL) and comparable to those of CPR, CFPM, and carumonam. CZOP preserved comparable antibacterial

  1. Leprosy exposure, infection and disease: a 25-year surveillance study of leprosy patient contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Duppre, Nadia Cristina; Sales, Anna Maria; Hacker, Mariana Andréa; Nery, José Augusto; de Matos, Haroldo José

    2012-12-01

    Contact surveillance is a valuable strategy for controlling leprosy. A dynamic cohort study of leprosy contacts was initiated in 1987 at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. The objective of this work was to review the data on the major risk factors leading up to the infectious stage of the disease, estimate incidence rates of leprosy in the cohort and characterise the risk factors for the disease among the contacts under surveillance. The incidence rate of leprosy among contacts of leprosy patients was estimated at 0.01694 cases per person-year in the first five years of follow-up. The following factors were associated with acquiring the disease: (i) not receiving the BCG vaccine, (ii) a negative Mitsuda reaction and (iii) contact with a patient with a multibacillary clinical form of leprosy. The contacts of index patients who had high bacilloscopic index scores > 1 were at especially high risk of infection. The following factors were associated with infection, which was defined as a seropositive reaction for anti-phenolic glicolipid-1 IgM: (i) young age (< 20 years), (ii) a low measured Mitsuda reaction (< 5 mm) and (iii) contact with an index patient who had a high bacilloscopic index. BCG vaccination and re-vaccination were shown to be protective among household contacts. The main conclusions of this study indicate an urgent need for additional leprosy control strategies in areas with a high incidence of the disease.

  2. Leprosy exposure, infection and disease: a 25-year surveillance study of leprosy patient contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euzenir Nunes Sarno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Contact surveillance is a valuable strategy for controlling leprosy. A dynamic cohort study of leprosy contacts was initiated in 1987 at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. The objective of this work was to review the data on the major risk factors leading up to the infectious stage of the disease, estimate incidence rates of leprosy in the cohort and characterise the risk factors for the disease among the contacts under surveillance. The incidence rate of leprosy among contacts of leprosy patients was estimated at 0.01694 cases per person-year in the first five years of follow-up. The following factors were associated with acquiring the disease: (i not receiving the BCG vaccine, (ii a negative Mitsuda reaction and (iii contact with a patient with a multibacillary clinical form of leprosy. The contacts of index patients who had high bacilloscopic index scores > 1 were at especially high risk of infection. The following factors were associated with infection, which was defined as a seropositive reaction for anti-phenolic glicolipid-1 IgM: (i young age (< 20 years, (ii a low measured Mitsuda reaction (< 5 mm and (iii contact with an index patient who had a high bacilloscopic index. BCG vaccination and re-vaccination were shown to be protective among household contacts. The main conclusions of this study indicate an urgent need for additional leprosy control strategies in areas with a high incidence of the disease.

  3. Prostate Cancer Patient Characteristics Associated With a Strong Preference to Preserve Sexual Function and Receipt of Active Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughman, James R; Basak, Ramsankar; Nielsen, Matthew E; Reeve, Bryce B; Usinger, Deborah S; Spearman, Kiayni C; Godley, Paul A; Chen, Ronald C

    2018-04-01

    Men with early-stage prostate cancer have multiple options that have similar oncologic efficacy but vary in terms of their impact on quality of life. In low-risk cancer, active surveillance is the option that best preserves patients' sexual function, but it is unknown if patient preference affects treatment selection. Our objectives were to identify patient characteristics associated with a strong preference to preserve sexual function and to determine whether patient preference and baseline sexual function level are associated with receipt of active surveillance in low-risk cancer. In this population-based cohort of men with localized prostate cancer, baseline patient-reported sexual function was assessed using a validated instrument. Patients were also asked whether preservation of sexual function was very, somewhat, or not important. Prostate cancer disease characteristics and treatments received were abstracted from medical records. A modified Poisson regression model with robust standard errors was used to compute adjusted risk ratio (aRR) estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among 1194 men, 52.6% indicated a strong preference for preserving sexual function. Older men were less likely to have a strong preference (aRR = 0.98 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97 to 0.99), while men with normal sexual function were more likely (vs poor function, aRR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.82). Among 568 men with low-risk cancer, there was no clear association between baseline sexual function or strong preference to preserve function with receipt of active surveillance. However, strong preference may differnetially impact those with intermediate baseline function vs poor function (Pinteraction = .02). Treatment choice may not always align with patients' preferences. These findings demonstrate opportunities to improve delivery of patient-centered care in early prostate cancer.

  4. Quantifying the Transition from Active Surveillance to Watchful Waiting Among Men with Very Low-risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Garmo, Hans; Lindhagen, Lars; Bratt, Ola; Stattin, Pär; Adolfsson, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is commonly used for men with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). When life expectancy becomes too short for curative treatment to be beneficial, a change from AS to watchful waiting (WW) follows. Little is known about this change since it is rarely documented in medical records. To model transition from AS to WW and how this is affected by age and comorbidity among men with very low-risk PCa. National population-based healthcare registers were used for analysis. Using data on PCa characteristics, age, and comorbidity, a state transition model was created to estimate the probability of changes between predefined treatments to estimate transition from AS to WW. Our estimates indicate that 48% of men with very low-risk PCa starting AS eventually changed to WW over a life course. This proportion increased with age at time of AS initiation. Within 10 yr from start of AS, 10% of men aged 55 yr and 50% of men aged 70 yr with no comorbidity at initiation changed to WW. Our prevalence simulation suggests that the number of men on WW who were previously on AS will eventually stabilise after 30 yr. A limitation is the limited information from clinical follow-up visits (eg, repeat biopsies). We estimated that changes from AS to WW become common among men with very low-risk PCa who are elderly. This potential change to WW should be discussed with men starting on AS. Moreover, our estimates may help in planning health care resources allocated to men on AS, as the transition to WW is associated with lower demands on outpatient resources. Changes from active surveillance to watchful waiting will become more common among men with very low-risk prostate cancer. These observations suggest that patients need to be informed about this potential change before they start on active surveillance. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Post-marketing surveillance of antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates--I. Gram-positive bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

    2003-10-01

    As a post-marketing surveillance, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, penicillins, and carbapenems. Changes in the bacterial susceptibility for CZOP were also evaluated with the resistance ratio calculated with breakpoint MIC. Sixteen species (2,363 strains) of Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from 1996 to 2001, and consisted of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis (MSSE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus avium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP), penicillin-intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP), penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP), Streptococcus milleri group and Peptostreptococcus spp. The antibacterial activity of CZOP either against MSSA or MSSE was preferable (MIC90: 2 or 0.5 micrograms/mL) and comparable to those of other cephems. CZOP was also effective on MRSE (MIC90: 16 micrograms/mL) but not on MRSA. CZOP and other cephems had low antibacterial activity against S. haemolyticus (MIC90: 64 micrograms/mL). The antibacterial activity of CZOP against S. saprophyticus was comparable to or higher than those of other cephems, but the MIC90 of CZOP in 2001 was higher than those in 1996-2000 (32 vs 1-2 micrograms/mL). The antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. faecalis was comparable to that of cefpirome (CPR; MIC90: 16 micrograms/mL) and higher than those of other cephems. No antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. faecium and E. avium was observed, like other drugs. The antibacterial activity of CZOP against S. pyogenes

  6. [Susceptibility surveillance of clinical isolates to fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents from 2003 to 2008: post-marketing study of prulifloxacin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shin; Yoshida, Atsushi; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Tsujihara, Yoshito; Inuzuka, Kazuhisa; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Yamashita, Naoko; Onodera, Makoto; Hiraishi, Toru; Ida, Takashi; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2010-06-01

    Yearly changes in the susceptibility of clinical isolates to ulifloxacin (UFX) and other fluoroquinolones were examined through surveys over 3 periods. In the first survey, 534 strains derived from 19 species were collected from clinical specimens during 6 months from December 2003 to May 2004. In the same way, 805 strains were collected from December 2005 to May 2006 in the second survey, and 863 strains were from December 2007 to May 2008 in the third survey. Over these 3 study periods, the susceptibilities of fluoroquinolones against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were decreased. The isolation frequency of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible strain was increased from 0% to 11.8% and from 14.6% to 20.8%, respectively. MIC90s of UFX against these pathogens were also increased, but its MIC90 for E. coli was 2 to 4 times lower than that of levofloxacin. On the other hand, the susceptibility of strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae to UFX was increased. Among the fluoroquinolones tested, UFX showed the most potent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and no changes in the MIC90s occurred during the surveillance. Although one strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in the third study period showed levofloxacin-resistance (MIC, 8 microg/mL), there were nearly no changes in the MIC90s of any agents tested including UFX against S. pneumoniae during the surveillance. As for other bacterial species, a tendency to increase in resistance to UFX was not observed. The activity of UFX against Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. was superior/equal to those of fluoroquinolones tested.

  7. Activity and function recognition for moving and static objects in urban environments from wide-area persistent surveillance inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Bobick, Aaron; Jones, Eric

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe results from experimental analysis of a model designed to recognize activities and functions of moving and static objects from low-resolution wide-area video inputs. Our model is based on representing the activities and functions using three variables: (i) time; (ii) space; and (iii) structures. The activity and function recognition is achieved by imposing lexical, syntactic, and semantic constraints on the lower-level event sequences. In the reported research, we have evaluated the utility and sensitivity of several algorithms derived from natural language processing and pattern recognition domains. We achieved high recognition accuracy for a wide range of activity and function types in the experiments using Electro-Optical (EO) imagery collected by Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) platform.

  8. Exploiting heterogeneous publicly available data sources for drug safety surveillance: computational framework and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutkias, Vassilis G; Lillo-Le Louët, Agnès; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2017-02-01

    Driven by the need of pharmacovigilance centres and companies to routinely collect and review all available data about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and adverse events of interest, we introduce and validate a computational framework exploiting dominant as well as emerging publicly available data sources for drug safety surveillance. Our approach relies on appropriate query formulation for data acquisition and subsequent filtering, transformation and joint visualization of the obtained data. We acquired data from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), PubMed and Twitter. In order to assess the validity and the robustness of the approach, we elaborated on two important case studies, namely, clozapine-induced cardiomyopathy/myocarditis versus haloperidol-induced cardiomyopathy/myocarditis, and apixaban-induced cerebral hemorrhage. The analysis of the obtained data provided interesting insights (identification of potential patient and health-care professional experiences regarding ADRs in Twitter, information/arguments against an ADR existence across all sources), while illustrating the benefits (complementing data from multiple sources to strengthen/confirm evidence) and the underlying challenges (selecting search terms, data presentation) of exploiting heterogeneous information sources, thereby advocating the need for the proposed framework. This work contributes in establishing a continuous learning system for drug safety surveillance by exploiting heterogeneous publicly available data sources via appropriate support tools.

  9. Physical activity surveillance in the European Union: reliability and validity of the European Health Interview Survey-Physical Activity Questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Sebastian E; Ricci, Cristian; Kohler, Simone; Fischer, Beate; Töpfer, Christine; Finger, Jonas D; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2016-05-23

    The current study examined the reliability and validity of the European Health Interview Survey-Physical Activity Questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ), a novel questionnaire for the surveillance of physical activity (PA) during work, transportation, leisure time, sports, health-enhancing and muscle-strengthening activities over a typical week. Reliability was assessed by administering the 8-item questionnaire twice to a population-based sample of 123 participants aged 15-79 years at a 30-day interval. Concurrent (inter-method) validity was examined in 140 participants by comparisons with self-report (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long Form (IPAQ-LF), 7-day Physical Activity Record (PAR), and objective criterion measures (GT3X+ accelerometer, physical work capacity at 75% (PWC(75%)) from submaximal cycle ergometer test, hand grip strength). The EHIS-PAQ showed acceptable reliability, with a median intraclass correlation coefficient across PA domains of 0.55 (range 0.43-0.73). Compared to the GT3X+ (counts/minutes/day), the EHIS-PAQ underestimated moderate-to-vigorous PA (median difference -11.7, p-value = 0.054). Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ) for validity were moderate-to-strong (ρ's > 0.41) for work-related PA (IPAQ = 0.64, GT3X + =0.43, grip strength = 0.48), transportation-related PA (IPAQ = 0.62, GT3X + =0.43), walking (IPAQ = 0.58), and health-enhancing PA (IPAQ = 0.58, PAR = 0.64, GT3X + =0.44, PWC(75%) = 0.48), and fair-to-poor (ρ's PAQ showed good evidence for reliability and validity for the measurement of PA levels at work, during transportation and health-enhancing PA.

  10. Burden of Influenza in 4 Ecologically Distinct Regions of Peru: Household Active Surveillance of a Community Cohort, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Yeny O; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Uyeki, Timothy M; Rázuri, Hugo R; Kasper, Matthew R; Romero, Candice; Silva, Maria E; Simons, Mark P; Soto, Giselle M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Gilman, Robert H; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2017-10-16

    There are limited data on the burden of disease posed by influenza in low- and middle-income countries. Furthermore, most estimates of influenza disease burden worldwide rely on passive sentinel surveillance at health clinics and hospitals that lack accurate population denominators. We documented influenza incidence, seasonality, health-system utilization with influenza illness, and vaccination coverage through active community-based surveillance in 4 ecologically distinct regions of Peru over 6 years. Approximately 7200 people in 1500 randomly selected households were visited 3 times per week. Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from persons with influenza-like illness and tested for influenza virus by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We followed participants for 35353 person-years (PY). The overall incidence of influenza was 100 per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 97-104) and was highest in children aged 2-4 years (256/1000 PY [95% CI, 236-277]). Seasonal incidence trends were similar across sites, with 61% of annual influenza cases occurring during the austral winter (May-September). Of all participants, 44 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 42-46) sought medical care, 0.7 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 0.4-1.0) were hospitalized, and 1 person died (2.8/100000 PY). Influenza vaccine coverage was 27% among children aged 6-23 months and 26% among persons aged ≥65 years. Our results indicate that 1 in 10 persons develops influenza each year in Peru, with the highest incidence in young children. Active community-based surveillance allows for a better understanding of the true burden and seasonality of disease that is essential to plan the optimal target groups, timing, and cost of national influenza vaccination programs. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. [Actively promote nutrition and health surveillance, achieve the national nutrition and health goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Gangqiang; Zhao, Wenhua; Chen, Junshi

    2016-03-01

    The results of Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance (2010-2012) showed that the anemia prevalence in China reduced significantly compared with 2002, and people's nutrition and health status have improved. Unbalanced diet still exist, such as low intake of vegetables and fruits, and high intake of salt. The serum total cholesterol level and the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and borderline high cholesterolemia were high among urban adults, and more attention should be paid for high serum total cholesterol level among older adults. These results are significant to the development of nutrition and health intervention strategy, carry out nutrition intervention and the achievement of national nutrition and health goals.

  12. The impact of active surveillance and health education on an Ebola virus disease cluster — Kono District, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha Stehling-Ariza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During December 2014–February 2015, an Ebola outbreak in a village in Kono district, Sierra Leone, began following unsafe funeral practices after the death of a person later confirmed to be infected with Ebola virus. In response, disease surveillance officers and community health workers, in collaboration with local leadership and international partners, conducted 1 day of active surveillance and health education for all households in the village followed by ongoing outreach. This study investigated the impact of these interventions on the outbreak. Methods Fifty confirmed Ebola cases were identified in the village between December 1, 2014 and February 28, 2015. Data from case investigations, treatment facility and laboratory records were analyzed to characterize the outbreak. The reproduction number (R was estimated by fitting to the observed distribution of secondary cases. The impact of the active surveillance and health education was evaluated by comparing two outcomes before and after the day of the interventions: 1 the number of days from symptom onset to case-patient isolation or death and 2 a reported epidemiologic link to a prior Ebola case. Results The case fatality ratio among the 50 confirmed Ebola cases was 64.0 %. Twenty-three cases occurred among females (46.0 %; the mean age was 39 years (median: 37 years; range: 5 months to 75 years. Forty-three (87.8 % cases were linked to the index case; 30 (61.2 % were either at the funeral of Patient 1 or had contact with him while he was ill. R was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.15–2.3; excluding the funeral, R was 0.29 (95 % CI: 0.11–0.53. The mean number of days in the community after onset of Ebola symptoms decreased from 4.0 days (median: 3 days; 95 % CI: 3.2–4.7 before the interventions to 2.9 days (median: 2 days; 95 % CI: 1.6–4.3 afterward. An epidemiologic link was reported in 47.6 % of case investigations prior to and 100 % after the interventions

  13. A National Surveillance Survey on Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors: Suriname Health Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Christel CF; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Hofman, Albert; Toelsie, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, the surveillance of risk factors has become an issue of major importance for planning and implementation of preventive measures. Unfortunately, in these countries data on NCDs and their risk factors are limited. This also prevails in Suriname, a middle-income country of the Caribbean, with a multiethnic/multicultural population living in diverse residential areas. For these reasons, “The Suriname Health Study” was designed. Objective The main objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of NCD risk factors, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes in Suriname. Differences between specific age groups, sexes, ethnic groups, and geographical areas will be emphasized. In addition, risk groups will be identified and targeted actions will be designed and evaluated. Methods In this study, several methodologies were combined. A stratified multistage cluster sample was used to select the participants of 6 ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese, Maroon, Chinese, Amerindians, and mixed) divided into 5 age groups (between 15 and 65 years) who live in urban/rural areas or the hinterland. A standardized World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance questionnaire was adapted and used to obtain information about demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and risk factors. Physical examinations were performed to measure blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference. Biochemical analysis of collected blood samples evaluated the levels of glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis will be used to identify the burden of modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors in the aforementioned subgroups. Subsequently, tailor-made interventions will be prepared and their effects will be evaluated. Results The data as collected allow for national inference and

  14. Prostate MRI findings in patients treated for testosterone deficiency while on active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Rahul, Krishnan; Takeda, Toshikazu; Benfante, Nicole; Mulhall, John P.; Hricak, Hedvig; Eastham, James A.; Vargas, Hebert Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) findings in patients treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) while on active surveillance (AS) for low-risk prostate cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients who underwent mpMRI before and after TRT while on AS. Changes in serum testosterone level, prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate biopsy findings, prostate volume and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 (PI-RADSv2) score before and after TRT were summarized. Results Following TRT, there was a significant increase in serum testosterone (516.5 ng/dl vs. 203.0 ng/dl), PSA (4.2 ng/ml vs. 3.3 ng/ml) and prostate volume (55.2 cm3 vs. 39.4 cm3). Two patients had biopsy progression during the study periods. The PI-RADSv2 scores before and after TRT were unchanged in 10/12 patients; none of these demonstrated biopsy progression on post TRT. The PI-RADSv2 scores increased after TRT in 2/12 patients; both showed Gleason score upgrade on follow-up biopsy. One of these two patients underwent radical treatment due to clinical progression. The area under the curve calculated from PI-RADSv2 score after TRT was 0.90, which was better than that calculated from post TRT PSA level (0.48). Conclusions After TRT, mpMRI findings remained stable in patients without biopsy progression, while PI-RADSv2 score increase was identified in patients with Gleason score upgrade on follow-up biopsy. PMID:27665357

  15. Gender Disparity in Structured Physical Activity and Overall Activity Level in Adolescence: Evaluation of Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Kang, Youjeong; Daly, Brian P.; Brown, Michael D.; Patterson, Freda

    2012-01-01

    Background. Adolescent girls are less likely to meet physical activity recommendations than boys. This study examined the relative contribution of structured physical activity opportunities including physical education (PE) class and sports teams to overall activity levels for girls and boys. Methods. Data from 591 9th–12th grade students who completed the 2009 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey were examined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between PE and sport...

  16. Can a general health surveillance between birth and 10 months identify children with mental disorder at 1(1/2) year? A case-control study nested in cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard

    2008-01-01

    Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome.......Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome....

  17. A survey of social media data analysis for physical activity surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sam; Young, Sean D

    2018-07-01

    Social media data can provide valuable information regarding people's behaviors and health outcomes. Previous studies have shown that social media data can be extracted to monitor and predict infectious disease outbreaks. These same approaches can be applied to other fields including physical activity research and forensic science. Social media data have the potential to provide real-time monitoring and prediction of physical activity level in a given region. This tool can be valuable to public health organizations as it can overcome the time lag in the reporting of physical activity epidemiology data faced by traditional research methods (e.g. surveys, observational studies). As a result, this tool could help public health organizations better mobilize and target physical activity interventions. The first part of this paper aims to describe current approaches (e.g. topic modeling, sentiment analysis and social network analysis) that could be used to analyze social media data to provide real-time monitoring of physical activity level. The second aim of this paper was to discuss ways to apply social media analysis to other fields such as forensic sciences and provide recommendations to further social media research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schatz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2, and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV. As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT. The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus. However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii, P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii. These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.

  19. Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

  20. The role of electronic healthcare record databases in paediatric drug safety surveillance: A retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Bie (Sandra); P.M. Coloma (Preciosa); C. Ferrajolo (Carmen); K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Trifirò (Gianluca); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); S.M.J.M. Straus (Sabine); R. Gini (Rosa); R.M.C. Herings (Ron); G. Mazzaglia (Giampiero); G. Picelli (Gino); A. Ghirardi (Arianna); L. Pedersen (Lars); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J. van der Lei (Johan); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAim Electronic healthcare record (EHR)-based surveillance systems are increasingly being developed to support early detection of safety signals. It is unknown what the power of such a system is for surveillance among children and adolescents. In this paper we provide estimates of the

  1. The importance of gender-stratified antibiotic resistance surveillance of unselected uropathogens: a Dutch nationwide extramural surveillance study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Penders, J.; Donker, G.A.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have been performed on urinary tract infections (UTIs) in men. In the present study, general practitioners (n = 42) from the Dutch Sentinel General Practice Network collected urinary samples from 560 male patients (≥18 years) suspected of UTI and recorded prescribed antibiotic treatment.

  2. A study on surveillance equipment at the exit/entry control point of nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. S.; Kim, D. Y.; Cha, H. L.; Kim, H. D.; Hong, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Exit/Entry control is an essential measure at both entrances of the protected area and vital area of nuclear facility at which physical protection is required under the relevant laws and regulations. Especially, when there are heavy traffics of personnel and process equipment in those areas, automated surveillance devices have to be introduced to timely and efficiently screen out internal and external adversaries from achieving their goals of stealing of nuclear material and/or sabotage of the facility. The major portion of this study involves with integration and processing of signals from radiation detector, metal detector, and image monitor. This integrated device together with positive personal identification device which will be reinforced in near future would contribute to the establishment of total exit/entry control point of nuclear facility

  3. Accounting for spatially heterogeneous conditions in local-scale surveillance strategies: case study of the biosecurity insect pest, grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triska, Maggie D; Powell, Kevin S; Collins, Cassandra; Pearce, Inca; Renton, Michael

    2018-04-29

    Surveillance strategies are often standardized and completed on grid patterns to detect pest incursions quickly; however, it may be possible to improve surveillance through more targeted surveillance that accounts for landscape heterogeneity, dispersal and the habitat requirements of the invading organism. We simulated pest spread at a local-scale, using grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch)) as a case study, and assessed the influence of incorporating spatial heterogeneity into surveillance strategies compared to current, standard surveillance strategies. Time to detection, spread within and spread beyond the vineyard were reduced by conducting surveys that target sampling effort in soil that is highly suitable to the invading pest in comparison to standard surveillance strategies. However, these outcomes were dependent on the virulence level of phylloxera as phylloxera is a complex pest with multiple genotypes that influence spread and detectability. Targeting surveillance strategies based on local-scale spatial heterogeneity can decrease the time to detection without increasing the survey cost and surveillance that targets highly suitable soil is the most efficient strategy for detecting new incursions. Additionally, combining targeted surveillance strategies with buffer zones and hygiene procedures, and updating surveillance strategies as additional species information becomes available, will further decrease the risk of pest spread. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic sequencing for surveillance of drug resistance in tuberculosis in highly endemic countries: a multi-country population-based surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zignol, Matteo; Cabibbe, Andrea Maurizio; Dean, Anna S; Glaziou, Philippe; Alikhanova, Natavan; Ama, Cecilia; Andres, Sönke; Barbova, Anna; Borbe-Reyes, Angeli; Chin, Daniel P; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Colvin, Charlotte; Dadu, Andrei; Dreyer, Andries; Driesen, Michèle; Gilpin, Christopher; Hasan, Rumina; Hasan, Zahra; Hoffner, Sven; Hussain, Alamdar; Ismail, Nazir; Kamal, S M Mostofa; Khanzada, Faisal Masood; Kimerling, Michael; Kohl, Thomas Andreas; Mansjö, Mikael; Miotto, Paolo; Mukadi, Ya Diul; Mvusi, Lindiwe; Niemann, Stefan; Omar, Shaheed V; Rigouts, Leen; Schito, Marco; Sela, Ivita; Seyfaddinova, Mehriban; Skenders, Girts; Skrahina, Alena; Tahseen, Sabira; Wells, William A; Zhurilo, Alexander; Weyer, Karin; Floyd, Katherine; Raviglione, Mario C

    2018-03-21

    In many countries, regular monitoring of the emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is hampered by the limitations of phenotypic testing for drug susceptibility. We therefore evaluated the use of genetic sequencing for surveillance of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Population-level surveys were done in hospitals and clinics in seven countries (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, and Ukraine) to evaluate the use of genetic sequencing to estimate the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, pyrazinamide, kanamycin, amikacin, and capreomycin. For each drug, we assessed the accuracy of genetic sequencing by a comparison of the adjusted prevalence of resistance, measured by genetic sequencing, with the true prevalence of resistance, determined by phenotypic testing. Isolates were taken from 7094 patients with tuberculosis who were enrolled in the study between November, 2009, and May, 2014. In all tuberculosis cases, the overall pooled sensitivity values for predicting resistance by genetic sequencing were 91% (95% CI 87-94) for rpoB (rifampicin resistance), 86% (74-93) for katG, inhA, and fabG promoter combined (isoniazid resistance), 54% (39-68) for pncA (pyrazinamide resistance), 85% (77-91) for gyrA and gyrB combined (ofloxacin resistance), and 88% (81-92) for gyrA and gyrB combined (moxifloxacin resistance). For nearly all drugs and in most settings, there was a large overlap in the estimated prevalence of drug resistance by genetic sequencing and the estimated prevalence by phenotypic testing. Genetic sequencing can be a valuable tool for surveillance of drug resistance, providing new opportunities to monitor drug resistance in tuberculosis in resource-poor countries. Before its widespread adoption for surveillance purposes, there is a need to standardise DNA extraction methods, recording and reporting nomenclature, and data interpretation. Bill & Melinda

  5. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical developm......We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  6. Surveillance Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to live in a world full of surveillance? In this documentary film, we take a look at everyday life in Denmark and how surveillance technologies and practices influence our norms and social behaviour. Researched and directed by Btihaj Ajana and Anders Albrechtslund....

  7. Physical activity stages of change surveillance data shows that the majority of Hawai'i's Keiki (Children) meet the guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Markus; Amato, Kaitlyn; Nigg, Claudio R

    2018-05-01

    Targeting Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) children based on their physical activity (PA) stages of change (SOC) may improve intervention effectiveness. No known SOC surveillance system exists for NHOPI jurisdictions. The purpose was to determine the PA SOC prevalence over 5 years in children living in Hawai'i. Self-reported PA SOC from 5 cohorts (3-6 grade students) in Hawai'i were compared between cohorts and sex. The combined PA SOC distribution (n = 1726, 50.7% female) was: Precontemplation, 7.5%; Contemplation, 7.6%; Preparation, 9.9%; Action, 33.4%; Maintenance, 41.5%. There were no significant difference between cohorts 1 and 2 (n = 258), χ 2 (16) = 21.75, p = 0.15; 2 and 3 (n = 129), χ 2 (16) = 17.51, p = 0.35; 3 and 4 (n = 171), χ 2 (16) = 17.28, p = 0.77; 4 and 5 (n = 129), χ 2 (16) = 17.51, p = 0.35; and for all cohorts between males and females (p > 0.05). Most participants were in Action and Maintenance. Prevention efforts should emphasize maintaining PA levels. Extending PA behavior surveillance systems to include intention in NHOPI jurisdictions is warranted.

  8. Real-time monitoring of school absenteeism to enhance disease surveillance: a pilot study of a mobile electronic reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Liulark, Wongwat; Taweeseneepitch, Komchaluch; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Thongprarong, Wiraporn; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap

    2014-05-12

    School absenteeism is a common source of data used in syndromic surveillance, which can eventually be used for early outbreak detection. However, the absenteeism reporting system in most schools, especially in developing countries, relies on a paper-based method that limits its use for disease surveillance or outbreak detection. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic real-time reporting system on school absenteeism for syndromic surveillance. An electronic (Web-based) school absenteeism reporting system was developed to embed it within the normal routine process of absenteeism reporting. This electronic system allowed teachers to update students' attendance status via mobile tablets. The data from all classes and schools were then automatically sent to a centralized database for further analysis and presentation, and for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of absent students. In addition, the system also had a disease investigation module, which provided a link between absenteeism data from schools and local health centers, to investigate causes of fever among sick students. The electronic school absenteeism reporting system was implemented in 7 primary schools in Bangkok, Thailand, with total participation of approximately 5000 students. During May-October 2012 (first semester), the percentage of absentees varied between 1% and 10%. The peak of school absenteeism (sick leave) was observed between July and September 2012, which coincided with the peak of dengue cases in children aged 6-12 years being reported to the disease surveillance system. The timeliness of a reporting system is a critical function in any surveillance system. Web-based application and mobile technology can potentially enhance the use of school absenteeism data for syndromic surveillance and outbreak detection. This study presents the factors that determine the implementation success of this reporting system.

