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Sample records for active softening process

  1. Basic process of irradiation softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makii, Koichi; Tsutsumi, Tetsuo; Aono, Yasuhisa; Kuramoto, Eiichi

    1987-01-01

    The authors have been engaged in research that uses the Johnson-Wilson potential (i.e., potential between two bodies) to analyze the interaction between the core of a spiral dislocation and point defects (interstitial atoms) under stress. Metals with the body-centered cubic structure, however, have covalent bonding nature and multi-body effects of d-electrons cannot be ignored. In the present work, the N-body potential, which takes into account such multi-body effects of d-electrons, is compared with the Johnson-Wilson potential. Compared to the Johnson-Wilson potential, the N-body potential suffers a considerably smaller misfit energy and allows computer simulation of the interaction to be performed at an external force level closer to that used in measurement. Low-stress, long-period relaxation causes pipe diffusion of crowdions. This causes the expansion of ''three-kink configuration'', leading to hardening. As a result of the pipe diffusion, crowdions are absorbed into spiral dislocations and released out of the crystal. It has been reported that during a tensile test at 77 K, irradiated samples are softened at the yield point and the degree of softening recovers as the strain increases. This also supports the idea that the number of defects decreases due to the interaction between dislocations and interstitial atoms. (Nogami, K.)

  2. A novel eco-friendly technique for efficient control of lime water softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovar, Mohamad; Amiri, Mohamad

    2013-12-01

    Lime softening is an established type of water treatment used for water softening. The performance of this process is highly dependent on lime dosage. Currently, lime dosage is adjusted manually based on chemical tests, aimed at maintaining the phenolphthalein (P) and total (M) alkalinities within a certain range (2 P - M > or = 5). In this paper, a critical study of the softening process has been presented. It has been shown that the current method is frequently incorrect. Furthermore, electrical conductivity (EC) has been introduced as a novel indicator for effectively characterizing the lime softening process.This novel technique has several advantages over the current alkalinities method. Because no chemical reagents are needed for titration, which is a simple test, there is a considerable reduction in test costs. Additionally, there is a reduction in the treated water hardness and generated sludge during the lime softening process. Therefore, it is highly eco-friendly, and is a very cost effective alternative technique for efficient control of the lime softening process.

  3. Phases of fracture process zone and tension softening properties of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihashi, H.; Nomura, N.

    1991-01-01

    The safety and serviceability of concrete structures are influenced very much by the cracking behavior of concrete. Since comprehensive numerical analysis techniques have been extensively developed to predict the mechanical behavior of concrete structures in the limit state, it is essential to study the constitutive laws to describe the cracking behavior of concrete in detail. The tension softening behavior of concrete is highly dominated by the existence of a fracture process zone (FPZ) ahead of a crack tip. Since the direct observation of the FPZ of concrete is hardly possible, the indirect techniques are applied, but it is still ambiguous what happens in the FPZ and how it affects the tension softening property. The purpose of this study is to present the property of the FPZ focusing on the influence of material structures by means of three-dimensional acoustic emission. These results are correlated to tension softening behavior evaluated by a numerical analysis to discuss how the tension softening property is related to the characteristics of the FPZ. The test procedure and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Significance, evolution and recent advances in adsorption technology, materials and processes for desalination, water softening and salt removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei Shahmirzadi, Mohammad Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Luo, Jianquan; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2018-06-01

    Desalination and softening of sea, brackish, and ground water are becoming increasingly important solutions to overcome water shortage challenges. Various technologies have been developed for salt removal from water resources including multi-stage flash, multi-effect distillation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, electrodialysis, as well as adsorption. Recently, removal of solutes by adsorption onto selective adsorbents has shown promising perspectives. Different types of adsorbents such as zeolites, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), activated carbons, graphenes, magnetic adsorbents, and low-cost adsorbents (natural materials, industrial by-products and wastes, bio-sorbents, and biopolymer) have been synthesized and examined for salt removal from aqueous solutions. It is obvious from literature that the existing adsorbents have good potentials for desalination and water softening. Besides, nano-adsorbents have desirable surface area and adsorption capacity, though are not found at economically viable prices and still have challenges in recovery and reuse. On the other hand, natural and modified adsorbents seem to be efficient alternatives for this application compared to other types of adsorbents due to their availability and low cost. Some novel adsorbents are also emerging. Generally, there are a few issues such as low selectivity and adsorption capacity, process efficiency, complexity in preparation or synthesis, and problems associated to recovery and reuse that require considerable improvements in research and process development. Moreover, large-scale applications of sorbents and their practical utility need to be evaluated for possible commercialization and scale up. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of acoustic softening on the thermal-mechanical process of ultrasonic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunkun; Zhang, Yansong; Wang, Hongze

    2017-03-01

    Application of ultrasonic energy can reduce the static stress necessary for plastic deformation of metallic materials to reduce forming load and energy, namely acoustic softening effect (ASE). Ultrasonic welding (USW) is a rapid joining process utilizing ultrasonic energy to form a solid state joint between two or more pieces of metals. Quantitative characterization of ASE and its influence on specimen deformation and heat generation is essential to clarify the thermal-mechanical process of ultrasonic welding. In the present work, experiments were set up to found out mechanical behavior of copper and aluminum under combined effect of compression force and ultrasonic energy. Constitutive model was proposed and numerical implemented in finite element model of ultrasonic welding. Thermal-mechanical analysis was put forward to explore the effect of ultrasonic energy on the welding process quantitatively. Conclusions can be drawn that ASE increases structural deformation significantly, which is beneficial for joint formation. Meanwhile, heat generation from both frictional work and plastic deformation is slightly influenced by ASE. Based on the proposed model, relationship between ultrasonic energy and thermal-mechanical behavior of structure during ultrasonic welding was constructed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The N-glycan processing enzymes α-mannosidase and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase are involved in ripening-associated softening in the non-climacteric fruits of capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sumit; Meli, Vijaykumar S.; Kumar, Anil; Thakur, Archana; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2011-01-01

    Excessive softening of fruits during the ripening process leads to deterioration. This is of significant global importance as softening-mediated deterioration leads to huge postharvest losses. N-glycan processing enzymes are reported to play an important role during climacteric fruit softening: however, to date these enzymes have not been characterized in non-climacteric fruit. Two ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzymes, α-mannosidase (α-Man) and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex), have been identified and targeted to enhance the shelf life in non-climacteric fruits such as capsicum (Capsicum annuum). The purification, cloning, and functional characterization of α-Man and β-Hex from capsicum, which belong to glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families 38 and 20, respectively, are described here. α-Man and β-Hex are cell wall glycoproteins that are able to cleave terminal α-mannose and β-D-N-acetylglucosamine residues of N-glycans, respectively. α-Man and β-Hex transcripts as well as enzyme activity increase with the ripening and/or softening of capsicum. The function of α-Man and β-Hex in capsicum softening is investigated through RNA interference (RNAi) in fruits. α-Man and β-Hex RNAi fruits were approximately two times firmer compared with the control and fruit deterioration was delayed by approximately 7 d. It is shown that silencing of α-Man and β-Hex enhances fruit shelf life due to the reduced degradation of N-glycoproteins which resulted in delayed softening. Altogether, the results provide evidence for the involvement of N-glycan processing in non-climacteric fruit softening. In conclusion, genetic engineering of N-glycan processing can be a common strategy in both climacteric and non-climacteric species to reduce the post-harvest crop losses. PMID:21030387

  7. Circular economy in drinking water treatment: reuse of ground pellets as seeding material in the pellet softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, M J A; van der Hoek, J P; Kramer, O J I; Kors, L J; Palmen, L J; Hofs, B; Koppers, H

    2015-01-01

    Calcium carbonate pellets are produced as a by-product in the pellet softening process. In the Netherlands, these pellets are applied as a raw material in several industrial and agricultural processes. The sand grain inside the pellet hinders the application in some high-potential market segments such as paper and glass. Substitution of the sand grain with a calcite grain (100% calcium carbonate) is in principle possible, and could significantly improve the pellet quality. In this study, the grinding and sieving of pellets, and the subsequent reuse as seeding material in pellet softening were tested with two pilot reactors in parallel. In one reactor, garnet sand was used as seeding material, in the other ground calcite. Garnet sand and ground calcite performed equally well. An economic comparison and a life-cycle assessment were made as well. The results show that the reuse of ground calcite as seeding material in pellet softening is technologically possible, reduces the operational costs by €38,000 (1%) and reduces the environmental impact by 5%. Therefore, at the drinking water facility, Weesperkarspel of Waternet, the transition from garnet sand to ground calcite will be made at full scale, based on this pilot plant research.

  8. Changes in alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase activity in peel and pulp of banana (Musa sp.) fruits during ripening and softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun-Ping; Su, Jing; Li, Xue-Ping; Chen, Wei-Xin

    2007-04-01

    Arabinose is one of the most dynamic cell wall glycosyl residues released during fruit ripening, alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase (alpha-Arab) are major glycosidases that may remove arabinose units from fruit cell wall polysaccharides. To find out whether alpha-Arab plays important roles in banana fruit softening, the enzyme activities in peel and pulp, fruit firmness, respiration rate and ethylene release rate were assayed during banana softening. The results showed that alpha-Arab activities in banana pulp and peel increased slightly at the beginning of storage and reached their maxima when the fruit firmness decreased drastically, alpha-Arab activity increased by more than ten folds in both pulp and peel during ripening and alpha-Arab activities were higher in pulp than in peel. Treatment of banana fruits with ethylene absorbent postponed the time of reaching of its maxima of respiration and ethylene, enhanced the firmness of pup and decreased alpha-Arab activity in the peel and pulp. These results suggest that alpha-Arab induced the decrease of fruit firmness and played an important role in banana fruit softening, and its activity was regulated by ethylene.

  9. Improve the material absorption of light and enhance the laser tube bending process utilizing laser softening heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhan, Khalil Ibraheem; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Zakaria, Azmi; Ismail, Mohd Idris Shah B.; Alsabti, Naseer Mahdi Hadi; Ahmad, Ahmad Kamal

    2018-02-01

    Laser forming is a flexible control process that has a wide spectrum of applications; particularly, laser tube bending. It offers the perfect solution for many industrial fields, such as aerospace, engines, heat exchangers, and air conditioners. A high power pulsed Nd-YAG laser with a maximum average power of 300 W emitting at 1064 nm and fiber-coupled is used to irradiate stainless steel 304 (SS304) tubes of 12.7 mm diameter, 0.6 mm thickness and 70 mm length. Moreover, a motorized rotation stage with a computer controller is employed to hold and rotate the tube. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to improve the laser tube bending process by enhancing the absorption coefficient of the material and the mechanical formability using laser softening heat treatment. The material surface is coated with an oxidization layer; hence, the material absorption of laser light is increased and the temperature rapidly rises. The processing speed is enhanced and the output bending angle is increased to 1.9° with an increment of 70% after the laser softening heat treatment.

  10. Cyclic softening as a parameter for prediction of remnant creep rupture life of a Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (IN-RAFM) steel subjected to fatigue exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Aritra, E-mail: aritra@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Vijayanand, V.D.; Shankar, Vani; Parameswaran, P.; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Rajendrakumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2014-12-15

    Sequential fatigue-creep tests were conducted on Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel at 823 K leading to sharp decrease in residual creep life with increase in prior fatigue exposures. Extensive recovery of martensitic-lath structure taking place during fatigue deformation, manifested as cyclic softening in the cyclic stress response, shortens the residual creep life. Based on the experimental results, cyclic softening occurring during fatigue stage can be correlated with residual creep life, evolving in an empirical model which predicts residual creep life as a function of cyclic softening. Predicted creep lives for specimens pre-cycled at various strain amplitudes are explained on the basis of mechanism of cyclic softening.

  11. Progressive softening of brittle-ductile transition due to interplay between chemical and deformation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeřábek, Petr; Bukovská, Zita; Morales, Luiz F. G.

    2017-04-01

    The micro-scale shear zones (shear bands) in granitoids from the South Armorican Shear Zone reflect localization of deformation and progressive weakening in the conditions of brittle-ductile transition. We studied microstructures in the shear bands with the aim to establish their P-T conditions and to derive stress and strain rates for specific deformation mechanisms. The evolving microstructure within shear bands documents switches in deformation mechanisms related to positive feedbacks between deformation and chemical processes and imposes mechanical constraints on the evolution of the brittle-ductile transition in the continental transform fault domains. The metamorphic mineral assemblage present in the shear bands indicate their formation at 300-350 ˚ C and 100-400 MPa. Focusing on the early development of shear bands, we identified three stages of shear band evolution. The early stage I associated with initiation of shear bands occurs via formation of microcracks with possible yielding differential stress of up to 250 MPa (Diamond and Tarantola, 2015). Stage II is associated with subgrain rotation recrystallization and dislocation creep in quartz and coeval dissolution-precipitation creep of microcline. Recrystallized quartz grains in shear bands show continual increase in size, and decrease in stress and strain rates from 94 MPa to 17-26 MPa (Stipp and Tullis, 2003) and 3.8*10-12 s-1- 1.8*10-14 s-1 (Patterson and Luan, 1990) associated with deformation partitioning into weaker microcline layer and shear band widening. The quartz mechanical data allowed us to set some constrains for coeval dissolution-precipitation of microcline which at our estimated P-T conditions suggests creep at 17-26 MPa differential stress and 3.8*10-13 s-1 strain rate. Stage III is characterized by localized slip along interconnected white mica bands accommodated by dislocation creep at strain rate 3.8*10-12 s-1 and stress 9.36 MPa (Mares and Kronenberg, 1993). The studied example

  12. On the thermochemical conversions of hard coal pitches in the process of raising the softening point to 358-363 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekin, N.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Stepanenko, M.A.; Gordienko, V.G.

    1983-09-01

    High resolution paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy are used to obtain data on the nature of changes in hydrogen content of various groups in the substances of soluble functions in raw pitch and its thermoproducts during the process of producing binders with an increased softening point of 358-363 K. It was shown that thermal treatment of pitch during the process of raising the softening point leads to enrichment of the pitch structure with aromatic hydrogen and to reduction in the structure of the hydrogen in aliphatic bonds. The basis of these conversions is the splitting off of CH/SUB/3 groups and the formation of new structures containing CH/SUB/2 groups. (11 refs.)

