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Sample records for active softening process

  1. Cellulase Activity and Fruit Softening in Avocado 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesis, Edna; Fuchs, Yoram; Zauberman, Giora

    1978-01-01

    Cellulase activity in detached avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruits was found to be directly correlated with ripening processes such as climacteric rise of respiration, ethylene evolutin, and softening. This activity in the pericarp could be induced by ethylene treatment, and the more mature the fruit—the faster and the greater was the response. Only a very low cellulase activity could be detected in hard avocado fruit right after harvest. Cellulase activity was highest at the distal end of the fruit, lower in the midsection, and lowest at the proximal end. The enzyme is heat-labile and appeared to have activity of an endocellulase nature mainly. Electron micrographs of cell walls from hard and soft fruits are presented. ImagesFig. 4 PMID:16660305

  2. Precipitation softening: a pretreatment process for seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, George M; Zayyat, Ramez M; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of membrane fouling in reverse osmosis systems and elimination of scaling of heat transfer surfaces in thermal plants are a major challenge in the desalination of seawater. Precipitation softening has the potential of eliminating the major fouling and scaling species in seawater desalination plants, thus allowing thermal plants to operate at higher top brine temperatures and membrane plants to operate at a reduced risk of fouling, leading to lower desalinated water costs. This work evaluated the use of precipitation softening as a pretreatment step for seawater desalination. The effectiveness of the process in removing several scale-inducing materials such as calcium, magnesium, silica, and boron was investigated under variable conditions of temperature and pH. The treatment process was also applied to seawater spiked with other known fouling species such as iron and bacteria to determine the efficiency of removal. The results of this work show that precipitation softening at a pH of 11 leads to complete elimination of calcium, silica, and bacteria; to very high removal efficiencies of magnesium and iron (99.6 and 99.2 %, respectively); and to a reasonably good removal efficiency of boron (61 %).

  3. Cyclic softening and thermally activated deformation of titanium and zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, J.I.; Handfield, L.; L' Esperance, G. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Genie Metallurgique)

    1983-08-01

    Cyclic softening in commercial purity zirconium and titanium corresponds principally to a decrease in effective stress and to an increase in screw dislocation mobility. This result indicates that the thermally activated deformation of these metals is not controlled by the overcoming of individual interstitial solute atoms by dislocations as usually proposed.

  4. The softening effect of heat-treated strengthened Al-Zn-Mg alloy in welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Chen, Jingqing; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Weld joint softening occurs during the welding process of heat-treatable aluminum alloys and strongly influences the mechanical properties. In this work, the softening of heat-treated Al-Zn-Mg alloy was studied in the multipass welding process. By Gleeble-3500 thermal-mechanical simulator, the heat treatment and tensile test with welding thermal cycles were carried out to simulate the microstructure evolution and mechanical softening during multipass welding. After that, the softening mechanism of the HAZ was analyzed by microstructure analysis. The results indicate that the heat-treated Al-Zn-Mg alloy exhibited obvious softening after several thermal cycles with peak temperature higher than 200∘C, and this phenomenon is worse with increasing peak temperature. Based on the microstructure analysis, it was found that the reinforcement phase changes according to the applied thermal cycles, which strongly affects the strength of Al-Zn-Mg alloys.

  5. A novel eco-friendly technique for efficient control of lime water softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovar, Mohamad; Amiri, Mohamad

    2013-12-01

    Lime softening is an established type of water treatment used for water softening. The performance of this process is highly dependent on lime dosage. Currently, lime dosage is adjusted manually based on chemical tests, aimed at maintaining the phenolphthalein (P) and total (M) alkalinities within a certain range (2 P - M > or = 5). In this paper, a critical study of the softening process has been presented. It has been shown that the current method is frequently incorrect. Furthermore, electrical conductivity (EC) has been introduced as a novel indicator for effectively characterizing the lime softening process.This novel technique has several advantages over the current alkalinities method. Because no chemical reagents are needed for titration, which is a simple test, there is a considerable reduction in test costs. Additionally, there is a reduction in the treated water hardness and generated sludge during the lime softening process. Therefore, it is highly eco-friendly, and is a very cost effective alternative technique for efficient control of the lime softening process.

  6. USE OF NATURAL ZEOLITES (KLINOPTILOLIT IN WATER SOFTENING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur SABAH

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the potential for the elimination of hardness of the water by using zeolitic tuff (klinoptilolit obtained from the upper layer tuff of Balıkesir-Bigadiç, where the richest deposits are located in our country, has been investigated; as a means of water supply, daily usage water of campus, Selçuk University, was utilized to wich none of the pre-refining process was applied apart from chloring. At first, zeolite samples of -0.85+0.60 mm were regenerated by NaOH and the change in the hardness of water passing through zeolitic bad in ion exchange column at a constant rate was abserved. After optimizing the regeneration conditions in this way, the effect of the velocity of water fed into zeolitic bad and the water left in the column on the elimination of water hardness were also searched. As a result, the lowest value of water hardness was obtained by taking the water feeding rates at 10 ml/sec. and using zeolite regenerated with 0.75 M NaOH. Additionally, it was seen that the highest working capacity will be reached under these circumstances.

  7. Reversible stress softening in layered rat esophagus in vitro after potassium chloride activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongbo; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo; Wang, Guixue; Gregersen, Hans

    2017-01-23

    Significant stress softening recovery after potassium chloride (KCl) administration was previously demonstrated in the intact rat esophageal wall. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of KCl activation on stress softening recovery in the separated mucosa-submucosa layer and muscle layer of rat esophagus. Three series of loading-unloading distensions were carried out on 10 rat esophagi where the two separated layers were distended at luminal pressure levels 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kPa. Numerous distension cycles were done in [Formula: see text]-free Krebs solution before and after activation with KCl (110 mmol) for 3 min in calcium-containing media. The diameter and luminal pressure were recorded for stress and strain calculation. During KCl activation, the muscle layer responded with a high-amplitude contraction, and the mucosa-submucosa layer responded with a longer-lasting low-amplitude contraction. The hysteresis loop areas from the muscle layer were significantly bigger than those from the mucosa-submucosa layer at distension pressures 1.0 and 2.0 kPa ([Formula: see text]). The calculated stiffness in the mucosa-submucosa layer was significantly higher than that in the muscle layer ([Formula: see text]). After activation with KCl, the stored energy and the stiffness after the stress and viscoelasticity softening increased in both layers, indicating that the reversible stress softening in esophagus after KCl activation is existed in both layers.

  8. Application of fractal dimensions to study the structure of flocs formed in lime softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Arman; Gorczyca, Beata

    2011-01-01

    The use of fractal dimensions to study the internal structure and settling of flocs formed in lime softening process was investigated. Fractal dimensions of flocs were measured directly on floc images and indirectly from their settling velocity. An optical microscope with a motorized stage was used to measure the fractal dimensions of lime softening flocs directly on their images in 2 and 3D space. The directly determined fractal dimensions of the lime softening flocs were 1.11-1.25 for floc boundary, 1.82-1.99 for cross-sectional area and 2.6-2.99 for floc volume. The fractal dimension determined indirectly from the flocs settling rates was 1.87 that was different from the 3D fractal dimension determined directly on floc images. This discrepancy is due to the following incorrect assumptions used for fractal dimensions determined from floc settling rates: linear relationship between square settling velocity and floc size (Stokes' Law), Euclidean relationship between floc size and volume, constant fractal dimensions and one primary particle size describing entire population of flocs. Floc settling model incorporating variable floc fractal dimensions as well as variable primary particle size was found to describe the settling velocity of large (>50 μm) lime softening flocs better than Stokes' Law. Settling velocities of smaller flocs (lime floc size in this study indicated that two mechanisms are involved in the formation of these flocs: cluster-cluster aggregation for small flocs (50 μm). Therefore, the relationship between the floc fractal dimension and floc size appears to be determined by floc formation mechanisms.

  9. Influence Mechanism of Endogenous Abscisic Acid on Storage Softening Process of Hardy Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shuqian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the relation of Abscisic Acid (ABA with other biochemistry factors during hardy kiwifruit softening process. The changing trend of ABA under the fruits storage conditions of 20 and 0C was analyzed. A conclusion is drawn as below: During storage under 20C, it shows the highest content of ABA in 4 days to 222.19 &mu g/L, which reaches the almost same content in 3 and 5 days. The value keeps inclining since 5 days and decline rate is lower in 7 and 8 days. The lowest value is reached to 20.88 &mug/L in 10 days. During storage under 0C, ABA content is at a relatively high level but shows the slow down trend. ABA content falls greatly from 9 to 11 days. After this period, ABA content still follows up-trend and declining then. The peak appears in 15 days to 90.49 &mug/L, but it is lower than that in the first nine days. Moreover, peak during storage in environment under 0C is lower than that during the storage in environment at normal temperature, accordingly delaying fruit softening. As the ABA content rises to the highest level, the fruit hardness drops drastically. When ABA content slightly changes, the hardness decreases gently. ABA content is featured that same changing trend of ethylene content, respiratory intensity, pectase content and amylase content. Moreover, ABA has the same peak appearance time as amylase but it is later than appearance of both pectase and ethylene, they basically match each other. The rule of peak appearance time is not obvious for ABA and amylase. Mutual inhibition exists between peak appearance time of ABA and respiratory intensity. Quick ABA rise is accompanied with slow amylase rise and vice versa.

  10. Effect of acoustic softening on the thermal-mechanical process of ultrasonic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunkun; Zhang, Yansong; Wang, Hongze

    2017-03-01

    Application of ultrasonic energy can reduce the static stress necessary for plastic deformation of metallic materials to reduce forming load and energy, namely acoustic softening effect (ASE). Ultrasonic welding (USW) is a rapid joining process utilizing ultrasonic energy to form a solid state joint between two or more pieces of metals. Quantitative characterization of ASE and its influence on specimen deformation and heat generation is essential to clarify the thermal-mechanical process of ultrasonic welding. In the present work, experiments were set up to found out mechanical behavior of copper and aluminum under combined effect of compression force and ultrasonic energy. Constitutive model was proposed and numerical implemented in finite element model of ultrasonic welding. Thermal-mechanical analysis was put forward to explore the effect of ultrasonic energy on the welding process quantitatively. Conclusions can be drawn that ASE increases structural deformation significantly, which is beneficial for joint formation. Meanwhile, heat generation from both frictional work and plastic deformation is slightly influenced by ASE. Based on the proposed model, relationship between ultrasonic energy and thermal-mechanical behavior of structure during ultrasonic welding was constructed.

  11. An active head-neck model in whole-body vibration: vibration magnitude and softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatalla, Salam; Liu, Ye

    2012-04-05

    An active head-neck model is introduced in this work to predict human-dynamic response to different vibration magnitudes during fore-aft whole-body vibration. The proposed model is a rigid-link dynamic system augmented with passive spring-damper tissue-like elements and additional active dampers that resemble the active part of the muscles. The additional active dampers are functions of the input displacement, velocity, and acceleration and are based on active control theories and a kd-tree data-searching scheme. Five human subjects exposed to random fore-aft vibration with frequency content of 0.5-10 Hz were tested under different vibration with magnitudes of 0.46 m/s(2), 1.32 m/s(2), and 1.66 m/s(2) rms. The results showed that the proposed model was able to reasonably capture the softening characteristics of the human head-neck response during fore-aft whole-body vibration of different magnitudes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Circular economy in drinking water treatment: reuse of ground pellets as seeding material in the pellet softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, M J A; van der Hoek, J P; Kramer, O J I; Kors, L J; Palmen, L J; Hofs, B; Koppers, H

    2015-01-01

    Calcium carbonate pellets are produced as a by-product in the pellet softening process. In the Netherlands, these pellets are applied as a raw material in several industrial and agricultural processes. The sand grain inside the pellet hinders the application in some high-potential market segments such as paper and glass. Substitution of the sand grain with a calcite grain (100% calcium carbonate) is in principle possible, and could significantly improve the pellet quality. In this study, the grinding and sieving of pellets, and the subsequent reuse as seeding material in pellet softening were tested with two pilot reactors in parallel. In one reactor, garnet sand was used as seeding material, in the other ground calcite. Garnet sand and ground calcite performed equally well. An economic comparison and a life-cycle assessment were made as well. The results show that the reuse of ground calcite as seeding material in pellet softening is technologically possible, reduces the operational costs by €38,000 (1%) and reduces the environmental impact by 5%. Therefore, at the drinking water facility, Weesperkarspel of Waternet, the transition from garnet sand to ground calcite will be made at full scale, based on this pilot plant research.

  13. Technological Process and Equipment for Electric-local Softening Soil of Different Strength and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizun, A.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric-discharge technology for soil local softening is developed; the pre-production model of mobile high-energy electric-discharge generator with the controlled energy release is produced. Application of the proposed equipment and technology will allow essentially reduce construction materials and cost of the installation and construction works, in particular, capital investments in alternative energy, industrial, residential construction, and hydraulic engineering in general.

  14. Cyclic softening as a parameter for prediction of remnant creep rupture life of a Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (IN-RAFM) steel subjected to fatigue exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Aritra, E-mail: aritra@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Vijayanand, V.D.; Shankar, Vani; Parameswaran, P.; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Rajendrakumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2014-12-15

    Sequential fatigue-creep tests were conducted on Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel at 823 K leading to sharp decrease in residual creep life with increase in prior fatigue exposures. Extensive recovery of martensitic-lath structure taking place during fatigue deformation, manifested as cyclic softening in the cyclic stress response, shortens the residual creep life. Based on the experimental results, cyclic softening occurring during fatigue stage can be correlated with residual creep life, evolving in an empirical model which predicts residual creep life as a function of cyclic softening. Predicted creep lives for specimens pre-cycled at various strain amplitudes are explained on the basis of mechanism of cyclic softening.

  15. Effects of water re-saturation conditions and associated extractives leaching on thermal softening of wet wood

    OpenAIRE

    BREMAUD, Iris; Bardet, Sandrine; Gril, Joseph; Perré, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Thermal softening, or thermo-activated viscoelasticity, is involved in several industrial and/or traditional craftsmanship techniques processing of wood. More fundamentally, it represents a very useful probe of chemical differences and/or of physical histories of wood samples [1,2,3,4,5]. Thermal softening of wet (= water-saturated) wood occurs at much lower temperature than that of completely (anhydrous) dried wood [6,7]. Softening of oven-dry wood happens at temperat...

  16. RESEARCH ON THE WARM FORGING OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS:DEVELOPMENT OF A FORMULA TO DESCRIBE THE SOFTENING BEHAVIOR OF A2011 IN FORGING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.H. Zhang, K. Osakada; X. Y. Ruan

    2003-01-01

    To understand the forming behaviour of aluminum alloys, the upsetting test of alu-minum alloys at evaluated temperature is conducted. Because in warm forging theflow stress decreases with increasing straining, which is so-called work softening, noappropriate material formulation is available. For the evaluation of flow stress ofaluminum alloys in warm forging processes, in this paper, a formula is derived byanalyzing the stress data measured at various temperatures. It is demonstrated thatthe formula fits the flow stress obtained from experiment.

  17. Insights into transcriptional regulation of β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase, an N-glycan-processing enzyme involved in ripening-associated fruit softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Mohammad; Ghosh, Sumit; Kumar, Vinay; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2014-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex), plays an important role in the ripening-associated fruit-softening process. However, the regulation of fruit ripening-specific expression of β-Hex is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the fruit ripening-specific promoter of β-Hex and provided insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Our results demonstrate that RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a global fruit ripening regulator, and ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING 1 (SlASR1), a poorly characterized ripening-related protein, are the transcriptional regulators of β-Hex. Both RIN and SlASR1 directly bound to the β-Hex promoter fragments containing CArG and C₂₋₃(C/G)A cis-acting elements, the binding sites for RIN and SlASR1, respectively. Moreover, β-Hex expression/promoter activity in tomato fruits was downregulated once expression of either RIN or SlASR1 was suppressed; indicating that RIN and SlASR1 positively regulate the transcription of β-Hex during fruit ripening. Interestingly, RIN could also bind to the SlASR1 promoter, which contains several CArG cis-acting elements, and SlASR1 expression was suppressed in rin mutant fruits, indicating that RIN also acts as a positive regulator of SlASR1 expression during fruit ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that RIN, both directly and indirectly, through SlASR1, regulates the transcription of β-Hex during fruit ripening. The fruit ripening-specific promoter of β-Hex could be a useful tool in regulating gene expression during fruit ripening.

  18. The Influence of Processing Conditions on Microchemistry and the Softening Behavior of Cold Rolled Al-Mn-Fe-Si Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using different homogenization treatments, different initial microchemistry conditions in terms of solid solution levels of Mn, and number densities and sizes of constituents and dispersoids were achieved in an Al-Mn-Fe-Si model alloy. For each homogenized condition, the microchemistry and microstructure, which further change both during deformation and subsequent annealing, were quantitatively characterized. The influence of the different microchemistries, with special focus on different particle structures (constituents and dispersoids, on the softening behavior during annealing after cold rolling and the final grain structure has been systematically studied. Time-Temperature-Transformation diagrams with respect to precipitation and recrystallization as a basis for analysis of the degree of concurrent precipitation during back-annealing have been established. Densely distributed fine pre-existing dispersoids and/or conditions of significant concurrent precipitation strongly slows down recrystallization kinetics and lead to a grain structure of coarse and strongly elongated grains. At the lowest annealing temperatures, recrystallization may even be completely suppressed. In conditions of low number density and coarse pre-existing dispersoids, and limited additional concurrent precipitation, recrystallization generally results in an even, fine and equi-axed grain structure. Rough calculations of recrystallized grain size, assuming particle stimulated nucleation as the main nucleation mechanism, compare well with experimentally measured grain sizes.

  19. Softening and Mineral Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Leaves During the Fermentation to Produce Ntoba mbodi

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mokemiabeka; J. Dhellot; S.C. Kobawila; P. Diakabana; R.N. Ntietie Loukombo; A.G. Nyanga-Koumou; D. Louembe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate the softening of cassava leaves during the fermentation of Ntoba mbodi and the mineral content of cassava leaves fermented and unfermented. The softening of cassava leaves is a characteristic of fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. It is due to an enzymatic process. The activity of cellulase and polygalacturonase enzymes, very weak at the beginning of fermentation, increases sharply in 24 h and decreases thereafter. The pectinesterase and pectin lyase activi...

  20. Expression and location of endo-beta-mannanase during the ripening of tomato fruit, and the relationship between its activity and softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aoxue; Li, Jingfu; Zhang, Bingxiu; Xu, Xiangyang; Bewley, J Derek

    2009-10-15

    Endo-beta-mannanase is thought to play a role in tomato fruit ripening by participating in the degradation of cell walls. Its spatial and temporal expression during ripening was examined, as was the relationship between its activity and softening of the fruit using a large number of tomato lines, and by suppression of transcription of the endo-beta-mannanase (LeMan4a) gene. Immunolocalization studies showed that the enzyme is expressed in the fruit cell wall at all ripening stages, but it is not active during the initial green stage; this is not due to the presence of inhibitors of its activity, nor due to changes in its mRNA sequence. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells of endo-beta-mannanase transcripts fused to green fluorescent protein resulted in the expressed enzyme being localized to the cell walls. Transgenic tomato plants expressing a GUS gene attached to the LeMan4a promoter showed that this occurs initially during ripening in the skin and outer pericarp of the fruit, and later in the skin and throughout the pericarp. Fruit firmness and activity of endo-beta-mannanase were not strongly correlated during ripening of many lines of tomato. Several plants of cv. Micro-Tom were transformed using RNA interference (mRNAi) and antisense RNA strategies to suppress transcription of the LeMan4a gene. When endo-beta-mannanase activity was much reduced in the transgenic fruits, their firmness was higher compared to those of control fruits at the turning and orange-color stages, but at the red-ripe stage firmness was similar between the two fruit types. We suggest that while the enzyme does participate in fruit ripening it alone is not sufficient to cause hydrolysis of the cell walls which results in their weakening; it likely plays a cooperative role with other known wall-modifying enzymes, and/or is involved in cell wall rearrangement.

  1. Softening of infrared-active mode of perovskite BaZrO{sub 3} proved by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helal, M. A.; Mori, T.; Kojima, S. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2015-05-04

    The low-frequency infrared-active optical modes were studied in a barium zirconate, BaZrO{sub 3}, single crystal with the perovskite structure using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constants were accurately determined in the frequency range between 0.2 and 2.7 THz. Upon cooling from room temperature to 8 K, the lowest-frequency TO1 mode at 2.32 THz showed a pronounced softening to 1.94 THz. The real part of the dielectric constant at 0.5 THz determined by THz-TDS obeys Barrett's relation, and the existence of a plateau confirms that the quantum effects lead to saturation of the soft mode frequencies of the TO1 and TO2 modes below ≈20 K. This is reminiscent of incipient ferroelectrics with the perovskite structure such as CaTiO{sub 3}.

  2. Enzyme catalyzed electricity-driven water softening system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arugula, Mary A; Brastad, Kristen S; Minteer, Shelley D; He, Zhen

    2012-12-10

    Hardness in water, which is caused by divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium ions, presents a major water quality problem. Because hard water must be softened before use in residential applications, there is great interest in the saltless water softening process because, unlike ion exchange softeners, it does not introduce additional ions into water. In this study, a saltless hardness removal driven by bioelectrochemical energy produced through enzymatic oxidation of glucose was proposed and investigated. Glucose dehydrogenase was coated on a carbon electrode to catalyze glucose oxidation in the presence of NAD⁺ as a cofactor/mediator and methylene green as an electrocatalyst. The results showed that electricity generation stimulated hardness removal compared with non-electricity conditions. The enzymatic water softener worked upon a 6h batch operation per day for eight days, and achieved an average hardness removal of 46% at a high initial concentration of 800 mg/L as CaCO₃. More hardness was removed at a lower initial concentration. For instance, at 200mg/L as CaCO₃ the enzymatic water softener removed 76.4±4.6% of total hardness. The presence of magnesium ions decreased hardness removal because of its larger hydrated radius than calcium ions. The enzymatic water softener removed 70-80% of total hardness from three actual hard water samples. These results demonstrated a proof-of-concept that enzyme catalyzed electricity generation can be used to soften hard water.

  3. Rigid proteins and softening of biological membranes—with application to HIV-induced cell membrane softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Himani; Zelisko, Matthew; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    A key step in the HIV-infection process is the fusion of the virion membrane with the target cell membrane and the concomitant transfer of the viral RNA. Experimental evidence suggests that the fusion is preceded by considerable elastic softening of the cell membranes due to the insertion of fusion peptide in the membrane. What are the mechanisms underpinning the elastic softening of the membrane upon peptide insertion? A broader question may be posed: insertion of rigid proteins in soft membranes ought to stiffen the membranes not soften them. However, experimental observations perplexingly appear to show that rigid proteins may either soften or harden membranes even though conventional wisdom only suggests stiffening. In this work, we argue that regarding proteins as merely non-specific rigid inclusions is flawed, and each protein has a unique mechanical signature dictated by its specific interfacial coupling to the surrounding membrane. Predicated on this hypothesis, we have carried out atomistic simulations to investigate peptide-membrane interactions. Together with a continuum model, we reconcile contrasting experimental data in the literature including the case of HIV-fusion peptide induced softening. We conclude that the structural rearrangements of the lipids around the inclusions cause the softening or stiffening of the biological membranes.

  4. Rigid proteins and softening of biological membranes-with application to HIV-induced cell membrane softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Himani; Zelisko, Matthew; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-05-06

    A key step in the HIV-infection process is the fusion of the virion membrane with the target cell membrane and the concomitant transfer of the viral RNA. Experimental evidence suggests that the fusion is preceded by considerable elastic softening of the cell membranes due to the insertion of fusion peptide in the membrane. What are the mechanisms underpinning the elastic softening of the membrane upon peptide insertion? A broader question may be posed: insertion of rigid proteins in soft membranes ought to stiffen the membranes not soften them. However, experimental observations perplexingly appear to show that rigid proteins may either soften or harden membranes even though conventional wisdom only suggests stiffening. In this work, we argue that regarding proteins as merely non-specific rigid inclusions is flawed, and each protein has a unique mechanical signature dictated by its specific interfacial coupling to the surrounding membrane. Predicated on this hypothesis, we have carried out atomistic simulations to investigate peptide-membrane interactions. Together with a continuum model, we reconcile contrasting experimental data in the literature including the case of HIV-fusion peptide induced softening. We conclude that the structural rearrangements of the lipids around the inclusions cause the softening or stiffening of the biological membranes.

  5. Effect of softening function on the cohesive crack fracture parameters of concrete CT specimen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar; S V Barai

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents numerical study on the fracture parameters of concrete compact tension test specimens of different sizes using cohesive crack model. As softening function is the main ingredient of the cohesive crack model, seven numbers of widely used softening functions are incorporated in the model based on enhanced algorithm. It is found that the difference between the highest and the lowest peak loads obtained using various softening functions (except linear) is less than about 9%. The peak load predicted by the linear softening curve is about 16% larger than that of mean peak load predicted by other softening functions. The cohesive crack model with linear softening yields the fracture process zones lower by approximately 30–50% than those obtained by using the other softening relations for specimen size range 200–600 mm. The numerical results are further compared with a reference test result available in the literature. It is observed that some of softening relations (except linear) predict the experimentally obtained peak load up to 6% of accuracy whereas the linear softening curve overestimates it by about 30%. The numerically gained softening branch of load-displacement curves compare well with the experimental observation.

  6. Alloy softening in binary iron solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine softening and hardening behavior in 19 binary iron-alloy systems. Microhardness tests were conducted at four temperatures in the range 77 to 411 K. Alloy softening was exhibited by 17 of the 19 alloy systems. Alloy softening observed in 15 of the alloy systems was attributed to an intrinsic mechanism, believed to be lowering of the Peierls (lattice friction) stress. Softening and hardening rates could be correlated with the atomic radius ratio of solute to iron. Softening observed in two other systems was attributed to an extrinsic mechanism, believed to be associated with scavenging of interstitial impurities.

  7. The effect of treatment parameters and detergent additions on the softening of radioactively contaminated process wastewater at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, M.M.; Kent, T.E.

    1993-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a research facility owned by the Department of Energy and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems. At ORNL, research is performed in a wide range of areas including nuclear energy research, environmental sciences, materials research, health and safety research, and production of radioisotopes. These activities generate 70 million gallons per year of process wastewater which is basically tap water and ground water containing trace amounts of radioactive compounds. This water is treated for removal of contaminants at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) before discharge to the environment.

  8. 石灰软化法处理地下水源水硬度试验研究%Study on the lime softening process for groundwater hardness treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明珠; 董燕珊; 苏锡波; 叶挺进

    2012-01-01

    采用石灰软化法处理某地下水源水硬度,结果表明,当石灰投加量为220mg/L,pH为8.7~8.9时,可使原水硬度和碱度分别由300mg/L和250mg/L降至115mg/L和80mg/L以下,去除率分别为61.7%和68%,沉淀和过滤对硬度去除效果影响不大;投加石灰后出水浊度明显升高,投加PAC(聚氯化铝)40mg/L,并与常规工艺联用,可使出水浊度稳定降低至0.15~0.65NTU;试验证明“石灰+PAC+常规工艺”能有效去除水中硬度和浊度,出水煮沸后不再生成沉淀和悬浮物,符合现行《生活饮用水卫生标准》(GB5749-2006)和用户使用要求,石灰软化法药耗成本估算为0.246元/m3.%The study of lime softening process for groundwater hardness treatment was carried out. The results showed that under the conditions of the lime dosage of 220 mg/L and pH 8. 7-8. 9, the groundwater hardness and alkalinity could be reduced to 115 mg/L and 80 mg/L, with the removal rate of 61. 7% and 68% respectively, and the sedimentation and filter had no great influences on removal effects. The effluent turbidity increased rapidly after lime dosing, and it could be stabilized between 0. 15-0. 65 NTU using the combination of PAC (40 mg/L) and conventional process. The experiment proved that lime+PAC+conventional process could remove the hardness and turbidity in water effectively and no sedimentation and suspending solids would form in boiled water, which met the "drinking water sanitary standard (GB 5749-2006)" and the users' requirements. The cost of lime softening dosage was estimated to be 0. 246 Yuan/m3.

  9. Synthesis and Performance Properties of Cationic Fabric Softeners Derived from Free Fatty Acid of Tallow Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Mithun G; Pratap, Amit Prabhakar

    2016-08-01

    Esterquat cationic softener is basically the class of surface active quaternary ammonium compounds. Esterquat compounds were synthesized and their surface behavior, antibacterial activity and Textile softening properties were investigated. Easily found cheap material was used to synthesize cationic fabric softeners. This fabric softener will be a good for commercially and industrially important because their emulsify activity, rewettability dispersing power and softness. Free fatty acids were derived from tallow oil and were treated with triethanolamine and mono-ethanolamine at 140°C. This diester was quaternaries with dimethyl sulphate and benzyl chloride. The synthesized esterquat compounds were characterized by its cationic content, 1H NMR and FT-IR analysis. In addition to the cationic content, surface tension, CMC (critical micelle concentration), rewettability, fabric softening, emulsification and dispersing power were determined as their surface-active properties. The fabric softening activity of esterquat and esteramide prepared from DMS was better softening activity of fabrics compared to untreated cotton and polyester fabrics cloth. The presented result shows that the esterquat made from BCl exhibit the best dispersing power. The esterquat made from DMS both in TEA and MEA shows good rewettability was determined.

  10. Arsenic removal by lime softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaosol, T.; Suksaroj, C.; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of arsenic removal for drinking water by lime softening. The initial arsenic (V) concentration was 500 and 1,000 ug/L in synthetic groundwater. The experiments were performed as batch tests with varying lime dosages and mixing time. For the synthetic groundwater......, arsenic (V) removal increased with increasing lime dosage and mixing time, as well as with the resulting pH. The residual arsenic (V) in all cases was lower than the WHO guideline of 10 ug/L at pH higher than 11.5. Kinetic of arsenic (V) removal can be described by a first-order equation as C1 = C0*e......^-k*t. The relation between the constant (k value) and increasing lime dosage was found to be linear, described by k = 0.0034 (Dlime). The results support a theory from the literature that the arsenic (V) was removed by precipitation af Ca3(AsO4)2. The results obtained in the present study suggest that lime...

  11. Pregnancy Constipation: Are Stool Softeners Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take stool softeners to treat pregnancy constipation? Answers from Roger ... 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/pregnancy-constipation/faq- ...

  12. Viscosity anomaly in core-softened liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V. N.

    2013-01-01

    The present article presents a molecular dynamics study of several anomalies of core-softened systems. It is well known that many core-softened liquids demonstrate diffusion anomaly. Usual intuition relates the diffusion coefficient to shear viscosity via Stockes-Einstein relation. However, it can break down at low temperature. In this respect it is important to see if viscosity also demonstrates anomalous behavior.

  13. Mechanism of Annealing Softening of Rolled or Forged Tool Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce hardness of rolled or forged steels after annealing and improve processability, the diameter and dispersity of carbides were measured by SEM and quantitative metallography. The microstructure of annealed steel was analyzed by TEM. The effects of the factors such as solute atoms, carbides, grain boundary and interphase boundary were studied. The mechanism of annealing softening of steels was analyzed on the examples of steels H13, S5, S7, X45CrNiMo4, which are treated with new technology. The results showed that the softening of H13, S7, S5 is easier obtained by isothermal or slow cooling annealing from slightly below A1, but hardness of X45CrNiMo4 after annealing is reduced effectively by obtaining coarse lamellar pearlite. Economic results can be obtained from good processability.

  14. Two types of softening detected in X-ray afterglows of Swift bursts: internal and external shock origins?

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Y -P; Fan, J H; Lu, R -J

    2008-01-01

    The softening process observed in the steep decay phase of early X-ray afterglows of Swift bursts has remained a puzzle since its discovery. The softening process can also be observed in the later phase of the bursts and its cause has also been unknown. Recently, it was suggested that, influenced by the curvature effect, emission from high latitudes would shift the Band function spectrum from higher energy band to lower band, and this would give rise to the observed softening process accompanied by a steep decay of the flux density. The curvature effect scenario predicts that the terminating time of the softening process would be correlated with the duration of the process. In this paper, based on the data from the UNLV GRB group web-site, we found an obvious correlation between the two quantities. In addition, we found that the softening process can be divided into two classes: the early type softening ($t_{s,max}\\leq "4000"s$) and the late type softening ($t_{s,max} > "4000"s$). The two types of softening s...

  15. Nanotwinned fcc metals: Strengthening versus softening mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukowski, A.; Albe, K.; Farkas, D.

    2010-12-01

    The strengthening effect of twins in nanocrystalline metals has been reported both in experiment and simulation. While twins are mostly considered as effective barriers to dislocation slip transfer, they can also provide nucleation sites for dislocations or migrate during the deformation process, thereby contributing to plasticity. By comparing twinned and nontwinned samples, we study the effect of twins on the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline Cu and Pd using atomistic simulations. While Cu shows hardening due to the presence of twins, Pd shows the opposite effect. A quantitative dislocation analysis method is applied, which allows to analyze dislocation interactions with twin planes and grain boundaries and to measure dislocation, stacking fault, and twin-boundary densities as functions of strain. A statistical analysis of the occurring dislocation types provides direct evidence for the role of twin boundaries as effective sources for twinning dislocations, which are the reason for the observed softening in some fcc materials. In addition, we discuss how the orientation of the loading direction with respect to the twin planes affects the response of nanotwinned Cu and Pd.

  16. Modification of Textile Materials' Surface Properties Using Chemical Softener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of technological treatment involving the processes of washing or washing and softening with chemical cationic softener "Surcase" produced in Great Britain on the surface properties of cellulosic textile materials manufactured from cotton, bamboo and viscose spun yarns was investigated. The changes in textile materials surface properties were evaluated using KTU-Griff-Tester device and FEI Quanta 200 FEG scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was observed that the worst hand properties and the higher surface roughness are observed of cotton materials if compared with those of bamboo and viscose materials. Also, it was shown that depending on the material structure the handle parameters of knitted materials are the better than the ones of woven fabrics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.249

  17. Softening and Mineral Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Leaves During the Fermentation to Produce Ntoba mbodi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mokemiabeka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to investigate the softening of cassava leaves during the fermentation of Ntoba mbodi and the mineral content of cassava leaves fermented and unfermented. The softening of cassava leaves is a characteristic of fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. It is due to an enzymatic process. The activity of cellulase and polygalacturonase enzymes, very weak at the beginning of fermentation, increases sharply in 24 h and decreases thereafter. The pectinesterase and pectin lyase activity, already present at the beginning of fermentation, reaches the maximum after 24 h of fermentation for pectinesterase and 48 h for pectin lyase. The cellulase is mainly of microbial origin. The cassava leaves softening is gradual and becomes maximum at the end of fermentation. It is accompanied by a loss of water leading to a decrease in protein and magnesium content. The Ntoba mbodi is richer in ash than fresh cassava leaves. Although Ntoba mbodi is a vegetable rich in minerals, its sodium content is low. Thus, Ntoba mbodi can be recommended for a meal without peril.

  18. Softening and elution of monomers in ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, Erik; Munksgaard, E Christian;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on softening and elution of monomers in ethanol as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with previously reported data on degree of conversion and glass transition tempera...

  19. Multi-scale modeling of softening materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloberas Valls, O.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of a two-scale framework for the study of softening materials. The procedure is based on a hierarchical Finite Element (FE) scheme in which computations are performed both at macro and mesoscopic scale levels. The methodology is chosen specifically to remain valid

  20. Water Softeners: How Much Sodium Do They Add?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... softened water, you may want to consider a water-purification system that uses potassium chloride instead. Another option is to soften only the hot water and use unsoftened cold water for drinking and ...

  1. Fracture Mechanics of an Elastic Softening Material like Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Concrete is modelled as a linear elastic softening material and introduced into fracture mechanics. A discrete crack is considered with softening zones at the crack tips. Following the approach of Dugdale/Barenblatt, closing stresses are applied to the crack faces in the softening zone. The stresses

  2. ABLANDAMIENTO DE FRUTOS DE PITAYA AMARILLA (ACANTHOCEREUS PITAJAYA A TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE Y EN REFRIGERACIÓN: ACTIVIDAD DE POLIGALACTURONASA, CELULASA Y XILANASA Yellow Pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya Fruit Softening During its Storage at Room Temperature and on Refrigerated Conditions: Polygalacturonase, Celualase and Xilanase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YENNY MARITZA DUEÑAS GÓMEZ

    2012-05-01

    carried out to evaluate the role of cell wall degrading enzymes on yellow pitaya fruit softening: storage at 18 °C (RT as well as refrigeration with previous heat shock treatment (HS-R. A refrigerated control, without heat shock, was included (control-R. Peel color, firmness, poligalacturonase (PG, celulase (CEL and xilanase (XIL activities were measured. RT fruits reached the commercial ripeness after six days, as indicated by the color evaluation. After 12 days of storage at RT browning and excessive softening negatively affected the fruit quality. Browning and excessive softening were also detected in the control-R fruit when moving from 2 to 18°C. Minor browning was found in the HS- R fruit. HS-R fruit was full ripe 24 days of storage (nine days after finishing the refrigerated storage. XIL activity was associated to the softening in the RT and HS-R fruits. No clear correlation was observed between PG and softening neither between CEL and softening.

  3. PHONON SOFTENING IN INTERMEDIATE VALENT SmB6

    OpenAIRE

    Mörke, I.; Wachter, P.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured the Raman spectrum of a SmB6 single crystal and compared it to LaB6 and EuB6. Beside the three high energy Raman active phonons we found additional excitations in these compounds. Most prominent is a peak at 172 cm-1 for SmB6, 214 cm-1 for LaB6 and 220 cm-1 for EuB6. The spectra are analysed in terms of defect induced phonon scattering. The softening of the line in intermediate valent (IV) SmB6 is explained in analogy with the phonon anomalies found in other IV compounds.

  4. Rock softening due to ultrasonic acoustical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, F. T.; Freund, M. M.; Hedberg, C. M.; Haller, K. C.; Dahlgren, R.; Williams, C.; Agrawal, P.

    2011-12-01

    When igneous or high-grade metamorphic rocks are subjected to deviatoric stresses, dormant defects existing in the matrix of common rock-forming minerals become activated releasing mobile positive hole charge carriers. These defects consist of pairs of oxygen anions in the 1- valence state, e.g. peroxy links such as O3Si-OO-SiO3. When the peroxy bond breaks, O3Si-O:O-SiO3, an electron is transferred from a neighboring O2- creating a trapped electron defect, O3Si-O.O-SiO3, while the donor oxygen, now O-, turns into a defect electron or hole that can propagate as a highly mobile positive charge traveling along the upper edge of the valence band. There is evidence that the wave function associated with these positive hole charge carriers is highly delocalized. The delocalization lowers the electron density at the surrounding O2-, hence the bond energy, thereby affecting fundamental properties including the mechanical strength. To demonstrate the rock softening effect we mounted a rectangular bar of fine-grained gabbro about 30 cm long in a horizontal position clamping it at one end. A piezoelectric transducer (PZT) was epoxied to the fixed end of the rock bar to send ultrasonic energy at 57 KHz toward the cantilevered end. The downward deflection of the free end of the beam was measured with an interferometer to a high degree of precision. With ultrasonic energy present, the free end of the beam sagged near-instantaneously by about 0.2 μm and continued to sag slowly by about 0.4 μm over 120 sec. Upon turning off the PZT the rock bar returned slowly to the baseline deflection value. The ultrasound waves generated by the PZT activate positive holes, changing the apparent stiffness of the beam and causing its cantilevered end to bend downward. We also conducted experiments using an Instron 5569 Dual Column Testing System to subject rectangular plates (15.2 x 3.8 x 0.5 cm) of the same gabbro to dynamic three-point flexural tests. Using electrostatic fields of different

  5. Correlation between tension softening relation and crack extension resistance in concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufang ZHANG; Shilang XU

    2009-01-01

    Changes of the material fracture toughness with crack propagation can be described by a crack extension resistance curve, one of the fundamental fracture criteria in crack mechanics. Recently, experimental observation of the fracture behavior in concrete was used to develop a new fracture criterion, the crack extension GR resistance curve, to analyze crack propagation during the entire concrete fracture process. The variation of the crack extension resistance is mainly associated with the energy consumption in the fracture process zone ahead of the stress-free crack tip. The crack extension resistance is then a function of the softening curve, which is a basic mechanical property in the fracture process zone. The relationship between the softening curve and the crack extension GR resistance curve is then analyzed based on results of three-point bending beams tests. The results indicate that the characteristic points of the crack extension resistance GR curve is closely related to the characteristic point on used tension softening curve.

  6. A FRACTURE-ENERGY-BASED ELASTO-SOFTENING-PLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR JOINTS OF GEOMATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈新普; 沈国晓

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of plasticity and fracture mechanics for quasi- brittle materials, this article presented a constitutive model for gradual softening behavior of joints of geomaterials. Corresponding numerical tests are carried out at the local level. Characteristics of the model proposed are 1 ) plastic softening and dilatancy behavior are directly related to the fracture process of joint, and much less material and model parameters are required compared with those proposed by references; 2) the process of decohesion coupled with friction al sliding at both micro-scale and macro-scale is described.

  7. Process optimisation of lime milk leaching and control of cold lime softening at the power plant STEAG Fenne; Optimierung des Kalkansatzes und Regelung der Kalkmilchdosierung in der KZA des STEAG-Kraftwerks Fenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Christian [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Anlagentechnik; Arenz, Helmut [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Technischer Service; Wysk, Ralf [NALCO Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). National Account Managing Kraftwerke

    2013-06-01

    An increase in turbidity in the cleaned water of the cold lime softener higher than the raw water input of the river Saar was observed at the Fenne site at some days in 2009. Also the post-installed sand filter could not restrain the fine particles. Under these circumstances the demineralisation water production had serious problems because of heavily fouled membranes in the reverse osmosis system. Only the immense personal actions of the operating staff could enable the reliability of the water preparation system on site. Together with Nalco the power plant service department implemented a plant audit on site. The purpose of the plant audit was to find the reason for the bottleneck in water preparation and to optimise and automate the water treatment system under the aspects of economical reliability and control efficiency. (orig.)

  8. Molds in Brined Cucumbers: Cause of Softening During Air-Purging of Fermentations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costilow, Ralph N.; Gates, Karen; Lacy, Melvyn L.

    1980-01-01

    Softening of cucumbers in fermentations purged at high air-flow rates was caused by molds growing in the brined cucumbers, not in the brine. This conclusion is based on the following results: (i) no microorganisms were isolated in significant numbers from brines that caused softening of pasteurized brined cucumbers, (ii) no pectinolytic enzyme activities were produced in cucumber brines in the absence of cucumbers, (iii) the pickles in some air-purged fermentations became very soft without the appearance of any pectinolytic enzyme activity in the brine, (iv) mold hyphae were consistently observed in tissues of soft pickles, (v) molds consistently developed in cultures of slices of surface sterilized cucumbers taken from fermentations in which soft pickles were subsequently found, and (vi) molds belonging to the genera Alternaria, Fusarium, and Mucor isolated from slices all softened pasteurized brined cucumbers. Images PMID:16345619

  9. Progressive failure analysis of slope with strain-softening behaviour based on strength reduction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke ZHANG; Ping CAO; Rui BAO

    2013-01-01

    Based on the strength reduction method and strain-softening model,a method for progressive failure analysis of strain-softening slopes was presented in this paper.The mutation is more pronounced in strain-softening analysis,and the mutation of displacement at slope crest was taken as critical failure criterion.An engineering example was provided to demonstrate the validity of the present method.This method was applied to a cut slope in an industry site.The results are as follows: (1) The factor of safety and the critical slip surface obtained by the present method are between those by peak and residual strength.The analysis with peak strength would lead to non-conservative results,but that with residual strength tends to be overly conservative.(2) The thickness of the shear zone considering strain-softening behaviour is narrower than that with non-softening analysis.(3) The failure of slope is the process of the initiation,propagation and connection of potential failure surface.The strength parameters are mobilized to a non-uniform degree while progressive failure occurs in the slope.(4) The factor of safety increases with the increase of residual shear strain threshold and elastic modulus.The failure mode of slope changes from shallow slip to deep slip.Poisson's ratio and dilation angle have little effect on the results.

  10. A nonlocal constitutive model for trabecular bone softening in compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Mathieu; Jirásek, Milan; Zysset, Philippe K

    2010-10-01

    Using the three-dimensional morphological data provided by computed tomography, finite element (FE) models can be generated and used to compute the stiffness and strength of whole bones. Three-dimensional constitutive laws capturing the main features of bone mechanical behavior can be developed and implemented into FE software to enable simulations on complex bone structures. For this purpose, a constitutive law is proposed, which captures the compressive behavior of trabecular bone as a porous material with accumulation of irreversible strain and loss of stiffness beyond its yield point and softening beyond its ultimate point. To account for these features, a constitutive law based on damage coupled with hardening anisotropic elastoplasticity is formulated using density and fabric-based tensors. To prevent mesh dependence of the solution, a nonlocal averaging technique is adopted. The law has been implemented into a FE software and some simple simulations are first presented to illustrate its behavior. Finally, examples dealing with compression of vertebral bodies clearly show the impact of softening on the localization of the inelastic process.

  11. [Adsorption of calcium ion from aqueous solution using Na(+)-conditioned clinoptilolite for hot-water softening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yuan-Chao; Zhang, Xing-Wen; Chen, Gui-Jun

    2015-02-01

    This work investigated adsorptive removal of calcium ion (Ca2+) by virtue of Na(+) -conditioned clinoptilolite simulating the process of softening for industrial hot-water system. Influential factors such as the activation/regeneration of sorbent and solution pH were tested. The kinetics/thermodynamics for adsorption of Ca2+ were analyzed and discussed. Results showed that: (1) The adsorption rate was in good agreement with the pseudo-second order kinetic models, and the process of adsorption better followed the Langmuir model; (2) Higher solution temperature allowed an enhanced efficiency on Ca2+ removal, albeit the maximum adsorption capacity of Na(+)-conditioned clinoptilolite was hardly affected; (3) The process of adsorption was dominated by chemisorption, and also characterized by entropy increase with spontaneous/endothermic nature; (4) Solution temperature was suggested to be controlled within the range of 6 to 10, and more than 9 times of sorbent regeneration could be ensured for an effective adsorption towards Ca2+ with initial concentration less than 20 mg x L(-1). It was demonstrated that the activated clinoptilolite should be a promising alternative adsorbent for industrial hot-water softening.

  12. Direct Cytoskeleton Forces Cause Membrane Softening in Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; López-Montero, Iván; Mell, Michael; Egea, Gustavo; Gov, Nir S.; Monroy, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes are flexible cells specialized in the systemic transport of oxygen in vertebrates. This physiological function is connected to their outstanding ability to deform in passing through narrow capillaries. In recent years, there has been an influx of experimental evidence of enhanced cell-shape fluctuations related to metabolically driven activity of the erythroid membrane skeleton. However, no direct observation of the active cytoskeleton forces has yet been reported to our knowledge. Here, we show experimental evidence of the presence of temporally correlated forces superposed over the thermal fluctuations of the erythrocyte membrane. These forces are ATP-dependent and drive enhanced flickering motions in human erythrocytes. Theoretical analyses provide support for a direct force exerted on the membrane by the cytoskeleton nodes as pulses of well-defined average duration. In addition, such metabolically regulated active forces cause global membrane softening, a mechanical attribute related to the functional erythroid deformability. PMID:26083919

  13. Communication: Surface-facilitated softening of ordinary and vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeta, Ulyana; Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2017-08-01

    A common distinction between the ordinary glasses formed by melt cooling and the stable amorphous films formed by vapor deposition is the apparent mechanism of their devitrification. Using quasi-adiabatic, fast scanning calorimetry that is capable of heating rates in excess of 105 K s-1, we have investigated the softening kinetics of micrometer-scale, ordinary glass films of methylbenzene and 2-propanol. At the limit of high heating rates, the transformation mechanism of ordinary glasses is identical to that of their stable vapor-deposited counterparts. In both cases, softening is likely to begin at the sample surface and progress into its bulk via a transformation front. Furthermore, such a surface-facilitated mechanism complies with zero-order, Arrhenius rate law. The activation energy barriers for the softening transformation imply that the kinetics must be defined, at least in part, by the initial thermodynamic and structural state of the samples.

  14. Studies on the role of polygalacturonase isoenzymes in tomato fruit softening and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Jane Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the activity of polygalacturonase during the development and/or ripening of tomato fruit of a wide range of genotypes have been followed. Normal commercial cultivars have three forms of the enzyme; the isoenzyme having the highest molecular weight, PG1, appeared as fruit began to change colour, and its rate of accumulation was reflected in the rate of fruit softening.This early rate of softening was closely related to the eventual degree of softness shown by the fully ripe fruit.PG...

  15. Use prospect of the of athermic technologies of metal softening for rolling stock elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Grischenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is the possibility estimation of аthermic technologies use of cold-deformed metal softening for elements of railway car body and wheel. Methodology. The material for research is the carbon steel of the wheel rim fragment containing 0.55%С, 0.74%Mn, 0.33%Si, and the steel 20. The wheel steel is studied after heat strengthening and cold work after operation. Steel 20 is studied after plastic cold work by rolling. Electric pulse treatment (ET is carried out on the special equipment. As the property of metal strength the Vickers hardness number is used. The microstructure research is carried out using the light and electronic microscope. Findings. During operation of the rolling stock elements with different strength level origin of damages on metallic surfaces is caused by a simultaneous load action. Taking into account that forming of breakdown sites is largely determined by the state of metal volumes nearby the places of maximal active voltages, the technology development of defect accumulation slowdown or the level of active voltages development allow one to prolong the operating term of rolling stock elements. After electric pulse treatment of the wheel rim fragment the regular changes of metal internal structure corresponded to the hardness changes. The hardness of low carbon steel increases proportional to the increase of the level of cold work by rolling. Alternating bending of the cold-deformed flat is accompanied by strength decrease, which is caused by the metal substructure changes. Originality. The softening process of the cold-worked steel is accompanied by substructure changes, which to a greater extent correspond to the hardening development from the plastic cold-work: dispersion of the dislocation cellular structure, formation of the new sub boundaries and displacement of the formed sub boundaries. Practical value. Introduction of electric pulse treatment in the conditions of railway depots repair base

  16. Numerical simulation of friction stir welding (FSW): Prediction of the heat affect zone using a softening model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, R. M. F.; Carlone, P.; Valente, R. A. F.; Teixeira-Dias, F.; Palazzo, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    In this work a numerical model is proposed to simulate Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process in AA2024-T3 plates. This model included a softening model that account for the temperature history and the hardness distribution on a welded plate can thus be predicted. The validation of the model was performed using experimental measurements of the hardness in the plate cross-section. There is an acceptable prediction of the material softening in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) using the adopted model.