  9. Radioprotection and physical surveillance during activities of liquid wastes of high and low activity in italian ITREC plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petagna, Edoardo; Tortorelli, Pietro

    1997-03-01

    Many studies were made in ITREC Plant, located in ENEA - Trisaia Research Center, in the field of the nuclear fuel reprocessing, in the past years. During these activities liquid wastes of high and low activity were yielded and stored in the special area of tanks named Waste-1. In order to condition the low activity liquid wastes, essentially fission products, beta and gamma emitters, was built the SIRTE Plant (Integrate System for the Raise and Effluents Treatment) based on cementation process. In the present work, the radiological monitoring performed within the plant during the first campaign of cementation, is showed

  10. Using Google Trends for influenza surveillance in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Rutherford, Shannon; Yang, Fen

    2013-01-01

    Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate influenza activity in many countries; however there is currently no Google Flu Trends or other Internet search data used for influenza surveillance in China. Influenza surveillance data from 2008 through 2011 were obtained from provincial CDC influenza-like illness and virological surveillance systems of Guangdong, a province in south China. Internet search data were downloaded from the website of Google Trends. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data and internet search trends. The correlation between CDC ILI surveillance and CDC virus surveillance was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.66). The strongest correlation was between the Google Trends term of Fever and ILI surveillance with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.79). When compared with influenza virological surveillance, the Google Trends term of Influenza A had the strongest correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) in the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic period. This study shows that Google Trends in Chinese can be used as a complementary source of data for influenza surveillance in south China. More research in the future should develop new models using search trends in Chinese language to estimate local disease activity and detect early signals of outbreaks.

  11. Implementation of a Multimodal Mobile System for Point-of-Sale Surveillance: Lessons Learned From Case Studies in Washington, DC, and New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Ganz, Ollie; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Tacelosky, Michael; Kreslake, Jennifer; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Aidala, Angela; Vallone, Donna; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Background In tobacco control and other fields, point-of-sale surveillance of the retail environment is critical for understanding industry marketing of products and informing public health practice. Innovations in mobile technology can improve existing, paper-based surveillance methods, yet few studies describe in detail how to operationalize the use of technology in public health surveillance. Objective The aims of this paper are to share implementation strategies and lessons learned from 2...

  12. The experience of adults who choose watchful waiting or active surveillance as an approach to medical treatment: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenmeyer, Leslie; Huffman, Dolores; Alagna, Michael; Moore, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    "Watchful waiting" or "active surveillance" is an alternative approach in the medical management of certain diseases. Most often considered appropriate as an approach to treatment for low-risk prostate cancer, it is also found in the literature in breast cancer surveillance, urinary lithiasis, lymphocytic leukemia, depression and small renal tumors. This systematic review sought to:Identify and synthesize the best available international evidence on the experience of adults who choose watchful waiting or active surveillance as an approach to medical treatment. To this end the questions addressed in this review were:1. How do patients who have chosen watchful waiting or active surveillance describe the process of coming to the decision?2. What were the factors that influenced their decision to choose?3. How do patients who have chosen watchful waiting or active surveillance describe the experience? Male or female patients, 18 years or older, who experience the phenomenon of choosing or not choosing watchful waiting or active surveillance as a treatment approach.The phenomena of interest were accounts of the experiences of adult patients who choose watchful waiting or active surveillance as an approach to medical treatment.This review considered studies that focused on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and critical theory. Mixed method studies with narrative description and patient voice were also considered. Grey literature such as research reports and dissertations were also included. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies through electronic databases, reference lists, and the World Wide Web. Extensive searches were undertaken of relevant databases to include CINAHL, PubMed, SCOPUS and PsycINFO. A three-step search strategy was used in each component of the review. Studies were limited to English language papers. The search considered papers

  13. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and Allowed Outage Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che, Moo Seong; Cheong, Chang Hyeon; Ryu, Yeong Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Heo, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyeong; Kim, Joo Yeol; Kim, Yun Ik; Yang, Hei Chang

    1997-07-01

    Objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Interval(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plants safety. In the first year of this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modeling and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. In the second year of this study, the sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the assessment methodologies of the first study, the interaction modeling of the STI and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code

  14. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and Allowed Outage Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Moo Seong; Cheong, Chang Hyeon; Ryu, Yeong Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Heo, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyeong; Kim, Joo Yeol; Kim, Yun Ik; Yang, Hei Chang [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    Objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Interval(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plants safety. In the first year of this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modeling and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. In the second year of this study, the sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the assessment methodologies of the first study, the interaction modeling of the STI and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code.

  15. Surveillance strategy for an extended operating cycle in commercial nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, R.S.; Moore, T.J.; Maurer, J.H.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    The impetus for improved economic performance of commercial nuclear power plants can be partially satisfied by increasing plant capacity factors through operating cycle extension. One aspect of an operating cycle extension effort is the modification of plant surveillance programs to complete required regulatory and investment protection surveillance activities within the extended planned outage schedule. The goal is to introduce a general strategy for existing power plants to transition their surveillance programs to an extended operating cycle up to 48 months in length, and to test the feasibility of this strategy through the complete analysis of the surveillance programs at operating BWR and PWR case study plants. The reconciliation of surveillances at these plants demonstrates that surveillance performance will not preclude 48 month operating cycles. Those surveillance activities that could not be resolved to an extended cycle are identified for further study. Finally, a number of general issues are presented that should be considered before implementing a cycle extension effort

  16. Surveillance strategy for an extended operating cycle in commercial nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, R.S.; Moore, T.J.; Maurer, J.H.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    The impetus for improved economic performance of commercial nuclear power plants can be partially satisfied by increasing plant capacity factors through operating cycle extension. One aspect of an operating cycle extension effort is the modification of plant surveillance programs to complete required regulatory and investment protection surveillance activities within the extended planned outage schedule. The goal of this paper is to introduce a general strategy for existing power plants to transition their surveillance programs to an extended operating cycle up to 48 months in length, and to test the feasibility of this strategy through the complete analysis of the surveillance programs at operating BWR and PWR case study plants. The reconciliation of surveillances at these plants demonstrates that surveillance performance will not preclude 48 month operating cycles. Those surveillance activities that could not be resolved to an extended cycle are identified for further study. Finally, a number of general issues are presented that should be considered before implementing a cycle extension effort

  17. Studies and research concerning BNFP: process monitoring and process surveillance demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kight, H R

    1979-11-01

    Computerized methods of monitoring process functions and alarming off-standard conditions were implemented and demonstrated during the FY 1979 Uranium Run. In addition, prototype applications of instruments for the purpose of tamper indication and surveillance were tested.

  18. Toward rubella elimination in Poland: need for supplemental immunization activities, enhanced surveillance, and further integration with measles elimination efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Laura; Rogalska, Justyna; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Haponiuk, Marzena; Kosek, Adam; Pauch, Ewa; Plonska, Elzbieta; Veltze, Daniel; Czarkowski, Miroslaw P; Buddh, Nilesh; Reef, Susan; Stefanoff, Pawel

    2011-07-01

    All Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region have endorsed rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) prevention. However, Poland has continued high levels of reported rubella. We reviewed rubella incidence in Poland since 1966 and analyzed national aggregated surveillance data from the period 2003-2008 and case-based data from 4 provinces from the period 2006-2008. We described CRS cases since 1997 and assessed maternal receipt of vaccine. We reviewed national vaccination coverage from 1992 through 2008. Since 1966, rubella outbreaks have occurred every 4-6 years in Poland. Aggregate and case-based data from the period 2003-2008 indicate that rubella virus transmission has occurred across wide age ranges (from continues. To achieve rubella elimination, supplemental immunization activities among adolescent boys are needed, as is integration with measles elimination efforts. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  19. Using semantic technologies and the OSU ontology for modelling context and activities in multi-sensory surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez A, Héctor F.; Martínez-Tomás, Rafael; Arias Tapia, Susana A.; Rincón Zamorano, Mariano

    2014-04-01

    Automatic systems that monitor human behaviour for detecting security problems are a challenge today. Previously, our group defined the Horus framework, which is a modular architecture for the integration of multi-sensor monitoring stages. In this work, structure and technologies required for high-level semantic stages of Horus are proposed, and the associated methodological principles established with the aim of recognising specific behaviours and situations. Our methodology distinguishes three semantic levels of events: low level (compromised with sensors), medium level (compromised with context), and high level (target behaviours). The ontology for surveillance and ubiquitous computing has been used to integrate ontologies from specific domains and together with semantic technologies have facilitated the modelling and implementation of scenes and situations by reusing components. A home context and a supermarket context were modelled following this approach, where three suspicious activities were monitored via different virtual sensors. The experiments demonstrate that our proposals facilitate the rapid prototyping of this kind of systems.

  20. Does surgical site infection after Caesarean section in Polish hospitals reflect high-quality patient care or poor postdischarge surveillance? Results from a 3-year multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Jarynowski, Andrzej; Kopeć-Godlewska, Katarzyna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Misiewska-Kaczur, Agnieszka; Lech, Marzena; Rozwadowska, Małgorzata; Karwacka, Marlena; Liberda, Joanna; Domańska, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Caesarean sections (CSs) are associated with a high infection risk. Surgical site infection (SSI) incidence is among the markers of effectiveness of infection prevention efforts. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for SSI, incidence, and microbiology in patients who underwent CS. The study was conducted during 2013-2015 using active infection surveillance in 5 Polish hospitals according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control surveillance network known as HAI-Net. For each procedure, the following data were registered: age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, procedure time, elective or emergency procedure, use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, microbiology, the treatment used, and other information. SSI incidence was 0.5% and significant differences were noted among hospitals (between 0.1% and 1.8%), for different American Society of Anesthesiologists scales (between 0.2% and 4.8%) and different values of standardized SSI risk index (between 0.0% and 0.8%). In 3.1% of procedures, with no antibiotic prophylaxis, SSI risk was significantly higher. Deep infections dominated: 61.5% with superficial infections in only approximately 30% of cases and 2.6% of infections were detected postdischarge without readmissions. Results showed high incidence of SSI in Poland without perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, and secondly, ineffective surveillance according to CS status, considering outpatient obstetric care. Without postdischarge surveillance, it is not possible to recognize the epidemiologic situation, and further, to set priorities and needs when it comes to infection prophylaxis, especially because such low incidence may indicate no need for improvement in infection control. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Park, Kang Min [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Internal(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plant safety. In this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modelings and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. The sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code. The qualitative assessment for the STI/AOR of RPS/ESFAS assured safety the most important system in the nuclear power plant are performed.

  2. Surveillance technology: an alternative to physical restraints? A qualitative study among professionals working in nursing homes for people with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Francke, A.L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working with surveillance technology as an alternative to traditional restraints creates obvious differences in the way care is organised. It is not clear whether professional caregivers find working with surveillance technology useful and workable and whether surveillance technology is

  3. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    The notorious intensification and digitalization of surveillance technologies and practices in today’s society has brought about numerous changes. These changes have been widely noticed, described and discussed across many academic disciplines. However, the contexts of entertainment, play...

  4. Understanding young adult physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in community colleges and 4-year post-secondary institutions: A cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lust Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions. The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. Results The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. Conclusions These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions.

  5. Medication incidents in primary care medicine: a prospective study in the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network (Sentinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnädinger, Markus; Conen, Dieter; Herzig, Lilli; Puhan, Milo A; Staehelin, Alfred; Zoller, Marco; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2017-07-26

    To describe the type, frequency, seasonal and regional distribution of medication incidents in primary care in Switzerland and to elucidate possible risk factors for medication incidents. Prospective surveillance study. Swiss primary healthcare, Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network. Patients with drug treatment who experienced any erroneous event related to the medication process and interfering with normal treatment course, as judged by their physician. The 180 physicians in the study were general practitioners or paediatricians participating in the Swiss Federal Sentinel reporting system in 2015. Primary: medication incidents; secondary: potential risk factors like age, gender, polymedication, morbidity, care-dependency, previous hospitalisation. The mean rates of detected medication incidents were 2.07 per general practitioner per year (46.5 per 1 00 000 contacts) and 0.15 per paediatrician per year (2.8 per 1 00 000 contacts), respectively. The following factors were associated with medication incidents (OR, 95% CI): higher age 1.004 per year (1.001; 1.006), care by community nurse 1.458 (1.025; 2.073) and care by an institution 1.802 (1.399; 2.323), chronic conditions 1.052 (1.029; 1.075) per condition, medications 1.052 (1.030; 1.074) per medication, as well as Thurgau Morbidity Index for stage 4: 1.292 (1.004; 1.662), stage 5: 1.420 (1.078; 1.868) and stage 6: 1.680 (1.178; 2.396), respectively. Most cases were linked to an incorrect dosage for a given patient, while prescription of an erroneous medication was the second most common error. Medication incidents are common in adult primary care, whereas they rarely occur in paediatrics. Older and multimorbid patients are at a particularly high risk for medication incidents. Reasons for medication incidents are diverse but often seem to be linked to communication problems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  6. [A surveillance study on CRISPR/Cas molecular biomarker in Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W J; Zhang, R G; Duan, G C; Hong, L J; Zhang, B; Xi, Y L; Yang, H Y; Chen, S Y; Lou, T Y; Zhao, Y X

    2016-08-10

    A new method related to molecular biomarker with CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-cas) in Escherichia (E.) coli was developed and used for surveillance programs. CRISPR/Cas sequence that containing 135 strains with complete sequence and 203 strains with whole genome shotgun sequence of E. coli in GenBank by BLAST and 361 strains of E. coli (including 38 strains of E. coli O157∶H7) in laboratory were identified by PCR and analyzed with the CRISPR Finder. Spacers were compared with DANMAN and the phylogenetic trees of cas gene were constructed under Clustal Ⅹ and Mega 5.1. With new perspective, a descriptive method was developed targeting on the position of CRISPR/cas in E. coli. The CRISPR1 was detected in 77.04%, 100.00% and 75.62% and the CRISPR2 was detected in 74.81%, 100.00% and 92.24% and the CRISPR3 and CRISPR4 were detected in 11.85%, 0 and 1.39% for 135 strains with complete sequence, 203 strains with whole genome shotgun sequence and 361 strains in the laboratory, respectively. One strain downloaded in GenBank with whole genome sequencing and 2 strains in the our laboratory were identified that containing four CRISPR locus. The other E. coli strain was with insertion sequence in downstream of the non-cas CRISPR1. The unique CRISPR was found in 8 strains of O55∶H7, in 180 strains of O157∶H7, in 8 strains of O157∶HNM, in 40 strains of O104∶H4, in 4 strains of O145∶H28, in all the 699 E. coli strains. The phylogenetic tree could be divided into two groups-cas with type I-E or type I-F. CRISPR/Cas might be used as a valuable molecular biomarker in epidemiological surveillance studies to identify the high virulent strains or new strains of E. coli. Phage night be related to the missing or obtaining of spacers.

  7. Use of wildlife rehabilitation centres in pathogen surveillance: A case study in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, MariaCruz; Hernández, Jose Manuel; Lima-Barbero, Jose Francisco; Höfle, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    More than 70% of new human pathogens are zoonotic and many originate from the wildlife reservoir. Wildlife rehabilitation centres (WRC) are an easily accessible source for sample and data collection for preventive surveillance, but data collected this way may be biased. We use white storks (Ciconia ciconia) as a model to compare pathogen prevalence obtained in the field and WRC. We address factors that may affect disease prevalence data like origin, the age group and the "diseased" state of WRC admissions. In this study we compared prevalence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in the digestive tract; antibodies against West Nile virus, avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of E. coli between nestling and adult wild storks established in different habitats (n=90) and storks admitted to two different WRC (n=30) in the same region. When age groups and colonies of origin were disregarded, the mean enterobacteria (E. coli, Salmonella) and viral antibody prevalence of the wild population (n=90) were similar to prevalence observed in the individuals admitted to WRC (n=30). However, in fledgling juvenile storks admitted to WRC, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. (13.3%), E. coli showing resistance to cefotaxime (37.9%) and against two antimicrobials at once (41.4%) were more similar to the prevalence in stork nestlings from landfill-associated colonies (7.9%, 37.1% and 48.6%, respectively for prevalence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli displaying, cefotaxime resistance and resistance against two antimicrobials), and significantly higher than in colonies located in natural habitats (0%; 10.5% and 15.8%, respectively). Thus, pathogen surveillance in individuals from an abundant species admitted to WRC is useful to monitor overall mean prevalence, but for certain pathogens may not be sufficient to detect differences between local populations. In addition, the ecology of the tested species and the specific temporal, spatial and

  8. Semi-automated reviewing station for IAEA optical surveillance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, R.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    A study is underway on the use of computer vision technology to assist in visual inspection of optical surveillance data. The IAEA currently uses optical surveillance as one of its principle Containment and Surveillance (C/S) measures. The review process is a very time-consuming and tedious task, due to the large amount of optical surveillance data to be reviewed. For some time, the IAEA has identified as one of its principle needs an automated optical surveillance data reviewing station that assists the reviewer in identifying activities of safeguards interest, such as the movement of a very large spent fuel cask. The present development reviewing station consists of commercially available digital image processing hardware controlled by a personal computer. The areas under study include change detection, target discrimination, tracking, and classification. Several algorithms are being evaluated in each of these areas using recorded video tape of safeguards relevant scenes. The computer vision techniques and current status of the studies are discussed

  9. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture † ; if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  10. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time as a progression criterion in an active surveillance programme for patients with localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebaek; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brasso, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the role of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (PSAdt) as a progression criterion in patients with low-risk prostate cancer managed by active surveillance (AS). To assess the correlation between PSAdt during AS and final histopathology after radical prostatectomy...

  11. What is the optimal definition of misclassification in patients with very low-risk prostate cancer eligible for active surveillance? Results from a multi-institutional series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandaglia, G.; Ploussard, G.; Isbarn, H.; Suardi, N.; Visschere, P.J. De; Futterer, J.J.; Ghadjar, P.; Massard, C.; Ost, P.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Surcel, C.I.; Bergh, R.C. van den; Montorsi, F.; Ficarra, V.; Giannarini, G.; Briganti, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of unfavorable prostate cancer in active surveillance (AS) candidates is nonnegligible. However, what represents an adverse pathologic outcome in this setting is unknown. We aimed at assessing the optimal definition of misclassification and its effect on recurrence in AS

  12. HIV reservoirs and immune surveillance evasion cause the failure of structured treatment interruptions: a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Mancini

    Full Text Available Continuous antiretroviral therapy is currently the most effective way to treat HIV infection. Unstructured interruptions are quite common due to side effects and toxicity, among others, and cannot be prevented. Several attempts to structure these interruptions failed due to an increased morbidity compared to continuous treatment. The cause of this failure is poorly understood and often attributed to drug resistance. Here we show that structured treatment interruptions would fail regardless of the emergence of drug resistance. Our computational model of the HIV infection dynamics in lymphoid tissue inside lymph nodes, demonstrates that HIV reservoirs and evasion from immune surveillance themselves are sufficient to cause the failure of structured interruptions. We validate our model with data from a clinical trial and show that it is possible to optimize the schedule of interruptions to perform as well as the continuous treatment in the absence of drug resistance. Our methodology enables studying the problem of treatment optimization without having impact on human beings. We anticipate that it is feasible to steer new clinical trials using computational models.

  13. Rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in 4 regions in Brazil: a hospital-based surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munford, Veridiana; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; de Souza, Eloisa Correa; Cardoso, Debora Morais; Cardoso, Divina das Dores de Paula; Borges, Ana Maria Tavares; Costa, Paulo Sergio Sucasas da; Melgaço, Irene Angela Melo; Rosa, Humberto; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Santana, Ciria; El Khoury, Antoine; Ikedo, Fabio; Rácz, Maria Lucia

    2009-11-01

    Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Knowledge of rotavirus genotypes is important for vaccination strategies. During 2005-2006, rotavirus surveillance studies were conducted in São Paulo, Salvador, Goiânia, and Porto Alegre, Brazil. Stool samples were collected from children <5 years of age who had diarrhea and were screened by the Rotaclone Enzyme Immunoassay for the presence of rotavirus. Confirmed rotavirus-positive samples were characterized for P and G genotypes by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A total of 510 stool samples were collected. Of these, 221 (43.3%) were positive for rotavirus. Overall, G9 was the predominant G type, followed by G2, and G1; P[4] and P[8] were the predominant P types. The most frequent G/P genotype combination detected was G2P[4], followed by G9P[8], G9P[4], and G1P[8]. G2P[4] was the predominant type in Goiânia and Salvador; G9P[8] and G1P[8] were predominant in São Paulo and Porto Alegre, respectively. The prevalence, seasonality, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection varied in different regions in Brazil. With immunization programs, continuous monitoring of rotavirus types is important to detect novel and emerging strains.

  14. Decrease in Staphylococcus aureus colonization and hospital-acquired infection in a medical intensive care unit after institution of an active surveillance and decolonization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Thomas G; Fatica, Cynthia; Scarpelli, Michele; Arroliga, Alejandro C; Guzman, Jorge; Shrestha, Nabin K; Hixson, Eric; Rosenblatt, Miriam; Gordon, Steven M; Procop, Gary W

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of an active surveillance program for Staphylococcus aureus linked to a decolonization protocol on the incidence of healthcare-associated infection and new nasal colonization due to S. aureus. Retrospective quasi-experimental study. An 18-bed medical intensive care unit at a tertiary care center in Cleveland, Ohio. From January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2007, all patients in the medical intensive care unit were screened for S. aureus nasal carriage at admission and weekly thereafter. During the preintervention period, January 1 through September 30, 2006, only surveillance occurred. During the intervention period, January 1 through December 31, 2007, S. aureus carriers received mupirocin intranasally. Beginning in February 2007, carriers also received chlorhexidine gluconate baths. During the preintervention period, 604 (73.7%) of 819 patients were screened for S. aureus nasal carriage, yielding 248 prevalent carriers (30.3%). During the intervention period, 752 (78.3%) of 960 patients were screened, yielding 276 carriers (28.8%). The incidence of S. aureus carriage decreased from 25 cases in 3,982 patient-days (6.28 cases per 1,000 patient-days) before intervention to 18 cases in 5,415 patient-days (3.32 cases per 1,000 patient-days) (P=.04; relative risk [RR], 0.53 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.28-0.97]) and from 9.57 to 4.77 cases per 1,000 at-risk patient-days (P=.02; RR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.27-0.91]). The incidence of S. aureus hospital-acquired bloodstream infection during the 2 periods was 2.01 and 1.11 cases per 1,000 patient-days, respectively (P=.28). The incidence of S. aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia decreased from 1.51 to 0.18 cases per 1,000 patient-days (P=.03; RR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01-0.83]). The total incidence of S. aureus hospital-acquired infection decreased from 3.52 to 1.29 cases per 1,000 patient-days (P=.03; RR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.14-0.90]). Active surveillance for S. aureus nasal carriage combined with

  15. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, Julitta S; van der Molen, Henk F; van Duivenbooden, Cor; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2011-09-29

    Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS) group (n = 206) with that of a control (WHS) group (n = 206). The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the preventive actions undertaken by them within the scope of a job

  16. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluiter Judith K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. Methods/Design The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS group (n = 206 with that of a control (WHS group (n = 206. The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. Discussion This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the

  17. Study of the dose rate measured by the radiological surveillance network of the Basque country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegria, N.; Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The radiological Surveillance Network of the Basque Country, which is constituted by three stations located in Bilbao, Vitoria and San Sebastian, measures and records the dose date every 10 minutes. Some environmental parameters affect the behaviour of the dose rate. One of most important meteorological parameters is rain. So, it has been necessary to study separately the behaviour of dose rate in the absence of rain, defining that time as Dry Time, and the behaviour when it rains, designating that time as Wet Time. Previous studies have confirmed that dose rate values are fitted to normal distributions, and in those cases, Critical Limits can be calculated using Curie formulation. Every January, data recorded in previous year, two Critical Limits are obtained, one of them for dry time and other one for wet time, and both together define the Alarm Level for each radiological station. That Alarm Level is the reference value for dose rate. If some dose rate value is higher than the corresponding Alarm Level, the recorded values have to be studied in order to identify the origin or the cause of that value. In most cases, in which the dose rate is higher than the corresponding Alarm Level due to precipitation, occurs that when rain stops the dose rate value does not fall immediately to dry rime values, and then the Alarm Level which is now that for dry time is exceeded by the dose rate. So, those values can be considered a special group called Transition Area. The second part of the study tries to explain the cause and the behaviour of the values in the transition Area by means of the study of the behaviour of radon daughters in the atmosphere and their deposition onto the ground during rain intervals. To check the results several situations have been simulated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4C. (authors)

  18. The effect of surveillance and appreciative inquiry on puerperal infections: a longitudinal cohort study in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hussein

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of an intervention comprising surveillance and an organisational change called Appreciative Inquiry on puerperal infections in hospitals in Gujarat state, India. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study with a control group was conducted over 16 months between 2010 and 2012. Women who delivered in six hospitals were followed-up. After a five month pre-intervention period, the intervention was introduced in three hospitals. Monthly incidence of puerperal infection was recorded throughout the study in all six hospitals. A chi-square test and logistic regression were used to examine for associations, trends and interactions between the intervention and control groups. FINDINGS: Of the 8,124 women followed up, puerperal infections were reported in 319 women (3.9% over the course of the study. Puerperal sepsis/genital tract infections and urinary tract infections were the two most common puerperal infections. At the end of the study, infection incidence in the control group halved from 7.4% to 3.5%. Levels in the intervention group reduced proportionately even more, from 4.3% to 1.7%. A chi-square test for trend confirmed the reduction of infection in the intervention and control groups (p<0.0001 but the trends were not statistically different from one another. There was an overall reduction of infection by month (OR = 0.94 95% CI 0.91-0.97. Risk factors like delivery type, complications or delivery attendant showed no association with infection. CONCLUSION: Interruption of resource flows in the health system occurred during the intervention phase, which may have affected the findings. The incidence of infection fell in both control and intervention groups during the course of the study. It is not clear if appreciative inquiry contributed to the reductions observed. A number of practical and methodological limitations were faced. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN03513186.

  19. Comparison of Biochemical Recurrence-Free Survival after Radical Prostatectomy Triggered by Grade Reclassification during Active Surveillance and in Men Newly Diagnosed with Similar Grade Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Clarissa P; Landis, Patricia; Carter, H Ballentine; Epstein, Jonathan I; Mamawala, Mufaddal

    2017-09-01

    We compared biochemical recurrence between men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy triggered by grade reclassification and men diagnosed with similar grade disease treated with immediate radical prostatectomy. We retrospectively analyzed the records of men who underwent surgery from 1995 to 2015 at our institution. We identified 4 groups, including 94 and 56 men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy following reclassification to Gleason 7 (3 + 4) or greater (grade groups 2 or greater) and Gleason 7 (3 + 4) (grade group 2), and 3,504 and 1,979 in the immediate prostatectomy group diagnosed with grade group 2 or greater and 2, respectively. Biochemical recurrence was assessed by Kaplan-Meir analysis and a multivariable Cox model. Men on active surveillance had a lower incidence of biochemical recurrence than men in the immediate radical prostatectomy groups for biopsy grade groups 2 or greater and 2 (each p <0.05). One, 5 and 10-year biochemical recurrence-free survival for men in the active surveillance group vs the immediate radical prostatectomy group was 97.9% vs 85.5%, 76.6% vs 65.1% and 69.0% vs 54.2% in biopsy grade groups 2 or greater (p = 0.009) and 96.4% vs 91.2%, 89.6% vs 74.0% and 89.6% vs 63.9%, respectively, in biopsy grade group 2 (p = 0.071). For biopsy grade groups 2 or greater there was no significant difference in the risk of biochemical recurrence between the groups after adjusting for age, biopsy extent of cancer and prostate specific antigen density. Patients on active surveillance reclassified to grade groups 2 or greater are at no greater risk for treatment failure than men newly diagnosed with similar grades. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in Support to the Activities of Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2016-03-01

    Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period.

  1. Utilizing harmonization and common surveillance methods to consolidate 4 cohorts: the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health (WATCH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn R. Koller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to health status reports, chronic disease prevalence appears to be rising in western Alaska Native (AN people, and accurate population-based data are needed. Four cohort studies of western AN people were conducted in the Norton Sound and Yukon-Kuskokwim regions, but none have been large enough to allow reliable estimates of rates of chronic diseases and evaluate their risk factors. Objective. In this article, the methods used to combine 4 major cohort studies of rural western AN people are described and the benefits and challenges encountered in combining data and standardizing surveillance methods for these studies are discussed. Design. Tribal permission was obtained for each cohort study and the consolidated study. Data from baseline exams were directly combined or harmonized into new variables. Common surveillance methods were developed and implemented to identify incidence and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD events and type 2 diabetes. Results. A cohort of 4,569 western AN participants (2,116 men and 2,453 women, aged 18–95 years, was established to study CVD and diabetes prevalence. Prospective surveillance data over an average 6.7-year follow-up can now be used to study CVD and diabetes incidence and associated risk factors in a subset of 2,754 western AN participants (1,218 men and 1,536 women who consented to initial surveillance. Conclusions. The combined cohort provides statistical power to examine incidence rates and risk factors for CVD and diabetes and allows for analyses by geographic region. The data can be used to develop intervention programmes in these populations and others.