  13. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  14. Evaluation of hardening and softening behaviors in Zn–21Al–2Cu alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Hernández-Rivera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural evolution of as-cast and homogenized Zn–21Al–2Cu samples after two and six passes in an equal channel angular pressing (ECAP at room temperature was reported. A homogenization treatment for 24 h at 350 °C was applied to the as-cast samples followed by deformation. An annealing heat treatment was performed on all samples after the ECAP process. Our results showed that the homogenized and deformed samples displayed a uniform fine-grained microstructure after annealing, while as-cast samples without homogenization treatment presented only some regions of fine-grained microstructure. The level of microsegregation was higher in the as-cast samples as compared to the homogenized ones even after annealing. Vickers microhardness measurement on samples after deformation is smaller than the original material indicating a softening. However, after the annealing treatment, the microhardness increased, indicating that there was a slight hardening of the material. Keywords: Severe plastic deformation, ECAP, Work softening, Annealing, Hardening, Fine grain

  15. Flow softening and dynamic recrystallization behavior of BT9 titanium alloy: a study using process map development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ghasemi, E.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Farabi, E.; Tesař, Karel; Jäger, Aleš; Rezaee, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 695, Feb (2017), s. 1706-1718 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : titanium alloys * hot compression * processing map * dynamic recrystallization * electron backscatter diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.133, year: 2016

  16. Water Softeners: How Much Sodium Do They Add?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet is by putting away the saltshaker and cutting back on processed foods. With Sheldon G. Sheps, ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/water-softeners-sodium/ ...

  17. Effect of softening function on the cohesive crack fracture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cohesive crack model with linear softening yields the fracture process zones lower by ..... ignored during numerical simulation. In the crack band ..... performed with developed computer program using MATLAB for the following numerical.

  18. Influence of softening sequencing on electrocoagulation treatment of produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilirad, Nasim; Carlson, Ken; Omur Ozbek, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Electrocoagulation has been used to remove solids and some metals from both water and wastewater sources for decades. Additionally, chemical softening is commonly employed in water treatment systems to remove hardness. This paper assesses the combination and sequence of softening and EC methods to treat hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water from shale oil and gas operations. EC is one of the available technologies to treat produced water for reuse in frac fluids, eliminating not only the need to transport more water but also the costs of providing fresh water. In this paper, the influence of chemical softening on EC was studied. In the softening process, pH was raised to 9.5 and 10.2 before and after EC, respectively. Softening, when practiced before EC was more effective for removing turbidity with samples from wells older than one month (99% versus 88%). However, neither method was successful in treating samples collected from early flowback (1-day and 2-day samples), likely due to the high concentration of organic matter. For total organic carbon, hardness, Ba, Sr, and B removal, application of softening before EC appeared to be the most efficient approach, likely due to the formation of solids before the coagulation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell wall structures leading to cultivar differences in softening rates develop early during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jovyn K T; Schröder, Roswitha; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Hall, Miriam I; Prakash, Roneel; Smith, Bronwen G; Melton, Laurence D; Johnston, Jason W

    2013-11-19

    There is a paucity of information regarding development of fruit tissue microstructure and changes in the cell walls during fruit growth, and how these developmental processes differ between cultivars with contrasting softening behaviour. In this study we compare two apple cultivars that show different softening rates during fruit development and ripening. We investigate whether these different softening behaviours manifest themselves late during ethylene-induced softening in the ripening phase, or early during fruit expansion and maturation. 'Scifresh' (slow softening) and 'Royal Gala' (rapid softening) apples show differences in cortical microstructure and cell adhesion as early as the cell expansion phase. 'Scifresh' apples showed reduced loss of firmness and greater dry matter accumulation compared with 'Royal Gala' during early fruit development, suggesting differences in resource allocation that influence tissue structural properties. Tricellular junctions in 'Scifresh' were rich in highly-esterified pectin, contributing to stronger cell adhesion and an increased resistance to the development of large airspaces during cell expansion. Consequently, mature fruit of 'Scifresh' showed larger, more angular shaped cells than 'Royal Gala', with less airspaces and denser tissue. Stronger cell adhesion in ripe 'Scifresh' resulted in tissue fracture by cell rupture rather than by cell-to-cell-separation as seen in 'Royal Gala'. CDTA-soluble pectin differed in both cultivars during development, implicating its involvement in cell adhesion. Low pectin methylesterase activity during early stages of fruit development coupled with the lack of immuno-detectable PG was associated with increased cell adhesion in 'Scifresh'. Our results indicate that cell wall structures leading to differences in softening rates of apple fruit develop early during fruit growth and well before the induction of the ripening process.

  20. The effect of treatment parameters and detergent additions on the softening of radioactively contaminated process wastewater at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, M.M.; Kent, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a research facility owned by the Department of Energy and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems. At ORNL, research is performed in a wide range of areas including nuclear energy research, environmental sciences, materials research, health and safety research, and production of radioisotopes. These activities generate 70 million gallons per year of process wastewater which is basically tap water and ground water containing trace amounts of radioactive compounds. This water is treated for removal of contaminants at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) before discharge to the environment

  1. Increased sustainability of softening by producing pure calcite pellets for reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofs, B; Baars, ET; Palmen, LJ; Elings, JA; Kors, L.J.; Kramer, O.J.I.; Koppers, H; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    About 50% of the drinking water in the Netherlands is centrally softened by the drinking water companies in a process known as pellet softening. In this process a base and seeding material are mixed in an upflow reactor, where subsequently CaCO3 precipitates on a seed core as pellets. The seeding

  2. Softening during deformation of Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kral, R.; Trojanova, Z.; Lukac, P.

    1994-01-01

    The strain hardening behaviour is described by the work hardening rate. The work hardening rate depends on the dislocation density changes which result from the competition between the rate of dislocation storage and the rate of annihilation of dislocations. In the present work the deformation behaviour of Zr-based alloys is investigated. From the stress-strain curves the work hardening rate is calculated and its stress dependence is studied at various temperatures between 300 and 1000 K. Experimental investigations show that at first the work hardening rate decreases quasi-linearly with increasing stress. After a certain stress is reached, the work hardening rate decreases more slowly with increasing stress. We discuss the influence of hardening and softening processes on the deformation behaviour. Analytical models are compared with experimental results. (orig.)

  3. Arsenic removal by lime softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaosol, T.; Suksaroj, C.; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of arsenic removal for drinking water by lime softening. The initial arsenic (V) concentration was 500 and 1,000 ug/L in synthetic groundwater. The experiments were performed as batch tests with varying lime dosages and mixing time. For the synthetic groundwater......, arsenic (V) removal increased with increasing lime dosage and mixing time, as well as with the resulting pH. The residual arsenic (V) in all cases was lower than the WHO guideline of 10 ug/L at pH higher than 11.5. Kinetic of arsenic (V) removal can be described by a first-order equation as C1 = C0*e......^-k*t. The relation between the constant (k value) and increasing lime dosage was found to be linear, described by k = 0.0034 (Dlime). The results support a theory from the literature that the arsenic (V) was removed by precipitation af Ca3(AsO4)2. The results obtained in the present study suggest that lime...

  4. Metadynamic and static recrystallization softening behavior of a bainite steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Zheng, Liangyu; Ye, Ben; Tong, Zeqiong

    2018-01-01

    The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) and static recrystallization (SRX) softening behavior of a bainite steel was investigated by two-pass isothermal compression experiments at temperatures of 1173, 1273, 1373, and 1473 K and strain rates of 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 s-1 with inter-pass times of 1, 5, 10, and 30 s on a Gleeble-1500 thermo-mechanical simulator. Kinetic equations were developed to evaluate the softening fractions caused by MDRX and SRX. A comparison between the experimental and predicted softening fractions showed that the proposed kinetic equations can provide a precise estimation of the MDRX and SRX behavior of the studied steel. The results based on the kinetic equations indicated that the MDRX and SRX softening fraction increases with the increase in strain rate, deformation temperature, inter-pass time, and pre-strain; the activation energy of MDRX is much smaller than that of SRX; and the no-recrystallization temperature of the investigated steel is 1179.4 K.

  5. Irradiation softening in pure iron single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, M.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristics of irradiation softening in Fe were studied. Results show that irradiation softening effect can be explained by the intrinsic mechanism, namely, the interaction of screw dislocations with randomly dispersed interstitials. At least some of the solid solution softening phenomena observed in alloys can be explained by the same mechanism. However, the alloying may be accompanied by an additional effect such as solute segregation to dislocations which may also strongly affect the yield stress. This effect may mask the softening effect partially or totally. Changes in the dislocation structure of deformed specimens caused by alloying, which are often reported in electron microscopic investigations, support this contention. The alloying, therefore, may not be as good as the low temperature irradiation in studying the effect of random solutes on dislocation motion and yield stress

  6. Softening behaviour of concrete : numerical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, J.P.W.; Rutten, H.S.; Fijneman, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental research shows, apart from the influence of multiaxial loading conditions, that softening of concrete loaded in compression is accompanied by localization of deformations. Therefore, numerical modelling of concrete material behaviour has to take this effect into account. This implies

  7. Modification of Textile Materials' Surface Properties Using Chemical Softener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of technological treatment involving the processes of washing or washing and softening with chemical cationic softener "Surcase" produced in Great Britain on the surface properties of cellulosic textile materials manufactured from cotton, bamboo and viscose spun yarns was investigated. The changes in textile materials surface properties were evaluated using KTU-Griff-Tester device and FEI Quanta 200 FEG scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was observed that the worst hand properties and the higher surface roughness are observed of cotton materials if compared with those of bamboo and viscose materials. Also, it was shown that depending on the material structure the handle parameters of knitted materials are the better than the ones of woven fabrics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.249

  8. Stress-Softening Formulae of Polymer Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. B. M. Shariff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this work was the absence of closed form solutions that can reasonably describe the axial deformation behaviour of stress-softening polymer bearings. In this paper, new closed form solutions that exhibit Mullins phenomenon are developed. We show that the apparent Young modulus depends on the shape factor and the minimal infinitesimal strain. We furthermore found that, in a nonlinear deformation, the shape factor plays an important role in stress softening. The solutions are design friendly and are consistent with expected results.

  9. Not changing minds but softening hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Jerad

    2013-01-01

    When a political decision threatened to divide communities, the Minnesota Council of Churches found a way not to change minds but to soften hearts. The Respectful Conversations Project built empathy and improved relationships, and is still helping to bring peace to communities and strengthening civic engagement in the state.

  10. Softening and elution of monomers in ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, Erik; Munksgaard, E Christian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on softening and elution of monomers in ethanol as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with previously reported data on degree of conversion and glass transition...

  11. Softening behaviour of concrete : experimental research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, van H.J.G.M.; Rutten, H.S.; Fijneman, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Uniaxial compressive softening tests on two types of concrete have been carried out, varying the type of loading platen and specimen size. In total 37 specimens were tested, 18 with polished steel loading platens and 19 with teflon loading platens. Half of the specimens were made of normal strength

  12. Curvature Effect and the Spectral Softening Phenomenon Detected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    soft spectral evolution, indicating that this spectral softening is not a rare phenomenon .... of time, there exists a temporal steep decay phase accompanied by spectral softening. (d) In most cases, the temporal power law index α and the spectral.

  13. Process optimisation of lime milk leaching and control of cold lime softening at the power plant STEAG Fenne; Optimierung des Kalkansatzes und Regelung der Kalkmilchdosierung in der KZA des STEAG-Kraftwerks Fenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Christian [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Anlagentechnik; Arenz, Helmut [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Technischer Service; Wysk, Ralf [NALCO Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). National Account Managing Kraftwerke

    2013-06-01

    An increase in turbidity in the cleaned water of the cold lime softener higher than the raw water input of the river Saar was observed at the Fenne site at some days in 2009. Also the post-installed sand filter could not restrain the fine particles. Under these circumstances the demineralisation water production had serious problems because of heavily fouled membranes in the reverse osmosis system. Only the immense personal actions of the operating staff could enable the reliability of the water preparation system on site. Together with Nalco the power plant service department implemented a plant audit on site. The purpose of the plant audit was to find the reason for the bottleneck in water preparation and to optimise and automate the water treatment system under the aspects of economical reliability and control efficiency. (orig.)

  14. Modelling irradiation-induced softening in BCC iron by crystal plasticity approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Xiazi; Terentyev, Dmitry; Yu, Long; Song, Dingkun; Bakaev, A.; Duan, Huiling

    2015-01-01

    Crystal plasticity model (CPM) for BCC iron to account for radiation-induced strain softening is proposed. CPM is based on the plastically-driven and thermally-activated removal of dislocation loops. Atomistic simulations are applied to parameterize dislocation-defect interactions. Combining experimental microstructures, defect-hardening/absorption rules from atomistic simulations, and CPM fitted to properties of non-irradiated iron, the model achieves a good agreement with experimental data regarding radiation-induced strain softening and flow stress increase under neutron irradiation. - Highlights: • A stress- and thermal-activated defect absorption model is proposed for the dislocation-loop interaction. • A temperature-dependent plasticity theory is proposed for the irradiation-induced strain softening of irradiated BCC metals. • The numerical results of the model match with the corresponding experimental data.

  15. Modelling irradiation-induced softening in BCC iron by crystal plasticity approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiazi [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); CAPT, HEDPS and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Terentyev, Dmitry, E-mail: dterenty@SCKCEN.BE [Structural Material Group, Institute of Nuclear Materials Science, SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Yu, Long; Song, Dingkun [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bakaev, A. [Structural Material Group, Institute of Nuclear Materials Science, SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Duan, Huiling, E-mail: hlduan@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); CAPT, HEDPS and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Crystal plasticity model (CPM) for BCC iron to account for radiation-induced strain softening is proposed. CPM is based on the plastically-driven and thermally-activated removal of dislocation loops. Atomistic simulations are applied to parameterize dislocation-defect interactions. Combining experimental microstructures, defect-hardening/absorption rules from atomistic simulations, and CPM fitted to properties of non-irradiated iron, the model achieves a good agreement with experimental data regarding radiation-induced strain softening and flow stress increase under neutron irradiation. - Highlights: • A stress- and thermal-activated defect absorption model is proposed for the dislocation-loop interaction. • A temperature-dependent plasticity theory is proposed for the irradiation-induced strain softening of irradiated BCC metals. • The numerical results of the model match with the corresponding experimental data.