  17. The Etiology and Treatment of the Softened Phallus after the Radial Forearm Osteocutaneous Free Flap Phalloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap is considered to be the standard technique for penile construction. One year after their operation, most patients experience a softened phallus, so that they suffer from difficulties in sexual intercourse. In this report, we present our experience with phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap, as well as an evaluation of the etiology and treatment of the softened phallus.MethodsBetween March 2005 and February 2010, 58 patients underwent phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap. Most of their neophallus had been softened subjectively and among them, 12 patients who wanted correction were investigated. We performed repetitive fat injection, artificial dermis grafting, silicone rod insertion, and rib bone with cartilaginous tip graft. Physical examination, plain radiograph, computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, and satisfaction scores were investigated.ResultsMost of the participants' penises have been softened after phalloplasty, and the skin elasticity had been also decreased. On plain radiograph, the distal end of the bone was self-rounded; however, the bone shape of the neophallus had no significant interval changes or resorption. Computed tomography showed equivocal density of cortical bone. On bone scintigraphy, the bone metabolism was active at 3 months postoperatively, and remained active 9 years postoperatively.ConclusionsThe use of a rib bone with cartilaginous tip graft could be an option for improvement of the softened phallus. Silicon rod insertion is also worth considering for rigidity of the softened phallus. Decreased rigidity due to soft tissue atrophy could be alleviated with repeated fat injection and artificial dermis grafting.

  18. 石灰软化-絮凝法处理地下水硬度动态中试试验研究%A dynamic pilot-scale test on treatment of hardness of groundwater by lime softening-flocculation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文婷; 陈涛; 唐友尧

    2013-01-01

    Lime softening-flocculation process was used to treat hardness of groundwater of a water supply plant in southern China,a dynamic pilot-scale test equipped with integrated device on the treatment of the said kind of water was carried out with the aim of investigating the operation effect of lime-softening process and exploring the influence of lime and PAC dosage on water treatment effect.The results of the test showed that,when the dosage of Ca(OH)2 and PAC were 299.1-361.3 and 43.6-48.7mg/L respectively,a satisfying treatment effect could be obtained.The total hardness (calculated by CaCO3) and total alkalinity decreased to 110 and 80 mg/L respectively,which met the requirement of GB 5749-2006 Standards for drinking water quality.According to the analysis from aspects of infrastructure,equipment investment and running cost,it could be found that,the water producing cost of lime softening process was 0.457 yuan/t lower than that of the ion exchange process.%采用石灰软化-絮凝法处理华南地区某水厂地下水硬度.动态中试试验采用一体化处理装置,考察石灰软化工艺运行效果,并进一步探索石灰投加量和PAC投加量对试验效果的影响.试验结果表明,Ca(OH)2投加量为299.1 ~ 361.3 mg/L、PAC投加量为43.6~48.7 mg/L,处理效果较佳.处理后总硬度(以CaCO3计)降到110mg/L,总碱度(非碳酸盐碱度)降到80 mg/L,符合GB 5749-2006《生活饮用水卫生标准》要求.基于基础设施、设备投资和运行成本的分析表明,石灰软化工艺较离子交换工艺的制水成本减少0.457元/t.

  19. Evaluation of the impact of lime softening waste disposal in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR), generated from the lime softening processes, are commonly reused or disposed of in a number of applications; these include use as a soil amendment or a subsurface fill. Recently questions were posed by the Florida regulatory community on w...

  20. Medium-induced color flow softens hadronization

    CERN Document Server

    Beraudo, A; Wiedemann, U A

    2012-01-01

    Medium-induced parton energy loss, resulting from gluon exchanges between the QCD matter and partonic projectiles, is expected to underly the strong suppression of jets and high-$p_T$ hadron spectra observed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Here, we present the first color-differential calculation of parton energy loss. We find that color exchange between medium and projectile enhances the invariant mass of energetic color singlet clusters in the parton shower by a parametrically large factor proportional to the square root of the projectile energy. This effect is seen in more than half of the most energetic color-singlet fragments of medium-modified parton branchings. Applying a standard cluster hadronization model, we find that it leads to a characteristic additional softening of hadronic spectra. A fair description of the nuclear modification factor measured at the LHC may then be obtained for relatively low momentum transfers from the medium.

  1. Controlled toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronets, J; Jaeggi, T; Buergin, W; Lussi, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare toothbrush abrasion of softened enamel after brushing with two (soft and hard) toothbrushes. One hundred and fifty-six human enamel specimens were indented with a Knoop diamond. Salivary pellicle was formed in vitro over a period of 3 h. Erosive lesions were produced by means of 1% citric acid. A force-measuring device allowed a controlled toothbrushing force of 1.5 N. The specimens were brushed either in toothpaste slurry or with toothpaste in artificial saliva for 15 s. Enamel loss was calculated from the change in indentation depth of the same indent before and after abrasion. Mean surface losses (95% CI) were recorded in ten treatment groups: (1) soft toothbrush only [28 (17-39) nm]; (2) hard toothbrush only [25 (16-34) nm]; (3) soft toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [46 (27-65) nm]; (4) hard toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [45 (24-66) nm]; (5) soft toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [71 (55-87) nm]; (6) hard toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [85 (60-110) nm]; (7) soft toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [48 (39-57) nm]; (8) hard toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [40 (29-51) nm]; (9) soft toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [51 (37-65) nm]; (10) hard toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [52 (36-68) nm]. Neither soft nor hard toothbrushes produced significantly different toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel in this model (p > 0.05). Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Hardening by annealing and softening by deformation in nanostructured metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Hansen, N.; Tsuji, N.

    2006-01-01

    -dislocation and dislocation-interface reactions, such that heat treatment reduces the generation and interaction of dislocations, leading to an increase in strength and a reduction in ductility. A subsequent deformation step may restore the dislocation structure and facilitate the yielding process when the metal is stressed......We observe that a nanostructured metal can be hardened by annealing and softened when subsequently deformed, which is in contrast to the typical behavior of a metal. Microstructural investigation points to an effect of the structural scale on fundamental mechanisms of dislocation....... As a consequence, the strength decreases and the ductility increases. These observations suggest that for materials such as the nanostructured aluminum studied here, deformation should be used as an optimizing procedure instead of annealing....

  3. 优化软化-酶法高黄酮山楂汁制备工艺研究%Study on the Preparation Technology of High-flavone Hawthorn Juice by Optimum Softening-Enzyme Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔聚林; 陈倩; 朱传合

    2011-01-01

    以山楂汁制取过程中黄酮提取率为主要评价指标,还原糖提取率为次要评价指标,采用单因素试验、析固试验设计、响应面设计法优化山楂汁制取工艺,并建立山楂汁制取数学模型.结果表明:将山楂去核,90℃软化4 min后打浆,冷却,以水用量3 mL/g、酶用量1.1 mL/L加入水和果胶酶,54 ℃下浸提148 min.所得山楂汁营养保存最佳.山楂中黄酮提取率为92.36%,还原糖提取率为96.40%.%In this paper, the hawthorn juice extraction technology was optimized by single factor experiment fraction experimental design and response surface method, using flavonoids extraction rate as main index and reducing sugar extraction rate as secondary index, and the mathematical model of hawthorn juice preparation was established. Results showed that the optimum technology of hawthorn juice preparation were: stoning hawthorn was softened in 90 ℃ hot water for 4 min first, then mashing it, added water and pectinase to cold-mashed hawthorn for 3 mL/g and 1.1 mL/L, and extracted under 54 ℃ for 148 min. Using this extraction technology, hawthorn juice with optimum nutritive retention was obtained, its flavonoids extraction rate was 93.26%, reducing sugar extraction rate reached to 96.40%

  4. Active Inference: A Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a process theory based on active inference and belief propagation. Starting from the premise that all neuronal processing (and action selection) can be explained by maximizing Bayesian model evidence-or minimizing variational free energy-we ask whether neuronal responses can be described as a gradient descent on variational free energy. Using a standard (Markov decision process) generative model, we derive the neuronal dynamics implicit in this description and reproduce a remarkable range of well-characterized neuronal phenomena. These include repetition suppression, mismatch negativity, violation responses, place-cell activity, phase precession, theta sequences, theta-gamma coupling, evidence accumulation, race-to-bound dynamics, and transfer of dopamine responses. Furthermore, the (approximately Bayes' optimal) behavior prescribed by these dynamics has a degree of face validity, providing a formal explanation for reward seeking, context learning, and epistemic foraging. Technically, the fact that a gradient descent appears to be a valid description of neuronal activity means that variational free energy is a Lyapunov function for neuronal dynamics, which therefore conform to Hamilton's principle of least action.

  5. Career management: an active process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, J; Eckel, F M

    1985-03-01

    The self-assessment, goal-setting, and career-planning techniques of career management are discussed, and the organization's role in career management is discussed. Career management is a planned process, initiated and carried out by an individual with the assistance of others. Because work and nonwork activities are so interrelated, career and life management planning can maximize a pharmacist's personal success. The career- and life-management process begins with the development of a personal definition of success. A self-assessment must be made of one's values, needs, interests, and activities. The next step of the process involves setting goals and establishing a plan or strategy to achieve them. Establishing a career path requires researching alternate career goals. Career competencies are identified that can increase an employee's chances of success. The employer shares the responsibility for career development through coaching, job structuring, and keeping the employee aware of constraints. Through the integration of the roles of the individual and the organization in the career-management process, employees can optimize their contribution to an organization. Pharmacists can successfully manage their careers by applying the techniques of self-assessment, goal setting, and career planning.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  7. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongying Zhang

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88% were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80% were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86% were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  8. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongying; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Nan; Li, Min; Ji, Xiaohao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Jingxuan; Wang, Deyun; Xu, Haifeng; Qi, Sumin; Wu, Shujing; Fei, Zhangjun; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88%) were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80%) were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86%) were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  9. Light color, low softening point hydrocarbon resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.L.; Hentges, S.G.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a hydrocarbon resin having a softening point of from 0{degrees} C to about 40{degrees} C, a Gardner color of about 7 or less, a number average molecular weight (Mn) of from about 100 to about 600, and a M{sub {ital w}}/M{sub {ital n}} ratio of from about 1.1 to about 2.7, prepared by Friedel Crafts polymerization of a hydrocarbon feed. It comprises: from about 5% to about 75% by weight of a C{sub 8} to C{sub 10} vinyl aromatic hydrocarbon stream; up to about 35% by weight of a piperylene stream; and from about 25% to about 70% by weight of a stream containing C{sub 4} to C{sub 8} monoolefin chain transfer agent of the formula RR{prime}C {double bond} CR{double prime}R triple{prime} where R and R{prime} are C{sub 1} to C{sub 5} alkyl, R{double prime} and R triple{prime} are independently selected from H and a C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl group.

  10. Softening phenomenon during compression test in nanograined aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, S.H.; Jang, J.M.; Lee, W. [Korea Inst. of Industrial Technology, ChonAn (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Cu alloys are known well to reveal superplasticity in tension at high temperatures. In this study, deformation behaviors of those alloys nanograined were investigated under compression test at room temperature. During plastic deformation softening phenomena occurred obviously in nanograined Al-1.5wt%Mg and Al-0.7wt%Mg-1.0wt%Cu alloys while slight strain hardening appeared in nanograined pure Al. These results suggest that the softening strongly depends on composition of alloys. The softening takes place over strain rate range from 10{sup -4} up to 10{sup -1}. (orig.)

  11. Effect of nitric oxide on ethylene synthesis and softening of banana fruit slice during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guiping; Yang, En; Lu, Wangjin; Jia, Yongxia; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2009-07-08

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on ethylene synthesis and softening of ripening-initiated banana slice were investigated. Fruit firmness, color, and contents of starch and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were measured. In addition, ethylene production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, expression and activities of ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO), and activities of cell-wall-modifying enzymes, polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, were analyzed. Application of NO reduced ethylene production, inhibited degreening of the peel and delayed softening of the pulp. The decrease of ethylene production was associated with the reduction in the activity of ACO and the expression of the MA-ACO1 gene. Moreover, the NO-treated fruit showed a lower expression of the MA-ACS1 gene but higher ACS activity and ACC content. In addition, NO treatment decreased the activities of PG, PME, and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and maintained higher contents of ASP and starch, which may account for the delay of softening. We proposed that the inhibition of ACO activity and transcription of gene MA-ACO1 by NO resulted in decreased ethylene synthesis and the delay of ripening of banana slice.

  12. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman

    2016-07-25

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain \\'non-ripening mutations\\' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Viscosity and Softening Behavior of Alkali Zinc Sulfophosphate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da, Ning; Krolikowski, Sebastian; Nielsen, Karsten Hansgaard;

    2010-01-01

    We report on the softening properties and viscosity of glasses from the system ZnO-Na2O-SO3-P2O5 for low-temperature sealing applications. Up to a ratio of network-forming ions PO(4)3-:SO(4)2- of about 2:1, a gradual substitution of P2O5 by SO3 results in decreasing glass transition and softening...

  14. Pectin modifications and the role of pectin-degrading enzymes during postharvest softening of Jonagold apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Verlinden, Bert E; Christiaens, Stefanie; Shpigelman, Avi; Vicent, Victor; Kermani, Zahra Jamsazzadeh; Nicolai, Bart M; Hendrickx, Marc; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding softening in Jonagold apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) fruits, by investigating pectin modifications and the evolution of pectin-modifying enzymes during postharvest storage and ripening. Jonagold apples were harvested at commercial maturity and stored at different temperatures and controlled atmosphere conditions for 6 months, followed by exposure to ambient shelf life conditions (20 °C under air) for 2 weeks. The composition of the pectic material was analysed. Furthermore, the firmness and the ethylene production of the apples were assessed. Generally, the main changes in pectin composition associated with the loss of firmness during ripening in Jonagold apples were a loss of side chains neutral sugars, increased water solubility and decreased molar mass. Also, the activities of four important enzymes possibly involved in apple softening, β-galactosidase, α-arabinofuranosidase, polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase, were measured. Pectin-related enzyme activities highly correlated with ethylene production, but not always with pectin modifications.

  15. Stress Softening Behavior in the Mucosa-Submucosa and Muscle Layers in Normal and Diabetic Rat Esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Hongbo; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims: Stress softening is a feature of mechanical preconditioning in soft tissue. Previously, we demonstrated that esophageal stress softening is reversible by muscle activation with KCl. Since the esophagus consists of muscle and mucosa-submucosa layers, the aim was to study......M KCl was added for maximum contraction for 3min. KCl was washed out to permit relaxation and contractions were eliminated by immersion into Ca2+-free solution. After 1h rest, the tubes were exposed to five repeated ramp distensions conformed to the aforesaid two series. Stress-strain curves were used...... losses due to stress softening were recovered by KCl-induced contraction. Such losses could not be recovered by KCl in the diabetic esophageal muscle layer. The normal esophageal mucosa-submucosa layer obtained extra energy gain by KCl activation whereas the diabetic mucosa-submucosa layer became softer...

  16. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit mesocarp softening and chilling injury using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Vargas Reinaldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peach fruit undergoes a rapid softening process that involves a number of metabolic changes. Storing fruit at low temperatures has been widely used to extend its postharvest life. However, this leads to undesired changes, such as mealiness and browning, which affect the quality of the fruit. In this study, a 2-D DIGE approach was designed to screen for differentially accumulated proteins in peach fruit during normal softening as well as under conditions that led to fruit chilling injury. Results The analysis allowed us to identify 43 spots -representing about 18% of the total number analyzed- that show statistically significant changes. Thirty-nine of the proteins could be identified by mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins that changed during postharvest had been related to peach fruit ripening and cold stress in the past. However, we identified other proteins that had not been linked to these processes. A graphical display of the relationship between the differentially accumulated proteins was obtained using pairwise average-linkage cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Proteins such as endopolygalacturonase, catalase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, pectin methylesterase and dehydrins were found to be very important for distinguishing between healthy and chill injured fruit. A categorization of the differentially accumulated proteins was performed using Gene Ontology annotation. The results showed that the 'response to stress', 'cellular homeostasis', 'metabolism of carbohydrates' and 'amino acid metabolism' biological processes were affected the most during the postharvest. Conclusions Using a comparative proteomic approach with 2-D DIGE allowed us to identify proteins that showed stage-specific changes in their accumulation pattern. Several proteins that are related to response to stress, cellular homeostasis, cellular component organization and carbohydrate metabolism were detected as being

  17. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit mesocarp softening and chilling injury using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilo, Ricardo; Saffie, Carlos; Lilley, Kathryn; Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Cambiazo, Verónica; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; González, Mauricio; Meisel, Lee A; Retamales, Julio; Silva, Herman; Orellana, Ariel

    2010-01-18

    Peach fruit undergoes a rapid softening process that involves a number of metabolic changes. Storing fruit at low temperatures has been widely used to extend its postharvest life. However, this leads to undesired changes, such as mealiness and browning, which affect the quality of the fruit. In this study, a 2-D DIGE approach was designed to screen for differentially accumulated proteins in peach fruit during normal softening as well as under conditions that led to fruit chilling injury. The analysis allowed us to identify 43 spots -representing about 18% of the total number analyzed- that show statistically significant changes. Thirty-nine of the proteins could be identified by mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins that changed during postharvest had been related to peach fruit ripening and cold stress in the past. However, we identified other proteins that had not been linked to these processes. A graphical display of the relationship between the differentially accumulated proteins was obtained using pairwise average-linkage cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Proteins such as endopolygalacturonase, catalase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, pectin methylesterase and dehydrins were found to be very important for distinguishing between healthy and chill injured fruit. A categorization of the differentially accumulated proteins was performed using Gene Ontology annotation. The results showed that the 'response to stress', 'cellular homeostasis', 'metabolism of carbohydrates' and 'amino acid metabolism' biological processes were affected the most during the postharvest. Using a comparative proteomic approach with 2-D DIGE allowed us to identify proteins that showed stage-specific changes in their accumulation pattern. Several proteins that are related to response to stress, cellular homeostasis, cellular component organization and carbohydrate metabolism were detected as being differentially accumulated. Finally, a significant proportion of

  18. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory.......Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  19. Early stiffening and softening of collagen: interplay of deformation mechanisms in biopolymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Wong, Long Hui; Rajagopalan, Raj

    2012-03-12

    Collagen networks, the main structural/mechanical elements in biological tissues, increasingly serve as biomimetic scaffolds for cell behavioral studies, assays, and tissue engineering, and yet their full spectrum of nonlinear behavior remains unclear. Here, with self-assembled type-I collagen as model, we use metrics beyond those in standard single-harmonic analysis of rheological measurements to reveal strain-softening and strain-stiffening of collagen networks both in instantaneous responses and at steady state. The results show how different deformation mechanisms, such as deformation-induced increase in the elastically active fibrils, nonlinear extension of individual fibrils, and slips in the physical cross-links in the network, can lead to the observed complex nonlinearity. We demonstrate how comprehensive rheological analyses can uncover the rich mechanical properties of biopolymer networks, including the above-mentioned softening as well as an early strain-stiffening, which are important for understanding physiological response of biological materials to mechanical loading.

  20. Using fabric softeners, drying and ironing in Germany. A non-representative census of consumer behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Verena; Stamminger, Rainer [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Household and Appliance Technology Section

    2011-05-15

    During the annually arranged Action Day Sustainable Washing on May 10{sup th}, 5284 questionnaires about laundry treatment were collected from private people in Germany with the aim of obtaining information about consumer behaviour and attitudes towards sustainability. This is a non-representative census as only 15% of all respondents were male. Nevertheless, relative distribution and correlation provide a relevant insight into consumers' behaviour towards washing, drying and ironing. The most important results of the analysis can be summed up as follows: - Nearly 50% of the respondents own a laundry-dryer. - Nearly one third of all respondents never use fabric softeners. The prevention of ecological damage was the reason for not using fabric softeners for 30% of the respondents. - About one fourth of all respondents always use fabric softeners, with younger people having a significantly higher attitude towards using them. - Under good weather conditions, about 90% of the respondents choose energy-saving alternatives to dry their laundry. - The average weekly time spent on ironing is about two hours on average of all respondents who gave information. The analysis shows that laundry treatment beyond the pure washing process is a multi-faceted process with several starting points of improvement in favour of sustainable handling. (orig.)

  1. Electrochemical Ion-Exchange Regeneration and Fluidized Bed Crystallization for Zero-Liquid-Discharge Water Softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingying; Davis, Jake R; Nguyen, Chi H; Baygents, James C; Farrell, James

    2016-06-01

    This research investigated the use of an electrochemical system for regenerating ion-exchange media and for promoting the crystallization of hardness minerals in a fluidized bed crystallization reactor (FBCR). The closed-loop process eliminates the creation of waste brine solutions that are normally produced when regenerating ion-exchange media. A bipolar membrane electrodialysis stack was used to generate acids and bases from 100 mM salt solutions. The acid was used to regenerate weak acid cation (WAC) ion-exchange media used for water softening. The base solutions were used to absorb CO2 gas and to provide a source of alkalinity for removing noncarbonate hardness by WAC media operated in H(+) form. The base solutions were also used to promote the crystallization of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 in a FBCR. The overall process removes hardness ions from the water being softened and replaces them with H(+) ions, slightly decreasing the pH value of the softened water. The current utilization efficiency for acid and base production was ∼75% over the operational range of interest, and the energy costs for producing acids and bases were an order of magnitude lower than the costs for purchasing acid and base in bulk quantities. Ion balances indicate that the closed-loop system will accumulate SO4(2-), Cl(-), and alkali metal ions. Acid and base balances indicate that for a typical water, small amounts of base will be accumulated.

  2. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF) and Non Melting Flesh (NMF) Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Onelli, E.; Ghiani, A.; Gentili, R; S Serra; Musacchi, S.; Citterio, S.

    2015-01-01

    Melting (MF) and non melting flesh (NMF) peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were invest...

  3. Characterization of major ripening events during softening in grape: turgor, sugar accumulation, abscisic acid metabolism, colour development, and their relationship with growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, Simone D; Gambetta, Gregory A; Wada, Hiroshi; Krasnow, Mark N; Cramer, Grant R; Peterlunger, Enrico; Shackel, Kenneth A; Matthews, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Along with sugar accumulation and colour development, softening is an important physiological change during the onset of ripening in fruits. In this work, we investigated the relationships among major events during softening in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) by quantifying elasticity in individual berries. In addition, we delayed softening and inhibited sugar accumulation using a mechanical growth-preventing treatment in order to identify processes that are sugar and/or growth dependent. Ripening processes commenced on various days after anthesis, but always at similarly low elasticity and turgor. Much of the softening occurred in the absence of other changes in berry physiology investigated here. Several genes encoding key cell wall-modifying enzymes were not up-regulated until softening was largely completed, suggesting softening may result primarily from decreases in turgor. Similarly, there was no decrease in solute potential, increase in sugar concentration, or colour development until elasticity and turgor were near minimum values, and these processes were inhibited when berry growth was prevented. Increases in abscisic acid occurred early during softening and in the absence of significant expression of the V. vinifera 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases. However, these increases were coincident with decreases in the abscisic acid catabolite diphasic acid, indicating that initial increases in abscisic acid may result from decreases in catabolism and/or exogenous import. These data suggest that softening, decreases in turgor, and increases in abscisic acid represent some of the earliest events during the onset of ripening. Later, physical growth, further increases in abscisic acid, and the accumulation of sugar are integral for colour development.

  4. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits.

  5. Vibrational Softening of a Protein on Ligand Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Erica [Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; Perahia, David [Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Cachan, France; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Merzel, Franci [National Institute of Chemistry, Solvenia

    2011-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments have demonstrated that binding of the cancer drug methotrexate softens the low-frequency vibrations of its target protein, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Here, this softening is fully reproduced using atomic detail normal-mode analysis. Decomposition of the vibrational density of states demonstrates that the largest contributions arise from structural elements of DHFR critical to stability and function. Mode-projection analysis reveals an increase of the breathing-like character of the affected vibrational modes consistent with the experimentally observed increased adiabatic compressibility of the protein on complexation.

  6. Low-temperature softening in body-centered cubic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, E.; Arsenault, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    In the low-temperature range, bcc alloys exhibit a lower stress-temperature dependence than the pure base metals. This effect often leads to a phenomenon that is called 'alloy softening': at low temperatures, the yield stress of an alloy may be lower than that of the base metal. Various theories are reviewed; the most promising are based either on extrinsic or intrinsic models of low-temperature deformation. Some other aspects of alloy softening are discussed, among them the effects on the ductile-brittle transition temperature.

  7. Comparing Extended System Interactions with Motions in Softened Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Eric I

    2015-01-01

    Using an $N$-body evolution code that does not rely on softened potentials, I have created a suite of interacting binary cluster simulations. The motions of the centers-of-mass of the clusters have been tracked and compared to the trajectories of point masses interacting via one of four different softened potential prescriptions. There is a robust, nearly linear relationship between the impact parameter of the cluster interaction and the point-mass softening length that best approximates the cluster centers-of-mass motion. In an $N$-body simulation that adopts a fixed softening length, such a relationship leads to regimes where two-body effects, like dynamical friction, can be either larger or smaller than the corresponding cluster situation. Further consideration of more specific $N$-body simulations leads to an estimate that roughly 10 per cent of point-mass interactions in an $N$-body simulation will experience two-body effects larger than those for equivalent clusters.

  8. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  9. On Activity modelling in process modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Aiordachioaie

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is looking to the dynamic feature of the meta-models of the process modelling process, the time. Some principles are considered and discussed as main dimensions of any modelling activity: the compatibility of the substances, the equipresence of phenomena and the solvability of the model. The activity models are considered and represented at meta-level.

  10. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  11. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  12. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  13. Exploiting material softening in hard PZTs for resonant bandwidth enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadenham, S.; Moura, A.; Erturk, A.

    2016-04-01

    Intentionally designed nonlinearities have been employed by several research groups to enhance the frequency bandwidth of vibration energy harvesters. Another type of nonlinear resonance behavior emerges from the piezoelectric constitutive behavior for high excitation levels and is manifested in the form of softening stiffness. This material nonlinearity does not result in the jump phenomenon in soft piezoelectric ceramics, e.g. PZT-5A and PZT-5H, due to their large internal dissipation. This paper explores the potential for wideband energy harvesting using a hard (relatively high quality factor) PZT-8 bimorph by exploiting its material softening. A wide range of base excitation experiments conducted for a set of resistive electrical loads confirms the frequency bandwidth enhancement.

  14. Solving the standard model problems in softened gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvio, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    The Higgs naturalness problem is solved if the growth of Einstein's gravitational interaction is softened at an energy ≲1 011 GeV (softened gravity). We work here within an explicit realization where the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is extended to include terms quadratic in the curvature and a nonminimal coupling with the Higgs. We show that this solution is preserved by adding three right-handed neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale, accounting for neutrino oscillations, dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. The smallness of the right-handed neutrino masses (compared to the Planck scale) and the QCD θ -term are also shown to be natural. We prove that a possible gravitational source of C P violation cannot spoil the model, thanks to the presence of right-handed neutrinos. Inflation is approximately described by the Starobinsky model in this context and can occur even if we live in a metastable vacuum.

  15. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R.; Jain, H.

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  16. Nonlinear softening as a predictive precursor to climate tipping

    CERN Document Server

    Sieber, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Approaching a dangerous bifurcation, from which a dynamical system such as the Earth's climate will jump (tip) to a different state, the current stable state lies within a shrinking basin of attraction. Persistence of the state becomes increasingly precarious in the presence of noisy disturbances. We consider an underlying potential, as defined theoretically for a saddle-node fold and (via averaging) for a Hopf bifurcation. Close to a stable state, this potential has a parabolic form; but approaching a jump it becomes increasingly dominated by softening nonlinearities. If we have already detected a decrease in the linear decay rate, nonlinear information allows us to estimate the propensity for early tipping due to noise. If there is no discernable trend in the linear analysis, nonlinear softening is even more important in showing the proximity to tipping. After extensive normal form calibration studies, we apply our technique to two geological time series from paleo-climate tipping events. For the ending of ...

  17. Solving the Standard Model Problems in Softened Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto

    2016-11-16

    The Higgs naturalness problem is solved if the growth of Einstein's gravitational interaction is softened at an energy $ \\lesssim 10^{11}\\,$GeV (softened gravity). We work here within an explicit realization where the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is extended to include terms quadratic in the curvature and a non-minimal coupling with the Higgs. We show that this solution is preserved by adding three right-handed neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale, accounting for neutrino oscillations, dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. The smallness of the right-handed neutrino masses (compared to the Planck scale) and the QCD $\\theta$-term are also shown to be natural. We prove that a possible gravitational source of CP violation cannot spoil the model, thanks to the presence of right-handed neutrinos. Starobinsky inflation can occur in this context, even if we live in a metastable vacuum.

  18. China Bans Some Processing Trade Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>China’s Commerce Ministry and General Administration of Customs jointly issued a circular, which will ban the processing trade activities for some metals concentrates. According to the circular, the processing trade for a number of metals concentrates will be banned from August 22, 2005.

  19. Potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases nitric oxide release

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of aldosterone, plasma sodium in the high physiological range stiffens endothelial cells and reduces the release of nitric oxide. We now demonstrate effects of extracellular potassium on stiffness of individual cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells by using the tip of an atomic force microscope as a mechanical nanosensor. An acute increase of potassium in the physiological range swells and softens the endothelial cell and increases the release of nitric oxide. A high physio...

  20. Phonon softening and dispersion in EuTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David S.; Uchiyama, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Kato, Kenichi; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Baron, Alfred Q. R.

    2012-12-01

    We measured phonon dispersion in single-crystal EuTiO3 using inelastic x-ray scattering. A structural transition to an antiferrodistortive phase was found at a critical temperature T0=287±1 K using powder and single-crystal x-ray diffraction. Clear softening of the zone boundary R-point q=(0.50.50.5) acoustic phonon shows this to be a displacive transition. The mode energy plotted against reduced temperature could be seen to nearly overlap that of SrTiO3, suggesting a universal scaling relation. Phonon dispersion was measured along Γ-X (000)→(0.500). Mode eigenvectors were obtained from a shell model consistent with the q dependence of intensity and energy, which also showed that the dispersion is nominally the same as in SrTiO3 at room temperature, but corrected for mass. The lowest-energy optical mode, determined to be of Slater character, softens approximately linearly with temperature until the 70-100 K range where the softening stops, and at low temperature, the mode disperses linearly near the zone center.

  1. Pemanfaatan ter sebagai softener dalam pembuatan karet riklim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research was to study the effect of Coal Tar as softener for reclaim rubber production from waste of rubber of tyre rethreading as input materials was scrap rubber. Coal Tar as softener was used with variation; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 and 15% respectively from total scrap rubber. Reclaimed rubber was made at temperature 1200C for 1 hour in autoclave and than it was subsequently ground with two rolls mills. The characteristics of the reclaimed rubber was tested for the vulcanization and physical properties. The results showed that Coal Tar could be utilized as softener for reclaimed rubber. Reclaimed rubber production containing Coal Tar 15% would give good vulcanization and physical properties. The vulcanization 1062 seconds, maximum torque 39,08 kgf-cm, minimum torque 4,71 kgf-cm. Good physical properties : tensile strength 80,74 kg/cm2 elongation at break 444,62%, hardness 49 shore A, tear strength 40,39 kg/cm, density 1,15 g/cm3, abrasion resistance 1,87 mm3/kgm, and no crack detected on the flex cracking test of 150 kcs

  2. Influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation of dental composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ratto de Moraes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation (microhardness of dental composites. Specimens of Filtek Z100 (3M ESPE were light-activated by standard or pulse-delay methods. After initial Knoop hardness readings (KHN1, half of specimens (n = 10 for each irradiation method was stored in 100% ethanol, and half in 75% ethanol, during 24 hours, and hardness was determined anew. Hardness deterioration (DKHN was recorded as the difference between pre and post-storage values. KHN1 data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05, and hardness deterioration was analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha= 0.05. For KHN1, no significant differences were detected between the activation modes (p = 0.697. Samples light-activated by the pulse-delay method presented significantly higher softening compared to the standard mode when samples were immersed in 100% ethanol. Conversely, no significant differences between curing modes were detected for samples stored in 75% ethanol.

  3. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...

  4. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  5. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  6. Softening the Complexity of Entropic Motion on Curved Statistical Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Carlo; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We study the information geometry and the entropic dynamics of a 3D Gaussian statistical model. We then compare our analysis to that of a 2D Gaussian statistical model obtained from the higher-dimensional model via introduction of an additional information constraint that resembles the quantum mechanical canonical minimum uncertainty relation. We show that the chaoticity (temporal complexity) of the 2D Gaussian statistical model, quantified by means of the Information Geometric Entropy (IGE) and the Jacobi vector field intensity, is softened with respect to the chaoticity of the 3D Gaussian statistical model.

  7. Development of Tensile Softening Model for Plain Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.K.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    Large-scale direct tensile softenng tests using plate concrete specimens(4000, 5000psi) with notch were performed under uniaxial stress. There were presented the basic physical properties and the complete load-CMOD(Crack Mouth Opening Displacement) curves for them And them the fracture energy was evaluated using the complete load-CMOD curves respectively, and there was presents optimal tensile softening model which is modified by a little revision of an existing one. Therefore, here provided the real verification data through the tests for developing other nonlinear concrete finite element models. (author). 32 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Phonon Softening and Dispersion in EuTiO3

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, David S.; UCHIYAMA, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Kato, Kenichi; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Baron, Alfred Q. R.

    2012-01-01

    We measured phonon dispersion in single crystal EuTiO$_3$ using inelastic x-ray scattering. A structural transition to an antiferrodistortive phase was found at a critical temperature $T_0$=287$\\pm$1 K using powder and single-crystal x-ray diffraction. Clear softening of the zone boundary \\emph{R}-point \\textbf{q}=(0.5 0.5 0.5) acoustic phonon shows this to be a displacive transition. The mode energy plotted against reduced temperature could be seen to nearly overlap that of $\\rm SrTiO_3$, su...

  9. Damage constitutive model for strain-softening rock based on normal distribution and its parameter determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Firstly, using the damage model for rock based on Lemaitre hypothesis about strain equivalence, a new technique for measuring strength of rock micro-cells by adopting the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was developed, and a statistical damage evolution equation was established based on the property that strength of micro-cells is consistent with normal distribution function, through discussing the characteristics of random distributions for strength of micro-cells, then a statistical damage constitutive model that can simulate the full process of rock strain softening under specific confining pressure was set up. Secondly, a new method to determine the model parameters which can be applied to the situations under different confining pressures was proposed, by deeply studying the relations between the model parameters and characteristic parameters of the full stress-strain curve under different confining pressures. Therefore, a unified statistical damage constitutive model for rock softening which can reflect the effect of different confining pressures was set up. This model makes the physical property of model parameters explicit, contains only conventional mechanical parameters, and leads its application more convenient. Finally, the rationality of this model and its parameters-determining method were identified via comparative analyses between theoretical and experimental curves.

  10. Life cycle assessment of central softening of very hard drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rygaard, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking...... water from the initial hardness of the region of study (Copenhagen, Denmark) which is 362 mg/L as CaCO(3) to a final hardness as CaCO(3) of 254 (a softening depth of 108) mg/L or 145 (a softening depth of 217) mg/L. Our study showed that the consumer preference can be met together with reducing...... Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking...

  11. Effect of strain hardening and strain softening on welding distortion and residual stress of A7N01-T4 aluminum alloy by simulation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN De-jun; LIU Xue-song; LI Jun; YANG Jian-guo; FANG Hong-yuan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of strain hardening and strain softening behavior of flow stress changing with temperature on welding residual stress,plastic strain and welding distortion of A7N01-T4 aluminum alloy was studied by finite simulation method.The simulation results show that the weld seam undergoes strain hardening in the temperature range of 180-250℃,however,it exhibits strain softening at temperature above 250℃ during welding heating and cooling process.As a result,the strain hardening and strain softening effects counteract each other,introducing slightly influence on the welding residual stress,residual plastic strain and distortion.The welding longitudinal residual stress was determined by ultrasonic stress measurement method for the flat plates of A7N01-T4 aluminum alloy.The simulation results are well accordant with test ones.

  12. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon eHeald

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processingd with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or

  13. Large-Strain Softening of Aluminum in Shear at Elevated Temperature: Influence of Dislocation Climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassner, M. E.; Campbell, C. S.; Ermagan, R.

    2017-09-01

    This communication complements an earlier publication in this journal by the authors describing the basis for large-strain softening in aluminum under pure shear at elevated temperatures. Earlier work by the authors and the materials community only considered changes in the dislocation glide stress with the evolving texture as an explanation for the softening. New analysis finds that changes in the dislocation climb stress with texture development can explain the softening trends.

  14. Effect of potential remineralizing agents on acid softened enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Maeda, Fernando A; Messias, Danielle C F; Neto, Francisco C Rehder; Serra, Mônica C; Galafassi, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    To assess whether pastes containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSP) protect acid softened enamel against further erosive episodes. Enamel slabs of bovine teeth with preformed erosion-like lesions were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (n = 15): A) CPP-ACP (MI Paste, GC America); B) CPP-ACP+Fluoride (CPP-ACP+F, MI Plus Paste, GC America); C) CSP (Tooth Revitalizing Paste, Oravive); D) fluoridated dentifrice (FD, Sensodyne Cool Gel, GSK); E) control (CO, unexposed to any product). Paste treatments (1:3 slurry in deionized water or undiluted product in the case of the CPP-ACP formulae) were performed between five cycles of alternating erosive challenge (0.3% citric acid, pH = 3.2) and remineralization in artificial saliva. Specimens were analyzed by Knoop surface microhardness (SMH). ANOVA indicated a significant (P< 0.0001) difference among the SMH values attained by acid softened enamel following the exposure to the pastes interspersed with erosion-remineralization cycles. Tukey's test ascertained that SMH values observed for the CPP-ACP+F and CSP groups did not differ from that of FD group, which were significantly higher than that found for the CO group. Specimens treated with CPP-ACP did not differ from any of the other groups.

  15. Internal friction and elastic softening in polycrystalline Nb3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, J. F.; Faucher, B.; Snead, C. L., Jr.; Welch, D. O.

    1981-10-01

    The vibrating-reed technique was used to measure internal friction and Young's modulus of polycrystalline Nb3Sn in the form of composite Nb-Nb3Sn tapes from 6 to 300 K. In tapes with only small residual strain in the A 15 layers, a dramatic increase in internal friction with decreasing temperature is observed with an abrupt onset at ~48 K. The internal friction Q-1 between 6 and 48 K is believed to be associated with stress-induced motion of martensitic-domain walls. In this temperature range, Q-1 is approximately proportional to the square of the tetragonal strain of the martensitic phase; Q-1~(ca-1)2. With residual compressive strains of ~0.2%, the internal friction associated with domain-wall motion is considerably reduced. This is attributed to a biasing of domain-wall orientation with residual stress, which reduces wall motion induced by the (much smaller) applied stress. The transformation temperature, however, is unchanged (within +/- 1 K) by residual strains of up to 0.2%. Young's modulus exhibits substantial softening on cooling from 300 to 6 K. This softening is substantially reduced in the presence of small residual compressive strains, indicating a highly nonlinear stress-strain relationship as previously reported for V 3Si.

  16. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, M. C.

    1998-12-11

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical ''signatures'' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration, the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can

  17. Investigation of work softening mechanisms and texture in a hot deformed 6061 aluminum alloy at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezatpour, H.R., E-mail: H.R.Ezatpour@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haddad Sabzevar, M.; Sajjadi, S.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Huang, Yz., E-mail: yzhuang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-06-01

    Hot deformation behavior of 6061 aluminum alloy was investigated by performing compression test in the temperature range of 350–500 °C. Equivalent strain rates were selected in the range of 0.0005–0.5 s{sup −1} in order to obtain processing and stability maps of the studied material using a Dynamic Material Model. Microstructure of the samples after deformation was analyzed by light and electron microscopy and the differences were compared together. The stresses obtained from the flow curves were related to strain rate (ε) and temperature (T) by a constitutive equation in hyperbolic sine function with hot deformation activation energy of 274 kJ/mol, and were described by the Zener–Hollomon equation. Microstructure results showed that with decreasing Z value, the elongated grains coarsened and the tendency of dynamic recrystallization enhanced. Correspondingly, the subgrain size increased and the dislocation density decreased. Moreover, the main softening mechanism of the alloy transformed from dynamic recovery to dynamic recrystallization. XRD results showed that the (200) texture has an important role in development of dynamic recystallization at high temperature.

  18. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum on hardness of molybdenum. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary molybdenum alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to molybdenum, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons that molybdenum failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and molybdenum.

  19. One- and Two-Dimensional Maximum Softening Indicators for Reinforced Concrete Structures under Seismic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Köyüoglu, H. U.; Cakmak, A. S.

    The maximum softening concept is based on the variation of the vibrational periods of a structure during a seismic event. Maximum softening damage indicators, which measure the maximum relative stiffness reduction caused by stiffness and strength deterioration of the actual structure, are calcula......The maximum softening concept is based on the variation of the vibrational periods of a structure during a seismic event. Maximum softening damage indicators, which measure the maximum relative stiffness reduction caused by stiffness and strength deterioration of the actual structure...

  20. QTL dynamics for fruit firmness and softening around an ethylene-dependent polygalacturonase gene in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabrizio; Peace, Cameron P; Stella, Sara; Serra, Sara; Musacchi, Stefano; Bazzani, Micaela; Sansavini, Silviero; Van de Weg, W Eric

    2010-06-01

    Apple fruit are well known for their storage life, although a wide range of flesh softening occurs among cultivars. Loss of firmness is genetically coordinated by the action of several cell wall enzymes, including polygalacturonase (PG) which depolymerizes cell wall pectin. By the analysis of 'Fuji' (Fj) and 'Mondial Gala' (MG), two apple cultivars characterized by a distinctive ripening behaviour, the involvement of Md-PG1 in the fruit softening process was confirmed to be ethylene dependent by its transcript being down-regulated by 1-methylcyclopropene treatment in MG and in the low ethylene-producing cultivar Fj. Comparing the PG sequence of MG and Fj, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was discovered. Segregation of the Md-PG1(SNP) marker within a full-sib population, obtained by crossing Fj and MG, positioned Md-PG1 in the linkage group 10 of MG, co-located with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) identified for fruit firmness in post-harvest ripening. Fruit firmness and softening analysed in different stages, from harvest to post-storage, determined a shift of the QTL from the top of this linkage group to the bottom, where Md-ACO1, a gene involved in ethylene biosynthesis in apple, is mapped. This PG-ethylene-related gene has beeen positioned in the apple genome on chromosome 10, which contains several QTLs controlling fruit firmness and softening, and the interplay among the allelotypes of the linked loci should be considered in the design of a marker-assisted selection breeding scheme for apple texture.

  1. Investigation into a new softening agent for use on formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, G E; Torres, J; Poirier, A; Sounthararajah, R; Webster, J; Notini, L; Hacker, L; Ismail, F; Nwokie, T; Humphrey, P; Spigler, E; Missaghian-Cully, S; Brewer, C; Meredith-Jones, A

    2009-01-01

    The use of tissue softening agents to improve microtomy of keratotic tissues is employed widely. Many of these softeners contain hazardous constituents such as phenol. In this study, the use of non-ionic surfactants or non-toxic ingredients are investigated with the aim of creating a new softening agent. The new agent should be more effective in facilitating the sectioning of hardened tissue while reducing toxicity and complications associated with sectioning hard tissue compared to a commercially available phenol-based formulation. Four formulations are compared against the commercial product for their capability to section routinely processed paraffin-embedded tissue under standard operating procedure parameters. The trial formulations were shown to be fast acting and enabled improved serial sectioning of hard keratotic tissue in nearly all the cases tested. There was no evidence of adverse staining using either tinctorial or immunohistochemical methods. The new formulations had advantages over the commercially available solutions, improving on the number and quality of sections attainable from the tissue blocks, as well as offering a composition less toxic than phenol-based products.

  2. Effect of temperature on thermal softening of black sweet-bamboo culms (Dendrocalamus asper Backer in linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banyat Cherdchim

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the effect of temperature on thermal softening behavior of black sweet-bamboo culms in linseed oil. Pressing test rig with a length scale and a pointer indicating specimen height was constructed. This apparatus was used to apply a compressive force to bamboo specimen immersed in hot linseed oil in a boiler. Half circular cross-section specimens with thickness of 3 mm and length of 150 mm were dipped into water at room temperature to attain water saturated condition prior to immersing into linseed oil at various temperatures under the load of 20 N. Specimen height, used to calculate the degree of flatness, was measured as a function of time. The values of the final degree of flatness and the rate of degree of flatness were used for the analysis of thermal softening behavior of bamboo in linseed oil. It was found that thermal softening behavior of bamboo culms in linseed oil was divided into two temperature regimes with the glass transition temperature at 115ºC. At low temperature regime, deformation occurred slowly and showed only a single stage of deformation, corresponding to deformation in the glassy state. At high temperature regime, specimens deformed slowly in the first stage followed by a rapid deformation in the second stage, corresponding to deformations in the glassy and rubbery states, respectively. Effect of temperature on the rate of softening was well described by means of the Arrhenius equation with the activation energy ranging from 18 kJ/mole to 32 kJ/mole.

  3. Searching for Terrain Softening near Mercury's North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian, P. S.; Vilas, F.; Lederer, S. M.; Barlow, N. G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, following the initial discovery of radar bright craters near both poles of Mercury measured the depth-todiameter (d/D) ratios of 170 impact craters in Mariner 10 images covering four different regions on Mercury s surface. Rapid softening of crater structure, indicated by lower d/D ratios, could indicate the possibility of subsurface water ice in Mercury's terrain originating from an internal source in the planet. Their study included 3 specific radar bright craters suggested to contain ice. They concluded that no terrain softening was apparent, and a rapidly emplaced exogenic water source was the most likely source for the proposed ice in these craters. Recent radar observations of the Mercurian North pole have pinpointed many additional radar bright areas with a resolution 10x better than previous radar measurements, and which correlate with craters imaged by Mariner 10. These craters are correlated with regions that are permanently shaded from direct sunlight, and are consistent with observations of clean water ice. We have expanded the initial study by Barlow et al. to include d/D measurements of 12 craters newly identified as radar bright at latitudes poleward of +80o. The radar reflectivity resemblances to Mars south polar cap and echoes from three icy Galilean satellites suggest that these craters too may have polar ice on Mercury. The effect of subsurface H20 on impact craters is a decrease in its d/D ratio, and softening of crater rims over a period of time. The study of Barlow et al., focused on determining the d/D ratios of 170 impact craters in the Borealis (north polar), Tolstoj (equatorial), Kuiper (equatorial), and Bach (south polar) quadrangles. This work focuses on the newly discovered radar bright craters, investigating their d/D ratios as an expansion of the earlier work..We compare our results to the statistical results from Barlow et al. here. With the upcoming Messenger spacecraft mission to Mercury, this is an especially timely study

  4. Active PZT fibers: a commercial production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Harold B.; Pascucci, Marina R.; Parish, Mark V.; Bent, Aaron A.; Shrout, Thomas R.

    1999-07-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) active fibers, from 80 to 250 micrometers in diameter, are produced for the AFOSR/DARPA funded Active Fiber Composites Consortium (AFCC) Program and commercial customers. CeraNova has developed a proprietary ceramics-based technology to produce PZT mono-filaments of the required purity, composition, straightness, and piezoelectric properties for use in active fiber composite structures. CeraNova's process begins with the extrusion of continuous lengths of mono-filament precursor fiber from a plasticized mix of PZT-5A powder. The care that must be taken to avoid mix contamination is described using illustrations form problems experiences with extruder wear and metallic contamination. Corrective actions are described and example microstructures are shown. The consequences of inadequate lead control are also shown. Sintered mono- filament mechanical strength and piezoelectric properties data approach bulk values but the validity of such a benchmark is questioned based on variable correlation with composite performance measures. Comb-like ceramic preform structures are shown that are being developed to minimize process and handling costs while maintaining the required mono-filament straightness necessary for composite fabrication. Lastly, actuation performance data are presented for composite structures fabricated and tested by Continuum Control Corporation. Free strain actuation in excess of 2000 microstrain are observed.

  5. Softening in random networks of non-identical beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ehsan; Barocas, Victor H.; Shephard, Mark S.; Picu, R. Catalin

    2016-02-01

    Random fiber networks are assemblies of elastic elements connected in random configurations. They are used as models for a broad range of fibrous materials including biopolymer gels and synthetic nonwovens. Although the mechanics of networks made from the same type of fibers has been studied extensively, the behavior of composite systems of fibers with different properties has received less attention. In this work we numerically and theoretically study random networks of beams and springs of different mechanical properties. We observe that the overall network stiffness decreases on average as the variability of fiber stiffness increases, at constant mean fiber stiffness. Numerical results and analytical arguments show that for small variabilities in fiber stiffness the amount of network softening scales linearly with the variance of the fiber stiffness distribution. This result holds for any beam structure and is expected to apply to a broad range of materials including cellular solids.

  6. A truly Newtonian softening length for disc simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Huré, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The softened point mass model is commonly used in simulations of gaseous discs including self-gravity while the value of associated length \\lambda remains, to some degree, controversial. This ``parameter'' is however fully constrained when, in a discretized disc, all fluid cells are demanded to obey Newton's law. We examine the topology of solutions in this context, focusing on cylindrical cells more or less vertically elongated. We find that not only the nominal length depends critically on the cell's shape (curvature, radial extension, height), but it is either a real or an imaginary number. Setting \\lambda as a fraction of the local disc thickness -- as usually done -- is indeed not the optimal choice. We then propose a novel prescription valid irrespective of the disc properties and grid spacings. The benefit, which amounts to 2-3 more digits typically, is illustrated in a few concrete cases. A detailed mathematical analysis is in progress.