  2. Implementing maternal death surveillance and response: a review of lessons from country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Ameh, Charles; Roos, Natalie; Mathai, Matthews; Broek, Nynke van den

    2017-07-17

    Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) implementation is monitored globally, but not much is known about what works well, where and why in scaling up. We reviewed a series of country case studies in order to determine whether and to what extent these countries have implemented the four essential components of MDSR and identify lessons for improving implementation. A secondary analysis of ten case studies from countries at different stages of MDSR implementation, using a policy analysis framework to draw out lessons learnt and opportunities for improvement. We identify the consistent drivers of success in countries with well-established systems for MDSR, and common barriers in countries were Maternal Death Review (MDR) systems have been less successful. MDR is accepted and ongoing at subnational level in many countries, but it is not adequately institutionalised and the shift from facility based MDR to continuous MDSR that informs the wider health system still needs to be made. Our secondary analysis of country experiences highlights the need for a) social and team processes at facility level, for example the existence of a 'no shame, no blame' culture, and the ability to reflect on practice and manage change as a team for recommendations to be acted upon, b) health system inputs including adequate funding and reliable health information systems to enable identification and analysis of cases c) national level coordination of dissemination, and monitoring implementation of recommendations at all levels and d) mandatory notification of maternal deaths (and enforcement of this) and a professional requirement to participate in MDRs. Case studies from countries with established MDSR systems can provide valuable guidance on ways to set up the processes and overcome some of the barriers; but the challenge, as with many health system interventions, is to find a way to provide catalytic assistance and strengthen capacity for MDSR such that this becomes embedded in

  3. Diagnostic approach to urinary tract infections in male general practice patients: a national surveillance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Heijer, Casper DJ; van Dongen, Martien CJM; Donker, Gé A; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2012-01-01

    Background Diagnostic urinary tract infection (UTI) studies have primarily been performed among female patients. Aim To create a diagnostic algorithm for male general practice patients suspected of UTI. Design and setting Surveillance study in the Dutch Sentinel General Practice Network. Method Clinical information and dipstick results were collected from 603 patients. Algorithm-predicted care was compared with care as usual in terms of sensitivity (antibiotic recommended when UTI was confirmed) and specificity (no antibiotic recommended when no UTI was observed). Results Complete information was available from 490/603 (81%) males, of whom 66% (321/490) had a UTI. A diagnostic algorithm recommending antimicrobial prescription in the case of a positive nitrite test or a positive leukocyte esterase test in males aged ≥60 years, had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 78 to 87) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 60% (95% CI = 52 to 66), respectively (area under the ROC curve: 0.78, 95% CI = 0.74 to 0.82). When both dipstick results were positive in males aged ≥60 years, PPV increased to 90% (95% CI = 83 to 94), whereas NPV was highest in males Sensitivity and specificity of predicted UTI care and usual care did not differ (75% versus 79%, P = 0.30, and 70% versus 63%, P = 0.17, respectively). Conclusion UTI care provided to Dutch male GP patients is as accurate as predicted care from a diagnostic algorithm. The studied clinical information and dipstick tests are useful for ruling in UTI in males, but have limited value in ruling out this diagnosis. PMID:23211182

  4. FY 1994 annual summary report of the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program was initiated to manage former waste management and environmental research sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. The S and M Program is responsible for managing designated sites/facilities from the end of their operating lives until final disposition or site stabilization. To effectively manage and perform the various S and M Program responsibilities, five summary-level work breakdown structure (WBS) elements have been established: S and M Preliminary Investigations, Special Projects, Routine S and M, Inactive Groundwater Wells, and Project Management. Routine S and M activities were conducted as scheduled throughout fiscal years (FY) 1994 at applicable inactive waste management (WM) and other contaminated areas. Overall, the ER S and M Program maintains 47 facilities, performs vegetation maintenance on approximately 230 acres, maintains 54 inactive tanks, and provides overall site management on over 700 acres. In addition to the routine S and M activities, detailed site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the ER S and M Program. This document provides a summary of the FY 1994 ORNL ER S and M Program accomplishments

  5. Surveillance of compliance with tobacco regulations in Örebro County, Sweden: a mixed methods study after the ban of test purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölin, Lisa; Eriksson, Charli

    2012-02-15

    Tobacco has long been known to be one of the most common reasons for sickness and premature deaths in the world. An important aspect of tobacco use is the youth's access to tobacco, and surveillance visits are one way to make sure how retailers are complying with age limit in the tobacco law. In Örebro County, Sweden, a project to reinforce the tobacco legislation was carried out in 2009-2010. One part of the project was surveillance visits that were done according to three different themes, called thematic surveillance. This study is an evaluation of the results from thematic surveillance and has a mixed methods approach. The quantitative analyses concerns protocols from 217 surveillance visits, where questions were asked about three themes (self-monitoring programs; marketing; labeling of products and pricing). In addition, questionnaires filled out by six tobacco administrators who worked within the project were analyzed qualitatively by content analysis in order to study their perceptions and opinions of the project. This study shows that half of the visited retailers had self-monitoring programs. Lack of self-monitoring programs was significantly more common in smaller stores/kiosks and at restaurants. Further, the tobacco administrators who worked within the project perceived thematic surveillance as a good method for accomplishing better structure in surveillance work, but not as effective as purchase attempts (mystery shopping). Thematic surveillance was perceived as positive and the method was also regarded to be a good way to work with surveillance. However, the method could be developed further for optimal use and better effect at the retailers. It is clear that people who work with tobacco prevention at the local level in Örebro County want to use purchase attempts as a surveillance method, and that they believe that purchase attempts is the best way to make sure if store comply with the tobacco law.

  6. A Qualitative Study Investigating Experiences, Perceptions, and Healthcare System Performance in Relation to the Surveillance of Typhoid Fever in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, Alfred; Warren, Michelle; Chang, Irene; Im, Justin; Nichols, Chelsea; Meyer, Christian G; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Baker, Stephen; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Raminosoa, Tiana Mirana; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    The burden of typhoid fever (TF) in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown but is increasingly thought to be high, given that water and sanitary conditions remain unimproved in many countries. To address this gap in information, the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) founded a surveillance system for TF in 10 African countries. This study was a component of the TSAP surveillance project in Madagascar. The study entailed a qualitative assessment of patients' experiences and perceptions of services for febrile symptoms at the studies' rural and urban sentinel public health clinics. The study examined influences on the use of these facilities, alternative sources of care, and providers' descriptions of medical consultations and challenges in providing services. Data were collected through semistructured and open-ended individual interviews and a focus group with patients, caregivers, and medical personnel. Thirty-three patients and 12 healthcare providers participated in the data collection across the 2 healthcare facilities. The quality of services, cost, and travel distance were key factors that enabled access to and use of these clinics. Divergent healthcare-seeking patterns were related to variability in the care utilized, socioeconomic status, and potential distance from the facilities : These factors influenced delivery of care, patient access, and the health facilities' capacity to identify cases of febrile illness such as TF. This approach provided an in-depth investigation and understanding of healthcare-seeking behavior at the study facilities, and factors that facilitated or acted as barriers to their use. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of these public health clinics as sites for the surveillance of TF in their role as central healthcare sources for families and communities within these rural and urban areas of Madagascar. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All

  7. A stepwise approach to stroke surveillance in Brazil: the EMMA (Estudo de Mortalidade e Morbidade do Acidente Vascular Cerebral) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Bustos, Iara R; Abe, Ivana M; Pereira, Alexandre C; Fedeli, Ligia M; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2010-08-01

    Stroke mortality rates in Brazil are the highest in the Americas. Deaths from cerebrovascular disease surpass coronary heart disease. To verify stroke mortality rates and morbidity in an area of São Paulo, Brazil, using the World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Stroke Surveillance. We used the World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Stroke Surveillance structure of stroke surveillance. The hospital-based data comprised fatal and nonfatal stroke (Step 1). We gathered stroke-related mortality data in the community using World Health Organization questionnaires (Step 2). The questionnaire determining stroke prevalence was activated door to door in a family-health-programme neighbourhood (Step 3). A total of 682 patients 18 years and above, including 472 incident cases, presented with cerebrovascular disease and were enrolled in Step 1 during April-May 2009. Cerebral infarction (84.3%) and first-ever stroke (85.2%) were the most frequent. In Step 2, 256 deaths from stroke were identified during 2006-2007. Forty-four per cent of deaths were classified as unspecified stroke, 1/3 as ischaemic stroke, and 1/4 due to haemorrhagic subtype. In Step 3, 577 subjects over 35 years old were evaluated at home, and 244 cases of stroke survival were diagnosed via a questionnaire, validated by a board-certified neurologist. The population demographic characteristics were similar in the three steps, except in terms of age and gender. By including data from all settings, World Health Organization stroke surveillance can provide data to help plan future resources that meet the needs of the public-health system.

  8. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J.S.; van der Molen, H.F.; van Duivenbooden, C.; Sluiter, J.K.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the

  9. Severity of pertussis: paediatric surveillance and notification study in the Netherlands in 1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neppelenbroek SN; de Melker HE; Schellekens JFP; Rumke HC; Suijkerbuijk AWM; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; CIE; LIS

    1999-01-01

    Doel: Inzicht verkrijgen in de ernst van kinkhoest in relatie tot de vaccinatiestatus en leeftijd. Methoden: In 1997 werd met behulp van pediatrische surveillance gegevens verzameld van ziekenhuisopnamen. Ook werden in 1997 additionele gegevens verzameld van aangiften bij de Inspectie van de

  10. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  11. Transparency and surveillance as sociotechnical accountability a house of mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and transparency are both significant and increasingly pervasive activities in neoliberal societies. Surveillance is taken up as a means to achieving security and efficiency; transparency is seen as a mechanism for ensuring compliance or promoting informed consumerism and informed citizenship. Indeed, transparency is often seen as the antidote to the threats and fears of surveillance. This book adopts a novel approach in examining surveillance practices and transparency practices together as parallel systems of accountability. It presents the house of mirrors as a new framework for understanding surveillance and transparency practices instrumented with information technology. The volume centers around five case studies: Campaign Finance Disclosure, Secure Flight, American Red Cross, Google, and Facebook. A series of themed chapters draw on the material and provide cross-case analysis. The volume ends with a chapter on policy implications.

  12. The Use of Surveillance Data and Market Research to Promote Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred Fridinger; Carol Macera; H. Ken Cordell

    2002-01-01

    Using various types of data sources for assessing and monitoring physical activity behaviors on a population level adds to our ability to explain the relationships between individuals and their surrounding social and physical environments. This article presents the findings from part of a panel presentation on available data sets at the 2001 Cooper Conference on...

  13. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad I. Hammoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER. VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1 a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2 an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs and targets of interest (TOIs by movement type and geolocation; and (3 a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV. VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  14. Automatic association of chats and video tracks for activity learning and recognition in aerial video surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Riad I; Sahin, Cem S; Blasch, Erik P; Rhodes, Bradley J; Wang, Tao

    2014-10-22

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  15. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets among Australian children: an Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Craig F; Simm, Peter J; Rodda, Christine P; Garnett, Sarah P; Zacharin, Margaret R; Ward, Leanne M; Geddes, Janet; Cherian, Sarah; Zurynski, Yvonne; Cowell, Christopher T

    2012-04-16

    To determine the incidence of and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency rickets in Australian children. 18-month questionnaire-based prospective observational study, using Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) data. Australian paediatricians and child health workers, January 2006 - July 2007. Children aged ≤ 15 years with vitamin D deficiency rickets (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] ≤ 50 nmol/L, and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels [> 229 IU/L] and/or radiological rickets). Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Description of demographics, clinical presentation, identification and further analysis of overrepresented groups, and treatment regimens compared with best-practice guidelines. We identified 398 children with vitamin D deficiency (55% male; median age, 6.3 years [range, 0.2-15 years]). The overall incidence in children ≤ 15 years of age in Australia was 4.9/100 000/year. All had a low 25OHD level (median, 28 nmol/L [range, 5-50 nmol]) and an elevated alkaline phosphatase level (median, 407 IU/L [range, 229-5443 IU/L]), and 48 (12%) were hypocalcaemic. Ninety-five children had wrist x-rays, of whom 67 (71%) had rachitic changes. Most (98%) had dark or intermediate skin colour and 18% of girls were partially or completely veiled. Most children were born in Africa (252; 63%) and 75% of children were refugees. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inversely related to serum vitamin D levels in children rickets is a significant problem in Australia among known high-risk groups. Public health campaigns to prevent, identify and tre@vitamin D deficiency, especially in high-risk groups, are essential.

  16. Multi-Centre Study on Cardiovascular Risk Management on Patients Undergoing AAA Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratzis, A; Dattani, N; Brown, A; Shalhoub, J; Bosanquet, D; Sidloff, D; Stather, P

    2017-07-01

    The risk of cardiovascular events and death in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is high. Screening has been introduced to reduce AAA related mortality; however, after AAA diagnosis, cardiovascular modification may be as important to patient outcomes as surveillance. The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with small AAA. Institutional approval was granted for The Vascular and Endovascular Research Network (VERN) to retrospectively collect data pertaining to cardiovascular risk reduction from four tertiary vascular units in England. Patients with small AAA (January 2013-December 2015) were included. Demographic details, postcode, current medications, and smoking status were recorded using a bespoke electronic database and analysed. In a secondary analysis VERN contacted all AAA screening units in England and Wales to assess their current protocols relating to CV protection. In total, 1053 patients were included (mean age 74 ± 9 years, all men). Of these, 745 patients (70.8%) had been prescribed an antiplatelet agent and 787 (74.7%) a statin. Overall, only 666 patients (63.2%) were prescribed both a statin and antiplatelet. Two hundred and sixty eight patients (32.1%) were current smokers and the proportion of patients who continued to smoke decreased with age. Overall, only 401 patients (48.1%) were prescribed a statin, antiplatelet, and had stopped smoking. In the secondary analysis 38 AAA screening units (84% national coverage) replied. Thirty-one units (82%) suggest changes to the patient's prescription; however, none monitor compliance with these recommendations or assess whether the general practitioner has been made aware of the AAA diagnosis or prescription advice. Many patients with small AAA are not prescribed an antiplatelet/statin, and still smoke cigarettes, and therefore remain at high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. National guidance to ensure this high risk group of patients is

  17. Computerized surveillance of opioid-related adverse drug events in perioperative care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattis Katherine G

    2009-08-01

    events. Conclusion A small investment of resources into a pharmacist-driven surveillance model gave great gains in organizational adverse drug event detection. The patients who experienced multiple events are particularly relevant to future studies seeking risk factors for opioid induced respiratory depression. Computerized surveillance is an efficient, impactful, and sustainable model for ongoing capture and analysis of these rare, but potentially serious events.

  18. The social dynamics of consent and refusal in HIV surveillance in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lindsey; Cousins, Thomas; Newell, Marie-Louise; Imrie, John

    2013-01-01

    In the context of low rates of participation in a prospective, population-based HIV surveillance programme, researchers at a surveillance site in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, conducted an operational study from January 2009 to February 2010, with the aim of improving participation rates, particularly in the provision of dried blood spots for the surveillance. Findings suggest, firstly, that consent to participation in the HIV surveillance is informed by the dynamics of relationality in the HIV surveillance "consent encounter." Secondly, it emerged that both fieldworkers and participants found it difficult to differentiate between HIV surveillance and HIV testing in the surveillance procedure, and tended to understand and explain giving blood under the aegis of the surveillance as an HIV test. The conflation of surveillance and testing, we argue, is not merely a semantic confusion, but reveals an important tension inherent to global health research between individual risks and benefits and collective good, or between private morality and public good. Because of these structural tensions, we suggest, the HIV surveillance consent encounter activates multiple gift economies in the collection of blood samples. Thinking beyond the complex ethical dimensions provoked by new forms of long-term surveillance and health research, we therefore suggest that deepening relations between scientists, fieldworkers, and study participants in locality deserve more careful methodological consideration and descriptive attention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiparametric Magnetic-Resonance to Confirm Eligibility to an Active Surveillance Program for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer: Intermediate Time Results of a Third Referral High Volume Centre Active Surveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzago, Stefano; Musi, Gennaro; Catellani, Michele; Russo, Andrea; Di Trapani, Ettore; Mistretta, Francesco Alessandro; Bianchi, Roberto; Cozzi, Gabriele; Conti, Andrea; Pricolo, Paola; Ferro, Matteo; Matei, Deliu-Victor; Mirone, Vincenzo; Petralia, Giuseppe; de Cobelli, Ottavio

    2018-05-07

    To evaluate the role of confirmatory multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate at the time of Active Surveillance (AS) enrollment to reduce disease misclassification. From 2012 to 2016, 383 patients with low-risk disease respecting Prostate Cancer Research International AS criteria underwent confirmatory 1.5-T mpMRI. AS was proposed to patients with Prostate Imaging and Report and Data System (PI-RADS) score ≤3 and no extraprostatic extension (EPE), whereas patients with PI-RADS score ≥4 and/or EPE were treated actively. Kaplan-Meier analyses quantified progression-free survival (PFS) in patients enrolled in the AS program. Logistic regression analyses tested the association between confirmatory mpMRI and clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) at radical prostatectomy (RP). Diagnostic performance of mpMRI was calculated in patients submitted to immediate RP. PFS rate was 99, 90 and 86% at 1, 2 and 3 years respectively. At multivariable analysis, PI-RADS 3, PI-RADS 4, PI-RADS 5 and EPE increased the probability of having csPCa at immediate RP (PI-RADS 3 [OR] 1.2, p = 0.26; PI-RADS 4 [OR] 5.1, p = 0.02; PI-RADS 5 [OR] 6.7; p = 0.009; EPE [OR] 11.8, p < 0.001). Confirmatory mpMRI showed sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 85, 55, 68 and 76% respectively. MpMRI at the time of AS enrollment reduces the misclassification rate of csPCa. We suggest to perform target biopsies in patients with PI-RADS score 3 and 4 lesions. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  1. Localization of higher grade tumor foci in potential candidates for active surveillance who opt for radical prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kyu; Eastham, James A.; Fine, Samson W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate actual intraprostatic location of higher graded tumor foci undetected via standard transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy amongst patients who would be clinically considered appropriate candidates for active surveillance (AS) but underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods: We reviewed entirely-submitted and whole-mounted RP specimens from 169 men who were deemed appropriate for AS clinically, but opted for RP and were found to have higher grade tumors. For each case, tumor nodules were circled and color-coded in a grade-specific manner and digitally scanned to created tumor maps. The locations of tumor foci with Gleason grade ≥4 were stratified by specific sites: anterior, anterolateral, lateral only (not clearly anterior or posterior), posterior, and posterolateral area. Results: Of 169 patients, 86% had clinical stage T1c and 14% T2a. RP Gleason score 7 in all but two men. Higher-grade tumor foci were localized to: anterior (n=66, 39%), anterolateral (n=4, 2%), lateral only (not clearly anterior or posterior) (n=5, 3%), posterior (n=52, 31%), and posterolateral (n=42, 25%) prostate, respectively. Conclusions: Among patients deemed clinically appropriate for AS, higher-grade tumor foci missed by standard prostate biopsies were localized to both the anterior and posterior prostate, without predominance of a particular area. These findings lend additional support to performing repeat standard prostate biopsy in potential candidates for AS and should be considered in efforts to optimize current biopsy strategies for the selection of AS patients. PMID:24392439

  2. Performance of statistical process control methods for regional surgical site infection surveillance: a 10-year multicentre pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Arthur W; Haridy, Salah; Salem, Joseph; Ilieş, Iulian; Ergai, Awatef O; Samareh, Aven; Andrianas, Nicholas; Benneyan, James C; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2017-11-24

    Traditional strategies for surveillance of surgical site infections (SSI) have multiple limitations, including delayed and incomplete outbreak detection. Statistical process control (SPC) methods address these deficiencies by combining longitudinal analysis with graphical presentation of data. We performed a pilot study within a large network of community hospitals to evaluate performance of SPC methods for detecting SSI outbreaks. We applied conventional Shewhart and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) SPC charts to 10 previously investigated SSI outbreaks that occurred from 2003 to 2013. We compared the results of SPC surveillance to the results of traditional SSI surveillance methods. Then, we analysed the performance of modified SPC charts constructed with different outbreak detection rules, EWMA smoothing factors and baseline SSI rate calculations. Conventional Shewhart and EWMA SPC charts both detected 8 of the 10 SSI outbreaks analysed, in each case prior to the date of traditional detection. Among detected outbreaks, conventional Shewhart chart detection occurred a median of 12 months prior to outbreak onset and 22 months prior to traditional detection. Conventional EWMA chart detection occurred a median of 7 months prior to outbreak onset and 14 months prior to traditional detection. Modified Shewhart and EWMA charts additionally detected several outbreaks earlier than conventional SPC charts. Shewhart and SPC charts had low false-positive rates when used to analyse separate control hospital SSI data. Our findings illustrate the potential usefulness and feasibility of real-time SPC surveillance of SSI to rapidly identify outbreaks and improve patient safety. Further study is needed to optimise SPC chart selection and calculation, statistical outbreak detection rules and the process for reacting to signals of potential outbreaks. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  3. Evaluation of surveillance methods for monitoring house fly abundance and activity on large commercial dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, Alec C; Higginbotham, G E; Periera, L N; Lam, A; Shelton, C R

    2011-06-01

    Relative house fly, Musca domestica L., activity at three large dairies in central California was monitored during the peak fly activity period from June to August 2005 by using spot cards, fly tapes, bait traps, and Alsynite traps. Counts for all monitoring methods were significantly related at two of three dairies; with spot card counts significantly related to fly tape counts recorded the same week, and both spot card counts and fly tape counts significantly related to bait trap counts 1-2 wk later. Mean fly counts differed significantly between dairies, but a significant interaction between dairies sampled and monitoring methods used demonstrates that between-dairy comparisons are unwise. Estimate precision was determined by the coefficient of variability (CV) (or SE/mean). Using a CV = 0.15 as a desired level of estimate precision and assuming an integrate pest management (IPM) action threshold near the peak house fly activity measured by each monitoring method, house fly monitoring at a large dairy would require 12 spot cards placed in midafternoon shaded fly resting sites near cattle or seven bait traps placed in open areas near cattle. Software (FlySpotter; http://ucanr.org/ sites/FlySpotter/download/) using computer vision technology was developed to count fly spots on a scanned image of a spot card to dramatically reduce time invested in monitoring house flies. Counts provided by the FlySpotter software were highly correlated to visual counts. The use of spot cards for monitoring house flies is recommended for dairy IPM programs.

  4. Methodology and early findings of the fourth survey of childhood and adolescence surveillance and prevention of adult non-communicable disease in Iran: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fourth survey of the surveillance system named ′′childhood and adolescence surveillance and prevention of adult non-communicable disease′′ (CASPIAN-IV study, was conducted among a national representative sample of Iranian students. This paper describes the methods and early findings of this survey. Methods: This nationwide school-based study was conducted in 2011-2012 in 30 provinces of Iran among 13,486 students, 6-18 years (6640 girls, 75.6% from urban areas and one of their parents. Results: Mean age of students was 12.5 years. Based on the World Health Organization growth curves, 12.2% were underweight, 9.7% overweight and 11.9% were obese. Abdominal obesity was observed in 19.1% of students. The dominant type of cooking oil in urban families was liquid oil and hydrogenated fat (39% and 32%, most rural families used hydrogenated fat (53%, respectively. A total of 18% of students had at least 30 min of daily physical activity; 41% of students used computer in weekdays and 44% used it in weekends. Almost 34.5% of students reported to have at least one cigarette smoker and 21.5% reported to have a waterpipe smoker in their relatives. Moreover, 20.3% of students reported that they had suffered an injury needing the help of school health providers during the year prior to the study. Conclusions: Current evidence on the health risky behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents confirms the importance of conducting comprehensive surveillance surveys to identify health risk behaviors. Data of this survey and the trend of variables provide necessary information for health policy makers to implement action-oriented interventions.

  5. Post-treatment surveillance testing of patients with colorectal cancer and the association with survival: protocol for a retrospective cohort study of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Robert B; Jiban, Md Jibanul Haque; Choudhury, Kanak; Loerzel, Victoria; Specogna, Adrian V; Troy, Steven P; Zhang, Shunpu

    2018-04-28

    Although the colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rate has significantly improved over the past several decades, many patients will have a recurrence following curative treatment. Despite this high risk of recurrence, adherence to CRC surveillance testing guidelines is poor which increases cancer-related morbidity and potentially, mortality. Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with varying surveillance strategies have yielded conflicting evidence regarding the survival benefit associated with surveillance testing. However, due to differences in study protocols and limitations of sample size and length of follow-up, the RCT may not be the best study design to evaluate this relationship. An observational comparative effectiveness research study can overcome the sample size/follow-up limitations of RCT designs while assessing real-world variability in receipt of surveillance testing to provide much needed evidence on this important clinical issue. The gap in knowledge that this study will address concerns whether adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network CRC surveillance guidelines improves survival. Patients with colon and rectal cancer aged 66-84 years, who have been diagnosed between 2002 and 2008 and have been included in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, are eligible for this retrospective cohort study. To minimise bias, patients had to survive at least 12 months following the completion of treatment. Adherence to surveillance testing up to 5 years post-treatment will be assessed in each year of follow-up and overall. Binomial regression will be used to assess the association between patients' characteristics and adherence. Survival analysis will be conducted to assess the association between adherence and 5-year survival. This study was approved by the National Cancer Institute and the Institutional Review Board of the University of Central Florida. The results of this study will be disseminated by publishing in

  6. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, Robert W.; Poston, Ted M.

    2000-01-01

    Shows and explains certain procedures needed for surface environmental surveillance. Hanford Site environmental surveillance is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The basic requirements for site surveillance are set fourth in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements. Guidance for the SESP is provided in DOE Order 5484.1, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. Guidelines for environmental surveillance activities are provided in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. An environmental monitoring plan for the Hanford Site is outlined in DOE/RL 91-50 Rev. 2, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual. Personnel training requirements are documented in SESP-TP-01 Rev.2, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project Training Program.

  7. Surveillance of infection severity: a registry study of laboratory diagnosed Clostridium difficile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Schlackow

    Full Text Available Changing clinical impact, as virulent clones replace less virulent ones, is a feature of many pathogenic bacterial species and can be difficult to detect. Consequently, innovative techniques monitoring infection severity are of potential clinical value.We studied 5,551 toxin-positive and 20,098 persistently toxin-negative patients tested for Clostridium difficile infection between February 1998 and July 2009 in a group of hospitals based in Oxford, UK, and investigated 28-day mortality and biomarkers of inflammation (blood neutrophil count, urea, and creatinine concentrations collected at diagnosis using iterative sequential regression (ISR, a novel joinpoint-based regression technique suitable for serial monitoring of continuous or dichotomous outcomes. Among C. difficile toxin-positive patients in the Oxford hospitals, mean neutrophil counts on diagnosis increased from 2003, peaked in 2006-2007, and then declined; 28-day mortality increased from early 2006, peaked in late 2006-2007, and then declined. Molecular typing confirmed these changes were likely due to the ingress of the globally distributed severe C. difficile strain, ST1. We assessed the generalizability of ISR-based severity monitoring in three ways. First, we assessed and found strong (p<0.0001 associations between isolation of the ST1 severe strain and higher neutrophil counts at diagnosis in two unrelated large multi-centre studies, suggesting the technique described might be useful elsewhere. Second, we assessed and found similar trends in a second group of hospitals in Birmingham, UK, from which 5,399 cases were analysed. Third, we used simulation to assess the performance of this surveillance system given the ingress of future severe strains under a variety of assumptions. ISR-based severity monitoring allowed the detection of the severity change years earlier than mortality monitoring.Automated electronic systems providing early warning of the changing severity of infectious

  8. A national surveillance project on chronic kidney disease management in Canadian primary care: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Aminu K; Ronksley, Paul E; Tangri, Navdeep; Singer, Alexander; Grill, Allan; Nitsch, Dorothea; Queenan, John A; Lindeman, Cliff; Soos, Boglarka; Freiheit, Elizabeth; Tuot, Delphine; Mangin, Dee; Drummond, Neil

    2017-08-04

    Effective chronic disease care is dependent on well-organised quality improvement (QI) strategies that monitor processes of care and outcomes for optimal care delivery. Although healthcare is provincially/territorially structured in Canada, there are national networks such as the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) as important facilitators for national QI-based studies to improve chronic disease care. The goal of our study is to improve the understanding of how patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are managed in primary care and the variation across practices and provinces and territories to drive improvements in care delivery. The CPCSSN database contains anonymised health information from the electronic medical records for patients of participating primary care practices (PCPs) across Canada (n=1200). The dataset includes information on patient sociodemographics, medications, laboratory results and comorbidities. Leveraging validated algorithms, case definitions and guidelines will help define CKD and the related processes of care, and these enable us to: (1) determine prevalent CKD burden; (2) ascertain the current practice pattern on risk identification and management of CKD and (3) study variation in care indicators (eg, achievement of blood pressure and proteinuria targets) and referral pattern for specialist kidney care. The process of care outcomes will be stratified across patients' demographics as well as provider and regional (provincial/territorial) characteristics. The prevalence of CKD stages 3-5 will be presented as age-sex standardised prevalence estimates stratified by province and as weighted averages for population rates with 95% CIs using census data. For each PCP, age-sex standardised prevalence will be calculated and compared with expected standardised prevalence estimates. The process-based outcomes will be defined using established methods. The CPCSSN is committed to high ethical standards when dealing with

  9. Retrospective observational study of emergency department syndromic surveillance data during air pollution episodes across London and Paris in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Helen E; Morbey, Roger; Fouillet, Anne; Caserio-Schönemann, Céline; Dobney, Alec; Hughes, Thomas C; Smith, Gillian E; Elliot, Alex J

    2018-04-19

    Poor air quality (AQ) is a global public health issue and AQ events can span across countries. Using emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance from England and France, we describe changes in human health indicators during periods of particularly poor AQ in London and Paris during 2014. Using daily AQ data for 2014, we identified three periods of poor AQ affecting both London and Paris. Anonymised near real-time ED attendance syndromic surveillance data from EDs across England and France were used to monitor the health impact of poor AQ.Using the routine English syndromic surveillance detection methods, increases in selected ED syndromic indicators (asthma, difficulty breathing and myocardial ischaemia), in total and by age, were identified and compared with periods of poor AQ in each city. Retrospective Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests were used to identify significant increases in ED attendance data on days with (and up to 3 days following) poor AQ. Almost 1.5 million ED attendances were recorded during the study period (27 February 2014 to 1 October 2014). Significant increases in ED attendances for asthma were identified around periods of poor AQ in both cities, especially in children (aged 0-14 years). Some variation was seen in Paris with a rapid increase during the first AQ period in asthma attendances among children (aged 0-14 years), whereas during the second period the increase was greater in adults. This work demonstrates the public health value of syndromic surveillance during air pollution incidents. There is potential for further cross-border harmonisation to provide Europe-wide early alerting to health impacts and improve future public health messaging to healthcare services to provide warning of increases in demand. © Crown copyright 2018. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office/Queen’s Printer for Scotland and Public Health England.