  16. Direct Cytoskeleton Forces Cause Membrane Softening in Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; López-Montero, Iván; Mell, Michael; Egea, Gustavo; Gov, Nir S.; Monroy, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes are flexible cells specialized in the systemic transport of oxygen in vertebrates. This physiological function is connected to their outstanding ability to deform in passing through narrow capillaries. In recent years, there has been an influx of experimental evidence of enhanced cell-shape fluctuations related to metabolically driven activity of the erythroid membrane skeleton. However, no direct observation of the active cytoskeleton forces has yet been reported to our knowledge. Here, we show experimental evidence of the presence of temporally correlated forces superposed over the thermal fluctuations of the erythrocyte membrane. These forces are ATP-dependent and drive enhanced flickering motions in human erythrocytes. Theoretical analyses provide support for a direct force exerted on the membrane by the cytoskeleton nodes as pulses of well-defined average duration. In addition, such metabolically regulated active forces cause global membrane softening, a mechanical attribute related to the functional erythroid deformability. PMID:26083919

  17. Reaction softening by dissolution–precipitation creep in a retrograde greenschist facies ductile shear zone, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Ryan J.; Bish, David L.; Kunk, Michael J.; Sicard, Karri R.; Valley, Peter M.; Walsh, Gregory J.; Wathen, Bryan A.; Wintsch, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    We describe strain localization by a mixed process of reaction and microstructural softening in a lower greenschist facies ductile fault zone that transposes and replaces middle to upper amphibolite facies fabrics and mineral assemblages in the host schist of the Littleton Formation near Claremont, New Hampshire. Here, Na-poor muscovite and chlorite progressively replace first staurolite, then garnet, and finally biotite porphyroblasts as the core of the fault zone is approached. Across the transect, higher grade fabric-forming Na-rich muscovite is also progressively replaced by fabric-forming Na-poor muscovite. The mineralogy of the new phyllonitic fault-rock produced is dominated by Na-poor muscovite and chlorite together with late albite porphyroblasts. The replacement of the amphibolite facies porphyroblasts by muscovite and chlorite is pseudomorphic in some samples and shows that the chemical metastability of the porphyroblasts is sufficient to drive replacement. In contrast, element mapping shows that fabric-forming Na-rich muscovite is selectively replaced at high-strain microstructural sites, indicating that strain energy played an important role in activating the dissolution of the compositionally metastable muscovite. The replacement of strong, high-grade porphyroblasts by weaker Na-poor muscovite and chlorite constitutes reaction softening. The crystallization of parallel and contiguous mica in the retrograde foliation at the expense of the earlier and locally crenulated Na-rich muscovite-defined foliation destroys not only the metastable high-grade mineralogy, but also its stronger geometry. This process constitutes both reaction and microstructural softening. The deformation mechanism here was thus one of dissolution–precipitation creep, activated at considerably lower stresses than might be predicted in quartzofeldspathic rocks at the same lower greenschist facies conditions.

  18. Communication: Surface-facilitated softening of ordinary and vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeta, Ulyana; Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2017-08-01

    A common distinction between the ordinary glasses formed by melt cooling and the stable amorphous films formed by vapor deposition is the apparent mechanism of their devitrification. Using quasi-adiabatic, fast scanning calorimetry that is capable of heating rates in excess of 105 K s-1, we have investigated the softening kinetics of micrometer-scale, ordinary glass films of methylbenzene and 2-propanol. At the limit of high heating rates, the transformation mechanism of ordinary glasses is identical to that of their stable vapor-deposited counterparts. In both cases, softening is likely to begin at the sample surface and progress into its bulk via a transformation front. Furthermore, such a surface-facilitated mechanism complies with zero-order, Arrhenius rate law. The activation energy barriers for the softening transformation imply that the kinetics must be defined, at least in part, by the initial thermodynamic and structural state of the samples.

  19. Sweet cherry softening accompanied with moisture migration and loss during low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danshi; Liang, Jieyu; Liu, He; Cao, Xuehui; Ge, Yonghong; Li, Jianrong

    2017-12-18

    Hardness is one of the important qualities influencing consumer appeal and marketing of fresh sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Moisture loss is one of the main causative factors of cherry softening. In this work, moisture loss and softening process of sweet cherry during postharvest storage at 0 and 4 °C were studied. In addition, low-field 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to analyze water distribution and migration in sweet cherry during storage at 4 °C. Moisture content correlated significantly (p Contents of cytoplasmic (p content increased gradually, and then internal damage occurred. Sweet cherry softening closely correlated with moisture loss during low-temperature storage. LF-NMR is a useful technique to investigate moisture migration of fruits and vegetables. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Regularized finite element modeling of progressive failure in soils within nonlocal softening plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Maosong; Qu, Xie; Lü, Xilin

    2017-11-01

    By solving a nonlinear complementarity problem for the consistency condition, an improved implicit stress return iterative algorithm for a generalized over-nonlocal strain softening plasticity was proposed, and the consistent tangent matrix was obtained. The proposed algorithm was embodied into existing finite element codes, and it enables the nonlocal regularization of ill-posed boundary value problem caused by the pressure independent and dependent strain softening plasticity. The algorithm was verified by the numerical modeling of strain localization in a plane strain compression test. The results showed that a fast convergence can be achieved and the mesh-dependency caused by strain softening can be effectively eliminated. The influences of hardening modulus and material characteristic length on the simulation were obtained. The proposed algorithm was further used in the simulations of the bearing capacity of a strip footing; the results are mesh-independent, and the progressive failure process of the soil was well captured.

  1. Softening behaviour of brown coal ashes. Influence of ash components and gas atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegermann, R; Huettinger, K J [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Chemische Technik

    1990-03-01

    The softening behaviour of brown coal ashes during gasification is important for three reasons: (1) Formation of large agglomerates, (2) inactivation of catalytically active ash components, (3) encapsulation of parts of the coal. The softening behaviour of the ashes was studied with a high temperature dilatometer at ambient pressure in various atmospheres (air, CO{sub 2}, Ar/H{sub 2}O, Ar, H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}) using a push-rod with a conical tip. The heating rate was 5 Kmin{sup -1}, the final temperature 1000deg C, the residence time 1 h. (orig.).

  2. Problems of softening the Chernobyl accident consequences. Proceedings of the International seminar. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the International seminar on the Problems to soften the Chernobyl accident consequences held by the International Association of Dissemination of Knowledge and the Russian branch of the Society on the Dissemination of Knowledge in Bryansk in 1993. The proceedings of the seminar deal with the study of scientific and practical activity linked with the elimination of the Chernobyl accident effects. Main theoretical concepts used as the basis of the elaborated regulations are presented, as well; ways and techniques to soften the consequences of the Chernobyl accident to decontaminate the affected territories and to protect the population health are discussed

  3. The Etiology and Treatment of the Softened Phallus after the Radial Forearm Osteocutaneous Free Flap Phalloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap is considered to be the standard technique for penile construction. One year after their operation, most patients experience a softened phallus, so that they suffer from difficulties in sexual intercourse. In this report, we present our experience with phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap, as well as an evaluation of the etiology and treatment of the softened phallus.MethodsBetween March 2005 and February 2010, 58 patients underwent phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap. Most of their neophallus had been softened subjectively and among them, 12 patients who wanted correction were investigated. We performed repetitive fat injection, artificial dermis grafting, silicone rod insertion, and rib bone with cartilaginous tip graft. Physical examination, plain radiograph, computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, and satisfaction scores were investigated.ResultsMost of the participants' penises have been softened after phalloplasty, and the skin elasticity had been also decreased. On plain radiograph, the distal end of the bone was self-rounded; however, the bone shape of the neophallus had no significant interval changes or resorption. Computed tomography showed equivocal density of cortical bone. On bone scintigraphy, the bone metabolism was active at 3 months postoperatively, and remained active 9 years postoperatively.ConclusionsThe use of a rib bone with cartilaginous tip graft could be an option for improvement of the softened phallus. Silicon rod insertion is also worth considering for rigidity of the softened phallus. Decreased rigidity due to soft tissue atrophy could be alleviated with repeated fat injection and artificial dermis grafting.

  4. Evaluation of the impact of lime softening waste disposal in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR), generated from the lime softening processes, are commonly reused or disposed of in a number of applications; these include use as a soil amendment or a subsurface fill. Recently questions were posed by the Florida regulatory community on w...

  5. Bio-softening of mature coconut husk for facile coir recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, D S; Pradeep, S; Jayapriya, J; Subramanian, S

    2007-06-01

    Bio-softening of the mature coconut husk using Basidiomyceteous fungi was attempted to recover the soft and whiter fibers. The process was faster and more efficient in degrading lignin and toxic phenolics. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus eryngii and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora were found to degrade lignin efficiently without any appreciable loss of cellulose, yielding good quality fiber ideal for dyeing.

  6. Hypoxia-responsive ERFs involved in postdeastringency softening of persimmon fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao-Miao; Zhu, Qing-Gang; Deng, Chu-Li; Luo, Zheng-Rong; Sun, Ning-Jing; Grierson, Donald; Yin, Xue-Ren; Chen, Kun-Song

    2017-11-01

    Removal of astringency by endogenously formed acetaldehyde, achieved by postharvest anaerobic treatment, is of critical importance for many types of persimmon fruit. Although an anaerobic environment accelerates de-astringency, it also has the deleterious effect of promoting excessive softening, reducing shelf life and marketability. Some hypoxia-responsive ethylene response factors (ERFs) participate in anaerobic de-astringency, but their role in accelerated softening was unclear. Undesirable rapid softening induced by high CO 2 (95%) was ameliorated by adding the ethylene inhibitor 1-MCP (1 μL/L), resulting in reduced astringency while maintaining firmness, suggesting that CO 2 -induced softening involves ethylene signalling. Among the hypoxia-responsive genes, expression of eight involved in fruit cell wall metabolism (Dkβ-gal1/4, DkEGase1, DkPE1/2, DkPG1, DkXTH9/10) and three ethylene response factor genes (DkERF8/16/19) showed significant correlations with postdeastringency fruit softening. Dual-luciferase assay indicated that DkERF8/16/19 could trans-activate the DkXTH9 promoter and this interaction was abolished by a mutation introduced into the C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element of the DkXTH9 promoter, supporting the conclusion that these DkERFs bind directly to the DkXTH9 promoter and regulate this gene, which encodes an important cell wall metabolism enzyme. Some hypoxia-responsive ERF genes are involved in deastringency and softening, and this linkage was uncoupled by 1-MCP. Fruit of the Japanese cultivar 'Tonewase' provide a model for altered anaerobic response, as they lost astringency yet maintained firmness after CO 2 treatment without 1-MCP and changes in cell wall enzymes and ERFs did not occur. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hypersensitive ethylene signaling and ZMdPG1 expression lead to fruit softening and dehiscence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available 'Taishanzaoxia' fruit rapid softening and dehiscence during ripening stage and this process is very sensitive to endogenous ethylene. In this study, we cloned five ethylene signal transcription factors (ZMdEIL1, ZMdEIL2, ZMdEIL3, ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2 and one functional gene, ZMdPG1, encoding polygalacturonase that could loose the cell connection which associated with fruit firmness decrease and fruit dehiscence to illustrate the reasons for this specific fruit phenotypic and physiological changes. Expression analysis showed that ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 transcription were more abundant in 'Taishanzaoxia' softening fruit and dehiscent fruit and their expression was inhibited by an ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene. Therefore, ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 expression were responses to endogenous ethylene and associated with fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdPG1 expression was induced when fruit softening and dehiscence but this induction can be blocked by 1-MCP, indicating that ZMdPG1 was essential for fruit softening and dehiscence and its expression was mediated by the endogenously occurred ethylene. ZMdPG1 overexpression in Arabidopsis led to silique early dehiscence while suppressing ZMdPG1 expression by antisense ZMdPG1 prevented silique naturally opening. The result also suggested that ZMdPG1 related with the connection between cells that contributed to fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdERF1 was more closely related with ethylene signaling but it was not directly regulated the ZMdPG1, which might be regulated by the synergic pattern of ethylene transcription factors because of both the ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2 could interact with ZMdEIL2.

  8. Stress Softening Behavior in the Mucosa-Submucosa and Muscle Layers in Normal and Diabetic Rat Esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Hongbo; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims: Stress softening is a feature of mechanical preconditioning in soft tissue. Previously, we demonstrated that esophageal stress softening is reversible by muscle activation with KCl. Since the esophagus consists of muscle and mucosa-submucosa layers, the aim was to study...... the stress softening behavior in these layers in normal and diabetic rat esophagus and how diabetes affect the reversibility of esophageal stress softening.Methods: Ten Wistar rats were injected with STZ and the average blood glucose level reached 25 mmol/L after 8 weeks. Ten rats were used as the normal......M KCl was added for maximum contraction for 3min. KCl was washed out to permit relaxation and contractions were eliminated by immersion into Ca2+-free solution. After 1h rest, the tubes were exposed to five repeated ramp distensions conformed to the aforesaid two series. Stress-strain curves were used...

  9. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongying; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Nan; Li, Min; Ji, Xiaohao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Jingxuan; Wang, Deyun; Xu, Haifeng; Qi, Sumin; Wu, Shujing; Fei, Zhangjun; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88%) were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80%) were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86%) were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  10. Viscosity and Softening Behavior of Alkali Zinc Sulfophosphate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da, Ning; Krolikowski, Sebastian; Nielsen, Karsten Hansgaard

    2010-01-01

    We report on the softening properties and viscosity of glasses from the system ZnO-Na2O-SO3-P2O5 for low-temperature sealing applications. Up to a ratio of network-forming ions PO(4)3-:SO(4)2- of about 2:1, a gradual substitution of P2O5 by SO3 results in decreasing glass transition and softening...

  11. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman

    2016-07-25

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain \\'non-ripening mutations\\' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman; Chapman, Natalie H; Smith, Rebecca; Poole, Mervin; Adams, Gary; Gillis, Richard B; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Sheldon, Judith; Stiegelmeyer, Suzy; Perez, Laura; Samsulrizal, Nurul; Wang, Duoduo; Fisk, Ian D; Yang, Ni; Baxter, Charles; Rickett, Daniel; Fray, Rupert; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Powell, Ann L T; Harding, Stephen E; Craigon, Jim; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Fich, Eric A; Sun, Li; Domozych, David S; Fraser, Paul D; Tucker, Gregory A; Grierson, Don; Seymour, Graham B

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain 'non-ripening mutations' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the impact of lime softening waste disposal in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR), generated from the lime softening processes, are commonly reused or disposed of in a number of applications; these include use as a soil amendment or a subsurface fill. Recently questions were posed by the Florida regulatory community on whether lime WTR that contained a small percentage of other treatment additives could appropriately be characterized as lime WTR, in terms of its total element content and leachability. A study was done using a broad range of leaching tests, including a framework of tests recently adopted by the United States-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and tests that were modified to account for scenario specific conditions, such as the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The results of these additional leaching tests demonstrated that certain applications, including disposal in a water body with NOM or in placement anaerobic environment, did result in increased leaching of elements such as Fe, and that a site specific assessment should be conducted prior to using WTR in these types of applications. This study illustrates the importance of leaching test selection when attempting to provide an estimation of release in practice. Although leaching tests are just one component in a beneficial use assessment and other factors including aquifer and soil properties play a significant role in the outcome, leaching tests should be tailored to most appropriately represent the scenario or reuse ap

  14. Brine reuse in ion-exchange softening: salt discharge, hardness leakage, and capacity tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodman, Hunter R; Dvorak, Bruce I

    2012-06-01

    Ion-exchange water softening results in the discharge of excess sodium chloride to the aquatic environment during the regeneration cycle. In order to reduce sodium chloride use and subsequent discharge from ion-exchange processes, either brine reclaim operations can be implemented or salt application during regeneration can be reduced. Both result in tradeoffs related to loss of bed volumes treated per cycle and increased hardness leakage. An experimentally validated model was used to compare concurrent water softening operations at various salt application quantities with and without the direct reuse of waste brine for treated tap water of typical midwestern water quality. Both approaches were able to reduce salt use and subsequent discharge. Reducing salt use and discharge by lowering the salt application rate during regeneration consequently increased hardness leakage and decreased treatment capacity. Single or two tank brine recycling systems are capable of reducing salt use and discharge without increasing hardness leakage, although treatment capacity is reduced.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  16. Pregnancy Constipation: Are Stool Softeners Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lifestyle changes. For example: Drink plenty of fluids. Water is a good choice. Prune juice also can help. Include physical activity in your daily routine. Being active can help prevent pregnancy constipation. Include more fiber in your diet. Choose high- ...