  7. Ion transport and softening in a polymerized ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bocharova, Vera; Strelcov, Evgheni; Tselev, Alexander; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Berdzinski, Stefan; Strehmel, Veronika; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Minutolo, Joseph A.; Sangoro, Joshua R.; Agapov, Alexander L.; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2014-12-01

    Polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs) are promising materials for various solid state electronic applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium batteries, actuators, field-effect transistors, light emitting electrochemical cells, and electrochromic devices. However, fundamental understanding of interconnection between ionic transport and mechanical properties in PolyILs is far from complete. In this work, local charge transport and structural changes in films of a PolyIL are studied using an integrated experiment-theory based approach. Experimental data for the kinetics of charging and steady state current-voltage relations can be explained by taking into account the dissociation of ions under an applied electric field (known as the Wien effect). Onsager's theory of the Wien effect coupled with the Poisson-Nernst-Planck formalism for the charge transport is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The agreement between the theory and experiments allows us to predict structural properties of the PolyIL films. We have observed significant softening of the PolyIL films beyond certain threshold voltages and formation of holes under a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) tip, through which an electric field was applied. The observed softening is explained by the theory of depression in glass transition temperature resulting from enhanced dissociation of ions with an increase in applied electric field.Polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs) are promising materials for various solid state electronic applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium batteries, actuators, field-effect transistors, light emitting electrochemical cells, and electrochromic devices. However, fundamental understanding of interconnection between ionic transport and mechanical properties in PolyILs is far from complete. In this work, local charge transport and structural changes in films of a PolyIL are studied using an integrated experiment-theory based approach

  8. A work softening joint element used in dynamic analysis of soil-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Kenzo; Yongen, Cai; Zhendong, Zhao

    1989-11-01

    This paper introduces an elasto-plastic joint element characterised by strain hardening and softening in the analysis of dynamic soil-structure interaction. The phenomena of separation and sliding on the contact surface between soil and structure can be better simulated and the process can also be described. The interaction problems in a typical soil-structure system are analyzed in terms of elasto-plastic joint element as well as elastic ones. The results show that the elasto-plastic joint element is much better than the elastic one in modelling, especially in that the relative displacements accross the joint element can be much greater than that of the elastic case. Separation and sliding are not only related to the coefficient of friction and cohesion but also to their changes with plastic volumetric strain.

  9. Analysis on cohesive crack opening displacement considering the strain softening effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Limin; XU; Shilang; ZHAO; Xiqiang

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the crack propagation in quasi-brittle materials like rock, ceramic and concrete, Hillerborg and his co-researchers abstracted the fracture process zone in front of a stress free crack in terms of a "fictitious crack zone". On the fictitious crack zone, cohesive stresses distribute following a given softening relationship of stress vs. crack opening. Based on the polynomial or power series expression of cohesive crack opening displacement, the relationship of the cohesive stress vs. the crack opening displacement is established using elastic theory and integral equation, and some unknown physics variables are obtained using variation approach. The calculation results gained in this paper are close to the experimentally test ones.

  10. Improved actuation strain of PDMS-based DEA materials chemically modified with softening agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Miriam; Blümke, Martin; Wegener, Michael; Krüger, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are smart materials that gained much in interest particularly in recent years. One active field of research is the improvement of their properties by modification of their structural framework. The object of this work is to improve the actuation properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based DEAs by covalent incorporation of mono-vinyl-terminated low-molecular PDMS chains into the PDMS network. These low-molecular units act as a kind of softener within the PDMS network. The loose chain ends interfere with the network formation and lower the network's density. PDMS films with up to 50wt% of low-molecular PDMS additives were manufactured and the chemical, mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical properties of these novel materials were investigated.

  11. Study of Flow Softening Mechanisms of a Nickel-Based Superalloy With Δ Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Y.C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow softening behaviors of a nickel-based superalloy with δ phase are investigated by hot compression tests over wide ranges of deformation temperature and strain rate. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD, optical microscopy (OM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM are employed to study the flow softening mechanisms of the studied superalloy. It is found that the flow softening behaviors of the studied superalloy are sensitive to deformation temperature and strain rate. At high strain rate and low deformation temperature, the obvious flow softening behaviors occur. With the increase of deformation temperature or decrease of strain rate, the flow softening degree becomes weaken. At high strain rate (1s−1, the flow softening is mostly induced by the plastic deformation heating and flow localization. However, at low strain rate domains (0.001-0.01s−1, the effects of deformation heating on flow softening are slight. Moreover, the flow softening at low strain rates is mainly induced by the discontinuous dynamic recrystallization and the dissolution of δ phase (Ni3Nb.

  12. 15 CFR 400.31 - Manufacturing and processing activity; criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturing and processing activity... ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.31 Manufacturing and processing activity....” When evaluating zone and subzone manufacturing and processing activity, either as proposed in...

  13. Fracture propagation in Indiana Limestone interpreted via linear softening cohesive fracture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Alex J.; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We examine the use of a linear softening cohesive fracture model (LCFM) to predict single-trace fracture growth in short-rod (SR) and notched 3-point-bend (N3PB) test configurations in Indiana Limestone. The broad goal of this work is to (a) understand the underlying assumptions of LCFM and (b) use experimental similarities and deviations from the LCFM to understand the role of loading paths of tensile fracture propagation. Cohesive fracture models are being applied in prediction of structural and subsurface fracture propagation in geomaterials. They lump the inelastic processes occurring during fracture propagation into a thin zone between elastic subdomains. LCFM assumes that the cohesive zone initially deforms elastically to a maximum tensile stress (σmax) and then softens linearly from the crack opening width at σmax to zero stress at a critical crack opening width w1. Using commercial finite element software, we developed LCFMs for the SR and N3PB configurations. After fixing σmax with results from cylinder splitting tests and finding an initial Young's modulus (E) with unconfined compressive strength tests, we manually calibrate E and w1 in the SR model against an envelope of experimental data. We apply the calibrated LCFM parameters in the N3PB geometry and compare the model against an envelope of N3PB experiments. For accurate simulation of fracture propagation, simulated off-crack stresses are high enough to require inclusion of damage. Different elastic moduli are needed in tension and compression. We hypothesize that the timing and location of shear versus extensional micromechanical failures control the qualitative macroscopic force-versus-displacement response in different tests. For accurate prediction, the LCFM requires a constant style of failure, which the SR configuration maintains until very late in deformation. The N3PB configuration does not maintain this constancy. To be broadly applicable between geometries and failure styles, the LCFM

  14. Development of two-step softening heat-treatment in ODS ferritic steel claddings with recrystallized grain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kobayashi, Toshimi [Sumitomo Metal Technology, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have been developed as prospective cladding materials for attaining higher burnup and higher coolant outlet temperature in advanced fast reactors. In the cladding manufacturing process, two-step softening heat-treatment was developed as an effective method for application to the recrystalizing heat-treatment, which made possible the improvement of formability, ductility and the disappearance of strength anisotropy in the ODS ferritic steel claddings. A mass production process is predicted and cost reduction is concomitantly expected for manufacturing ODS ferritic steel claddings with an adequate strength level at 700degC for commercialized fast reactors. (author)

  15. Ras activation in Hirudo medicinalis angiogenic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Valvassori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In some leeches like Hirudo medicinalis, any kind of stimulation (surgical wound or growth factor injection provokes the botryoidal tissue response. This peculiar tissue, localized in the loose connective tissue between gut and body wall, is formed by granular botryoidal cells and flattened endothelial-like cells. Under stimulation, the botryoidal tissue changes its shape to form new capillaries. In mammals, the molecular regulation of the angiogenic phenotype requires coordinated input from a number of signalling molecules: among them the GTPase Ras is one of the major actor. In our current study, we determine whether Ras activation alone would be sufficient to drive vessels formation from leech botryoidal tissue. Our findings indicate that assembly and disassembly of actin filaments regulated by Ras protein is involved in morphological modification of botryoidal tissue cells during leech angiogenic process.

  16. Correlated activity supports efficient cortical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Po Hung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual recognition is a computational challenge that is thought to occur via efficient coding. An important concept is sparseness, a measure of coding efficiency. The prevailing view is that sparseness supports efficiency by minimizing redundancy and correlations in spiking populations. Yet, we recently reported that ‘choristers’, neurons that behave more similarly (have correlated stimulus preferences and spontaneous coincident spiking, carry more generalizable object information than uncorrelated neurons (‘soloists’ in macaque inferior temporal (IT cortex. The rarity of choristers (as low as 6% of IT neurons indicates that they were likely missed in previous studies. Here, we report that correlation strength is distinct from sparseness (choristers are not simply broadly tuned neurons, that choristers are located in non-granular output layers, and that correlated activity predicts human visual search efficiency. These counterintuitive results suggest that a redundant correlational structure supports efficient processing and behavior.

  17. 有机硅多元共聚柔软剂的合成%Synthesis of multi-copolymer silicone softener

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春艳; 贺江平; 崔妍蕾

    2016-01-01

    采用逐步聚合法合成有机硅多元共聚柔软剂,探究投料比、反应时间和温度以及后续溶剂的选择对柔软剂性能的影响,得出最佳的合成工艺。同时与市售柔软剂进行对比,并对整理后的织物进行耐洗性和电镜检测。结果表明,所合成的柔软剂性能优良,具有一定的市场前景。%The synthesis of multi- copolymer silicone softener was carried out by stepwise polymeriza⁃tion. The effects of feed ratio, reaction time and temperature, and solvent on softener performance were stud⁃ied to find out the optimal synthesized process. The comparison with the on- sale softener as wel as the test of washing fastness and SEM results showed the excel ent performance of self- made softener, which had market prospect.

  18. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Determination of the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. A modified microhardness test unit permitted hardness determinations at homologous temperatures ranging from 0.02 to 0.15, where alloy softening normally occurs in bcc alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s + d electrons compared to Mo while those elements having an equal number or fewer s + d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. The magnitude of the softening and the amount of solute element at the hardness minimum diminished rapidly with increasing test temperature. At solute concentrations where alloy softening was observed, the temperature sensitivity of hardness was lowered. For solute elements having an excess of s + d electrons or fewer s + d electrons than Mo, alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s + d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  19. Gravimetric control of active volcanic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Stiros, Stathis

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic activity includes phases of magma chamber inflation and deflation, produced by movement of magma and/or hydrothermal processes. Such effects usually leave their imprint as deformation of the ground surfaces which can be recorded by GNSS and other methods, on one hand, and on the other hand they can be modeled as elastic deformation processes, with deformation produced by volcanic masses of finite dimensions such as spheres, ellipsoids and parallelograms. Such volumes are modeled on the basis of inversion (non-linear, numerical solution) of systems of equations relating the unknown dimensions and location of magma sources with observations, currently mostly GNSS and INSAR data. Inversion techniques depend on the misfit between model predictions and observations, but because systems of equations are highly non-linear, and because adopted models for the geometry of magma sources is simple, non-unique solutions can be derived, constrained by local extrema. Assessment of derived magma models can be provided by independent observations and models, such as micro-seismicity distribution and changes in geophysical parameters. In the simplest case magmatic intrusions can be modeled as spheres with diameters of at least a few tens of meters at a depth of a few kilometers; hence they are expected to have a gravimetric signature in permanent recording stations on the ground surface, while larger intrusions may also have an imprint in sensors in orbit around the earth or along precisely defined air paths. Identification of such gravimetric signals and separation of the "true" signal from the measurement and ambient noise requires fine forward modeling of the wider areas based on realistic simulation of the ambient gravimetric field, and then modeling of its possible distortion because of magmatic anomalies. Such results are useful to remove ambiguities in inverse modeling of ground deformation, and also to detect magmatic anomalies offshore.

  20. Analysis of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH genes and diverse roles of isoenzymes during persimmon fruit development and postharvest softening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Han

    Full Text Available Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH enzymes have played a role in the remodeling of cell wall hemicelluloses. To investigate the function of XTHs in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. fruit development and postharvest softening, five cDNAs (DkXTH1 to DkXTH5, whose putative proteins contained the conserved DEIDFEFLG motif of XTH, were cloned. Real time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that DkXTH1, DkXTH4, and DkXTH5 peaked in immature expanding fruit, and their higher expression was observed along with higher fruit firmness in cold-treated fruit or firmer cultivar fruit during storage. The opposite gene expression patterns were observed in DkXTH2 and DkXTH3, which reached maxima concomitance with pronounced fruit softening. Meanwhile, the xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET enzymes play important roles in both the rapid growth and ripening of persimmon fruit. Furthermore, the recombined DkXTH1 and DkXTH2 proteins showed significant XET activity without any detected XEH activity. However, the XET activity of recombined DkXTH2 protein had a higher affinity for small acceptor molecules than that of recombined DkXTH1 protein. The former might prefer to participate in cell wall restructuring, and the latter is more inclined to participate in cell wall assembly. Besides, DKXTH proteins could function by targeting to the cell wall under regulation of a signal peptide. The data suggested that individual DKXTHs could exhibit different patterns of expression, and the encoded products possessed specific enzymatic properties conferring on their respective functions in growth and postharvest softening of persimmon fruit.

  1. Life cycle assessment of central softening of very hard drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godskesen, B; Hauschild, M; Rygaard, M; Zambrano, K; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2012-08-30

    Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking water entailed an increased use of energy, sand and chemicals at the waterworks, the distributed and softened drinking water supported a decrease in consumption of energy and chemical agents in the households along with a prolonged service life of household appliances which heat water. This study used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking water from the initial hardness of the region of study (Copenhagen, Denmark) which is 362 mg/L as CaCO(3) to a final hardness as CaCO(3) of 254 (a softening depth of 108) mg/L or 145 (a softening depth of 217) mg/L. Our study showed that the consumer preference can be met together with reducing the impact on the environment and the resource consumption. Environmental impacts decreased by up to 3 mPET (milli Personal Equivalent Targeted) and the break-even point from where central softening becomes environmentally beneficial was reached at a softening depth of only 22 mg/L as CaCO(3). Both energy-related and chemically related environmental impacts were reduced as well as the consumption of resources. Based on scarcity criteria, nickel was identified as the most problematic non-renewable resource in the system, and savings of up to 8 mPR (milli Person Reserve) were found.

  2. Elastic and mechanical softening in boron-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobing; Chang, Yun-Yuan; Tkachev, Sergey N.; Bina, Craig R.; Jacobsen, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    Alternative approaches to evaluating the hardness and elastic properties of materials exhibiting physical properties comparable to pure diamond have recently become necessary. The classic linear relationship between shear modulus (G) and Vickers hardness (HV), along with more recent non-linear formulations based on Pugh’s modulus extending into the superhard region (HV > 40 GPa) have guided synthesis and identification of novel superabrasives. These schemes rely on accurately quantifying HV of diamond-like materials approaching or potentially exceeding the hardness of the diamond indenter, leading to debate about methodology and the very definition of hardness. Elasticity measurements on such materials are equally challenging. Here we used a high-precision, GHz-ultrasonic interferometer in conjunction with a newly developed optical contact micrometer and 3D optical microscopy of indentations to evaluate elasticity-hardness relations in the ultrahard range (HV > 80 GPa) by examining single-crystal boron-doped diamond (BDD) with boron contents ranging from 50–3000 ppm. We observe a drastic elastic-mechanical softening in highly doped BDD relative to the trends observed for superhard materials, providing insight into elasticity-hardness relations for ultrahard materials. PMID:28233808

  3. Remineralizing agents: effects on acid-softened enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, H Bp; Maeda, F A; Silva, B R; Miranda, W G; Cardoso, P Ec

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether remineralizing toothpastes can protect acid-softened enamel against further erosive episodes. Fifty enamel slabs of bovine teeth with preformed erosion-like lesions were randomly assigned to 1 control and 4 experimental groups (n = 10): group 1, nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHAp) dentifrice; group 2, arginine and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dentifrice; group 3, potassium nitrate (KNO3) and high-fluoride (F) availability dentifrice; group 4, ordinary fluoridated dentifrice (OFD); and group 5, control (deionized water). Initial hardness measurements were taken after the different treatments were applied. Statistically significant mineral gains of 8.0% and 10.0% were exhibited in groups 1 and 4, respectively. Groups 2 and 3 showed mineral gains of 4.5% and 2.1%, respectively; these were not statistically significant. Group 5 showed mineral loss (-11.8%). A 1-way analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences in the mean microhardness values among groups. However, there are indications that the nanoHAp and OFD toothpastes may decrease erosive lesions after treatment, while the arginine + CaCO3 and KNO3 + F pastes may prevent the progression of erosive lesions.

  4. Elastic and mechanical softening in boron-doped diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobing; Chang, Yun-Yuan; Tkachev, Sergey N; Bina, Craig R; Jacobsen, Steven D

    2017-02-24

    Alternative approaches to evaluating the hardness and elastic properties of materials exhibiting physical properties comparable to pure diamond have recently become necessary. The classic linear relationship between shear modulus (G) and Vickers hardness (HV), along with more recent non-linear formulations based on Pugh's modulus extending into the superhard region (HV > 40 GPa) have guided synthesis and identification of novel superabrasives. These schemes rely on accurately quantifying HV of diamond-like materials approaching or potentially exceeding the hardness of the diamond indenter, leading to debate about methodology and the very definition of hardness. Elasticity measurements on such materials are equally challenging. Here we used a high-precision, GHz-ultrasonic interferometer in conjunction with a newly developed optical contact micrometer and 3D optical microscopy of indentations to evaluate elasticity-hardness relations in the ultrahard range (HV > 80 GPa) by examining single-crystal boron-doped diamond (BDD) with boron contents ranging from 50-3000 ppm. We observe a drastic elastic-mechanical softening in highly doped BDD relative to the trends observed for superhard materials, providing insight into elasticity-hardness relations for ultrahard materials.

  5. Elastic and mechanical softening in boron-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobing; Chang, Yun-Yuan; Tkachev, Sergey N.; Bina, Craig R.; Jacobsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-01

    Alternative approaches to evaluating the hardness and elastic properties of materials exhibiting physical properties comparable to pure diamond have recently become necessary. The classic linear relationship between shear modulus (G) and Vickers hardness (HV), along with more recent non-linear formulations based on Pugh’s modulus extending into the superhard region (HV > 40 GPa) have guided synthesis and identification of novel superabrasives. These schemes rely on accurately quantifying HV of diamond-like materials approaching or potentially exceeding the hardness of the diamond indenter, leading to debate about methodology and the very definition of hardness. Elasticity measurements on such materials are equally challenging. Here we used a high-precision, GHz-ultrasonic interferometer in conjunction with a newly developed optical contact micrometer and 3D optical microscopy of indentations to evaluate elasticity-hardness relations in the ultrahard range (HV > 80 GPa) by examining single-crystal boron-doped diamond (BDD) with boron contents ranging from 50–3000 ppm. We observe a drastic elastic-mechanical softening in highly doped BDD relative to the trends observed for superhard materials, providing insight into elasticity-hardness relations for ultrahard materials.

  6. p-process nucleosynthesis: Activation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorius, J.; Knörzer, M.; Müller, S.; Pietralla, N.; Sauerwein, A.; Sonnabend, K.; Wälzlein, C.; Wiescher, M.

    2011-04-01

    For the astrophysical p process a complex reaction network has to be solved. In the order of 10,000 theoretically predicted reaction rates are needed for simulations of this network. For reactions involving α particles or protons, the predictions in the framework of the Hauser-Feshbach (HF) model were found to deviate from experimental results partially by a factor of 5 or even more. To optimize the predictive power of the applied HF codes, the nuclear physics input has to be improved. For this purpose, the reactions 166ErTm(p,n) as well as the reaction 170Yb(γ,n) have been measured with the activation method at low energies. The data can provide a further test of HF predictions but can also be used to optimize input parameters of the afore mentioned codes. Preliminary results of the experiments are presented and compared to theoretical predictions using the standard settings of the HF codes NON-SMOKER and TALYS.

  7. Experimental evidence of zone-center optical phonon softening by accumulating holes in thin Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabuyanagi, Shoichi; Nishimura, Tomonori; Yajima, Takeaki; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We discuss the impact of free carriers on the zone-center optical phonon frequency in germanium (Ge). By taking advantage of the Ge-on-insulator structure, we measured the Raman spectroscopy by applying back-gate bias. Phonon softening by accumulating holes in Ge film was clearly observed. This fact strongly suggests that the phonon softening in heavily-doped Ge is mainly attributed to the free carrier effect rather than the dopant atom counterpart. Furthermore, we propose that the free carrier effect on phonon softening is simply understandable from the viewpoint of covalent bonding modification by free carriers.

  8. Surface grain coarsening and surface softening during machining of ultra-fine grained titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symonova A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments are run to show that different machining conditions applied to ultra-fine grained pure titanium lead to different levels of grain coarsening and softening near the machined surface. Under “hard” machining conditions the upper 40 microns of the machined surface are altered with a decreased microhardness. The experimental results are reasonably reproduced by model calculations. Expanding the parameter field of the model calculations, the surface coarsening diagram and the surface softening diagram due to machining are presented, showing the region of technological parameters, under which neither grain coarsening nor softening takes place along the machined surface.

  9. Degassing Processes at Persistently Active Explosive Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, Jean-Francois

    Among volcanic gases, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is by far the most commonly measured. More than a monitoring proxy for volcanic degassing, SO 2 has the potential to alter climate patterns. Persistently active explosive volcanoes are characterized by short explosive bursts, which often occur at periodic intervals numerous times per day, spanning years to decades. SO 2 emissions at those volcanoes are poorly constrained, in large part because the current satellite monitoring techniques are unable to detect or quantify plumes of low concentration in the troposphere. Eruption plumes also often show high concentrations of ash and/or aerosols, which further inhibit the detection methods. In this work I focus on quantifying volcanic gas emissions at persistently active explosive volcanoes and their variations over short timescales (minutes to hours), in order to document their contribution to natural SO2 flux as well as investigate the physical processes that control their behavior. In order to make these measurements, I first develop and assemble a UV ground-based instrument, and validate it against an independently measured source of SO2 at a coal-burning power plant in Arizona. I establish a measurement protocol and demonstrate that the instrument measures SO 2 fluxes with explosions with periods of minutes to hours for the past several decades. Semeru produces an average of 21-71 tons of SO2 per day, amounting to a yearly output of 8-26 Mt. Using the Semeru data, along with a 1-D transient numerical model of magma ascent, I test the validity of a model in which a viscous plug at the top of the conduit produces cycles of eruption and gas release. I find that it can be a valid hypothesis to explain the observed patterns of degassing at Semeru. Periodic behavior in such a system occurs for a very narrow range of conditions, for which the mass balance between magma flux and open-system gas escape repeatedly generates a viscous plug, pressurizes the magma beneath the plug, and

  10. Flash sintering of dielectric nanoparticles as a percolation phenomenon through a softened film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Rachman; Chevallier, Geoffroy; Weibel, Alicia; Estournès, Claude

    2017-04-01

    Recent work [Biesuz et al., J. Appl. Phys. 120, 145107 (2016)] showed analogies between the flash sintering and dielectric breakdown in α-aluminas pre-sintered to different densities. Here, we show that flash sintering of dielectric nanoparticles can be described as a universal behavior by the percolation model. The electrical system is composed of particles and their contact point resistances, the latter softened first due to preferred local Joule heating and thermal runaway during the flash. Local softening has a hierarchical and invasive nature and propagates between the electrodes. The flash event signals the percolation threshold by invasive nature of the softened layer at the particle surfaces. Rapid densification is associated with local particle rearrangements due to attractive capillary forces induced by the softened film at the particle contacts. Flash sintering is a critical phenomenon with a self-organizing character. The experimental electric conductivity results from flash sintering are in full agreement with those calculated from the percolation model.

  11. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of planning process activities. 450.208... Coordination of planning process activities. (a) In carrying out the statewide transportation planning process... planning process shall (to the maximum extent practicable) be consistent with the development of applicable...

  12. Transcriptome Analysis and Ultrastructure Observation Reveal that Hawthorn Fruit Softening Is due to Cellulose/Hemicellulose Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayu; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Lijie; Hou, Yali; Dong, Wenxuan

    2016-01-01

    Softening, a common phenomenon in many fruits, is a well coordinated and genetically determined process. However, the process of flesh softening during ripening has rarely been described in hawthorn. In this study, we found that ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits became softer during ripening, whereas ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained hard. At late developmental stages, the firmness of ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits rapidly declined, and that of ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained essentially unchanged. According to transmission electron microscopy, the middle lamella of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh was largely degraded as the fruits matured. Microfilaments in ‘Qiu JinXing’ flesh were arranged close together and were deep in color, whereas those in ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh were arranged loosely, partially degraded and light in color. RNA-Seq analysis yielded approximately 46.72 Gb of clean data and 72,837 unigenes. Galactose metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions are involved in cell wall metabolism, play an important role in hawthorn texture. We identified 85 unigenes related to the cell wall between hard- and soft-fleshed hawthorn fruits. Based on data analysis and real-time PCR, we suggest that β-GAL and PE4 have important functions in early fruit softening. The genes Ffase, Gns,α-GAL, PE63, XTH, and CWP, which are involved in cell wall degradation, are responsible for the different textures of hawthorn fruits. Thus, we hypothesize that the different textures of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits at maturity mainly result from cellulose/hemicelluloses degradation rather than from lamella degradation. Overall, we propose that different types of hydrolytic enzymes in cells interact to degrade the cell wall, resulting in ultramicroscopic Structure changes in the cell wall and, consequently, fruit softening. These results provide fundamental insight

  13. Transcriptome analysis and ultrastructure observation reveal that hawthorn fruit softening is due to cellulose/hemicellulose degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayu Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Softening, a common phenomenon in many fruits, is a well coordinated and genetically determined process. However, the process of flesh softening during ripening has rarely been described in hawthorn. In this study, we found that ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits became softer during ripening, whereas ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained hard. At late developmental stages, the firmness of ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits rapidly declined, and that of ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained essentially unchanged. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM, the middle lamella of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh was largely degraded as the fruits matured. Microfilaments in ‘Qiu JinXing’ flesh were arranged close together and were deep in color, whereas those in ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh were arranged loosely, partially degraded and light in color. RNA-Seq analysis yielded approximately 46.72 Gb of clean data and 72,837 unigenes. Galactose metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions are involved in cell wall metabolism, play an important role in hawthorn texture. We identified 85 unigenes related to the cell wall between hard- and soft-fleshed hawthorn fruits. Based on data analysis and real-time PCR, we suggest that β-GAL and PE4 have important functions in early fruit softening. The genes Ffase, Gns, α-GAL, PE63, XTH and CWP, which are involved in cell wall degradation, are responsible for the different textures of hawthorn fruits. Thus, we hypothesize that the different textures of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits at maturity mainly result from cellulose/hemicelluloses degradation rather than from lamella degradation. Overall, we propose that different types of hydrolytic enzymes in cells interact to degrade the cell wall, resulting in ultramicroscopic Structure changes in the cell wall and, consequently, fruit softening. These results provide

  14. The Softening of Hard Water and Complexometric Titrations. An Undergraduate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti, Helena; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita

    1999-10-01

    A 2-hour experiment for undergraduates is presented in which (i) water hardness is explained and demonstrated; (ii) ion-exchange resin properties are visually demonstrated and then used for softening water; (iii) complexometric titrations are used for evaluating water hardness before and after softening; and (iv) acid-base titration can be used to show that the Ca/Mg ions removed by the ion exchanger are replaced by H ions.

  15. Comparison of shear banding in BMGs due to thermal-softening and free volume creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a comparative study of shear banding in BMGs resulting from thermal softening and free volume creation. Firstly,the effects of thermal softening and free volume creation on shear instability are discussed. It is known that ther-mal softening governs thermal shear banding,hence it is essentially energy related. However,compound free volume creation is the key factor to the other instability,though void-induced softening seems to be the counterpart of thermal softening. So,the driving force for shear instability owing to free volume creation is very dif-ferent from the thermally assisted one. In particular,long wave perturbations are always unstable owing to compound free volume creation. Therefore,the shear instability resulting from coupled compound free volume creation and thermal softening may start more like that due to free volume creation. Also,the compound free volume creation implies a specific and intrinsic characteristic growth time of shear instability. Finally,the mature shear band width is governed by the corre-sponding diffusions (thermal or void diffusion) within the band. As a rough guide,the dimensionless numbers: Thermal softening related number B,Deborah number (denoting the relation of instability growth rate owing to compound free volume and loading time) and Lewis number (denoting the competition of different diffusions) show us their relative importance of thermal softening and free volume creation in shear banding. All these results are of particular significance in understanding the mechanism of shear banding in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs).

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of central softening for production of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Bruggen, B; Goossens, H; Everard, P A; Stemgée, K; Rogge, W

    2009-01-01

    Softening drinking water before distribution yields advantages with environmental impact, such as lower household products consumption, less scaling in piping and machines, and the avoidance of decentralized, domestic softeners. Central softening is under consideration in Flanders by the largest water supplier, VMW (Dutch acronym for "Flemish Company for Water Supply"), to deliver soft (15 degrees F) water to their customers. A case study is presented for a region with hard water (47 degrees F). The chosen technique is the pellet reactor, based on precipitation of CaCO(3) by NaOH addition. This softening operation has possibly large impact on the environment and the water consumption pattern. A cost-benefit analysis has been made to estimate the added value of central softening, by investigating the impact on the drinking water company, on their customers, on employment, on environment, on health, etc. The analysis for the region of study revealed benefits for customers which were higher than the costs for the drinking water company. However, pricing of drinking water remains an important problem. A sensitivity analysis of these results has also been made, to evaluate the impact of important hypothesis, and to be able to expand this study to other regions. The conclusions for this part show that softening is beneficial if water hardness is to be decreased by at least 5 degrees F.

  17. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  18. Hysteretic Behavior of Ligaments and Tendons: Microstructural Analysis of Damage, Softening and Non-Recoverable Stra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarletta, P.; Amar, M. Ben

    A microstructural analysis of the hysteretic behavior of ligaments and tendons is proposed from the interaction of their extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components. The tensile response of the tissues during cyclic loading is modeled through a viscoelastic strain energy function. A transition-state theory is used to define the cooperative behavior of the temporary fibrillar network. The viscoelastic model incorporates four internal variables, describing the kinetics of two kinds of adaptive junctions in the ECM microstructure. Two softening variables ξ m , ξ f account for the number density of active matter that is actively connected in the rearranging network of temporary junctions. Conversely, two damage variables η m , η f provide the number density of matter that have been damaged and cannot be rearranged. A dissipation energy functionΦ(t) is linked to the internal variables by thermodynamically consistent evolution equations, describing the irreversible energy dissipation in the tensile cycle of loading and unloading. The model demonstrates the fundamental role of the ECM interactions in determining the time-dependent storage and release of elastic strain energy in ligaments and tendons.

  19. Activation-like processes at zero temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga, D; Roura, A; Verdaguer, E; Arteaga, Daniel; Calzetta, Esteban; Roura, Albert; Verdaguer, Enric

    2003-01-01

    We examine the possibility that a metastable quantum state could experiment a phenomenon similar to thermal activation but at zero temperature. In order to do that we study the real-time dynamics of the reduced Wigner function in a simple open quantum system: an anharmonic oscillator with a cubic potential linearly interacting with an environment of harmonic oscillators. Our results suggest that this activation-like phenomenon exists indeed as a consequence of the fluctuations induced by the environment and that its associated decay rate is comparable to the tunneling rate as computed by the instanton method, at least for the particular potential of the system and the distribution of frequencies for the environment considered in this paper. However, we are not able to properly deal with the term which leads to tunneling in closed quantum systems, and a definite conclusion cannot be reached until tunneling and activation-like effects are considered simultaneously.

  20. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  1. REGIONALIZATION OF MANAGEMENT PROCESS BY INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sibirskaia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In current market conditions, the economy and Russia's accession to international trade scholars and experts from various fields of knowledge paying special attention to a huge set of regional problems. The growing role of regional research determines the level of establishing effective mechanisms for the implementation of the economic interests of actors as well as economic development and improving the quality of human life is the priority objectives of federal, regional and local authorities. Today, the Russian economic science faces a global goal - to develop ways and means of transformation of the Russian economy and bring it to a path of sustainable, innovative development, providing new quality of life. Achieving this goal must surely be a central task of the Russian economics and politics, as in the near future and the long term In article authors opened the maintenance of determinants of innovative development of the territory, mediated by strengthening of regionalization of management by innovative activity: condition of resource and innovative potential; the developed forms and nature of interaction between public authorities of regional level, local community and business; applied forms of integration of subjects of managing for realization of their innovative potential due to expansion of opportunities of participation in the perspective directions of scientific and technical, economic and social development; system of the incentives developing favorable conditions for introduction and development of innovative technologies, and also increases in the enterprise activity, formed by the external institutional environment; regional economic policy as instrument of increase of efficiency of innovative activity.

  2. Natural clinoptilolite composite membranes on tubular stainless steel supports for water softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamaref, Solmaz; An, Weizhu; Jarligo, Maria Ophelia; Kuznicki, Tetyana; Kuznicki, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Disk membranes generated from high-purity natural clinoptilolite mineral rock have shown promising water desalination and de-oiling performance. In order to scale up production of these types of membranes for industrial wastewater treatment applications, a coating strategy was devised. A composite mixture of natural clinoptilolite from St. Cloud (Winston, NM, USA) and aluminum phosphate was deposited on the inner surface of porous stainless steel tubes by the slip casting technique. The commercial porous stainless steel tubes were pre-coated with a TiO2 layer of about 10 μm. Phase composition and morphology of the coating materials were investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Water softening performance of the fabricated membranes was evaluated using Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) municipal tap water as feed source. Preliminary experimental results show a high water flux of 7.7 kg/(m(2) h) and 75% reduction of hardness and conductivity in a once-through membrane process at 95 °C and feed pressure of 780 kPa. These results show that natural zeolite coated, stainless steel tubular membranes have high potential for large-scale purification of oil sands steam-assisted gravity drainage water at high temperature and pressure requirements.

  3. Noise-induced chaos and basin erosion in softening Duffing oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Chunbiao [Department of Mechanics, CMEE, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] e-mail: cb_gan@zju.edu.cn

    2005-09-01

    It is common for many dynamical systems to have two or more attractors coexist and in such cases the basin boundary is fractal. The purpose of this paper is to study the noise-induced chaos and discuss the effect of noises on erosion of safe basin in the softening Duffing oscillator. The Melnikov approach is used to obtain the necessary condition for the rising of chaos, and the largest Lyapunov exponent is computed to identify the chaotic nature of the sample time series from the system. According to the Melnikov condition, the safe basins are simulated for both the deterministic and the stochastic cases of the system. It is shown that the external Gaussian white noise excitation is robust for inducing the chaos, while the external bounded noise is weak. Moreover, the erosion of the safe basin can be aggravated by both the Gaussian white and the bounded noise excitations, and fractal boundary can appear when the system is only excited by the random processes, which means noise-induced chaotic response is induced.

  4. Experimental Study on the Softening Characteristics of Sandstone and Mudstone in Relation to Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-chen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of fluid-solid coupling during immersion is an important topic of investigation in rock engineering. Two rock types, sandstone and mudstone, are selected in this work to study the correlation between the softening characteristics of the rocks and moisture content. This is achieved through detailed studies using scanning electron microscopy, shear tests, and evaluation of rock index properties during exposure to different moisture contents. An underground roadway excavation is simulated by dynamic finite element modeling to analyze the effect of moisture content on the stability of the roadway. The results show that moisture content has a significant effect on shear properties reduction of both sandstone and mudstone, which must thus be considered in mining or excavation processes. Specifically, it is found that the number, area, and diameter of micropores, as well as surface porosity, increase with increasing moisture content. Additionally, stress concentration is negatively correlated with moisture content, while the influenced area and vertical displacement are positively correlated with moisture content. These findings may provide useful input for the design of underground roadways.

  5. A Combined Softening and Hardening Mechanism for Low Frequency Human Motion Energy Harvesting Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalis Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the mechanism for harvesting energy from human body motion. The vibration signal from human body motion during walking and jogging was first measured using 3-axes vibration recorder placed at various places on the human body. The measured signal was then processed using Fourier series to investigate its frequency content. A mechanism was proposed to harvest the energy from the low frequency-low amplitude human motion. This mechanism consists of the combined nonlinear hardening and softening mechanism which was aimed at widening the bandwidth as well as amplifying the low human motion frequency. This was realized by using a translation-to-rotary mechanism which converts the translation motion of the human motion into the rotational motion. The nonlinearity in the system was realized by introducing a winding spring stiffness and the magnetic stiffness. Quasi-static and dynamic measurement were conducted to investigate the performance of the mechanism. The results show that, with the right degree of nonlinearity, the two modes can be combined together to produce a wide flat response. For the frequency amplification, the mechanism manages to increase the frequency by around 8 times in terms of rotational speed.

  6. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Fruit Softening Related Gene Mannanase from Banana Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Jun-ping; SU Jing; CHEN Wei-xin

    2006-01-01

    A 1 250 bp cDNA fragment encoding β-mannanase, named MaMAN, was cloned from banana (Musa spp cv. Baxi) fruit using degenerate primers designed with reference to the conserved nucleic acid sequences of known β-mannanase genes by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that MaMAN cDNA encompassed a 1 085 bp open-reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted polypeptide of 395 amino acids. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of MaMAN and other putative β-mannanases showed that MaMAN has an identity of 86, 70, 69, 54, and 57%, respectively, to β-mannanases from tomato, lettuce, arabidopsis, carrot and oryza sativa. The catalytic residues: Asn203, Glu204, Glu318 and the active site residues: Arg86, His277, Tyr279, and Trp360, which were strictly conserved in the glycoside hydrolase family 5 to which all 3-mannanases belonged, were found in MaMAN. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the level of MaMAN transcript in the pulp increased during banana fruit ripening, suggesting that MaMAN was likely to be involved highly in banana fruit softening.

  7. Expansion of spherical cavity of strain-softening materials with different elastic moduli of tension and compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An expansion theory of spherical cavities in strain-softening materials with different moduli of tension and compression was presented. For geomaterials, two controlling parameters were introduced to take into account the different moduli and strain-softening properties. By means of elastic theory with different moduli and stress-softening models, g. eneral solutions calculating Tresca and Mohr-Coulomb materials' stress and displacement fields of expansion of spherical cavity were derived. The effects caused by different elastic moduli in tensile and compression and strain-softening rates on stress and displacement fields and development of plastic zone of expansion of cavity were analyzed. The results show that the ultimate expansion pressure,stress and displacement fields and development of plastic zone vary with the different elastic moduli and strain-softening properties. If classical elastic theory is adopted and strain-softening properties are neglected, rather large errors may be the result.

  8. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  9. Ethylene regulates Apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening through a dose x time-dependent mechanism and through differential sensitivities and dependencies of cell wall-modifying genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Hilary S; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Muddumage, Ratnasiri; Tacken, Emma J; Putterill, Jo; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    In fleshy fruit species that have a strong requirement for ethylene to ripen, ethylene is synthesized autocatalytically, producing increasing concentrations as the fruits ripen. Apple fruit with the ACC OXIDASE 1 (ACO1) gene suppressed cannot produce ethylene autocatalytically at ripening. Using these apple lines, an ethylene sensitivity dependency model was previously proposed, with traits such as softening showing a high dependency for ethylene as well as low sensitivity. In this study, it is shown that the molecular control of fruit softening is a complex process, with different cell wall-related genes being independently regulated and exhibiting differential sensitivities to and dependencies on ethylene at the transcriptional level. This regulation is controlled through a dose × time mechanism, which results in a temporal transcriptional response that would allow for progressive cell wall disassembly and thus softening. This research builds on the sensitivity dependency model and shows that ethylene-dependent traits can progress over time to the same degree with lower levels of ethylene. This suggests that a developmental clock measuring cumulative ethylene controls the fruit ripening process.

  10. Development of a design methodology for high temperature cyclic applications of materials which experience cyclic softening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.L.; Stubbins, J.F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

    1988-12-01

    The project has as its original focus the high temperature behavior of 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel, heat treated to produce a predominantly bainitic microstructure and the load carrying response of components made of this material. Experiments were carried out on uniform and notched specimens under both steady and cyclic loading using specially acquired electromechanical test machines. It emerged that a very important feature of mechanical behavior under the conditions of interest was the strong tendency of this material to cyclically soften, particularly at high temperature in the creep range, giving the illusion of a severe creep-fatigue interaction under certain conditions. This finding led to a significant component of the project being devoted to investigation of the effects of local, as opposed to generalized, cyclic softening, and the implications this phenomenon might have on the setting of allowable design stress limits. The format of this report is as follows: The second chapter is a review of the work carried out in approximately chronological order under the headings of work was carried out under the following: (1) 2.25 Cr 1 Mo Steel -- Elevated Temperature Fatigue and Environmental Effects; (2) Preliminary Studies of Advanced Austenitics; (3) A Uniaxial Constitutive Model for Cyclic Softening; (4) The Iso-Cyclic Stress-Strain Approach to Evaluation of Components in Cyclic Softening Materials; (5) Testing of High Temperature Austenitic Alloys; and (6) Design Methodology for Aging Materials -- Application to Cyclic Softening. 65 refs., 39 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Characterization and occurence of eairly softening disorder in 'golden' papaya fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Pedro Jacomino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of green skin and soft pulp in 'Golden' papaya fruit during certain seasons has been reported by farmers in the northern of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine the occurrence of this disorder, which was referred as "early softening disorder". Fruits were harvested weekly for 11 months (from September to July. The fruits were stored at 10°C, and then fruit flesh firmness and skin color were analyzed. The results of the firmness test were submitted to regression analysis assuming a linear trendline. The slope of the curve was called the 'softening index' (SI. Fruits with early softening are characterized by a loss of firmness in less than 10 days, even when stored under refrigeration. Although softened, the skin of the fruit remains partially green. Fruits with the disorder occurred more frequently from mid-summer to mid-autumn (February to May. It is not possible to distinguish early softening disorder fruits from those without the disorder by skin color and flesh firmness analysis at the time of the harvest.

  12. ACTIVE FRONT STEERING DURING BRAKING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Deling; CHEN Li; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    An active front steering (AFS) intervention control during braking for vehicle stability is presented. Based on the investigation of AFS mechanism, a simplified model of steering system is established and integrated with vehicle model. Then the AFS control on vehicle handling dynamics during braking is designed. Due to the difficulties associated with the sideslip angle measurement of vehicle, a state observer is designed to provide real time estimation. Thereafter, the controller with the feedback of both sideslip and yaw angle is implemented. To evaluate the system control, the proposed AFS controlled vehicle has been tested in the Hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) system and compared with that of conventional vehicle. Results show that AFS can improve vehicle lateral stability effectively without reducing the braking performance.

  13. Sintering as a process of transport of activated volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the fact that sintering is the consequence of the process of transport of activated volume, it has been shown how the kinetics of the sintering process can be defined. The activated volume was in principle defined as a parameter which describes a system’s deffectivity on an atomic level.

  14. STUDY ON SOFTENING AND DROPPING PROPERTIES OF METALIZED BURDEN INSIDE BLAST FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-yang Tuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inferences of burden metallization rate on softening-melting dropping properties were investigated through softening-melting dropping test of three kinds of metalized burden pressure drop. The results indicated that the softeningmelting temperature interval of pre-reduction mixed burden is bigger than primeval mixed burden, the melting interval narrow with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden as well as dropping temperature interval. The average pressure drop, maximum pressure drop and softening-melting dropping properties eigenvalue decrease with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden. Besides, the dropping temperature of burden reduces with the rise of carbon content of molten iron. The combination high metalized burden and higher carbon content of molten iron is benefit to decreasing thickness of cohesive zone and improve permeability of cohesive zone.

  15. Lattice softening in body-centered-cubic lithium-magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, I. S.; Tsuru, T.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2017-08-01

    A first-principles investigation of the influence of lattice softening on lithium-magnesium alloys near the body-centered-cubic (bcc)/hexagonal close-packed (hcp) transition composition is presented. Results show that lithium-magnesium alloys display a softening of the shear modulus C11-C12 , and an acoustic phonon branch between the Γ and N high symmetry points, as the composition approaches the stability limit for the bcc phase. This softening is accompanied by an increase in the size of the dislocation core region. Ideal tensile strength calculations predict that ordered phases of lithium-magnesium alloys are intrinsically brittle. Methods to make the alloys more ductile are discussed, and the propensity for these alloys to display gum-metal-like behavior is assessed.

  16. Constitutive Model for Multiaxial Ratcheting Predictions of Cyclic Softening Weld Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong; CHEN Xu; JIAO Rong

    2005-01-01

    A series of fully reversed axial, torsional strain-controlled cyclic tests and two multiaxial ratcheting tests were conducted on weld metal specimens using an Instron8521 tension-torsional servo-controlled testing machine. The weld metal showed clear cyclic softening under axial, torsional and multiaxial loading. A modified kinematic hardening rule was proposed in which a multiaxial-loading-dependent parameter incorporated the radial evanescence term of the Burlet-Cailletaud mode with the Ohno-Wang kinematic hardening rule to predict the multiaxial ratcheting effects. The introduction of yield stress evolved with accumulated plasticity strain enables the model to predict cyclic plasticity behavior of cyclic softening or cyclic hardening materials. Thus modified model considers the isotropic hardening as well as kinematic hardening of yield surface, and it can present description of plasticity behavior and ratcheting of cyclic softening and cyclic hardening materials well under multiaxial loading.

  17. [Non-edematous spontaneously resolving cerebellar softening. Diagnostic possibilities and value (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, M; Parain, D; Mihout, B

    1980-01-01

    Non edematous cerebellar softenings are usually unrecognized even though their relatively high frequency of occurrence is proved by systematic anatomical studies. They should be suspected when an acute late-onset vestibular syndrome is noted, in which there is a particular type of homolateral disequilibrium and nystagmus, good vestibular reactivity, and possible association with a cerebellar syndrome. Softening can usually be confirmed after several days by the complementary examinations presently available: computer tomography of the posterior fossa and scintigraphy with labelled bleomycin. Non-edematous forms are spontaneously resolving disorders but surveillance during the first few days is necessary together with anti-edematous therapy as early signs are common to those of edematous softening, responsible for rapid involvement of the brain stem and blocking of fluid pathways.

  18. Heterotrophic plate count and consumer's health under special consideration of water softeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, Beate; Sacré, Clara; Wagner, Ivo

    2004-05-01

    The phenomenon of bacterial growth in water softeners is well known since years. To upgrade the hygienic safety of water softeners, the German DIN Standard 19636 was developed, to assure that the distribution system could not be contaminated by these devices and that the drinking water to be used in the household still meets the microbiological standards according to the German drinking water guidelines, i.e. among others heterotrophic plate count (HPC) below 100 CFU/ml. Moreover, the standard for the water softeners includes a test for contamination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa which has to be disinfected during the regeneration phase. This is possible by sanitizing the resin bed during regeneration by producing chlorine. The results of the last 10 years of tests of water softeners according to DIN 19636 showed that it is possible to produce water softeners that comply with that standard. Approximately 60% of the tested models were accepted. P. aeruginosa is used as an indicator for potentially pathogenic bacteria being able to grow also in low nutrient conditions which normally prevail in drinking water. Like other heterotrophs, the numbers of P. aeruginosa increase rapidly as stagnation occurs. Normally P. aeruginosa is not present in the distributed drinking water. However, under certain conditions, P. aeruginosa can be introduced into the drinking water distribution system, for instance, during construction work. The occurrence of P. aeruginosa is shown in different cases in treatment plants, public drinking water systems and in-house installations. The compliance with DIN 19636 provides assurance that a water softener will not be a constant source of contamination, even if it is once inoculated with a potentially pathogenic bacterium like P. aeruginosa.

  19. Seed softening patterns of forage legumes in a temperate/subtropical environment in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Do Canto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in annual and perennial forage legumes to investigate the development of hardseededness and the subsequent pattern of seed softening in temperate and subtropical regions of South America. Experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 in central Uruguay to follow the pattern of seed softening in 35 annual and perennial forage legumes, including three native species of Uruguay and five commercial cultivars. Newly ripened seeds of each plant material were placed in mesh packets on the soil surface in mid-summer. Samples were recovered monthly for germination tests and the proportion of residual hard seeds determined. The native species Adesmia bicolor (Poir. DC., Adesmia securigerifolia Herter, and Ornithopus micranthus (Benth. Arechav., together with Ornithopus pinnatus (Mill. Druce cv. INIA Molles behaved similarly. They showed high levels of initial hard seed from 78% in A. bicolor to 99% in A. securigerifolia and O. pinnatus cv. INIA Molles in 2007; displayed pulses of seed softening, particularly in autumn, and retained moderate levels of residual hard seed for the development of a soil seed bank ranging from 15% in A. bicolor to 49% in O. micranthus. These appear to be desirable characteristics for persistence of forage legumes in subtropical grasslands, both for annual and perennial species. Trifolium repens L. and Lotus corniculatus L. produced few hard seeds, only 2% and 13% respectively were hard after 1-mo in the field and were completely soft by July placing extra reliance on their vegetative propagation for persistence. Materials of L. arenarius Brot. showed pronounced late autumn softening, while materials of L. ornithopodioides L. showed extremely high levels of hardseededness (between 96% and 100% and no softening during the evaluation period, apart from two materials that were completely soft seeded. Mediterranean forage legumes should be properly evaluated in temperate and subtropical regions as

  20. Physical properties of root crops treated with novel softening technology capable of retaining the shape, color, and nutritional value of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene, Shingo; Hayashi, Masahiro; Kato, Kumiko; Masunaga, Hiroaki

    2015-04-01

    Hard, difficult-to-eat root crops (carrots and burdock roots) were homogeneously softened by an enzyme permeation method so that they could be mashed easily by the tongue while retaining appearance, flavor, and nutrients. The appearance, color, and nutritional value of these foods were equivalent to those of normally cooked root crops of the same type. The firmness of the softened root crops was at least 100 times as low as normally cooked root crops and lower than some care food products for patients with swallowing disorders. Compared with control root crops, which were treated with a freeze-thaw infusion method, the treated foods were 10 to 25 times as soft, with significantly lower rates of foodstuff syneresis and better preservation of color and nutritional value. Furthermore, the cell walls of the treated burdock roots resembled those of normally cooked ones, while the cells of freeze-thaw infusion burdock roots were destroyed and few cell walls remained. It was expected that these root crops softened by the enzymatic processing could be one of the best model foods for patients with masticatory disturbance or swallowing disorders or both.

  1. Defect Recovery in Severely Deformed Ferrite Lamellae During Annealing and Its Impact on the Softening of Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Z.; Csiszár, G.; Cizek, J.; Shi, X. H.; Borchers, C.; Li, Y. J.; Liu, F.; Kirchheim, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires with a drawing true strain of 3 were annealed at temperatures ( T ann) ranging from 423 K to 723 K (150 °C to 450 °C) with an interval of 50 K. Recovery of the lattice defects in the severely deformed ferrite lamellae were characterized by means of high-energy X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation techniques (including positron annihilation spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy). Accordingly, the impact of defect recovery on the softening of the annealed wires was investigated. It is found that at low temperatures [ T ann ≤ 523 K (250 °C)], the recovery of the lattice defects in ferrite lamellae is dominated by the agglomeration and annihilation of vacancy clusters, while at T ann > 523 K (250 °C), the recovery process is controlled by the annihilation of dislocations. Further analyses on the softening of the annealed wires indicate that the evolutions of dislocation density and concentration of vacancy clusters, and the strain age hardening in ferrite lamellae play important roles in changing the strength of the wires. The strain aging hardening leads to a maximum strength at 473 K (150 °C). Above 523 K (250 °C), the annihilations of vacancy clusters and dislocations in ferrite lamellae cause a continuous softening of the wires, where the decrease in dislocation density plays a major role.