  10. Using mobile technology to optimize disease surveillance and healthcare delivery at mass gatherings: a case study from India's Kumbh Mela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Dhruv S; Greenough, P Gregg; Madhok, Rishi; Heerboth, Aaron; Shaikh, Ahmed; Leaning, Jennifer; Balsari, Satchit

    2017-09-01

    Planning for mass gatherings often includes temporary healthcare systems to address the needs of attendees. However, paper-based record keeping has traditionally precluded the timely application of collected clinical data for epidemic surveillance or optimization of healthcare delivery. We evaluated the feasibility of harnessing ubiquitous mobile technologies for conducting disease surveillance and monitoring resource utilization at the Allahabad Kumbh Mela in India, a 55-day festival attended by over 70 million people. We developed an inexpensive, tablet-based customized disease surveillance system with real-time analytic capabilities, and piloted it at five field hospitals. The system captured 49 131 outpatient encounters over the 3-week study period. The most common presenting complaints were musculoskeletal pain (19%), fever (17%), cough (17%), coryza (16%) and diarrhoea (5%). The majority of patients received at least one prescription. The most common prescriptions were for antimicrobials, acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. There was great inter-site variability in caseload with the busiest hospital seeing 650% more patients than the least busy hospital, despite identical staffing. Mobile-based health information solutions developed with a focus on user-centred design can be successfully deployed at mass gatherings in resource-scarce settings to optimize care delivery by providing real-time access to field data. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  11. Impact of a nationwide study for surveillance of maternal near-miss on the quality of care provided by participating centers: a quantitative and qualitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity was established in 27 centers in different regions of Brazil to investigate the frequency of severe maternal morbidity (near-miss and potentially life-threatening conditions) and associated factors, and to create a collaborative network for studies on perinatal health. It also allowed interventions aimed at improving the quality of care in the participating institutions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception of the professionals involved regarding the effect of participating in such network on the quality of care provided to women. Methods A mixed quantitative and qualitative study interviewed coordinators, investigators and managers from all the 27 obstetric units that had participated in the network. Following verbal informed consent, data were collected six and twelve months after the surveillance period using structured and semi-structured interviews that were conducted by telephone and recorded. A descriptive analysis for the quantitative and categorical data, and a thematic content analysis for the answers to the open questions were performed. Results The vast majority (93%) of interviewees considered it was important to have participated in the network and 95% that their ability to identify cases of severe maternal morbidity had improved. They also considered that the study had a positive effect, leading to changes in how cases were identified, better organization/standardization of team activities, changes in routines/protocols, implementation of auditing for severe cases, dissemination of knowledge at local/regional level and a contribution to local and/or national identification of maternal morbidity. After 12 months, interviewees mentioned the need to improve prenatal care and the scientific importance of the results. Some believed that there had been little or no impact due to the poor dissemination of information and the resistance of professionals to

  12. [Active etiological surveillance for foodborne diseases in Guangdong province, 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ke, B. X.; He, D. M.; Tan, H. L.; Zeng, H. H.; Yang, T.; Li, B. S.; Liang, Y. H.; Lu, L. L.; Liang, J. H.; Huang, Q.; Ke, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the infection status, serotypes, drug resistance and molecular characteristics of Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio parahemolyticus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia (E.) coli (ETEC), pathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)

  13. Radiation surveillance of exposed workers during activities of moving of the earth area of Montecillo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, M. T.; Alvarez, A.; Garcia, E.; Diaz, P.; Quinones, J.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of this study was to limit the doses received by exposed workers and the public (in this case the workers of the CIEMATs buildings next to the work) by setting the appropriate criteria of optimization and protection.In addition was a theoretical evaluation of the dose inhalation, workers would have received if ALARA study protection measures has not been established. (Author)

  14. Data processing and case identification in an agricultural and logging morbidity surveillance study: Trends over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Erika; Bell, Erin; Krupa, Nicole; Hirabayashi, Liane; Jenkins, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Agriculture and logging are dangerous industries, and though data on fatal injury exists, less is known about non-fatal injury. Establishing a non-fatal injury surveillance system is a top priority. Pre-hospital care reports and hospitalization data were explored as a low-cost option for ongoing surveillance of occupational injury. Using pre-hospital care report free-text and location codes, along with hospital ICD-9-CM external cause of injury codes, we created a surveillance system that tracked farm and logging injuries. In Maine and New Hampshire, 1585 injury events were identified (2008-2010). The incidence of injuries was 12.4/1000 for agricultural workers, compared to 10.4/1000 to 12.2/1000 for logging workers. These estimates are consistent with other recent estimates. This system is limited to traumatic injury for which medical treatment is administered, and is limited by the accuracy of coding and spelling. This system has the potential to be both sustainable and low cost. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Change detection algorithms for surveillance in visual iot: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, B.A.; Zafar, A.; Akbar, A.H.; Chaudhry, A.

    2018-01-01

    The VIoT (Visual Internet of Things) connects virtual information world with real world objects using sensors and pervasive computing. For video surveillance in VIoT, ChD (Change Detection) is a critical component. ChD algorithms identify regions of change in multiple images of the same scene recorded at different time intervals for video surveillance. This paper presents performance comparison of histogram thresholding and classification ChD algorithms using quantitative measures for video surveillance in VIoT based on salient features of datasets. The thresholding algorithms Otsu, Kapur, Rosin and classification methods k-means, EM (Expectation Maximization) were simulated in MATLAB using diverse datasets. For performance evaluation, the quantitative measures used include OSR (Overall Success Rate), YC (Yule’s Coefficient) and JC (Jaccard’s Coefficient), execution time and memory consumption. Experimental results showed that Kapur’s algorithm performed better for both indoor and outdoor environments with illumination changes, shadowing and medium to fast moving objects. However, it reflected degraded performance for small object size with minor changes. Otsu algorithm showed better results for indoor environments with slow to medium changes and nomadic object mobility. k-means showed good results in indoor environment with small object size producing slow change, no shadowing and scarce illumination changes. (author)

  16. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Sampath K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]. Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  17. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Lalit; Krishnan, Sampath K

    2010-12-03

    India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]). Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT) network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  18. Change Detection Algorithms for Surveillance in Visual IoT: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Beenish Ayesha; Zafar, Amna; Akbar, Ali Hammad; Wajid, Bilal; Chaudhry, Shafique Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    The VIoT (Visual Internet of Things) connects virtual information world with real world objects using sensors and pervasive computing. For video surveillance in VIoT, ChD (Change Detection) is a critical component. ChD algorithms identify regions of change in multiple images of the same scene recorded at different time intervals for video surveillance. This paper presents performance comparison of histogram thresholding and classification ChD algorithms using quantitative measures for video surveillance in VIoT based on salient features of datasets. The thresholding algorithms Otsu, Kapur, Rosin and classification methods k-means, EM (Expectation Maximization) were simulated in MATLAB using diverse datasets. For performance evaluation, the quantitative measures used include OSR (Overall Success Rate), YC (Yule's Coefficient) and JC (Jaccard's Coefficient), execution time and memory consumption. Experimental results showed that Kapur's algorithm performed better for both indoor and outdoor environments with illumination changes, shadowing and medium to fast moving objects. However, it reflected degraded performance for small object size with minor changes. Otsu algorithm showed better results for indoor environments with slow to medium changes and nomadic object mobility. k-means showed good results in indoor environment with small object size producing slow change, no shadowing and scarce illumination changes.

  19. Incidence and Prognosis of Spinal Hemangioblastoma: A Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Harrison J; Giguère, Jean-François; Shamji, Mohammed F

    2016-01-01

    Intradural spinal hemangioblastoma are infrequent, vascular, pathologically benign tumors occurring either sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau disease along the neural axis. Described in fewer than 1,000 cases, literature is variable with respect to epidemiological factors associated with spinal hemangioblastoma and their treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of intradural spinal hemangioblastoma with the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database while also presenting an illustrative case. The SEER database was queried for cases of spinal hemangioblastoma between 2000 and 2010 with the use of SEER*Stat software. Incidence was evaluated as a function of age, sex and race. Survival was evaluated with the Cox proportionate hazards ratio using IBM SPSS software evaluating age, sex, location, treatment modality, pathology and number of primaries (p = 0.05). Descriptive statistics of the same factors were also calculated. The case of a 43-year-old patient with a surgical upper cervical intramedullary hemangioblastoma is also presented. In the data set between 2000 and 2010, there were 133 cases with an age-adjusted incidence of 0.014 (0.012-0.017) per 100,000 to the standard USA population. Hemangioblastoma was the tenth most common intradural spinal tumor type representing 2.1% (133 of 6,156) of all spinal tumors. There was no difference in incidence between men and women with an female:male rate ratio of 1.05 (0.73-1.50) with p = 0.86. The average age of patients was 48.0 (45.2-50.9) years, and a lower incidence was noted in patients incidence amongst the different races. Treatment included surgical resection in 106 (79.7%) cases, radiation with surgery in 7 (5.3%) cases, and radiation alone was used in only 1 (0.8%) case, and no treatment was performed in 17 (12.8%) cases. Mortality was noted in 12 (9%) cases, and median survival of 27.5 months (range 1-66 months) over the 10-year period. Mortality

  20. The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology Study: A Long-Term, Worldwide Surveillance Study on Urological Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wagenlehner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology (GPIU study is a worldwide-performed point prevalence study intended to create surveillance data on antibiotic resistance, type of urogenital infections, risk factors and data on antibiotic consumption, specifically in patients at urological departments with healthcare-associated urogenital infections (HAUTI. Investigators registered data through a web-based application (http://gpiu.esiu.org/. Data collection includes the practice and characteristics of the hospital and urology ward. On a certain day in November, each year, all urological patients present in the urological department at 8:00 a.m. are screened for HAUTI encompassing their full hospital course from admission to discharge. Apart from the GPIU main study, several side studies are taking place, dealing with transurethral resection of the prostate, prostate biopsy, as well as urosepsis. The GPIU study has been annually performed since 2003. Eight-hundred fifty-six urology units from 70 countries have participated so far, including 27,542 patients. A proxy for antibiotic consumption is reflected by the application rates used for antibiotic prophylaxis for urological interventions. Resistance rates of most uropathogens against antibiotics were high, especially with a note of multidrug resistance. The severity of HAUTI is also increasing, 25% being urosepsis in recent years.

  1. Pacific Gateway: State Surveillance and Interdiction of Criminal Activity on Vancouver’s Waterfront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Madsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unionised work environments within large seaports attract transnational organised crime, and this presents a challenge for law enforcement agencies. If media stories are true, a motorcycle club called the Hells Angels has established a presence on Vancouver area waterfronts since coming to the province of British Columbia. Associations between longshore union locals, club members, and known contacts are implied and presented as evidence of participation in criminality. This paper revisits the perception that criminal activity is endemic in the Port of Vancouver because of a lack of policing, adequate resources, and indifference from port authorities, employer bodies, as well as union leadership. In an era of heightened concerns about public safety and national security, federal and provincial governments understand the importance of seaports, especially in Vancouver and up the Fraser River. These port facilities are important to international trade that flows through them as part of Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor initiatives. Therefore, targeted investments, close coordination amongst government departments and agencies, and engagement with waterfront stakeholders promote secure places hard for organised criminals to operate freely.

  2. Three-year colonoscopy surveillance after polypectomy in Korea: a Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID multicenter prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Seok Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Colonoscopic surveillance is currently recommended after polypectomy owing to the risk of newly developed colonic neoplasia. However, few studies have investigated colonoscopy surveillance in Asia. This multicenter and prospective study was undertaken to assess the incidence of advanced adenoma based on baseline adenoma findings at 3 years after colonoscopic polypectomy. Methods: A total of 1,323 patients undergoing colonoscopic polypectomy were prospectively assigned to 3-year colonoscopy surveillance at 11 tertiary endoscopic centers. Relative risks for advanced adenoma after 3 years were calculated according to baseline adenoma characteristics. Results: Among 1,323 patients enrolled, 387 patients (29.3% were followed up, and the mean follow-up interval was 31.0±9.8 months. The percentage of patients with advanced adenoma on baseline colonoscopy was higher in the surveillance group compared to the non-surveillance group (34.4% vs. 25.7%. Advanced adenoma recurrence was observed in 17 patients (4.4% at follow-up. The risk of advanced adenoma recurrence was 2 times greater in patients with baseline advanced adenoma than in those with baseline non-advanced adenoma, though the difference was not statistically significant (6.8% [9/133] vs. 3.1% [8/254], P=0.09. Advanced adenoma recurrence was observed only in males and in subjects aged ≥50 years. In contrast, adenoma recurrence was observed in 187 patients (48.3% at follow-up. Male sex, older age (≥50 years, and multiple adenomas (≥3 at baseline were independent risk factors for adenoma recurrence. Conclusions: A colonoscopy surveillance interval of 3 years in patients with baseline advanced adenoma can be considered appropriate.

  3. Mortuary based injury surveillance for low-mid income countries: process evaluation of pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipsaina, Chebiwot; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Bartolomeos, Kidist; Routley, Virginia

    2015-08-01

    Globally, injury is the fourth major cause of death and the third leading contributor to Disability Adjusted Life Years lost due to health conditions, with the greatest burden borne by low-middle income countries (LMICs) where injury data is scarce. In the absence of effective vital registration systems, mortuaries have been shown to provide an alternative source of cause of death information for practitioners and policy makers to establish strategic injury prevention policies and programs. This evaluation sought to assess the feasibility of implementing a standardised fatal injury data collection process to systematically collect relevant fatal injury data from mortuaries. The process evaluation is described. A manual including a one page data collection form, coding guide, data dictionary, data entry and analysis program was developed through World Health Organization and Monash University Australia collaboration, with technical advice from an International Advisory Group. The data collection component was piloted in multiple mortuaries, in five LMICs (Egypt, India, Sri-Lanka, Tanzania and Zambia). Process evaluation was based on a questionnaire completed by each country's Principal Investigator. Questionnaires were completed for data collections in urban and rural mortuaries between September 2010 and February 2011. Of the 1795 reported fatal injury cases registered in the participating mortuaries, road traffic injury accounted for the highest proportion of cases, ranging from 22% to 87%. Other causes included burns, poisoning, drowning and falls. Positive system attributes were feasibility, acceptability, usefulness, timeliness, and simplicity and data field completeness. Some limitations included short duration of the pilot studies, limited injury data collector training and apparent underreporting of cases to the medico-legal system or mortuaries. The mortuary has been shown to be a potential data source for identifying injury deaths and their circumstances

  4. National surveillance plan for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in autochthonous Italian cattle breeds: Results of first year of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Carmen; Scoccia, Eleonora; Dettori, Annalisa; Felici, Andrea; Guarcini, Roberta; Petrini, Stefano; Quaglia, Andrea; Filippini, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV) caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a significant disease in domestic and wild cattle. In June 2015, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry in Italy approved a national surveillance plan to control and eradicate IBR in beef cattle breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of the first year of the IBR voluntary surveillance plan in Italy. The aim of the plan is to eradicate IBR in all bovines recorded in the National Herd Book for Italian beef cattle breeds over six years. Monetary incentives are used to encourage breeders to achieve the annual seroprevalence ranges stated in the plan. A Ministerial decree states that all bovines in breeding herds and aged older than 12 months should be serologically tested. Serum samples were tested for presence of the antibody to glycoprotein E of BoHV-1 using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The national herd seroprevalence was 55.49% (95% confidence interval [CI] 52.01-58.92). Of 25,121 bovines tested for antibodies against BoHV-1, 8014 were positive. The seroprevalence in animals from autochthonous Italian cattle breeds was 31.89% (95% CI 31.31-32.47). Seroprevalence was highest in Podolica cattle (55.14%; 95% CI 54.07-56.21), lowest in Maremmana cattle (9.95%; 95% CI 7.99-12.31), and intermediate in Chianina (22.01%; 95% CI 21.03-23.01), Marchigiana (24.85%; 95% CI 23.52-26.23), and Romagnola (15.60%; 95% CI 14.62-16.64) cattle. These seroprevalence rates indicate a need for intervention to decrease the inevitable severe economic losses arising from BoHV-1 infection. Although some regions in Italy have a long history of combatting BoHV-1 infection, only the province of Bolzano has eradicated IBR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  6. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  7. Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jennifer Y; Henao, Olga L; Griffin, Patricia M; Vugia, Duc J; Cronquist, Alicia B; Hurd, Sharon; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Patrick, Mary E

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric and foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites. This report summarizes preliminary 2015 data and describes trends since 2012. In 2015, FoodNet reported 20,107 confirmed cases (defined as culture-confirmed bacterial infections and laboratory-confirmed parasitic infections), 4,531 hospitalizations, and 77 deaths. FoodNet also received reports of 3,112 positive culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) without culture-confirmation, a number that has markedly increased since 2012. Diagnostic testing practices for enteric pathogens are rapidly moving away from culture-based methods. The continued shift from culture-based methods to CIDTs that do not produce the isolates needed to distinguish between strains and subtypes affects the interpretation of public health surveillance data and ability to monitor progress toward prevention efforts. Expanded case definitions and strategies for obtaining bacterial isolates are crucial during this transition period.

  8. Active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer in Austria: the online registry of the Qualitätspartnerschaft Urologie (QuapU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eredics, Klaus; Dorfinger, Karl; Kramer, Gero; Ponholzer, Anton; Madersbacher, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a well-recognized strategy to reduce the risk of overtreatment in men with low-risk prostate cancer. No data on this approach are available from Austria. The Qualitätspartnerschaft Urologie (QuapU) developed an online database for patients managed with AS in Austria. Principal inclusion/exclusion criteria corresponded to those of the S3 prostate cancer guideline of German urologists: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 4-10 ng/ml: 85%). The prostate volume averaged 39 ml. The mean time under AS was 17.5 months (12 months: 40%). The AS adherence at 12 months was 85% and at 24 months 76%. To date, a total of 23 patients (17.6%) stopped AS. The most frequent reasons for discontinuing AS were patient wish for active treatment (43.5%) and PSA progression (30.4%). A histological progression was rarely seen (6.1%) and the control biopsy rate was low (19.8%). This study is the first description of AS in Austria and documents the feasibility of an online registry for AS. The data confirm the international experience with this approach with acceptable adherence rates.

  9. Catheter-related infection in Irish intensive care units diagnosed with HELICS criteria: a multi-centre surveillance study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conrick-Martin, I

    2013-03-01

    Catheter-related infection (CRI) surveillance is advocated as a healthcare quality indicator. However, there is no national CRI surveillance programme or standardized CRI definitions in Irish intensive care units (ICUs).

  10. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  11. Health surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Code includes a number of requirements for the health surveillance of employees associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores. This guideline is particularly directed at determining the level of fitness of employees and prospective employees, detecting any symptom which might contraindicate exposure to the environment encountered in mine/mill situations, examination of any employee who may have been exposed to radiation in excess of defined limits and the accumulation and provision of data on the health of employees

  12. Report on activity and measurements of surveillance carried out by the national observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariete, M.G.; Belvisi, M.; Calicchia, R.; Fiorenza, R.; Onori, L.; Tamarchio, L.

    1989-01-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident a general radiometric survey of Italian territory was established. To this scope a very extensive program of environmental sampling, measurements, data collection, processing and management of this was carried out. All laboratories of nuclear centers, universities and local public health units, involved in this survey, had a unique aim: the radiological analysis to determine environmental contamination levels or to estimate preliminary population doses, finalized on short term, urgent protective mesures, and on long term, in addition to protective measures and for environmental studies. ENEA DISP, which is equipped by hardware and software instrumentation of its Emergency Center, was responsable for technical preparedness of the program. A National Observatory has been created for determing Cs134, Cs137 and Sr90 level on environmental and food samples on defined locality. The first part of this report presents the type, the frequency and localities where sample was collected. The second part presents the trend of the radioactive contamination on all foodstaffs, as data collected by each laboratory and in term of National mean concentration level

  13. Low-birthweight rates higher among Bangladeshi neonates measured during active birth surveillance compared to national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Rolf D W; Merrill, Rebecca D; Wu, Lee; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Labrique, Alain; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2015-10-01

    Birth size is an important gauge of fetal and neonatal health. Birth size measurements were collected within 72 h of life for 16 290 live born, singleton infants in rural Bangladesh from 2004 to 2007. Gestational age was calculated based on the date of last menstrual period. Newborns were classified as small-for-gestational age (SGA) based on a birthweight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, using three sets of US reference data. Birth size distributions were explored based on raw values as well as after z-score standardisation in reference to World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 growth standards. Mean (SD) birthweight (g), length (cm) and head circumference (cm) measurements, completed within [median (25th, 75th percentile)] 15 (8, 23) h of life, were 2433 (425), 46.4 (2.4) and 32.4 (1.6), respectively. Twenty-two per cent were born preterm. Over one-half (55.3%) of infants were born low birthweight; 46.6%, 37.0% and 33.6% had a weight, length and head circumference below -2 z-scores of the WHO growth standard at birth; and 70.9%, 72.2% and 59.8% were SGA for weight based on Alexander et al., Oken et al. and Olsen et al. references, respectively. Infants in this typical rural Bangladesh setting were commonly born small, reflecting a high burden of fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Our findings, produced by active birth surveillance, suggest that low birthweight is far more common than suggested by cross-sectional survey estimates. Interventions that improve fetal growth during pregnancy may have the largest impact on reducing SGA rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pattern of presenting complaints recorded as near-drowning events in emergency departments: a national surveillance study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siran; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Zia, Nukhba; Khan, Uzma; Shamim, Khusro; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Drowning is a heavy burden on the health systems of many countries, including Pakistan. To date, no effective large-scale surveillance has been in place to estimate rates of drowning and near-drowning in Pakistan. The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) study aimed to fill this gap. Patients who presented with a complaint of "near-drowning" were analyzed to explore patterns of true near-drowning (unintentional) and intentional injuries that led to the "near-drowning" complaint. Bivariate analysis was done to establish patterns among patients treated in emergency departments, including socio-demographic information, injury-related information, accompanying injuries, and emergency department resource utilization. A total of 133 patients (0.2% of all injury patients) with "near-drowning" as presenting complaints were recorded by the Pak-NEDS system. True near-drowning (50.0%) and intentional injuries that led to "near-drowning" complaints (50.0%) differed in nature of injuries. The highest proportion of true near-drowning incidents occurred among patients aged between 25-44 years (47.5%), and among males (77.5%). True near-drowning patients usually had other accompanying complaints, such as lower limb injury (40.0%). Very few patients were transported by ambulance (5.0%), and triage was done for 15% of patients. Eleven (27.5%) true near-drowning patients received cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There was major under-reporting of drowning and near-drowning cases in the surveillance study. The etiology of near-drowning cases should be further studied. Patients who experienced non-fatal drownings were more commonly sent for medical care due to other accompanying conditions, rather than near-drowning event itself. There is also need for recognizing true near-drowning incidents. The results of this study provide information on data source selection, site location, emergency care standardization, and multi-sector collaboration for future drowning

  15. Estimation of hand hygiene opportunities on an adult medical ward using 24-hour camera surveillance: validation of the HOW2 Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Thomas; Kelly, J William; Blackhurst, Dawn; Steed, Connie; Boeker, Sue; McElveen, Danielle C

    2014-06-01

    We previously published a formula to estimate the number of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) per patient-day using the World Health Organization's "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology (HOW2 Benchmark Study). HHOs can be used as a denominator for calculating hand hygiene compliance rates when product utilization data are available. This study validates the previously derived HHO estimate using 24-hour video surveillance of health care worker hand hygiene activity. The validation study utilized 24-hour video surveillance recordings of 26 patients' hospital stays to measure the actual number of HHOs per patient-day on a medicine ward in a large teaching hospital. Statistical methods were used to compare these results to those obtained by episodic observation of patient activity in the original derivation study. Total hours of data collection were 81.3 and 1,510.8, resulting in 1,740 and 4,522 HHOs in the derivation and validation studies, respectively. Comparisons of the mean and median HHOs per 24-hour period did not differ significantly. HHOs were 71.6 (95% confidence interval: 64.9-78.3) and 73.9 (95% confidence interval: 69.1-84.1), respectively. This study validates the HOW2 Benchmark Study and confirms that expected numbers of HHOs can be estimated from the unit's patient census and patient-to-nurse ratio. These data can be used as denominators in calculations of hand hygiene compliance rates from electronic monitoring using the "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surveillance of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription in Singaporean hospitals: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xin Liew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescription of antibiotics may contribute towards higher levels antimicrobial resistance. A key intervention for improving appropriate antibiotic prescription is surveillance of prescription. This paper presents the results of a longitudinal surveillance of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription in 5 public-sector hospitals in Singapore from 2006 to 2010. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quarterly antibiotic prescription data were obtained and converted to defined daily doses (DDDs per 1,000 inpatient-days. The presence of significant trends in antibiotic prescription over time for both individual and combined hospitals was tested by regression analysis and corrected for autocorrelation between time-points. Excluding fluoroquinolones, there was a significant increase in prescription of all monitored antibiotics from an average of 233.12 defined daily doses (DDD/1,000 inpatient-days in 2006 to 254.38 DDD/1,000 inpatient-days in 2010 (Coefficient = 1.13, 95%CI: 0.16-2.09, p = 0.025. Increasing utilization of carbapenems, piperacillin/tazobactam, and Gram-positive agents were seen in the majority of the hospitals, while cephalosporins were less prescribed over time. The combined expenditure for 5 hospitals increased from USD9.9 million in 2006 to USD16.7 million in 2010. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rate of prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Singaporean hospitals is much higher compared to those of European hospitals. This may be due to high rates of antimicrobial resistance. The increase in expenditure on monitored antibiotics over the past 5 years outstripped the actual increase in DDD/1,000 inpatient-days of antibiotics prescribed. Longitudinal surveillance of antibiotic prescription on a hospital and countrywide level is important for detecting trends for formulating interventions or policies. Further research is needed to understand the causes for the various prescription trends and to act on these where

  17. Studies of neutron methods for process control and criticality surveillance of fissile material processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoltowski, T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of radiochemical processes for fissile material processing and spent fuel handling need new control procedures enabling an improvement of plant throughput. This is strictly related to the implementation of continuous criticality control policy and developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity of radiochemical plant operations in presence of the process perturbations. Neutron methods seem to be applicable for fissile material control in some technological facilities. The measurement of epithermal neutron source multiplication with heuristic evaluation of measured data enables surveillance of anomalous reactivity enhancement leading to unsafe states. 80 refs., 47 figs., 33 tabs. (author)

  18. Autonomous soaring and surveillance in wind fields with an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chen

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) play an active role in developing a low-cost, low-altitude autonomous aerial surveillance platform. The success of the applications needs to address the challenge of limited on-board power plant that limits the endurance performance in surveillance mission. This thesis studies the mechanics of soaring flight, observed in nature where birds utilize various wind patterns to stay airborne without flapping their wings, and investigates its application to small UAVs in their surveillance missions. In a proposed integrated framework of soaring and surveillance, a bird-mimicking soaring maneuver extracts energy from surrounding wind environment that improves surveillance performance in terms of flight endurance, while the surveillance task not only covers the target area, but also detects energy sources within the area to allow for potential soaring flight. The interaction of soaring and surveillance further enables novel energy based, coverage optimal path planning. Two soaring and associated surveillance strategies are explored. In a so-called static soaring surveillance, the UAV identifies spatially-distributed thermal updrafts for soaring, while incremental surveillance is achieved through gliding flight to visit concentric expanding regions. A Gaussian-process-regression-based algorithm is developed to achieve computationally-efficient and smooth updraft estimation. In a so-called dynamic soaring surveillance, the UAV performs one cycle of dynamic soaring to harvest energy from the horizontal wind gradient to complete one surveillance task by visiting from one target to the next one. A Dubins-path-based trajectory planning approach is proposed to maximize wind energy extraction and ensure smooth transition between surveillance tasks. Finally, a nonlinear trajectory tracking controller is designed for a full six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear UAV dynamics model and extensive simulations are carried to demonstrate the effectiveness of

  19. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  20. Changes in Gram Negative Microorganisms' Resistance Pattern During 4 Years Period in a Referral Teaching Hospital; a Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khalili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose Surveillance studies evaluating antimicrobial susceptibilities are of great value in preventing the spread of resistant pathogens by elucidating the trend of resistance in commonly used antibiotics and as a consequence providing information for prescribing the most appropriate agent. This study is a longitudinal antimicrobial resistance surveillance study designed to evaluate the trend in antimicrobial resistance to gram negative microorganisms from 2007 to 2010. Method:During a four-year period (2007-2010 isolates derived from all patients admitted to infectious diseases ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital, the major referral center for infectious disease in Iran with the highest admission rates, were evaluated. Based on disk diffusion method and zone of inhibition size, the microorganism was regarded as to be sensitive, resistant or has intermediate susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents. Results:The widest spread Gram-negative microorganism in all of isolates taken together in our study was E.coli (30% followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in 28.6% and Enterobacter spp. in 11.9%, respectively. The susceptibility to amikacin, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin was equal or above 50% for all microorganisms over four years. However, the susceptibility to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxim, and ceftriaxone was less than 50% in derived isolates during the study period.Conclusion:In conclusion, the finding of the present study revealed that resistance rate to common antimicrobial agents in Iran is growing and isolates were susceptible mostly to broadspectrum antibiotics including imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam

  1. Evaluation of surveillance case definition in the diagnosis of leptospirosis, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Dinesh L B; Wimalaratna, Harith; Agampodi, Suneth B; Liyanapathirana, Veranja C; Piyarathna, Thibbotumunuwe A C L; Goonapienuwala, Bimba L

    2009-04-22

    Leptospirosis is endemic in both urban and rural areas of Sri Lanka and there had been many out breaks in the recent past. This study was aimed at validating the leptospirosis surveillance case definition, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The study population consisted of patients with undiagnosed acute febrile illness who were admitted to the medical wards of the Teaching Hospital Kandy, from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. The subjects were screened to diagnose leptospirosis according to the leptospirosis case definition. MAT was performed on blood samples taken from each patient on the 7th day of fever. Leptospirosis case definition was evaluated in regard to sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, using a MAT titre >or= 1:800 for confirming leptospirosis. A total of 123 patients were initially recruited of which 73 had clinical features compatible with the surveillance case definition. Out of the 73 only 57 had a positive MAT result (true positives) leaving 16 as false positives. Out of the 50 who didn't have clinical features compatible with the case definition 45 had a negative MAT as well (true negatives), therefore 5 were false negatives. Total number of MAT positives was 62 out of 123. According to these results the test sensitivity was 91.94%, specificity 73.77%, positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 78.08% and 90% respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of the test was 82.93%. This study confirms that the surveillance case definition has a very high sensitivity and negative predictive value with an average specificity in diagnosing leptospirosis, based on a MAT titre of >or= 1: 800.