  17. Mechanistic insight into softening of Canadian wonder common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigwedere, Claire Maria; Olaoye, Taye Foyeke; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Pallares Pallares, Andrea; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-04-01

    The relative contributions of cotyledons and seed coats towards hardening of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were investigated and the rate-limiting process which controls bean softening during cooking was determined. Fresh or aged whole beans and cotyledons were soaked and cooked in demineralised water or 0.1 M NaHCO 3 solution, and texture evolution, microstructure changes and thermal properties were studied. Fresh and aged whole beans cooked in demineralised water had significantly different softening rate constants and so did fresh and aged cotyledons. The comparable softening rate constants of aged whole beans and cotyledons indicated an insignificant role of the seed coat in hardening during storage. All samples cooked faster in 0.1 M NaHCO 3 solution. Disintegration of cooked tissues followed by microscopic examination revealed a transition from cell breakage through a phase of cell breakage and separation to complete cell separation with increased cooking time wherefore texture decayed. Therefore, progressive solubilization of pectin in the middle lamella greatly promoted texture decay. While residual birefringence even after substantial cooking time suggested some molecular order of the starch, calorimetric analyses revealed complete starch gelatinisation before complete cell separation occurred. This implies an insignificant role of starch in texture decay during cooking but its hindered uncoiling into a viscous gel after gelatinisation due to the restricting cell wall could promote its retrogradation. Therefore, we suggest that the rate-determining process in bean softening relates to cell wall/middle lamella changes influencing pectin solubilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Active processes in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaerel, Thibaut; Maes, Christian

    2018-03-01

    We consider the thermal and athermal overdamped motion of particles in one-dimensional geometries where discrete internal degrees of freedom (spin) are coupled with the translational motion. Adding a driving velocity that depends on the time-dependent spin constitutes the simplest model of active particles (run-and-tumble processes) where the violation of the equipartition principle and of the Sutherland-Einstein relation can be studied in detail even when there is generalized reversibility. We give an example (with four spin values) where the irreversibility of the translational motion manifests itself only in higher-order (than two) time correlations. We derive a generalized telegraph equation as the Smoluchowski equation for the spatial density for an arbitrary number of spin values. We also investigate the Arrhenius exponential law for run-and-tumble particles; due to their activity the slope of the potential becomes important in contrast to the passive diffusion case and activity enhances the escape from a potential well (if that slope is high enough). Finally, in the absence of a driving velocity, the presence of internal currents such as in the chemistry of molecular motors may be transmitted to the translational motion and the internal activity is crucial for the direction of the emerging spatial current.

  19. Influence of liquid temperature and flow rate on enamel erosion and surface softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenburger, M; Addy, M

    2003-11-01

    Enamel erosion and softening are based on chemical processes which could be influenced by many factors including temperature and acid flow rate. Knowledge of the influence of these variables could have relevance to research experiments and clinical outcomes. Both parameters were investigated using an ultrasonication and profilometry method to assess erosion depth and surface softening of enamel. The influence of temperature was studied by eroding polished human enamel samples at 4, 20, 35 or 50 degrees C for 2 h. Secondly, different liquid flow conditions were established by varying acid agitation. Additionally, a slow laminar flow and a jet of citric acid, to simulate drinking through a straw, were applied to specimens. Erosion depth increased significantly with acid temperature from 11.0 microm at 4 degrees C to 35.8 microm at 50 degrees C. Surface softening increased much more slowly and plateaued at 2.9 microm to 3.5 microm after 35 degrees C. A strong dependence of erosion on liquid flow was revealed. In unstirred conditions only 8.6 microm erosion occurred, which increased to 22.2 microm with slow stirring and 40.9 microm with fast stirring. Surface softening did not increase correspondingly with its largest extent at slow stirring at 3.4 microm.The implication of these data are: first, the conditions for erosion experiments in vitro or in situ need to be specified for reliable comparisons between studies. Secondly, erosion of teeth by soft drinks are likely to be influenced both by the temperature of the drink and individual drinking habits.

  20. Hardening and softening mechanisms of pearlitic steel wire under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of pearlitic steel wire is studied using torsion. • Work hardening results from refinement lamellar pearlitic structure. • Softening results from recovery, shear bands and lamellar fragmentations. • A microstructure based analytical flow stress model is established. - Abstract: The mechanical behaviors and microstructure evolution of pearlitic steel wires under monotonic shear deformation have been investigated by a torsion test and a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with an aim to reveal the softening and hardening mechanisms of a randomly oriented pearlitic structure during a monotonic stain path. Significantly different from the remarkable strain hardening in cold wire drawing, the strain hardening rate during torsion drops to zero quickly after a short hardening stage. The microstructure observations indicate that the inter-lamellar spacing (ILS) decreases and the dislocations accumulate with strain, which leads to hardening of the material. Meanwhile, when the strain is larger than 0.154, the enhancement of dynamic recovery, shear bands (SBs) and cementite fragmentations results in the softening and balances the strain hardening. A microstructure based analytical flow stress model with considering the influence of ILS on the mean free path of dislocations and the softening caused by SBs and cementite fragmentations, has been established and the predicted flow shear curve meets well with the measured curve in the torsion test

  1. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  2. Twenty years of experience with central softening in The Netherlands : Water quality – Environmental benefits – Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, J.A.M.H.; Kramer, O.J.I.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Nederlof, M; Groenendijk, M

    2006-01-01

    Central softening has been utilized by the Dutch water utilities since the late 1970s. It was introduced in the water treatment process as a method to supply water with an optimum water composition to prevent lead and copper release and to prevent excessive scaling. Twenty years of experience show

  3. Characterization of major ripening events during softening in grape: turgor, sugar accumulation, abscisic acid metabolism, colour development, and their relationship with growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, Simone D; Gambetta, Gregory A; Wada, Hiroshi; Krasnow, Mark N; Cramer, Grant R; Peterlunger, Enrico; Shackel, Kenneth A; Matthews, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Along with sugar accumulation and colour development, softening is an important physiological change during the onset of ripening in fruits. In this work, we investigated the relationships among major events during softening in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) by quantifying elasticity in individual berries. In addition, we delayed softening and inhibited sugar accumulation using a mechanical growth-preventing treatment in order to identify processes that are sugar and/or growth dependent. Ripening processes commenced on various days after anthesis, but always at similarly low elasticity and turgor. Much of the softening occurred in the absence of other changes in berry physiology investigated here. Several genes encoding key cell wall-modifying enzymes were not up-regulated until softening was largely completed, suggesting softening may result primarily from decreases in turgor. Similarly, there was no decrease in solute potential, increase in sugar concentration, or colour development until elasticity and turgor were near minimum values, and these processes were inhibited when berry growth was prevented. Increases in abscisic acid occurred early during softening and in the absence of significant expression of the V. vinifera 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases. However, these increases were coincident with decreases in the abscisic acid catabolite diphasic acid, indicating that initial increases in abscisic acid may result from decreases in catabolism and/or exogenous import. These data suggest that softening, decreases in turgor, and increases in abscisic acid represent some of the earliest events during the onset of ripening. Later, physical growth, further increases in abscisic acid, and the accumulation of sugar are integral for colour development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Radiation processing activities at OGFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Atish

    2014-01-01

    CONCAST group of Industries has set up the first Radiation Processing Plant in Eastern India as 'VIKIRAN' named as Organic Green Foods Ltd., situated at Dankuni (Durgapur Highway Express) 25 km away from central Kolkata on August 21, 2004. Shri Sanjay Sureka, Managing Director of Organic Green Foods Ltd., Kolkata belongs to the famous CONCAST Group of Industries operates the largest plant of West Bengal engaged in manufacturing of Steel Industry. The facility was aimed at improving the quality of healthcare products and devices as well as Laboratory, Spice, Herbal and Ayurvedic Products of large volumes on an industrial scale. The operation of VIKIRAN for the last ten years, has unambiguously proved that both the above objectives have been fully met and now radiation sterilization has emerged as an efficient and effective industrial process. The irradiator is a panoramic wet storage class-IV type. This Facility is designed for 1000 KCi activity of source and is suitable in medium and high dose range application. VIKIRAN offers radiation sterilization service to more than 100 manufacturers

  5. Experimental study and simulation of cyclic softening of tempered martensite ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, P.-F.

    2011-01-01

    The present work focuses on the high temperature mechanical behaviour of 9% Cr tempered martensite steels, considered as potential candidates for structural components in the next Generation IV nuclear power plants. Already used for energy production in fossil power plants, they are sensitive to softening during high-temperature cycling and creep-fatigue. This phenomenon is coupled to a pronounced microstructural degradation: mainly vanishing of subgrain boundaries and decrease in dislocation density. This study aims at (i) linking the macroscopic cyclic softening of 9% Cr steels and their microstructural evolution during cycling and (ii) proposing a physically-based modelling of deformation mechanisms in order to predict the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of these steels during cycling. Mechanical study includes uniaxial tensile and cyclic test at 550 C performed on a Grade 92 steel (9Cr-0,5Mo-1,8W-V-Nb). The effect of both strain amplitude and rate on mechanical behaviour is studied. Examination of tensile specimens suggests that the physical mechanism responsible for slight measured softening is mainly the necking phenomenon and the evolution of mean subgrain size, which increases by more than 15 % compared to the as-received state. The evolution of the macroscopic stress during cycling shows that cyclic softening is due to the decrease in kinematic stress. TEM observations highlights that the mean subgrain size increases by 60 to 100 % while the dislocation density decreases by more than 50 % during cycling, compared to the as-received state. A self-consistent homogenization model based on crystalline elasto-visco-plasticity and dislocation densities, predicting the mechanical behaviour of the material and its microstructural evolution during deformation is proposed. This model takes some of the main physical deformation mechanisms into account and only the two parameters of crystalline visco-plasticity should be adjusted (the effective activation energy and

  6. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  7. Vascular retraction driven by matrix softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Megan

    We recently discovered we can directly apply physical forces and monitor the downstream responses in a living organism in real time through manipulation of the blood vessels of a marine organism called, Botryllus schlosseri. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role in regulating vascular growth and homeostasis in Botryllus,a basal chordate which has a large, transparent extracorporeal vascular network that can encompass areas >100 cm2. We have determined that lysyl oxidase 1 (LOX1), which is responsible for cross-linking collagen, is expressed in all vascular cells and is critically important for vascular maintenance. Inhibition of LOX1 activity in vivo by the addition of a specific inhibitor, ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), caused a rapid, global regression of the entire vascular bed, with some vessels regressing >10 mm within 16 hrs. In this talk, I will discuss the molecular and cellular origins of this systemic remodeling event, which hinges upon the ability of the vascular cells to sense and respond to mechanical signals, while introducing this exciting new model system for studies of biological physics and mechanobiology. Collaborators: Anthony DeTomaso, Delany Rodriguez, Aimal Khankhel (UCSB).

  8. Austenite strengthening and softening during hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushinskij, L.I.; Vlasov, V.S.; Kazimirova, I.E.; Tokarev, A.O.

    1981-01-01

    Processes of formation of austenite structure of 20 and 12Kh18N10T steels during hot deformation and postdeformation isothermal holdings have been investigated by the methods of analysis of curves of hot deformation, high-temperature metallography and light microscopy. Deformation has been exercised by extention in vacuum with average 4x10 -2 s -1 rate. Deformation temperatures of steel 20 are 930 and 1000 deg C, of steel 12Kh18N10T - 1100 deg C. It is stated that dynamic recrystallization takes place in both investigated steels during hot deformation. In the carbonic steel it is developed by shifting sections of high-angular boundaries, flow stress in this case remains constant. Recrystallization is developed by subgrain coalescence in austenite steel, that brings about preservation of increased defect density in recrystallized volumes. As a result strengthening of steel is continued up to fracture during the increase of the deformation degree. Postdeformation weakening of 12Kh18N10T steel is slowed down as compared with weakening of carbonic steel [ru

  9. Solving the Standard Model Problems in Softened Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto

    2016-11-16

    The Higgs naturalness problem is solved if the growth of Einstein's gravitational interaction is softened at an energy $ \\lesssim 10^{11}\\,$GeV (softened gravity). We work here within an explicit realization where the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is extended to include terms quadratic in the curvature and a non-minimal coupling with the Higgs. We show that this solution is preserved by adding three right-handed neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale, accounting for neutrino oscillations, dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. The smallness of the right-handed neutrino masses (compared to the Planck scale) and the QCD $\\theta$-term are also shown to be natural. We prove that a possible gravitational source of CP violation cannot spoil the model, thanks to the presence of right-handed neutrinos. Starobinsky inflation can occur in this context, even if we live in a metastable vacuum.

  10. Hardening by annealing and softening by deformation in nanostructured metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Hansen, N.; Tsuji, N.

    2006-01-01

    We observe that a nanostructured metal can be hardened by annealing and softened when subsequently deformed, which is in contrast to the typical behavior of a metal. Microstructural investigation points to an effect of the structural scale on fundamental mechanisms of dislocation-dislocation and ......We observe that a nanostructured metal can be hardened by annealing and softened when subsequently deformed, which is in contrast to the typical behavior of a metal. Microstructural investigation points to an effect of the structural scale on fundamental mechanisms of dislocation....... As a consequence, the strength decreases and the ductility increases. These observations suggest that for materials such as the nanostructured aluminum studied here, deformation should be used as an optimizing procedure instead of annealing....

  11. Investigation on Hot Workability of Homogenized Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Based on Activation Energy and Processing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoyan; Su, Wusen; Xiao, Dan; Xu, Guofu

    2018-06-01

    Hot deformation behaviors of the homogenized Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy were studied by uniaxial compression tests carried out at 623-743 K and strain rates of 0.01-10 s-1. The constitutive equation was developed for the activation energy, and thus the activation energy map was constructed. During the hot deformation, the dominated softening mechanisms were the dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization, which were most likely to be driven with increasing temperature and decreasing activation energy. Based on the superposition of the activation energy map and the processing map, together with the microstructure characteristics, the optimized hot workability of the alloy was proposed at the domain (670-743 K and 0.01-0.16 s-1), where the peak efficiency was 0.39 and the activation energy range was 196-260 kJ mol-1.