  2. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF) and Non Melting Flesh (NMF) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onelli, E; Ghiani, A; Gentili, R; Serra, S; Musacchi, S; Citterio, S

    2015-01-01

    Melting (MF) and non melting flesh (NMF) peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were investigated during fruit ripening and post-harvest. The objective was to better understand the role played by water loss and cell wall reorganization in peach softening. Results showed that in ripe Spring Crest, where both cell turgor loss and cell wall dismantling occurred, mesocarp had a little role in the fruit reaction to compression and probe penetration response was almost exclusively ascribed to the epidermis which functioned as a mechanical support to the pulp. In ripe Oro A's fruit, where cell wall disassembly did not occur and the loss of cell turgor was observed only in mesocarp, the contribution of exocarp to fruit firmness was consistent but relatively lower than that of mesocarp, suggesting that in addition to cell turgor, the integrity of cell wall played a key role in maintaining NMF fruit firmness. The analysis of phenols suggested that permeability and firmness of epidermis were associated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids.

  3. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF and Non Melting Flesh (NMF Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Onelli

    Full Text Available Melting (MF and non melting flesh (NMF peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were investigated during fruit ripening and post-harvest. The objective was to better understand the role played by water loss and cell wall reorganization in peach softening. Results showed that in ripe Spring Crest, where both cell turgor loss and cell wall dismantling occurred, mesocarp had a little role in the fruit reaction to compression and probe penetration response was almost exclusively ascribed to the epidermis which functioned as a mechanical support to the pulp. In ripe Oro A's fruit, where cell wall disassembly did not occur and the loss of cell turgor was observed only in mesocarp, the contribution of exocarp to fruit firmness was consistent but relatively lower than that of mesocarp, suggesting that in addition to cell turgor, the integrity of cell wall played a key role in maintaining NMF fruit firmness. The analysis of phenols suggested that permeability and firmness of epidermis were associated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids.

  4. Optimization of Structure and Material Properties for Solids Composed of Softening Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Guedes, J.M.; J.M., Plaxton;

    1996-01-01

    Recent results on the design of material properties in the context of global structural optimization provide, in analytical form, a prediction of the optimal material tensor distributions for two or three dimensional continuum structures. The model developed for that purpose is extended here...... to cover the design of a structure and associated material properties for a system composed of a generic form of nonlinear softening material. As was established in the earlier study on design with linear materials, the formulation for combined 'material and structure' design with softening materials can...

  5. Optimization of hardening/softening behavior of plane frame structures using nonlinear normal modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Suguang; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    /softening behavior of nonlinear mechanical systems. The iterative optimization procedure consists of calculation of nonlinear normal modes, solving an adjoint equation system for sensitivity analysis and an update of design variables using a mathematical programming tool. We demonstrate the method with examples......Devices that exploit essential nonlinear behavior such as hardening/softening and inter-modal coupling effects are increasingly used in engineering and fundamental studies. Based on nonlinear normal modes, we present a gradient-based structural optimization method for tailoring the hardening...

  6. Pressure induced elastic softening in framework aluminosilicate- albite (NaAlSi3O8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherjee, Mainak; Mainprice, David; Maheshwari, Ketan; Heinonen, Olle; Patel, Dhenu; Hariharan, Anant

    2016-10-01

    Albite (NaAlSi3O8) is an aluminosilicate mineral. Its crystal structure consists of 3-D framework of Al and Si tetrahedral units. We have used Density Functional Theory to investigate the high-pressure behavior of the crystal structure and how it affects the elasticity of albite. Our results indicate elastic softening between 6-8 GPa. This is observed in all the individual elastic stiffness components. Our analysis indicates that the softening is due to the response of the three-dimensional tetrahedral framework, in particular by the pressure dependent changes in the tetrahedral tilts. At pressure Mohorovicic discontinuity in thickened continental crustal regions.

  7. Large elastic strain and elastocaloric effect caused by lattice softening in an iron-palladium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeshita, Tomoyuki; Xiao, Fei; Fukuda, Takashi

    2016-08-13

    A Fe-31.2Pd (at.%) alloy exhibits a weak first-order martensitic transformation from a cubic structure to a tetragonal structure near 230 K. This transformation is associated with significant softening of elastic constant C'. Because of the softening, the alloy shows a large elastic strain of more than 6% in the [001] direction. In addition, the alloy has a critical point and shows a high elastocaloric effect in a wide temperature range for both the parent and the martensite phases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  8. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.

    2011-08-02

    Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least 180.degree. C. at a heating rate of from 1-20.degree./min. Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

  9. 40 CFR 141.553 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my combined filter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false My system practices lime softening-is... Filter Effluent Requirements § 141.553 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? If your system practices lime softening, you may...

  10. The Myth of Softening behavior of the Cohesive Zone Model Exact derivation of yield drop behavior of wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Put, T.A.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the postulate of strain softening of the fracture stress is based on the error to regard the nominal stress to be the actual, ultimate stress, at the actual area of the fracture plan. Strain sof-tening called yield drop is elastic unloading of the actual elastic stress at the

  11. Curvature Effect and the Spectral Softening Phenomenon Detected in GRB Afterglows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y.-P. Qin

    2011-03-01

    Detection of radiation from a relativistic fireball would be affected by the so-called curvature effect. I illustrate the expected temporal and spectral behaviours of this effect and show that it can well explain the observed spectral softening in the early GRB afterglows.

  12. Relation between occupation in the first coordination shells and Widom line in core-softened potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Evy; Barraz, Ney M; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2013-04-28

    Three core-softened families of potentials are checked for the presence of density and diffusion anomalies. These potentials exhibit a repulsive core with a softening region and at larger distances an attractive well. We found that the region in the pressure-temperature phase diagram in which the anomalies are present increases if the slope between the core-softened scale and the attractive part of the potential decreases. The anomalous region also increases if the range of the core-softened or of the attractive part of the potential decreases. We also show that the presence of the density anomaly is consistent with the non-monotonic changes of the radial distribution function at each one of the two scales when temperature and density are varied. Then, using this anomalous behavior of the structure we show that the pressure and the temperature at which the radial distribution function of one of the two length scales equals the radial distribution function of the other length scales identify the Widom line.

  13. Bacterial Colonization of Pellet Softening Reactors Used during Drinking Water Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammes, F.; Boon, N.; Vital, M.; Ross, P.; Magic-Knezev, A.; Dignum, M.

    2010-01-01

    Pellet softening reactors are used in centralized and decentralized drinking water treatment plants for the removal of calcium (hardness) through chemically induced precipitation of calcite. This is accomplished in fluidized pellet reactors, where a strong base is added to the influent to increase t

  14. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY COAGULATION/FILTRATION AND LIME SOFTENING PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents a long term performance (one year) study of 3 water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. The 3 plants consisted of 2 conventional coagulation/filtration plants and 1 lime softening plant. The study involved the collecting of weekly...

  15. The Value of Fighting Irreversible Demise by Softening the Irreversible Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis, P.; Sbuelz, A.

    2005-01-01

    We study a novel issue in the real-options-based technology innovation literature by means of double barrier contingent claims analysis.We show how much a ¯rm with the monopoly over a project is willing to spend in investment technology innovation that softens the irreversible cost of accessing the

  16. Influence of Amino-Ffunctional Macro and Micro Silicone Softeners on the Properties of Cotton Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab Jatoi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino-functional silicone softeners are most widely used type of soft finishes owing to their outstanding permanent softness, smoothness and handle characteristics. These soft finishes are prepared in different emulsion droplet sizes such as macro and micro emulsions providing varying characteristics on the textile on which they are applied. The macroemulsions due to their larger droplet sizes lubricate fabric and yarn surfaces, while the micro-emulsion, thanks to their smaller sizes penetrate inside fiber pores. In this research amino-functional macro and micro emulsions have been applied on dyed cotton fabric in 1:1 combination and compared against their influence on physical properties such as bending length, abrasion resistance, tensile strength, crease resistance and water repellency. These emulsions have also been compared for their influence on colorimetric properties; color difference and color strength (K/S values. The results reveal that the softener`s application in combination improves the properties deteriorated by each softener when applied separately

  17. Effects of preoxidation on the swelling and softening of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, D. J.; Jenkins, R. G.; Walker, Jr., P. L.

    1980-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of a DuPont 942-TMA (Thermomechanical Analyzer) dilatometer system for the characterization of the swelling and softening properties of caking coals. The results of this investigation demonstrate the utility of this dilatometer system. Several parameters clearly defined with this unit are characteristic of the plastic transitions occurring upon carbonization. These include softening, dilation and resolidification temperature and volume contraction, expansion and total dilation values. The transition parameters measured with the 942-TMA unit are influenced significantly by coal particle size, dilatometer load, and heating rate. All transition temperatures exhibit marked increases with increasing heating rate. Softening temperatures decrease with increasing load and particle size. Dilation temperatures are essentially independent of dilatometer load effects and resolidification temperatures are independent of load and particle size over the range of conditions used in this study. Volume contraction and expansion values show an increase with decreasing coal particle size. Volume expansion values also exhibit strong heating rate and load dependencies. The results point up the great difficulty involved in obtaining truly fresh unoxidized coal samples. Storage of fine coal particles for extended periods of time in atmospheres with even slight oxygen concentrations show signs of weathering. Exposure of an HVA coal to dry air at ambient temperature has much less effect on subsequent swelling and softening properties than does exposure to moist air.

  18. Advanced Chemical Precipitation Softening. Training Module 2.217.4.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the operation and maintenance of a chemical precipitation softening system. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series. This module considers…

  19. Basic Chemical Precipitation Softening. Training Module 2.215.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with chemical precipitation softening. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the first level of a three module series and is designed for students with little or no operating…

  20. Evaluation of the impact of lime softening waste disposal in natural environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaisi, Nawaf I.; Roessler, Justin; Cheng, Weizhi [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, PO Box 116450, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Townsend, Timothy, E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, PO Box 116450, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Leaching tests conducted on WTR to assess potential for trace element release. • Aluminum leaching found to be elevated with respect to risk threshold. • Release in anaerobic conditions evaluated with column test run in nitrogen chamber. • Increased release of certain elements seen from residues under anaerobic conditions. • Different leaching tests produced results on two sides of regulatory threshold. - Abstract: Drinking water treatment residues (WTR), generated from the lime softening processes, are commonly reused or disposed of in a number of applications; these include use as a soil amendment or a subsurface fill. Recently questions were posed by the Florida regulatory community on whether lime WTR that contained a small percentage of other treatment additives could appropriately be characterized as lime WTR, in terms of total element content and leachability. A study was done using a broad range of leaching tests, including a framework of tests recently adopted by the United States-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and tests that were modified to account for scenario specific conditions, such as the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The results of these additional leaching tests demonstrated that certain applications, including disposal in a water body with NOM or in placement anaerobic environment, did result in increased leaching of elements such as Fe, and that a site specific assessment should be conducted prior to using WTR in these types of applications. This study illustrates the importance of leaching test selection when attempting to provide an estimation of release in practice. Although leaching tests are just one component in a beneficial use assessment and other factors including aquifer and soil properties play a significant role in the outcome, leaching tests should be tailored to most appropriately represent the scenario or reuse application being evaluated.

  1. Predictive Active Set Selection Methods for Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We propose an active set selection framework for Gaussian process classification for cases when the dataset is large enough to render its inference prohibitive. Our scheme consists of a two step alternating procedure of active set update rules and hyperparameter optimization based upon marginal...... likelihood maximization. The active set update rules rely on the ability of the predictive distributions of a Gaussian process classifier to estimate the relative contribution of a datapoint when being either included or removed from the model. This means that we can use it to include points with potentially...... high impact to the classifier decision process while removing those that are less relevant. We introduce two active set rules based on different criteria, the first one prefers a model with interpretable active set parameters whereas the second puts computational complexity first, thus a model...

  2. Quality control of the documentation process in electronic economic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova A.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the main tool that will provide adequate information resources e economic activities of social and economic relations are documenting quality control processes as the basis of global information space. Directions problems as formation evaluation information resources in the process of documentation, namely development tools assess the efficiency of the system components – qualitative assessment; development of mathematical modeling tools – quantitative evaluation. A qualitative assessment of electronic documentation of economic activity through exercise performance, efficiency of communication; document management efficiency; effectiveness of flow control operations; relationship management effectiveness. The concept of quality control process documents electronically economic activity to components which include: the level of workflow; forms adequacy of information; consumer quality documents; quality attributes; type of income data; condition monitoring systems; organizational level process documentation; attributes of quality, performance quality consumer; type of management system; type of income data; condition monitoring systems. Grounded components of the control system electronic document subjects of economic activity. Detected components IT-audit management system economic activity: compliance audit; audit of internal control; detailed multilevel analysis; corporate risk assessment methodology. The stages and methods of processing electronic transactions economic activity during condition monitoring of electronic economic activity.

  3. Process technology activities at the Software Engineering Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, A.M. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides a brief overview of the rationale for, and direction of the software process technology work being pursued at the Software Engineering Institute. The paper then describes some of the activities that the SEI has recently been involved in. Finally, it relates in more detail an example of one specific effort; namely the development of a process modeling formalism and its use in process simulation.

  4. APPLICABILITY OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wanda MARUSZEWSKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to emphasis that activity based costing is a proper tool for engineers to enhance their deci-sion-making process while developing new product. The theoretical analysis shows that variety of factors shall be en-compassed into new product decision-making process and therefore engineers and management should pay great attention to proper cost allocation. The paper suggests the usage of Activity Based Costing methodology for new product development decision-making process. Author states that application ABC in the process of rational decision-making referring to new product development enables managers and engineers to prioritize possible solutions, and reallocate resources used in production process in order to meet wider organizational goals. It would also contribute in coopera-tion of managers and engineers for the sake of organizational goal.

  5. Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

  6. Active Shop Scheduling Of Production Process Based On RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In industry 4.0 environment, intelligent technology is almost applied to all parts of the manufacturing process, such as process design, job shop scheduling, etc.. This paper presents an efficient approach to job shop scheduling actively by using RFID to collect real-time manufacturing data. Identified the workpiece by RFID which needs to be machined, it can “ask for” the resource actively for the following process. With these active asking-for strategy, a double genetically encoded improved genetic algorithm is proposed for achieving active job shop scheduling solution during the actual manufacturing process. A case was used to evaluate its effectiveness. Meanwhile, , it can effectively and actively carry out job shop scheduling and has much better convergence effect comparing with basic genetic algorithm. And the job shop scheduler in management center can use the proposed algorithm to get the satisfied scheduling result timely by reducing waiting time and making begin time earlier during transmission between manufacturing process, which makes the scheduling result feasible and accurate.

  7. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows under...... mechanisms can also contribute to substrate removal, depending on the microbial composition and the previous "history" of the biomass. In this paper the type and the extent of this dynamic response is discussed by review of experimental studies on pure cultures, mixed cultures and activated sludges...... and with main reference to its relevance on population dynamics in the activated sludge. Possible conceptual approaches to storage modelling are also presented, including both structured and unstructured modelling. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Impact of activation process on fog life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoyer, Marie; Burnet, Frédéric; Lac, Christine; Roberts, Greg; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Elias, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Fogs are complex meteorological system dealing with fine scale processes. Subtle interaction between radiative, dynamic, turbulent and microphysic processes can lead to different fog life cycle, which make prediction difficult. The droplets that composed fogs are formed trough the activation of aerosol particles called CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) described by the Köhler theory (Köhler, 1936). The number and distribution of the droplets activated during fog formation is determined by the aerosols particles properties and number and the ambient vapor supersaturation of the atmosphere. In the frame of the PreViBOSS project, an in-situ measurement platform of fog properties at ground level was deployed at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research) during winter 2010 to 2013. Microphysics data supply a detailed characterization of number size spectrum from dry to wet aerosols particles and inform on the abilities of the aerosols particles to act as a CCN. 48 fog events have been studied. Supersaturation critical values and concentrations of CCN have been determined and linked to aerosols properties. The main impact of aerosols size distribution on activation have been pointed out. The study of droplets spectra evolution reveals the major physical processes into fogs and suggests that even if thermodynamic dominates the fog life cycle, activation process seems to have a significant effect. Large eddy simulation of fog run with Meso-NH model allow to explore precisely the interaction between fog physical processes and to quantify activation impact. Supersaturation modelling is a key point, a new pseudo-prognostic scheme (Thouron et al., 2012) is used. Confrontation between a detailed experimental study and three-dimensional fine scale simulation in LES provides an accurate investigation of the impact of activation process on fog life cycle.

  9. Sculpting the maturation, softening and ethylene pathway: The influences of microRNAs on tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Jinhua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a ubiquitous class of short RNAs, play vital roles in physiological and biochemical processes in plants by mediating gene silencing at post-transcriptional (PTGS level. Tomato is a model system to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit ripening and senescence, ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction owing to its genetic and molecular tractability. To study the functions of miRNAs in tomato fruit ripening and senescence, and their possible roles in ethylene response, the next generation sequencing method was employed to identify miRNAs in tomato fruit. Bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches were combined to profile the miRNAs expression patterns at three different fruit ripening stages and by exogenous ethylene treatment. Results In addition to 7 novel miRNA families, 103 conserved miRNAs belonging to 24 families and 10 non-conserved miRNAs matching 9 families were identified in our libraries. The targets of many these miRNAs were predicted to be transcriptional factors. Other targets are known to play roles in the regulation of metabolic processes. Interestingly, some targets were predicted to be involved in fruit ripening and softening, such as Pectate Lyase, beta-galactosidase, while a few others were predicted to be involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway, such as ACS, EIN2 and CTR1. The expression patterns of a number of such miRNAs at three ripening stages were confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR, which showed a strong negative correlation with that of their targets. The regulation of exogenous ethylene on miRNAs expression profiles were analyzed simultaneously, and 3 down-regulated, 5 up-regulated miRNAs were found in this study. Conclusions A combination of high throughput sequencing and molecular biology approaches was used to explore the involvement of miRNAs during fruit ripening. Several miRNAs showed differential expression profiles during fruit ripening, and a number of

  10. Active Cellular Mechanics and Information Processing in the Living Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M.

    2014-07-01

    I will present our recent work on the organization of signaling molecules on the surface of living cells. Using novel experimental and theoretical approaches we have found that many cell surface receptors are organized as dynamic clusters driven by active currents and stresses generated by the cortical cytoskeleton adjoining the cell surface. We have shown that this organization is optimal for both information processing and computation. In connecting active mechanics in the cell with information processing and computation, we bring together two of the seminal works of Alan Turing.

  11. Downstream Processability of Crystal Habit-Modified Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pudasaini, Nawin; Upadhyay, Pratik Pankaj; Parker, Christian Richard

    2017-01-01

    Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability and tablet......Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability...

  12. Jet softening and decollimation in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Linders, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    Two suggested models of jet fragmentation in a quark-gluon plasma have been tested, combined and further developed. This has been done by generating hard processes in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$ GeV in PYTHIA 8 with a modified parton shower algorithm. Subsequently, a jet analysis of the final state hadrons have been performed with the FastJet recombination package. The results have been compared to unmodified jets in proton-proton collisions at the same collision energy, and to experimental data obtained by ATLAS. It has been shown that modifications of the parton splitting kernels alone is an insufficient modification to reproduce experimental data on dijet energy asymmetry and azimuthal decorrelation. Additional jet decollimation qualitatively reproduces the main features of the data provided certain variables are chosen aptly. We also study other jet characteristics with the model, such as the jet substructure, that may be observable experimentally in a near future.

  13. Activated sludge process based on artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文艺; 蔡建安

    2002-01-01

    Considering the difficulty of creating water quality model for activated sludge system, a typical BP artificial neural network model has been established to simulate the operation of a waste water treatment facilities. The comparison of prediction results with the on-spot measurements shows the model, the model is accurate and this model can also be used to realize intelligentized on-line control of the wastewater processing process.

  14. Active non-volatile memory post-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Sudarsun; Milojicic, Dejan S.; Talwar, Vanish

    2017-04-11

    A computing node includes an active Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM) component which includes memory and a sub-processor component. The memory is to store data chunks received from a processor core, the data chunks comprising metadata indicating a type of post-processing to be performed on data within the data chunks. The sub-processor component is to perform post-processing of said data chunks based on said metadata.

  15. Active non-volatile memory post-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Sudarsun; Milojicic, Dejan S.; Talwar, Vanish

    2017-04-11

    A computing node includes an active Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM) component which includes memory and a sub-processor component. The memory is to store data chunks received from a processor core, the data chunks comprising metadata indicating a type of post-processing to be performed on data within the data chunks. The sub-processor component is to perform post-processing of said data chunks based on said metadata.

  16. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki eGoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages.

  17. A mechanism of aftershock generation based on progressive material softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Bunger, Andrew; Kear, James

    2015-04-01

    Observations of aftershocks after major seismic events show that the rate of aftershock generation reduces according to the generalised Omori's law. This law reproduces itself at a variety of scales starting from the scales of the earthquakes to the laboratory scale. Furthermore, the Omori's law holds for different types of fracture event from shear fracture propagation over the faults to failure in compression to failure in tension. In particular our tests show that the Omori's law describes the aftershocks in crystalline rocks in a laboratory model of hydraulic fracture and after bending failure of beams. We propose a new universal mechanism of aftershock generation that reproduces the Omori's law. We firstly note that it is not the residual stress, as conventionally assumed, but the residual strain that is created by the preceding fracture process. The aftershocks are created by the residual stress that is related to the residual strain through elastic moduli. The accumulation of the aftershock-related microcracks reduces the elastic moduli and thus reduces the residual stress. This overall reduction of the residual stress with the number of aftershocks is the reason for the rate reduction in aftershock generation. Naturally this process might be accompanied by the reduction in wave velocities, albeit, as we show, the reduction is rather low. The effect the accumulated microcracks have on the moduli considerably depends on the microcrack distribution over both positions and orientations. We found that (a) if the microcracks have isotropic distribution over orientations the classical Omori's law is reproduced; (b) if the microcracks are shear and parallel to each other but randomly situated in space the generalised Omori's law is reproduced with the exponent p1. The main feature of the latter case is the existence of a critical value of the number of sliding zones: when it is reached a large-scale sliding zone is formed.

  18. Identification, Expression and IAA-Amide Synthetase Activity Analysis of Gretchen Hagen 3 in Papaya Fruit (Carica papaya L.) during Postharvest Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaidong; Wang, Jinxiang; Li, Haili; Zhong, Jundi; Feng, Shaoxian; Pan, Yaoliang; Yuan, Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Auxin plays essential roles in plant development. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) genes belong to a major auxin response gene family and GH3 proteins conjugate a range of acylsubstrates to alter the levels of hormones. Currently, the role of GH3 genes in postharvest physiological regulation of ripening and softening processes in papaya fruit is unclear. In this study, we identified seven CpGH3 genes in a papaya genome database. The CpGH3.1a, CpGH3.1b, CpGH3.5, CpGH3.6, and CpGH3.9 proteins were identified as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-specific amido synthetases. We analyzed the changes in IAA-amido synthetase activity using aspartate as a substrate for conjugation and found a large increase (over 5-fold) during the postharvest stages. Ascorbic acid (AsA) application can extend the shelf life of papaya fruit. Our data showed that AsA treatment regulates postharvest fruit maturation processes by promoting endogenous IAA levels. Our findings demonstrate the important role of GH3 genes in the regulation of auxin-associated postharvest physiology in papaya.

  19. Analysis of pile load-transfer under pile-side softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 张可能

    2003-01-01

    A set of analytical equations for the variation of the axial force along depth and the pile-top load-settle-ment curve were established, using tri-linear softening model to pile-side soil and bilinear hardening model to pile-end soil . Influences of the pile-side and pile-end soil behavior on the load-settlement curve were discussed, indica-ting that the lowering reason for the variation step degree of the axial force along depth is the softening of the pile-side soil to result in the side friction lowering when the pile-top load is increased. To verify the reliability of thismethod, the parameters used in calculation are obtained from the test in Zhuzhou area. The obtained results are thencompared with the tested results. Contrast shows that the calculated results and the tested values are very close,which illustrates that the proposed method is reliable.

  20. Shear softening of Earth's inner core indicated by its high Poisson's ratio and elastic anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhongqing

    2016-01-01

    Earth's inner core exhibits an unusually high Poisson's ratio and noticeable elastic anisotropy. The mechanisms responsible for these features are critical for understanding the evolution of the Earth but remain unclear. This study indicates that once the correct formula for the shear modulus is used, shear softening can simultaneously explain the high Poisson's ratio and strong anisotropy of the inner core. Body-centred-cubic (bcc) iron shows shear instability at the pressures found in the inner-core and can be dynamically stabilized by temperature and light elements. It is very likely that some combinations of light elements stabilize the bcc iron alloy under inner-core conditions. Such a bcc phase would exhibit significant shear softening and match the geophysical constraints of the inner core. Identifying which light elements and what concentrations of these elements stabilize the bcc phase will provide critical information on the light elements of the inner core.

  1. Acoustic softening in metals during ultrasonic assisted deformation via CP-FEM

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a phenomenological crystal plasticity model is modified to account for acoustic (ultrasonic) softening effects based on the level of ultrasonic intensity supplied to single and polycrystalline metals. The material parameters are identified using the inverse modeling approach by interfacing the crystal plasticity model with an optimization tool. The proposed model is validated and verified by comparing the microstructure evolution with experimental EBSD results reported in the literature. The model is able to capture the ultrasonic softening effect and the results show that as the ultrasonic intensity increases, the plastic deformation also increases. Differences in the stress-strain response are explained based on the slip system orientation tensor (Schmidt factors) which depends upon the crystal orientation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF SOFTENING AGENT PREPARATION AND PERFORMANCE OF HANDMADE ECOCOMPOSITES WITH CONIFEROUS WOOD AND BASALT FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuangjianWang; DekuShang; KailiangZhang; LinnaHu; ZhenhuaGuo

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, basalt mineral fiber softening agent was prepared in order to obtain desirable flexible performance. Stability and physical chemistry natures of softening agent were evaluated by particle size distribution, dilution, storage and folding endurance etc. Constitutes of basalt and wood fibers were determined by energy dispersion analysis X-ray which served as an accessory of scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX). Naturally degradable ecocomposite was prepared by basalt and wood fibers. The results of SEM observation illustrated that the wood and basalt fibers were blended uniformly. The impact factors of beating degree, content of wood fibers and adhesive etc. were discussed. The structure of the naturally degradable ecocomposite was contrasted with that of pure wood fibers and the cause of excellent filtration performance was analyzed. Compared with traditional methods, it was of saving wood resource, a large amount of water and reducing second pollution. As a consequence, the ecocomposite harmonized with environment and accorded with requirement of benignly friendly environment.

  3. The importance of structural softening for the evolution and architecture of passive margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretz, T.; Petri, B.; Mohn, G.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Schenker, F. L.; Müntener, O.

    2016-12-01

    Lithospheric extension can generate passive margins that bound oceans worldwide. Detailed geological and geophysical studies in present and fossil passive margins have highlighted the complexity of their architecture and their multi-stage deformation history. Previous modeling studies have shown the significant impact of coarse mechanical layering of the lithosphere (2 to 4 layer crust and mantle) on passive margin formation. We built upon these studies and design high-resolution (~100–300 m) thermo-mechanical numerical models that incorporate finer mechanical layering (kilometer scale) mimicking tectonically inherited heterogeneities. During lithospheric extension a variety of extensional structures arises naturally due to (1) structural softening caused by necking of mechanically strong layers and (2) the establishment of a network of weak layers across the deforming multi-layered lithosphere. We argue that structural softening in a multi-layered lithosphere is the main cause for the observed multi-stage evolution and architecture of magma-poor passive margins.

  4. Influence of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composites. METHOD: With a given energy density and for each of two different light-curing units (QTH or LED), the curing rate was reduced by modulating the curing mode. Thus......, the irradiation of resin composite specimens (Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram, Esthet-X) was performed in a continuous curing mode and in a pulse-delay curing mode. Wallace hardness was used to determine the softening of resin composite after storage in ethanol. Degree of conversion was determined by infrared...... spectroscopy (FTIR). Wear was assessed by a three-body test. Data were submitted to Levene's test, one and three-way ANOVA, and Tukey HSD test (alpha = 0.05). Results: Immersion in ethanol, curing mode, and material all had significant effects on Wallace hardness. After ethanol storage, resin composites...

  5. Particle Surface Softening as Universal Behaviour during Flash Sintering of Oxide Nano-Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Chaim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dissipated electric power in oxide powder compacts, subjected to flash sintering, is several hundreds of W·cm−3. This power is analyzed considering local softening/melting and transient plasma/liquid formation at the particle contacts due to thermal runaway. The sudden increase in compact electric conductivity and dissipated power referred to current percolation through the softening/liquid formed at the particle contacts, at the percolation threshold. The energy-balance and heat transfer considerations during the transient flash event are consistent with the local heating of the nanoparticle contacts to the ceramic melting temperature, or above it. The formation of the plasma by field emission of electrons is also considered.

  6. Ratcheting induced cyclic softening behaviour of 42CrMo4 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreethi, R.; Mondal, A. K.; Dutta, K.

    2015-02-01

    Ratcheting is an important field of fatigue deformation which happens under stress controlled cyclic loading of materials. The aim of this investigation is to study the uniaxial ratcheting behavior of 42CrMo4 steel in annealed condition, under various applied stresses. In view of this, stress controlled fatigue tests were carried out at room temperature up to 200 cycles using a servo-hydraulic universal testing machine. The results indicate that accumulation of ratcheting strain increases monotonically with increasing maximum applied stress however; the rate of strain accumulation attains a saturation plateau after few cycles. The investigated steel shows cyclic softening behaviour under the applied stress conditions. The nature of strain accumulation and cyclic softening has been discussed in terms of dislocation distribution and plastic damage incurred in the material.

  7. Unusual phonon softening in the Kondo lattice CeCu 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenhaupt, Michael; Witte, Ulrike; Kramp, Sirko; Braden, Markus; Svoboda, Pavel

    2002-03-01

    CeCu2 is a Kondo lattice with antiferromagnetic order below 3.5 K and a Kondo temperature of about 6 K. Earlier neutron scattering experiments lead to the assumption of a coupling between a crystal field transition and some phonons with energies around 14 meV. With the results from our newly performed inelastic neutron measurements on a single crystal we found these assumptions confirmed. We observed an unusual softening of certain phonons with increasing temperature. This softening of up to 15% is much stronger than the normal thermal behavior of phonons. Additionally, the line width of these phonons is increasing. At the same time the magnetic response is strongly broadened by the coupling to the phonons. The findings for CeCu2 are discussed in relation with similar observation of a coupling between electronic and lattice degrees of freedom in CeAl2 and YbPO4.

  8. Water softening by induced crystallization in fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuefang; Fan, Rong; An, Danfeng; Cheng, Yujie; Tan, Hazel

    2016-12-01

    Fluidized bed and induced crystallization technology were combined to design a new type of induced crystallization fluidized bed reactor. The added particulate matter served as crystal nucleus to induce crystallization so that the insoluble material, which was in a saturated state, could precipitate on its surface. In this study, by filling the fluidized bed with quartz sand and by adjusting water pH, precipitation of calcium carbonate was induced on the surface of quartz sand, and the removal of water hardness was achieved. With a reactor influent flow of 60L/hr, a fixed-bed height of 0.5m, pH value of 9.5, quartz sand nuclear diameter of 0.2-0.4mm, and a reflux ratio of 60%, the effluent concentration of calcium hardness was reduced to 60mg/L and 86.6% removal efficiency was achieved. The resulting effluent reached the quality standard set for circulating cooling water. Majority of the material on the surface of quartz sand was calculated to be calcium carbonate based on energy spectrum analysis and moisture content was around 15.994%. With the low moisture content, dewatering treatment is no longer required and this results to cost savings on total water treatment process.

  9. Softening of monthly cigarette use in youth and the need to harden measures in surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn T. Kozlowski

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Additional measures of frequency and intensity of use of cigarettes and other tobacco/nicotine products need to be more regularly reported. These results indicate softening rather than hardening of “current smoking” and have important implications for tobacco surveillance and for tobacco research because of a increased likelihood of quitting smoking, b health effects of cigarette smoking, and c similar and interacting issues related to measuring the use of all tobacco/nicotine products.

  10. Flash sintering of dielectric nanoparticles as a percolation phenomenon through a softened film

    OpenAIRE

    Chaim, Rachman; Chevallier, Geoffroy; Weibel, Alicia; Estournès, Claude

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Recent work [Biesuz et al., J. Appl. Phys. 120, 145107 (2016)] showed analogies between the flash sintering and dielectric breakdown in α-aluminas pre-sintered to different densities. Here, we show that flash sintering of dielectric nanoparticles can be described as a universal behavior by the percolation model. The electrical system is composed of particles and their contact point resistances, the latter softened first due to preferred local Joule heating and thermal ...

  11. Identification of Strain-Softening Properties and Computational Predictions of Localized Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    OFFICE SYMBOL I de .4 a Code) LAWRENCE D. HOKANSON, Lt. Col. USAF (202) 767-4935 AFOSR/NA DO FORM 1473, 83 APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE...crack band approach of Bazant and co-wor- kers [9] who interpreted the fictitious crack model of Hillerborg et al [10] within a crack band of finite...shear bands within linear bifurcation studies [13], [14]. In fact, Bazant offered some elementary strain-softening interpretation of concrete in

  12. Determination of the strain rate dependent thermal softening behavior of thermoplastic materials for crash simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Christian; Klein, Jan; Schöngart, Maximilian

    2016-03-01

    Thermoplastic materials are increasingly used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in automotive applications. Typical examples are frontends and bumpers. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in a crash situation. A high rate of loading causes a high strain rate in the material which has a major impact on the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials. The stiffness as well as the rigidity of polymers increases to higher strain rates. The increase of the mechanical properties is superimposed at higher rates of loading by another effect which works reducing on stiffness and rigidity, the increase of temperature caused by plastic deformation. The mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is influenced by temperature opposing to strain rate. The stiffness and rigidity are decreased to higher values of temperature. The effect of thermal softening on thermoplastic materials is investigated at IKV. For this purpose high-speed tensile tests are performed on a blend, consisting of Polybutylenterephthalate (PBT) and Polycarbonate (PC). In preliminary investigations the effects of strain rate on the thermomechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials was studied by different authors. Tensile impact as well as split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were conducted in combination with high-speed temperature measurement, though, the authors struggled especially with temperature measurement. This paper presents an approach which uses high-speed strain measurement to transpire the link between strain, strain rate and thermal softening as well as the interdependency between strain hardening and thermal softening. The results show a superimposition of strain hardening and thermal softening, which is consistent to preliminary investigations. The advantage of the presented research is that the results can be used to calibrate damage and material models to perform mechanical simulations using Finite Element Analysis.

  13. Softening and Hardening of a Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) Oscillator in a Nonlinear Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Edmonds, Terrence

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems or MEMS are used in a variety of today's technology and can be modeled using equations for nonlinear damped harmonic oscillators. Mathematical expressions have been formulated to determine resonance frequency shifts as a result of hardening and softening effects in MEMS devices. In this work we experimentally test the previous theoretical analysis of MEMS resonance frequency shifts in the nonlinear regime. Devices were put under low pressure at room temperature and swept through a range of frequencies with varying AC and DC excitation voltages to detect shifts in the resonant frequency. The MEMS device studied in this work exhibits a dominating spring softening effect due to the device's physical make-up. The softening effect becomes very dominant as the AC excitation is increased and the frequency shift of the resonance peak becomes quite significant at these larger excitations. Hardening effects are heavily dependent on mechanical factors that make up the MEMS devices. But they are not present in these MEMS devices. I will present our results along with the theoretical analysis of the Duffing oscillator model. This work was supported by NSF grant DMR-1461019 (REU) and DMR-1205891 (YL).

  14. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not iden......Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were......, and one Chinese. After collection, saliva was dialysed and lyophilised and re-dissolved at 0.5% in Type I water. Next, four polished bovine enamel specimens were immersed into each sample under gentle and constant shaking for 12 hours. Last, specimens were exposed to an erosive challenge of pH 2.3 for 4......-TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had...

  15. BASIC STUDY ON TENSION SOFTENING AND CYCLIC DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF SOLIDIFIED BODY FOR THE COHESIVE SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Kazuhiko; Adachi, Yuji; Mihara, Masaya; Yamada, Atsuo; Kawamura, Makoto

    So far, authors have proposed a method to improve earthquake resistance of pile foundations by partially solidifying an underground part of the pile foundations, and the effect of reinforcement has been confirmed by shaking table tests and the lateral loading tests of a full scale model. Though the solidified body is usually designed as an elastic body, it is possible to design the body considering the damage by the tensile stress when a seismic ground motion is assumed to be level 2. Therefore, material tests of the solidified body for the cohesive soil were executed, and the characteristics of the tension softening and the cyclic deformation behavior of the solidified bod y were clarified. Moreover, loading tests that used wall models of the solidified body were executed, and the effects of the shape on the tension softening and the cyclic deformation behavior of the solidified body were clarified. In addition, a numerical simulation by elastoplastic FEM analysis that considers the damage of the solidified body was executed, and the tension softening and the cyclic deformation behavior of the solidified body were reproduced.

  16. PASS-GP: Predictive active set selection for Gaussian processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    to the active set selection strategy and marginal likelihood optimization on the active set. We make extensive tests on the USPS and MNIST digit classification databases with and without incorporating invariances, demonstrating that we can get state-of-the-art results (e.g.0.86% error on MNIST) with reasonable......We propose a new approximation method for Gaussian process (GP) learning for large data sets that combines inline active set selection with hyperparameter optimization. The predictive probability of the label is used for ranking the data points. We use the leave-one-out predictive probability...... available in GPs to make a common ranking for both active and inactive points, allowing points to be removed again from the active set. This is important for keeping the complexity down and at the same time focusing on points close to the decision boundary. We lend both theoretical and empirical support...

  17. Ambient and focal visual processing of naturalistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michelle L; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    When people inspect a picture, they progress through two distinct phases of visual processing: an ambient, or exploratory, phase that emphasizes input from peripheral vision and rapid acquisition of low-frequency information, followed by a focal phase that emphasizes central vision, salient objects, and high-frequency information. Does this qualitative shift occur during dynamic scene viewing? If so, when? One possibility is that shifts to exploratory processing are triggered at subjective event boundaries. This shift would be adaptive, because event boundaries typically occur when activity features change and when activity becomes unpredictable. Here, we used a perceptual event segmentation task, in which people identified boundaries between meaningful units of activity, to test this hypothesis. In two studies, an eye tracker recorded eye movements and pupil size while participants first watched movies of actors engaged in everyday activities and then segmented them into meaningful events. Saccade amplitudes and fixation durations during the initial viewings suggest that event boundaries function much like the onset of a new picture during static picture presentation: Viewers initiate an ambient processing phase and then progress to focal viewing as the event progresses. These studies suggest that this shift in processing mode could play a role in the formation of mental representations of the current environment.

  18. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identificati...

  19. The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golon, Danielle K.

    2016-10-03

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) operates as a partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey and is 1 of 12 DAACs within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The LP DAAC ingests, archives, processes, and distributes NASA Earth science remote sensing data. These data are provided to the public at no charge. Data distributed by the LP DAAC provide information about Earth’s surface from daily to yearly intervals and at 15 to 5,600 meter spatial resolution. Data provided by the LP DAAC can be used to study changes in agriculture, vegetation, ecosystems, elevation, and much more. The LP DAAC provides several ways to access, process, and interact with these data. In addition, the LP DAAC is actively archiving new datasets to provide users with a variety of data to study the Earth.

  20. Active Learning of Markov Decision Processes for System Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2012-01-01

    of input/output observations. While alleviating the problem of manually constructing a system model, the collection/generation of observed system behaviors can also prove demanding. Consequently we seek to minimize the amount of data required. In this paper we propose an algorithm for learning...... deterministic Markov decision processes from data by actively guiding the selection of input actions. The algorithm is empirically analyzed by learning system models of slot machines, and it is demonstrated that the proposed active learning procedure can significantly reduce the amount of data required...... demanding process, and this shortcoming has motivated the development of algorithms for automatically learning system models from observed system behaviors. Recently, algorithms have been proposed for learning Markov decision process representations of reactive systems based on alternating sequences...

  1. Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

  2. Use of Natural Zeolite to Upgrade Activated Sludge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanife Büyükgüngör

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to achieve better efficiency of phosphorus removal in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process by upgrading the system with different amounts of natural zeolite addition. The system performance for synthetic wastewater containing different carbon sources applied at different initial concentrations of phosphorus, as well as for municipal wastewater, was investigated. Natural zeolite addition in the aerobic phase of the anaerobic/aerobic bioaugmented activated sludge system contributed to a significant improvement of phosphorus removal in systems with synthetic wastewater and fresh municipal wastewater. Improvement of phosphorus removal with regard to the control reactors was higher with the addition of 15 than with 5 g/L of natural zeolite. In reactors with natural zeolite addition with regard to the control reactors significantly decreased chemical oxygen demand, ammonium and nitrate, while higher increment and better-activated sludge settling were achieved, without changes in the pH-values of the medium. It was shown that the natural zeolite particles are suitable support material for the phosphate-accumulating bacteria Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (DSM 1532, which were adsorbed on the particle surface, resulting in increased biological activity of the system. The process of phosphorus removal in a system with bioaugmented activated sludge and natural zeolite addition consisted of: metabolic activity of activated sludge, phosphorus uptake by phosphate-accumulating bacteria adsorbed on the natural zeolite particles and suspended in solution, and phosphorus adsorption on the natural zeolite particles.

  3. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Debra K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI. It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control. Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control, which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity.

  4. Fluffy and softening finishes of hemp/cotton mixture fabrics%大麻/彩棉交织物蓬松柔软整理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚杨; 姜凤琴

    2011-01-01

    To improve the flexibility and the feeling of hemp/cotton mixture fabrics, weak cationic softener and fluffy agents were used to process the mixture fabrics. Flexural rigidity was used as main evaluation index. Regression equation was made through quadratic regression orthogonal and the best ratio of softener and fluffy agents was calculated. The result demonstrated that the mass concentration of softener is 7. 656 g/L and the mass concentration of fluffy agents is 6. 862%. After treatment, the stiffness decreased significantly and the flexibility is increased significantly but the loss of strength is very small.%为了提高大麻/彩棉交织物的柔软度,分别选用弱阳离子型柔软剂和阳离子型蓬松片对织物进行处理,以抗弯刚度为主要评价指标.考虑到柔软剂与蓬松片的交互作用,通过二次回归正交试验建立回归方程,确定交互作用下试剂的最佳浓度.通过对处理前后交织物的断裂强力、断裂伸长及手感进行对比分析最后得出最佳整理工艺:柔软剂的质量浓度为7.656 g/L,蓬松片的质量分数为6.862%.经蓬松柔软处理的大麻/彩棉交织物,硬挺度明显下降,手感丰满、滑糯,柔软度明显增加且强力损失较小.

  5. Climate change on Mars and the formation of gullies, lobate debris aprons, and softened craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Reid Allen

    Recent data acquired from spacecraft missions has bettered our understanding of the nature and distribution of ice- and water-related features formed during recent periods of climate change on Mars. Numerical modeling of physical processes constrained by these newly acquired observations is an important tool with which hypotheses relating to the Martian climate can be tested. This work describes the development and implementation of a set of these models focused on the formation of a few young, ice- and water-related features. The subjects of this research are gullies, lobate debris aprons (LDAs), and craters with subdued topography known as "softened" craters. Flow of liquid water and ice over and/or within the Martian surface has been invoked in the formation of these features. Quantifying processes such as fluvial erosion and ice deformation using laboratory experiments is a Rosetta stone with which we can read into the climate history of Mars that is written on its surface. We test the hypothesis that sediment transport on gully slopes occurs via fluvial transport processes by developing a numerical sediment transport model based on steep flume experiments performed by Smart [1984]. At 20° slopes, channels 1 m deep by 8m wide and 0.1 m deep by 3 m wide transport a sediment volume equal to the alcove volume of 6 x 105 m3 in 10 hours and 40 days, respectively, under constant flow conditions. Snowpack melting cannot produce the water discharge rates necessary for fluvial sediment transport, unless long-term (kyr) storage of the resulting meltwater occurs. If these volumes of water are discharged as groundwater, the required aquifer thicknesses and aquifer drawdown lengths would be unrealistically large for a single discharge event. More plausibly, the water volume required by the fluvial transport model could be discharged in ˜ 10 episodes for an aquifer 30 m thick, with a recurrence interval similar to that of Martian obliquity cycles (˜0.1 My). Radar

  6. Processing Chinese hand-radicals activates the medial frontal gyrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Lin Wu; Yu-Chen Chan; Joseph P. Lavallee; Hsueh-Chin Chen; Kuo-En Chang; Yao-Ting Sung

    2013-01-01

    Embodied semantics theory asserts that the meaning of action-related words is neural y represented through networks that overlap with or are identical to networks involved in sory-motor processing. While some studies supporting this theory have focused on Chinese cha-racters, less attention has been paid to their semantic radicals. Indeed, there is stil disagreement about whether these radicals are processed independently. The present study investigated whether radicals are processed separately and, if so, whether this processing occurs in sensory-motor gions. Materials consisted of 72 high-frequency Chinese characters, with 18 in each of four ries:hand-action verbs with and without hand-radicals, and verbs not related to hand actions, with and without hand-radicals. Twenty-eight participants underwent functional MRI scans while reading the characters. Compared to characters without hand-radicals, reading characters with hand-radicals activated the right medial frontal gyrus. Verbs involving hand-action activated the left inferior parietal lobule, possibly reflecting integration of information in the radical with the semantic meaning of the verb. The findings may be consistent with embodied semantics theory and suggest that neural representation of radicals is indispensable in processing Chinese characters.

  7. Evaluation of control parameters of the activated sludge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stall, T.R.; Sherrard, J.H.

    1978-03-01

    The evaluation of control parameters of the activated sludge process was effected with a laboratory-scale, completely mixed process employing internal cell recycle and an artificial wasterwater over a wide spectrum of conditions at full-scale facilities. The parameters: food-microorganism ratio, specific utilization rate, COD or BOD sludge age, and aeration and total system mean cell residence time can all be used to control an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. Because of the sensitivity of the COD or BOD sludge age (when compared with measures of mean cell residence time), its use may be of limited value. The aeration basin cell residence time may be favored over the total system mean cell residence time because of the ease in measuring aeration basin solids and the difficulty in measuring solids concentration at the bottom of the secondary clarifier and in the recycle line.

  8. Enhancement of activated sludge disintegration and dewaterability by Fenton process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, G. C.; Isa, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of sludge. This excess sludge is an inevitable drawback inherent to the activated sludge process. In this study, the waste activated sludge was obtained from the campus wastewater treatment plant at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. Fenton pretreatment was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effects of three operating conditions including the dosage of H2O2 (g H2O2/kg TS), the molar ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ and reaction time. The optimum operating variables to achieve MLVSS removal 65%, CST reduction 28%, sCOD 11000 mg/L and EPS 500 mg/L were: 1000 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 70 and reaction time 45 min. Fenton process was proved to be able to enhance the sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

  9. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform a......) that perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  10. Unraveling the processing and activation of snake venom metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes-Junior, José A; Yamanouye, Norma; Carneiro, Sylvia M; Knittel, Paloma S; Sant'Anna, Sávio S; Nogueira, Fabio C S; Junqueira, Magno; Magalhães, Geraldo S; Domont, Gilberto B; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M

    2014-07-03

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are zinc-dependent enzymes responsible for most symptoms of human envenoming. Like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) proteins, SVMPs are synthesized as zymogens, and enzyme activation is regulated by hydrolysis of their prodomain, but the processing of SVMPs is still unclear. In this study, we attempted to identify the presence of prodomain in different compartments of snake venom glands as zymogens or in the free form to elucidate some mechanism involved in SVMP activation. Using antibodies obtained by immunization with a recombinant prodomain, bands of zymogen molecular mass and prodomain peptides were detected mostly in gland extracts all along the venom production cycle and in the venom collected from the lumen at the peak of venom production. Prodomain was detected in secretory cells mostly in the secretory vesicles near the Golgi. We hypothesize that the processing of SVMPs starts within secretory vesicles and continues in the lumen of the venom gland just after enzyme secretion and involves different steps compared to ADAMs and MMPs but can be used as a model for studying the relevance of peptides resulting from prodomain processing and degradation for controlling the activity of metalloproteinases.

  11. Land processes distributed active archive center product lifecycle plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.

  12. Materials and Process Activities for NASA's Composite Crew Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to design, build, and test a full-scale Composite Crew Module (CCM). The overall goal of the CCM project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project s baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. The materials and process activities were prioritized based on a rapid prototype approach. This approach focused developmental activities on design details with greater risk and uncertainty, such as out-of-autoclave joining, over some of the more traditional lamina and laminate building block levels. While process development and associated building block testing were performed, several anomalies were still observed at the full-scale level due to interactions between process robustness and manufacturing scale-up. This paper describes the process anomalies that were encountered during the CCM development and the subsequent root cause investigations that led to the final design solutions. These investigations highlight the importance of full-scale developmental work early in the schedule of a complex composite design/build project.

  13. The softening of human bladder cancer cells happens at an early stage of the malignancy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have demonstrated that alterations in the deformability of cancerous cells are strongly linked to the actin cytoskeleton. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM, it is possible to determine such changes in a quantitative way in order to distinguish cancerous from non-malignant cells. In the work presented here, the elastic properties of human bladder cells were determined by means of AFM. The measurements show that non-malignant bladder HCV29 cells are stiffer (higher Young’s modulus than cancerous cells (HTB-9, HT1376, and T24 cell lines. However, independently of the histological grade of the studied bladder cancer cells, all cancerous cells possess a similar level of the deformability of about a few kilopascals, significantly lower than non-malignant cells. This underlines the diagnostic character of stiffness that can be used as a biomarker of bladder cancer. Similar stiffness levels, observed for cancerous cells, cannot be fully explained by the organization of the actin cytoskeleton since it is different in all malignant cells. Our results underline that it is neither the spatial organization of the actin filaments nor the presence of stress fibers, but the overall density and their 3D-organization in a probing volume play the dominant role in controlling the elastic response of the cancerous cell to an external force.