  2. Evaluation of surveillance of dengue fever cases in the public health centre of Putat Jaya based on attribute surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumaroh Zumaroh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF is a public health problem in the village of Putat Jaya which is an endemic area. Surveilans activity in DHF control program is the most important activity in controlling and monitoring disease progression. The program is expected to achieve incidence rate 55/100.000 population. This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of case surveilans in health centre of putat jaya based on attribute surveillance. Attribute surveillance is an indicator that describes the characteristics of the surveillance system. This research was an evaluation research with descriptive study design. As informants were clinic staff who deal specifically with cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and laboratory workers. The techniques of data collection by interviews and document study. The variables of this study were simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, positive predictive value, representativeness, timeliness, data quality and data stability. It could be seen from Incidence Rate in 2013 has reached 133/100.00 population. The activity of surveilance in the village of Putat Jaya reviewed from disease contol program management was not succeed into decrease incidence rate of DHF. Therefore, dengue control programs in health centers Putat Jaya need to do cross-sector cooperation and cross-program cooperation, strengthening the case reporting system by way increasing in the utilization of information and communication technology electromedia. Keywords: case surveillance, dengue hemorrhagic fever, evaluation, attribute surveillance, Putat Jaya

  3. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Gitzinger, C.; Jaunet, P.; Eberbach, F.; Clavel, B.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Perrier, G.; Kiper, Ch.; Peres, J.M.; Josset, M.; Calvez, M.; Leclerc, M.; Leclerc, E.; Aubert, C.; Levelut, M.N.; Debayle, Ch.; Mayer, St.; Renaud, Ph.; Leprieur, F.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Monfort, M.; Baron, Y.; Target, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  4. Compliance of hospital staff with guidelines for the active surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and its impact on rates of nosocomial MRSA bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoabi, Marwan; Keness, Yoram; Titler, Nava; Bisharat, Naiel

    2011-12-01

    The compliance of hospital staff with guidelines for the active surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Israel has not been determined. To evaluate the compliance of hospital staff with guidelines for the active surveillance of MRSA and assess its impact on the incidence of nosocomial MRSA bacteremia. We assessed compliance with MRSA surveillance guidelines by assessing adherence to the screening protocol and reviewing medical and nursing charts of patients colonized with MRSA, and observed hand hygiene opportunities among health care workers and colonized patients. Rates of nosocomial MRSA bacteremia and of adherence with hand hygiene among overall hospital staff were obtained from archived data for the period 2001-2010. Only 32.4% of eligible patients were screened for MRSA carriage on admission, and 69.9% of MRSA carriers did not receive any eradication treatment. The mean rate of adherence to glove use among nurses and doctors was 69% and 31% respectively (Phand hygiene 59% and 41% respectively (Phand hygiene increased from 42.3% in 2005 to 68.1% in 2010. Rates of nosocomial MRSA bacteremia decreased by 79.2%, from 0.48 (in 2001) to 0.1 (in 2010) per 1000 admissions (Phand hygiene and concomitant decrease in nosocomial MRSA bacteremia is gratifying. The deficiencies in compliance with MRSA infection control policy warrant an adjusted strategy based on the hospital resources.

  5. Towards One Health Knowledge Networks: A Southern African Centre of Infectious Disease Surveillance case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Beda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic nature of new information and/or knowledge is a big challenge for information systems. Early knowledge management systems focused entirely on technologies for storing, searching and retrieving data; these systems have proved a failure. Juirsica and Mylopoulos1 suggested that in order to build effective technologies for knowledge management, we need to further our understanding of how individuals, groups and organisations use knowledge. As the focus on knowledge management for organisations and consortia alike is moving towards a keen appreciation of how deeply knowledge is embedded in people’s experiences, there is a general realisation that knowledge cannot be stored or captured digitally. This puts more emphasis in creating enabling environments for interactions that stimulate knowledge sharing. Our work aims at developing an un-obtrusive intelligent system that glues together effective contemporary and traditional technologies to aid these interactions and manage the information captured. In addition this system will include tools to aid propagating a repository of scientific information relevant to surveillance of infectious diseases to complement knowledge shared and/or acts as a point of reference. This work is ongoing and based on experiences in developing a knowledge network management system for the Southern African Centre of Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS, A One Health consortium of southern African academic and research institutions involved with infectious diseases of humans and animals in partnership with world-renowned centres of research in industrialised countries.

  6. Using death certificates and medical examiner records for adolescent occupational fatality surveillance and research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Runyan, Carol W; Radisch, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Death certificates and medical examiner records have been useful yet imperfect data sources for work-related fatality research and surveillance among adult workers. It is unclear whether this holds for work-related fatalities among adolescent workers who suffer unique detection challenges in part because they are not often thought of as workers. This study investigated the utility of using these data sources for surveillance and research pertaining to adolescent work-related fatalities. Using the state of North Carolina as a case study, we analyzed data from the death certificates and medical examiner records of all work-related fatalities data among 11- to 17-year-olds between 1990-2008 (N = 31). We compared data sources on case identification, of completeness, and consistency information. Variables examined included those on the injury (e.g., means), occurrence (e.g., place), demographics, and employment (e.g., occupation). Medical examiner records (90%) were more likely than death certificates (71%) to identify adolescent work-related fatalities. Data completeness was generally high yet varied between sources. The most marked difference being that in medical examiner records, type of business/industry and occupation were complete in 72 and 67% of cases, respectively, while on the death certificates these fields were complete in 90 and 97% of cases, respectively. Taking the two sources together, each field was complete in upward of 94% of cases. Although completeness was high, data were not always of good quality and sometimes conflicted across sources. In many cases, the decedent's occupation was misclassified as "student" and their employer as "school" on the death certificate. Even though each source has its weaknesses, medical examiner records and death certificates, especially when used together, can be useful for conducting surveillance and research on adolescent work-related fatalities. However, extra care is needed by data recorders to ensure that

  7. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  8. Active surveillance for asymptomatic colonisation by multidrug-resistant bacteria in patients transferred to a tertiary care hospital in the occupied Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Adham Abu; Daoud, Ayman; Zaid, Sawsan; Sammour, Sajida; Belleh, Maram; Daifi, Refqa

    2018-02-21

    Active surveillance is important in infection control programmes, allowing the detection of patients colonised with multi-drug resistant organisms and preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of asymptomatic colonisation with multi-drug resistant organisms and the prevalence of each organism in patients transferred to An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, occupied Palestinian territory. Patients transferred from other hospitals between January and December, 2015, were screened at time of admission by taking nasal, groin, and axillary swabs. Swabs were cultured and assessed for the presence of multi-drug resistant organisms (extended spectrum β-lactamase producers, Pseudomonas aeroginosae, Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, and carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. Of the 822 screened patients, 265 (32%) had infections with multi-drug resistant organisms. 394 isolates of multi-drug resistant organisms were obtained: 131 (33%) isolates were extended spectrum β-lactamase producers, 119 (30%) isolates were P aeroginosae, 26 (9%) isolates were A baumannii, 94 (24%) isolates were methicillin-resistant S aureus, 13 (3%) isolates were vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and one (<1%) isolate was carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. We identified a high prevalence of asymptomatic colonisation with multidrug-resistant bacteria in transferred patients. These findings emphasise the need for a national strategy to combat the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms in the occupied Palestinian territory. An-Najah National University. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Building up a collaborative network for the surveillance of HIV genetic diversity in Italy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Sanarico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of infection with HIV-1 non-B subtypes in Italy has been reported to raise, due to increased migration flows and travels. HIV-1 variants show different biological and immunological properties that impact on disease progression rate, response to antiretroviral therapy (ART and sensitivity of diagnostic tests with important implications for public health. Therefore, a constant surveillance of the dynamics of HIV variants in Italy should be a high public health priority. Organization of surveillance studies requires building up a platform constituted of a network of clinical centers, laboratories and institutional agencies, able to properly collect samples for the investigation of HIV subtypes heterogeneity and to provide a database with reliable demographic, clinical, immunological and virological data. AIM: We here report our experience in building up such a platform, co-ordinated by the National AIDS Center of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, taking advantage of a pilot study aimed at evaluating HIV subtypes diversity in populations of HIV-infected migrant people in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and thirty four HIV-infected migrants were enrolled in 9 Italian clinical centers located throughout the Italian territory. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs for sample collection were provided by the National AIDS Center to each clinical center. In addition, clinical centers were required to fill up a case report form (crf for each patient, which included demographic, clinical, immunological and virological information. RESULTS: All centers properly collected and stored samples from each enrolled individual. Overall, the required information was correctly provided for more than 90% of the patients. However, some fields of the crf, particularly those including information on the last HIV-negative antibody test and presence of co-infections, were properly filled up in less than 80% of the enrolled migrants. Centers

  10. Use of emergency department electronic medical records for automated epidemiological surveillance of suicide attempts: a French pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Marie-Hélène; Tvardik, Nastassia; Gicquel, Quentin; Bouvry, Côme; Poulet, Emmanuel; Potinet-Pagliaroli, Véronique

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an expert system based on automated processing of electronic health records (EHRs) could provide a more accurate estimate of the annual rate of emergency department (ED) visits for suicide attempts in France, as compared to the current national surveillance system based on manual coding by emergency practitioners. A feasibility study was conducted at Lyon University Hospital, using data for all ED patient visits in 2012. After automatic data extraction and pre-processing, including automatic coding of medical free-text through use of the Unified Medical Language System, seven different machine-learning methods were used to classify the reasons for ED visits into "suicide attempts" versus "other reasons". The performance of these different methods was compared by using the F-measure. In a test sample of 444 patients admitted to the ED in 2012 (98 suicide attempts, 48 cases of suicidal ideation, and 292 controls with no recorded non-fatal suicidal behaviour), the F-measure for automatic detection of suicide attempts ranged from 70.4% to 95.3%. The random forest and naïve Bayes methods performed best. This study demonstrates that machine-learning methods can improve the quality of epidemiological indicators as compared to current national surveillance of suicide attempts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Review of the Methods to Obtain Paediatric Drug Safety Information: Spontaneous Reporting and Healthcare Databases, Active Surveillance Programmes, Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Marta; Pozzi, Marco; Peeters, Gabrielle; Radice, Sonia; Carnovale, Carla

    2018-02-06

    Knowledge of drugs safety collected during the pre-marketing phase is inevitably limited because the randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are rarely designed to evaluate safety. The small and selective groups of enrolled individuals and the limited duration of trials may hamper the ability to characterize fully the safety profiles of drugs. Additionally, information about rare adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in special groups is often incomplete or not available for most of the drugs commonly used in the daily clinical practice. In the paediatric setting several highimpact safety issues have emerged. Hence, in recent years, there has been a call for improved post-marketing pharmacoepidemiological studies, in which cohorts of patients are monitored for sufficient time in order to determine the precise risk-benefit ratio. In this review, we discuss the current available strategies enhancing the post-marketing monitoring activities of the drugs in the paediatric setting and define criteria whereby they can provide valuable information to improve the management of therapy in daily clinical practice including both safety and efficacy aspects. The strategies we cover include the signal detection using international pharmacovigilance and/or healthcare databases, the promotion of active surveillance initiatives which can generate complete, informative data sets for the signal detection and systematic review/meta-analysis. Together, these methods provide a comprehensive picture of causality and risk improving the management of therapy in a paediatric setting and they should be considered as a unique tool to be integrated with post-marketing activities. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Study on Entomological Surveillance and its Significance during a Dengue Outbreak in the District of Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Porkaipandian, Rajagopal Thirugnanasambandam; Saravanan, Sivsankaran; Sridharan, Subramaniam; Kadhiresan, Mahaligam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study the significance of entomological surveillance, the house index (HI), container index (CI), and Breteau index (BI) were determined to estimate the degree of a major dengue outbreak in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India (Latitude: 8°42′N; Longitude: 77°42′E) in May 2012. Methods The HI, CI, and BI were determined in a primary health center (PHC) in the village of Maruthamputhur (Pappakudi taluk, Tirunelveli) by carrying out an antilarval (AL) work that involved door-to-door search for immature stages of Aedes spp. mosquitoes by trained field workers and volunteers. The work of field workers was evaluated by a junior and senior entomologist the following day. Results Before the AL work, the reported numbers of fever cases from Week 1 to 5 in Maruthamputhur were 211, 394, 244, 222, and 144 with two deaths. By contrast, after the AL work, these numbers were considerably reduced and there was no fever-related death (the HI was reduced from 48.2% to 1.6%, the CI from 28.6% to 0.4%, and the BI from 48.2 to 1.6). Conclusion Because no specific medicine and vaccines are available to treat dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, entomological surveillance and its significance can be used to halt the outbreak of dengue as shown in this study. PMID:24159547

  13. Maternal infection rates after cesarean delivery by Pfannenstiel or Joel-Cohen incision: a multicenter surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Anne Marie; Girard, Raphaële; Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Tissot-Guerraz, Françoise; Vincent-Bouletreau, Agnès; Berland, Michel

    2009-12-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate maternal nosocomial infection rates according to the incision technique used for caesarean delivery, in a routine surveillance study. This was a prospective study of 5123 cesarean deliveries (43.2% Joel-Cohen, 56.8% Pfannenstiel incisions) in 35 maternity units (Mater Sud Est network). Data on routine surveillance variables, operative duration, and three additional variables (manual removal of the placenta, uterine exteriorization, and/or cleaning of the parieto-colic gutter) were collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for infection. The overall nosocomial infection and endometritis rates were higher for the Joel-Cohen than Pfannenstiel incision (4.5% vs. 3.3%, 0.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively). The higher rate of nosocomial infections with the Joel-Cohen incision was due to a greater proportion of patients presenting risk factors (i.e., emergency delivery, primary cesarean, blood loss > or =800 mL, no manual removal of the placenta and no uterine exteriorization). However, the Joel-Cohen technique was an independent risk factor for endometritis. The Joel-Cohen technique is faster than the Pfannenstiel technique but is associated with a higher incidence of endometritis.

  14. Shifting Patterns of the HIV Epidemic in Southwest China: A Case Study Based on Sentinel Surveillance, 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P F; Gao, Liangmin; Chen, Liang; Jing, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The HIV epidemic is experiencing a rapid shift in transmission profile in China. This study aims to examine the changes in magnitude, transmission pattern, and trend of the HIV epidemic in a typical Southwest Chinese prefecture over the period of 1995-2012. HIV surveillance data from the web-based reporting system were analyzed during this period. We investigated the temporal trends in the changing characteristics of HIV transmission, the HIV disease burden in key affected populations, and assessed the impacts on HIV disease progression due to scale-up of antiretroviral treatment. A total of 3556 HIV/AIDS cases were reported in Yuxi prefecture, Yunnan, over the study period. The number of HIV tests conducted has dramatically increased from 1041 in 1995 to 247,859 in 2012, resulting in a substantial increase in HIV diagnoses from 11 cases to 327 cases over the same period. Since 2005, cumulatively 1250 eligible people living with HIV (PLHIV) have received combination antiretroviral therapy which reduced AIDS disease progression from 9.0% (95% CI: 6.7-11.4%) in 1995 to 0.1% (0-0.3%) in 2012 (ptrend=0.0002). The primary mode of HIV transmission has been shifted from injection sharing (71.9% diagnoses in 1995-2004) to unsafe sexual contacts (82.6% diagnoses in 2012). Yuxi prefecture is experiencing a concentrated but shifting HIV epidemic. Scale-up of HIV testing is essential to effective sentinel surveillance and enhancing early diagnosis and treatment in PLHIV.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Proteus mirabilis: a longitudinal nationwide study from the Taiwan surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (TSAR) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Chen, Pei-Chen; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Wang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, I-Wen; Tan, Mei-Chen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang

    2014-09-05

    Longitudinal nationwide data on antimicrobial susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis from different sources are rare. The effects of the revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) β-lactam breakpoints on susceptibility rates and on detecting extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase-producers in this species are also seldom evaluated. The present study analyzed data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance program to address these issues. Isolates were collected biennially between 2002 and 2012 from 25 to 28 hospitals in Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by reference broth microdilution method. All isolates with aztreonam, ceftazidime, or cefotaxime MIC ≥ 2 mg/L were checked for the presence of ESBL by CLSI confirmatory test and subjected to ESBL and AmpC β-lactamases gene detection by PCR. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Between 2002 and 2012, a total of 1157 P. mirabilis were studied. Susceptibility to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin decreased significantly during the past decade, from 92.6% to 81.7%, 100% to 95.2%, and 80.1% to 53.8%, respectively (P mirabilis from Taiwan in the past decade. The prevalence of ESBL remained stable but AmpC β-lactamase-producing P. mirabilis increased significantly. Cefotaxime was a better surrogate than ceftazidime for predicting the presence of these β-lactamases. Continuous surveillance on antimicrobial resistance and associated resistance mechanisms in P. mirabilis is warranted.

  16. Problems and prospects for maintaining the register of sanitary and epidemiological objects of surveillance for the tasks of the transition to risk-oriented model of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the approaches to the formation of regional databases of the objects of sanitary-epidemiological surveillance for the tasks of sequential evaluation of each object having the potential risk to the citizens of the affected areas of these objects, e.g. workers, consumers of products or services. The basic structure of the information system is demonstrated. The system is oriented to be used together with the DBMS MS Access. The system performs the manual quiding function for the register and implements the calculation algorithm of the health risk indicators and classification of the objects of surveillance. Approaches to the formation of the system have been tested in Perm, Lipetsk, Kaluga, Omsk regions as part of a pilot project of the Federal Service on Surveillance for Consumer rights protection and human well-being. The problems of the registers’ formation are in the fact of scares operational entering of the significant amount of information, that has been accumulated in Administration offices of Rospotrebnadzor, but do not exist in the form of electronic databases. The relevant issue is the development of guidance documents to ensure unified approaches to the registers’ formation and risk calculation in relation to population census under the influence of various activities.

  17. High dengue case capture rate in four years of a cohort study in Nicaragua compared to national surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Standish

    Full Text Available Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions; however, under-reporting of cases to national surveillance systems hinders accurate knowledge of disease burden and costs. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases identified through the Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study (PDCS were compared to those reported from other health facilities in Managua to the National Epidemiologic Surveillance (NES program of the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health. Compared to reporting among similar pediatric populations in Managua, the PDCS identified 14 to 28 (average 21.3 times more dengue cases each year per 100,000 persons than were reported to the NES. Applying these annual expansion factors to national-level data, we estimate that the incidence of confirmed pediatric dengue throughout Nicaragua ranged from 300 to 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. We have estimated a much higher incidence of dengue than reported by the Ministry of Health. A country-specific expansion factor for dengue that allows for a more accurate estimate of incidence may aid governments and other institutions calculating disease burden, costs, resource needs for prevention and treatment, and the economic benefits of drug and vaccine development.

  18. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  19. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study: a study of complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Klungsoyr, Kari; Källen, Karin; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Børdahl, Per E; Gottvall, Karin; Thurn, Lars; Gissler, Mika; Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2015-07-01

    To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. Prospective, Nordic collaboration. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. The studied complications were reported in 1019 instances among 605 362 deliveries during the study period. The reported rate of severe blood loss at delivery was 11.6/10 000 deliveries, complete uterine rupture was 5.6/10 000 deliveries, abnormally invasive placenta was 4.6/10 000 deliveries, and peripartum hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. The studied obstetric complications are rare. Uniform definitions and valid reporting are essential for international comparisons. The main risk factors include previous cesarean section. The detailed information collected in the NOSS database provides a basis for epidemiologic studies, audits, and educational activities. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) for Space Surveillance: Results and Simulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Poore, A.; Sheaff, C.; Aristoff, J.; Jah, M.

    2013-09-01

    With the anticipated installation of more accurate sensors and the increased probability of future collisions between space objects, the potential number of observable space objects is likely to increase by an order of magnitude within the next decade, thereby placing an ever-increasing burden on current operational systems. Moreover, the need to track closely-spaced objects due, for example, to breakups as illustrated by the recent Chinese ASAT test or the Iridium-Kosmos collision, requires new, robust, and autonomous methods for space surveillance to enable the development and maintenance of the present and future space catalog and to support the overall space surveillance mission. The problem of correctly associating a stream of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs) and uncorrelated optical observations (UCOs) into common objects is critical to mitigating the number of UCTs and is a prerequisite to subsequent space catalog maintenance. Presently, such association operations are mainly performed using non-statistical simple fixed-gate association logic. In this paper, we report on the salient features and the performance of a newly-developed statistically-robust system-level multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) system for advanced space surveillance. The multiple-frame assignment (MFA) formulation of MHT, together with supporting astrodynamics algorithms, provides a new joint capability for space catalog maintenance, UCT/UCO resolution, and initial orbit determination. The MFA-MHT framework incorporates multiple hypotheses for report to system track data association and uses a multi-arc construction to accommodate recently developed algorithms for multiple hypothesis filtering (e.g., AEGIS, CAR-MHF, UMAP, and MMAE). This MHT framework allows us to evaluate the benefits of many different algorithms ranging from single- and multiple-frame data association to filtering and uncertainty quantification. In this paper, it will be shown that the MHT system can provide superior

  1. Screening for gastric cancer and surveillance of premalignant lesions: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areia, Miguel; Carvalho, Rita; Cadime, Ana Teresa; Rocha Gonçalves, Francisco; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2013-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness studies are highly dependent on the models, settings, and variables used and should be based on systematic reviews. We systematically reviewed cost-effectiveness studies that address screening for gastric cancer and/or surveillance of precancerous conditions and lesions. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies was performed by conducting a sensitive search in seven databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Current Contents Connect, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Academic Search Complete, and CINAHL Plus), independently evaluated by two investigators. Articles were evaluated for type of study, perspective, model, intervention, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, clinical or cost variables, and quality, according to published guidelines. From 2395 abstracts, 23 articles were included: 19 concerning population screening and 4 on following up premalignant lesions. Studies on Helicobacter pylori screening concluded that serology was cost-effective, depending on cancer incidence and endoscopy cost (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 6264-25,881), and eradication after endoscopic resection was also cost-effective (dominant) based on one study. Studies on imaging screening concluded that endoscopy was more cost-effective than no screening (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 3376-26,836). Articles on follow-up of premalignant lesions reported conflicting results (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 1868-72,519 for intestinal metaplasia; 18,600-39,800 for dysplasia). Quality assessment revealed a unanimous lack of a detailed systematic review and fulfillment of a median number of 23 items (20-26) of 35 possible ones. The available evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori serology or endoscopic population screening is cost-effective, while endoscopic surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions presents conflicting results. Better implementation of published guidelines and accomplishment of systematic detailed reviews are needed

  2. Sanitary surveillance in France in relation with the Chernobylsk accident. Updated situation on thyroid cancers and epidemiological studies during 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belot, A.; Caserio-Schonemann, C.; Cherie-Challine, M.; Colonna, M.; Lacour, B.; Lasalle, J.L.; Leenhardt, L.; Orgiazzi, J.; Pirard, Ph.; Schvartz, C.

    2006-01-01

    An increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children has been reported since 1990 in areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine which have been highly contaminated during the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A similar increase is now observed in young adults in the same areas. In France, thyroid cancer is characterized by low occurrence and good prognosis. However, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing for more than 20 years, and in 1986, the Chernobyl cloud of radioactive dust crossed the French territory. Thus, the National institute for public health surveillance (I.n.V.S.) carried out several studies to evaluate whether the incidence increase in thyroid cancer is related to radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Since 2000, the I.n.V.S. is in charge of a national multidisciplinary approach involving a wide range of public health actors, including the French network of cancer registries (Francim). Since 2003, the I.n.V.S. has been working on improving the surveillance system according to the actions described in the national cancer plan 2003-2007. The I.n.V.S. has increased its financial contribution to cancer registries including the national registry of solid tumors in children, which was created in 2000. The Institute is also working on the implementation of a multi source system for the national cancer surveillance in link with cancer registries. For the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, the I.n.V.S. is publishing updated results from the latest research conducted in close collaboration with the partners. These results do not support the initial hypothesis of a potential 'Chernobyl effect' in France. The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer is also reported in most of developed countries. Practices in cancer diagnosis and the increased rate of total thyroidectomy for benign lesion may lead pathologists to unexpectedly discover small thyroid tumors. This fact is likely to explain most of the incidence increase. The wide

  3. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in the Netherlands, 1985-2014: A nationwide surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Merel M; Bijlsma, Merijn W; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik; van der Ende, Arie

    2017-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause sepsis and meningitis. We report national surveillance data on L. monocytogenes meningitis in the Netherlands, describing incidence changes, genetic epidemiology and fatality rate. We analyzed data from the Netherlands Reference Laboratory of Bacterial Meningitis for cases of L. monocytogenes meningitis. Strains were assessed by serotyping and bacterial population structure by multi-locus sequence typing. A total of 375 cases of Listeria meningitis were identified between 1985 and 2014. Peak incidence rates were observed in neonates (0.61 per 100,000 live births) and older adults (peak at 87 year; 0.53 cases per 100,000 population of the same age). Neonatal listerial meningitis decreased 17-fold from 1.95 per 100,000 live births between 1985 and 1989, to 0.11 per 100,000 live births between 2010 and 2014. Overall case fatality rate was 31%, in a multivariate analysis older age and concomitant bacteremia were associated with mortality (both p listeria meningitis has remained high. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on signal validation and sensor surveillance for in-core signals in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, O.