  12. Pemanfaatan ter sebagai softener dalam pembuatan karet riklim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research was to study the effect of Coal Tar as softener for reclaim rubber production from waste of rubber of tyre rethreading as input materials was scrap rubber. Coal Tar as softener was used with variation; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 and 15% respectively from total scrap rubber. Reclaimed rubber was made at temperature 1200C for 1 hour in autoclave and than it was subsequently ground with two rolls mills. The characteristics of the reclaimed rubber was tested for the vulcanization and physical properties. The results showed that Coal Tar could be utilized as softener for reclaimed rubber. Reclaimed rubber production containing Coal Tar 15% would give good vulcanization and physical properties. The vulcanization 1062 seconds, maximum torque 39,08 kgf-cm, minimum torque 4,71 kgf-cm. Good physical properties : tensile strength 80,74 kg/cm2 elongation at break 444,62%, hardness 49 shore A, tear strength 40,39 kg/cm, density 1,15 g/cm3, abrasion resistance 1,87 mm3/kgm, and no crack detected on the flex cracking test of 150 kcs

  13. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory.......Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  14. Development of Tensile Softening Model for Plain Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.K.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    Large-scale direct tensile softenng tests using plate concrete specimens(4000, 5000psi) with notch were performed under uniaxial stress. There were presented the basic physical properties and the complete load-CMOD(Crack Mouth Opening Displacement) curves for them And them the fracture energy was evaluated using the complete load-CMOD curves respectively, and there was presents optimal tensile softening model which is modified by a little revision of an existing one. Therefore, here provided the real verification data through the tests for developing other nonlinear concrete finite element models. (author). 32 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Softening the supersymmetric flavor problem in orbifold grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiyama, Yuji; Terao, Haruhiko; Kubo, Jisuke

    2004-01-01

    The infrared attractive force of the bulk gauge interactions is applied to soften the supersymmetric flavor problem in the orbifold SU(5) grand unified theory of Kawamura. Then this force aligns in the infrared regime the soft supersymmetry breaking terms out of their anarchical disorder at a fundamental scale, in such a way that flavor-changing neutral currents as well as dangerous CP-violating phases are suppressed at low energies. It is found that this dynamical alignment is sufficiently good compared with the current experimental bounds, as long as the diagonalization matrices of the Yukawa couplings are CKM-like

  16. Decommissioning alternatives, process and work activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The following outlines the topics discussed under Decommissioning Alternatives, Process and Work Activities: (1) decommissioning alternatives, (2) work activities for prompt removal/dismantling, (3) work activities for entombment with delayed dismantling, and (4) work activities for mothballing with delayed dismantling

  17. Activating clinical trials: a process improvement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diego A; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Yalcin, Ali; Zayas-Castro, José L; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2016-02-24

    The administrative process associated with clinical trial activation has been criticized as costly, complex, and time-consuming. Prior research has concentrated on identifying administrative barriers and proposing various solutions to reduce activation time, and consequently associated costs. Here, we expand on previous research by incorporating social network analysis and discrete-event simulation to support process improvement decision-making. We searched for all operational data associated with the administrative process of activating industry-sponsored clinical trials at the Office of Clinical Research of the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. We limited the search to those trials initiated and activated between July 2011 and June 2012. We described the process using value stream mapping, studied the interactions of the various process participants using social network analysis, and modeled potential process modifications using discrete-event simulation. The administrative process comprised 5 sub-processes, 30 activities, 11 decision points, 5 loops, and 8 participants. The mean activation time was 76.6 days. Rate-limiting sub-processes were those of contract and budget development. Key participants during contract and budget development were the Office of Clinical Research, sponsors, and the principal investigator. Simulation results indicate that slight increments on the number of trials, arriving to the Office of Clinical Research, would increase activation time by 11 %. Also, incrementing the efficiency of contract and budget development would reduce the activation time by 28 %. Finally, better synchronization between contract and budget development would reduce time spent on batching documentation; however, no improvements would be attained in total activation time. The presented process improvement analytic framework not only identifies administrative barriers, but also helps to devise and evaluate potential improvement scenarios. The strength

  18. Internal friction and elastic softening in polycrystalline Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussiere, J.F.; Faucher, B.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Welch, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    The vibrating-reed technique was used to measure internal friction and Young's modulus of polycrystalline Nb 3 Sn in the form of composite Nb/Nb 3 Sn tapes from 6 to 300 K. In tapes with only small residual strain in the A15 layers, a dramatic increase in internal friction with decreasing temperature is observed with an abrupt onset at approx.48 K. The internal friction Q -1 between 6 and 48 K is believed to be associated with stress-induced motion of martensitic-domain walls. In this temperature range, Q -1 is approximately proportional to the square of the tetragonal strain of the martensitic phase; Q -1 α (c/a-1) 2 . With residual compressive strains of approx.0.2%, the internal friction associated with domain-wall motion is considerably reduced. This is attributed to a biasing of domain-wall orientation with residual stress, which reduces wall motion induced by the (much smaller) applied stress. The transformation temperature, however, is unchanged (within +- 1 K) by residual strains of up to 0.2%. Young's modulus exhibits substantial softening on cooling from 300 to 6 K. This softening, is substantially reduced in the presence of small residual compressive strains, indicating a highly nonlinear stress-strain relationship as previously reported for V 3 Si

  19. Deformation twins and related softening behavior in nanocrystalline Cu–30% Zn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahmanpour, Hamed; Youssef, Khaled M.; Horky, Jelena; Setman, Daria; Atwater, Mark A.; Zehetbauer, Michael J.; Scattergood, Ronald O.; Koch, Carl C.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Cu–30% Zn samples were produced by high energy ball milling at 77 K and room temperature. Cryomilled flakes were further processed by ultrahigh strain high pressure torsion (HPT) or room temperature milling to produce bulk artifact-free samples. Deformation-induced grain growth and a reduction in twin probability were observed in HPT consolidated samples. Investigations of the mechanical properties by hardness measurements and tensile tests revealed that at small grain sizes of less than ∼35 nm Cu–30% Zn deviates from the classical Hall–Petch relation and the strength of nanocrsytalline Cu–30% Zn is comparable with that of nanocrystalline pure copper. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show a high density of finely spaced deformation nanotwins, formed due to the low stacking fault energy of 14 mJ m –2 and low temperature severe plastic deformation. Possible softening mechanisms proposed in the literature for nanotwin copper are addressed and the twin-related softening behavior in nanotwinned Cu is extended to the Cu–30% Zn alloy based on detwinning mechanisms.

  20. Magnetic enhancement and softening of fault gouges during seismic slip: Laboratory observation and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Chen, J.; Dekkers, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Anomalous rock magnetic properties have been reported in slip zones of many previous earthquakes (e.g., the 1995 Kobe earthquake, Japan; the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, and the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China). However, it is unclear whether short-duration frictional heating can actually induce such rock magnetic anomalies in fault zones; identification of this process in natural fault zones is not that straightforward. A promising approach to solve this problem is to conduct high-velocity friction (HVF) experiments that reproduce seismic fault movements and frictional heating in a simulated fault zone. Afterwards natural fault zones can be analyzed with renewed insight. Our HVF experiments on fault gouges that are simulating large amounts of earthquake slip, show significant magnetic enhancement and softening of sheared gouges. Mineral magnetic measurements reveal that magnetite was formed due to thermal decomposition of smectite during the HVF experiment on the paramagnetic fault gouge. Also, goethite was transformed to intermediate magnetite during the HVF experiment on the goethite-bearing fault gouge. Magnetic susceptibility, saturation remanence and saturation magnetization of sheared samples are linearly increasing with and strongly depend on the temperature rise induced by frictional heating; in contrast, coecivities are decreasing with increasing temperature. Thus, frictional heating can induce thermal decomposition/transformation during short-duration, high-velocity seismic slip, leading to magnetic enhancement and softening of a slip zone. Mineral magnetic methods are suited for diagnosing earthquake slip and estimating the temperature rise of co-seismic frictional heating.

  1. Solute softening and defect generation during prismatic slip in magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Peng; Cammarata, Robert C.; Falk, Michael L.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature and solute effects on prismatic slip of 〈a〉 dislocations in Mg are studied using molecular dynamics simulation. Prismatic slip is controlled by the low mobility screw dislocation. The screw dislocation glides on the prismatic plane through alternating cross-slip between the basal plane and the prismatic plane. In doing so, it exhibits a locking-unlocking mechanism at low temperatures and a more continuous wavy propagation at high temperatures. The dislocation dissociates into partials on the basal plane and the constriction formation of the partials is identified to be the rate-limiting process for unlocking. In addition, the diffusion of partials on the basal plane enables the formation of jogs and superjogs for prismatic slip, which lead to the generation of vacancies and dislocation loops. Solute softening in Mg alloys was observed in the presence of both Al and Y solute. The softening in prismatic slip is found to be due to solute pinning on the basal plane, instead of the relative energy change of the screw dislocation on the basal and prismatic planes, as has been hypothesized.

  2. Assessment of dynamic softening mechanisms in Allvac 718Plus{sup TM} by EBSD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsche, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.mitsche@felmi-zfe.at [Institute for Electron Microscopy, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, Graz (Austria); Sommitsch, Christof [Institute for Material Science and Welding, Christian Doppler Laboratory for Materials Modelling and Simulation, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Huber, Daniel; Stockinger, Martin [Boehler Schmiedetechnik GmbH and Co KG, Kapfenberg (Austria); Poelt, Peter [Institute for Electron Microscopy, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, Graz (Austria)

    2011-04-25

    Research highlights: {yields} EBSD investigations of hot deformed superalloy Allvac 718Plus{sup TM}. {yields} Dynamic softening (recovery, DDRX and CDRX) in dependence on the temperature and strain rate. {yields} At high temperature (1050 deg. C) and high strain rate (10 s{sup -1}) mainly DDRX. {yields} At high temperature (1050 deg. C) and low strain rate (0.1 s{sup -1}) combination of DDRX, CDRX and recovery. - Abstract: The nickel-based superalloy Allvac 718Plus{sup TM} is a future candidate for turbine disc applications, as this new material combines the formability and cost advantages of Alloy 718 with the higher temperature capability of Waspaloy. Due to the strong influence of the microstructure on the final mechanical properties, a fundamental knowledge of the dynamic recrystallization mechanism of Allvac 718Plus{sup TM} is of great importance in order to develop precise microstructure evolution models for this material. Compression tests were performed at temperatures of 900 deg. C to 1050 deg. C and strain rates between 0.1 s{sup -1} and 10 s{sup -1}. The microstructures obtained were analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to evaluate the influence of the different hot forming parameters on the dynamic softening processes of Allvac 718Plus{sup TM}.

  3. Static softening following multistage hot deformation of 7150 aluminum alloy: Experiment and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Fulin; Zurob, Hatem S.; Purdy, Gary R.; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the static softening kinetics of 7150 aluminum alloy showed typical sigmoidal behavior at 400 °C and softening plateaus at 300 °C (F.L. Jiang, et al., Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 552, 2012, pp. 269–275). In present work, the static softening mechanisms, the microstructural evolution during post-deformation holding was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that recrystallization is essentially absent during post-deformation holding, and that static recovery was the main contribution to static softening. Strain induced precipitation and coarsening caused softening plateaus at 300 °C. In order to better understand the static softening mechanism, physically-based modeling, which integrated recovery and multicomponent particle coarsening modeling, was employed to rationalize the experimental results.

  4. Searching for Terrain Softening near Mercury's North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian, P. S.; Vilas, F.; Lederer, S. M.; Barlow, N. G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, following the initial discovery of radar bright craters near both poles of Mercury measured the depth-todiameter (d/D) ratios of 170 impact craters in Mariner 10 images covering four different regions on Mercury s surface. Rapid softening of crater structure, indicated by lower d/D ratios, could indicate the possibility of subsurface water ice in Mercury's terrain originating from an internal source in the planet. Their study included 3 specific radar bright craters suggested to contain ice. They concluded that no terrain softening was apparent, and a rapidly emplaced exogenic water source was the most likely source for the proposed ice in these craters. Recent radar observations of the Mercurian North pole have pinpointed many additional radar bright areas with a resolution 10x better than previous radar measurements, and which correlate with craters imaged by Mariner 10. These craters are correlated with regions that are permanently shaded from direct sunlight, and are consistent with observations of clean water ice. We have expanded the initial study by Barlow et al. to include d/D measurements of 12 craters newly identified as radar bright at latitudes poleward of +80o. The radar reflectivity resemblances to Mars south polar cap and echoes from three icy Galilean satellites suggest that these craters too may have polar ice on Mercury. The effect of subsurface H20 on impact craters is a decrease in its d/D ratio, and softening of crater rims over a period of time. The study of Barlow et al., focused on determining the d/D ratios of 170 impact craters in the Borealis (north polar), Tolstoj (equatorial), Kuiper (equatorial), and Bach (south polar) quadrangles. This work focuses on the newly discovered radar bright craters, investigating their d/D ratios as an expansion of the earlier work..We compare our results to the statistical results from Barlow et al. here. With the upcoming Messenger spacecraft mission to Mercury, this is an especially timely study

  5. Softening in Random Networks of Non-Identical Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ehsan; Barocas, Victor H; Shephard, Mark S; Picu, Catalin R

    2016-02-01

    Random fiber networks are assemblies of elastic elements connected in random configurations. They are used as models for a broad range of fibrous materials including biopolymer gels and synthetic nonwovens. Although the mechanics of networks made from the same type of fibers has been studied extensively, the behavior of composite systems of fibers with different properties has received less attention. In this work we numerically and theoretically study random networks of beams and springs of different mechanical properties. We observe that the overall network stiffness decreases on average as the variability of fiber stiffness increases, at constant mean fiber stiffness. Numerical results and analytical arguments show that for small variabilities in fiber stiffness the amount of network softening scales linearly with the variance of the fiber stiffness distribution. This result holds for any beam structure and is expected to apply to a broad range of materials including cellular solids.

  6. A truly Newtonian softening length for disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Trova, A.

    2015-02-01

    The softened point mass model is commonly used in simulations of gaseous discs including self-gravity while the value of associated length λ remains, to some degree, controversial. This `parameter' is however fully constrained when, in a discretized disc, all fluid cells are demanded to obey Newton's law. We examine the topology of solutions in this context, focusing on cylindrical cells more or less vertically elongated. We find that not only the nominal length depends critically on the cell's shape (curvature, radial extension, height), but it is either a real or an imaginary number. Setting λ as a fraction of the local disc thickness - as usually done - is indeed not the optimal choice. We then propose a novel prescription valid irrespective of the disc properties and grid spacings. The benefit, which amounts to 2-3 more digits typically, is illustrated in a few concrete cases. A detailed mathematical analysis is in progress.