  14. Lower Greenschist Facies Oscillations Across the Brittle-Ductile Transition Induced by Alternating Reaction Softening and Hardening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintsch, R. P.; Yeh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Reaction textures associated with multiple fabrics in the Red River shear zone show evidence for both brittle and ductile deformation. Rocks on the eastern flank of the shear zone in the Diancang Shan block near Dali, Yunnan Province, China are dominated by porphyritic granodiorites and form the protoliths of the Red River fault rocks. The earliest fault-rocks are cataclasites in which fracture processes broke matrix feldspar grains. Grain-scale brittle fractures and crushed grains are well preserved in the >cm size relic K-feldspar phenocrysts, where multiple fractures are filled with newly precipitated quartz. Progressive deformation has displaced broken K-feldspar fragments into the evolving matrix establishing a cataclastic texture with abundant feldspar porphyroclasts. Ductile deformation is manifest in multiple generations of fabrics that wrap around these broken phenocrysts. The fabrics are defined primarily by muscovite and chlorite that form folia that may exceed the length of a thin section (several cm). Truncations and embayments of these minerals show that earlier magmatic feldspars and biotites have been dissolved and muscovite + chlorite + quartz have crystallized as reaction products. Reaction softening is clearly manifest by the replacement of K-feldspar and the crystallization of quartz as ribbons and muscovite in well aligned folia that define the mylonitic foliation. In some microstructural sites K-feldspar porphyroclasts themselves are truncated and engulfed by muscovite alone. These relationships suggest the simultaneous operation of the locally metasomatic ionic replacement reactions: K-feldspar + Na+ = Albite + K+ , and ΔV = -10% 3K-feldspar + 2H+ = muscovite + 6 quartz + 2K+ and ΔV = -16% 3Albite + K+ + 2H+ = muscovite + 6 quartz + 3Na+. ΔV = - 8% The latter two reactions produce muscovite and quartz, both much weaker than the reactant K-feldspar; these reactions constitute reaction softening. Moreover, the muscovite tends to align in

  15. Elastic Softening of Surface Acoustic Wave Caused by Vacancy Orbital in Silicon Wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, Keisuke; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Shotaro; Takasu, Rie; Nemoto, Yuichi; Goto, Terutaka; Yamada-Kaneta, Hiroshi; Furumura, Yuji; Saito, Hiroyuki; Kashima, Kazuhiko; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2014-03-01

    We have performed surface acoustic wave (SAW) measurements to examine vacancies in a surface layer of a boron-doped silicon wafer currently used in semiconductor industry. A SAW with a frequency of fs = 517 MHz was optimally generated by an interdigital transducer with a comb gap of w=2.5 µm on a piezoelectric ZnO film deposited on the (001) silicon surface. The SAW propagating along the [100] axis with a velocity of vs=4.967 km/s is in agreement with the Rayleigh wave, which shows an ellipsoidal trajectory motion in the displacement components ux and uz within a penetration depth of λp = 3.5 µm. The elastic constant Cs of the SAW revealed the softening of ΔCs/Cs = 1.9 × 10-4 below 2 K down to 23 mK. Applied magnetic fields of up to 2 T completely suppress the softening. The quadrupole susceptibilities based on the coupling between the electric quadrupoles Ou, Ov, and Ozx of the vacancy orbital consisting of Γ8-Γ7 states and the symmetry strains ɛu, ɛv, and ɛzx associated with the SAW account for the softening and its field dependence on Cs. We deduced a low vacancy concentration N = 3.1 × 1012/cm3 in the surface layer within λp = 3.5 µm of the silicon wafer. This result promises an innovative technology for vacancy evaluation in the fabrication of high-density semiconductor devices in industry.

  16. Thermodynamic behaviour of gliadins mixture and the glass-softening transition of its dried state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, C; Johari, G P

    1997-10-01

    The glass-softening transition of a mixture of gliadins extracted from wheat flour has been studied in its dry state by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Further, the rate of removal of its water vapours on its evaporation from a gliadins mixture containing different amounts of water has been investigated, and through this the presence of any exothermic effect that could be attributed to polymerization of gliadins has been examined. The heat absorbed in this evaporation is comparable with the heat of evaporation of pure water measured in a separate experiment in identical conditions. This showed that the gliadins mixture did not polymerize on heating up to 473 K in the presence of moisture. In this respect the behaviour of the gliadins mixture differs remarkably from that of gluten studied before (J Phys Chem 1996:100:19692). The effects of purge gas, helium and argon, on the calorimetric effects during the evaporation of water have been studied. A restudy of gluten shows that helium decreases substantially the endothermic signal in the DSC measurements, and thereby reveals the exothermic effects of polymerization in gluten, but argon does not do so. The structural relaxation time, t, of dry gliadins mixtures at different temperatures has been calculated from an analysis of its glass-softening endotherm. The temperature at which t = 1 ks is 452 K, and the Tg, obtained by the usual method of intersection of the straight lines drawn, is 443 K, 7 K higher than for the polymerized dry gluten, the distribution of relaxation time parameter is 0.25, and increase in the heat capacity in this range is 0.21 J/g K. Physical ageing effects are considerable in the gliadins mixture, which alters the glass-softening endotherm but not the structural relaxation time or its distribution.

  17. Memory suppression is an active process that improves over childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Paz-Alonso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We all have memories that we prefer not to think about. The ability to suppress retrieval of unwanted memories has been documented in behavioral and neuroimaging research using the Think/No-Think (TNT paradigm with adults. Attempts to stop memory retrieval are associated with increased activation of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC and concomitant reduced activation in medial temporal lobe (MTL structures. However, the extent to which children have the ability to actively suppress their memories is unknown. This study investigated memory suppression in middle childhood using the TNT paradigm. Forty children aged 8 to 12 and 30 young adults were instructed either to remember (Think or suppress (No-Think the memory of the second word of previously studied word-pairs, when presented with the first member as a reminder. They then performed two different cued recall tasks, testing their memory for the second word in each pair after the Think/No-Think phase using the same first studied word within the pair as a cue (intra-list cue and also an independent cue (extra-list cue. Children exhibited age-related improvements in memory suppression from age 8 to 12 in both memory tests, against a backdrop of overall improvements in declarative memory over this age range. These findings suggest that memory suppression is an active process that develops during late childhood, likely due to an age-related refinement in the ability to engage PFC to down-regulate activity in areas involved in episodic retrieval.

  18. Partonic energy loss in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions jet suppression versus jet fragmentation softening

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, Igor P

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the modification of a jet fragmentation function due to medium-induced partonic energy loss in context of leading particle observables in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions. We also analyze the relation between in-medium softening jet fragmentation function and suppression of the jet rates due to energy loss outside the jet cone. The predicted anti-correlation between two effects allows to probe a fraction of partonic energy loss carried out of the jet cone and truly lost to the jet.

  19. Insights into the softening of chaotic statistical models by quantum considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, C.; Giffin, A.; Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.

    2012-05-01

    We analyze the information geometry and the entropic dynamics of a 3D Gaussian statistical model and compare our analysis to that of a 2D Gaussian statistical model obtained from the higher-dimensional model via introduction of an additional information constraint that resembles the quantum mechanical canonical minimum uncertainty relation. We uncover that the chaoticity of the 2D Gaussian statistical model, quantified by means of the Information Geometric Entropy (IGE), is softened with respect to the chaoticity of the 3D Gaussian statistical model.

  20. Role of electron concentration in softening and hardening of ternary molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of various combinations of hafnium, tantalum, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum in ternary molybdenum alloys on alloy softening and hardening were determined. Hardness tests were conducted at four test temperatures over the temperature range 77 to 411 K. Results showed that hardness data for ternary molybdenum alloys could be correlated with anticipated results from binary data based upon expressions involving the number of s and d electrons contributed by the solute elements. The correlation indicated that electron concentration plays a dominant role in controlling the hardness of ternary molybdenum alloys.

  1. Gurzadyan's Problem 5 and improvement of softenings for cosmological simulations using the PP method

    CERN Document Server

    Eingorn, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    This Letter is devoted to different modifications of two standard softenings of the gravitational attraction, which are commonly used in cosmological simulations based on the particle-particle (PP) method, and their comparison. It is demonstrated that some of the proposed alternatives lead to almost the same accuracy as in the case of the pure Newtonian interaction, even despite the fact that the force resolution is allowed to equal half the minimum interparticle distance. The revealed way of precision improvement gives an opportunity to succeed in solving Gurzadyan's Problem 5 and bring modern computer codes up to a higher standard.

  2. Effects Of Various Parameters On The Thickening Of Softening Plant Sludges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Baumann, E. R.; Larson, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    photomicrographs indicated that only the calcium carbonate precipitate has a well-defined crystal structure. The shift of the crystal size distribution (CSD) to greater sizes, observed by comparing the different sludges, may be due to bigger calcite crystals rather than to crystal size changes caused......Spectroscopic and thermal data for sludges from full-scale softening plants showed calcium and magnesium precipitated as calcite and an amorphous hydrated hydroxide, respectively. Magnesium ions were not incorporated into the calcium lattice to form a magnesian calcite. Scanning electron...

  3. Ab initio investigation of the anomalous phonon softening in FeSi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin; Madsen, Georg K. H.

    2016-10-01

    The anomalous softening of the acoustic phonon peak in FeSi has recently received considerable experimental attention. In our work, we investigate the effect of thermal disorder on the lattice dynamics and the filling of the narrow band gap of FeSi using density functional theory. We show, by comparing the phonon density of states from temperature-independent and temperature-dependent force constants, that thermal structural disorder together with thermal expansion explains the anomalously strong renormalization of the acoustic phonons. Furthermore, we find an intricate interplay between thermal disorder and volume in gap closure.

  4. Influence of the dye transfer inhibitors for the washing of softened cotton fabric

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Fité, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this, work the performance of several dye transfer inhibitors (DTI) copolymers (PVP, PVNO and PVNO with PVP) was tested for use as DTIs in washing softened undyed cotton fabric, in the presence of a direct dye in the washing bath, with and without water hardness. Three direct dyes were tested: red, blue and yellow. The detergent used was composed of an LAS anionic surfactant and a non-ionic fatty alcohol ethoxylate surfactant with 7¿m. OE, both separately and in the different molar proport...

  5. The Effect of Hydrogen on the Solid Solution Strengthening and Softening of Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Afl-A108 654e ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA DEPT OF METALLURGY AND MININS--ETC F/6 11/6 THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON THE SOLID SOLUTION STRFNSTNFNING ANfl...RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL HUR[AU OF STANDARDS 1963 A, " , ..... . .... .. i ....... .. .. . t , LEVEL THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON THE SOLID SOLUTION STRENGTHENING...Availability Codes IIAvail and/or Dist Special THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON THE SOLID SOLUTION STRENGTHENING AND SOFTENING OF NICKEL J. Eastman, F. Heuhaum, T

  6. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  7. Locating Melody Processing Activity in Auditory Cortex with Magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Roy D; Andermann, Martin; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Rupp, André

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for isolating the brain activity associated with melodic pitch processing. The magnetoencephalograhic (MEG) response to a four note, diatonic melody built of French horn notes, is contrasted with the response to a control sequence containing four identical, "tonic" notes. The transient response (TR) to the first note of each bar is dominated by energy-onset activity; the melody processing is observed by contrasting the TRs to the remaining melodic and tonic notes of the bar (2-4). They have uniform shape within a tonic or melodic sequence which makes it possible to fit a 4-dipole model and show that there are two sources in each hemisphere--a melody source in the anterior part of Heschl's gyrus (HG) and an onset source about 10 mm posterior to it, in planum temporale (PT). The N1m to the initial note has a short latency and the same magnitude for the tonic and the melodic sequences. The melody activity is distinguished by the relative sizes of the N1m and P2m components of the TRs to notes 2-4. In the anterior source a given note elicits a much larger N1m-P2m complex with a shorter latency when it is part of a melodic sequence. This study shows how to isolate the N1m, energy-onset response in PT, and produce a clean melody response in the anterior part of auditory cortex (HG).

  8. Alkali modification and softening finish of hemp yarn%大麻纱线的碱改性柔软整理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠金星; 王宝权; 吕站逵; 季英超

    2012-01-01

    针对大麻纱在针织机上生产时存在编织成圈困难的问题,提出了对大麻纱线进行柔软处理以提高其可编织性的方法.用氢氧化钠对大麻纱线进行改性,结合柔软剂进行柔软处理的方法降低大麻纱线的刚性,并采用正交试验的方法,确定了碱改性的最佳工艺:碱液质量浓度l00g/L,温度20℃,浸渍时间15min,浴比1:20.结合柔软剂整理可明显降低大麻纱线刚性,提高纯大麻纱线的上机编织效果.%The soft hemp yarn processing was studies to enhance their weave performance. Alkali modification together with treatment of caustic soda and softener was used for reducing the stiffness of hemp yarn. The result indicates that the best technological conditions were: alkali concentration 100 g/L, temperature 20 ℃ , soaking time is 15 min, liquor ratio 1 : 20. The treatment with softening agent can obviously reduce the stiffness of hemp yarn and improve its knitting performance.

  9. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) Plays a Critical Role in the Softening of Common Carp Muscle during Chilled Storage by Degradation of Type I and V Collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Weng, Ling; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proposed to play important roles in the degradation of collagens, thus causing the post-mortem softening of fish muscle, although the specific mechanism remains largely unresolved. Previously, we reported the existence of gelatinase-like proteinases in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle. The primary structures of these proteinases, however, have never been investigated. In the present study, two MMPs with molecular masses of 66 and 65 kDa were purified to homogeneity from common carp muscle by ammonium sulfate fractionation and a series of column chromatographies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) analysis indicated that they are completely identical to MMP-2 from common carp. During chilled storage of common carp at 4 °C, the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 increased to 212% in 12 h while the texture profile increased over the first 2 h and gradually decreased. On the other hand, type V collagen was purified to homogeneity and a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein was prepared. Both type I and V collagens were effectively hydrolyzed by MMP-2 at 30 °C and even at 4 °C. Furthermore, injection of metalloproteinase proteinase inhibitor EDTA into the blood vessel of live common carp suppressed post-mortem tenderization significantly. All of these results confirmed that MMP-2 is a major proteinase responsible for the degradation of collagens, resulting in the softening of fish muscle during chilled storage.

  10. Understanding Thermal Activation Processes in Exchange Bias Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    The phenomenon of exchange bias has been of major scientific interest and technological importance since the 1980s following its discovery by Meiklejohn and Bean in 1956 [1,2]. Following initial seminal work by Fulcomer and Charap [3] it has recently become clear that a major contribution to the phenomena of exchange bias derives from the fact that the grains in the antiferromagnetic (AF) layer are capable of thermally activated reorientation due to the exchange field from the ferromagnetic (F) layer. In this work careful measurement protocols will be presented that enable the thermal activation process to be analysed in considerable detail. More recently Hoffman [4] has described a spin reorientation process that occurs after the AF layer is set which leads to a large shift in the forward going hysteresis loop on the first reversal of the F layer. This effect, coupled to the thermal activation process, gives rise to the phenomenon of training whereby the loop progressively shifts from its original set direction towards the origin. Lastly we have observed a spin freezing phenomena at the interface that can be induced by either temperature or applied field which results in a systematic variation of the exchange bias. We interpret this effect as being due to paramagnetic like spins at the interface whose ordering leads to a significant increase in the overall value of the exchange bias. Thus we show that exchange bias is a complex convolution of at least three distinct effects, all of which will be described in detail. This explains why single theories of how this effect arises have been so unsuccessful during the last 50 years. [1] Meiklejohn and Bean: Physical Review vol.102 p.1413 (1956) [2] Nogues and Schuller: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials vol.192 p.203 (1999) [3] Fulcomer and Charap: Journal of Applied Physics vol.43 p.4190 (1972) [4] Hoffmann: Physical Review Letters vol.93 p.097203 (2004)

  11. Short Horizon Control Strategies for an Alternating Activated Sludge Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1996-01-01

    determined. The effects of the strategies on short term nitrogen dynamics are explained in terms of the potential and capacity of denitrification. The relative effectiveness of the strategies are compared and where the strategies would be located in a hierarchical control structure is discussed. Copyright (C......Three control strategies allowing improved operational flexibility of an alternating type activated sludge process are presented in a unified model based framework. The control handles employed are the addition rate of an external carbon source to denitrification, the cycle length......, and the dissolved oxygen level during aerobic periods. All three strategies attempt to satisfy a common control criterion representing optimal performance over the time length of one process cycle (typically I to 3 hours) and are based on models developed from simple mass balances or which have been experimentally...

  12. Nitrate control strategies in an activated sludge wastewater treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenhao; Tao, Erpan; Chen, Xiaoquan; Liu, Dawei [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Hongbin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We studied nitrate control strategies in an activated sludge wastewater treatment process (WWTP) based on the activated sludge model. Two control strategies, back propagation for proportional-integral-derivative (BP-PID) and adaptive-network based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), are applied in the WWTP. The simulation results show that the simple local constant setpoint control has poor control effects on the nitrate concentration control. However, the ANFIS (4*1) controller, which considers not only the local constant setpoint control of the nitrate concentration, but also three important indices in the effluent--ammonia concentration, total suspended sludge concentration and total nitrogen concentration--demonstrates good control performance. The results also prove that ANFIS (4*1) controller has better control performance than that of the controllers PI, BP-PID and ANFIS (2*1), and that the ANFIS (4*1) controller is effective in improving the effluent quality and maintaining the stability of the effluent quality.

  13. Kinetics of Thermally Activated Physical Processes in Disordered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Poumellec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a framework for modeling the writing and erasure of thermally-distributed activated processes that we can specifically apply to UV-induced refractive index change, particularly in fibers. From experimental measurements (isochrons and/or isotherms, this framework allows to find the distribution function of the activation energy by providing only a constant, which can be determined by a simple variable change when a few assumptions are fulfilled. From this modeling, it is possible to know the complete evolution in time of the system. It is also possible to determine the annealing conditions for extending a lifetime. This approach can also be used for other physical quantities, such as photodarkening, stress relaxation, and luminescence decay, provided that it can be described by a distribution function.

  14. [EEG spatial organization and activation of creative processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviderskaia, N E; Dashchinskaia, T N; Taratynova, G V

    2001-01-01

    Characteristic features of the spatino-temporal EEG organization of 24 right-handed children (aged from 8 to 13 years) were studied after stimulation of creative activity by the method of self-regulation of the brain functional state (Russian Inventor's Certificate no. 2157707, 01.06.1999). The multiparametric analysis of baseline recordings derived from 24 cortical points made it possible to find the most probable pattern of changes in the spatial synchronization of biopotentials, including increase in activity in the right anterior and left posterior cortical regions. These changes were accompanied by a rise in the information-energy parameter (the ratio between coherence and spectral power of potentials). This phenomenon may testify to a transition to the "economic" condition of information processing. Differences in EEG frequency characteristics corresponding to different levels of imagination and creative intuition were revealed.

  15. Periodic changes of the activity of processes in Jupiter's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    Variations of the Earth jovimagnetic latitude on Jupiter are preferred in solar-driven changes of reflective properties of clouds and haze on Jupiter. Because of the orbit eccentricity (e=0,048450) the northern hemisphere receives 21% greater solar energy flow to the atmosphere, because Jupiter is in the perihelia near the time of the summer solstice. Results of our studies showed that the ratio of the brightness of the northern and southern tropical and temperate regions is evident factor of the photometric activity of the Jupiter's atmospheric processes. The obtained from the analysis of observational data for the period from 1962 to 2015 existence of variations of activity factor of the planet hemispheres with a period of 11.86 years has allowed us to talk about an existence of the seasonal reconstruction of the physical parameters of Jupiter's atmosphere.

  16. CAN ACTIVE EXPERIMENTS BE USED IN WOODWORKING PROCESSES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm LAURENZI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments conducted during scientific research can be very simple or very complex. It is widely known that the classic (passive experiments, consisting of 5 tests at every point of the experiment, are the most precise, but also expensive experiments. In order to reduce the cost of experiments, many researchers use different types of active experiments. These experiments are cheaper than the classical experiments, but no so precise (up to 95%. The number of tests that are necessary can be reduced by designing the experiments (DOE experiments. If we take into account that the structure of wood (depending on its type is non-uniform, it is possible that the results of the experimental research conducted with active experiments are inaccurate. In order to confirm or invalidate these hypothesis, this paper presents a simulation program that allows simulations of a milling process for different types of experiments

  17. Hydration process in Portland cement blended with activated coal gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-ping LIU; Pei-ming WANG; Min-ju DING

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the hydration of a blend of Portland cement and activated coal gangue in order to determine the relationship between the degree of hydration and compressive strength development.The hydration process was investigated by various means:isothermal calorimetry,thermal analysis,non-cvaporable water measurement,and X-ray diffraction analysis.The results show that the activated coal gangue is a pozzolanic material that contributes to the hydration of the cement blend.The pozzolanic reaction occurs over a period of between 7 and 90 d,consuming portlandite and forming both crystal hydrates and ill-crystallized calcium silicate hydrates.These hydrates are similar to those found in pure Portland cement.The results show that if activated coal gangue is substituted for cement at up to 30% (w/w),it does not significantly affect the final compressive strength of the blend.A long-term compressive strength improvement can in fact be achieved by using activated coal gangue as a supplementary cementing material.The relationship between compressive strength and degree of hydration for both pure Portland cement and blended cement can be described with the same equation.However,the parameters are different since blended cement produces fewer calcium silicate hydrates than pure Portland cement at the same degree of hydration.

  18. Role of sympathetic nerve activity in the process of fainting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eIwase

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is defined as a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, characterized by rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery, and the process of syncope progression will be described with two types of sympathetic change. Simultaneous recordings of microneurographically recorded MSNA and continuous and noninvasive blood pressure measurement have disclose what is going on in the course of progression of the syncope. Vasovagal or neurally mediated syncope, three stages are identified in the course of syncope onset, oscillation, imbalance, and catastrophe phases. The vasovagal syncope is characterized by the sympathoexcitation, followed by vagal overcome via the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Orthostatic syncope is caused by the response failure or lack of sympathetic nerve activity toward the orthostatic challenge followed by the fluid shift, and subsequent cerebral low perfusion. Four causes are considered for the compensatory failure, which triggers the orthostatic syncope; hypovolemia, increased pooling in the lower body, failure to activate the sympathetic activity, and failure of vasoconstriction against sympathetic vasoconstrictive stimulation. Many pathophysiological conditions were described in the viewpoint of 1 exaggerated sympathoexcitation and 2 failure to activate the sympathetic nerve. We conclude that the sympathetic nervous system can control the cardiovascular function, and its failure resulted syncope, however, responses of the system by microneurographically recorded MSNA would determine the pathophysiology of the onset and progression of syncope, explaining the treatment effect that could be achieved by the analysis of this mechanism.

  19. Department of Energy solar process heat program: FY 1991 solar process heat prefeasibility studies activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc., for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY-91, six projects were selected for funding. As of 31 Aug. 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  20. Lipídios estruturados obtidos a partir da mistura de gordura de frango, sua estearina e triacilgliceróis de cadeia média: II- pontos de amolecimento e fusão Structured lipids from chicken fat, its stearin, and medium chain triacyglycerol blends: II- softening and melting points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chih Chiu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of blending and chemical interesterification reactions on the softening and melting behavior of chicken fat, its stearin and medium chain triacylglycerols, and blends thereof in various ratios. Chemical interesterification is a promising alternative to the current processes of modifying the physical properties of fats. In the experimental design 7 samples corresponding to 7 different blend proportions were used. The results were represented in triangular diagrams. The addition of stearin influenced the softening and melting points. The mixture response surface methodology proved to be an extremely useful tool for the optimization of the fat mixtures.

  1. Use of sonication for in-well softening of semivolatile organic compounds. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.W.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Hoffman, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (US); Gorelick, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (US)

    1997-01-01

    'This project investigates the in-situ degradation of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using in-well sonication, in-well vapor stripping, and bioremediation. Pretreating groundwaters with sonication techniques in-situ would form VOCs that can be effectively removed by in-well vapor stripping and bioremediation. The mechanistic studies focus on the coupling of megasonics and ultrasonics to soften (i.e., partially degrade) the SVOCs; oxidative reaction mechanism studies; surface corrosion studies (on the reactor walls/well); enhancement due to addition of oxidants, quantification of the hydroxyl radical formation; identification/quantification of degradation products; volatility/degradability of the treated waters; development of a computer simulation model to describe combined in-well sonication/in-well vapor stripping/bioremediation; systems analysis/economic analysis; large laboratory-scale experiment verification; and field demonstration of the integrated technology. Benefits of this approach include: (1) Remediation is performed in-situ; (2) The treatment systems complement each other; their combination can drastically reduce or remove SVOCs and VOCs; (3) Ability to convert hard-to-degrade organics into more volatile organic compounds; (4) Ability to remove residual VOCs and softened SVOCs through the combined action of in-well vapor stripping and biodegradation; (5) Does not require handling or disposing of water at the ground surface; and (6) Cost-effective and improved efficiency, resulting in shortened clean-up times to remediate a site.'

  2. Structural transition and softening in Al–Fe intermetallic compounds induced by high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basariya, M. Raviathul, E-mail: ravia80@gmail.com [CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India); Roy, Rajat K.; Pramanick, A.K.; Srivastava, V.C. [CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Mukhopadhyay, N.K. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-06-25

    In the present investigation, powders of as-cast ingots of Al–25 at%Fe and Al–34.5 at%Fe alloys close to Al{sub 3}Fe and Al{sub 2}Fe intermetallic phases are subjected to high energy ball milling to understand the possibility of formation of amorphous and/or nanocrystalline phases or any other metastable phases. The development of microstructure, evolution of various metastable phases and their stability are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Mechanical milling of the alloys, up to 50 h, was carried out in high energy planetary ball mill. It resulted in phase transformation from monoclinic and triclinic structures of Al{sub 3}Fe and Al{sub 2}Fe, respectively, to orthorhombic structure pertaining to Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2} phase and structural transformation from crystalline to amorphous phase. Hardness measurements revealed a transition from hardening to softening behavior in these mechanically milled alloys undergoing prolonged milling. The softening effect in the milled powders, having a composite structure involving nanocrystalline and amorphous phases, is attributed to the competing phenomenon of grain size reduction and amorphous phase formation with increasing milling time.

  3. Phonon softening induced cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition in ReO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaming; Zhang, Niu; Jia, Yu; Sun, Qiang; Chao, Mingju

    2015-10-01

    Within density functional theory, the structural, electronic and lattice dynamical properties of ReO3 in cubic Pm-3m and tetragonal P4/mbm phases are studied by using quasiharmonic approximation. The enthalpy-pressure curves show that a phase transition may take place at 5.0 kbar and the nonexistence of imaginary frequency in phonon dispersions demonstrates the two phases are dynamically stable under proper conditions. With the increase of pressure, an obvious softening of M3 mode at M point appears in cubic phase, and a cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition is accompanied with the presence of negative frequency in M3 mode at 5.0 kbar. In detail, one type of O atoms displaced from x = 0.2500 to x = 0.2401, which corresponds to the softening of M3 mode, are responsible for the phase transition. Our theoretical results show that ReO3 can exist in the tetragonal P4/mbm phase, and a cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition will appear at around 5.0 kbar.

  4. Ground reaction curves for circular excavations in non-homogeneous, axisymmetric strain-softening rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. González-Cao; F. Varas; F.G. Bastante; L.R. Alejano

    2013-01-01

    Fast methods to solve the unloading problem of a cylindrical cavity or tunnel excavated in elasto-perfectly plastic, elasto-brittle or strain-softening materials under a hydrostatic stress field can be derived based on the self-similarity of the solution. As a consequence, they only apply when the rock mass is homoge-neous and so exclude many cases of practical interest. We describe a robust and fast numerical technique that solves the tunnel unloading problem and estimates the ground reaction curve for a cylindrical cavity excavated in a rock mass with properties depending on the radial coordinate, where the solution is no longer self-similar. The solution is based on a continuation-like approach (associated with the unloading and with the incremental formulation of the elasto-plastic behavior), finite element spatial discretization and a combination of explicit sub-stepping schemes and implicit techniques to integrate the constitutive law, so as to tackle the difficulties associated with both strong strain-softening and elasto-brittle behav-iors. The developed algorithm is used for two practical ground reaction curve computation applications. The first application refers to a tunnel surrounded by an aureole of material damaged by blasting and the second to a tunnel surrounded by a ring-like zone of reinforced (rock-bolted) material.

  5. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, William D; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-11-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB and AHTN were detected in 100% of the samples and at the highest concentrations. A mass balance on HHCB and AHTN was performed under warm and cold weather conditions. The total removal efficiency for HHCB and AHTN, which averaged between 67% to 89%, is dominated by adsorption to water softener sludge and its consequent removal by sludge wasting and media filtration. Volatilization, chlorine disinfection, and the disposal of backwash water play a minor role in the removal of both compounds. As a result of inefficient overall removal, HHCB and AHTN are a constant presence at low levels in finished drinking water.

  6. Reversible stress softening of collagen based networks from the jumbo squid mantle (Dosidicus gigas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, F.G., E-mail: fgtorres@pucp.edu.pe [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru, Lima 32 (Peru); Troncoso, O.P.; Rivas, E.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru, Lima 32 (Peru); Gomez, C.G. [Departament de Química Física and Institut de Ciencia dels Materials, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, E-46100 Valencia (Spain); Lopez, D. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, C.S.I.C., Calle Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Dosidicus gigas is the largest and one of the most abundant jumbo squids in the eastern Pacific Ocean. In this paper we have studied the muscle of the mantle of D. gigas (DGM). Morphological, thermal and rheological properties were assessed by means of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and oscillatory rheometry. This study allowed us to assess the morphological and rheological properties of a collagen based network occurring in nature. The results showed that the DGM network displays a nonlinear effect called reversible stress softening (RSS) that has been previously described for other types of biological structures such as naturally occurring cellulose networks and actin networks. We propose that the RSS could play a key role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure. The results presented here confirm that this phenomenon occurs in a wider number of materials than previously thought, all of them exhibiting different size scales as well as physical conformation. - Highlights: • We studied the structure property relationships of the jumbo squid mantle. • Rheological tests showed that such a mantle exhibits reversible stress softening (RSS). • RSS could also play a role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF SOFTENING AGENT PREPARATION AND PERFORMANCE OF HANDMADE ECOCOMPOSITES WITH CONIFEROUS WOOD AND BASALT FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangjian Wang; Deku Shang; Kailiang Zhang; Linna Hu; Zhenhua Guo

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, basalt mineral fiber softening agent was prepared in order to obtain desirable flexible performance. Stability and physical chemistry natures of softening agent were evaluated by particle size distribution, dilution, storage and folding endurance etc. Constitutes of basalt and wood fibers were determined by energy dispersion analysis X-ray which served as an accessory of scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX). Naturally degradable ecocomposite was prepared by basalt and wood fibers. The results of SEM observation illustrated that the wood and basalt fibers were blended uniformly. The impact factors of beating degree, content of wood fibers and adhesive etc. were discussed. The structure of the naturally degradable ecocomposite was contrasted with that of pure wood fibers and the cause of excellent filtration performance was analyzed. Compared with traditional methods, it was of saving wood resource,a large amount of water and reducing second pollution. As a consequence, the ecocomposite harmonized with environment and accorded with requirement of benignly friendly environment.

  8. TO SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF SOFTENING HEAT TREATMENT FOR HIGH CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Efremenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. High chromium cast irons with austenitic matrix have low machinability. The aim of work is search of new energy-saving modes of preliminary softening heat treatment enhancing the machinability of castings by forming an optimum microstructure. Methodology. Metallographic analysis, hardness testing and machinability testing are applied. Findings. It was found out that high temperature annealing with continuous cooling yields to martensite-austenite matrix in cast iron 270Х15Г2Н1MPhT, which abruptly affects the machinability of cast iron. Significant improvement of machinability is achieved by forming of structure "ferrite + granular carbides" and by decline of hardness to 37-39 HRC in the case of two-stage isothermal annealing in the subcritical temperature range or by the use of quenching and tempering (two-step or cyclic. Originality. It was found that the formation of the optimal structure of the matrix and achievement of desired hardness level needed for improving machinability of high chromium cast iron containing 3 % austenite-forming elements, can be obtained: 1 due to pearlite original austenite followed by spherodization eutectoid carbides, and 2 by getting predominantly martensite structure followed by the decay of martensite and carbides coagulation at high-temperature tempering. Practical value. The new energy-saving schemes of softening heat treatment to ensure the growth of machinability of high chromium cast iron, alloyed by higher quantity of austenite forming elements, are proposed.

  9. A local prescription for the softening length in self-gravitating gaseous discs

    CERN Document Server

    Huré, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    In 2D-simulations of self-gravitating gaseous discs, the potential is often computed in the framework of "softened gravity" initially designed for N-body codes. In this special context, the role of the softening length LAMBDA is twofold: i) to avoid numerical singularities in the integral representation of the potential (i.e., arising when the relative separation vanishes), and ii) to acount for stratification of matter in the direction perpendicular to the disc mid-plane. So far, most studies have considered LAMBDA as a free parameter and various values or formulae have been proposed without much mathematical justification. In this paper, we demonstrate by means of a rigorous calculus that it is possible to define LAMBDA such that the gravitational potential of a flat disc coincides at order zero with that of a geometically thin disc of the same surface density. Our prescription for LAMBDA, valid in the local, axisymmetric limit, has the required properties i) and ii). It is mainly an analytical function of ...

  10. Metallization and softening of B{sub 6}O at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuehui [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, HNUST, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066600 (China); Wang, Yachun; Yao, Tiankai; Li, Hui; Wu, Lailei; Yang, Meng [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Jingwu, E-mail: ziw@ysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Gou, Huiyang, E-mail: huiyang.gou@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2014-07-05

    Highlights: • Structural searching identified a high-pressure phase for B{sub 6}O with monoclinic Cc structure. • Cc structure B{sub 6}O is mechanically and dynamically stable. • Cc phase characterizes in pentagonal pyramids and zig-zag O–B1–O chains. • Cc phase shows metallization and softened hardness as compared to zero-pressure structure. - Abstract: Structural stability, elastic and electronic properties of boron suboxide, B{sub 6}O, up to 300 GPa were investigated by first-principles calculations. Structural searching and enthalpy differences calculations identify a high-pressure phase for B{sub 6}O with monoclinic Cc structure (denoted as β-B{sub 6}O), which is energetically preferable to the known R-3 m-type phase above 245 GPa. β-B{sub 6}O phase forms a three-dimensional covalent network mainly composed of pentagonal pyramids and zig-zag O–B1–O chains extended along c-direction. β-B{sub 6}O phase is found to be stable examined by the calculated elastic constants and phonon dispersion and exhibits metallic behavior and greater elastic and hardness anisotropy, totally different from the semiconducting character and relative isotropy of ground state structure. Moreover, β-B{sub 6}O is predicted to soften significantly with a Vicker’s hardness of about 20.7 GPa.

  11. Softening of the elastic shear mode C{sub 66} in iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Anna; Burger, Philipp [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Fakultaet fuer Physik, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hardy, Frederic; Schweiss, Peter; Fromknecht, Rainer; Wolf, Thomas; Meingast, Christoph [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Reinecker, Marius; Schranz, Wilfried [Universitaet Wien, Fakultaet fuer Physik, A-1090 Wien, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The structural phase transition of underdoped iron-based superconductors is accompanied by a large softening of the elastic shear mode C{sub 66}, which has attracted considerable attention. This softening has been discussed both in terms of orbital and spin-nematic fluctuations which would be responsible for the structural phase transition and, possibly, superconductivity. However, sample requirements have so far restricted experimental investigations of C{sub 66} (via measurements of the ultrasound velocity) to the Ba(Fe,Co){sub 2}As{sub 2} system. Here, we report on a new technique, based on a three-point bending setup, to probe the Young's modulus of a sample with a capacitance dilatometer. For certain orientations, the Young's modulus is related to the elastic constant C{sub 66} whose effective temperature dependence can be obtained. Platelet-like samples, as frequently encountered for iron-based systems, are easily studied with our setup. Data on several systems are presented and discussed.

  12. Nitrogen in the Process of Waste Activated Sludge Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary or secondary sewage sludge in medium and large WWTP are most often processed by anaerobic digestion, as a method of conditioning, sludge quantity minimization and biogas production. With the aim to achieve the best results of sludge processing several modifications of technologies were suggested, investigated and introduced in the full technical scale. Various sludge pretreatment technologies before anaerobic treatment have been widely investigated and partially introduced. Obviously, there are always some limitations and some negative side effects. Selected aspects have been presented and discussed. The problem of nitrogen has been highlighted on the basis of the carried out investigations. The single and two step - mesophilic and thermophilic - anaerobic waste activated sludge digestion processes, preceded by preliminary hydrolysis were investigated. The aim of lab-scale experiments was pre-treatment of the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline and hydrodynamic disintegration. Depending on the pretreatment technologies and the digestion temperature large ammonia concentrations, up to 1800 mg NH4/dm3 have been measured. Return of the sludge liquor to the main sewage treatment line means additional nitrogen removal costs. Possible solutions are discussed.

  13. Biodegradation and adsorption of antibiotics in the activated sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2010-05-01

    The removal of 11 antibiotics of 6 classes, that is, two beta-lactams (ampicillin and cefalexin), two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfadiazine), three fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin), one tetracyclines (tetracycline), two macorlides (roxithromycin and anhydro-erythromycin), and one others (trimethoprim), in activated sludge process was investigated using two series of batch reactors treating freshwater and saline sewage respectively. At environmental relevant concentrations tested in this study, biodegradation and adsorption were the major removal routes for the target antibiotics, where volatilization and hydrolysis were neglectable. Among the 11 target antibiotics, cefalexin and the two sulfonamides were predominantly removed by biodegradation in both freshwater and saline sewage systems. Ampicillin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, roxithromycin, and trimethoprim were mainly removed by adsorption. Divalent cations (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) in saline sewage significantly decreased the adsorption of the three fluoroquinolones onto activated sludge. These three fluoroquinolones also exhibited certain biodegradability in the saline activated sludge reactor. Erythromycin-H(2)O was persistent in both saline and freshwater systems under the experimental conditions and could not be removed at all. Kinetics study showed that biodegradation of cefalexin, the two sulfonamides and the three fluoroquinolones followed first-order model well (R(2): 0.921-0.997) with the rate constants ranging from 5.2 x 10(-3) to 3.6 x 10(-1) h(-1).

  14. Cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-08-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT) and Köhler theory (KT) to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Wet generated regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Wet generated clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC) analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (from low solubility compounds like calcite) present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method. Based on the method of threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to describe the CCN activity of aged or hygroscopic dusts.

  15. Cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT and Köhler theory (KT to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Wet generated regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Wet generated clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (from low solubility compounds like calcite present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method.

    Based on the method of threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to

  16. A COMBINED PARAMETRIC QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING AND PRECISE INTEGRATION METHOD BASED DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF ELASTIC-PLASTIC HARDENING/SOFTENING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪武; 张新伟

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to develop a new algorithm for numericalsolution of dynamic elastic-plastic strain hardening/softening problems. The gradientdependent model is adopted in the numerical model to overcome the result mesh-sensitivity problem in the dynamic strain softening or strain localization analysis.The equations for the dynamic elastic-plastic problems are derived in terms of theparametric variational principle, which is valid for associated, non-associated andstrain softening plastic constitutive models in the finite element analysis. The preciseintegration method, which has been widely used for discretization in time domain ofthe linear problems, is introduced for the solution of dynamic nonlinear equations.The new algorithm proposed is based on the combination of the parametric quadraticprogramming method and the precise integration method and has all the advantagesin both of the algorithms. Results of numerical examples demonstrate not only thevalidity, but also the advantages of the algorithm proposed for the numerical solutionof nonlinear dynamic problems.

  17. Phonon softening in the CDW Systems NbSe{sub 2} and TiSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hott, Roland; Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Weber, Frank [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States); Rosenkranz, Stephan; Castellan, John-Paul; Osborn, Raymond [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States); Egami, Takeshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (United States); Said, Ayman [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States); Reznik, Dmitry [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the soft-mode behaviour of phonons in the charge density wave (CDW) systems NbSe{sub 2} and TiSe{sub 2} both theoretically in Density Functional Theory (DFT) based on ab-initio phonon calculations and experimentally by means of high resolution Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS). For both materials, the theoretical predictions for the phonon softening using the experimental lattice parameters coincide with the experimentally observed CDW instability behaviour. While TiSe{sub 2} shows a rather sharp phonon anomaly at T=190 K, the anomaly in NbSe{sub 2} at T=33 K is much broader than expected for a Fermi surface nesting driven CDW instability. For NbSe{sub 2}, we exclude Fermi surface nesting as main origin of the phonon softening. For TiSe{sub 2}, there is no need to go beyond DFT in order to describe the phonon softening.

  18. Dual Control with Active Learning using Gaussian Process Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Alpcan, Tansu

    2011-01-01

    In many real world problems, control decisions have to be made with limited information. The controller may have no a priori (or even posteriori) data on the nonlinear system, except from a limited number of points that are obtained over time. This is either due to high cost of observation or the highly non-stationary nature of the system. The resulting conflict between information collection (identification, exploration) and control (optimization, exploitation) necessitates an active learning approach for iteratively selecting the control actions which concurrently provide the data points for system identification. This paper presents a dual control approach where the information acquired at each control step is quantified using the entropy measure from information theory and serves as the training input to a state-of-the-art Gaussian process regression (Bayesian learning) method. The explicit quantification of the information obtained from each data point allows for iterative optimization of both identifica...

  19. Contagion processes on the static and activity driven coupling networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Yanjun; Guo, Quantong; Ma, Yifang; Li, Meng; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of network structure and the spreading of epidemic are common coexistent dynamical processes. In most cases, network structure is treated either static or time-varying, supposing the whole network is observed in a same time window. In this paper, we consider the epidemic spreading on a network consisting of both static and time-varying structures. At meanwhile, the time-varying part and the epidemic spreading are supposed to be of the same time scale. We introduce a static and activity driven coupling (SADC) network model to characterize the coupling between static (strong) structure and dynamic (weak) structure. Epidemic thresholds of SIS and SIR model are studied on SADC both analytically and numerically with various coupling strategies, where the strong structure is of homogeneous or heterogeneous degree distribution. Theoretical thresholds obtained from SADC model can both recover and generalize the classical results in static and time-varying networks. It is demonstrated that weak structure...

  20. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk;

    2014-01-01

    of the narrow FOV camera. We substantiate these two observations by qualitative results on face reconstruction and quantitative results on face recognition. As a consequence, such a set-up allows to achieve better and much more flexible system for 3D face reconstruction e.g. for recognition or emotion......We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identification....... We argue for two advantages of such a system: First, an extended work range, and second, the possibility to place the narrow FOV camera in a way such that a much better reconstruction quality can be achieved compared to a static camera even if the face had been fully visible in the periphery...

  1. The effect of hardening laws and thermal softening on modeling residual stresses in FSW of aluminum alloy 2024-T3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri;

    2013-01-01

    or kinematic hardening together with the metallurgical softening model were applied in order to give a first impression of the tendencies in residual stresses in friction stir welds when choosing different hardening and softening behaviors. Secondly, real friction stir butt welding of aluminum alloy 2024-T3...... were simulated and compared with experimentally obtained results for both temperatures and residual stresses (using the slitting method). The comparisons showed good agreement regarding temperatures whereas the residual stress comparisons indicated different sensitivities for the cold and hot welding...

  2. Proconvertase proteolytic processing of an enzymatically active myeloperoxidase precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Sally; Nelson, Angela; Nauseef, William M

    2012-11-01

    Optimal and efficient killing of ingested microbes by human neutrophils is mediated in large part by the action of hypochlorous acid produced by the myeloperoxidase-H(2)O(2)-chloride system in phagosomes. Myeloperoxidase gene transcription is limited to early myeloid precursors in the bone marrow, when myeloperoxidase is synthesized and stored in azurophilic granules for subsequent release from stimulated neutrophils. Promyeloperoxidase, the 90 kDa myeloperoxidase precursor synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), contains a 125-amino acid pro-region whose function and fate during myeloperoxidase biosynthesis are unknown. Promyeloperoxidase has two fates during myeloperoxidase biosynthesis; the majority undergoes proteolytic processing to generate mature myeloperoxidase, while the remainder is constitutively secreted from the cells in bone marrow. We used a promyelocytic cell line that produces endogenous myeloperoxidase as well as human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing normal and mutant forms of myeloperoxidase to examine proteolytic processing of promyeloperoxidase. We demonstrated that CMK-RVKR, an inhibitor of subtilisin-like proteinases, blocked cleavage of the pro-peptide of promyeloperoxidase in a post-ER compartment. Mutants with alanine substitution of basic residues in the predicted proteinase cleavage site failed to undergo maturation to normal myeloperoxidase subunits and were arrested at the promyeloperoxidase stage. Whereas specific mutants varied as to their stability, secreted promyeloperoxidase from the mutants retained the capacity to generate hypochlorous acid. Taken together, these studies demonstrate proconvertase-dependent cleavage of promyeloperoxidase as an essential step in normal proteolytic processing and granule targeting of myeloperoxidase. Furthermore, although mutations in the proteinase cleavage site reduced intracellular stability of the mutants, the integrity of the heme group was not compromised, as chlorinating

  3. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes – A process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermenta...

  4. Fatigue performance and cyclic softening of F82H, a ferritic martensic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, J.F. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The room temperature fatigue performance of F82H has been examined. The fatigue life was determined in a series of strain-controlled tests where the stress level was monitored as a function of the number of accrued cycles. Fatigue lives in the range of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 6} cycles to failure were examined. The fatigue performance was found to be controlled primarily by the elastic strain range over most of the range of fatigue lives examined. Only at low fatigue lives did the plastic strain range contribute to the response. However, when the significant plastic strain did contribute, the material showed a tendency to cyclically soften. That is the load carrying capability of the material degrades with accumulated fatigue cycles. The overall fatigue performance of the F82H alloy was found to be similiar to other advanced martensitic steels, but lower than more common low alloy steels which possess lower yield strengths.

  5. Pseudo-periodic surrogate test to sample time series in stochastic softening Duffing oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Chunbiao [Department of Mechanics, CMEE, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: cb_gan@zju.edu.cn

    2006-09-11

    Identification of typical noise-contaminated sample response is a hard task in a nonlinear system under stochastic background since irregularity of the sample response may come from measure noise, dynamical noise, or nonlinear effect, etc., and conventional dynamical methods are generally not useful. Here, the pseudo-periodic surrogate algorithm by Small is employed to test the sample time series in the softening Duffing oscillator under the Gaussian white noise excitation. The correlation dimensions of the noisy periodic and the noise-induced chaotic time series of the system are compared with those of their corresponding surrogate data respectively, the leading Lyapunov exponents by Rosenstein's algorithm are also presented for comparison.

  6. A work-hardening and softening constitutive model for sand: modified plastic strain energy approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangle Peng; M.S.A. Siddiquee; Shaoming Liao

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an energy-based constitutive model for sand, which is modified based on the modified plastic strain energy approach, represented by a unique relationship between the modified plastic strain energy and a stress parameter, independent of stress history. The modified plastic strain energy approach was developed based on results from a series of drained plastic strain compression tests along various stress paths on saturated dense Toyoura sand with accurate stress and strain measurements. The proposed model is coupled with an isotropically work-hardening and softening, non-associtated, elasto-plastic material description. The constitutive model concerns the inherent and stress systeminduced cross-anisotropic elastic deformation properties of sand. It is capable of simulating the deformation characteristics of stress history and stress path, the effects of pressure level, anisotropic strength and void ratio, and the strain localization.

  7. Unified solution of limit loads of thick wall cylinder subject to external pressure considering strain softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Changfu; XIAO Shujun; YANG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Based on the unified strength theory [1],a unified strength criterion for strain softening materials,such as concrete or rock,was derived,and the elastic and plastic limit loads of a thick-walled cylinder made of these materials subject to external pressure were also given.In addition,the influence of some factors on the limit loads of such cylinders as the ratio of the external radius to intemal radius,rb/ra,the coefficient b,which reflects the effect of medium principal stress and the normal stress of the relevant surface on the material destroy degree,the ratio of tensile strength to compressed strength of the material,α,and the damage variable β were discussed in detail.Some examples were given and some meaningful results were obtained.

  8. Intrinsic stress mitigation via elastic softening during two-step electrochemical lithiation of amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zheng; Li, Teng

    2016-06-01

    Recent experiments and first-principles calculations show the two-step lithiation of amorphous silicon (a-Si). In the first step, the lithiation progresses by the movement of a sharp phase boundary between a pristine a-Si phase and an intermediate L iη Si phase until the a-Si phase is fully consumed. Then the second step sets in without a visible interface, with the L iη Si phase continuously lithiating to a L i3.75 Si phase. This unique feature of lithiation is believed to have important consequences for mechanical durability of a-Si anodes in lithium ion batteries, however the mechanistic understanding of such consequences is still elusive so far. Here, we reveal an intrinsic stress mitigation mechanism due to elastic softening during two-step lithiation of a-Si, via chemo-mechanical modeling. We find that lithiation-induced elastic softening of a-Si leads to effective stress mitigation in the second step of lithiation. These mechanistic findings allow for the first time to quantitatively predict the critical size of an a-Si anode below which the anode becomes immune to lithiation-induced fracture, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. Further studies on lithiation kinetics suggest that the two-step lithiation also results in a lower stress-induced energy barrier for lithiation. The present study reveals the physical underpinnings of previously unexplained favorable lithiation kinetics and fracture behavior of a-Si anodes, and thus sheds light on quantitative design guidelines toward high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries.

  9. A local prescription for the softening length in self-gravitating gaseous discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Pierens, A.

    2009-11-01

    In 2D-simulations of self-gravitating gaseous discs, the potential is often computed in the framework of “softened gravity” initially designed for N-body codes. In this special context, the role of the softening length λ is twofold: i) to avoid numerical singularities in the integral representation of the potential (i.e., arising when the separation |r -r'| → 0); and ii) to account for stratification of matter in the direction perpendicular to the disc mid-plane. So far, most studies have considered λ as a free parameter and various values or formulae have been proposed without much mathematical justification. In this paper, we demonstrate by means of a rigorous calculus that it is possible to define λ such that the gravitational potential of a flat disc coincides at order zero with that of a geometrically thin disc of the same surface density. Our prescription for λ, valid in the local, axisymmetric limit, has the required properties i) and ii). It is mainly an analytical function of the radius and disc thickness, and is sensitive to the vertical stratification. For mass density profiles considered (namely, profiles expandable over even powers of the altitude), we find that λ: i) is independant of the numerical mesh, ii) is always a fraction of the local thickness H; iii) goes through a minimum at the singularity (i.e., at null separation); and iv) is such that 0.13 ⪉ λ/H ⪉ 0.29 typically (depending on the separation and on density profile). These results should help us to improve the quality of 2D- and 3D-simulations of gaseous discs in several respects (physical realism, accuracy, and computing time).