    1991-12-01

    Signal validation and sensor failure detection are two essential tasks to be carried out continuously in an operating reactor. Towards this aim, an optimal filtering approach for in-core NPP signals is implemented. The method concerns the specific measured input signal information as a parameter state and they are estimated by means of Kalman filtering technique. The signal validation and sensor surveillance system comprise filters as many as the states being considered and each filter receives all the measured signals as inputs in such a way that each filter in hand is desensitized to one of the individual input signals relative to others. In case of no failure of sensors all the filter outputs are identical. Each sensor output is tested by means of corresponding estimate present at the output of that filter which is desensitized to the sensor being tested. The comparison test is carried out continuously in real-time and any significant deviation noted during the test process is identified to be a sensor failure together with the faulty sensor. The method is investigated by means of real plant data of the in-core neutron detectors and core-inlet and outlet thermocouples of the Borssele nuclear power plant. The method has proven to be effective for fast and reliable in-core sensor failure detection as well as for in-core signal validation in normal operation indicating its further effectiveness for model validation applications in nuclear power plants. (author). 17 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Clinical Safety and Tolerability of Vildagliptin - Insights from Randomised Trials, Observational Studies and Post-marketing Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Chantal; Kozlovski, Plamen; Paldánius, Päivi M; Foley, James E; Modgill, Vikas; Evans, Marc; Serban, Carmen

    2017-08-01

    Vildagliptin is one of the most extensively studied dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in terms of its clinical utility. Over the last decade, a vast panorama of evidence on the benefit-risk profile of vildagliptin has been generated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this article, we review the cumulative evidence on the safety of vildagliptin from the clinical development programme, as well as reports of rare adverse drug reactions detected during the post-marketing surveillance of the drug. Across clinical studies, the overall safety and tolerability profile of vildagliptin was similar to placebo, and it was supported by real-world data in a broad population of patients with T2DM, making DPP-4 inhibitors, like vildagliptin, a safe option for managing patients with T2DM.

  6. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  7. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  8. Surface-water surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  9. Prospective identification of autism spectrum disorders in infancy and toddlerhood using developmental surveillance: the social attention and communication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2010-06-01

    Despite behavioral markers of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) being evident within the first year of life, there remains little research on the prospective identification of these children in a community-based setting before 18 months. The aim in the Social Attention and Communication Study was to identify infants and toddlers at risk of an ASD during their first 2 years. A total of 241 Maternal and Child Health nurses were trained on the early signs of ASDs at 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. Using a developmental surveillance approach with a community-based sample, a cohort of 20,770 children was monitored on early social attention and communication behaviors. Those infants/toddlers identified as "at risk" were referred to the Social Attention and Communication Study team from 12 months for developmental and diagnostic assessments at 6 monthly intervals, until 24 months. A total of 216 children were referred, with 110 being further assessed. Of these, 89 children were classified with an ASD at 24 months, and 20 children had developmental and/or language delays, resulting in a Positive Predictive value of 81%. The estimated rate of ASDs in the Social Attention and Communication Study cohort ranged from 1:119 to 1:233 children. Estimated sensitivity ranged from 69% to 83.8%, and estimated specificity ranged from 99.8% to 99.9%. Developmental surveillance of social and communication behaviors, which differ according to the age at which the child is monitored, enables the accurate identification of children at risk for ASDs between 12 and 24 months. Education on the early signs is recommended for all primary health care professionals to facilitate early identification of ASDs.

  10. Web-based infectious disease surveillance systems and public health perspectives: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems by examining their current status, importance, and potential challenges. Methods A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and analysis of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to extensively review the English literature published between 2000 and 2015. Eleven surveillance systems were chosen for evaluation according to their high frequency of application. Relevant terms, including newly coined terms, development and classification of the surveillance systems, and various characteristics associated with the systems were studied. Results Based on a detailed and informative review of the 11 web-based infectious disease surveillance systems, it was evident that these systems exhibited clear strengths, as compared to traditional surveillance systems, but with some limitations yet to be overcome. The major strengths of the newly emerging surveillance systems are that they are intuitive, adaptable, low-cost, and operated in real-time, all of which are necessary features of an effective public health tool. The most apparent potential challenges of the web-based systems are those of inaccurate interpretation and prediction of health status, and privacy issues, based on an individual’s internet activity. Conclusion Despite being in a nascent stage with further modification

  11. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Claude Bourgeois

    2016-04-01

    baseline knowledge on similarities and differences among circumpolar tuberculosis surveillance systems. The similarity in case definitions will allow for description of the epidemiology of TB based on surveillance data in circumpolar regions, further study of tuberculosis trends across regions, and recommendation of best practices to improve surveillance activities.

  12. Experimental and numerical study of the degradation of radioactive measurements in the filters of airborne radioactive surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geryes, Tony

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of radioactivity in the filters of airborne radioactive surveillance systems is a major metrology difficulty due to the fact that the absorption of a radiation in the filter media and the mass of aerosols accumulated distort the nuclear counting response. This thesis focuses on the determination of correction factors for the radioactivity loss in the survey filters. In a first step, radioactive filters representing the atmospheric samples have been prepared using the nuclear test bench ICARE. The experimental study on reference filters provided a database to determine correction factors for various filtration conditions. The second part proposes a new numerical method developed to determine the correction factors. It consists of coupling GeoDict for particles filtration simulations and MCNPX simulations for a transport in matter. The good agreement obtained by comparing the numerical and experimental correction factors has permitted to validate the numerical model

  13. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self...

  14. PHI and PCA3 improve the prognostic performance of PRIAS and Epstein criteria in predicting insignificant prostate cancer in men eligible for active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Francesco; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Cicione, Antonio; Ferro, Matteo; Cimino, Sebastiano; Favilla, Vincenzo; Perdonà, Sisto; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Magno, Carlo; Morgia, Giuseppe; Damiano, Rocco

    2016-04-01

    To assess the performance of prostate health index (PHI) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) when added to the PRIAS or Epstein criteria in predicting the presence of pathologically insignificant prostate cancer (IPCa) in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) but eligible for active surveillance (AS). An observational retrospective study was performed in 188 PCa patients treated with laparoscopic or robot-assisted RP but eligible for AS according to Epstein or PRIAS criteria. Blood and urinary specimens were collected before initial prostate biopsy for PHI and PCA3 measurements. Multivariate logistic regression analyses and decision curve analysis were carried out to identify predictors of IPCa using the updated ERSPC definition. At the multivariate analyses, the inclusion of both PCA3 and PHI significantly increased the accuracy of the Epstein multivariate model in predicting IPCa with an increase of 17 % (AUC = 0.77) and of 32 % (AUC = 0.92), respectively. The inclusion of both PCA3 and PHI also increased the predictive accuracy of the PRIAS multivariate model with an increase of 29 % (AUC = 0.87) and of 39 % (AUC = 0.97), respectively. DCA revealed that the multivariable models with the addition of PHI or PCA3 showed a greater net benefit and performed better than the reference models. In a direct comparison, PHI outperformed PCA3 performance resulting in higher net benefit. In a same cohort of patients eligible for AS, the addition of PHI and PCA3 to Epstein or PRIAS models improved their prognostic performance. PHI resulted in greater net benefit in predicting IPCa compared to PCA3.

  15. Body mass index was associated with upstaging and upgrading in patients with low-risk prostate cancer who met the inclusion criteria for active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cobelli, Ottavio; Terracciano, Daniela; Tagliabue, Elena; Raimondi, Sara; Galasso, Giacomo; Cioffi, Antonio; Cordima, Giovanni; Musi, Gennaro; Damiano, Rocco; Cantiello, Francesco; Detti, Serena; Victor Matei, Deliu; Bottero, Danilo; Renne, Giuseppe; Ferro, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (PCa). The effect of body mass index (BMI) as a predictor of progression in men with low-risk PCa has been only poorly assessed. In this study, we evaluated the association of BMI with progression in patients with low-risk PCa who met the inclusion criteria for the active surveillance (AS) protocol. We assessed 311 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and were eligible for AS according to the following criteria: clinical stage T2a or less, prostate-specific antigen level pT2) and upgraded (Gleason score ≥ 7; primary Gleason pattern 4) disease. Seminal vesicle invasion, positive lymph nodes, and tumor volume ≥ 0.5 ml were also recorded. We found that high BMI was significantly associated with upgrading, upstaging, and seminal vesicle invasion, whereas it was not associated with positive lymph nodes or large tumor volume. At multivariate analysis, 1 unit increase of BMI significantly increased the risk of upgrading, upstaging, seminal vesicle invasion, and any outcome by 21%, 23%, 27%, and 20%, respectively. The differences between areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves comparing models with and without BMI were statistically significant for upgrading (P = 0.0002), upstaging (P = 0.0007), and any outcome (P = 0.0001). BMI should be a selection criterion for inclusion of patients with low-risk PCa in AS programs. Our results support the idea that obesity is associated with worse prognosis and suggest that a close AS program is an appropriate treatment option for obese subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Delayed radical prostatectomy for intermediate-risk prostate cancer is associated with biochemical recurrence: possible implications for active surveillance from the SEARCH database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abern, Michael R; Aronson, William J; Terris, Martha K; Kane, Christopher J; Presti, Joseph C; Amling, Christopher L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2013-03-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly accepted as appropriate management for low-risk prostate cancer (PC) patients. It is unknown whether delaying radical prostatectomy (RP) is associated with increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) for men with intermediate-risk PC. We performed a retrospective analysis of 1,561 low and intermediate-risk men from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database treated with RP between 1988 and 2011. Patients were stratified by interval between diagnosis and RP (≤ 3, 3-6, 6-9, or >9 months) and by risk using the D'Amico classification. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze BCR. Logistic regression was used to analyze positive surgical margins (PSM), extracapsular extension (ECE), and pathologic upgrading. Overall, 813 (52%) men were low-risk, and 748 (48%) intermediate-risk. Median follow-up among men without recurrence was 52.9 months, during which 437 men (38.9%) recurred. For low-risk men, RP delays were unrelated to BCR, ECE, PSM, or upgrading (all P > 0.05). For intermediate-risk men, however, delays >9 months were significantly related to BCR (HR: 2.10, P = 0.01) and PSM (OR: 4.08, P 9 months were associated with BCR in subsets of intermediate-risk men with biopsy Gleason score ≤ 3 + 4 (HR: 2.51, P 9 months predicted greater BCR and PSM risk. If confirmed in future studies, this suggests delayed RP for intermediate-risk PC may compromise outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Revisiting typhoid fever surveillance in low and middle income countries: lessons from systematic literature review of population-based longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogasale, Vittal; Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Ramani, Enusa; Lee, Jung Seok; Park, Ju Yeon; Lee, Kang Sung; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2016-01-29

    The control of typhoid fever being an important public health concern in low and middle income countries, improving typhoid surveillance will help in planning and implementing typhoid control activities such as deployment of new generation Vi conjugate typhoid vaccines. We conducted a systematic literature review of longitudinal population-based blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever studies from low and middle income countries published from 1(st) January 1990 to 31(st) December 2013. We quantitatively summarized typhoid fever incidence rates and qualitatively reviewed study methodology that could have influenced rate estimates. We used meta-analysis approach based on random effects model in summarizing the hospitalization rates. Twenty-two papers presented longitudinal population-based and blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever incidence estimates from 20 distinct sites in low and middle income countries. The reported incidence and hospitalizations rates were heterogeneous as well as the study methodology across the sites. We elucidated how the incidence rates were underestimated in published studies. We summarized six categories of under-estimation biases observed in these studies and presented potential solutions. Published longitudinal typhoid fever studies in low and middle income countries are geographically clustered and the methodology employed has a potential for underestimation. Future studies should account for these limitations.

  18. Plasmodium malariae Infection Associated with a High Burden of Anemia: A Hospital-Based Surveillance Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Langford

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium malariae is a slow-growing parasite with a wide geographic distribution. Although generally regarded as a benign cause of malaria, it has been associated with nephrotic syndrome, particularly in young children, and can persist in the host for years. Morbidity associated with P. malariae infection has received relatively little attention, and the risk of P. malariae-associated nephrotic syndrome is unknown.We used data from a very large hospital-based surveillance system incorporating information on clinical diagnoses, blood cell parameters and treatment to describe the demographic distribution, morbidity and mortality associated with P. malariae infection in southern Papua, Indonesia. Between April 2004 and December 2013 there were 1,054,674 patient presentations to Mitra Masyarakat Hospital of which 196,380 (18.6% were associated with malaria and 5,097 were with P. malariae infection (constituting 2.6% of all malaria cases. The proportion of malaria cases attributable to P. malariae increased with age from 0.9% for patients under one year old to 3.1% for patients older than 15 years. Overall, 8.5% of patients with P. malariae infection required admission to hospital and the median length of stay for these patients was 2.5 days (Interquartile Range: 2.0-4.0 days. Patients with P. malariae infection had a lower mean hemoglobin concentration (9.0 g/dL than patients with P. falciparum (9.5 g/dL, P. vivax (9.6g/dL and mixed species infections (9.3g/dL. There were four cases of nephrotic syndrome recorded in patients with P. malariae infection, three of which were in children younger than 5 years old, giving a risk in this age group of 0.47% (95% Confidence Interval; 0.10% to 1.4%. Overall, 2.4% (n = 16 of patients hospitalized with P. malariae infection subsequently died in hospital, similar to the proportions for the other endemic Plasmodium species (range: 0% for P. ovale to 1.6% for P. falciparum.Plasmodium malariae infection is

  19. Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Acceptability and Feasibility of Implementing a Bio-Behavioral Enhanced Surveillance Tool for Sexually Transmitted Infections in England: Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayal, Sonali; Reid, David; Blomquist, Paula B; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H; Hughes, Gwenda

    2018-05-04

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance is vital for tracking the scale and pattern of epidemics; however, it often lacks data on the underlying drivers of STIs. This study aimed to assess the acceptability and feasibility of implementing a bio-behavioral enhanced surveillance tool, comprising a self-administered Web-based survey among sexual health clinic attendees, as well as linking this to their electronic health records (EHR) held in England's national STI surveillance system. Staff from 19 purposively selected sexual health clinics across England and men who have sex with men and black Caribbeans, because of high STI burden among these groups, were interviewed to assess the acceptability of the proposed bio-behavioral enhanced surveillance tool. Subsequently, sexual health clinic staff invited all attendees to complete a Web-based survey on drivers of STI risk using a study tablet or participants' own digital device. They recorded the number of attendees invited and participants' clinic numbers, which were used to link survey data to the EHR. Participants' online consent was obtained, separately for survey participation and linkage. In postimplementation phase, sexual health clinic staff were reinterviewed to assess the feasibility of implementing the bio-behavioral enhanced surveillance tool. Acceptability and feasibility of implementing the bio-behavioral enhanced surveillance tool were assessed by analyzing these qualitative and quantitative data. Prior to implementation of the bio-behavioral enhanced surveillance tool, sexual health clinic staff and attendees emphasized the importance of free internet/Wi-Fi access, confidentiality, and anonymity for increasing the acceptability of the bio-behavioral enhanced surveillance tool among attendees. Implementation of the bio-behavioral enhanced surveillance tool across sexual health clinics varied considerably and was influenced by sexual health clinics' culture of prioritization of research and

  1. Using Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance as a Platform for Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilak, Steven G F; Williams, Cheryl L; Murrill, Christopher S; Dahl, Benjamin A; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Tangermann, Rudolf H

    2017-07-01

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a fundamental cornerstone of the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI). Active surveillance (with visits to health facilities) is a critical strategy of AFP surveillance systems for highly sensitive and timely detection of cases. Because of the extensive resources devoted to AFP surveillance, multiple opportunities exist for additional diseases to be added using GPEI assets, particularly because there is generally 1 district officer responsible for all disease surveillance. For this reason, integrated surveillance has become a standard practice in many countries, ranging from adding surveillance for measles and rubella to integrated disease surveillance for outbreak-prone diseases (integrated disease surveillance and response). This report outlines the current level of disease surveillance integration in 3 countries (Nepal, India, and Nigeria) and proposes that resources continue for long-term maintenance in resource-poor countries of AFP surveillance as a platform for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases and other outbreak-prone diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Descriptive analysis of preschool physical activity and sedentary behaviors - a cross sectional study of 3-year-olds nested in the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Christian; Christensen, Line Brinch; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Further collection of surveillance data is warranted, particularly in preschool populations, for optimizing future public health promotion strategies. This study aims to describe physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) across different settings, including time in and out...

  3. Implementation of a Multimodal Mobile System for Point-of-Sale Surveillance: Lessons Learned From Case Studies in Washington, DC, and New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Ganz, Ollie; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Tacelosky, Michael; Kreslake, Jennifer; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Aidala, Angela; Vallone, Donna; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    In tobacco control and other fields, point-of-sale surveillance of the retail environment is critical for understanding industry marketing of products and informing public health practice. Innovations in mobile technology can improve existing, paper-based surveillance methods, yet few studies describe in detail how to operationalize the use of technology in public health surveillance. The aims of this paper are to share implementation strategies and lessons learned from 2 tobacco, point-of-sale surveillance projects to inform and prepare public health researchers and practitioners to implement new mobile technologies in retail point-of-sale surveillance systems. From 2011 to 2013, 2 point-of-sale surveillance pilot projects were conducted in Washington, DC, and New York, New York, to capture information about the tobacco retail environment and test the feasibility of a multimodal mobile data collection system, which included capabilities for audio or video recording data, electronic photographs, electronic location data, and a centralized back-end server and dashboard. We established a preimplementation field testing process for both projects, which involved a series of rapid and iterative tests to inform decisions and establish protocols around key components of the project. Important components of field testing included choosing a mobile phone that met project criteria, establishing an efficient workflow and accessible user interfaces for each component of the system, training and providing technical support to fieldworkers, and developing processes to integrate data from multiple sources into back-end systems that can be utilized in real-time. A well-planned implementation process is critical for successful use and performance of multimodal mobile surveillance systems. Guidelines for implementation include (1) the need to establish and allow time for an iterative testing framework for resolving technical and logistical challenges; (2) developing a streamlined

  4. Implementation of a Multimodal Mobile System for Point-of-Sale Surveillance: Lessons Learned From Case Studies in Washington, DC, and New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Ollie; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Tacelosky, Michael; Kreslake, Jennifer; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Aidala, Angela; Vallone, Donna; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Background In tobacco control and other fields, point-of-sale surveillance of the retail environment is critical for understanding industry marketing of products and informing public health practice. Innovations in mobile technology can improve existing, paper-based surveillance methods, yet few studies describe in detail how to operationalize the use of technology in public health surveillance. Objective The aims of this paper are to share implementation strategies and lessons learned from 2 tobacco, point-of-sale surveillance projects to inform and prepare public health researchers and practitioners to implement new mobile technologies in retail point-of-sale surveillance systems. Methods From 2011 to 2013, 2 point-of-sale surveillance pilot projects were conducted in Washington, DC, and New York, New York, to capture information about the tobacco retail environment and test the feasibility of a multimodal mobile data collection system, which included capabilities for audio or video recording data, electronic photographs, electronic location data, and a centralized back-end server and dashboard. We established a preimplementation field testing process for both projects, which involved a series of rapid and iterative tests to inform decisions and establish protocols around key components of the project. Results Important components of field testing included choosing a mobile phone that met project criteria, establishing an efficient workflow and accessible user interfaces for each component of the system, training and providing technical support to fieldworkers, and developing processes to integrate data from multiple sources into back-end systems that can be utilized in real-time. Conclusions A well-planned implementation process is critical for successful use and performance of multimodal mobile surveillance systems. Guidelines for implementation include (1) the need to establish and allow time for an iterative testing framework for resolving technical and

  5. PREDICT-CP: study protocol of implementation of comprehensive surveillance to predict outcomes for school-aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Roslyn N; Davies, Peter Sw; Ziviani, Jenny; Trost, Stewart; Barber, Lee; Ware, Robert; Rose, Stephen; Whittingham, Koa; Sakzewski, Leanne; Bell, Kristie; Carty, Christopher; Obst, Steven; Benfer, Katherine; Reedman, Sarah; Edwards, Priya; Kentish, Megan; Copeland, Lisa; Weir, Kelly; Davenport, Camilla; Brooks, Denise; Coulthard, Alan; Pelekanos, Rebecca; Guzzetta, Andrea; Fiori, Simona; Wynter, Meredith; Finn, Christine; Burgess, Andrea; Morris, Kym; Walsh, John; Lloyd, Owen; Whitty, Jennifer A; Scuffham, Paul A

    2017-07-12

    Cerebral palsy (CP) remains the world's most common childhood physical disability with total annual costs of care and lost well-being of $A3.87b. The PREDICT-CP (NHMRC 1077257 Partnership Project: Comprehensive surveillance to PREDICT outcomes for school age children with CP) study will investigate the influence of brain structure, body composition, dietary intake, oropharyngeal function, habitual physical activity, musculoskeletal development (hip status, bone health) and muscle performance on motor attainment, cognition, executive function, communication, participation, quality of life and related health resource use costs. The PREDICT-CP cohort provides further follow-up at 8-12 years of two overlapping preschool-age cohorts examined from 1.5 to 5 years (NHMRC 465128 motor and brain development; NHMRC 569605 growth, nutrition and physical activity). This population-based cohort study undertakes state-wide surveillance of 245 children with CP born in Queensland (birth years 2006-2009). Children will be classified for Gross Motor Function Classification System; Manual Ability Classification System, Communication Function Classification System and Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System. Outcomes include gross motor function, musculoskeletal development (hip displacement, spasticity, muscle contracture), upper limb function, communication difficulties, oropharyngeal dysphagia, dietary intake and body composition, participation, parent-reported and child-reported quality of life and medical and allied health resource use. These detailed phenotypical data will be compared with brain macrostructure and microstructure using 3 Tesla MRI (3T MRI). Relationships between brain lesion severity and outcomes will be analysed using multilevel mixed-effects models. The PREDICT-CP protocol is a prospectively registered and ethically accepted study protocol. The study combines data at 1.5-5 then 8-12 years of direct clinical assessment to enable prediction of outcomes

  6. A family-wide rt-pcr assay for detection of paramyxoviruses and application to a large-scale surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Boheemen (Sander); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); S.D. Pas (Suzan); S. Herfst (Sander); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFamily-wide molecular diagnostic assays are valuable tools for initial identification of viruses during outbreaks and to limit costs of surveillance studies. Recent discoveries of paramyxoviruses have called for such assay that is able to detect all known and unknown paramyxoviruses in

  7. Sirenomelia : An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orioli, Ieda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system

  8. Improving work functioning and mental health of health care employees using an e-mental health approach to workers' health surveillance: pretest-posttest study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group

  9. Co-ordinated research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste CRESP activity report 1986-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme relevant to sea disposal of radioactive waste (CRESP) was created in 1981 in the framework of the 1977 Decision of the OECD Council establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. The main task of CRESP was to set up a site-specific scientific research programme to increase current knowledge of the processes controlling the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment, so that impact of past dumping could be monitored and future assessments could be based on more accurate and comprehensive scientific data. The CRESP mandate was extended in 1987 to respond to a request from the Paris Commission to include consideration of radioactive discharges in the maritime area covered by the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources. This report summarizes the CRESP activities carried out during the 1986-1990 five year phase. Concerning the review of deep sea results, the report relates progress achieved above the level of knowledge which was available when the present phase of the CRESP programme was decided and which has been taken into account in the 1985 Site Suitability Review. With respect to coastal discharges, it presents a summary of R and D work undertaken by member countries, including those carried out in other programmes such as MARINA. Finally, it makes proposals for future work within CRESP

  10. Ideology, Critique and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Herzogenrath-Amelung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 revelations concerning global surveillance programmes demonstrate in unprecedented clarity the need for Critical Theory of information and communication technologies (ICTs to address the mechanisms and implications of increasingly global, ubiquitous surveillance. This is all the more urgent because of the dominance of the “surveillance ideology” (the promise of security through surveillance that supports the political economy of surveillance. This paper asks which theoretical arguments and concepts can be useful for philosophically grounding a critique of this surveillance ideology. It begins by examining how the surveillance ideology works through language and introduces the concept of the ‘ideological packaging’ of ICTs to show how rhetoric surrounding the implementation of surveillance technologies reinforces the surveillance ideology. It then raises the problem of how ideology-critique can work if it relies on language itself and argues that Martin Heidegger’s philosophy can make a useful contribution to existing critical approaches to language.

  11. A pilot study on the reproductive risks of maternal exposure to magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Waseem; Roivainen, Päivi; Herrala, Mikko; Tiikkaja, Maria; Sallmén, Markku; Hietanen, Maila; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2018-02-26

    We investigated the feasibility of a large-scale epidemiological study on reproductive effects of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic field (MF) exposure among cashiers working near electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems. The study cohort included 4157 women who had worked as cashiers in supermarkets with EAS devices (considered as exposed) or grocery stores without EAS devices (considered as unexposed) between 2008 and 2015. 536 births and 38 miscarriages occurred among these women during the study period, based on information from nationwide health registries. Measurements were also performed to characterize the MF exposure of cashiers. Cashiers were found to be exposed to 8.2 MHz MFs only when passing by the gates at short distance. Static fields of about 0.1 mT were observed at cashier's seat. Extremely low frequency MFs were higher at stores without EAS devices. No differences on the risk of miscarriage, reduced birth weight or preterm birth were observed between cashiers in different store types. Any further studies should attempt to include study subjects working near EAS systems that produce stronger IF MFs at kHz frequencies. Exposure to ELF MFs should be assessed as a possible confounding factor.

  12. Safety and effectiveness of rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine for agitation associated with schizophrenia – Japan postmarketing surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katagiri H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hideaki Katagiri,1 Masanori Taketsuna,2 Shinpei Kondo,3 Kenta Kajimoto,4 Etsuko Aoi,5 Yuka Tanji1 1Bio Medicine, 2Statistical Sciences, 3Post Marketing Study Management, 4Scientific Communications, Medicines Development Unit Japan, 5Global Patient Safety Japan, Quality and Patient Safety, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid-acting intramuscular (IM olanzapine in the treatment of acute agitation associated with schizophrenia in real-world clinical settings in Japan.Methods: In this multicenter, postmarketing surveillance (PMS study, patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia were treated with IM olanzapine daily in a daily clinical setting. The observational period ranged from 1 to 7 days, including the day of initial administration. Safety was assessed by reporting treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs and adverse drug reactions (ADRs. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale – Excited Component (PANSS-EC score was used to evaluate effectiveness at baseline and at 2 hours (after each administration, 2 days, and 3 days (end of the observational period from the last administration of the IM olanzapine injection.Results: The safety analysis set included 999 patients, and the initial dose of 10 mg was administered to 955 patients. TEAEs were reported in 28 patients (36 events, the most common of which were dyslalia (5 patients, akathisia and somno­lence (4 patients each, hepatic function abnormal (3 patients, and constipation and dehydration (2 patients each. One serious adverse event of akathisia occurred during the observation period. The PANSS-EC score (mean ± standard deviation was 23.3±6.4 (n=625 at baseline, 16.9±7.0 (n=522 at 2 hours after initial injection, and 14.9±6.5 (n=650 at the last observation carried forward.Conclusion: The results of this Japanese PMS study demonstrated that IM olanzapine is safe and has a

  13. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  14. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sony Computer (Iby)

    HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate ..... active type of surveillance.14 Nonetheless, it requires training, supervision and motivation ... very effectively.14 The introduction of reward-system could be included.