  7. Liquid effluent processing group. Activity details 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-08-01

    This report first gives a quantitative overview of volumes of effluents of high activity, medium activity and low activity which passed through the department for effluent processing. It also makes the distinction between the shape or type of container of these effluents. A table indicates their origin and another indicates their destination. The β and α decontamination rates are determined, and the assessment of stored aqueous and organic effluents on the 31 December 1963 is given. The next part proposes an assessment of laboratory activities: control operations (input controls, control of processed effluent before discarding), controls related to processing (processing types, radiochemical and chemical dosing performed on effluent mixes before processing). Tables indicate the characteristics of medium activity effluents collected in 1963, the results of high activity liquid analysis, and Beryllium dosing results. A summary of ALEA processing, a table of the characteristics of stored oils and solvents are given. The third part reports data related to transport activities, and various works performed in the Saclay plant to improve exploitation conditions and results

  8. Process for encapsulating active agents in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the

  9. Improved actuation strain of PDMS-based DEA materials chemically modified with softening agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Miriam; Blümke, Martin; Wegener, Michael; Krüger, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are smart materials that gained much in interest particularly in recent years. One active field of research is the improvement of their properties by modification of their structural framework. The object of this work is to improve the actuation properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based DEAs by covalent incorporation of mono-vinyl-terminated low-molecular PDMS chains into the PDMS network. These low-molecular units act as a kind of softener within the PDMS network. The loose chain ends interfere with the network formation and lower the network's density. PDMS films with up to 50wt% of low-molecular PDMS additives were manufactured and the chemical, mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical properties of these novel materials were investigated.

  10. Life cycle assessment of central softening of very hard drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rygaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking......Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking...... water entailed an increased use of energy, sand and chemicals at the waterworks, the distributed and softened drinking water supported a decrease in consumption of energy and chemical agents in the households along with a prolonged service life of household appliances which heat water. This study used...

  11. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...

  12. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  13. Hardening and softening analysis of pure titanium based on the dislocation density during torsion deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han; Li, Fuguo, E-mail: fuguolx@nwpu.edu.cn; Li, Jinghui; Ma, Xinkai; Li, Jiang; Wan, Qiong

    2016-08-01

    The hardening and softening phenomena during torsion deformation are studied based on the Taylor dislocation model for pure titanium. The hardening and softening phenomena are observed through the hardness analysis during micro-indentation test and micro-hardness test. Besides, the variations of indentation size also verify the existence of hardening and softening phenomena during torsion. The variations of geometric necessary dislocations (GNDs) and statistic store dislocations (SSDs) state that the positions of high dislocation density and low dislocation density correspond to the positions of hardening and softening. The results from the microstructure, grain boundaries evolution and twins analysis indicate the twins play an important role in appearance of hardening and softening phenomena. The appearance of hardening and softening phenomena are attributed to the combination of different slip systems and twinning systems combining with the Schmid Factor (SF) analysis and the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The appearance of hardening and softening phenomena can be explained by the Taylor dislocation theory based on TEM analysis. - Highlights: • The phenomena can be characterized by Taylor dislocation model. • The variation of GNDs leads to the phenomena. • The phenomena are proved by micro-hardness, indentation hardness. • The {10-12} twin and {11-24} twin play an important role in the phenomena.

  14. Life cycle assessment of central softening of very hard drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godskesen, B; Hauschild, M; Rygaard, M; Zambrano, K; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2012-08-30

    Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking water entailed an increased use of energy, sand and chemicals at the waterworks, the distributed and softened drinking water supported a decrease in consumption of energy and chemical agents in the households along with a prolonged service life of household appliances which heat water. This study used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking water from the initial hardness of the region of study (Copenhagen, Denmark) which is 362 mg/L as CaCO(3) to a final hardness as CaCO(3) of 254 (a softening depth of 108) mg/L or 145 (a softening depth of 217) mg/L. Our study showed that the consumer preference can be met together with reducing the impact on the environment and the resource consumption. Environmental impacts decreased by up to 3 mPET (milli Personal Equivalent Targeted) and the break-even point from where central softening becomes environmentally beneficial was reached at a softening depth of only 22 mg/L as CaCO(3). Both energy-related and chemically related environmental impacts were reduced as well as the consumption of resources. Based on scarcity criteria, nickel was identified as the most problematic non-renewable resource in the system, and savings of up to 8 mPR (milli Person Reserve) were found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  16. Extraction of pectic enzymes from of Lulo (Solanum quitoense lam) involved in softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Nieto, Jeimmy Marcela; Restrepo Sanchez, Luz Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The main problem of post-harvest deterioration of Lulo (Solanum quitoense lam) is the softening is the main problem of post-harvest deterioration of Lulo that is generated mainly by the activity of pectic enzymes, which attack the structural network of the cell wall. this research was based on finding the best conditions structural cell wall network for extraction and measurement of enzyme activity pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) and pectato liasa (PL); tools needed to study the further role of these enzymes in the deterioration of pectatelyase fruit softening, due to various metabolic changes. It was found that the first two enzymes can be extracted simultaneously with 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 0.06 m NaCl and 60 minutes of extraction, ratio 1:2 (plant material: extraction buffer), pectatelyase extracted with 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 20 mm cysteine and 30 minutes of extraction, ratio 1:3. for quantification of pectinesterase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes at 42 Celsius degrade, 2500 μl of crude enzyme extract (EE) in 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, to 0.15 m NaCl and 1.6% citrus pectin as (CP) substrate with apparent km values of 3.78% CP and vmax 17.95 mol h+/min, mg prot. for the quantification of pectinesterase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes to 42 Celsius degrade 2500 μl of crude enzyme extract (EE) in 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 0.15 m NaCl and 1.6% citrus pectin as substrate with apparent km values of 3.78% CP and 17.95 μ vmax mol h+/min Mg prot. for the quantification of polygalacturonase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes to 37 Celsius degrade 30 μl (EE) in 200 mm acetate buffer pH 4.5, 0.25 m NaCl and 1.0% of APG as substrate, with apparent km values 0.141% of APG and vmax 28.46 nkat/s mg prot. for the quantification of the pectatelyase activity is necessary to incubate 2 minutes to 17 Celsius degrade, 100 μl (EE) in buffer tris: HCl pH 8.5, 50 mm 4 mm CaCl2 and 0.1% PGA as substrate, with

  17. Cyclically induced softening due to low-angle boundary annihilation in a martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauzay, Maxime; Brillet, Helene; Monnet, Isabelle; Mottot, Michel; Barcelo, Francoise; Fournier, Benjamin; Pineau, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Martensitic steels are known for their softening during cyclic tests carried out at high temperature. The softening has been at least partially explained by lath and sub-grain boundary elimination. This article is dedicated to an attempt at modelling both phenomena. Thanks to mechanical tests it is shown that the softening is mainly due to a decrease of the backstress. Transmission electron microscopy allows us to propose a mechanism of low-angle boundary elimination. Annihilation between dislocations of low-angle boundaries and incident mobile dislocations is modelled. The macroscopic backstress is finally computed using a Hall-Petch law and the Taylor model

  18. Experimental evidence of zone-center optical phonon softening by accumulating holes in thin Ge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Kabuyanagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the impact of free carriers on the zone-center optical phonon frequency in germanium (Ge. By taking advantage of the Ge-on-insulator structure, we measured the Raman spectroscopy by applying back-gate bias. Phonon softening by accumulating holes in Ge film was clearly observed. This fact strongly suggests that the phonon softening in heavily-doped Ge is mainly attributed to the free carrier effect rather than the dopant atom counterpart. Furthermore, we propose that the free carrier effect on phonon softening is simply understandable from the viewpoint of covalent bonding modification by free carriers.

  19. Nonlinear response to the multiple sine wave excitation of a softening--hardening system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplik, B.; Subudhi, M.; Curreri, J.

    1979-01-01

    In studying the earthquake response of the HTGR core, it was observed that the system can display softening--hardening characteristics. This is of great consequence in evaluating the structural safety aspects of the core. In order to obtain a better understanding of the governing parameters, an investigation was undertaken with a single-degree-of-freedom system having a softening--hardening spring characteristic and excited by multiple sine waves. A parametric study varying the input amplitudes and the spring characteristic was performed. Transients were introduced into the system, and the jump phenomena between the lower softening characteristics to the higher hardening curve was studied

  20. Analysis of Balanced Double Lap Joints with a Bi-Linear Softening Adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2010-01-01

    of cracked concrete disks strengthened with adhesive bonded fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), or in any other structure comparable to a double lap joint with a softening interface. The present constitutive model can be changed to fit any model with the same shape of constitutive relationship, see Figure 1.......The response of a bonded symmetric balanced double lap joint under tensile loading with a bilinear softening adhesive is described with a closed form solution. Since bonded joints in concrete structures undergo softening, a versatile model to describe the response for a wide range of constitutive...

  1. Electroweak processes in external active media

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Expanding on the concept of the authors’ previous book “Electroweak Processes in External Electromagnetic Fields,” this new book systematically describes the investigation methods for the effects of external active media, both strong electromagnetic fields and hot dense plasma, in quantum processes. Solving the solar neutrino puzzle in a unique experiment conducted with the help of the heavy-water detector at the Sudbery Neutrino Observatory, along with another neutrino experiments, brings to the fore electroweak physics in an active external medium. It is effectively demonstrated that processes of neutrino interactions with active media of astrophysical objects may lead, under some physical conditions, to such interesting effects as neutrino-driven shockwave revival in a supernova explosion, a “cherry stone shooting” mechanism for pulsar natal kick, and a neutrino pulsar. It is also shown how poor estimates of particle dispersion in external active media sometimes lead to confusion. The book...

  2. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon eHeald

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processingd with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of spring softening and hardening in folded-mems comb drive resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; Khirallah, Kareem; Tawfik, Hani H.; Emira, Ahmed; Abdel Aziz, Ahmed K S; Sedky, Sherif M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies analytically and numerically the spring softening and hardening phenomena that occur in electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical systems comb drive resonators utilizing folded suspension beams. An analytical expression

  4. Acoustic softening in metals during ultrasonic assisted deformation via CP-FEM

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a phenomenological crystal plasticity model is modified to account for acoustic (ultrasonic) softening effects based on the level of ultrasonic intensity supplied to single and polycrystalline metals. The material parameters

  5. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, M. C.

    1998-12-11

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical ''signatures'' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration, the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can

  6. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael C.; Skubal, Laura R.

    1999-02-01

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical 'signatures' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration; the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can detect, recognize, and

  7. Optimization of hardening/softening behavior of plane frame structures using nonlinear normal modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Suguang; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    Devices that exploit essential nonlinear behavior such as hardening/softening and inter-modal coupling effects are increasingly used in engineering and fundamental studies. Based on nonlinear normal modes, we present a gradient-based structural optimization method for tailoring the hardening...... involving plane frame structures where the hardening/softening behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively tuned by simple changes in the geometry of the structures....

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of central softening for production of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Bruggen, B; Goossens, H; Everard, P A; Stemgée, K; Rogge, W

    2009-01-01

    Softening drinking water before distribution yields advantages with environmental impact, such as lower household products consumption, less scaling in piping and machines, and the avoidance of decentralized, domestic softeners. Central softening is under consideration in Flanders by the largest water supplier, VMW (Dutch acronym for "Flemish Company for Water Supply"), to deliver soft (15 degrees F) water to their customers. A case study is presented for a region with hard water (47 degrees F). The chosen technique is the pellet reactor, based on precipitation of CaCO(3) by NaOH addition. This softening operation has possibly large impact on the environment and the water consumption pattern. A cost-benefit analysis has been made to estimate the added value of central softening, by investigating the impact on the drinking water company, on their customers, on employment, on environment, on health, etc. The analysis for the region of study revealed benefits for customers which were higher than the costs for the drinking water company. However, pricing of drinking water remains an important problem. A sensitivity analysis of these results has also been made, to evaluate the impact of important hypothesis, and to be able to expand this study to other regions. The conclusions for this part show that softening is beneficial if water hardness is to be decreased by at least 5 degrees F.

  9. Transcriptome analysis and ultrastructure observation reveal that hawthorn fruit softening is due to cellulose/hemicellulose degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayu Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Softening, a common phenomenon in many fruits, is a well coordinated and genetically determined process. However, the process of flesh softening during ripening has rarely been described in hawthorn. In this study, we found that ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits became softer during ripening, whereas ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained hard. At late developmental stages, the firmness of ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits rapidly declined, and that of ‘Qiu JinXing’ fruits remained essentially unchanged. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM, the middle lamella of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh was largely degraded as the fruits matured. Microfilaments in ‘Qiu JinXing’ flesh were arranged close together and were deep in color, whereas those in ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruit flesh were arranged loosely, partially degraded and light in color. RNA-Seq analysis yielded approximately 46.72 Gb of clean data and 72,837 unigenes. Galactose metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions are involved in cell wall metabolism, play an important role in hawthorn texture. We identified 85 unigenes related to the cell wall between hard- and soft-fleshed hawthorn fruits. Based on data analysis and real-time PCR, we suggest that β-GAL and PE4 have important functions in early fruit softening. The genes Ffase, Gns, α-GAL, PE63, XTH and CWP, which are involved in cell wall degradation, are responsible for the different textures of hawthorn fruits. Thus, we hypothesize that the different textures of ‘Qiu JinXing’ and ‘Ruanrou Shanlihong 3 Hao’ fruits at maturity mainly result from cellulose/hemicelluloses degradation rather than from lamella degradation. Overall, we propose that different types of hydrolytic enzymes in cells interact to degrade the cell wall, resulting in ultramicroscopic Structure changes in the cell wall and, consequently, fruit softening. These results provide

  10. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H. I.; EI-Ahwany, A.H.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  11. Improving Accuracy of Processing Through Active Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Barbashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important task of modern mathematical statistics with its methods based on the theory of probability is a scientific estimate of measurement results. There are certain costs under control, and under ineffective control when a customer has got defective products these costs are significantly higher because of parts recall.When machining the parts, under the influence of errors a range scatter of part dimensions is offset towards the tolerance limit. To improve a processing accuracy and avoid defective products involves reducing components of error in machining, i.e. to improve the accuracy of machine and tool, tool life, rigidity of the system, accuracy of the adjustment. In a given time it is also necessary to adapt machine.To improve an accuracy and a machining rate there, currently  become extensively popular various the in-process gaging devices and controlled machining that uses adaptive control systems for the process monitoring. Improving the accuracy in this case is compensation of a majority of technological errors. The in-cycle measuring sensors (sensors of active control allow processing accuracy improvement by one or two quality and provide a capability for simultaneous operation of several machines.Efficient use of in-cycle measuring sensors requires development of methods to control the accuracy through providing the appropriate adjustments. Methods based on the moving average, appear to be the most promising for accuracy control since they include data on the change in some last measured values of the parameter under control.