  10. Induction of Cell Activation Processes by Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtill Simkó

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields (EMF such as those from electric power transmission and distribution lines (50/60 Hz have been associated with increased risk of childhood leukemia, cancer of the nervous system, and lymphomas. Several in vitro studies on EMF effects were performed to clarify the existing controversies, define the risks, and determine the possible mechanisms of adverse effects. In some of these reports, the effects were related to other mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Modification in cell proliferation was observed after EMF exposure and a few reports on cytotoxic effects have also been published. This limited review gives an overview of the current results of scientific research regarding in vitro studies on the effects of power line frequency EMF, but also cell biological mechanisms and their potential involvement in genotoxicity and cytotoxicity are discussed. Cell cycle control and signal transduction processes are included to elucidate the biochemical background of possible interactions. Exposure to EMF has been also linked to the incidence of leukemia and other tumors in some epidemiological studies and is considered as “possibly carcinogenic to humans”, but there is no well-established biological mechanism that explains such a relation. Furthermore, EMF is also shown as a stimulus for immune relevant cells (e.g., macrophages to release free radicals. It is known that chronic activation of macrophages is associated with the onset of phagocytosis and leads to increased formation of reactive oxygen species, which themselves may cause DNA damage and are suggested to lead to carcinogenesis. To demonstrate a possible interaction between EMF and cellular systems, we present a mechanistic model describing cell activation as a major importance for cellular response.

  11. Active electroreception in Gymnotus omari: imaging, object discrimination, and early processing of actively generated signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Angel A; Castelló, María E; Aguilera, Pedro A; Pereira, Carolina; Nogueira, Javier; Rodríguez-Cattaneo, Alejo; Lezcano, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Weakly electric fishes "electrically illuminate" the environment in two forms: pulse fishes emit a succession of discrete electric discharges while wave fishes emit a continuous wave. These strategies are present in both taxonomic groups of weakly electric fishes, mormyrids and gymnotids. As a consequence one can distinguish four major types of active electrosensory strategies evolving in parallel. Pulse gymnotids have an electrolocating strategy common with pulse mormyrids, but brains of pulse and wave gymnotids are alike. The beating strategy associated to other differences in the electrogenic system and electrosensory responses suggests that similar hardware might work in a different mode for processing actively generated electrosensory images. In this review we summarize our findings in pulse gymnotids' active electroreception and outline a primary agenda for the next research.

  12. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit : implications for cell wall adhesion and fruit softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, W.G.T.; Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Schols, H.A.; Seymour, G.B.; Knox, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic

  13. 40 CFR 141.564 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my individual filter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false My system practices lime softening-is... People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.564 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? If your system utilizes...

  14. Lowering the sensory threshold and enhancing the responsivity of biomimetic hair flow sensors by electrostatic spring softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, H.; Bruinink, C.M.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Siebelder, Ortwin G.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report improvements in detection limit and responsivity of biomimetic hair flow sensors by electrostatic spring-softening (ESS). Applying a DC voltage to our capacitive flow sensors results in a reduced sensory threshold, which gives an improvement for the flow detection limit of more than 30%.

  15. QTL dynamics for fruit firmness and softening around an ethyle-dependent polygalacturonase gene in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Peace, C.P.; Stella, S.; Serra, S.; Musacchi, S.; Bazzani, M.; Sansavini, S.; Weg, van de W.E.

    2010-01-01

    Apple fruit are well known for their storage life, although a wide range of flesh softening occurs among cultivars. Loss of firmness is genetically coordinated by the action of several cell wall enzymes, including polygalacturonase (PG) which depolymerizes cell wall pectin. By the analysis of ‘Fuji’

  16. Model-based prediction of fluid bed state in full-scale drinking water pellet softening reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, O.; Jobse, M.A.; Baars, E.T.; van der Helm, A.W.C.; Colin, M.G.; Kors, L...J...; van Vugt, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Softening at drinking water treatment plants is often realised by fluidised bed pellet reactors. Generally, sand is used as seeding material and pellets are produced as a by-product. To improve to sustainability, research has been carried out to replace the seeding material by re-using grained and s

  17. Effects of Nitrogen Content on the HAZ Softening of Ti-Containing High Strength Steels Manufactured by Accelerated Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kook-soo; Jung, Ho-shin; Park, Chan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of nitrogen content on the HAZ softening of Ti-containing high strength steels manufactured by accelerating cooling were investigated and interpreted in terms of the microstructures in the softening zone. Regardless of their content, all of the steels investigated showed a softened zone 9-10 mm wide. The minimum hardness in the zone, however, was different, with lower hardness in the higher nitrogen content steel. Microstructural observations of the steel showed that the amount of soft ferrite was increased in the zone with an increase of nitrogen content of the steel, suggesting that microstructural evolution in the HAZ is influenced by the nitrogen content. Measurements of TiN particles showed that the degree of particles coarsening in the HAZ was lower in the higher nitrogen content steel. Therefore, it is believed that finer TiN particles in the HAZ inhibit austenite grain growth more effectively, and lead to an accelerated ferrite transformation in higher nitrogen content steel, resulting in a higher amount of soft ferrite microstructure in the softened zone.

  18. Edge effect modeling and experiments on active lap processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Wu, Fan; Zeng, Zhige; Fan, Bin; Wan, Yongjian

    2014-05-05

    Edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, especially for large polishing tools. Computer controlled active lap (CCAL) uses a large size pad (e.g., 1/3 to 1/5 workpiece diameters) to grind and polish the primary mirror. Edge effect also exists in the CCAL process in our previous fabrication. In this paper the material removal rules when edge effects happen (i.e. edge tool influence functions (TIFs)) are obtained through experiments, which are carried out on a Φ1090-mm circular flat mirror with a 375-mm-diameter lap. Two methods are proposed to model the edge TIFs for CCAL. One is adopting the pressure distribution which is calculated based on the finite element analysis method. The other is building up a parametric equivalent pressure model to fit the removed material curve directly. Experimental results show that these two methods both effectively model the edge TIF of CCAL.

  19. Active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Stewart, Donald C [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Annalee Y [Pasco, WA; Zilka, Jennifer L [Pasco, WA; Schmitt, Stephen C [Dublin, OH; Werner, Timothy M [Columbus, OH

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making, both relying on having (a) at least one inner thin sheet; (b) at least one outer thin sheet; (c) defining at least one first sub-assembly for performing at least one first unit operation by stacking a first of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with a first of the at least one outer thin sheet into a first stack and placing an end block on the at least one inner thin sheet, the at least one first sub-assembly having at least a first inlet and a first outlet; and (d) defining at least one second sub-assembly for performing at least one second unit operation either as a second flow path within the first stack or by stacking a second of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with second of the at least one outer thin sheet as a second stack, the at least one second sub-assembly having at least a second inlet and a second outlet.

  20. Physicochemical and porosity characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon polluted with biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lihua; Liu, Wenjun; Jiang, Renfu; Wang, Zhansheng

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon (AC) polluted with biological activated carbon (BAC) process were investigated. The results showed that the true micropore and sub-micropore volume, pH value, bulk density, and hardness of regenerated AC decreased compared to the virgin AC, but the total pore volume increased. XPS analysis displayed that the ash contents of Al, Si, and Ca in the regenerated AC respectively increased by 3.83%, 2.62% and 1.8%. FTIR spectrum showed that the surface functional groups of virgin and regenerated AC did not change significantly. Pore size distributions indicated that the AC regeneration process resulted in the decrease of micropore and macropore (D>10 μm) volume and the increase of mesopore and macropore (0.1 μmprocess.

  1. Measuring temperature-dependent activation energy in thermally activated processes: a 2D Arrhenius plot method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian V; Johnston, Steven W; Yan, Yanfa; Levi, Dean H

    2010-03-01

    Thermally activated processes are characterized by two key quantities, activation energy (E(a)) and pre-exponential factor (nu(0)), which may be temperature dependent. The accurate measurement of E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence is critical for understanding the thermal activation mechanisms of non-Arrhenius processes. However, the classic 1D Arrhenius plot-based methods cannot unambiguously measure E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence due to the mathematical impossibility of resolving two unknown 1D arrays from one 1D experimental data array. Here, we propose a 2D Arrhenius plot method to solve this fundamental problem. Our approach measures E(a) at any temperature from matching the first and second moments of the data calculated with respect to temperature and rate in the 2D temperature-rate plane, and therefore is able to unambiguously solve E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence. The case study of deep level emission in a Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) solar cell using the 2D Arrhenius plot method reveals clear temperature dependent behavior of E(a) and nu(0), which has not been observable by its 1D predecessors.

  2. Transformation of bromide in thermo activated persulfate oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junhe; Wu, Jinwei; Ji, Yuefei; Kong, Deyang

    2015-07-01

    Sulfate radicals ( [Formula: see text] ) are applied to degrade various organic pollutants. Due to its high oxidative potential, [Formula: see text] is presumed to be able to transform bromide to reactive bromine species that can react with natural organic matter subsequently to form brominated products including brominated disinfection by-products (Br-DBPs). This research was designed to investigate the transformation of bromide in thermo activated persulfate oxidation process in the presence of humic acid (HA). Significant formation of bromoform and bromoacetic acids was verified. Their formation was attributed to the reactions of HA and reactive bromine species including Br·, [Formula: see text] HOBr(-), and free bromine resulted from the oxidation of bromide by [Formula: see text] . Yields of Br-DBPs increased monotonically at persulfate concentration of 1.0 mM and working temperature of 70 °C. However, the time-depended formation exhibited an increasing and the decreasing profile when persulfate was 5.0 mM, suggesting further degradation of organic bromine. HPLC/ICP-MS analysis demonstrated that the organic bromine was eventually transformed to bromate at this condition. Thus, a transformation scheme was proposed in which the bromine could be recycled multiple times between inorganic bromide and organic bromine before being finally transformed to bromate. This is the first study that reveals the comprehensive transformation map of bromine in [Formula: see text] based reaction systems, which should be taken into consideration when such technologies are used to eliminate contamination in real practice.

  3. Multiplicative point process as a model of trading activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontis, V.; Kaulakys, B.

    2004-11-01

    Signals consisting of a sequence of pulses show that inherent origin of the 1/ f noise is a Brownian fluctuation of the average interevent time between subsequent pulses of the pulse sequence. In this paper, we generalize the model of interevent time to reproduce a variety of self-affine time series exhibiting power spectral density S( f) scaling as a power of the frequency f. Furthermore, we analyze the relation between the power-law correlations and the origin of the power-law probability distribution of the signal intensity. We introduce a stochastic multiplicative model for the time intervals between point events and analyze the statistical properties of the signal analytically and numerically. Such model system exhibits power-law spectral density S( f)∼1/ fβ for various values of β, including β= {1}/{2}, 1 and {3}/{2}. Explicit expressions for the power spectra in the low-frequency limit and for the distribution density of the interevent time are obtained. The counting statistics of the events is analyzed analytically and numerically, as well. The specific interest of our analysis is related with the financial markets, where long-range correlations of price fluctuations largely depend on the number of transactions. We analyze the spectral density and counting statistics of the number of transactions. The model reproduces spectral properties of the real markets and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution of trading activity. The study provides evidence that the statistical properties of the financial markets are enclosed in the statistics of the time interval between trades. A multiplicative point process serves as a consistent model generating this statistics.

  4. Cellular phosphatases facilitate combinatorial processing of receptor-activated signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Zaved

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although reciprocal regulation of protein phosphorylation represents a key aspect of signal transduction, a larger perspective on how these various interactions integrate to contribute towards signal processing is presently unclear. For example, a key unanswered question is that of how phosphatase-mediated regulation of phosphorylation at the individual nodes of the signaling network translates into modulation of the net signal output and, thereby, the cellular phenotypic response. Results To address the above question we, in the present study, examined the dynamics of signaling from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR under conditions where individual cellular phosphatases were selectively depleted by siRNA. Results from such experiments revealed a highly enmeshed structure for the signaling network where each signaling node was linked to multiple phosphatases on the one hand, and each phosphatase to several nodes on the other. This resulted in a configuration where individual signaling intermediates could be influenced by a spectrum of regulatory phosphatases, but with the composition of the spectrum differing from one intermediate to another. Consequently, each node differentially experienced perturbations in phosphatase activity, yielding a unique fingerprint of nodal signals characteristic to that perturbation. This heterogeneity in nodal experiences, to a given perturbation, led to combinatorial manipulation of the corresponding signaling axes for the downstream transcription factors. Conclusion Our cumulative results reveal that it is the tight integration of phosphatases into the signaling network that provides the plasticity by which perturbation-specific information can be transmitted in the form of a multivariate output to the downstream transcription factor network. This output in turn specifies a context-defined response, when translated into the resulting gene expression profile.

  5. Termination of the Activating NK Cell Immunological Synapse Is an Active and Regulated Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netter, Petra; Anft, Moritz; Watzl, Carsten

    2017-08-23

    Cellular cytotoxicity is essential for the elimination of virus-infected and cancerous cells by NK cells. It requires a direct cellular contact through the establishment of an immunological synapse (IS) between the NK cell and the target cell. In this article, we show that not only the establishment of the IS, but also its maintenance is a highly regulated process. Ongoing receptor-proximal signaling events from activating NK cell receptors and actin dynamics were necessary to maintain a stable contact in an energy-dependent fashion, even after the IS was formed successfully. More importantly, the initiation of a contact to a new susceptible target cell resulted in accelerated detachment from an old target cell. We propose that the maintenance of an existing IS is a dynamic and regulated process to allow for effective serial killing of NK cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. 15 CFR 400.33 - Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on manufacturing and...-TRADE ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.33 Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity. (a) In general. In approving manufacturing or processing activity for a...

  7. Blogs and Social Network Sites as Activity Systems: Exploring Adult Informal Learning Process through Activity Theory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Gyeong Mi; Lee, Romee

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to explore adult user activities and informal learning processes as reflected in their blogs and social network sites (SNS). Using the assumption that a web-based space is an activity system in which learning occurs, typical features of the components were investigated and each activity system then…

  8. Evaluation of HAZ liquation cracking susceptibility and HAZ softening behavior in modified 800H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-11-20

    A modified 800H alloy, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is one of the candidate materials designed for high temperature applications. Extensive mechanical and corrosion investigations have been completed and it has been proven that modified 800 has excellent high temperature mechanical and metallurgical behavior. Weldability studies of modified 800H are being carried out at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. A series of modified 800H alloys and two similar commercial high temperature materials (310Ta and HR3C) were used to conduct this investigation. A preliminary weldability evaluation has been accomplished and the major part of the results (HAZ liquation cracking resistance and HAZ softening behavior in modified 800H) is addressed in this report. The basic conclusion of this investigation is that modified 800H material possesses good resistance to HAZ liquation cracking especially with a grain size control (thermo-mechanical treatment). The information from this study is important to the further modification of the material in order to extend its applications.

  9. Deformation, warming and softening of Greenland’s ice by refreezing meltwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin E.; Tinto, Kirsteen; Das, Indrani; Wolovick, Michael; Chu, Winnie; Creyts, Timothy T.; Frearson, Nicholas; Abdi, Abdulhakim; Paden, John D.

    2014-07-01

    Meltwater beneath the large ice sheets can influence ice flow by lubrication at the base or by softening when meltwater refreezes to form relatively warm ice. Refreezing has produced large basal ice units in East Antarctica. Bubble-free basal ice units also outcrop at the edge of the Greenland ice sheet, but the extent of refreezing and its influence on Greenland’s ice flow dynamics are unknown. Here we demonstrate that refreezing of meltwater produces distinct basal ice units throughout northern Greenland with thicknesses of up to 1,100 m. We compare airborne gravity data with modelled gravity anomalies to show that these basal units are ice. Using radar data we determine the extent of the units, which significantly disrupt the overlying ice sheet stratigraphy. The units consist of refrozen basal water commonly surrounded by heavily deformed meteoric ice derived from snowfall. We map these units along the ice sheet margins where surface melt is the largest source of water, as well as in the interior where basal melting is the only source of water. Beneath Petermann Glacier, basal units coincide with the onset of fast flow and channels in the floating ice tongue. We suggest that refreezing of meltwater and the resulting deformation of the surrounding basal ice warms the Greenland ice sheet, modifying the temperature structure of the ice column and influencing ice flow and grounding line melting.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of spring softening and hardening in folded-mems comb drive resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2011-08-01

    This paper studies analytically and numerically the spring softening and hardening phenomena that occur in electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical systems comb drive resonators utilizing folded suspension beams. An analytical expression for the electrostatic force generated between the combs of the rotor and the stator is derived and takes into account both the transverse and longitudinal capacitances present. After formulating the problem, the resulting stiff differential equations are solved analytically using the method of multiple scales, and a closed-form solution is obtained. Furthermore, the nonlinear boundary value problem that describes the dynamics of inextensional spring beams is solved using straightforward perturbation to obtain the linear and nonlinear spring constants of the beam. The analytical solution is verified numerically using a Matlab/Simulink environment, and the results from both analyses exhibit excellent agreement. Stability analysis based on phase plane trajectory is also presented and fully explains previously reported empirical results that lacked sufficient theoretical description. Finally, the proposed solutions are, once again, verified with previously published measurement results. The closed-form solutions provided are easy to apply and enable predicting the actual behavior of resonators and gyroscopes with similar structures. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. X-ray softening during the 2008 outburst of XTE J1810-189

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Shan-Shan; Yi, Shu-Xu; Rong, Yu; Gao, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    XTE J1810-189 underwent an outburst in 2008, and was observed over $\\sim 100$ d by RXTE. Performing a time-resolved spectral analysis on the photospheric radius expansion burst detected on 2008 May 4, we obtain the source distance in the range of 3.5--8.7 kpc for the first time. During its outburst, XTE J1810-189 did not enter into the high/soft state, and both the soft and hard colours decreased with decreasing flux. The fractional rms remained at high values ($\\sim 30$ per cent). The RXTE/PCA spectra for 3-25 keV can be described by an absorbed power-law component with an additional Gaussian component, and the derived photon index $\\Gamma$ increased from $1.84\\pm0.01$ to $2.25\\pm0.04$ when the unabsorbed X-ray luminosity in 3-25 keV dropped from $4\\times10^{36}$ ergs s$^{-1}$ to $6\\times10^{35}$ ergs s$^{-1}$. The relatively high flux, dense observations and broadband spectra allow us to provide strong evidence that the softening behaviour detected in the outburst of XTE J1810-189 originates from the evolut...

  12. Reversible stress softening of collagen based networks from the jumbo squid mantle (Dosidicus gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F G; Troncoso, O P; Rivas, E R; Gomez, C G; Lopez, D

    2014-04-01

    Dosidicus gigas is the largest and one of the most abundant jumbo squids in the eastern Pacific Ocean. In this paper we have studied the muscle of the mantle of D. gigas (DGM). Morphological, thermal and rheological properties were assessed by means of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and oscillatory rheometry. This study allowed us to assess the morphological and rheological properties of a collagen based network occurring in nature. The results showed that the DGM network displays a nonlinear effect called reversible stress softening (RSS) that has been previously described for other types of biological structures such as naturally occurring cellulose networks and actin networks. We propose that the RSS could play a key role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure. The results presented here confirm that this phenomenon occurs in a wider number of materials than previously thought, all of them exhibiting different size scales as well as physical conformation.

  13. Positively charged and bipolar layered poly(ether imide) nanofiltration membranes for water softening applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, S.; Abdelkafi, A.; Quémener, D.; Amar, R. Ben; Deratani, A.

    2015-07-01

    Poly(ether imide) (PEI) ultrafiltration membranes were chemically modified with branched poly(ethyleneimine) to obtain nanofiltration (NF) membrane Cat PEI with a positive charge in the pH range below 9. An oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layer was deposited on the resulting membrane surface by using sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSSNa) and sodium polyvinyl sulfonate (PVSNa) to prepare a bipolar layered membrane NF Cat PEI_PSS and Cat PEI_PVS having a negatively charged surface and positively charged pores. Cat PEI exhibited good performance to remove multivalent cations (more than 90% of Ca2+) from single salt solutions except in presence of sulfate ions. Adding an anionic polyelectrolyte layer onto the positively charged surface resulted in a significant enhancement of rejection performance even in presence of sulfate anions. Application of the prepared membranes in water softening of natural complex mixtures was successful for the different studied membranes and a large decrease of hardness was obtained. Moreover, Cat PEI_PSS showed a good selectivity for nitrate removal. Fouling experiments were carried out with bovine serum albumin, as model protein foulant. Cat PEI_PSS showed much better fouling resistance than Cat PEI with a quantitative flux recovery ratio.

  14. Incomplete restoration of immobilization induced softening of young beagle knee articular cartilage after 50-week remobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, J; Arokoski, J; Pirttimäki, J; Lyyra, T; Jurvelin, J; Tammi, M; Helminen, H J; Kiviranta, I

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biomechanical and structural changes in canine knee cartilage after an initial 11-week immobilization and subsequent remobilization period of 50 weeks. Cartilage from the immobilized and remobilized knee was compared with the tissue from age-matched control animals. Compressive stiffness, in the form of instant shear modulus (ISM) and equilibrium shear modulus (ESM) of articular cartilage, was investigated using an in situ indentation creep technique. The local variations in cartilage of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration were measured with a microspectrophotometer after safranin O staining of histological sections. Using a computer-based quantitative polarized light microscopy method, collagen-related optical retardation, gamma, of cartilage zones were performed to investigate the collagen network of cartilage. Macroscopically, cartilage surfaces of the knee joint remained intact both after immobilization and remobilization periods. Immobilization caused significant softening of the lateral femoral and tibial cartilages, as expressed by ESM (up to 30%, p test points. The changes of ESM were positively correlated with the alterations in GAG content of the superficial and deep zones after immobilization and remobilization. This confirms the key role of protoglycans in the regulation of the equilibrium stiffness of articular cartilage. As a conclusion, immobilization of the joint of a young individual may cause long-term, if not permanent, alterations of cartilage biomechanical properties. This may predispose joint to degenerative changes later in life.

  15. Development of cellulose-polypyrrole microfiber membranes and assessment of their capability on water softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, C.; Arrieta, A.; Escobar, N.; Gañan, P.; Castro, C.

    2013-11-01

    The application of conducting polymer composite for water softening is based on the use of pyrrole's electrochemical properties joined with the flexibility and relatively high surface areas associated with cellulose fibers, to develop a new hybrid material that exhibits the inherent proprieties of both components. This hybrid would allow to promote an ion exchange reaction between the composite membrane and the hard water. The cellulose membranes obtained from banana plant agricultural waste (raquis), were uniform with individual and well separated fibers. The fibers were encapsulated by a continuous coating of polypyrrole by an in situ oxidative chemical polymerization. The amount of polypyrrole deposited on the fiber increased by increasing the monomer concentration, behavior that was identified through the observation of differences on the intensity of the light to dark color shift that coated the fibers after the polymerization. The ion removal capability of the membrane coted with the conducting polymer was tested using an experimental device, finding reductions on the conductivity for hard water within 23 to 66 μs/cm after 6 hours of the assay.

  16. Pressure sensitive adhesive using light color, low softening point petroleum hydrocarbon resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahner, M.E.

    1987-07-28

    This patent describes an adhesive composition comprising from about 20% to about 80% by weight of a copolymer and, correspondingly, from about 80% to about 20% by weight of a tackifying petroleum hydrocarbon resin having a softening point of from 0/sup 0/C to about 40/sup 0/C. It has a number average molecular weight of from about 100 to about 600, and a Gardner color less than about 7 prepared by the aluminum chloride catalyzed Friedel Crafts polymerization of a hydrocarbon feed comprising: (a) from about 5% to about 75% by weight of C/sub 8/ to C/sub 10/ vinyl aromatic hydrocarbon stream; (b) from about 10% to about 35% by weight of a piperylene concentrate; and (c) from about 25% to about 70% by weight of a C/sub 4/ to C/sub 8/ monoolefin chain transfer agent of the formula RR'C=CHR'' where R and R' are C/sub 1/ to C/sub 5/ alkyl, and R'' is H or C/sub 1/ to C/sub 4/ alkyl group.

  17. Effect of sample preservation on stress softening and permanent set of porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro-Bretelle, A S; Gountsop, P N; Ienny, P; Leger, R; Corn, S; Bazin, I; Bretelle, F

    2015-09-18

    Skin is a composite material with a complex structure which exhibits a wide range of behaviours such as anisotropy, viscoelasticity, hyperelasticity, plasticity etc. Indeed it remains a great challenge to understand its behaviour as it is involved in many consumer and medical applications. In most studies, experiments are performed in situ or in vitro on fresh tissues but most of the time samples are preserved before testing (fridge, freezer, saline solution etc.). In this paper, the impact of samples conservation on the softening behaviour and on the permanent set is studied in order to select the appropriate conservation protocol. Samples are extracted from several pigs' abdomens (direction parallel to spine) and the mechanical testing consists in loading-unloading uniaxial tension tests instrumented with digital image correlation inducing thus reliable strain measurements in a chosen region of interest. The results of this study revealed that preservation conditions must be carefully chosen; conservation in a saline solution and freezing without any caution alter the irreversible part of the global mechanical behaviour of the tissues.

  18. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids: Multiple scattering, softening and hardening phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doc, Jean-Baptiste; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Marchiano, Régis; Fuster, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The weakly nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in monodisperse bubbly liquids is investigated numerically. A hydrodynamic model based on the averaged two-phase fluid equations is coupled with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation to model the dynamics of bubbles at the local scale. The present model is validated in the linear regime by comparing with the Foldy approximation. The analysis of the pressure signals in the linear regime highlights two resonance frequencies: the Minnaert frequency and a multiple scattering resonance that strongly depends on the bubble concentration. For weakly nonlinear regimes, the generation of higher harmonics is observed only for the Minnaert frequency. Linear combinations between the Minnaert harmonics and the multiple scattering resonance are also observed. However, the most significant effect observed is the appearance of softening-hardening effects that share some similarities with those observed for sandstones or cracked materials. These effects are related to the multiple scattering resonance. Downward or upward resonance frequency shifts can be observed depending on the characteristic of the incident wave when increasing the excitation amplitude. It is shown that the frequency shift can be explained assuming that the acoustic wave velocity depends on a law different from those usually encountered for sandstones or cracked materials.

  19. Cyclic instability of martensite laths in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, A.F.; Petersen, C. E-mail: claus.petersen@imf.fzk.de; Schmitt, R.; Avalos, M.; Alvarez, I

    2004-08-01

    Low cycle fatigue tests were performed in the temperature range between room temperature and 550 deg. C in low activation quenched and tempered steels. After the first few cycles a pronounced cyclic softening that continues up to failure is observed for all these steels. Although this softening is coincident with similar behaviour observed in commercial martensitic alloys, reduced activation steels present some remarkable different features. Almost all cyclic curves never reach a saturation stress and after few cycles, dependent on the total strain range, they converge in a common softening stage independent of the strain range. The mechanism governing this softening stage is almost independent of temperatures below 450 deg. C. The cyclic softening observed in the reduced activation steels is more pronounced than for MANET II and commercial martensitic steels. This fact is related to the difference in the Martensite Start temperature.

  20. Activity-based process model for customer-driven product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2013-01-01

    of the request. Managing this process is termed customer-driven Product development (PD). In order to increase process performance, a fitting activity-based process model should be utilized. However, existing process models do not consider this special case of integration between collaborative PD and customer...... proposing a process model for customer-driven PD adding new knowledge to PD research....

  1. Water activity changes of multicomponent food mixture during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Štencl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Water activity of multicomponent food mixture was analysed and measured. Samples of dry fermented sausages with two different starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus + Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus carnosus + Staphylococcus xylosus + Lactobacillus farciminis were tested during ripening (21 days and storing (91 days. The basic raw materials were the same for all samples: lean beef meat, lean pork and pork fat in equal parts, nitrite salt mixture (2.5 %, and sugars (1.0 %. The method used for water activity tests was indirect manometric in a static environment. Moisture content of samples was measured using halogen dryer. The course of water activity and moisture content of sausages was variable during ripening and steady during storage. Diagrams showed gradual decrease of both parameters. Mathematical models of water activity and moisture content for storage of dry fermented sausages were developed and statistically verified. The influence of starter cultures was not significant.

  2. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R.L.; Fernandes, L.; Sun, X. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Enhanced Multistatic Active Sonar via Innovative Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering , P.O. Box 116130 University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 phone: (352) 392-2642 fax: (352...Range-Doppler Imaging and Target Parameter Estimation in Multistatic Active Sonar Systems," IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering , Vol. 39, No. 2, pp...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Oct. 01, 2014-Sept. 30, 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhanced Multistatic Active Sonar via Innovative Signal

  4. Observation of Low-Temperature Softening of Transverse Elastic Modulus Due to Cobalt Impurities in Mercury Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevstovskikh, Irina V.; Okulov, Vsevolod I.; Gudkov, Vladimir V.; Sarychev, Maksim N.; Medvedev, Kirill A.; Andriichuk, Myroslav D.; Paranchich, Lidiya D.

    2016-12-01

    Influence on elastic moduli of donor electron d-states of cobalt impurities has been investigated in mercury selenide crystals. Experiments have been carried out at the frequency of 53 MHz in the temperature interval of 1.3-100 K. Softening of the (C_{11} - C_{12})/2 modulus below 10 K has been observed in the impurity crystals in contrast with the (C_{11} + C_{12} + 2C_{44})/2 and C_{44} moduli those have exhibited hardening at cooling typical for dielectric and semiconductor crystals. The softening of the elastic modulus has been interpreted as manifestation of hybridization of the impurity d-states in the conduction band of the crystal. Comparison of theoretical calculations with experimental data has been proved to be in good agreement and has made it possible to determine the parameters characterizing the hybridized electron states.

  5. Phonon softening in the CDW systems NbSe{sub 2} and TiSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hott, Roland; Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Weber, Frank; Castellan, John-Paul [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Rosenkranz, Stephan; Osborn, Raymond [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Egami, Takeshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Said, Ayman [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Reznik, Dmitry [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present new results on the soft-mode behaviour of phonons in the Charge Density Wave (CDW) systems NbSe{sub 2} and TiSe{sub 2}. Our theoretical predictions from Density Functional Theory (DFT) based on ab-initio phonon calculations coincide with the CDW instability behaviour that we observed experimentally by means of high resolution Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS). While TiSe{sub 2} shows a rather sharp phonon anomaly at T=190 K, the anomaly in NbSe{sub 2} at T=33 K is much broader than expected for a Fermi surface nesting driven CDW instability. For NbSe{sub 2}, we exclude Fermi surface nesting as main origin of the phonon softening. For TiSe{sub 2}, the phonon softening seems to be well described within the framework of DFT.

  6. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit: implications for cell adhesion and fruit softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho

    2002-01-01

    polysaccharides to the non-softening and altered cell adhesion phenotype. Cell wall material (CWM) and solubilised fractions of mature green and red ripe fruit were analysed by chemical, enzymatic and immunochemical techniques. No major differences in CWM sugar composition were detected although differences were...... that was chelator-soluble was 50% less in Cnr cell walls at both the mature green and red ripe stages. Chelator-soluble material from ripe-stage Cnr was more susceptible to endo-polygalacturonase degradation than the corresponding material from wild-type fruit. In addition, cell walls from Cnr fruit contained......The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic...

  7. A randomised controlled trial of ion-exchange water softeners for the treatment of eczema in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies and anecdotal reports suggest a possible link between household use of hard water and atopic eczema. We sought to test whether installation of an ion-exchange water softener in the home can improve eczema in children.This was an observer-blind randomised trial involving 336 children (aged 6 months to 16 years with moderate/severe atopic eczema. All lived in hard water areas (≥200 mg/l calcium carbonate. Participants were randomised to either installation of an ion-exchange water softener plus usual eczema care, or usual eczema care alone. The primary outcome was change in eczema severity (Six Area Six Sign Atopic Dermatitis Score, SASSAD at 12 weeks, measured by research nurses who were blinded to treatment allocation. Analysis was based on the intent-to-treat population. Eczema severity improved for both groups during the trial. The mean change in SASSAD at 12 weeks was -5.0 (20% improvement for the water softener group and -5.7 (22% improvement for the usual care group (mean difference 0.66, 95% confidence interval -1.37 to 2.69, p = 0.53. No between-group differences were noted in the use of topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors.Water softeners provided no additional benefit to usual care in this study population. Small but statistically significant differences were found in some secondary outcomes as reported by parents, but it is likely that such improvements were the result of response bias, since participants were aware of their treatment allocation. A detailed report for this trial is also available at http://www.hta.ac.uk.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71423189 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  8. Activity Specific Knowledge Characteristics in the Internationalization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in the characteristics of knowledge, which is very important for the internationalization of different business activities. In particular, the focus is on internationalization in emerging markets such as China and India. Design/methodology....../approach – The paper presents a framework primarily based on knowledge management theory, which is illustrated in relation to interesting cases of four companies that are global leaders. Findings – An R&D knowledge gap still exists in China and India. Differences across business activities exist in terms...... is developed that illustrates differences between the most important knowledge for the internationalization of key business activities within MNCs. It is proposed that the technical dimension of tacit knowledge is more easily codified than the cognitive dimension of tacit knowledge. The cognitive dimension...

  9. [Brain activity during different stages of the relaxation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorev, A S; Kovaleva, A V; Panova, E N; Gorbacheva, A K

    2012-01-01

    A group of adults participated in experiment in which they were asked to reach relaxed state by using relaxation techniques (active relaxation) and to maintain this state without any technique (passive relaxation). Some changes of EEG-characteristics during relaxation were analyzed. This experiment includes four situations (different functional states): baselinel, active relaxation, passive relaxation, baseline2. EEG was recorded from 10 cortical leads: O1, O2, TPO (left and right), P3, P4, C3, C4, F3 and F4. A comparative EEG analysis was done for 10 frequency bands from 5 to 40 Hz. In each experimental situation we revealed general trends for EEG parameters and also some specific changes in EEG, which characterized brain organization during passive and active relaxed states.

  10. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone (PGC25 3-0 and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data.

  11. Improvement of 3D Polyester Fabric Surface with Nano Beta-Cyclodextrin and Hydrophilic Silicone and Microemulsion Softeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Jolaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modifying of polyester spacer fabric by β-Cyclodextrin may create new characteristics in the product. Using different siloxane including amino ethyl amino propyl polydimethylsiloxane and polyether amino functional siloxane can produce appropriate softness and lead to relative stability of β-CD on polyester fabric. In this research different concentration of siloxane compounds as a softener, and β- CD as a modifier are applied and some of the properties of the fabric including weight change, regain, water drop absorption time on fabric surface, chrome ion absorption and reactive dye absorption are studied. Also morphology of fabric surface has been examined by SEM images and chemical structure by FT-IR. We have also studied washing durability of the modified product after 10 times of washing. The results show that increasing of concentration of softener and β-CD leads to obtain a higher gain modification. In comparison of two different based softeners the amino ethyl amino propyl polydimethylsiloxane (AEAP- Silicon indicates a better durability than the polyether amino functional siloxane (PEA-Silicon.

  12. Normal and Fibrotic Rat Livers Demonstrate Shear Strain Softening and Compression Stiffening: A Model for Soft Tissue Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelyuk, Maryna; Chin, LiKang; Cao, Xuan; van Oosten, Anne; Shenoy, Vivek B; Janmey, Paul A; Wells, Rebecca G

    2016-01-01

    Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G' and G" and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver.

  13. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Baylón, Karen; Ferrer, Inés; Serenó, Lídia; Garcia-Romeu, Maria Luisa; Bagudanch, Isabel; Grabalosa, Jordi; Pérez-Recio, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Ortega-Lara, Wendy; Elizalde, Luis Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGC25 3-0) and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data. PMID:28788466

  14. Microstructural Evolution and Dynamic Softening Mechanisms of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy during Hot Compressive Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cangji Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7150 alloy was studied during hot compression at various temperatures (300 to 450 °C and strain rates (0.001 to 10 s−1. A decline ratio map of flow stresses was proposed and divided into five deformation domains, in which the flow stress behavior was correlated with different microstructures and dynamic softening mechanisms. The results reveal that the dynamic recovery is the sole softening mechanism at temperatures of 300 to 400 °C with various strain rates and at temperatures of 400 to 450 °C with strain rates between 1 and 10 s−1. The level of dynamic recovery increases with increasing temperature and with decreasing strain rate. At the high deformation temperature of 450 °C with strain rates of 0.001 to 0.1 s−1, a partially recrystallized microstructure was observed, and the dynamic recrystallization (DRX provided an alternative softening mechanism. Two kinds of DRX might operate at the high temperature, in which discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was involved at higher strain rates and continuous dynamic recrystallization was implied at lower strain rates.

  15. EXTRACCIÓN Y MEDIDA DE ACTIVIDAD DE PECTIN METIL ESTEARASA EN PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya, ENZIMA RELACIONADA CON EL ABLANDAMIENTO Extraction And Assay Of Pectinmethyl Esterase From Pitaya Amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya, Enzyme Vinculated To Softening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID LILIANA CARABALÍ MIRANDA

    Full Text Available En diversas técnicas aplicadas para la conservación en fresco de la pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya se ha encontrado que el ablandamiento excesivo de su corteza contribuye al deterioro de su calidad. Puesto que pectinmetilestearasa (PME se ha vinculado con el ablandamiento de frutos este estudio se desarrolló con el objeto de determinar el efecto de la incorporación de los aditivos tritón X-100, NaCl y cisteína en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 sobre la cantidad de proteína extraída y sobre la actividad de PME. También se evaluó la necesidad de recurrir al proceso de diálisis en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0. En la medida de actividad se pusieron a punto el tiempo de incubación, la concentración del cofactor NaCl, pH, temperatura y concentración de sustrato (pectina cítrica. Se encontró que el mejor sistema de extracción fue el compuesto por buffer fosfato 20 mM, pH 7,0 con concentraciones de NaCl que pueden estar entre 0,0 a 1,0 M. La medida de actividad se puede realizar empleando pectina cítrica entre 0,40 a 0,75%, a valores de pH entre 5,0 a 8,0, con incubación a una temperatura entre 40 a 45 °C, durante 2,5 min.Using diverse techniques applied to keep the freshness of yellow pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya fruit it has been found that excessive softening of its crust leads to quality deterioration. Since pectinmethyl esterase (PME has been related to fruit softening in this study we evaluated the protein levels and the PME activity after the addition of Triton X-100 1% and NaCl in concentrations from 0 to 2 M in buffer 20 mM phosphate pH 7.0. Effects of cysteine addition and dialysis were also evaluated for the extraction processes. Factors that can affect the activity of PME such as incubation time, different NaCl concentration, as value level of pH during the incubation, temperature and pectin (citric pectin concentration were evaluated. The best system found in this study for PME extraction was buffer phosphate

  16. Stochastic Greybox Modeling of an Alternating Activated Sludge Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus Fogtmann; Munk-Nielsen, T.; Tychsen, P.;

    Summary of key findings We found a greybox model for state estimation and control of the BioDenitro process based on a reduced ASM1. We then applied Maximum Likelihood Estimation on measurements from a real full-scale waste water treatment plant to estimate the model parameters. The estimation me...

  17. Informal Learning in the Workplace: Key Activities and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John; Hillier, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to define characteristics and processes that enhance informal learning in a public sector workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Based on interviews and questionnaires, the authors solicited examples of informal learning practices that 40 supervisors experienced during their careers. The examples were content…

  18. Meltlets® of soy isoflavones: Process optimization and the effect of extrusion spheronization process parameters on antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketkee Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current research work an attempt was made to develop ′′Melt in mouth pellets′′ (Meltlets® containing 40% herbal extract of soy isoflavones that served to provide antioxidants activity in menopausal women. The process of extrusion-spheronization was optimized for extruder speed, extruder screen size, spheronization speed, and time. While doing so the herbal extract incorporated in the pellet matrix was subjected to various processing conditions such as the effect of the presence of other excipients, mixing or kneading to prepare wet mass, heat generated during the process of extrusion, spheronization, and drying. Thus, the work further investigates the effect of these processing parameters on the antioxidant activity of the soy isoflavone herbal extract incorporated in the formula. Thereby, the antioxidant activity of the soya bean herbal extract, Meltlets® and of the placebo pellets was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and total reduction capacity.

  19. High Resolution Processing with an Active Phased Array SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenboer, F.J.; Otten, M.P.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch PHARUS system is a polarimetric active phased array SAR capable of performing advanced SAR modes. Advanced SAR modes that are being investigated are: spotlight SAR, sliding spotlight SAR, stepped frequency SAR and interferometric SAR. The flight experiments and automatic beam steering

  20. Effects of language processing on spontaneous muscle activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Beek, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence of the crucial involvement of the motor system in language understanding and production. We tested whether reading verbs that symbolized various actions would lead to an effector-specific modulation in subliminal muscle activity. Participants were lying in a relaxed position, and r

  1. Theoretical and practical aspects of modelling activated sludge processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.C.F.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the full-scale validation and calibration of a integrated metabolic activated sludge model for biological phosphorus removal. In chapters 1 and 2 the metabolic model is described, in chapters 3 to 6 the model is tested and in chapters 7 and 8 the model is put into practice.

  2. Theoretical and practical aspects of modelling activated sludge processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.C.F.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the full-scale validation and calibration of a integrated metabolic activated sludge model for biological phosphorus removal. In chapters 1 and 2 the metabolic model is described, in chapters 3 to 6 the model is tested and in chapters 7 and 8 the model is put into practice. Cha

  3. Neural activities during affective processing in people with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Sun, Delin; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chu, Leung-Wing; Keysers, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined brain activities in people with Alzheimer's disease when viewing happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions of others. A functional magnetic resonance imaging and a voxel-based morphometry methodology together with a passive viewing of emotional faces paradigm were employed to co

  4. Theoretical and practical aspects of modelling activated sludge processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.C.F.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the full-scale validation and calibration of a integrated metabolic activated sludge model for biological phosphorus removal. In chapters 1 and 2 the metabolic model is described, in chapters 3 to 6 the model is tested and in chapters 7 and 8 the model is put into practice. Cha

  5. Digital active material processing platform effort (DAMPER), SBIR phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    Applied Technology Associates, Inc., (ATA) has demonstrated that inertial actuation can be employed effectively in digital, active vibration isolation systems. Inertial actuation involves the use of momentum exchange to produce corrective forces which act directly on the payload being actively isolated. In a typical active vibration isolation system, accelerometers are used to measure the inertial motion of the payload. The signals from the accelerometers are then used to calculate the corrective forces required to counteract, or 'cancel out' the payload motion. Active vibration isolation is common technology, but the use of inertial actuation in such systems is novel, and is the focus of the DAMPER project. A May 1991 report was completed which documented the successful demonstration of inertial actuation, employed in the control of vibration in a single axis. In the 1 degree-of-freedom (1DOF) experiment a set of air bearing rails was used to suspend the payload, simulating a microgravity environment in a single horizontal axis. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology was used to calculate in real time, the control law between the accelerometer signals and the inertial actuators. The data obtained from this experiment verified that as much as 20 dB of rejection could be realized by this type of system. A discussion is included of recent tests performed in which vibrations were actively controlled in three axes simultaneously. In the three degree-of-freedom (3DOF) system, the air bearings were designed in such a way that the payload is free to rotate about the azimuth axis, as well as translate in the two horizontal directions. The actuator developed for the DAMPER project has applications beyond payload isolation, including structural damping and source vibration isolation. This report includes a brief discussion of these applications, as well as a commercialization plan for the actuator.

  6. Dehydration softening of serpentine as a trigger of intermediate-depth earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, I.; Watanabe, Y.; Michibayashi, K.; Uehara, S.; Takahashi, M.; Katsuta, N.

    2011-12-01

    slip was obtained in the SEM-EBSD analysis. Significant volume loss in the samples suggests compaction and escape of water during deformation experiments. Mechanical behaviors and microstructural features of the pre-heated samples both indicated that the dominant deformation mechanism was cataclastic flow and compaction of reaction products. The reacted samples showed "dehydration softening" rather than "embrittlement". In contrast, the same antigorite-serpentinite deformed in a gas-medium apparatus at a low confining pressure (200 MPa) exhibited a semi-brittle behavior. This fact suggests that dehydration embrittlement is only effective at the shallow to middle crustal levels. In the subducting slabs, strain localization at the serpentinized mantle due to dehydration softening and high fluid pressure caused by pore collapse possibly trigger earthquakes in surrounding peridotite mantle.

  7. How does crowdfunding work? Understanding the process through its activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stiver, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Crowdfunding is a process featuring incremental financial donations from a ‘crowd’ of backers to help fund a project initiated by a creator. In recent years, crowdfunding has generated significant revenue as well as great interest from industry, government, and creative entrepreneurs. However, rate of successful funding for crowdfunding projects remains around 35% for global crowdfunding leader Kickstarter1, and lower yet for other platforms.\\ud \\ud The identified gap between crowdfunding gro...

  8. Cortical activity of children with dyslexia during natural speech processing: evidence of auditory processing deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putter-Katz, Hanna; Kishon-Rabin, Liat; Sachartov, Emma; Shabtai, Esther L; Sadeh, Michelle; Weiz, Raphael; Gadoth, Natan; Pratt, Hillel

    2005-01-01

    Children with dyslexia have difficulties with phonological processing. It is assumed that deficits in auditory temporal processing underlie the phonological difficulties of dyslectic subjects (i.e. the processing of rapid acoustic changes that occur in speech). In this study we assessed behavioral and electrophysiological evoked brain responses of dyslectic and skilled reading children while performing a set of hierarchically structured auditory tasks. Stimuli consisted of auditory natural unmodified speech that was controlled for the parameter of changing rate of main acoustic cues: vowels (slowly changing speech cues: /i/ versus /u/) and consonant-vowel (CV) syllables (rapidly changing speech cues: /da/ versus /ga/). Brain auditory processing differed significantly between groups: reaction time of dyslectic readers was prolonged in identifying speech stimuli and increased with increased phonological demand. Latencies of auditory evoked responses (auditory event related potentials [AERPs]) recorded during syllable identification of the dyslectic group were prolonged relative to those of skilled readers. Moreover, N1 amplitudes during vowel processing were larger for the dyslectic children and P3 amplitudes during CV processing were smaller for the dyslectic children. From the results of this study it is evident that the latency and amplitude of AERPs are sensitive measures of the complexity of phonological processing in skilled and dyslectic readers. These results may be signs of deficient auditory processing of natural speech under normal listening conditions as a contributing factor to reading difficulties in dyslexia. Detecting a dysfunction in the central auditory processing pathway might lead to early detection of children who may benefit from phonetic-acoustic training methods.

  9. Biocompatible water softening system using cationic protein from moringa oleifera extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, R. R.; Jegathambal, P.; Parameswari, K.; Kirupa, K.

    2017-07-01

    In developing countries like India, the deciding factors for the selection of the specific water purification system are the flow rate, cost of implementation and maintenance, availability of materials for fabrication or assembling, technical manpower, energy requirement and reliability. But most of them are energy and cost intensive which necessitate the development of cost-effective water purification system. In this study, the feasibility of development of an efficient and cost-effective water purifier using Moringa oleifera cationic protein coated sand column to treat drinking water is presented. Moringa oleifera seeds contain cationic antimicrobial protein which acts as biocoagulant in the removal of turbidity and also aids in water softening. The main disadvantage of using Moringa seeds in water purification is that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) which is left over in the water contributes to growth of any pathogens that come into contact with the stored water. To overcome this limitation, the Moringa oleifera cationic protein coated sand (MOCP c-sand) is prepared in which the flocculant and antimicrobial properties of the MOCP are maintained and the DOM to be rinsed away. The efficiency of MOCP c-sand in removing suspended particles and reducing total hardness (TH), chloride, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) was also studied. Also, it is shown that the functionalized sand showed the same treatment efficiency even after being stored dry and in dehydrated condition for 3 months. This confirms MOCP c-sand's potential as a locally sustainable water treatment option for developing countries since other chemicals used in water purification are expensive.

  10. Enhanced Multistatic Active Sonar via Innovative Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    detection line. This is due to the ridge induced range-Doppler ambiguity associated with the Doppler- tolerant LFM waveforms, as the same target is...PAS) and continuous active sonar (CAS) in the presence of strong direct blast are studied for the Doppler- tolerant linear frequency modulation...and limitations of PAS and CAS, as well as Doppler- tolerant and Doppler- sensitive waveforms in the presence of a strong delay and Doppler-spread

  11. Speech Perception as a Cognitive Process: The Interactive Activation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    In several ways, either as one long word or several smaller words (e.g., sell ya light vs. cellulite )? These are all Important questions which are...Consider, for example, what would hap- pen If the system heard a string which could be Interpreted either as sell ya light or cellulite . Assume that...one another in COHORT, the nodes for sell, your, light, and cellulite , wil all bc in active competition with one another. The system will have no way

  12. Impact of agricultural activities on anaerobic processes in stream sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, J. D.; Ludwig, S.; Nelson, L. C.; Porterfield, J.; Sather, K. L.; Songpitak, M.; Spawn, S.; Weigel, B.

    2013-12-01

    Streams draining agriculture watersheds are subject to significant anthropogenic impacts, including sedimentation from soil erosion and high nitrate input from heavy fertilizer application. Sedimentation degrades habitat and can reduce hydrologic exchange between surface and subsurface waters. Disconnecting surface and subsurface flow reduces oxygen input to hyporheic water, increasing the extent of anoxic zones in stream sediments and creating hotspots for anaerobic processes like denitrification and methanogenesis that can be important sources of nitrous oxide and methane, both powerful greenhouse gases. Increased nitrate input may influence greenhouse gas fluxes from stream sediments by stimulating rates of denitrification and potentially reducing rates of methanogenesis, either through direct inhibition or by increasing competition for organic substrates from denitrifying bacteria. We hypothesized that accumulation of fine sediments in stream channels would result in high rates of methanogenesis in stream sediments, and that increased nitrate input from agricultural runoff would stimulate denitrification and reduce rates of methane production. Our work focused on streams in northern and central Minnesota, in particular on Rice Creek, a small stream draining an agricultural watershed. We used a variety of approaches to test our hypotheses, including surveys of methane concentrations in surface waters of streams ranging in sediment type and nitrate concentration, bottle incubations of sediment from several sites in Rice Creek, and the use of functional gene probes and RNA analyses to determine if genes for these processes are present and being expressed in stream sediments. We found higher methane concentrations in surface water from streams with large deposits of fine sediments, but significantly less methane in these streams when nitrate concentrations were high. We also found high potential for both methanogenesis and denitrification in sediment incubations

  13. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration w...

  14. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration w...

  15. Thermally activated processes of fatigue crack growth in steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Fujii, Atsushi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Higashida, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Fatigue crack growth rates in steels at high and low temperatures have been investigated using Paris curves. The fatigue crack growth rates at high temperatures are quite different from those at low temperatures. Arrhenius plots between fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) and test temperatures at constant stress intensity factor range (ΔKI) indicate a difference of the rate-controlling process for fatigue crack growth with temperature. Slip deformation at the crack tip governs fatigue crack growth at high temperatures, while hydrogen diffusion is associated with crack growth at low temperatures.