  15. Is hospital information system relevant to detect surgical site infection? Findings from a prospective surveillance study in posterior instrumented spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetto, J; Chan-Seng, E; Lonjon, G; Pech, J; Lotthé, A; Lonjon, N

    2015-11-01

    Spinal instrumentation has a high rate of surgical site infection (SSI), but results greatly vary depending on surveillance methodology, surgical procedures, or quality of follow-up. Our aim was to study true incidence of SSI in spinal surgery by significant data collection, and to compare it with the results obtained through the hospital information system. This work is a single center prospective cohort study that included all patients consecutively operated on for spinal instrumentation by posterior approach over a six-month period regardless the etiology. For all patients, a "high definition" prospective method of surveillance was performed by the infection control (IC) department during at least 12 months after surgery. Results were then compared with findings from automatic surveillance though the hospital information system (HIS). One hundred and fifty-four patients were included. We found no hardly difference between "high definition" and automatic surveillance through the HIS, even if HIS tended to under-estimate the infection rate: rate of surgical site infection was 2.60% and gross SSI incidence rate via the hospital information system was 1.95%. Smoking and alcohol consumption were significantly related to a SSI. Our SSI rates to reflect the true incidence of infectious complications in posterior instrumented adult spinal surgery in our hospital and these results were consistent with the lower levels of published infection rate. In-house surveillance by surgeons only is insufficiently sensitive. Further studies with more patients and a longer inclusion time are needed to conclude if SSI case detection through the HIS could be a relevant and effective alternative method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety and efficacy of adapalene gel 0.1% in acne vulgaris: Results of a post-marketing surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy S

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adapalene is a novel retinoid indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. The drug was introduced in India in 2001. Aims: A post-marketing surveillance study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of adapalene gel 0.1% when used as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-acne agents in Indian patients of acne vulgaris. Material and Methods: A 12-week, multicentre, open-label, non-comparative study involving 571 patients from 21 centers across India was conducted between January and September of 2002. Concomitant prescription of other anti-acne drugs was permitted, if needed. Results: Of the 571 patients, 441 completed the treatment as per protocol. At the end of therapy, 96.3% of patients showed an improvement in their acne from baseline, with greater than 75% improvement seen in two-thirds of patients. Adverse events were reported in 24% of the patients, none of which were serious. The tolerability of therapy was rated as excellent/good in 81% of patients by physicians and in 78% by the patients. Conclusion: Adapalene gel 0.1% is a safe and effective topical agent in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris in Indian patients. It may be safely combined with other topical and oral anti-acne agents.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative hospital isolates: results of the Turkish HITIT-2 Surveillance Study of 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, D; Hascelik, G; Aydin, N; Telli, M; Gültekin, M; Ogülnç, D; Arikan, O A; Uysal, S; Yaman, A; Kibar, F; Gülay, Z; Sumerkan, B; Esel, D; Kayacan, C B; Aktas, Z; Soyletir, G; Altinkanat, G; Durupinar, B; Darka, O; Akgün, Y; Yayla, B; Gedikoglu, S; Sinirtas, M; Berktas, M; Yaman, G

    2009-08-01

    Resistance rates to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam and piperacillin/tazobactam in Escherichia coli (n= 438), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 444), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n= 210) and Acinetobacter baumanni (n=200) were determined with e-test in a multicenter surveillance study (Hitit-2) in 2007. ESBL production in Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae was investigated following the CLSI guidelines. Overall 42.0% of E.coli and 41.4% of K. pneumoniae were ESBL producers. In E. coli , resistance to imipenem was not observed, resistance to ciprofloxacin and amikacin was 58.0% and 5.5% respectively. In K. pneumoniae resistance to imipenem, ciprofloxacin and amikacin was 3.1%, 17.8% 12.4% respectively. In P. aeruginosa the lowest rate of resistance was observed with piperacillin/tazobactam (18.1%). A. baumanni isolates were highly resistant to all the antimicrobial agents, the lowest level of resistance was observed against cefoperazone/sulbactam (52.0%) followed by imipenem (55.5%). this study showed that resistance rates to antimicrobials are high in nosocomial isolates and show variations among the centers.

  18. [HIV and syphilis coinfection in pregnancy and vertical HIV transmission: a study based on epidemiological surveillance data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Lisiane M W; Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the rate of HIV and syphilis coinfection among pregnant women living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, as well as the association of coinfection with vertical HIV transmission and socioeconomic variables. This analytical retrospective cross-sectional study employed data from the regular epidemiological surveillance system for the period from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained regarding pregnant women with HIV and exposed children, syphilis in pregnancy, and congenital syphilis. The study population included 1 500 HIV-positive women with deliveries from 2010 to 2013. Of these, 155 (10.3%) were also infected with syphilis, corresponding to an HIV and syphilis coinfection rate of 10.2% (± 1.5%). The coinfected group had lower education levels, higher prevalence of black women, and greater HIV exposure related to drug use by the woman or a partner. Coinfected women had more delayed HIV diagnosis (for example, during childbirth) and greater prevalence of lacking prenatal care (44%). Crude analysis showed an association between vertical HIV transmission and HIV and syphilis co-infection (PR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.21-3.74; P = 0.01) that persisted in the adjusted analysis. A profile of increased vulnerability was identified among pregnant women with HIV and syphilis coinfection. A positive impact of the treatment to reduce congenital syphilis and eliminate vertical transmission of HIV depends on enhanced access to qualified health care.

  19. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de quinupristina/dalfopristina para cocos gram-positivos isolados de cinco centros brasileiros: resultado do estudo de vigilância L-SMART Antimicrobial in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin against gram-positive cocci isolated from 5 Brazilian centers: results from the local smart (L-SMART surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Mendes

    2002-07-01

    /ml, sendo que 45% das cepas testadas foram sensíveis e 55% apresentaram sensibilidade intermediária à associação. Desta forma, pode-se afirmar que a associação Q/D representa uma nova opção para o tratamento endovenoso de infecções causadas por cocos gram-positivos, principalmente para as cepas multirresistentes, sendo também uma alternativa ao uso de glicopeptídeos.A progressive increase of resistance among Gram-positive cocci (GPC towards some antimicrobial agents has been observed for the past few years. This rise of resistance, most often seen in Staphylococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp., has mainly been noticed in hospital environments. Due to these recent patterns of resistance, newly developed antimicrobial agents need to be evaluated for the treatment of infections caused by these multi-resistant microorganisms. Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D, also known as Synercid®, is an antimicrobial agent of intravenous administration, composed of two semi-synthetic derivatives of pristinomycin belonging to the group of streptogramins. The combination of streptogramins B and A at 3:7 ratio has an antimicrobial activity against gram-positive cocci. This combination has potent activity against gram-positive cocci such as Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. including Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecium. However, strains of E. faecalis are usually resistant to this compound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of Q/D and other eight antibiotics against 631 strains of GPC isolated from five Brazilian centers. Additionally, 20 vancomycin-resistant strains of E. faecium provided by a reference center from the United States were also included in this study. Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs were determined by E-test methodology (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden, using standardized and controlled procedures. The evaluated strains were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus (267, coagulase negative Staphylococcus (131, Streptococcus

  20. Multi-level human motion analysis for surveillance applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lao, W.; Han, Jungong; With, de P.H.N.; Rabbani, M.; Stevenson, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from a monocular surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. As a first contribution, we propose a flexible

  1. Citizens under Suspicion: Responsive Research with Community under Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad Imitaz

    2016-01-01

    In the 14 years since the 9/11 events, this nation as a whole, and New York City in particular, has escalated its state-sanctioned surveillance in the lives and activities of Muslims in the United States. This qualitative study examines the ramifications of police infiltration and monitoring of Muslim student and community-based organizations.…

  2. Data sharing report characterization of population 7: Personal protective equipment, dry active waste, and miscellaneous debris, surveillance and maintenance project Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  3. [Active surveillance for prostate cancer: usefulness of endorectal MR at 1.5 Tesla with pelvic phased array coil in detecting significant tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, F; Hallouin, P; Barré, C; Aillet, G; Chauveau, P; Hétet, J-F; Bouchot, O; Rigaud, J

    2011-02-01

    To describe and assess MRI signs of significant tumor in a series of patients who all underwent radical prostatectomy and also fulfilled criteria to choose active surveillance according to French "SurAcaP" protocol. The clinical reports of 681 consecutive patients operated on for prostate cancer between 2002 and 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had endorectal MR (1.5 Tesla) with pelvic phased array coil. (1.5 T erMR PPA). Sixty-one patients (8.9%) fulfilled "SurAcaP" protocol criteria. Preoperative data (MR+core biopsy) were assessed by comparison to whole-mount step section pathology. 85.3% of the 61 patients entering SurAcaP protocol had significant tumor at pathology. (Non Organ Confined Disease (Non OCD)=8.2%, Gleason sum score>6=39.2%). A new exclusion criterion has been assessed: T3MRI±NPS>1 as a predictor tool of significant tumor. ("T3MRI±NPS>1"=Non OCD at MR±number of positive sextants involved in tumor at MR and/or Core Biopsy > to 1). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of the criterion "T3MRI±NPS>1" in predicting significant tumor were, respectively: 77%, 33%, 86%, 20%. Adding this criterion to other criteria of the "SurAcaP" protocol could allow the exclusion of all Non OCD, and a decrease in Gleason sum Score>6 rates (20%). Endorectal MR at 1.5 Tesla with pelvic-phased array coil should be considered when selecting patients for active surveillance in the management of prostate cancer. A criterion based upon MR and core biopsy findings, called "T3MR±NSP>1" may represent an exclusion citeria due to its ability to predict significant tumor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical safety and efficacy of "filgrastim biosimilar 2" in Japanese patients in a post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Kazue; Nishikawa, Kiyohiro

    2018-05-01

    We conducted a post-marketing surveillance to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TKN732, approved as "filgrastim biosimilar 2", in Japanese patients who developed neutropenia in the course of cancer chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 653 patients were registered during the 2-year enrollment period starting from May 2013, and 627 and 614 patients were eligible for safety and efficacy analyses of the G-CSF biosimilar, respectively. Forty-three adverse drug reactions were reported in 33 patients (5.26%). Back pain was most frequently observed and reported in 20 patients (3.19%), followed by pyrexia (1.28%) and bone pain (0.96%). Risk factors for adverse reactions identified by logistic regression analyses were younger age, presence of past medical history, and lower total dose at the onset of adverse reactions. Among the 576 cancer patients who developed Grade 2-4 neutropenia after chemotherapy, recovery to Grade 1/0 was reported in 553 patients (96%) following filgrastim biosimilar 2 treatment. The median duration of neutrophil counts below 1500/μL was 5 days. In addition, all 11 patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation had good responses to filgrastim biosimilar 2. In conclusion, this study showed that filgrastim biosimilar 2 has a similar safety profile and comparable effects to the original G-CSF product in the real world clinical setting. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-risk populations identified in Childhood Cancer Survivor Study investigations: implications for risk-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Melissa M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Bowers, Daniel C; Sklar, Charles A; Green, Daniel M; Donaldson, Sarah S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Neglia, Joseph P; Meadows, Anna T; Robison, Leslie L

    2009-05-10

    Childhood cancer survivors often experience complications related to cancer and its treatment that may adversely affect quality of life and increase the risk of premature death. The purpose of this manuscript is to review how data derived from Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) investigations have facilitated identification of childhood cancer survivor populations at high risk for specific organ toxicity and secondary carcinogenesis and how this has informed clinical screening practices. Articles previously published that used the resource of the CCSS to identify risk factors for specific organ toxicity and subsequent cancers were reviewed and results summarized. CCSS investigations have characterized specific groups to be at highest risk of morbidity related to endocrine and reproductive dysfunction, pulmonary toxicity, cerebrovascular injury, neurologic and neurosensory sequelae, and subsequent neoplasms. Factors influencing risk for specific outcomes related to the individual survivor (eg, sex, race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, attained age), sociodemographic status (eg, education, household income, health insurance) and cancer history (eg, diagnosis, treatment, time from diagnosis) have been consistently identified. These CCSS investigations that clarify risk for treatment complications related to specific treatment modalities, cumulative dose exposures, and sociodemographic factors identify profiles of survivors at high risk for cancer-related morbidity who deserve heightened surveillance to optimize outcomes after treatment for childhood cancer.

  6. Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia Ho Dang Trung

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen.We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007-April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology.We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52% of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24% and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6% adult patients and 11/624 (2% paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR during hospital admission was 73/617 (12% in adults and to 42/624 (7% in children.Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam.

  7. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  8. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  9. Insights from a Systematic Search for Information on Designs, Costs, and Effectiveness of Poliovirus Environmental Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Zimmermann, Marita; Pallansch, Mark A; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2017-12-01

    Poliovirus surveillance plays a critical role in achieving and certifying eradication and will play a key role in the polio endgame. Environmental surveillance can provide an opportunity to detect circulating polioviruses prior to the observation of any acute flaccid paralysis cases. We completed a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on environmental surveillance for polio including the search terms "environmental surveillance" or "sewage," and "polio," "poliovirus," or "poliomyelitis," and compared characteristics of the resulting studies. The review included 146 studies representing 101 environmental surveillance activities from 48 countries published between 1975 and 2016. Studies reported taking samples from sewage treatment facilities, surface waters, and various other environmental sources, although they generally did not present sufficient details to thoroughly evaluate the sewage systems and catchment areas. When reported, catchment areas varied from 50 to over 7.3 million people (median of 500,000 for the 25% of activities that reported catchment areas, notably with 60% of the studies not reporting this information and 16% reporting insufficient information to estimate the catchment area population size). While numerous studies reported the ability of environmental surveillance to detect polioviruses in the absence of clinical cases, the review revealed very limited information about the costs and limited information to support quantitative population effectiveness of conducting environmental surveillance. This review motivates future studies to better characterize poliovirus environmental surveillance systems and the potential value of information that they may provide in the polio endgame.

  10. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  11. Surveillance of acute respiratory infections among outpatients: A pilot study in Isfahan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Javadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering that there was not any regional survey in Isfahan, Iran regarding the epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI in different age groups of general population, the aim of this study was to determine the epidemiologic feature of ARTIs in Isfahan using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients aged 15 years old. Rhinovirus was the most common cause of ARTI in patients aged 50 years. Influenza virus B was the most common cause of ARTI in patients aged 5-50 years. Conclusion: Our study provides baseline information on the epidemiologic and clinical feature of outpatients with ARTIs in Isfahan city. Though our findings in this pilot study could be helpful in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ARTI, planning preventive interventional.

  12. European surveillance study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazier, J; Chmelar, D; Dubreuil, L

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms frequently isolated from local and systemic infections. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical strains isolated in 10 European countries were investigated. After identification of 299 GPAC...

  13. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetters, F.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  14. The current use of active surveillance in an Australian cohort of men: a pattern of care analysis from the Victorian Prostate Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, Mahesha; Papa, Nathan; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Evans, Sue; Millar, Jeremy; Frydenberg, Mark; Bolton, Damien; Murphy, Declan G

    2015-04-01

    To ascertain the treatment trends and patterns of care, for men with prostate cancer on active surveillance (AS) in Victoria, Australia. De-identified data was obtained for 6424 men from the Victorian Prostate Cancer Registry. Men included in this study were diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2008 to August 2012 with ≥ 12-months of follow-up. Patients were stratified using the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk grouping system and those who were not actively treated were identified. Data was acquired to describe the trends and uptake of AS according to public vs private hospital sector, and regional vs metropolitan regions. In all, 1603/6424 (24.9%) men received no treatment with curative intent at 12-months follow-up. This cohort included patients in whom the chosen management plan was recorded as AS (980/1603, 61.1%), watchful waiting (341/1603, 21.3%), or no management plan (282/1603, 17.6%). From this, 980/6424(15.3%) of the patients were recorded as being on AS across all NCCN categories at 12 months after diagnosis. This included 653/1816 (35.9%) of very low- and low-risk men, and 251/2820 (8.9%) of intermediate-risk men. Of our patients on AS, 169/980 (17.2%) progressed onto active treatment after 12 months. This active treatment included radical prostatectomy in 116 (68.6%), 32 (18.9%) undergoing external beam radiation therapy, 12 (7.1%) undergoingt brachytherapy and nine (5.3%) undergoing androgen-deprivation therapy. Overall, 629/979 (64.2%) of the AS patients were notified from a private hospital, with 350/979 (35.7%) of the patients notified from a public hospital (one patient unclassified). Of these, 202/652 (30.9%) of the AS patients with very low-/low-risk disease were managed in the public sector, vs 450/652 (69%) of very low-/low-risk AS patients being managed in the private sector. In our cohort, patients with very low- and low-risk disease, managed in a private hospital, were more likely to be on AS (P = 0.005). AS patients in

  15. Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; van Loon, S; Buskens, E; van Essen, G A; de Bakker, D; Tacken, M A J B; van Hout, B A; Grobbee, D E; Verheij, Th J M

    2003-01-01

    Rationale and design of a study on the cost-effectiveness of the Dutch influenza vaccination campaign are described. During two influenza epidemics, about 75,000 primary care patients recommended for influenza vaccination are included. Cases have fatal or non-fatal influenza, pneumonia, otitis

  16. Improving Work Functioning and Mental Health of Health Care Employees Using an E-Mental Health Approach to Workers' Health Surveillance: Pretest–Posttest Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah M. Ketelaar; Karen Nieuwenhuijsen; Linda Bolier; Odile Smeets; Judith K. Sluiter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group of a previous randomized controlled trial with high dropout and low compliance to the intervention, we studied the pre- and posteffects of the EMH approach in a larger group of particip...

  17. Electronic Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-like Illness. Experience from a pilot study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Mehnaz; Peterkin, Donald; Lopez, Liza; Mackereth, Graham

    2017-02-01

    Electronic reporting of Influenza-like illness (eILI) from primary care was implemented and evaluated in three general medical practices in New Zealand during May to September 2015. To measure the uptake of eILI and to identify the system's strength and limitations. Analysis of transactional data from the eILI system; comparative study of influenza-like illness cases reported using manual methods and eILI; questionnaire administered to clinical and operational stakeholders. Over the study period 66% of total ILI cases were reported using eILI. Reporting timeliness improved significantly compared to manual reporting with an average of 24 minutes from submission by the clinician to processing in the national database. Users found the system to be user-friendly. eILI assists clinicians to report ILI cases to public health authorities within a stipulated time period and is associated with faster, more reliable and improved information transfer.

  18. Role of radiopharmaceutical renal function studies in the medical surveillance of patients with transplanted kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, S.

    1983-01-01

    In a study group of 35 patients having received a total of 37 kidneys 204 renal function scintiscans were obtained following administration of 99mTc DTPA and analysed with regard to the question as to whether radiopharmaceutical investigations using a gamma camera are a useful auxiliary tool to detect and diagnose functional disorders in the transplant that occur soon after surgery. In all of 13 patients showing complications in the form of prolonged anuria or oliguria during a period of up to 14 days following surgical intervention, the renal function scintiscans either permitted as firm diagnosis to be established or revealed conclusive findings that pointed to the necessity of further specific tests. Long-term follow-up studies carried out in 33 individuals failed or were slow to reveal acute or chronic rejection processes in one quarter of the patients, whereas the renal function scintiscans gave the earliest warning of functional disorders, unfavourable developments and complications in another quarter of patients; in the remaining part, the test results were in keeping with the clinical findings. Renal function scintiscans were thus judged to be a valuable diagnostic tool to ascertain and identify disorders occurring soon after surgery as well as to detect the early signs of functional disorders in the transplant during long-term follow-up studies. In view of the fact, however, that the sensitivity of the method in this field of application only is of the order of 75%, further research work appears to be required here. (TRV) [de

  19. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease lookback study: 21 years of surveillance for transfusion transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Lauren A; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Dodd, Roger Y; Steele, Whitney R

    2017-08-01

    Transfusion transmission of human prion diseases has been observed for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), but not for the classic forms of prion disease (CJD: sporadic, genetic, and iatrogenic). Although the presence of prions or misfolded prion proteins in blood has been documented in some patients with the most common form of CJD, sporadic CJD, no transfusion-transmitted cases of CJD have been recognized. Since 1995, the American Red Cross has conducted a lookback study of the recipients of blood products from donors who develop CJD to assess the risk of blood-borne CJD transmission in the United States. Blood donors subsequently diagnosed with confirmed or probable CJD were enrolled and the consignees were asked to identify the recipients of their blood products. These donors' transfusion recipients are traced annually with the National Death Index to see if they subsequently die of CJD. To date, 65 CJD donors have been enrolled along with 826 of their blood recipients. These recipients have contributed 3934 person-years of follow-up and no transfusion-transmitted cases of CJD have been recognized. From this study, as well as other epidemiologic studies, there is no evidence of CJD transfusion transmission; this risk remains theoretical. © 2017 AABB.

  20. Presence, distribution, and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a small animal teaching hospital: a year-long active surveillance targeting dogs and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Balen, Joany; Kelley, Christina; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, Jonathan; Wittum, Thomas E; Hoet, Armando E

    2013-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to be present in small animal veterinary clinical environments. However, a better understanding of the ecology and dynamics of MRSA in these environments is necessary for the development of effective infectious disease prevention and control programs. To achieve this goal, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance program was established at The Ohio State University (OSU) Veterinary Medical Center to describe the spatial and molecular epidemiology of this bacterium in the small animal hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, and dendrogram analysis were used to characterize and analyze the 81 environmental and 37 canine-origin MRSA isolates obtained during monthly sampling events. Overall, 13.5% of surfaces were contaminated with MRSA at 1 or more sampling times throughout the year. The majority of the environmental and canine isolates were SCCmec type II (93.8% and 86.5%, respectively) and USA100 (90.1% and 86.5%, respectively). By PFGE analysis, these isolates were found to be closely related, which reflects a low diversity of MRSA strains circulating in the hospital. For 5 consecutive months, 1 unique pulsotype was the most prevalent across the medical services and was recovered from a variety of surfaces and hospital locations. Carts/gurneys, doors, and examination tables/floors were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. Some surfaces maintained the same pulsotypes for 3 consecutive months. Molecular analysis found that incoming MRSA-positive dogs were capable of introducing a new pulsotype into the hospital environment during the surveillance period. Our results suggest that once a MRSA strain is introduced into the hospital environment, it can be maintained and spread for extended periods of time. These findings can aid in the development of biosecurity and biocontainment protocols aimed at

  1. Value of surveillance {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT in colorectal cancer:comparison with conventional imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Park, Hye Lim; Choi, Hyun Su; Han, Eun Ji; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; O, Joo Hyun [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To assess the value of PET/CT for detecting local or distant recurrence in patients who undergo surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC)and to compare the accuracy of PET/CT to that of conventional imaging studies (CIS). Tumor surveillance PET/CT scans done between March 2005 and December 2009 of disease free patients after surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for CRC were retrospectively studied. CIS (serial enhanced CT from lung base to pelvis and plain chest radiograph)were performed within 1 month of PET/CT. We excluded patients with distant metastasis on initial staging, a known recurrent tumor, and a lack of follow up imaging. The final diagnosis was based on at least 6 months of follow up with colonoscopy, biopsy, and serial imaging studies in combination with carcinoembryonic antigen levels. A total of 262 PET/CT scans of 245 patients were included. Local and distant recurrences were detected in 27 cases (10.3%). On case based analysis, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100, 97.0, and 97.3% for PET/CT and 85.1, 97.0, and 95.8% for CIS, respectively. On lesion based analysis, PET/CT detected more lesions compared to CIS in local recurrence and lung metastasis. PET/CT and CIS detected the same number of lesions in abdominal lymph nodes, hepatic metastasis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. PET/CT detected two more metachronous tumors than did CIS in the lung and thyroid gland. PET/CT detected more recurrences in patients who underwent surgery for CRC than did CIS and had the additional advantage of evaluating the entire body during a single scan.

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in the community prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Bangladesh: an integrated surveillance study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousham, Emily; Unicomb, Leanne; Wood, Paul; Smith, Michael; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    2018-04-28

    Increasing antibiotic resistance (ABR) in low-income and middle-income countries such as Bangladesh presents a major health threat. However, assessing the scale of the health risk is problematic in the absence of reliable data on the community prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We describe the protocol for a small-scale integrated surveillance programme that aims to quantify the prevalence of colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and concentrations of antibiotic-resistant genes from a 'One Health' perspective. The holistic assessment of ABR in humans, animals and within the environment in urban and rural Bangladesh will generate comprehensive data to inform human health risk. The study design focuses on three exposure-relevant sites where there is enhanced potential for transmission of ABR between humans, animals and the environment: (1) rural poultry-owning households, (2) commercial poultry farms and (3) urban live-bird markets. The comparison of ABR prevalence in human groups with high and low exposure to farming and poultry will enable us to test the hypothesis that ABR bacteria and genes from the environment and food-producing animals are potential sources of transmission to humans. Escherichia coli is used as an ABR indicator organism due to its widespread environmental presence and colonisation in both the human and animal gastrointestinal tract. The study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and Loughborough University Ethics Committee. Data for the project will be stored on the open access repository of the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Natural Environment Research Council. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  3. ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS SURVEILLANCE: A 5 YEARS STUDY OF BANNU, PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Muhammad Umer; Haroon, Muhammad Zeeshan; Khan, Aftab Alam; Shaukat, Maryum; Anwar, Sved Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is clinical presentation marked by acute onset of weakness and reduced tone. Aetiologies of AFP are diverse including infectious agents, trauma or autoimmune reaction. Currently only three countries in the world that are Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan have endemic poliomyelitis. Pakistan's polio crisis represents one of the last hurdles in a 23-year campaign run by the World Health Organization. Bannu due to its geographical location stands out to be one of highest risk areas for Poliomyelitis. The objective of this study was to determine frequency of AFP and their aetiologies in District of Bannu during time period of four years from 2007 to 2011. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Data was collected from EDO office District Bannu and analysed using Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: During this period there were 180 cases of AFP in district Bannu. 15% of cases were diagnosed as Guillian Barre Syndrome, making it the leading aetiology. Only 3 (1.66%) cases were diagnosed with Poliomyelitis. Out of 180 AFP cases 104 cases were male and 76 cases were female. Bannu needs enthusiastic educational and vaccination campaigns to eradicate Polio from the area and henceforth from the Pakistan.

  4. Healthcare workers mobile phone usage: A potential risk for viral contamination. Surveillance pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavari, Yuval; Kaplan, Or; Zander, Aviva; Hazan, Guy; Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Borer, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are commonly used by healthcare workers (HCW) in the working environment, as they allow instant communication and endless resource utilisation. Studies suggest that mobile phones have been implicated as reservoirs of bacterial pathogens, with the potential to cause nosocomial infection. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Adenovirus and Influenza Virus on HCWs mobile phones and to identify risk factors implied by HCWs practice of mobile phones in a clinical paediatric environment. Fifty HCWs' mobile phones were swabbed over both sides of the mobile phone, for testing of viral contamination during 8 days in January 2015. During the same period, a questionnaire investigating usage of mobile phones was given to 101 HCWs. Ten per cent of sampled phones were contaminated with viral pathogens tested for. A total of 91% of sampled individuals by questionnaire used their mobile phone within the workplace, where 37% used their phone at least every hour. Eighty-nine (88%) responders were aware that mobile phones could be a source of contamination, yet only 13 (13%) disinfect their cell phone regularly. Mobile phones in clinical practice may be contaminated with viral pathogenic viruses. HCWs use their mobile phone regularly while working and, although the majority are aware of contamination, they do not disinfect their phones.

  5. Surveillance of nosocomial infections: a preliminary study on hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, L; Santoro, E; De Caro, F; Cavallo, P; Boccia, G; Capunzo, M; Motta, O

    2006-06-01

    The observance of hand hygiene compliance is important to reduce cross-infection by micro-organisms. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the level of hand hygiene in healthcare workers from different departments, with particular emphasis on transient flora. The study was conducted in three departments (Surgery, Intensive Care Unit, Obstetrics and Gynecology) of a hospital in Campania, southern Italy. Over a six-month period, 50 healthcare workers were randomly tested. Imprints of palms and fingertips were taken monthly during the morning shift. The number of colonies per plate was counted and transient pathogens were identified. Risk factors for hand contamination were determined. Total flora was found in the following CFU means per palm and per five fingertips (95% CI): Obstetrics and Gynecology [palms 130 CFUs (95% CI 85-180); fingertips 125 CFUs (95% CI 92-160)]; ICU [palms 80 CFUs (95% CI 58-99); fingertips 62 CFUs (95% CI 45-82)]; Surgery [palms 75 CFUs (95% CI 41-120); fingertips 70 CFUs (95% CI 52-90)] Transient flora was found on 39% of healthcare workers' hands. The only factor associated with hand contamination by transient flora was the absence of gloving during healthcare procedure (P = 0.02).

  6. Biological specimens for community-based surveillance studies: Method of recruitment matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Coleman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies requiring the collection of biological specimens are often difficult to perform and costly. We compare face-to-face and telephone interviews to determine which is more effective for return of self-collected rectal swabs from subjects living in rural and semi-rural areas of Ontario, Canada. People interviewed face-to-face in 2006-2007 were asked to provide a rectal swab while the interviewer waited. Those interviewed by telephone were sent a package and asked to return the swab by mail, with one follow-up reminder call. Telephone interviewing resulted in a higher response rate for the completion of household and individual-level questionnaires. However, face-to-face interviews resulted in a significantly higher proportion of interviewees who returned swabs making the participation rate higher for this mode of contact (33.7 versus 25.0 percent. Using multivariable logistic regression, higher rates of rectal swab return were associated with face-to-face interviewing while adjusting for the impact of household size and respondent age and sex. For studies requiring the submission of intimate biological samples, face-to-face interviews can be expected to provide a higher rate of return than telephone interviews.