  12. Noise-induced chaos and basin erosion in softening Duffing oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Chunbiao

    2005-01-01

    It is common for many dynamical systems to have two or more attractors coexist and in such cases the basin boundary is fractal. The purpose of this paper is to study the noise-induced chaos and discuss the effect of noises on erosion of safe basin in the softening Duffing oscillator. The Melnikov approach is used to obtain the necessary condition for the rising of chaos, and the largest Lyapunov exponent is computed to identify the chaotic nature of the sample time series from the system. According to the Melnikov condition, the safe basins are simulated for both the deterministic and the stochastic cases of the system. It is shown that the external Gaussian white noise excitation is robust for inducing the chaos, while the external bounded noise is weak. Moreover, the erosion of the safe basin can be aggravated by both the Gaussian white and the bounded noise excitations, and fractal boundary can appear when the system is only excited by the random processes, which means noise-induced chaotic response is induced

  13. Overexpression of persimmon DkXTH1 enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress and delayed fruit softening in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ye; Han, Shoukun; Ban, Qiuyan; He, Yiheng; Jin, Mijing; Rao, Jingping

    2017-04-01

    DkXTH1 promoted cell elongation and more strength to maintain structural integrity by involving in cell wall assembly, thus enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress with broader phenotype in transgenic plants. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is thought to play a key role in cell wall modifications by cleaving and re-joining xyloglucan, and participates in the diverse physiological processes. DkXTH1 was found to peak in immature expanding persimmon fruit, and its higher expression level exhibited along with firmer fruit during storage. In the present study, transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato plants were generated with DkXTH1 constitutively expressed. Overexpression of DkXTH1 enhanced tolerance to salt, ABA and drought stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants with respect to root and leaf growth, and survival. Transgenic tomatoes collected at the mature green stage, presented delayed fruit softening coupled with postponed color change, a later and lower ethylene peak, and higher firmness in comparison with the wild-type tomatoes during storage. Furthermore, broader leaves and tomato fruit with larger diameter were gained in transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato, respectively. Most importantly, transgenic plants exhibited more large and irregular cells with higher density of cell wall and intercellular spaces, resulting from the overactivity of XET enzymes involving in cell wall assembly. We suggest that DkXTH1 expression resulted in cells with more strength and thickness to maintain structural integrity, and thus enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress and delayed fruit softening in transgenic plants.

  14. Preserving the Context of Interrupted Business Process Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassil, S.; Rinderle, S.B.; Keller, R.; Reichert, M.U.; Kropf, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    The capability to safely interrupt business process activities is an important requirement for advanced process-aware information systems. Indeed, exceptions stemming from the application environment often appear while one or more application-related process activities are running. Safely

  15. Preserving the Context of Interrupted Business Process Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassil, S.; Rinderle, S.B.; Keller, R.; Kropf, P.G.; Reichert, M.U.; Chen, C.S.; Filipe, J.; Seruca, I.; Cordeiro, J.

    2006-01-01

    The capability to safely interrupt business process activities is an important requirement for advanced process-aware information systems. Indeed, exceptions stemming from the application environment often appear while one or more application-related process activities are running. Safely

  16. Creep deformation of high Cr-Mo ferritic/martensitic steels by material softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Song, B. J.; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2005-01-01

    High Cr (9-12%Cr) ferritic/martensitic steels represent a valuable alternative to austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications up to 600 .deg. C both in power and petrochemical plant, as well as good resistance to oxidation and corrosion. Material softening is the main physical phenomenon observed in the crept material. Thermally-induced change (such as particle coarsening or matrix solute depletion) and strain-induced change (such as dynamic subgrain growth) of microstructure degraded the alloy strength. These microstructural changes during a creep test cause the material softening, so the strength of the materials decreased. Many researches have been performed for the microstructural changes during a creep test, but the strength of crept materials has not been measured. In the present work, we measured the yield and tensile strength of crept materials using Indentationtyped Tensile Test System (AIS 2000). Material softening was quantitatively evaluated with a creep test condition, such as temperature and applied stress

  17. Influence of amino-functional macro and micro silicone softeners on the properties of cotton fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatoi, A.W.; Khatri, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Amino-functional silicone softeners are most widely used type of soft finishes owing to their outstanding permanent softness, smoothness and handle characteristics. These soft finishes are prepared in different emulsion droplet sizes such as macro and micro emulsions providing varying characteristics on the textile on which they are applied. The macroemulsions due to their larger droplet sizes lubricate fabric and yarn surfaces, while the micro-emulsion, thanks to their smaller sizes penetrate inside fiber pores. In this research amino-functional macro and micro emulsions have been applied on dyed cotton fabric in 1:1 combination and compared against their influence on physical properties such as bending length, abrasion resistance, tensile strength, crease resistance and water repellency. These emulsions have also been compared for their influence on colorimetric properties; color difference and color strength (K/S values). The results reveal that the softener application in combination improves the properties deteriorated by each softener when applied separately. (author)

  18. Enamel softening with Coca-Cola and rehardening with milk or saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalia, I; Dakuar, A; Shapira, L; Lewinstein, I; Goultschin, J; Rahamim, E

    1991-06-01

    Rehardening effects by cow's milk and by secreted saliva were investigated, in situ, following softening of human enamel with an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola). Volunteers wearing orthodontic removable appliances participated in the study. The intra-oral test was chosen for measuring microhardness of enamel slabs inserted into the dental appliance. The softening and the rehardening degrees were defined as the alterations between initial- and experimental-microhardness value at the enamel surface. In addition, SEM photos were prepared from the initial and experimental stages. Exposure of enamel slabs to the acidic beverage during 1 hour had a softening effect as expressed by the hardness decrease and visualized by the SEM photo. Rehardening effects following milk or saliva exposures respectively were evident, presumably due to deposited organic and mineral material on the enamel surface.

  19. STUDY ON SOFTENING AND DROPPING PROPERTIES OF METALIZED BURDEN INSIDE BLAST FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-yang Tuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inferences of burden metallization rate on softening-melting dropping properties were investigated through softening-melting dropping test of three kinds of metalized burden pressure drop. The results indicated that the softeningmelting temperature interval of pre-reduction mixed burden is bigger than primeval mixed burden, the melting interval narrow with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden as well as dropping temperature interval. The average pressure drop, maximum pressure drop and softening-melting dropping properties eigenvalue decrease with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden. Besides, the dropping temperature of burden reduces with the rise of carbon content of molten iron. The combination high metalized burden and higher carbon content of molten iron is benefit to decreasing thickness of cohesive zone and improve permeability of cohesive zone.

  20. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2018-01-01

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome...... these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we...... demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice...

  1. Modeling Aspects of Activated Sludge Processes Part l l: Mathematical Process Modeling and Biokinetics of Activated Sludge Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdElHaleem, H S [Cairo Univ.-CivlI Eng. Dept., Giza (Egypt); EI-Ahwany, A H [CairoUlmrsity- Faculty ofEngincering - Chemical Engineering Department, Giza (Egypt); Ibrahim, H I [Helwan University- Faculty of Engineering - Biomedical Engineering Department, Helwan (Egypt); Ibrahim, G [Menofia University- Faculty of Engineering Sbebin EI Kom- Basic Eng. Sc. Dept., Menofia (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Mathematical process modeling and biokinetics of activated sludge process were reviewed considering different types of models. It has been evaluated the task group models of ASMI. and 2, and 3 versioned by Henze et al considering the conditions of each model and the different processes of which every model consists. It is revealed that ASMI contains some defects avoided in ASM3. Relied on homogeneity, Models can be classified into homogenous models characterized by taking the activated sludge process as one phase. In this type of models, the internal mass transfer inside the floes was neglected.. Hence, the kinetic parameter produces can be considered inaccurate. The other type of models is the heterogeneous model This type considers the mass transfer operations in addition to the biochemical reaction processes; hence, the resulted kinetic parameters can be considered more accurate than that of homogenous type.

  2. Modeling Aspects of Activated Sludge Processes Part l l: Mathematical Process Modeling and Biokinetics of Activated Sludge Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdElHaleem, H.S.; EI-Ahwany, A. H.; Ibrahim, H.I.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical process modeling and biokinetics of activated sludge process were reviewed considering different types of models. It has been evaluated the task group models of ASMI. and 2, and 3 versioned by Henze et al considering the conditions of each model and the different processes of which every model consists. It is revealed that ASMI contains some defects avoided in ASM3. Relied on homogeneity, Models can be classified into homogenous models characterized by taking the activated sludge process as one phase. In this type of models, the internal mass transfer inside the floes was neglected.. Hence, the kinetic parameter produces can be considered inaccurate. The other type of models is the heterogeneous model This type considers the mass transfer operations in addition to the biochemical reaction processes; hence, the resulted kinetic parameters can be considered more accurate than that of homogenous type

  3. Ethylene regulates Apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening through a dose x time-dependent mechanism and through differential sensitivities and dependencies of cell wall-modifying genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Hilary S; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Muddumage, Ratnasiri; Tacken, Emma J; Putterill, Jo; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    In fleshy fruit species that have a strong requirement for ethylene to ripen, ethylene is synthesized autocatalytically, producing increasing concentrations as the fruits ripen. Apple fruit with the ACC OXIDASE 1 (ACO1) gene suppressed cannot produce ethylene autocatalytically at ripening. Using these apple lines, an ethylene sensitivity dependency model was previously proposed, with traits such as softening showing a high dependency for ethylene as well as low sensitivity. In this study, it is shown that the molecular control of fruit softening is a complex process, with different cell wall-related genes being independently regulated and exhibiting differential sensitivities to and dependencies on ethylene at the transcriptional level. This regulation is controlled through a dose × time mechanism, which results in a temporal transcriptional response that would allow for progressive cell wall disassembly and thus softening. This research builds on the sensitivity dependency model and shows that ethylene-dependent traits can progress over time to the same degree with lower levels of ethylene. This suggests that a developmental clock measuring cumulative ethylene controls the fruit ripening process.

  4. The use of coal-tar pitches of very high softening point and low carcinogen content as binders for industrial carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that the content of known carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in coal-tar pitches may be reduced to levels which comply with existing and/or proposed environmental legislation, typically by distillation at low pressures, and preferably using a form of thin-film evaporation apparatus. However, the immediate products of such distillations usually have very high softening points, typically above 200{degree}C, and are unsuitable for direct utilization in conventional commercial carbon manufacturing processes as a result of the need for very high mixing temperatures. Advantage has been taken of the of a low-PAH coal-tar pitch, supplied in powder form, which has a softening point above 200{degree}C. Methods were examined which might allow mixing and forming of the hard pitch and a petroleum coke aggregate blend either at room temperature or at conventional processing temperature, and hot-pressuring or sintering procedures in which mixtures of the hard pitch and petroleum coke aggregate were formed at or above the softening temperature of the pitch. All the formed products were baked to give carbons which were evaluated for the major properties of density, electrical resistivity and strength. A comparison was also made between the volatiles evolved during the baking of products made with the low-PAH pitch and those made with a conventional coal-tar binder pitch.

  5. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B; Abelson, Klas Sp; Søndergaard, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice without this supplement reached this humane endpoint ( p = 0.0027). Excretion of corticosterone metabolites in faeces was reduced in diabetic mice on softened chow ( p = 0.0007), suggesting lower levels of general stress. Finally, it was demonstrated that the water-softened chow supplement did not significantly affect the induction of key disease parameters, i.e. %HbA1C and albuminuria nor result in abnormal teeth wear. In conclusion, supplementation of softened food is refining the STZ-induced diabetic mouse model significantly by reducing stress, weight loss and the number of animals sacrificed due to humane endpoints, while maintaining the key phenotypes of diabetes and nephropathy.

  6. Contribution of Drinking Water Softeners to Daily Phosphate Intake in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Jereb

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative phosphate intake in a typical daily diet is high and, according to several studies, already exceeds recommended values. The exposure of the general population to phosphorus via drinking water is generally not known. One of the hidden sources of phosphorus in a daily diet is sodium polyphosphate, commonly used as a drinking water softener. In Slovenia, softening of drinking water is carried out exclusively within the internal (household drinking water supply systems to prevent the accumulation of limescale. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sodium phosphates in the drinking water in Slovenia in different types of buildings, to determine residents’ awareness of the presence of chemical softeners in their drinking water, and to provide an exposure assessment on the phosphorus intake from drinking water. In the current study, the presence of phosphates in the samples of drinking water was determined using a spectrophotometric method with ammonium molybdate. In nearly half of the samples, the presence of phosphates as water softeners was confirmed. The measured concentrations varied substantially from 0.2 mg PO4/L to 24.6 mg PO4/L. Nearly 70% of the respondents were not familiar with the exact data on water softening in their buildings. It follows that concentrations of added phosphates should be controlled and the consumers should be informed of the added chemicals in their drinking water. The health risks of using sodium polyphosphate as a drinking water softener have not been sufficiently investigated and assessed. It is highly recommended that proper guidelines and regulations are developed and introduced to protect human health from adverse effects of chemicals in water intended for human consumption.

  7. Contribution of Drinking Water Softeners to Daily Phosphate Intake in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jereb, Gregor; Poljšak, Borut; Eržen, Ivan

    2017-10-06

    The cumulative phosphate intake in a typical daily diet is high and, according to several studies, already exceeds recommended values. The exposure of the general population to phosphorus via drinking water is generally not known. One of the hidden sources of phosphorus in a daily diet is sodium polyphosphate, commonly used as a drinking water softener. In Slovenia, softening of drinking water is carried out exclusively within the internal (household) drinking water supply systems to prevent the accumulation of limescale. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sodium phosphates in the drinking water in Slovenia in different types of buildings, to determine residents' awareness of the presence of chemical softeners in their drinking water, and to provide an exposure assessment on the phosphorus intake from drinking water. In the current study, the presence of phosphates in the samples of drinking water was determined using a spectrophotometric method with ammonium molybdate. In nearly half of the samples, the presence of phosphates as water softeners was confirmed. The measured concentrations varied substantially from 0.2 mg PO4/L to 24.6 mg PO4/L. Nearly 70% of the respondents were not familiar with the exact data on water softening in their buildings. It follows that concentrations of added phosphates should be controlled and the consumers should be informed of the added chemicals in their drinking water. The health risks of using sodium polyphosphate as a drinking water softener have not been sufficiently investigated and assessed. It is highly recommended that proper guidelines and regulations are developed and introduced to protect human health from adverse effects of chemicals in water intended for human consumption.