  16. Effect of temperature and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    separation was achieved when digested manure was allowed to settle at 55 degrees C with active biogas process (pre-incubated at 55 degrees C) compared to separation at 55 degrees C without active biogas process (autoclaved at 120 degrees C, for 20 min) or at 10 degrees C with active biogas process. Maximum...... solids separation was noticed 24 h after settling in column incubated at 55 degrees C, with active biogas process. Microbiological analyses revealed that proportion of Archaea and Bacteria, absent in the autoclaved material, varied with incubation temperature, time and sampling depth. Short rod shaped...

  17. Photo-activated biological processes as quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Imamoglu, Atac

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for describing photo-activated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit non-equilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.

  18. THE FINANCIALIZATION PROCESS IN THE ACTIVITY OF POLISH COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Remlein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is financialization and its effects presented in the financial statements. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the effects of financialization on the activity of the fuel companies quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The author sets out to investigate how financialization affects the financial activity items presented in the balance sheets of the companies in question. The first part presents the essence and features of financialization in terms of macro- and microeconomic. Subsequently, the paper discusses the effects of financialization, i.e. the financial assets presented in the financial statements. The last part concerns the empirical study, the aim of which is to identify the effects of financialization in Polish companies. The author analyzes the financial assets presented in the statement of financial position of the surveyed companies. Achieving the paper’s objective requires the use of adequate research methods including the analysis of literature and legal regulations as well as financial analysis methods.

  19. End-of-life planning activities: an integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher M; Masters, Julie L; DeViney, Stanley

    2013-07-01

    This study examined end-of-life planning and whether common characteristics predicted completion of these decisions. Participants in the Nebraska End-of-Life Survey were asked whether they had heard about or completed five plans: a health care power of attorney agreement, a living will, a last will and testament, funeral or burial preplanning, and organ and tissue donation. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of these outcomes. Predictors of completing end-of-life plans, including funeral and burial preplanning, included older age, higher household income, and higher religiosity. This suggests that all of these decisions may be part of an integrated planning process at the end of life. Further, results from this study indicate that the role of religiosity, found in this study to predict both financial and health care planning, warrants further exploration.

  20. GRID based Thermal Images Processing for volcanic activity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiagli, S.; Coco, S.; Drago, L.; Laudani, A.,; Lodato, L.; Pollicino, G.; Torrisi, O.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the Catania Section of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) has been running the video stations recording the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, Stromboli and the Fossa Crater of Vulcano island. The video signals of 11 video cameras (seven operating in the visible band and four in infrared) are sent in real time to INGV Control Centre where they are visualized on monitors and archived on a dedicated NAS storage. The video surveillance of the Sicilian volcanoes, situated near to densely populated areas, helps the volcanologists providing the Civil Protection authorities with updates in real time on the on-going volcanic activity. In particular, five video cameras are operating on Mt. Etna and they record the volcano from the south and east sides 24 hours a day. During emergencies, mobile video stations may also be used to better film the most important phases of the activity. Single shots are published on the Catania Section intranet and internet websites. On June 2006 a A 40 thermal camera was installed in Vulcano La Fossa Crater. The location was in the internal and opposite crater flank (S1), 400 m distant from the fumarole field. The first two-year of data on temperature distribution frequency were recorded with this new methodology of acquisition, and automatically elaborated by software at INGV Catania Section. In fact a dedicated software developed in IDL, denominated Volcano Thermo Analysis (VTA), was appositely developed in order to extract a set of important features, able to characterize with a good approssimation the volcanic activity. In particular the program first load and opportunely convert the thermal images, then according to the Region Of Interest (ROI) and the temperature ranges defined by the user provide to automatic spatial and statistic analysis. In addition the VTA is able to analysis all the temporal series of images available in order to achieve the time-event analysis and the dynamic of the volcanic

  1. Characterization of Wastewater for Modelling of Activated Sludge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The fractionation of organic matter in the various parts which are used for mathematical modelling is discussed. The fractions include inert soluble, readily biodegradable, rapidly hydrolyzable, slowly hydrolyzable, biomass and inert suspended material. Methods for measuring are also discussed. F...... in a specific wastewater seem to be constant even when concentrations vary. Wastewater input to sewers and the sewer transport system significantly influences the raw wastewater composition at treatment plants........ Fractionation of biomass in wastewater and in activated sludge is difficult at present, as methods are only partly developed. Nitrogen fractions in wastewater are mainly inorganic. The organic nitrogen fractions are coupled to the organic COD fractions. The fractions of COD, biomass and nitrogen found...

  2. Passive and Partially Active Fault Tolerance for Massively Parallel Stream Processing Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Li; Zhou, Yongluan

    2017-01-01

    Fault-tolerance techniques for stream processing engines can be categorized into passive and active approaches. A typical passive approach periodically checkpoints a processing task's runtime states and can recover a failed task by restoring its runtime state using its latest checkpoint....... On the other hand, an active approach usually employs backup nodes to run replicated tasks. Upon failure, the active replica can take over the processing of the failed task with minimal latency. However, both approaches have their own inadequacies in Massively Parallel Stream Processing Engines (MPSPE......, the passive approach is applied to all tasks while only a selected set of tasks will be actively replicated. The number of actively replicated tasks depends on the available resources. If tasks without active replicas fail, tentative outputs will be generated before the completion of the recovery process. We...

  3. Theoretical evaluation on nitrogen removal of step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Gui-bing; PENG Yong-zhen

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation on nitrogen removal of step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process at the standpoint of reaction kinetics and process kinetics was conducted. Theoretical biological nitrogen removal efficiency was deduced based on the mass balance of nitrate in the last stage. The comparison of pre-denitrification process and step feed process in the aspects of nitrogen removal efficiency, volume of reactor and building investment was studied, and the results indicated that step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process was superior to pre-denitrification process in these aspects.

  4. Life cycle analysis within pharmaceutical process optimization and intensification: case study of active pharmaceutical ingredient production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Denčić, Ivana; Hessel, Volker; Laribi, Yosra; Perrichon, Philippe D; Berguerand, Charline; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov; Loeb, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As the demand for new drugs is rising, the pharmaceutical industry faces the quest of shortening development time, and thus, reducing the time to market. Environmental aspects typically still play a minor role within the early phase of process development. Nevertheless, it is highly promising to rethink, redesign, and optimize process strategies as early as possible in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development, rather than later at the stage of already established processes. The study presented herein deals with a holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process targeting a low-volume, high-value API. Striving for process intensification by transfer from batch to continuous processing, as well as an alternative catalytic system, different process options are evaluated with regard to their environmental impact to identify bottlenecks and improvement potentials for further process development activities.

  5. Sensor Data Acquisition and Processing Parameters for Human Activity Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian D. Bersch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that parameter selection for data sampling frequency and segmentation techniques (including different methods and window sizes has an impact on the classification accuracy. For Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, no clear information to select these parameters exists, hence a wide variety and inconsistency across today’s literature is observed. This paper presents the empirical investigation of different data sampling rates, segmentation techniques and segmentation window sizes and their effect on the accuracy of Activity of Daily Living (ADL event classification and computational load for two different accelerometer sensor datasets. The study is conducted using an ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA based on 32 different window sizes, three different segmentation algorithm (with and without overlap, totaling in six different parameters and six sampling frequencies for nine common classification algorithms. The classification accuracy is based on a feature vector consisting of Root Mean Square (RMS, Mean, Signal Magnitude Area (SMA, Signal Vector Magnitude (here SMV, Energy, Entropy, FFTPeak, Standard Deviation (STD. The results are presented alongside recommendations for the parameter selection on the basis of the best performing parameter combinations that are identified by means of the corresponding Pareto curve.

  6. Predictive active disturbance rejection control for processes with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qinling; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has been shown to be an effective tool in dealing with real world problems of dynamic uncertainties, disturbances, nonlinearities, etc. This paper addresses its existing limitations with plants that have a large transport delay. In particular, to overcome the delay, the extended state observer (ESO) in ADRC is modified to form a predictive ADRC, leading to significant improvements in the transient response and stability characteristics, as shown in extensive simulation studies and hardware-in-the-loop tests, as well as in the frequency response analysis. In this research, it is assumed that the amount of delay is approximately known, as is the approximated model of the plant. Even with such uncharacteristic assumptions for ADRC, the proposed method still exhibits significant improvements in both performance and robustness over the existing methods such as the dead-time compensator based on disturbance observer and the Filtered Smith Predictor, in the context of some well-known problems of chemical reactor and boiler control problems.

  7. Individual and combined effects of relaxin, estrogen, and progesterone in ovariectomized gilts. I. Effects on the growth, softening, and histological properties of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, R J; Baker, M D; Sherwood, O D

    1994-09-01

    Marked growth and softening of the uterine portion of the cervix occur during the last third of the 115-day gestation period in the gilt. These changes in the cervix are temporally correlated with elevated blood levels of relaxin, estrogen, and progesterone. We recently demonstrated that relaxin plays a major role in promoting both the growth and softening of the cervix that occur in pregnant gilts. The roles of estrogen and progesterone in these cervical changes remain poorly understood. Accordingly, this study determined the influence of relaxin, estrogen, and progesterone, individually and in combination, on cervical growth and softening in gilts. Fifteen days after ovariectomy, six to nine nonpregnant, sexually mature gilts were assigned to one of the following eight treatment groups: ovariectomized controls, relaxin treated, estrogen treated, progesterone treated, estrogen plus relaxin treated, progesterone plus relaxin treated, estrogen plus progesterone treated, and progesterone plus estrogen plus relaxin treated. Treatment was given for 10 days, with doses of relaxin (0.5 mg, four times daily), estradiol benzoate (1 mg, twice daily), and progesterone (50 mg, twice daily) selected to provide blood levels resembling those between days 100-110 of gestation. The growth, softening, and histological characteristics of the cervices were determined. Treatment with relaxin significantly increased the growth and softening and altered the histological characteristics of the uterine portion of the cervix in the absence of steroid treatment. Estrogen treatment alone increased cervical growth, but when given in combination with relaxin, estrogen did not augment relaxin's ability to increase either cervical growth or softening. Progesterone alone had little or no effect on the growth or softening of the uterine portion of the cervix. Unexpectedly, when given in combination with relaxin, progesterone augmented markedly relaxin's effects on softening and alteration of the

  8. Impact of accelerated electrons on activating process and foaming potential of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuba, V.; Pospisil, M. E-mail: mpospisil@br.fjfi.cvut.cz; Mucka, V.; Jenicek, P.; Silber, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Zabranska, J

    2003-06-01

    The process of activation is an important part of wastewater treatment technology. It can be affected in many ways, not least by using radiation. The paper describes effects of pre-irradiation of small part of biomass on activated sludge process. It has been shown, that relatively low dose of accelerated electrons can positively affect many parameters of the system.

  9. 76 FR 24871 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... from eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of...). Title X requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs...

  10. 76 FR 30696 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of the Energy... requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs of...

  11. Dehydration softening of serpentine and its roles in the intermediate-depth earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, I.; Watanabe, Y.; Michibayashi, K.

    2010-12-01

    to pink, possibly due to highly oxidized atmosphere caused by free water release. Reaction products of olivine (forsterite) exhibited host-controlled weak lattice preferred orientation (LPO) but there was no evidence for intracrystalline slip. Mechanical behaviors and microstructural features both indicated that the dominant deformation mechanism of pre-heated samples was cataclastic flow of reaction products. Significant volume loss in these samples suggests compaction and escape of water during deformation experiments. Strain localization in the serpentinized parts of mantle due to dehydration softening and high fluid pressure caused by pore collapse would trigger earthquakes in surrounding peridotite mantle.

  12. Future planning: default network activity couples with frontoparietal control network and reward-processing regions during process and outcome simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Kathy D; Spreng, R Nathan; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-12-01

    We spend much of our daily lives imagining how we can reach future goals and what will happen when we attain them. Despite the prevalence of such goal-directed simulations, neuroimaging studies on planning have mainly focused on executive processes in the frontal lobe. This experiment examined the neural basis of process simulations, during which participants imagined themselves going through steps toward attaining a goal, and outcome simulations, during which participants imagined events they associated with achieving a goal. In the scanner, participants engaged in these simulation tasks and an odd/even control task. We hypothesized that process simulations would recruit default and frontoparietal control network regions, and that outcome simulations, which allow us to anticipate the affective consequences of achieving goals, would recruit default and reward-processing regions. Our analysis of brain activity that covaried with process and outcome simulations confirmed these hypotheses. A functional connectivity analysis with posterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior inferior parietal lobule seeds showed that their activity was correlated during process simulations and associated with a distributed network of default and frontoparietal control network regions. During outcome simulations, medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala seeds covaried together and formed a functional network with default and reward-processing regions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Softening Behavior of Hardness and Surface Fatigue of Rolling-Sliding Contact in the Case of Developed Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redda, Daniel Tilahun; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Deng, Gang

    To get high performance, downsizing and weight saving of the power transmission systems, the improvement of machine elements has been required. In this study, case-carburized gear materials for a high load-carrying capacity were developed. Low-alloyed steels with 1%Cr-0.2%Mo, 1%Cr-0.2%Mo-1%Si and 1%Cr-0.2%Mo-2%Ni (Cr-Mo steel, Cr-Mo-Si steel and Cr-Mo-Ni steel) were melted in a hypoxia vacuum. Test rollers were made of the developed steels, and they were carburized (Type A and Type B), hardened and tempered. Heating retention tests were carried out to investigate the softening behavior of hardness at high heating temperatures in the case of the developed steels. Roller tests were conducted under the rolling-sliding contact and high-load conditions to study the surface fatigue of the developed steels. From the obtained test results, it was found that the softening behavior of surface hardness at high temperatures in the cases of Cr-Mo-Si steel (Type A) and Cr-Mo-Ni steel (Type B) is lower than that in the cases of Cr-Mo steel (Type A) and Cr-Mo steel (Type B). In the cases of Cr-Mo-Si steel (A) and Cr-Mo-Ni steel (B), micro- and small-pitting area ratios are smaller and large-pitting life is longer than those in the cases of Cr-Mo steel(A) and Cr-Mo steel(B) under the same carburizing treatment method and high-load conditions. Furthermore, the relationship between the softening behavior of surface hardness on the heating pattern and the surface fatigue on the rolling-sliding contact of the developed alloy steels was clarified.

  14. Fracture simulation of elastomer blended polypropylene based on elastoviscoplastic constitutive equation with craze and tensile softening law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae, H.

    2006-08-01

    The strong strain-rate dependence, neck propagation and craze evolution characterize the large plastic deformation and fracture behavior of polymer. In the latest study, Kobayashi, Tomii and Shizawa suggested the elastoviscoplastic constitutive equation based on craze evolution and annihilation and then applied it to the plane strain issue of polymer. In the previous study, the author applied their suggested elastoviscoplastic constitutive equation with craze effect to the three dimensional shell and then showed that the load displacement history was in good agreement with the experimental result including only microscopic crack such as crazes. For the future industrial applications, the macroscopic crack has to be taken into account. Thus, the main objective of this study is to propose the tensile softening equation and then add it to the elastoviscoplastic constitutive equation with craze effect so that the load displacement history can be roughly simulated during the macroscopic crack propagation. The tested material in this study is the elastomer blended polypropylene used in the interior and exterior of automobiles. First, the material properties are obtained based on the tensile test results at wide range of strain rates: 10 - 4-102 (1/sec). Next, the compact tension test is conducted and then the tensile softening parameters are fixed. Then, the dart impact test is carried out in order to obtain the load displacement history and also observe the macroscopic crack propagation at high strain rate. Finally, the fracture behavior is simulated and then compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the predictions of the constitutive equation with the proposed tensile softening equation are in good agreement with the experimental results for the future industrial applications.

  15. Ideals, activities, dissonance, and processing: a conceptual model to guide educators' efforts to stimulate student reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Britta M; Teal, Cayla R; Rogers, John C; Paterniti, Debora A; Haidet, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Medical schools are increasingly incorporating opportunities for reflection into their curricula. However, little is known about the cognitive and/or emotional processes that occur when learners participate in activities designed to promote reflection. The purpose of this study was to identify and elucidate those processes. In 2008, the authors analyzed qualitative data from focus groups that were originally conducted to evaluate an educational activity designed to promote reflection. These data afforded the opportunity to explore the processes of reflection in detail. Transcripts (94 pages, single-spaced) from four focus groups were analyzed using a narrative framework. The authors spent approximately 40 hours in group and 240 hours in individual coding activities. The authors developed a conceptual model of five major elements in students' reflective processes: the educational activity, the presence or absence of cognitive or emotional dissonance, and two methods of processing dissonance (preservation or reconciliation). The model also incorporates the relationship between the student's internal ideal of what a doctor is or does and the student's perception of the teacher's ideal of what a doctor is or does. The model further identifies points at which educators may be able to influence the processes of reflection and the development of professional ideals. Students' cognitive and emotional processes have important effects on the success of educational activities intended to stimulate reflection. Although additional research is needed, this model-which incorporates ideals, activities, dissonance, and processing-can guide educators as they plan and implement such activities.

  16. Study on activity evaluation of activated coal-gangue and the hydration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chemical compositions, mineral compositions and the activated mechanism of the coal-gangue were analyzed. And pozzolana activities of the coal-gangue were evaluated after activated. Moreover, hydration heat and hydration compositions of activated coal-gangue-calcium oxide system, as well as hydration degree and hardened paste microstructures of activated coal-gangue-cement system were studied. Results show that pozzolana activities of the activated coal-gangue root in amorphous SiO2 and activated Al2 O3. With the exciting of gypsum, the reaction of activated coal-gangue and Ca(OH)2 would produce hydration products as ettringite, calcium silicate hydrate, and calcium aluminate. The relationship between the curing age and the content of Ca(OH)2 in coal-gangue-cement system was ascertained. Unhydrated particles in the coal-gangue-cement paste were more than that in the neat cement paste at the same hydration periods, and even existed at the later stage of hydration. Furthermore, the activated coal-gangue could inhibit growth and gathering of the calcium oxide crystal, and improve the structure of hardened cement paste.

  17. Activiti in action executable business processes in BPMN 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Rademakers, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    Activiti in Action is a comprehensive tutorial designed to introduce developers to the world of business process modeling using Activiti. Before diving into the nuts and bolts of Activiti, this book presents a solid introduction to BPMN 2.0 from a developer's perspective.

  18. Effect of loading condition, specimen geometry, size-effect and softening function on double- fracture parameters of concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar; S V Barai

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents numerical investigation of the influence of the specimen geometry, loading condition, size-effect and softening function of concrete on double- fracture parameters. The input data needed for computation of the double- fracture parameters are obtained from the well-known version of Fictitious Crack Model (FCM). FCM is developed for three standard specimens: three-point bend test, compact tension specimen and four-point bend test of size range 100–600 mm at relative size of initial crack length 0.3. The analysis of numerical results shows some interesting behaviour of double- fracture parameters.

  19. EFFECT OF INITIAL GRAIN SIZE ON STATIC RECRYSTALLIZA-TION SOFTENING IN Cr STEEL USING STRESS RELAXATION TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R. Morgridge

    2002-01-01

    Effect of initial grain size (I.G.S.) on static recrystallization softening in Cr steel(0.77wt.% CR) has been investigated through the use of interrupted hot compressiontests and stress relaxation curves from Gleeble 1500. Initial grain sizes were variedbetween 20 and 93 microns. Stress strains curves for Cr steel for different initialgrain sizes and recrystallization times have been highlighted. Similar observation wasmade for metadynamic recrystallization with shorter retardation times. Staticallyrecrystallized grain size also increased as initial grain size increases. It is found thatthe values of initial grain size have significant effects on the mean flow stress andstatic recrystallization kinetics as well as the peak strain values to initiate dynamicrecrystallization.

  20. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes--a process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera-Padrell, Albert E; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren; Gani, Rafiqul; Gernaey, Krist V

    2012-10-01

    A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermentation-based products. The method exploits the synergic combination of continuous flow technologies (e.g., microfluidic techniques) and process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools for faster process design and increased process understanding throughout the whole drug product and process development cycle. The design framework structures the many different and challenging design problems (e.g., solvent selection, reactor design, and design of separation and purification operations), driving the user from the initial drug discovery steps--where process knowledge is very limited--toward the detailed design and analysis. Examples from the literature of PSE methods and tools applied to pharmaceutical process design and novel pharmaceutical production technologies are provided along the text, assisting in the accumulation and interpretation of process knowledge. Different criteria are suggested for the selection of batch and continuous processes so that the whole design results in low capital and operational costs as well as low environmental footprint. The design framework has been applied to the retrofit of an existing batch-wise process used by H. Lundbeck A/S to produce an API: zuclopenthixol. Some of its batch operations were successfully converted into continuous mode, obtaining higher yields that allowed a significant simplification of the whole process. The material and environmental footprint of the process--evaluated through the process mass intensity index, that is, kg of material used per kg of product--was reduced to half of its initial value, with potential for further reduction. The case-study includes reaction steps typically used by the pharmaceutical

  1. TEXTURAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF ACTIVATED CARBONS PREPARED FROM RICE HUSK (ORYZA SATIVA USING A TWO- STAGE ACTIVATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEPH G. COLLIN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons from agro-industrial wastes; rice husk; were prepared by physical and chemical activation using phosphoric acid as the dehydrating agent. A two-stage activation process method was used; with semi-carbonisation stage at 200oC for 15 minutes as the first stage followed by an activation stage at 500oC for 45 minutes as the second stage. The precursor material with the impregnation agent was exposed straightaway to semi-carbonization and activation temperature unlike the specific temperature progression as reported in the literature. All experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale muffle furnace under static conditions in a self generated atmosphere covering process parameters such as impregnation ratios. We found that by using this method, the AC5 had the highest iodine number and methylene blue adsorption capacity which was 506.6 mg/g and 319.0 mg/g respectively.

  2. Pressure-induced low-lying phonon modes softening and enhanced thermal resistance in β -M g2A l4S i5O18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiran; Tian, Zhilin; Luo, Yixiu; Wang, Jiemin; Sun, Luchao; Zheng, Liya; Wang, Jingyang

    2017-02-01

    Lattice thermal conductivities of β -M g2A l4S i5O18 were predicted at various hydrostatic pressures based on some theoretical models. An abnormal decrement on lattice thermal conductivity is observed for compressed crystal structure. A rigorous analysis of structural stability, bonding characteristics, vibration modes, group velocities, and mode Grüneisen parameters helps us to recognize the origin of this anomalous behavior. We attribute the negative dependent trend to the softening of low frequency phonons and strengthening of anharmonicity at elevated pressure, both of which arise from the specific corner-linked tetrahedral framework in the crystal structure. To validate theoretical calculations, we synthesized pure and dense β -M g2A l4S i5O18 ceramic by using a two-step processing method and determined its intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity by successfully eliminating the phonon scattering from defects and high-temperature thermal radiation. The experimental intrinsic values agreed quite well with the theoretical predictions. This paper reports an anomalous pressure-induced reduction of lattice thermal conductivity and also provides a key insight into the interesting phonon modification mechanism through tailoring the crystal structure of complex compounds.

  3. Numerical simulation study on active and passive hydroforming process optimization of box shaped part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. P.; Dong, J. L.; He, T. D.; Wang, B.

    2016-08-01

    Low qualified rate and inferior quality frequently occurring in the general deep drawing process of a certain box-shaped part, now use hydroforming to optimize forming process, in order to study the effect of hydroforming for improving the quality and formability, purposed five process schemes: general deep drawing, active hydroforming, passive hydroforming, general deep drawing combined with active hydroforming, passive combined with active hydroforming. Each process was simulated by finite element simulation and results were analysed. The results indicate the passive combined with active hydroforming is the best scheme which can obtain smallest thickness thinning and satisfactory formability, then optimized hydroforming pressure, blank holder force subsequently by adjust the simulation parameters. Research result proves that active/passive hydroforming is a new method for complex parts forming.

  4. Effects of Different Heat Processing on Fucoxanthin, Antioxidant Activity and Colour of Indonesian Brown Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Eko; Suhaeli Fahmi, A.; Winarni Agustini, Tri; Rosyadi, Septian; Dita Wardani, Ayunda

    2017-02-01

    Fucoxanthin (Fx) is major carotenoids in brown algae. It showed many health beneficial effects for oxidative stress. Fucoxanthin is lower stability which may cause problem in the application for functional food. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various heat processing on Fx, antioxidant activity (IC50), total phenolic content, and colour stability of Sargassum ilicifolium. The various heat processing methods showed were not significantly affected to fucoxanthin and antioxidant activities however all treatments lower affected to brown seaweeds colour. Moreover, this study showed a useful proved in the design of brown seaweeds processing which minimize Fx, antioxidant activity and colour changes.

  5. The complementariness of the business process reengineering and activity-based management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta DOMANOVIC

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to sustain long term growth and development, an enterprise has toenvisage and implement contemporary management innovations altogether. Intransition economies, like Serbia is, it is of great importance to redesign businessprocesses and activities, to analyse activity profitability in order to select value-addedactivities and reduce non-value added ones. This paper considers the possibility forcomplementary implementation of the business process reengineering and activitybased management in the process of long term efficiency improvement. Namely, thebasic postulate of business process reengineering concept might be established in theprocess of activity based management implementation and conversely.

  6. Repeated Short-term Spectral Softening in the Low/Hard State of the Galactic Black-Hole Candidate Swift J1753.5-0127

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Negoro, Hitoshi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Tamagawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    We report MAXI and Swift observations of short-term spectral softenings of the galactic black-hole X-ray binary Swift J1753.5-0127 in the low/hard state. These softening events are characterized by a simultaneous increase of soft X-rays (2-4 keV) and a decrease of hard X-rays (15-50 keV) lasting for a few tens of days. The X-ray energy spectra during the softening periods can be reproduced with a model consisting of a multi-color disk blackbody and its Comptonized component. The fraction of the Comptonized component decreased from 0.30 to 0.15 when the spectrum became softer; meanwhile the inner disk temperature (Tin) increased from 0.2 to 0.45 keV. These results imply that the softening events are triggered by a short-term increase of the mass accretion rate. During the observed spectral softening events, the disk flux (F) and Tin did not obey the relation: F is proportional to Tin^4, suggesting that the inner disk radius does not reach the innermost stable circular orbit.

  7. Antioxidant Activity in Two Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum Cultivars as Influenced by Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Suma Pushparaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively on the antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra (MRB. The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay (RPA and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays respectively. The samples were also evaluated for tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid content which was then correlated with the antioxidant activity assayed using three methods. The results indicated that the bran rich fraction showed high antioxidant activity (RPA owing to high tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid levels. Heat treatments exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity and RPA reflecting the high flavonoid content. Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay in the K variety was largely due to the presence of flavonoid content, however in MRB, no relationship was found between antioxidant activities and antioxidant components.

  8. Control of the aeration volume in an activated sludge process for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, P; Carlsson, B

    2002-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal in an activated sludge process is obtained by two biological processes; nitrification and denitrification. Nitrifying bacteria need dissolved oxygen and a sufficiently large aeration volume for converting ammonium to nitrate in the wastewater. The objective of this paper is to develop an automatic control strategy for adjusting the aerated volume so that the effluent ammonium level can be kept close to a desired value despite major changes in the influent load. The strategy is based on applying exact linearization of the IAWO Activated Sludge Process Model No 1. Simulation results show that the suggested controller effectively attenuates process disturbances.

  9. Cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; I. N. Sokolik; Nenes, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water inter...

  10. Magnetic resonance colonography without bowel cleansing using oral and rectal stool softeners (fecal cracking) - a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Kuehle, Christiane; Herborn, Christoph U.; Goehde, Susanne C. [University Hospital of Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schneemann, Hubert [University Hospital of Essen, Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Essen (Germany); Ruehm, Stefan G. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goyen, Mathias [University Hospital of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Medical Center, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effect of oral and rectal stool softeners on dark-lumen magnetic resonance (MR) colonography without bowel cleansing. Ten volunteers underwent MR colonography without colonic cleansing. A baseline examination was performed without oral or rectal administration of stool softeners. In a second set, volunteers ingested 60 ml of lactulose 24 h prior to MR examination. In a third examination, water as a rectal enema was replaced by a solution of 0.5%-docusate sodium (DS). A fourth MR examination was performed, in conjunction with both oral administration of lactulose and rectal application of DS. A T1-weighted data set was acquired at scanning times of 0, 5 and 10 min after colonic filling. A fourth data set was acquired 75 s after i.v. injection of contrast agent. Signal intensity of stool was calculated for all colonic segments. Without oral ingestion of lactulose or rectal enema with DS stool signal intensity was high and did not decrease over time. However, lactulose and DS caused a decrease in stool signal intensity. Both substances together led to a decreasing signal intensity of feces. Combination of lactulose and DS provided the lowest signal intensity of stool. Thus, feces could hardly be distinguished from dark rectal enema allowing for the assessment of the colonic wall. (orig.)

  11. Mesoscopic analysis of the utilization of hardening model for a description of softening behavior based on disturbed state concept theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ye ZHENG; An-li WU

    2008-01-01

    Mesoscopic characteristics of a clayey soil specimen subjected to macroscoptc loading are examined usmg a medical-use computerized tomography(CT)instrument.Disturbed state concept(DSC)theory is based on the utilization of the hardening model.DSC indirectly describes rnaterial behavior by claiming that the actual response of the material is expressed in terms of the relative intact(RI)response and the fully adjusted(FA) response.The occurrence of mesoscopic structural changes of material has similarities with the occurrence of a macroscopic response of the material under loadings.In general,the relative changing value of a softening material iS three to five times more than that of a hardening material.Whether special zones exist or not in a specimen cross section does not affect the following conclusion:hardening material and softening material show mechanical dififerences with CT statistical indices values prominently changing,and the change is related to the superposmg of a disturbance factor.A new disturbance factor evolution function is proposed.Thus,mesoscopic statistical indices are introduced to describe macroscopic behavior through the new evolution function.An application of the new evolution function proves the effectiveness of the amalgamation of a macroscopic and a mesoscopic experimental phenomenon measurement methods.

  12. A Critical Assessment of Cyclic Softening and Hardening Behavior in a Near- α Titanium Alloy During Thermomechanical Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kartik; Sarkar, Rajdeep; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Sundararaman, M.

    2016-10-01

    Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of Ti-alloy Timetal 834 has been studied at two temperature intervals viz. 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C) and 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) under mechanical strain-controlled cycling. Among the temperatures studied, the alloy exhibited initial cyclic softening followed by cyclic hardening at 723 K (450 °C) in the temperature interval of 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C). However, continuous cyclic hardening was observed at 723 K (450 °C) in 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C). At 573 K (300 °C) and 873 K (600 °C), cyclic softening was observed in the cyclic stress response curves in both the temperature intervals. The dislocation substructure was observed to be planar in both the modes of TMF loading. Based on TEM microstructures and few unconventional fatigue tests, the observed cyclic hardening is attributed to dynamic strain aging. The reduced fatigue life at 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) under OP-TMF loading was attributed to the combined effect of cyclic hardening (leading to early strain localization and crack initiation), oxidation, and development of tensile mean stresses.

  13. Material characterization of the encapsulation of an ultrasound contrast microbubble and its subharmonic response: strain-softening interfacial elasticity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shirshendu; Katiyar, Amit; Sarkar, Kausik; Chatterjee, Dhiman; Shi, William T; Forsberg, Flemming

    2010-06-01

    Two nonlinear interfacial elasticity models--interfacial elasticity decreasing linearly and exponentially with area fraction--are developed for the encapsulation of contrast microbubbles. The strain softening (decreasing elasticity) results from the decreasing association between the constitutive molecules of the encapsulation. The models are used to find the characteristic properties (surface tension, interfacial elasticity, interfacial viscosity and nonlinear elasticity parameters) for a commercial contrast agent. Properties are found using the ultrasound attenuation measured through a suspension of contrast agent. Dynamics of the resulting models are simulated, compared with other existing models and discussed. Imposing non-negativity on the effective surface tension (the encapsulation experiences no net compressive stress) shows "compression-only" behavior. The exponential and the quadratic (linearly varying elasticity) models result in similar behaviors. The validity of the models is investigated by comparing their predictions of the scattered nonlinear response for the contrast agent at higher excitations against experimental measurement. All models predict well the scattered fundamental response. The nonlinear strain softening included in the proposed elastic models of the encapsulation improves their ability to predict subharmonic response. They predict the threshold excitation for the initiation of subharmonic response and its subsequent saturation.

  14. Structural and thermodynamical properties of charged hard spheres in a mixture with core-softened model solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšič, Miha; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Vlachy, Vojko; Pizio, O

    2012-12-28

    The canonical Monte Carlo computer simulations and integral equation theory were applied to examine the structural and thermodynamic properties of a mixture of ions and a core-softened fluid molecules. The positive and negative ions forming a +1:-1 salt were modeled as charged hard spheres, immersed in the dielectric medium. It was shown previously that the core-softened fluid under study is characterized by a set of structural, thermodynamic, and dynamic anomalies. The principal objective of this work was to elucidate how the presence of ions alters this behavior. The structural properties of the mixtures are discussed in terms of the pair distribution functions; in addition, the pair contribution to the excess entropy was calculated. Thermodynamic properties are investigated by using the dependencies of energy and compressibility factor on density, composition of the mixture, and reduced temperature. The heat capacity was also evaluated. Our principal findings concern the description of structural anomalies in the mixture, the dependence of the temperature of maximum density on the ionic concentration, and establishing the regions delimiting the structural and thermodynamic anomalies of the model mixture.

  15. Role of activated carbon on micropollutans degradation by different radiation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Velo Gala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of the presence of activated carbon on radiation processes. The triiodinated contrast medium diatrizoate was chosen as the contaminant model. We selected four commercial activated carbons and sixteen gamma radiation-modified carbons derived from these. The different advanced oxidation/reduction processes that have been studied were improved through the addition of activated carbon in the UV light and gamma radiating processes. In the UV/activated carbon process, the synergic activity of the activated carbon is enhanced in the samples with higher percentages of surface oxygen, ester/anhydride groups and carbon atoms with sp2 hybridization. Band gap determination of activated carbons revealed that they behave as semiconductor materials and, therefore, as photoactive materials in the presence of UV radiation, given that all band gap values are <4 eV. We also observed that the gamma radiation treatment reduces the band gap values of the activated carbons and that, in a single series of commercial carbons, lower band gap values correspond to higher contaminant removal rate values. We observed that the activity of the reutilized activated carbons is similar to that of the original carbons. Based on these results, we proposed that the activated carbon acts as a photocatalyst, promoting electrons of the valence band to the conduction band and increasing the generation of HO• radicals in the medium. Similarly, there was a synergic effect made by the presence of activated carbon in gamma radiation system, which favours pollutant removal. This synergic effect is independent of the textural but not the chemical characteristics of the activated carbon, observing a higher synergic activity for carbons with a higher surface content of oxygen, specifically quinone groups. We highlight that the synergic effect of the activated carbon requires adsorbent–adsorbate electrostatic interaction and is absent

  16. Artichoke as a non-conventional precursor for activated carbon: Role of the activation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal M.S. ElShafei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Artichoke peels were used to produce activated carbon using chemical activation methods. Two activation protocols were compared: a two-step method A and a one-step method B. As newly used activating agents, KCl, CrCl3 and TiCl4 were compared. The results show that method B is superior to A. KOH with method B had an area of 2321 m2/g and a total pore volume 1.0071 cm3/g, of which 0.9794 cm3/g was confined to micropores. The corresponding values for KCl are 1731, 0.6925 and 0.6718. TiCl4 had lower but comparable values with those of KCl. CrCl3 appeared to be the least successful among the three newly used activating agents. The post-activation washing step strongly affects the characteristics of the final product. The differences among the effects of Zn, Cr and Ti are discussed in terms of the differences in polarizing power.

  17. Integration of active and passive polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    protrusions and an integrated metal shadow mask. In the CNP process, a combined UV mask and nanoimprint stamp is embossed into the resist, which is softened by heating, and UV exposed. Hereby the mm to m m sized features are defined by the UV exposure through the metal mask, while nm-scale features are formed......We demonstrate a wafer scale fabrication process for integration of active and passive polymer optics: Polymer DFB lasers and waveguides. Polymer dye DFB lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP). The CNP fabrication relies on an UV transparent stamp with nm sized...... by mechanical deformation (nanoimprinting). The lasers are integrated with undoped SU-8 polymer waveguides. The waferscale fabrication process has a yield above 90% and the emission wavelengths are reproduced within 2 nm. Confinement of the light on the chip is demonstrated, and the influence on the laser...

  18. Comparison of heavy metal removal efficiencies in four activated sludge processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 高定; 陈同斌; 雷梅; 郑国砥; 周小勇

    2015-01-01

    The removal efficiencies of heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were investigated in the 17 operating municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and compared with those in four main activated sludge processes. Significant differences of heavy metal removal efficiencies were observed among four activated sludge processes. The removal efficiency for As (75.5%) in the oxidation ditch (OD) process is significantly higher than that in the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process (38.6%) or sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process (51.4%). The mean removal efficiencies for Cu and Ni in the OD process are 90.5% and 46.7%, respectively, while low mean removal efficiencies are observed for Cu (69.9%) and Ni (16.5%), respectively, in the SBR process. The removal efficiencies for Cu and Ni in the OD process are significantly higher than those in the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2-O) process. These results highlight the differences of removal efficiencies for heavy metals in different processes and should be considered when selecting a wastewater treatment process.

  19. Supporting users through integrated retrieval, processing, and distribution systems at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.; Willems, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The US Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) hosts the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). The LP DAAC supports NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), which is a series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. The EOS Data and Information Systems (EOSDIS) was designed to acquire, archive, manage and distribute Earth observation data to the broadest possible user community.

  20. Synthesis and herbicidal activities of pyridyl sulfonylureas:More convenient preparation process of phenyl pyrimidylcarbamates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ma; Zhi Jin Fan; Bao Lei Wang; Yong Hong Li; Zheng Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Four 4-monosubstituted pyrimidine pyridyl sulfonylureas were synthesized from pyridinesulfonamide and phenyl pyrimidyl-carbamate and screened for herbicidal activities.We also reported a convenient preparation process of phenyl pyrimidylcarbamates from pyrimidineamine and phenyl chloroformate.

  1. Purification process influence on green tea extracts’ polyphenol content and antioxidant activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska; Józef Korczak; Marzanna Hęś

    2007-01-01

    The research examined green tea ethanol extract, subjected to different purification processes with use of active carbon, bleaching earth, and mixture of acetone, acetic acid, water, with or without...

  2. Numerical modeling of AA2024-T3 friction stir welding process for residual stress evaluation, including softening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Palazzo, Gaetano S.;

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, a numerical finite element model of the precipitation hardenable AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy, consisting of a heat transfer analysis based on the Thermal Pseudo Mechanical model for heat generation, and a sequentially coupled quasi-static stress analysis is proposed. Metallurgi...

  3. Structure and Pozzolanic Activity of Calcined Coal Gangue during the Process of Mechanical Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; LI Dongxu; CHEN Jianhua; YANG Nanru

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing coal gangue's chemical and mineral compositions, the structure change of coal gangue during the mechanical activation was investigated by XRD, FTIR,NMR, and the mechanical strength of the cement doped coal gangue with various specific surface area was tested. The experimental results indicate that, the lattice structure of metakaolin in coal gangue samples calcined at 700 ℃ disorganizes gradually and becomes disordered, and the lattice structure of α-quartz is distorted slightly. The pozzolanic activity of the coal gangue increases obviously with its structural disorganization.

  4. Composition change of uranium perchlorates with organic ligands upon mechanochemical activation of exchange processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazhogin, A. P.; Zazhogin, A. A.; Komyak, A. I.; Umreiko, D. S.

    2008-03-01

    Results of studies on the effect of mechanochemical activation of ligand exchange processes in uranyl perchlorate-dimethylsulfoxide are presented. Spectroscopic data show that mechanical activation of the exchange process in this system results in the replacement of H2O in the first coordination sphere of uranyl UO{2/2+} by DMSO to form nanocrystals with a defined ligand sphere. Possible factors governing the noted features are considered.

  5. Study of Surface Loss Process on a Simulated Fe-based Material by Thin Layer Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGDong-hui; WANGPing-sheng; ZHANGShi-shen; TIANWei-zhi; NIBang-fa; ZHANGLan-zhi; ZHANGGui-ying; LIUCun-xiong

    2003-01-01

    Taking the advantages of high sensitivity, non-destruction, and the capability of on-line measurement at favorable conditions, thin layer activation (TLA) is recognized as a method of choice in the study on surface loss processes of various materials. In present work, corrosion process of simulated Fe-based material (A3) was studied by TLA. The functionchemical peeling and weighing is established.of the residual activity versus the thickness lost from chemical peeling and weighing is established.

  6. Research on and Application of Undrained Strength Softening Model of Tianjin Soft Clay Under Cyclic Loading%循环荷载下天津软黏土不排水强度弱化模型研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元战; 焉振

    2015-01-01

    波浪等循环荷载作用下,饱和软黏土产生超孔隙水压力,土体强度弱化,导致地基承载力和防波堤等近海结构稳定性降低。基于土体强度弱化的原理,建立一种表示土体不排水强度在不同动应力水平下随循环荷载作用次数变化的强度弱化模型。模型通过建立软黏土不排水强度与孔隙水压力增长规律的关系,表示出软黏土不排水强度弱化的具体过程。在有限元软件 ABAQUS 上进行二次开发,对天津港防波堤地基软黏土的动、静三轴试验进行数值模拟运算,并与试验数据对比。结果表明,文中建立的强度弱化模型简单准确,能够较好地表示土体不排水强度弱化过程。将模型应用到波浪荷载作用下部分回填换砂处理的软土地基上沉箱结构进行沉降变形分析,并与未考虑土体强度弱化的静力、拟静力有限元分析结果进行对比,研究了强度弱化对结构沉降变形的影响。%Strength softening happens to the saturated soft soil under wave cyclic loading such as wave loads for the excess pore pressure produced,resulting in the significant loss of bearing capacity of soil foundation and stability of breakwater and other offshore structures. Based on the mechanism of strength softening effects,a strength softening model which could express the change rules of soil strength with the changing cyclic number under different dynamic stress levels was established. The process of soil strength softening was represented by means of building relationships between undrained shear strength and the development of the pore water pressure. Secondary development of the model was conducted on finite element software ABAQUS and used to simulate dynamic and static triaxial tests.A comparison between numerical results and experimental data shows that the proposed model is simple and accurate, which can express the process of strength softening. The undrained

  7. Changes of spontaneous parthenogenetic activation and development potential of golden hamster oocytes during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han; Wang, Ce; Guan, Jiyu; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Ziyi

    2015-01-01

    The golden hamster is an excellent animal experimental model for oocyte research. The hamster oocytes are very useful in clinical examination of human spermatozoan activity. Non-fertile oocytes can lead to time-dependent processes of aging, which will affect the results of human spermatozoa examination. As a consequence there is a need to investigate the aging and anti-aging processes of golden hamster oocytes. In order to study the aging processes and parthenogenetic activation of golden hamster oocytes, in vivo oocytes, oocytes cultured with or without cumulus cells, and oocytes treated with Trichostatin A (TSA) or caffeine were collected and investigated. We found that: (1) spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, developmental potential (cleavage rate), and zona pellucida (ZP) hardening undergo age-dependent changes in in vivo, in vitro, and after TSA or caffeine treatment; (2) in vivo, oocytes became spontaneously parthenogenetic 25 h post-hCG treatment; (3) in vitro, cumulus cells did not significantly increase the parthenogenetic activation rate of cultured hamster oocytes; and (4) TSA or caffeine could delay spontaneous oocyte parthenogenetic activation and the aging processes by at least 5h, but also accelerated the hardening of the ZP. These results define the conditions for the aging and anti-aging processes in golden hamster oocytes. TSA and caffeine play roles in controlling spontaneous activation, which could facilitate the storage and use of golden hamster oocytes for studying processes relevant to human reproduction.

  8. Executive Functions in Learning Processes: Do They Benefit from Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenberg, Jonathan; Berse, Timo; Dutke, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    As executive functions play an essential role in learning processes, approaches capable of enhancing executive functioning are of particular interest to educational psychology. Recently, the hypothesis has been advanced that executive functioning may benefit from changes in neurobiological processes induced by physical activity. The present…

  9. 77 FR 3460 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of the acceptance of... (DOE) acceptance of claims in FY 2012 from eligible active uranium and thorium processing site... uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs of decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation,...

  10. 75 FR 71677 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of the Energy Policy Act of... requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs of...

  11. Executive Functions in Learning Processes: Do They Benefit from Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenberg, Jonathan; Berse, Timo; Dutke, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    As executive functions play an essential role in learning processes, approaches capable of enhancing executive functioning are of particular interest to educational psychology. Recently, the hypothesis has been advanced that executive functioning may benefit from changes in neurobiological processes induced by physical activity. The present…

  12. Mesophilic and thermophilic activated sludge post-treatment of paper mill process water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Bouwhuis, E.; Klapwijk, A.; Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing system closure in paper mills and higher process water temperatures make the applicability of thermophilic treatment systems increasingly important. The use of activated sludge as a suitable thermophilic post-treatment system for anaerobically pre-treated paper process water from a paper

  13. Effect of spray drying processing parameters on the insecticidal activity of two encapsulated formulations of baculovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray dryer processing parameters on the process yield and insecticidal activity of baculovirus to support the development of this beneficial group of microbes as biopesticides. For each of two baculoviruses [granulovirus (GV) from Pieris rapae (L....

  14. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Actigraph raw acceleration data to activity counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brond, J. C.; Arvidsson, D.

    2016-01-01

    the amount of activity counts generated was less, indicating that raw data stored in the GT3X+ monitor is processed. Between 600 and 1,600 more counts per minute were generated with the sampling frequencies 40 and 100 Hz compared with 30 Hz during running. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Acti...

  15. The Masked Semantic Priming Effect Is Task Dependent: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely…

  16. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  17. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  18. Plan before You Play: An Activity for Teaching the Managerial Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Norm R.; Hedges, Peggy L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a 60-minute classroom activity using LEGO® bricks that demonstrates and reinforces the importance of the managerial process. The activity, Plan Before You Play (PBP), is targeted to introductory business classes, and differs from others in that it requires little investment or up-front planning, is easily scalable, and, with…

  19. The Masked Semantic Priming Effect Is Task Dependent: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely…

  20. Heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract improves obesity in ob/ob mice by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauhar, Rehman; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Jeong, Si-Sung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Hebok; Park, Dong Chan; Song, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Tae Young; Oh, Won Keun; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2012-09-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum is widely used in Asian countries as a herbal medicine to treat dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and inflammation. An ethanol extract of G. pentaphyllum lessened obesity by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The levels of damulins A and B, components responsible for AMPK activation in the extract, were increased by autoclaving in a time-dependent manner. Heat-processed G. pentaphyllum extract, actiponin containing damulins A (0.93 %, w/w) and B (0.68 %, w/w), significantly stimulated fat oxidation and glucose uptake via AMPK activation in L6 myotube cells. Oral administration of actiponin to ob/ob mice for 8 weeks decreased body weight gain, liver weight, and blood cholesterol levels with AMPK activation in the soleus muscle. Our results demonstrate the beneficial effect of G. pentaphyllum on improving obesity and have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  1. Small Businesses are More Active as Inventors than as Innovators in the Innovation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    small businesses to the innovation process. GAO concludes that small businesses have been important contributors to the innova - tion process and that...WILLARD F. MUELLER, Market Structure and Technological Performance in the Food Manufacturing industry (1979). Two periods of innova - tire activity in the...small businesses have been significant contributors to the innova - tion process. While we are not able to generalize from the exist- ing evidence to

  2. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-04-01

    This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT) and Köhler theory (KT) to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC) analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (of low solubility compounds like calcite) present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to describe the CCN activity of aged or hygroscopic dusts.

  3. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT and Köhler theory (KT to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (of low solubility compounds like calcite present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method. Based on a threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to describe the CCN activity of aged or hygroscopic dusts.

  4. Extracurricular Sport Activities and their Importance in Children Socialization and Integration Process

    OpenAIRE

    Pomohaci Marcel; Sopa Ioan Sabin

    2017-01-01

    The importance of sports activities nowadays is showing their effects on the future development of children, extracurricular activities come in the help of the physical education teacher with benefits on children's development. Our study focuses on revealing the importance of extracurricular sports activities in the process of children's socialization and integration. The research sample was formed from two different groups, the experimental group was formed by 25 students (age 10 ± 2.1 years...

  5. Pilot and full scale applications of sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process for nitrate removal from activated sludge process effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Kilic, Adem; Duygulu, Bahadir

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification of nitrified activated sludge process effluent was studied in pilot and full scale column bioreactors. Three identical pilot scale column bioreactors packed with varying sulfur/lime-stone ratios (1/1-3/1) were setup in a local wastewater treatment plant and the performances were compared under varying loading conditions for long-term operation. Complete denitrification was obtained in all pilot bioreactors even at nitrate loading of 10 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h). When the temperature decreased to 10 °C during the winter time at loading of 18 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h), denitrification efficiency decreased to 60-70% and the bioreactor with S/L ratio of 1/1 gave slightly better performance. A full scale sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process with a S/L ratio of 1/1 was set up for the denitrification of an activated sludge process effluent with a flow rate of 40 m(3)/d. Almost complete denitrification was attained with a nitrate loading rate of 6.25 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h).

  6. Antimicrobial activity of thin metallic silver flakes, waste products of a manufacturing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Anzano; Alessandra Tosti; Marina Lasagni; Alfredo Campiglio; Demetrio Pitea; Elena Collina*

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop new products and processes from a manufacturing waste from an Italian metallurgic company.The company produced thin silver metallic films and the production scraps were silver flakes.The possibility to use the silver flakes in water disinfection processes was studied.The antimicrobial activity of the flakes was investigated in batch using Escherichia coli as Gram-negative microorganism model.The flakes did not show any antimicrobial activity,so they were activated with two different processes:thermal activation in reducing atmosphere and chemical activation,obtaining,respectively,reduced flakes (RF) and chemical flakes (CF).The flakes,activated with either treatment,showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli.The kill rate was dependent on the type of activated flakes.The chemical flakes were more efficient than reduced flakes.The kill rate determined for 1 g of CF,1.0 ± 0.2min-1,was greater than the kill rate determined for 1 g of RF,0.069 + 0.004 min-1.This was confirmed also by the minimum inhibitory concentration values.It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial capability was dependent on flakes amount and on the type of aqueous medium.Furthermore,the flakes maintained their properties also when used a second time.Finally,the antimicrobial activities of flakes were tested in an effluent of a wastewater treatment plant where a variety of heterotrophic bacteria were present.