  7. Rapid surveillance for health events following a mass meningococcal B vaccine program in a university setting: A Canadian Immunization Research Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J M; MacDougall, D M; Halperin, B A; Swain, A; Halperin, S A; Top, K A; McNeil, S A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Marty, K; De Serres, G; Dubé, E; Bettinger, J A

    2016-07-25

    An outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis serotype B infection occurred at a small residential university; public health announced an organizational vaccination program with the 4-component Meningococcal B (4CMenB) vaccine (Bexsero(TM), Novartis/GlaxoSmithKline Inc.) several days later. Since there were limited published data on reactogenicity of 4CMenB in persons over 17years of age, this study sought to conduct rapid surveillance of health events in vaccinees and controls using an online survey. Vaccine uptake was 84.7% for dose 1 (2967/3500) and 70% (2456/3500) for dose 2; the survey response rates were 33.0% (987/2967) and 18.7% (459/2456) in dose 1 and dose 1 recipients respectively, and 12% in unvaccinated individuals (63/533). Most students were 20-29years of age (vaccinees, 64.0%; controls, 74.0). A new health problem or worsening of an existing health problem was reported by 30.0% and 30.3% of vaccine recipients after doses 1 and 2 respectively; and by 15.9% of controls. These health problems interfered with the ability to perform normal activities in most vaccinees reporting these events (74.7% post dose 1; 62.6% post dose 2), and in 60% of controls. The health problems led to a health care provider visit (including emergency room) in 12.8% and 14.4% of vaccinees post doses 1 and 2, respectively and in 40% of controls. The most common reactions in vaccinees were injection site reactions (20.6% post dose 1, 16.1% post dose 20 and non-specific systemic complaints (22.6% post dose 1, 17.6% post dose 2). No hospitalizations were reported. An online surveillance program during an emergency meningococcal B vaccine program was successfully implemented, and detected higher rates of health events in vaccinees compared to controls, and high rates of both vaccinees and controls seeking medical attention. The types of adverse events reported by young adult vaccinees were consistent with those previously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ACTIVITIES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN KHABAROVSKY KRAI IN CONDITIONS OF THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND MEASURES UNDERTAKEN TO PROTECT THE TERRITORY AND POPULATION THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes activities of the Administration of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Khabarovsky Krai and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Khabarovsky Krai" in the situation related to the Fukushima accident in Japan

  9. Incidence of carbapenem-resistant gram negatives in Italian transplant recipients: a nationwide surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanini, Simone; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Puro, Vincenzo; Procaccio, Francesco; Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Vespasiano, Francesca; Ricci, Andrea; Vesconi, Sergio; Ison, Michael G; Carmeli, Yehuda; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections remain a challenge to solid organ transplantation. Due to the alarming spread of carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, these organisms have been frequently recognized as cause of severe infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Between 15 May and 30 September 2012 we enrolled 887 solid organ transplant recipients in Italy with the aim to describe the epidemiology of gram negative bacteria spreading, to explore potential risk factors and to assess the effect of early isolation of gram negative bacteria on recipients' mortality during the first 90 days after transplantation. During the study period 185 clinical isolates of gram negative bacteria were reported, for an incidence of 2.39 per 1000 recipient-days. Positive cultures for gram negative bacteria occurred early after transplantation (median time 26 days; incidence rate 4.33, 1.67 and 1.14 per 1,000 recipient-days in the first, second and third month after SOT, respectively). Forty-nine of these clinical isolates were due to carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria (26.5%; incidence 0.63 per 1000 recipient-days). Carbapenems resistance was particularly frequent among Klebsiella spp. isolates (49.1%). Recipients with longer hospital stay and those who received either heart or lung graft were at the highest risk of testing positive for any gram negative bacteria. Moreover recipients with longer hospital stay, lung recipients and those admitted to hospital for more than 48h before transplantation had the highest probability to have culture(s) positive for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria. Forty-four organ recipients died (0.57 per 1000 recipient-days) during the study period. Recipients with at least one positive culture for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria had a 10.23-fold higher mortality rate than those who did not. The isolation of gram-negative bacteria is most frequent among recipient with hospital stays >48 hours prior to transplant and in those

  10. Incidence of carbapenem-resistant gram negatives in Italian transplant recipients: a nationwide surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lanini

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections remain a challenge to solid organ transplantation. Due to the alarming spread of carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, these organisms have been frequently recognized as cause of severe infections in solid organ transplant recipients.Between 15 May and 30 September 2012 we enrolled 887 solid organ transplant recipients in Italy with the aim to describe the epidemiology of gram negative bacteria spreading, to explore potential risk factors and to assess the effect of early isolation of gram negative bacteria on recipients' mortality during the first 90 days after transplantation. During the study period 185 clinical isolates of gram negative bacteria were reported, for an incidence of 2.39 per 1000 recipient-days. Positive cultures for gram negative bacteria occurred early after transplantation (median time 26 days; incidence rate 4.33, 1.67 and 1.14 per 1,000 recipient-days in the first, second and third month after SOT, respectively. Forty-nine of these clinical isolates were due to carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria (26.5%; incidence 0.63 per 1000 recipient-days. Carbapenems resistance was particularly frequent among Klebsiella spp. isolates (49.1%. Recipients with longer hospital stay and those who received either heart or lung graft were at the highest risk of testing positive for any gram negative bacteria. Moreover recipients with longer hospital stay, lung recipients and those admitted to hospital for more than 48h before transplantation had the highest probability to have culture(s positive for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria. Forty-four organ recipients died (0.57 per 1000 recipient-days during the study period. Recipients with at least one positive culture for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria had a 10.23-fold higher mortality rate than those who did not.The isolation of gram-negative bacteria is most frequent among recipient with hospital stays >48 hours prior to transplant

  11. Active versus passive adverse event reporting after pediatric chiropractic manual therapy: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Katherine A; Carroll, Linda; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Hartling, Lisa; Vohra, Sunita

    2017-12-01

    Patient safety performance can be assessed with several systems, including passive and active surveillance. Passive surveillance systems provide opportunity for health care personnel to confidentially and voluntarily report incidents, including adverse events, occurring in their work environment. Active surveillance systems systematically monitor patient encounters to seek detailed information about adverse events that occur in work environments; unlike passive surveillance, active surveillance allows for collection of both numerator (number of adverse events) and denominator (number of patients seen) data. Chiropractic manual therapy is commonly used in both adults and children, yet few studies have been done to evaluate the safety of chiropractic manual therapy for children. In an attempt to evaluate this, this study will compare adverse event reporting in passive versus active surveillance systems after chiropractic manual therapy in the pediatric population. This cluster randomized controlled trial aims to enroll 70 physicians of chiropractic (unit of randomization) to either passive or active surveillance system to report adverse events that occur after treatment for 60 consecutive pediatric (13 years of age and younger) patient visits (unit of analysis). A modified enrollment process with a two-phase consent procedure will be implemented to maintain provider blinding and minimize dropouts. The first phase of consent is for the provider to confirm their interest in a trial investigating the safety of chiropractic manual therapy. The second phase ensures that they understand the specific requirements for the group to which they were randomized. Percentages, incidence estimates, and 95% confidence intervals will be used to describe the count of reported adverse events in each group. The primary outcome will be the number and quality of the adverse event reports in the active versus the passive surveillance group. With 80% power and 5% one-sided significance

  12. Effectiveness and tolerability of parenteral testosterone undecanoate: a post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jan; Keipert, Dieter; Motazedi, Heiko; Ernst, Michael; Nettleship, Joanne; Gooren, Louis

    2017-12-01

    This observational post-marketing study of parenteral testosterone undecanoate (TU) in a non-selected population aimed to: examine the effectiveness of TU as treatment of hypogonadism; record adverse drug reactions (ADR) quantitatively particularly regarding polycythemia, prostate safety and cardiovascular-related metabolic risk factors; and verify whether recommended injection intervals apply to routine clinical practice. Eight hundred and seventy subjects from 259 outpatient units scheduled to visit the clinic six times were included. Effectiveness and tolerability of TU administration were assessed on a 4-point scale. Body weight, waist girth, blood pressure, hemoglobin levels, hematocrit, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and digital rectal prostate examination were assessed. Over 90% of subjects completed the observational duration of 52.8 ± 9.7 weeks (mean ± SD) and 56% judged effectiveness as very good, 30.8% as good. 63.1% judged tolerability as very good, and 24.4% as good. No adverse effects on indicators of cardiovascular risk were observed. Polycythemia occurred in one subject and a supranormal hematocrit in one subject. Four subjects developed supranormal PSA levels. Prostate carcinoma was found in one subject, one subject had recurrence of a previously surgically treated prostate carcinoma, and the other two showed no indication of malignancy. Parenteral TU is safe, effective, and well-tolerated in clinical practice proving a good therapeutic option for hypogonadism.

  13. A study on surveillance of environmental factors affecting the variation of indoor radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Shin Ae; Kim, Ok Ja; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Cho, Eun Ok; Choi, Yun Sun; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Park, Seon Hye; Han, Hyeon Sun [Hankook Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Before the main survey, a preliminary survey was carried out to decide the most suitable type of a radon detector the most appropriate places to install such a radon detector. To this end, three types of detectors were set up in 108 locations, approximately 3% of 3,000 to measure the radon levels, and 102 detectors(94%) were collected. As a result of the preliminary survey, Radtrack was chosen as a radon detector for the main survey, and bedrooms on the first floor of houses and the first floor of public buildings were decided to be the places for the first installment of detectors. It is most desirable to survey the radon concentrations in all houses nationwide. Considering the survey period and budgets, however, 3,000 spots were targeted for the main survey at the recommendation of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety in charge of this study. As it is important to maintain the same panels for a year to measure the radon concentrations at 3,000 locations, a total of 3,237 panels, 10% more than the target sample number, were surveyed considering the possible loss of panels during the survey period. The first radon detector was installed in each of 3,237 spots in December 1999, and collected three months later in March 2000, followed by the installment of the second detector.

  14. Negotiating privacy in surveillant welfare relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Bøge, Ask Risom

    . However, while privacy is central to debates of surveillance, it has proven less productive as an analytical resource for studying surveillance in practice. Consequently, this paper reviews different conceptualisations of privacy in relation to welfare and surveillance and argues for strengthening...... the analytical capacity of the concept by rendering it a situated and relational concept. The argument is developed through a research and design project called Teledialogue meant to improve the relation between case managers and children placed at institutions or in foster families. Privacy in Teledialogue...... notion of privacy are discussed in relation to both research- and public debates on surveillance in a welfare setting....

  15. Epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E: a community-based surveillance study in a rural population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Cai; Huang, Shou-Jie; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Zhong-Ze; Ai, Xing; Yan, Qiang; Yang, Chang-Lin; Cai, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Han-Min; Wang, Yi-Jun; Ng, Mun-Hon; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E is caused by two viral genotype groups: human types and zoonotic types. Current understanding of the epidemiology of the zoonotic hepatitis E disease is founded largely on hospital-based studies. The epidemiology of hepatitis E was investigated in a community-based surveillance study conducted over one year in a rural city in eastern China with a registered population of 400,162. The seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the cohort was 38%. The incidence of hepatitis E was 2.8/10,000 person-years. Totally 93.5% of the infections were attributed to genotype 4 and the rest, to genotype 1. Hepatitis E accounted for 28.4% (102/359) of the acute hepatitis cases and 68.9% (102/148) of the acute viral hepatitis cases in this area of China. The disease occurred sporadically with a higher prevalence during the cold season and in men, with the male-to-female ratio of 3∶1. Additionally, the incidence of hepatitis E increased with age. Hepatitis B virus carriers have an increased risk of contracting hepatitis E than the general population (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.5-4.2). Pre-existing immunity to hepatitis E lowered the risk (relative risk  = 0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.55) and reduced the severity of the disease. Hepatitis E in the rural population of China is essentially that of a zoonosis due to the genotype 4 virus, the epidemiology of which is similar to that due to the other zoonotic genotype 3 virus.

  16. Epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E: a community-based surveillance study in a rural population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cai Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E is caused by two viral genotype groups: human types and zoonotic types. Current understanding of the epidemiology of the zoonotic hepatitis E disease is founded largely on hospital-based studies. METHODS: The epidemiology of hepatitis E was investigated in a community-based surveillance study conducted over one year in a rural city in eastern China with a registered population of 400,162. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the cohort was 38%. The incidence of hepatitis E was 2.8/10,000 person-years. Totally 93.5% of the infections were attributed to genotype 4 and the rest, to genotype 1. Hepatitis E accounted for 28.4% (102/359 of the acute hepatitis cases and 68.9% (102/148 of the acute viral hepatitis cases in this area of China. The disease occurred sporadically with a higher prevalence during the cold season and in men, with the male-to-female ratio of 3∶1. Additionally, the incidence of hepatitis E increased with age. Hepatitis B virus carriers have an increased risk of contracting hepatitis E than the general population (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.5-4.2. Pre-existing immunity to hepatitis E lowered the risk (relative risk  = 0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.55 and reduced the severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis E in the rural population of China is essentially that of a zoonosis due to the genotype 4 virus, the epidemiology of which is similar to that due to the other zoonotic genotype 3 virus.

  17. Effects of sex on the incidence and prognosis of spinal meningiomas: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Harrison J; Shamji, Mohammed F

    2015-09-01

    Most spinal meningiomas are intradural lesions in the thoracic spine that present with both local pain and myelopathy. By using the large prospective Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, the authors studied the incidence of spinal meningiomas and examined demographic and treatment factors predictive of death. Using SEER*Stat software, the authors queried the SEER database for cases of spinal meningioma between 2000 and 2010. From the results, tumor incidence and demographic statistics were computed; incidence was analyzed as a function of tumor location, pathology, age, sex, and malignancy code. Survival was analyzed by using a Cox proportional hazards ratio in SPSS for age, sex, marital status, primary site, size quartile, treatment modality, and malignancy code. In this analysis, significance was set at a p value of 0.05. The 1709 spinal meningiomas reported in the SEER database represented 30.7% of all primary intradural spinal tumors and 7.9% of all meningiomas. These meningiomas occurred at an age-adjusted incidence of 0.193 (95% CI 0.183-0.202) per 100,000 population and were closely related to sex (337 [19.7%] male patients and 1372 [80.3%] female patients). The Cox hazard function for mortality in males was higher (2.4 [95% CI1.7-3.5]) and statistically significant, despite the lower lesion incidence in males. All-cause survival was lowest in patients older than 80 years. Primary site and treatment modality were not significant predictors of mortality. Spinal meningiomas represent a significant fraction of all primary intradural spinal tumors and of all meningiomas. The results of this study establish the association of lesion incidence and survival with sex, with a less frequent incidence in but greater mortality among males.

  18. Value of cyclin A immunohistochemistry for cancer risk stratification in Barrett esophagus surveillance: A multicenter case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Olphen, Sophie H; Ten Kate, Fiebo J C; Doukas, Michail; Kastelein, Florine; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Stoop, Hans A; Spaander, Manon C; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Bruno, Marco J; Biermann, Katharina

    2016-11-01

    The value of endoscopic Barrett esophagus (BE) surveillance based on histological diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) remains debated given the lack of adequate risk stratification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of cyclin A expression and to combine these results with our previously reported immunohistochemical p53, AMACR, and SOX2 data, to identify a panel of biomarkers predicting neoplastic progression in BE.We conducted a case-control study within a prospective cohort of 720 BE patients. BE patients who progressed to high-grade dysplasia (HGD, n = 37) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC, n = 13), defined as neoplastic progression, were classified as cases and patients without neoplastic progression were classified as controls (n = 575). Cyclin A expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in all 625 patients; these results were combined with the histological diagnosis and our previous p53, AMACR, and SOX2 data in loglinear regression models. Differences in discriminatory ability were quantified as changes in area under the ROC curve (AUC) for predicting neoplastic progression.Cyclin A surface positivity significantly increased throughout the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequences and was seen in 10% (107/1050) of biopsy series without dysplasia, 33% (109/335) in LGD, and 69% (34/50) in HGD/EAC. Positive cyclin A expression was associated with an increased risk of neoplastic progression (adjusted relative risk (RR) 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7-3.4). Increases in AUC were substantial for P53 (+0.05), smaller for SOX2 (+0.014), minor for cyclin A (+0.003), and none for AMARC (0.00).Cyclin A immunopositivity was associated with an increased progression risk in BE patients. However, compared to p53 and SOX2, the incremental value of cyclin A was limited. The use of biomarkers has the potential to significantly improve risk stratification in BE.

  19. Triangulating case-finding tools for patient safety surveillance: a cross-sectional case study of puncture/laceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Gerwin, Daniel; Morlock, Laura; Miller, Marlene R

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the need for triangulating case-finding tools in patient safety surveillance. This study applied four case-finding tools to error-associated patient safety events to identify and characterise the spectrum of events captured by these tools, using puncture or laceration as an example for in-depth analysis. Retrospective hospital discharge data were collected for calendar year 2005 (n=48,418) from a large, urban medical centre in the USA. The study design was cross-sectional and used data linkage to identify the cases captured by each of four case-finding tools. Three case-finding tools (International Classification of Diseases external (E) and nature (N) of injury codes, Patient Safety Indicators (PSI)) were applied to the administrative discharge data to identify potential patient safety events. The fourth tool was Patient Safety Net, a web-based voluntary patient safety event reporting system. The degree of mutual exclusion among detection methods was substantial. For example, when linking puncture or laceration on unique identifiers, out of 447 potential events, 118 were identical between PSI and E-codes, 152 were identical between N-codes and E-codes and 188 were identical between PSI and N-codes. Only 100 events that were identified by PSI, E-codes and N-codes were identical. Triangulation of multiple tools through data linkage captures potential patient safety events most comprehensively. Existing detection tools target patient safety domains differently, and consequently capture different occurrences, necessitating the integration of data from a combination of tools to fully estimate the total burden.

  20. The KIzSS network, a sentinel surveillance system for infectious diseases in day care centers: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enserink Remko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Day care-associated infectious diseases are widely recognized as a public health problem but rarely studied. Insights into their dynamics and their association with the day care setting are important for effective decision making in management of infectious disease control. This paper describes the purpose, design and potential of our national multi-center, day care-based sentinel surveillance network for infectious diseases (the KIzSS network. The aim of the KIzSS network is to acquire a long-term insight into the syndromic and microbiological aspects of day care-related infectious diseases and associated disease burden and to model these aspects with day care setting characteristics. Methods/design The KIzSS network applies a prospective cohort design, following day care centers rather than individual children or staff members over time. Data on infectious disease symptoms and related morbidity (children and staff, medical consumption, absenteeism and circulating enteric pathogens (children are collected on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Every two years, a survey is performed to assess the characteristics of participating day care centers. Discussion The KIzSS network offers a unique potential to study infectious disease dynamics in the day care setting over a sustained period of time. The created (biodatabases will help us to assess day care-related disease burden of infectious diseases among attending children and staff and their relation with the day care setting. This will support the much needed development of evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines for infectious disease control in day care centers.

  1. Identifying areas at risk of low birth weight using spatial epidemiology: A small area surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insaf, Tabassum Z; Talbot, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    To assess the geographic distribution of Low Birth Weight (LBW) in New York State among singleton births using a spatial regression approach in order to identify priority areas for public health actions. LBW was defined as birth weight less than 2500g. Geocoded data from 562,586 birth certificates in New York State (years 2008-2012) were merged with 2010 census data at the tract level. To provide stable estimates and maintain confidentiality, data were aggregated to yield 1268 areas of analysis. LBW prevalence among singleton births was related with area-level behavioral, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using a Poisson mixed effects spatial error regression model. Observed low birth weight showed statistically significant auto-correlation in our study area (Moran's I 0.16 p value 0.0005). After over-dispersion correction and accounting for fixed effects for selected social determinants, spatial autocorrelation was fully accounted for (Moran's I-0.007 p value 0.241). The proportion of LBW was higher in areas with larger Hispanic or Black populations and high smoking prevalence. Smoothed maps with predicted prevalence were developed to identify areas at high risk of LBW. Spatial patterns of residual variation were analyzed to identify unique risk factors. Neighborhood racial composition contributes to disparities in LBW prevalence beyond differences in behavioral and socioeconomic factors. Small-area analyses of LBW can identify areas for targeted interventions and display unique local patterns that should be accounted for in prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy: results from the prospective Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Maija; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Klungsøyr, Kari; Krebs, Lone; Børdahl, Per E; Gottvall, Karin; Källén, Karin; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður I; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Gissler, Mika

    2015-07-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors of emergency peripartum hysterectomy. Nordic collaborative study. 605 362 deliveries across the five Nordic countries. We collected data prospectively from patients undergoing emergency peripartum hysterectomy within 7 days of delivery from medical birth registers and hospital discharge registers. Control populations consisted of all other women delivering on the same units during the same time period. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy rate. The total number of emergency peripartum hysterectomies reached 211, yielding an incidence rate of 3.5/10 000 (95% confidence interval 3.0-4.0) births. Finland had the highest prevalence (5.1) and Norway the lowest (2.9). Primary indications included an abnormally invasive placenta (n = 91, 43.1%), atonic bleeding (n = 69, 32.7%), uterine rupture (n = 31, 14.7%), other bleeding disorders (n = 12, 5.7%), and other indications (n = 8, 3.8%). The delivery mode was cesarean section in nearly 80% of cases. Previous cesarean section was reported in 45% of women. Both preterm and post-term birth increased the risk for emergency peripartum hysterectomy. The number of stillbirths was substantially high (70/1000), but the case fatality rate stood at 0.47% (one death, maternal mortality rate 0.17/100 000 deliveries). A combination of prospective data collected from clinicians and information gathered from register-based databases can yield valuable data, improving the registration accuracy for rare, near-miss cases. However, proper and uniform clinical guidelines for the use of well-defined international diagnostic codes are still needed. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. The role of travel in measles outbreaks in Australia - An enhanced surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, C R; Karki, S; Sheikh, M; Zwar, N; Heywood, A E

    2016-08-17

    Many developed countries, like Australia, maintain a high population level immunity against measles, however, there remains a risk of acquisition of measles in non-immune travellers and subsequent importation into Australia leading to localised outbreaks. In this study, we estimate the incidence of measles and describe characteristics including immunisation and pre-travel health seeking behaviour of notified cases of measles in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia between February 2013 and January 2014. Cases were followed up by telephone interview using a questionnaire to collect information of demographic and travel characteristics. In NSW, the incidence was highest in age group 0-9years (20/million population) whereas in Victoria the highest incidence was observed in 10-19 (23/million population) years group. Out of 44 cases interviewed, 25 (56.8%) had history of travel outside of Australia during or immediately prior to the onset of measles. Holiday (60%) was the main reason for travel with 44% (11/25) reporting visiting friends and relatives (VFR) during the trip. The major reason described for not seeking prior medical advice before travel were "no perceived risk of diseases" (41%) and "previous overseas travel without any problem" (41%). Of the 25 measles cases with recent overseas travel during the incubation period, one reported a measles vaccine prior to their recent trip. Four cases were children of parents who refused vaccination. Twenty out of 25 (80.0%) had attended mass gathering events. Young adults and VFR travellers should be a high priority for preventive strategies in order to maintain measles elimination status. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Peer counselling for doctors in Norway: A qualitative study of the relationship between support and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson Rø, Karin; Veggeland, Frode; Aasland, Olaf G

    2016-08-01

    Peer support can entail collegial responsibility for counselling and support as well as reactions to academic or ethical failure. These considerations can be complementary, but also conflicting. This article focuses on how the peer support programme in Norway addresses these considerations. Focus group interviews held with Norwegian peer counsellors from August 2011 to June 2012 were analysed by a stepwise deductive-inductive method. Based on organisational theory, two "ideal types" of counsellors were identified from the data, and these were then used to reanalyse the text. We found that the organisational framework is associated with the peer counsellors' role conception and thereby the relationship between the counsellor and the help-seeking doctor. The relationship between informal frameworks like collegiality, confidence and discretion, and more formalized incentive-driven frameworks, appear to influence the accessibility to peer support, the mandate to provide relevant help and the understanding of what peer support represents. The study showed the need for a continuous awareness of a balance between the informal and the more formalized elements in the framework for peer support. This is of importance for how the service can contribute to better health among doctors and to secure quality and safety in the treatment of patients. The analysis can also be used to demonstrate the consequences of how the peer support program is designed - such as the degree of formalisation and the balance between "hard" and "soft" ways to regulate the interaction between peer counsellors and doctors - for the ability to achieve the stated objectives of the service. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The potential of the European network of congenital anomaly registers (EUROCAT) for drug safety surveillance : a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Willemijn M.; Cornel, Martina C.; Dolk, Helen; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Armstrong, Nicola C.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Background European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) is a network of population-based congenital anomaly registries in Europe surveying more than I million births per year, or 25% of the births in the European Union. This paper describes the potential of the EUROCAT collaboration for

  6. Facebook use during relationship termination: uncertainty reduction and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Stephanie Tom

    2013-11-01

    Many studies document how individuals use Facebook to meet partners or develop and maintain relationships. Less is known about information-seeking behaviors during the stages of relationship termination. Relational dissolution is a socially embedded activity, and affordances of social network sites offer many advantages in reducing uncertainty after a breakup. A survey collected responses from 110 individuals who use Facebook to gather information about their romantic ex-partners. Results indicated that after breakup, partners may take advantage of the system's information visibility and the relative invisibility of movement depending on relational factors (initiator role and breakup uncertainty), social factors (perceived network approval of Facebook surveillance), and individual privacy concerns. This investigation addresses questions such as what type of information-seeking foci do individuals employ and how do individuals use Facebook as a form of surveillance? What factors motivate surveillance behavior?

  7. Feasibility, acceptability and preliminary psychological benefits of mindfulness meditation training in a sample of men diagnosed with prostate cancer on active surveillance: results from a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorson, David; Hankin, Vered; Burns, James; Weiland, Rebecca; Maletich, Carly; Sufrin, Nathaniel; Schuette, Stephanie; Gutierrez, Bruriah; Brendler, Charles

    2017-08-01

    In a pilot randomized controlled trial, examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an 8-week, mindfulness training program (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction) in a sample of men on active surveillance on important psychological outcomes including prostate cancer anxiety, uncertainty intolerance and posttraumatic growth. Men were randomized to either mindfulness (n = 24) or an attention control arm (n = 19) and completed self-reported measures of prostate cancer anxiety, uncertainty intolerance, global quality of life, mindfulness and posttraumatic growth at baseline, 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. Participants in the mindfulness arm demonstrated significant decreases in prostate cancer anxiety and uncertainty intolerance, and significant increases in mindfulness, global mental health and posttraumatic growth. Participants in the control condition also demonstrated significant increases in mindfulness over time. Longitudinal increases in posttraumatic growth were significantly larger in the mindfulness arm than they were in the control arm. While mindfulness training was found to be generally feasible and acceptable among participants who enrolled in the 8-week intervention as determined by completion rates and open-ended survey responses, the response rate between initial enrollment and the total number of men approached was lower than desired (47%). While larger sample sizes are necessary to examine the efficacy of mindfulness training on important psychological outcomes, in this pilot study posttraumatic growth was shown to significantly increase over time for men in the treatment group. Mindfulness training has the potential to help men cope more effectively with some of the stressors and uncertainties associated with active surveillance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Atrial Fibrillation Screening in Nonmetropolitan Areas Using a Telehealth Surveillance System With an Embedded Cloud-Computing Algorithm: Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Hsien; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Ching-Chang; Hung, Yu-Chien; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Ho, Yi-Lwun

    2017-09-26

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common form of arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk of stroke and mortality. Detecting AF before the first complication occurs is a recognized priority. No previous studies have examined the feasibility of undertaking AF screening using a telehealth surveillance system with an embedded cloud-computing algorithm; we address this issue in this study. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of AF screening in nonmetropolitan areas using a telehealth surveillance system with an embedded cloud-computing algorithm. We conducted a prospective AF screening study in a nonmetropolitan area using a single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recorder. All ECG measurements were reviewed on the telehealth surveillance system and interpreted by the cloud-computing algorithm and a cardiologist. The process of AF screening was evaluated with a satisfaction questionnaire. Between March 11, 2016 and August 31, 2016, 967 ECGs were recorded from 922 residents in nonmetropolitan areas. A total of 22 (2.4%, 22/922) residents with AF were identified by the physician's ECG interpretation, and only 0.2% (2/967) of ECGs contained significant artifacts. The novel cloud-computing algorithm for AF detection had a sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI 77.2%-99.9%) and specificity of 97.7% (95% CI 96.5%-98.5%). The overall satisfaction score for the process of AF screening was 92.1%. AF screening in nonmetropolitan areas using a telehealth surveillance system with an embedded cloud-computing algorithm is feasible. ©Ying-Hsien Chen, Chi-Sheng Hung, Ching-Chang Huang, Yu-Chien Hung, Juey-Jen Hwang, Yi-Lwun Ho. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 26.09.2017.

  9. Surveillance of Water Quality in the Songhuajiang River System in Heilongjiang Province - Pre-feasibility study - 1995. Travel report from Heilongjiang Province, China, Oct./Nov

    OpenAIRE

    Wathne, B.

    1996-01-01

    A request for co-operation on a system for water quality surveillance of Songhuajiang River System in Heilongjiang Province, China, was received by NIVA from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Heilongjiang Province. Funds were made available from NORAD, to initiate a co-operative work with the EPA. T. Skancke, NORGIT Centre, and B. M. Wathne, NIVA, travelled to Harbin, capital of Heilongjiang Province, to make a pre-feasibility study and project plans for further co-operation. T...

  10. Atrial Fibrillation Screening in Nonmetropolitan Areas Using a Telehealth Surveillance System With an Embedded Cloud-Computing Algorithm: Prospective Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Hsien; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Ching-Chang; Hung, Yu-Chien

    2017-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common form of arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk of stroke and mortality. Detecting AF before the first complication occurs is a recognized priority. No previous studies have examined the feasibility of undertaking AF screening using a telehealth surveillance system with an embedded cloud-computing algorithm; we address this issue in this study. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of AF screening in nonmetropolitan areas using a telehealth surveillance system with an embedded cloud-computing algorithm. Methods We conducted a prospective AF screening study in a nonmetropolitan area using a single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recorder. All ECG measurements were reviewed on the telehealth surveillance system and interpreted by the cloud-computing algorithm and a cardiologist. The process of AF screening was evaluated with a satisfaction questionnaire. Results Between March 11, 2016 and August 31, 2016, 967 ECGs were recorded from 922 residents in nonmetropolitan areas. A total of 22 (2.4%, 22/922) residents with AF were identified by the physician’s ECG interpretation, and only 0.2% (2/967) of ECGs contained significant artifacts. The novel cloud-comp