  7. Preparation of sulfurized powdered activated carbon from waste tires using an innovative compositive impregnation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Wu, Chun-Hsin; Liu, Ming-Han; Hung, Chung-Hsuang

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative compositive impregnation process for preparing sulfurized powdered activated carbon (PAC) from waste tires. An experimental apparatus, including a pyrolysis and activation system and a sulfur (S) impregnation system, was designed and applied to produce sulfurized PAC with a high specific surface area. Experimental tests involved the pyrolysis, activation, and sulfurization of waste tires. Waste-tire-derived PAC (WPAC) was initially produced in the pyrolysis and activation system. Experimental results indicated that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of WPAC increased, and the average pore radius of WPAC decreased, as water feed rate and activation time increased. In this study, a conventional direct impregnation process was used to prepare the sulfurized PAC by impregnating WPAC with sodium sulfide (Na2S) solution. Furthermore, an innovative compositive impregnation process was developed and then compared with the conventional direct impregnation process. Experimental results showed that the compositive impregnation process produced the sulfurized WPAC with high BET surface area and a high S content. A maximum BET surface area of 886 m2/g and the S content of 2.61% by mass were obtained at 900 degrees C and at the S feed ratio of 2160 mg Na2S/g C. However, the direct impregnation process led to a BET surface area of sulfurized WPAC that decreased significantly as the S content increased.

  8. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia.

  9. Development of a model describing virus removal process in an activated sludge basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.; Shiragami, N. Unno, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-20

    The virus removal process from the liquid phase in an activated sludge basin possibly consists of physicochemical processes, such as adsorption onto sludge flocs, biological processes such as microbial predating and inactivation by virucidal components excreted by microbes. To describe properly the virus behavior in an activated sludge basin, a simple model is proposed based on the experimental data obtained using a poliovirus type 1. A three-compartments model, which include the virus in the liquid phase and in the peripheral and inner regions of sludge flocs is employed. By using the model, the Virus removal process was successfully simulated to highlight the implication of its distribution in the activated sludge basin. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Production of activated carbons from waste tire--process design and economical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Danny C K; Mui, Edward L K; Lau, Ken S T; McKay, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    The process design and economic analysis of process plants to produce activated carbons from waste tires and coal have been performed. The potential range of products from each process has been considered, namely for waste tire--pyro-gas, active carbon, carbon black and pyro-oil; for coal--pyro-gas and active carbons. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out on the main process factors; these are product price, production capacity, total production cost, capital investment and the tipping fee. Net present values for the two plants at various discount factors have been determined and the internal rates of return have been determined as 27.4% and 18.9% for the waste tire plant and the coal plant, respectively.

  11. Epileptiform activity in the mouse visual cortex interferes with cortical processing in connected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucco, L.; Pracucci, E.; Brondi, M.; Ratto, G. M.; Landi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Epileptiform activity is associated with impairment of brain function even in absence of seizures, as demonstrated by failures in various testing paradigm in presence of hypersynchronous interictal spikes (ISs). Clinical evidence suggests that cognitive deficits might be directly caused by the anomalous activity rather than by its underlying etiology. Indeed, we seek to understand whether ISs interfere with neuronal processing in connected areas not directly participating in the hypersynchronous activity in an acute model of epilepsy. Here we cause focal ISs in the visual cortex of anesthetized mice and we determine that, even if ISs do not invade the opposite hemisphere, the local field potential is subtly disrupted with a modulation of firing probability imposed by the contralateral IS activity. Finally, we find that visual processing is altered depending on the temporal relationship between ISs and stimulus presentation. We conclude that focal ISs interact with normal cortical dynamics far from the epileptic focus, disrupting endogenous oscillatory rhythms and affecting information processing. PMID:28071688

  12. Foliation development and reaction softening by dissolution and precipitation in the transformation of granodiorite to orthogneiss, Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintsch, R.P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Yi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Textures, microstructures, and patterns of chemical zoning in minerals in a granodioritic orthogneiss in the Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, lead to the interpretation that foliation development was facilitated by retrograde hydration reactions in the presence of an aqueous fluid. Incomplete replacement of the metastable magmatic minerals K-feldspar + hastingsite + magnetite produced foliation-defining biotite + epidote + quartz. These reaction products did not replace K-feldspar - hastingsite interfaces; rather, either biotite or epidote replaced the amphibole, and plagioclase replaced K-feldspar. Biotite and epidote precipitated syntectonically in discrete layers that define the foliation in the orthogneiss, whereas quartz precipitated primarily in ribbons, further enhancing the fabric. Metastable REE-rich igneous titanite also dissolved, and was incompletely replaced by REE-poor, Al-bearing metamorphic titanite. The similar concentrations of the REE in epidote and titanite show that the REE released by titanite dissolution were precipitated locally as the allanite component in adjacent grains of epidote. The entire process was syntectonic, with most grains showing multiple overgrowths in the direction of extension as defined by stretched xenoliths. Sufficient U was present in the titanite overgrowths to allow SHRIMP dating of cores, mantles, and rims. These results suggest at least three retrograde Alleghanian events of growth in a span of ???30 m.y. Thus the dissolution - transportation - precipitation process not only describes the reaction mechanism but also leads to the redistribution of reaction products into nearly monomineralic layers, thus contributing to metamorphic differentiation and to the development of the foliation. The resulting orthogneiss was much weaker that the granodiorite protolith, owing to this reaction and textural softening.

  13. Rapid regulation of sialidase activity in response to neural activity and sialic acid removal during memory processing in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Akira; Meguro, Yuko; Ishibashi, Sayaka; Ishii, Ami; Shiratori, Mako; Sai, Saki; Horii, Yuuki; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Fukumoto, Hokuto; Shimba, Sumika; Taguchi, Risa; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2017-04-07

    Sialidase cleaves sialic acids on the extracellular cell surface as well as inside the cell and is necessary for normal long-term potentiation (LTP) at mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses and for hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Here, we investigated in detail the role of sialidase in memory processing. Sialidase activity measured with 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4MU-Neu5Ac) or 5-bromo-4-chloroindol-3-yl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (X-Neu5Ac) and Fast Red Violet LB was increased by high-K(+)-induced membrane depolarization. Sialidase activity was also increased by chemical LTP induction with forskolin and activation of BDNF signaling, non-NMDA receptors, or NMDA receptors. The increase in sialidase activity with neural excitation appears to be caused not by secreted sialidase or by an increase in sialidase expression but by a change in the subcellular localization of sialidase. Astrocytes as well as neurons are also involved in the neural activity-dependent increase in sialidase activity. Sialidase activity visualized with a benzothiazolylphenol-based sialic acid derivative (BTP3-Neu5Ac), a highly sensitive histochemical imaging probe for sialidase activity, at the CA3 stratum lucidum of rat acute hippocampal slices was immediately increased in response to LTP-inducible high-frequency stimulation on a time scale of seconds. To obtain direct evidence for sialic acid removal on the extracellular cell surface during neural excitation, the extracellular free sialic acid level in the hippocampus was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. The free sialic acid level was increased by high-K(+)-induced membrane depolarization. Desialylation also occurred during hippocampus-dependent memory formation in a contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. Our results show that neural activity-dependent desialylation by sialidase may be involved in hippocampal memory processing. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. A simple and highly effective process for the preparation of activated carbons with high surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying, E-mail: liyingjlu@163.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding Xuefeng; Guo Yupeng; Wang Lili; Rong Chunguang; Qu Yuning; Ma Xiaoyu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Zichen, E-mail: wangzc@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} High surface area activated carbon can be prepared by rice husk H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} without pretreatment. {yields} The characteristics of the activated carbon were greatly influenced by post-processing method. {yields} The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. {yields} Some silica in rice husk reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} which could be removed by post-process. - Abstract: Activated carbons with high surface area were prepared by phosphoric acid as activation agent and rice husks as precursors. It was found that the characteristics of the activated carbons were influenced not only by the preparation but also by the post-processing method. The high surface area of the activated carbons was prepared under the optimum condition (50% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with impregnation ratio of 5:1, activation temperature of 500 deg. C, activation time of 0.5 h, wash water temperature of 100 deg. C). SiO{sub 2} content could affect the surface area of activated carbons, either. The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. The SiO{sub 2} content was 11.2% when used the optimum condition. The explanation was that silicon element in rice husks reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form silicon phosphate (SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and it could be proved further by X-ray diffraction analysis, SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} could be removed by post-process.

  15. [Research on the treatment of wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-Qiong; Huang, Cheng-Lan; Liu, Min; Chen, Ying

    2012-11-01

    The wastewater containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was characterized with poor biodegradability, and was difficult to remove. In order to find an economically reasonable and practical technology, the research on the removal efficiency of different concentration wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process was studied, and the result was compared with the traditional activated sludge process. The results showed that the ozonation-activated sludge process was not suitable for treating influent with COD below 500 mg x L(-1) and the wastewater PVA concentration was 10-30 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was between 500-800 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 15-60 mg x L(-1), the system had advantages on dealing with this kind of wastewater, and the average removal efficiency of COD and PVA were 92.8% and 57.4%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 4.1% and 15.2% respectively. In addition, the effluent concentrations of COD could keep between 30-60 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was 1 000-1 200 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 20-70 mg x L(-1), the average removal efficiencies of COD and PVA were 90.9% and 45.3%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 12.8% and 12.1% respectively, but the effluent should to be further treated. Compared with the traditional activated sludge process, ozonation-activated sludge process had high treatment efficiency, stable running effect, and effectively in dealing with industrial wastewater containing PVA.

  16. Business process modeling of industrial maintenance at TRANSPETRO: integrating oil pipeline and marine terminals activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of TRANSPETRO in remodeling industrial maintenance activities focusing on: preparing for business process modeling (BPM); mapping and analyzing 'As-Is' process; designing 'To-Be' process; implementing remodeled process; improving process continuously. The conceptual model and results achieved will contribute to several areas within the company as: reliability engineering; human resources, including employees' selective processes, training and development, and certifications; standardization process encompassing standard and operational procedures adoption according to up-dating external normative references and legal requirements; health, safety and environment (HSE) performance improvement. These are some of potential benefits from BPM focusing on TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance area in the search of operational excellence. (author)

  17. Investigation of antiradical activity of plant material by thin-layer chromatography with image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olech, Marta; Komsta, Łukasz; Nowak, Renata; Cieśla, Łukasz; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2012-05-01

    A novel, easy, and cheap technique for preliminary quantitative evaluation of antiradical activity, based on HPTLC, has been proposed. This method combines chromatographic separation of polar compounds, present in plant extracts, with data analysis by means of image processing software. Bleaching of the purple DPPH colour, caused by substances with antiradical activity, was observed and recorded using a photo camera. ImageJ, a free and open source image processing program was used for quantitative measurements. For evaluation of assay efficiency, the antiradical activity of rose flower extracts (from Rosa rugosa Thunb.) was expressed as Standard Activity Coefficients (SACs), which are relative measures of the activity to the four well known antioxidants; i.e., quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, and Trolox. The method uses small amounts of free radical and is easily applicable - only a digital camera with freely available open source software is required.

  18. Process of friction-stir welding high-strength aluminum alloy and mechanical properties of joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大勇; 冯吉才; 郭德伦; 孙成彬; 栾国红; 郭和平

    2004-01-01

    The process of friction-stir welding 2A12CZ alloy has been studied. And strength and elongation tests have been performed, which demonstrated that the opportunity existed to manipulate friction-stir welding parameters in order to improve a range of material properties. The results showed that the joint strength and elongation arrived at their parameters changing, joint tensile strength and elongation had similar development. Hardness measurement indicated that the weld was softened. However, there was considerable difference in softening degree for different joint zone. The weld top had lower hardness and wider softening zone than other zone of the weld. And softening zone at advancing side was wider than that at retreating side.

  19. Static Softening in a Ni-30Fe Austenitic Model Alloy After Hot Deformation: Microstructure and Texture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beladi, Hossein; Cizek, Pavel; Taylor, Adam S.; Rohrer, Gregory S.; Hodgson, Peter D.

    2017-02-01

    In the current study, the microstructure and texture characteristics of a model Ni-30Fe austenitic alloy were investigated during hot deformation and subsequent isothermal holding. The deformation led to the formation of self-screening arrays of microbands within a majority of grains. The microbands characteristics underwent rather modest changes during the post-deformation annealing, which suggests that limited dislocation annihilation occurs within the corresponding dislocation walls. The fraction of statically recrystallized (SRX) grains progressively increased with the holding time and closely matched the softening fraction measured from the offset flow stress approach. The corresponding texture was weak and preserved its character with the holding time. There was no pronounced temperature effect on the grain boundary character distribution after the completion of SRX. The Σ3 and Σ9 coincidence site lattice boundaries were characterized as (111) pure twist and (1-14) symmetric tilt types, respectively. Nonetheless, the recrystallization temperature slightly affected the grain boundary network.

  20. Effect of water treatment additives on lime softening residual trace chemical composition--implications for disposal and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weizhi; Roessler, Justin; Blaisi, Nawaf I; Townsend, Timothy G

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR) offer potential benefits when recycled through land application. The current guidance in Florida, US allows for unrestricted land application of lime softening WTR; alum and ferric WTR require additional evaluation of total and leachable concentrations of select trace metals prior to land application. In some cases a mixed WTR is produced when lime softening is accompanied by the addition of a coagulant or other treatment chemical; applicability of the current guidance is unclear. The objective of this research was to characterize the total and leachable chemical content of WTR from Florida facilities that utilize multiple treatment chemicals. Lime and mixed lime WTR samples were collected from 18 water treatment facilities in Florida. Total and leachable concentrations of the WTR were measured. To assess the potential for disposal of mixed WTR as clean fill below the water table, leaching tests were conducted at multiple liquid to solid ratios and under reducing conditions. The results were compared to risk-based soil and groundwater contamination thresholds. Total metal concentrations of WTR were found to be below Florida soil contaminant thresholds with Fe found in the highest abundance at a concentration of 3600 mg/kg-dry. Aluminum was the only element that exceeded the Florida groundwater contaminant thresholds using SPLP (95% UCL = 0.23 mg/L; risk threshold = 0.2 mg/L). Tests under reducing conditions showed elevated concentrations of Fe and Mn, ranging from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than SPLP leachates. Mixed lime WTR concentrations (total and leachable) were lower than the ferric and alum WTR concentrations, supporting that mixed WTR are appropriately represented as lime WTR. Testing of WTR under reducing conditions demonstrated the potential for release of certain trace metals (Fe, Al, Mn) above applicable regulatory thresholds; additional evaluation is needed to assess management options where

  1. Efeito do tipo de corte e sanificantes no amaciamento de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. minimamente processado Effect of the cut type and sanitizers on the softening of fresh cut pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Frutos e hortaliças minimamente processados devem apresentar atributos de conveniência e qualidade do produto fresco. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência dos sanificantes hipoclorito de sódio (NaClO 50 ppm e 100 ppm e peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 4% e 6%, sobre os processos envolvidos no amaciamento de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. minimamente processado submetido a dois tipos de processamento: "caroço fatiado" e "caroço inteiro" e armazenado a 6 ± 1ºC e 90% a 95% UR, durante 15 dias. A cada três dias foram avaliados: perda de massa, firmeza, pectina total, pectina solúvel, atividade de pectinametilesterase (PME e atividade de poligalacturonase (PG. O pequi minimamente processado apresentou perda de massa e decréscimo de firmeza ao longo do período de armazenamento, concomitante ao aumento da atividade da enzima poligalacturonase, bem como solubilização de substâncias pécticas. Não foi verificada atividade de PME no pequi minimamente processado avaliado. Os caroços fatiados apresentaram maior teor de pectina solúvel, do 3° ao 6° dia e atividade da enzima poligalacturonase, do 3° ao 12° dia de armazenamento, em relação aos caroços inteiros. A sanificação com NaClO 50 ppm e 100 ppm, H2O2 4% e 6% determinou maior solubilização péctica em pequis minimamente processados, ao longo do armazenamento, não sendo observada influência dos sanificantes sobre as variáveis firmeza, perda de massa e atividade de poligalacturonase.Fresh cut fruits and vegetables should present convenience and quality features of the fresh produce. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the sanitizers 50ppm and 100ppm sodium hypochloride (NaClO and 4% and 6% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the involved processes in the softening of fresh cut pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. submitted to two types of processing: "sliced stone" and "whole stone" stored at 6 ± 1°C and 90% to 95% of RH during 15 days

  2. A hands-on activity for teaching product-process matrix: roadmap and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Costa Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The product-process matrix is a well-known framework proposed by Hayes and Wheelwright (1979 that is commonly used to identify processes types and to analyze the alignment of these processes with the products of a company. For didactic purposes, the matrix helps undergraduates beginners from Production Engineering to understand the logic of production systems, providing knowledge that will be essential for various course subjects. Considering the high level of abstraction of the concepts underlying the product-process matrix, this paper presents a way to facilitate the learning of them through the application of a hands-on activity which relies on the active learning philosophy. The proposed dynamic uses colored plastic sheets and PVC pipes as main materials, differing from the original proposal of Penlesky and Treleven (2005 . In addition to presenting an extremely simple exercise, which encourages its application in the classroom, another contribution of this paper is to define a complete roadmap for conducting the activity. This roadmap describes the assembly of fictitious products in customization and standardization scenarios for the comparison of two processes types of product-process matrix, job shop and assembly line. The activity revealed very successful after its application to two groups of Production Engineering undergraduates, confirmed with positive feedback from the students surveyed.

  3. PROCESS APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT OF ACTIVITY LOGISTIC OPERATOR OF WAREHOUSE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryacheva Natalia Evgenievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article methodological and practical aspects of improvement of activity of the logistic operator of warehouse services on the basis of use of a process approach in management of the organization are considered. The object of the research is justification of necessity of process approach’s in logistic operation’s activity and development of algorithm of their work at clients’ business processes and approbation of assessment technique of logistics service efficiency. Scientific novelty of this article is that it is the first time when models of business processes of warehouse logistics one developed. Also algorithmization and standartization are carried out and indicators of an assessment of efficiency of rendered logistic service are developed. Use of process approach in logistics operator activity gives him powerful advantages in competitive rivalry. The increase of efficiency of logistic operator’s commercial activity (LLC Company «Logy Log» Nizhny Novgorod after the transition in management from functions to processes fully confirms this statement. Consolidation of logistic operator’s positions in different functional areas becomes an incentive to development of logistics and as a result to reduction of costs at delivery of industrial freights and consumer goods to the final user.

  4. PROCESS APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT OF ACTIVITY LOGISTIC OPERATOR OF WAREHOUSE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Евгеньевна Горячева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article methodological and practical aspects of improvement of activity of the logistic operator of warehouse services on the basis of use of a process approach in management of the organization are considered.The object of the research is justification of necessity of process approach’s in logistic operation’s activity and development of algorithm of their work at clients’ business processes and approbation of assessment technique of logistics service efficiency.Scientific novelty of this article is that it is the first time when models of business processes of warehouse logistics one developed. Also algorithmization and standartization are carried out and indicators of an assessment of efficiency of rendered logistic service are developed.Use of process approach in logistics operator activity gives him powerful advantages in competitive rivalry. The increase of efficiency of logistic operator’s commercial activity (LLC Company «Logy Log» Nizhny Novgorod after the transition in management from functions to processes fully confirms this statement.Consolidation of logistic operator’s positions in different functional areas becomes an incentive to development of logistics and as a result to reduction of costs at delivery of industrial freights and consumer goods to the final user.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-30

  5. Effect of Tomato Industrial Processing on Phenolic Profile and Antiplatelet Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Palomo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (e.g., tomatoes has been shown to be beneficial in terms of reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The industrial processing of tomatoes into tomato-based products includes several thermal treatments. Very little is known on the effect of tomato industrial processing on antiaggregatory activity and phenolic profile. Methods: It was assessed the effect of tomato and by-products extracts on platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6 and arachidonic acid. These in vitro antithrombotic properties were further supported in an in vivo model of thrombosis. A set of antiplatelet compounds has been selected for HPLC analysis in the different extracts. Results: Some natural compounds such as chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were identified by HPLC in tomatoes and its products may inhibit platelet activation. Red tomatoes, tomato products (sauce, ketchup and juice and by-products extracts inhibited platelet aggregation induced adenosine 5'-diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 and arachidonic acid, but to a different extent. Also, pomace extract presents antithrombotic activity. Conclusions: Processed tomatoes may have a higher content of health-benefiting compounds than fresh ones. Pomace even presents the best antiplatelet activity. Finally, tomato products may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities to processed foods.

  6. The time-course and spatial distribution of brain activity associated with sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Jonathan; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2012-04-01

    Sentence comprehension involves a host of highly interrelated processes, including syntactic parsing, semantic composition, and pragmatic inferencing. In neuroimaging, a primary paradigm for examining the brain bases of sentence processing has been to compare brain activity elicited by sentences versus unstructured lists of words. These studies commonly find an effect of increased activity for sentences in the anterior temporal lobes (aTL). Together with neuropsychological data, these findings have motivated the hypothesis that the aTL is engaged in sentence level combinatorics. Combinatoric processing during language comprehension, however, occurs within tens and hundreds of milliseconds, i.e., at a time-scale much faster than the temporal resolution of hemodynamic measures. Here, we examined the time-course of sentence-level processing using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to better understand the temporal profile of activation in this common paradigm and to test a key prediction of the combinatoric hypothesis: because sentences are interpreted incrementally, word-by-word, activity associated with basic linguistic combinatorics should be time-locked to word-presentation. Our results reveal increased anterior temporal activity for sentences compared to word lists beginning approximately 250 ms after word onset. We also observed increased activation in a network of other brain areas, extending across posterior temporal, inferior frontal, and ventral medial areas. These findings confirm a key prediction of the combinatoric hypothesis for the aTL and further elucidate the spatio-temporal characteristics of sentence-level computations in the brain.

  7. Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, Lauren L; Light, Sharee N; Langenecker, Scott A; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Welsh, Robert; Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-09-01

    Visuospatial abilities are sensitive to age-related decline, although the neural basis for this decline (and its everyday behavioral correlates) is as yet poorly understood. fMRI was employed to examine age-related differences in patterns of functional activation that underlie changes in visuospatial processing. All participants completed a brief neuropsychological battery and also a figure ground task (FGT) assessing visuospatial processing while fMRI was recorded. Participants included 16 healthy older adults (OA; aged 69-82 years) and 16 healthy younger adults (YA; aged 20-35 years). We examined age-related differences in behavioral performance on the FGT in relation to patterns of fMRI activation. OA demonstrated reduced performance on the FGT task and showed increased activation of supramarginal parietal cortex as well as increased activation of frontal and temporal regions compared to their younger counterparts. Performance on the FGT related to increased supramarginal gyrus activity and increased medial prefrontal activity in OAs, but not YAs. Our results are consistent with an anterior-posterior compensation model. Successful FGT performance requires the perception and integration of multiple stimuli and thus it is plausible that healthy aging may be accompanied by changes in visuospatial processing that mimic a subtle form of dorsal simultanagnosia. Overall, decreased visuospatial processing in OA relates to an altered frontoparietal neurobiological signature that may contribute to the general phenomenon of increasingly fragmented execution of behavior associated with normal aging.

  8. Neural Activations of Guided Imagery and Music in Negative Emotional Processing: A Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun; Han, Yeji; Park, HyunWook

    2016-01-01

    The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music uses music and imagery to access and explore personal emotions associated with episodic memories. Understanding the neural mechanism of guided imagery and music (GIM) as combined stimuli for emotional processing informs clinical application. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate neural mechanisms of GIM for negative emotional processing when personal episodic memory is recalled and re-experienced through GIM processes. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in the study, which used classical music and verbal instruction stimuli to evoke negative emotions. To analyze the neural mechanism, activated regions associated with negative emotional and episodic memory processing were extracted by conducting volume analyses for the contrast between GIM and guided imagery (GI) or music (M). The GIM stimuli showed increased activation over the M-only stimuli in five neural regions associated with negative emotional and episodic memory processing, including the left amygdala, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, bilateral culmen, and left angular gyrus (AG). Compared with GI alone, GIM showed increased activation in three regions associated with episodic memory processing in the emotional context, including the right posterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and AG. No neural regions related to negative emotional and episodic memory processing showed more activation for M and GI than for GIM. As a combined multimodal stimulus, GIM may increase neural activations related to negative emotions and episodic memory processing. Findings suggest a neural basis for GIM with personal episodic memories affecting cortical and subcortical structures and functions. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evaluation of aeration energy saving in two modified activated sludge processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ingyu; Lim, Honglae; Jung, Byunghun; Colosimo, Mark F; Kim, Hyunook

    2015-12-01

    A variety of modified activated sludge processes are widely used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing organics and nutrients (N and P). Since energy consumption in aeration basin accounts for the major part of the overall energy usage in WWTPs, efforts have been made to find ways to reduce aeration energy. In this study, two modified activated sludge processes in a pilot scale designed for nutrient removal were evaluated for the extent of energy saving: (1) ABA(2) process - adjusting air on/off period (i.e., with a temporal change); and (2) MB-A(2)O process - changing volume ratio of aerobic tank to anoxic tank (i.e., with a spatial change). For the 1st process, the air on/off period was fixed at 60min/45min with aerobic fraction being 0.57, while for the 2nd process, the aerobic/anoxic volume ratio was reduced from 0.58 to 0.42. The results demonstrate that the effluent COD, TN, NH4(+) and TP concentrations are acceptable while reduced aeration time/volume certainly saves significant energy consumption. To the best of our knowledge, this is 1st attempt to reduce the aeration period or aeration volume to save the aeration energy in these two modified activated sludge processes. The implication of these observations is further discussed.

  10. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  11. Mechanistic investigation of industrial wastewater naphthenic acids removal using granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-01-15

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) found in oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) have known environmental toxicity and are resistant to conventional wastewater treatments. The granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm treatment process has been shown to effectively treat OSPW NAs via combined adsorption/biodegradation processes despite the lack of research investigating their individual contributions. Presently, the NAs removals due to the individual processes of adsorption and biodegradation in OSPW bioreactors were determined using sodium azide to inhibit biodegradation. For raw OSPW, after 28 days biodegradation and adsorption contributed 14% and 63% of NA removal, respectively. For ozonated OSPW, biodegradation removed 18% of NAs while adsorption reduced NAs by 73%. Microbial community 454-pyrosequencing of bioreactor matrices indicated the importance of biodegradation given the diverse carbon degrading families including Acidobacteriaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae, and Comamonadaceae. Overall, results highlight the ability to determine specific processes of NAs removals in the combined treatment process in the presence of diverse bacteria metabolic groups found in GAC bioreactors.

  12. Process-Based Governance in Public Administrations Using Activity-Based Costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jörg; Bergener, Philipp; Räckers, Michael

    Decision- and policy-makers in public administrations currently lack on missing relevant information for sufficient governance. In Germany the introduction of New Public Management and double-entry accounting enable public administrations to get the opportunity to use cost-centered accounting mechanisms to establish new governance mechanisms. Process modelling in this case can be a useful instrument to help the public administrations decision- and policy-makers to structure their activities and capture relevant information. In combination with approaches like Activity-Based Costing, higher management level can be supported with a reasonable data base for fruitful and reasonable governance approaches. Therefore, the aim of this article is combining the public sector domain specific process modelling method PICTURE and concept of activity-based costing for supporting Public Administrations in process-based Governance.

  13. New insight into the biological treatment by activated sludge: the role of adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Li, Xinrun; Zhang, Qingrui; Peng, Qiuming; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Faming

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adsorption on the biological treatment process of wastewater. In the absence of substrate in the water, activated sludge developed well in the first hour, indicating that the growth of microorganism was not directly related to substrate concentration and the dissolved organic matter in the water assays were performed, no organic matter was detected out, revealing that there was no desorption in the activated sludge adsorption process. Activated sludge batch growth experiments in the presence of different adsorption capacities indicated that specific growth rate increased as specific adsorption capacity increased. The experiment on the relationship of adsorption capacity and substrate concentration or sludge concentration was also carried out. Specific adsorption capacity increased as sludge load increased, presenting linear correlation. The experiment results showed that adsorption should be taken into account in the study of the biological treatment process of wastewater.

  14. D_3合成氨基硅油在织物柔软整理中的应用%Application of D3 Synthesized Amino- Silicone Oil in Fabric Softening and Finishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜高敏; 单巨川; 郑庆康; 冯西宁

    2012-01-01

    采用六甲基环三硅氧烷(D3)合成不同氨值的羟基、甲基和甲氧基封端氨基硅油乳液并将其用于纯棉、涤/棉织物进行柔软整理,通过分析氨值、封端剂对整理后织物的手感、白度、强力、平均弯曲长度等指标的影响,得出D3合成氨基硅油对纺织品柔软整理的可行性。试验结果表明,通常情况下,随着氨值增加,整理后织物的手感变好、平均弯曲长度变小、强力下降、白度稍有降低;具有活性封端剂的氨基硅油整理织物的柔软性要优于非活性封端剂氨基硅油。%Hydroxyl, methyl and methoxyl terminal amino - silicone emulsion with different amine values synthesized by using D3 (hexamethylcyclotrisioxane) was applied to the softening and finishing of pure cotton of softening and finishing of D3 synthesized amino - silicone oil for fabric was concluded. The experiment showed that with the increase of amine value, the handle of fabric was better, average bending length was shortened and whiteness was decreased after finishing, the softness of fabric finished by amino - silicone oil with active end - capping reagent was better than the one with non - active end - capping reagent.

  15. Activation processes on GaAs photocathode by different currents of oxygen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhuang; Shi, Feng; Cheng, Hongchang; Wang, Shufei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Chang

    2015-04-01

    In order to know the influence of activation processes on GaAs photocathodes, three GaAs samples were activated by a fixed current of cesium source and different currents of oxygen source. The current of caesium source is same during activation to ensure initial adsorption of caesium quantum is similar, which is the base to show the difference during alternation activation of caesium and oxygen. Analysed with the activation data, it is indicated that Cs-to-O current ratio of 1.07 is the optimum ratio to obtain higher sensitivity and better stability. According to double dipole model, stable and uniform double dipole layers of GaAs-O-Cs:Cs-O-Cs are formed and negative electron affinity is achieved on GaAs surface by activation with cesium and oxygen. The analytical result is just coincident with the model. Thus there is an efficient technological method to improve sensitivity and stability of GaAs photocathode.

  16. Preparation of two ester-containing Gemini quaternary ammonium softener and its properties%双酯基Gemini季铵盐柔软剂的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄平均; 朱红军; 丁徽; 牛华

    2011-01-01

    A di-ester Gemini quaternary ammonium softener( DEGOS) is prepared with dimethyl stearic acid ethyl tertiary amine and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol as raw materials. The optimum synthesis conditions ara determined via orthogonal experiments as follows∶reaction at 80 ℃ for 12 hours with n( 1 , 3-dichloro-2-propanol) ∶ n ( dimethyl stearic acid ethyl tertiary amine) = 1 ∶ 2.1and ethanol of 40% , and the yield reaches 89.3%. The product is characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR, and its application properties are studied. The results show that the product features good surface activity with surface tension of 35.9 mN/m, critical micelle concentration of 0.039 mmol/L and Krafft point of - 3.41 ℃, good softening property similar to that of commercial softener D1821, and good rewetting property and biodegradability, as well as low influence on whiteness of the fabric.%以二甲基硬脂酸乙酯基叔胺和l,3-二氯-2-丙醇为原料,合成了一种双酯基Gemini季铵盐织物柔软剂(DEGQS).通过正交试验考察了反应的影响因素,确定优化工艺条件为:n(1,3-二氯-2-丙醇):n(二甲基硬脂酸乙酯基叔胺)=1:2.1,反应温度80℃,W(乙醇)=40%(占反应物总量的质量分数),反应时间12 h,在该条件下目标产物的收率达到89.3%.通过FTIR、元素分析和1H-NMR对DEGQS进行表征,并研究其应用性能,结果表明,该柔软剂的表面张力35.9 mN/m,临界胶束浓度0.039 mmol/L,Krafft点为-3.41℃,表面活性较好,柔软性能与D1821基本相当,具有优良的再润湿性和生物降解性能,对织物的白度影响较小.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni78Fe22 thin films sandwiched between low-softening-point glasses and application in spin devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Takahiro; Mori, Sumito; Komine, Takashi; Fujioka, Masaya; Nishii, Junji; Kaiju, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Ni78Fe22 thin films sandwiched between low-softening-point (LSP) glasses, which can be used in spin quantum cross (SQC) devices utilizing stray magnetic fields generated from magnetic thin-film edges. We also calculate the stray magnetic field generated between the two edges of Ni78Fe22 thin-film electrodes in SQC devices and discuss the applicability to spin-filter devices. Using the established fabrication technique, we successfully demonstrate the formation of LSP-glass/Ni78Fe22/LSP-glass structures with smooth and clear interfaces. The coercivity of the Ni78Fe22 thin films is enhanced from 0.9 to 103 Oe by increasing the applied pressure from 0 to 1.0 MPa in the thermal pressing process. According to the random anisotropy model, the enhancement of the coercivity is attributed to the increase in the crystal grain size. The stray magnetic field is also uniformly generated from the Ni78Fe22 thin-film edge in the direction perpendicular to the cross section of the LSP-glass/Ni78Fe22/LSP-glass structures. Theoretical calculation reveals that a high stray field of approximately 5 kOe is generated when the distance between two edges of the Ni78Fe22 thin-film electrodes is less than 5 nm and the thickness of Ni78Fe22 is greater than 20 nm. These experimental and calculation results indicate that Ni78Fe22 thin films sandwiched between LSP glasses are useful as electrodes for SQC devices, serving as spin-filter devices.

  18. Dissociating sentential prosody from sentence processing: activation interacts with task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Creusere, Marlena; Sabin, Cynthia

    2002-09-01

    Sentence processing was contrasted with processing of syntactic prosody under two task conditions in order to examine the representation of these components of language and their interaction with working memory load. Twelve adults received fMDI scans while they listened to low-pass filtered and unfiltered sentences either passively, or during tasks that required subjects to remember and recognize information contained in the stimuli. Results indicated that temporal activation for prosodic stimuli differed compared to activation for sentence stimuli only during passive listening tasks. The inclusion of memory demands was associated with frontal activation, which was differentially lateralized for sentence and prosodic stimuli. The results demonstrate differential brain activation for prosodic vs sentential stimuli which interacts with the memory demands placed on the subjects.

  19. Effect of Processing Variables and Enzymatic Activity on Wheat Flour Dough Extruded Under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Giuliani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Low processing temperatures are required to improve the texture of products when enzymes are directly added to the extruder. Interaction among processing variables and enzymatic activity can occur during extrusion. In this research, the influence of some extrusion parameters (barrel temperature, dough moisture and screw speed on the activity of two commercial enzymes (Grindamyl Amylase 1000 and Grindamyl Protease 41 has been studied. Wheat flour was used as a model system, and macromolecular degradation was determined by water solubility index (WSI. Moreover, gelatinization degree and die pressure were evaluated. Results showed that barrel temperature affected enzyme activity. High values of WSI were obtained at high barrel temperature using Grindamyl Protease 41. When Grindamyl Amylase 1000 was used, low values of starch gelatinization were obtained. The activity of both enzymes was negatively affected by high values of dough moisture.

  20. Inactive experiments for advanced separation processes prior to high activity trials in ATALANTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamet, Jean; Lanoe, Jean-Yves; Rivalier, Patrick; Borda, Gilles [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), CEA/DEN/VRH/DTEC/SGCS, Centre de Marcoule - BP 17171, 302007 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Many trials have been performed in ATALANTE's shielded cells to demonstrate the technical feasibility of processes involving minor actinide separation. They required developments of new extractors as well as a step by step procedure have been used to lower the risks of malfunction during high active operation. The design of the extractors developed by Cea has included shielded cells restrictions, miniaturization to lower the quantity of high active material and wastes and the care for being representative of industrial equipment. After individual shake down inactive tests, with actual phases, each process experiment scheduled in ATALANTE has been tested at G1 Facility in Marcoule. The objective was to reproduce as much as possible all the equipment chosen for active tests. This procedure has demonstrated its efficiency to detect many problems that would have heavy impact if they have been discovered during active trials. It was also used for operators'training. (authors)

  1. Effects of Cu on metabolisms and enzyme activities of microbial communities in the process of composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingliang; Gu, Jie; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun; Chen, Zhixue; Shao, Li; Chen, Lin; Li, Hailong; Zhang, Weijuan; Chen, Shengnan; Liu, Jiang

    2012-03-01

    With the compost matrix of pig manure, wheat straw, and spent mushroom substrate, and then inoculated with the Compound Microbe Preparation, the study investigated the effects of the heavy metal Cu on the process of composting. Biolog EcoPlate™ test revealed that at a low content, Cu could improve the capacities of microbial communities to transform and exploit carbon sources in the form of polymer, thus speeding up the decomposition of agricultural wastes, and at a high content, Cu presented inhibiting effect on microbial communities to exploit complex macromolecular carbon sources, thus extending the decomposition of agricultural wastes. Enzyme activity testing showed that at a low content, Cu presented enzyme activity-activating effect at the early period of composting and inhibiting effect in the late period of composting, and at a high content, Cu presented enzyme activity-inhibiting effects through the process of composting.

  2. Startup of the Anammox Process in a Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) from Conventional Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutwiński, P; Cema, G; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A; Surmacz-Górska, J; Osadnik, M

    2016-12-01

      In this study, a laboratory-scale anammox process in a membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was used to startup the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process from conventional activated sludge. Stable operation was achieved after 125 days. From that time, nitrogen load was gradually increased. After six months, the average nitrogen removal efficiency exceeded 80%. The highest obtained special anammox activity (SAA) achieved was 0.17 g (-N + -N) (g VSS × d)-1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization also proved the presence of the anammox bacteria, typically a genus of Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis.

  3. Activity of processes on the visible surfaces of Solar System bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the physical processes on the surfaces of Solar System bodies, which lead to visible changes in their reflective characteristics. It is shown that each body in the Solar system has a set of chemical elements and their compounds, converting of which indicates significant activity in such a significant temperature change range from 700 K (for Mercury) to 30 K for Pluto. That is, all objects in the Solar system show a significant activity. However, they are very individual for the list and the type of the processes that take place on each body in the Solar system.

  4. Active Elements for Analog Signal Processing: Classification, Review, and New Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kolka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, an analysis of the state-of-the-art of active elements for analog signal processing is presented which support – in contrast to the conventional operational amplifiers – not only the voltage-mode but also the current- and mixed-mode operations. Several problems are addressed which are associated with the utilization of these elements in linear applications, particularly in frequency filters. A methodology is proposed which generates a number of fundamentally new active elements with their potential utilization in various areas of signal processing.

  5. Optimization of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process regarding the antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Vidović Senka S.; Zeković Zoran P.; Lepojević Žika D.; Radojković Marija M.; Jokić Stela D.; Anačkov Goran T.

    2012-01-01

    The levels of input variables (temperature and extraction solvent) that optimize a particular response (total phenols content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity) of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process were determined by the response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of theextraction temperature on extraction process was investigated in the range from 33.8ºC to 76.2ºC, as well as of extraction solvent ethanol, in the range of concentrations from 21.7% to 78....

  6. Excess sludge reduction in activated sludge processes by integrating ultrasound treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Elvira, S.; Fdz-Polanco, M.; Plaza, F. I.; Garralon, G.; Fdz-Polanco, F.

    2009-07-01

    Biological sludge produced in the activated sludge process can be minimised modifying the water line, the sludge line or the final disposal strategy. Selecting the water line the general idea is to reduce the sludge producing the yield coefficient by means of the called lysis cryptic growth process. The main techniques referenced in literature are onization, chlorination and chemical and heat treatment. Ultrasounds are widely used to increase anaerobic biodegradability but are not reported as system to control excess sludge production. (Author)

  7. Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

    2006-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (preading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

  8. [TTC-ETS activity monitoring of A2/O process for combined sewage treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Dai, Xing-Chun; Chen, Xi; Huang, Min-Sheng; Zhu, Yong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Guo-Hua

    2009-06-15

    The influences of variations of temperature and F/M on the TTC-ETS activity have been experimentally studied. The correlation between TTC-ETS activity and COD degradation was also analyzed. Comparing TTC-ETS activities with physical and chemical indexes when high C/N ratio impacted A2/O process, the advantages and disadvantages of using TTC-ETS activity to characterize the status of A2/O process were illustrated. The results showed that both temperature and F/M were positively correlated with TTC-ETS activity. TC-ETS activity was in the range of 13.2-48.3 mg/(g x h) and the maximum value was 60 mg/(g x h) which had a significant relationship with COD removal rate. In this system, abnormal state was pre-warned by TTC-ETS activity. The highest removal rate of COD appeared when TTC-ETS activity was 41.0 mg/(g x h).

  9. Highly Efficient, Simplified, Solution-Processed Thermally Activated Delayed-Fluorescence Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Cho, Himchan; Jeong, Su-Hun; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-27

    Highly efficient, simplified, solution-processed thermally activated delayed-fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes can be realized by using pure-organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters and a multifunctional buffer hole-injection layer, in which high EQE (≈24%) and current efficiency (≈73 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated. High-efficiency fluorescence red-emitting and blue-emitting devices can also be fabricated in this manner.

  10. Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstolpe, Lisa; Johansson, Andreas; Skau, Tommy; Rutberg, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR) containing two interrelated parts, "ProcessGuide and CostControl," was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management.

  11. Effects of human activities on the ecological processes of river biofilms in a highly urbanized river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many anthropogenic disturbances and their effects of aquatic ecosystem are difficult to quantify in urbanized rivers. In past, specific taxa analysis of community structure was a common approach in river health monitoring studies. However, it is still difficult to understand stream ecosystem integrity without considering ecosystem processes. The complex species composition and metabolism of a river biofilm have the capacity to interact and/or modulate their surrounding environment. Because of their short life cycles, species richness, and worldwide distribution, structure and function of river biofilm communities are sensitive to change in environmental conditions. Therefore, biofilms are widely used as early warning systems of water pollution for water quality monitoring studies. In this study, we used river biofilms as a bioindicator by examining their extracellular enzyme activities and photosynthesis efficiency to understand human activities on the ecological processes of river ecosystem in a highly urbanized river. We sampled four sites along the Keelung River, Taiwan, based on different intensities of anthropogenic disturbances including water pollution index, population densities, land use types and types of stream habitats. Two study sites are heavily influenced by human activities and the others are not. The activities of extracellular enzymes within the biofilm play an important function for organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. We measured seven extracellular enzyme activities (β-d-glucosidase, phosphatase, leucine-aminopeptidase, sulfatase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and esterase) to examine specific enzyme activity changes at four study sites monthly. In addition, relative proportion of each extracellular enzyme activity on total enzyme activities was calculated in order to examine the relationship between functional biofilm profiles and different urban intensities. Among four study sites, leucine-aminopeptidase and esterase

  12. Impact of thermal processing and the Maillard reaction on the basophil activation of hazelnut allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Bridts, Chris; Devreese, Bart; Ebo, Didier

    2012-05-01

    Food allergy, an abnormal immunological response due to sensitization to a food component, has become an important health problem, especially in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of thermal processing and glycation on the basophil activation by hazelnut proteins using a basophil activation test. Patients with systemic allergic reactions (SR; n=6) to hazelnut as well as patients with an isolated oral allergy syndrome (OAS; n=4) were investigated. Thermal processing of hazelnut proteins either in the presence or absence of wheat proteins did not result in major changes in the stimulatory activity of the basophils for patients with SR or OAS. For the patients with OAS, incubation of hazelnut proteins with glucose led to complete depletion of the stimulatory activity of the basophils. An increase in stimulatory activity of the basophils for two out of six patients with SR was observed. For the other four patients slight or complete abolition of the stimulatory activity was observed. These results indicate that some patients with SR to hazelnut are at risk when exposed to hazelnut proteins, even in processed foods.

  13. Ensuring the Process of Realisation of Financial Planning of Banking Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkach Svitlana M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies theoretical aspects of the process of realisation of financial planning of the bank’s activity and identifies and justifies its six main stages: 1 goal formation stage; 2 preparation stage; 3 assessment; 4 financial plan approval; 5 financial plan execution, and 6 stage of the financial plan monitoring, control and adjustment. The above sequence of stages of the process of realisation of financial planning of the bank’s activity allows a trustworthy assessment of the bank’s activity environment, formation of specific goals and tasks of the bank’s activity, and also to determine the ways of their achievement, and so on. The result of the process of realisation of financial planning of the bank’s activity is the bank’s financial plan, which is proposed to divide into four sub-sections: plan of the bank’s assets and liabilities; plan of the bank’s receipts and expenditures; plan of the bank’s cash flows; and plan of forecast values of basic financial indicators of the bank’s activity.

  14. Perceptions Towards Non-Value-Adding Activities During The Construction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Haryati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-value-adding activities are pure waste during the construction process. However, most of the construction practitioner does not realise that most of the activities performed during the construction process add no value to their project. A total of 375 numbers of questionnaires distributed to the Developer, Jabatan Kerja Raya, Consultants and Contractors. The study found that awareness by construction participants in Malaysia to take actions against non-value-adding activities during the construction process is relatively low. Through analysed by using the Pareto Chart, it has been found that defects and waiting time are two categories of non-value-adding activities that need to be prioritised by the industry. It is also found that non-value-adding activities most frequently occurred during structural and architectural work. This paper also reviewed on the causes of non-value-adding activities and discussed its effect towards time, cost, quality and productivity of the construction project. This paper is also important to give clearness and broader understandings on this form of waste other than material waste.

  15. Comparison of heat-transfer coefficient for seawater with softening pretreatment and seawater%脱硬海水与海水传热系数的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雁鸣; 马敬环; 刘莹

    2013-01-01

    分别用经过脱硬预处理的海水和传统预处理的海水(以下称海水)进行水平管降膜蒸发实验.研究结果表明,在沸点低于70℃时,随着沸点的升高,两者的传热系数都逐渐增大,但脱硬后海水的传热系数略高于海水;在沸点高于70℃时,脱硬后海水的传热系数远远大于海水.也就是说,脱硬后海水可以在高温时也达到很高的传热系数,从而为脱硬预处理与多效蒸发系统相结合提供实验与设计基础.%In this paper,seawater with simple pretreatment and seawater with softening pretreatment were used to horizontal tube falling film evaporation experiments respectively.Experimentalresults showed that these two heat-transfer coefficients gradually increased with boiling point rising,and the heat-transfer seawater s when the boiling coefficient of seawater with softening pretreatment was slightly higher than seawater'point was below 70 ℃.The heat-transfer coefficient of seawater with softening pretreatment was much higher than the seawater' s when the boiling point was above 70 ℃.In an other word,seawater with softening pretreatment could achieve high heat-transfer coefficient at high temperatures.The experiment provided the experimental and designed base for the combination of softening pretreatment and multiple effect evaporation system.

  16. Redução do amaciamento de banana 'Maçã' minimamente processada pelo uso de tratamentos químicos Softening reduction of fresh-cut 'apple' banana by using of chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Adriano Martins Melo

    2007-06-01

    (AA, calcium chloride (CC, L-cysteine hydrochloride (Cis and Na2EDTA, employed in association with modified atmosphere, on prevention of the softening of minimally processed 'Apple' banana. The following combinations were used: 1 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 0,5%; 2 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 1%; 3 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 1,5%; 4 (Na2EDTA 1%; forming the 4 treatments of a completely randomly design. The bananas, in maturity stage 6, were treated with a sodium hypochlorite solution 500 ppm, peeled and manually sliced, submitted to the chemical treatments by dipping and wrapped with PVC 30µm films. Later, the slices were stored during 5 days at 5 ± 1ºC e 85 ± 3% UR. The mass loss was linear during the storage period and higher in Na2EDTA 1% treated slices. The firmness loss was lesser in the slices under the treatment 3, which presented lower polygalacturonase activity values until the 3rd day of storage. After the second day of storage, the slices under the treatment 4 showed the highest pectinmethylesterase activity, and those under treatments 2 and 3, the lowest. Higher content of soluble pectin and total soluble solids were observed in EDTA treated slices, mainly beginning from the 3rd day of storage. The increase in total soluble sugars was higher in the treatments 1 and 2 until the 3rd day of storage. The chemical mixture 3 (AA 1% + CC 1% + Cis 1,5% was the most effective in avoiding the softening of minimally processed 'Apple' bananas.

  17. Stoichiometric deduction of activated sludge process for organic carbon and nitrogen removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-yong; ZOU Lian-pei

    2009-01-01

    The activated sludge process (ASP) is the most generally applied biological wastewater treatment method. The ASP for the removal of organic carbon and nitrogen can be looked as the combination of eight processes. In order to set up an ASP model, the stoichiometric coefficients should be deduced so that the stoichiometric matrix can be presented. The important assumptions and simplifications behind the model for ASP are enumerated. Using the matrix, mass balance equation and consistent units, the stoichiometric coefficients in the eight processes are exclusively deduced one by one.

  18. Community Vision and Interagency Alignment: A Community Planning Process to Promote Active Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregory, Sarah Timmins; Chaudhury, Nupur; Kennedy, Patrick; Noyes, Philip; Maybank, Aletha

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer streets locally. Consensus among residents and key multisectoral stakeholders, including city agencies and community-based organizations, was garnered in support of a planned expansion of bicycling infrastructure. The process of building on community assets and applying a collective impact approach yielded changes in the built environment, attracted new partners and resources, and helped to restore a sense of power among residents.

  19. Activity of fuel batches processed through Hanford separations plants, 1944 through 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, R.A.; Wootan, D.W.

    1997-07-29

    This document provides a printout of the ``Fuel Activity Database`` (version U6) generated by the Hanford DKPRO code and transmitted to the Los Alamos National Laboratory for input to their ``Hanford Defined Waste`` model of waste tank inventories. This fuel activity file consists of 1,276 records--each record representing the activity associated with a batch of spent reactor fuel processed by month (or shorter period) through individual Hanford separations plants between 1944 and 1989. Each record gives the curies for 46 key radionuclides, decayed to a common reference date of January 1, 1994.

  20. Differential brain activation to angry faces by elite warfighters: neural processing evidence for enhanced threat detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Paulus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the neural basis of elite performers and their optimal performance in extreme environments. The purpose of this study was to examine brain processing differences between elite warfighters and comparison subjects in brain structures that are important for emotion processing and interoception. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Navy Sea, Air, and Land Forces (SEALs while off duty (n = 11 were compared with n = 23 healthy male volunteers while performing a simple emotion face-processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Irrespective of the target emotion, elite warfighters relative to comparison subjects showed relatively greater right-sided insula, but attenuated left-sided insula, activation. Navy SEALs showed selectively greater activation to angry target faces relative to fearful or happy target faces bilaterally in the insula. This was not accounted for by contrasting positive versus negative emotions. Finally, these individuals also showed slower response latencies to fearful and happy target faces than did comparison subjects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the hypothesis that elite warfighters deploy greater processing resources toward potential threat-related facial expressions and reduced processing resources to non-threat-related facial expressions. Moreover, rather than expending more effort in general, elite warfighters show more focused neural and performance tuning. In other words, greater neural processing resources are directed toward threat stimuli and processing resources are conserved when facing a nonthreat stimulus situation.