  8. Cyclic softening in annealed Zircaloy-2: Role of edge dislocation dipoles and vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Singh, S. R.; Krsjak, Vladimir; Singh, Vakil

    2018-04-01

    The mechanism of cyclic softening in annealed Zircaloy-2 at low strain amplitudes under strain controlled fatigue at room temperature is rationalized. The unusual softening due to continuous decrease in the phenomenological friction stress is found to be associated with decrease in the resistance against movement of dislocations because of the formation and easy glide of pure edge dislocation dipoles and consequent decrease in friction stress from reduction in the shear modulus. Positron annihilation spectroscopy data strongly support the increase in edge dislocation density containing jogs, from increased positron trapping and increase in annihilation lifetime.

  9. Fatigue hardening and softening studies on strain hardened 18-8 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna Prasad, C.; Vasudevan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Metals when subjected to fatigue harden or soften depending on their previous mechanical history. Annealed or mildly cold worked metals are known to harden while severely cold worked metals soften when subjected to fatigue loading. In the present work samples of austenitic 18-8 steel cold worked to 11% and 22% reduction in area were mounted in a vertical pulsator and fatigued in axial tension-compression. Clear cut effects were produced and it was noticed that these depended on the extent of cold work, the amplitude as well as the number of cycles of fatigue and mean stress if any. (orig.) [de

  10. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... process. (h) The statewide transportation planning process should be consistent with the Strategic Highway... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of planning process activities. 450.208... Coordination of planning process activities. (a) In carrying out the statewide transportation planning process...

  11. A multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of ion-exchange water softeners for the treatment of eczema in children: the Softened Water Eczema Trial (SWET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K S; Koller, K; Dean, T; O'Leary, C J; Sach, T H; Frost, A; Pallett, I; Crook, A M; Meredith, S; Nunn, A J; Burrows, N; Pollock, I; Graham-Brown, R; O'Toole, E; Potter, D; Williams, H C

    2011-02-01

    To determine whether installation of an ion-exchange water softener in the home could improve atopic eczema in children and, if so, to establish its likely cost and cost-effectiveness. An observer-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial of 12 weeks duration followed by a 4-week observational period. Eczema was assessed by research nurses blinded to intervention at baseline, 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 16 weeks. The primary outcome was analysed as intent-to-treat, using the randomised allocation rather than actual treatment received. A secondary per-protocol analysis excluded participants who failed to receive their allocated treatment and who were deemed to be protocol violators. Secondary and primary care referral centres in England (UK) serving a variety of ethnic and social groups and including children living in both urban and periurban homes. Three hundred and thirty-six children (aged 6 months to 16 years) with moderate/severe atopic eczema, living in homes in England supplied by hard water (≥ 200 mg/l calcium carbonate). Participants were randomised to either installation of an ion-exchange water softener plus usual eczema care (group A) for 12 weeks or usual eczema care alone (group B) for 12 weeks. This was followed by a 4-week observational period, during which water softeners were switched off/removed from group A homes and installed in group B homes. Standard procedure was to soften all water in the home, but to provide mains (hard) water at a faucet-style tap in the kitchen for drinking and cooking. Participants were therefore exposed to softened water for bathing and washing of clothes, but continued to drink mains (hard) water. Usual care was defined as any treatment that the child was currently using in order to control his or her eczema. New treatment regimens used during the trial period were documented. Primary outcome was the difference between group A and group B in mean change in disease severity at 12 weeks compared with baseline, as

  12. Degassing Processes at Persistently Active Explosive Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, Jean-Francois

    Among volcanic gases, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is by far the most commonly measured. More than a monitoring proxy for volcanic degassing, SO 2 has the potential to alter climate patterns. Persistently active explosive volcanoes are characterized by short explosive bursts, which often occur at periodic intervals numerous times per day, spanning years to decades. SO 2 emissions at those volcanoes are poorly constrained, in large part because the current satellite monitoring techniques are unable to detect or quantify plumes of low concentration in the troposphere. Eruption plumes also often show high concentrations of ash and/or aerosols, which further inhibit the detection methods. In this work I focus on quantifying volcanic gas emissions at persistently active explosive volcanoes and their variations over short timescales (minutes to hours), in order to document their contribution to natural SO2 flux as well as investigate the physical processes that control their behavior. In order to make these measurements, I first develop and assemble a UV ground-based instrument, and validate it against an independently measured source of SO2 at a coal-burning power plant in Arizona. I establish a measurement protocol and demonstrate that the instrument measures SO 2 fluxes with Indonesia), a volcano that has been producing cycles of repeated explosions with periods of minutes to hours for the past several decades. Semeru produces an average of 21-71 tons of SO2 per day, amounting to a yearly output of 8-26 Mt. Using the Semeru data, along with a 1-D transient numerical model of magma ascent, I test the validity of a model in which a viscous plug at the top of the conduit produces cycles of eruption and gas release. I find that it can be a valid hypothesis to explain the observed patterns of degassing at Semeru. Periodic behavior in such a system occurs for a very narrow range of conditions, for which the mass balance between magma flux and open-system gas escape repeatedly

  13. Direct prediction of the solute softening-to-hardening transition in W–Re alloys using stochastic simulations of screw dislocation motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Marian, Jaime

    2018-06-01

    Interactions among dislocations and solute atoms are the basis of several important processes in metal plasticity. In body-centered cubic (bcc) metals and alloys, low-temperature plastic flow is controlled by screw dislocation glide, which is known to take place by the nucleation and sideward relaxation of kink pairs across two consecutive Peierls valleys. In alloys, dislocations and solutes affect each other’s kinetics via long-range stress field coupling and short-range inelastic interactions. It is known that in certain substitutional bcc alloys a transition from solute softening to solute hardening is observed at a critical concentration. In this paper, we develop a kinetic Monte Carlo model of screw dislocation glide and solute diffusion in substitutional W–Re alloys. We find that dislocation kinetics is governed by two competing mechanisms. At low solute concentrations, nucleation is enhanced by the softening of the Peierls stress, which dominates over the elastic repulsion of Re atoms on kinks. This trend is reversed at higher concentrations, resulting in a minimum in the flow stress that is concentration and temperature dependent. This minimum marks the transition from solute softening to hardening, which is found to be in reasonable agreement with experiments.

  14. Bacterial Colonization of Pellet Softening Reactors Used during Drinking Water Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammes, F.; Boon, N.; Vital, M.; Ross, P.; Magic-Knezev, A.; Dignum, M.

    2010-01-01

    Pellet softening reactors are used in centralized and decentralized drinking water treatment plants for the removal of calcium (hardness) through chemically induced precipitation of calcite. This is accomplished in fluidized pellet reactors, where a strong base is added to the influent to increase

  15. Effects Of Various Parameters On The Thickening Of Softening Plant Sludges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Baumann, E. R.; Larson, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Spectroscopic and thermal data for sludges from full-scale softening plants showed calcium and magnesium precipitated as calcite and an amorphous hydrated hydroxide, respectively. Magnesium ions were not incorporated into the calcium lattice to form a magnesian calcite. Scanning electron...

  16. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY COAGULATION/FILTRATION AND LIME SOFTENING PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents a long term performance (one year) study of 3 water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. The 3 plants consisted of 2 conventional coagulation/filtration plants and 1 lime softening plant. The study involved the collecting of weekly...

  17. A new constitutive equation for strain hardening and softening of fcc metals during severe plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, W.; Wei, K.X.; Fan, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    The stress-strain relationship for strain hardening and softening of high-purity aluminum and copper, which were deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at ambient temperature, was analyzed by combining the Estrin and Mecking (EM) model and an Avrami-type equation with experimental data during severe plastic deformation. The initial strain hardening can be described by the EM model, while the flow stress arrives at the peak stress after it was saturated. However, strain softening similar to plastic deformation at high temperatures is observed after the peak stress. Moreover, the peak strain at the maximum flow stress is ∼4 for copper and ∼2 for aluminum. A new constitutive equation was developed to describe strain softening at high strain levels, which was supported well by tensile, compression and microhardness tests at room temperature and low strain rate. It was observed that dynamic recovery and recrystallization occurs in copper, and recrystallized grains and their growth in aluminum. The results indicate that dynamic recovery and recrystallization was the dominant softening mechanism, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy-electron channeling contrast observations and the abnormal relationship between the imposed strain during ECAP and subsequent recrystallization temperature after ECAP

  18. Finite strain logarithmic hyperelasto-plasticity with softening: a strongly non-local implicit gradient framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geers, M.G.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the extension of a Eulerian logarithmic finite strain hyperelasto-plasticity model in order to incorporate an isotropic plastic damage variable that leads to softening and failure of the plastic material. It is shown that a logarithmic elasto-plastic model with a strongly

  19. The Value of Fighting Irreversible Demise by Softening the Irreversible Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis, P.; Sbuelz, A.

    2005-01-01

    We study a novel issue in the real-options-based technology innovation literature by means of double barrier contingent claims analysis.We show how much a ¯rm with the monopoly over a project is willing to spend in investment technology innovation that softens the irreversible cost of accessing the

  20. Improvement and Application of the Softened Strut-and-Tie Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoxi; Wang, Debin; Diao, Yuhong; Shang, Huaishuai; Tang, Xiaocheng; Sun, Hai

    2017-11-01

    Previous experimental researches indicate that reinforced concrete beam-column joints play an important role in the mechanical properties of moment resisting frame structures, so as to require proper design. The aims of this paper are to predict the joint carrying capacity and cracks development theoretically. Thus, a rational model needs to be developed. Based on the former considerations, the softened strut-and-tie model is selected to be introduced and analyzed. Four adjustments including modifications of the depth of the diagonal strut, the inclination angle of diagonal compression strut, the smeared stress of mild steel bars embedded in concrete, as well as the softening coefficient are made. After that, the carrying capacity of beam-column joint and cracks development are predicted using the improved softened strut-and-tie model. Based on the test results, it is not difficult to find that the improved softened strut-and-tie model can be used to predict the joint carrying capacity and cracks development with sufficient accuracy.

  1. Production, use and reuse of Dutch calcite in drinking water pellet softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, LJ; Schetters, M.J.A.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Kramer, O.J.I.; Kors, L.J.; Hofs, B; Koppers, H

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, 50% of the drinking water is treated with pellet softening for various reasons: i) public health (heavy metal solubility), ii) costs (warm water device maintenance, energy and soap requirement), iii) environmental benefits (energy and soap requirement) and iv) customer comfort

  2. 40 CFR 141.553 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my combined filter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false My system practices lime softening-is... Filter Effluent Requirements § 141.553 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my combined filter effluent? If your system practices lime softening, you may acidify...

  3. By-product reuse in drinking water softening: influence of operating conditions on calcium carbonate pellet characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Camilla; Rosshaug, P. S.; Kristensen, J. B.

    both socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, optimal implementation of softening requires a holistic approach including e.g. possibilities for by-product reuse. A pellet reactor is one widely used softening technology that may produce up to 350 kg calcium carbonate pellets per 1000 m3...

  4. The effect of hardening laws and thermal softening on modeling residual stresses in FSW of aluminum alloy 2024-T3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    or kinematic hardening together with the metallurgical softening model were applied in order to give a first impression of the tendencies in residual stresses in friction stir welds when choosing different hardening and softening behaviors. Secondly, real friction stir butt welding of aluminum alloy 2024-T3...

  5. Evaluation of the impact of lime softening waste disposal in natural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaisi, Nawaf I.; Roessler, Justin; Cheng, Weizhi; Townsend, Timothy; Al-Abed, Souhail R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Leaching tests conducted on WTR to assess potential for trace element release. • Aluminum leaching found to be elevated with respect to risk threshold. • Release in anaerobic conditions evaluated with column test run in nitrogen chamber. • Increased release of certain elements seen from residues under anaerobic conditions. • Different leaching tests produced results on two sides of regulatory threshold. - Abstract: Drinking water treatment residues (WTR), generated from the lime softening processes, are commonly reused or disposed of in a number of applications; these include use as a soil amendment or a subsurface fill. Recently questions were posed by the Florida regulatory community on whether lime WTR that contained a small percentage of other treatment additives could appropriately be characterized as lime WTR, in terms of total element content and leachability. A study was done using a broad range of leaching tests, including a framework of tests recently adopted by the United States-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and tests that were modified to account for scenario specific conditions, such as the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The results of these additional leaching tests demonstrated that certain applications, including disposal in a water body with NOM or in placement anaerobic environment, did result in increased leaching of elements such as Fe, and that a site specific assessment should be conducted prior to using WTR in these types of applications. This study illustrates the importance of leaching test selection when attempting to provide an estimation of release in practice. Although leaching tests are just one component in a beneficial use assessment and other factors including aquifer and soil properties play a significant role in the outcome, leaching tests should be tailored to most appropriately represent the scenario or reuse application being evaluated

  6. Evaluation of the impact of lime softening waste disposal in natural environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaisi, Nawaf I.; Roessler, Justin; Cheng, Weizhi [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, PO Box 116450, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Townsend, Timothy, E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, PO Box 116450, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Leaching tests conducted on WTR to assess potential for trace element release. • Aluminum leaching found to be elevated with respect to risk threshold. • Release in anaerobic conditions evaluated with column test run in nitrogen chamber. • Increased release of certain elements seen from residues under anaerobic conditions. • Different leaching tests produced results on two sides of regulatory threshold. - Abstract: Drinking water treatment residues (WTR), generated from the lime softening processes, are commonly reused or disposed of in a number of applications; these include use as a soil amendment or a subsurface fill. Recently questions were posed by the Florida regulatory community on whether lime WTR that contained a small percentage of other treatment additives could appropriately be characterized as lime WTR, in terms of total element content and leachability. A study was done using a broad range of leaching tests, including a framework of tests recently adopted by the United States-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and tests that were modified to account for scenario specific conditions, such as the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The results of these additional leaching tests demonstrated that certain applications, including disposal in a water body with NOM or in placement anaerobic environment, did result in increased leaching of elements such as Fe, and that a site specific assessment should be conducted prior to using WTR in these types of applications. This study illustrates the importance of leaching test selection when attempting to provide an estimation of release in practice. Although leaching tests are just one component in a beneficial use assessment and other factors including aquifer and soil properties play a significant role in the outcome, leaching tests should be tailored to most appropriately represent the scenario or reuse application being evaluated.

  7. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  8. A multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of ion-exchange water softeners for the treatment of eczema in children:the Softened Water Eczema Trial (SWET)

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, K. S.; Koller, K.; Dean, Tara; O'Leary, C. J.; Sach, T. H.; Frost, A.; Pallett, I.; Crook, A. M.; Meredith, S.; Nunn, A. J.; Burrows, N.; Pollock, I.; Graham-Brown, R.; O'Toole, E.; Potter, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether installation of an ion-exchange water softener in the home could improve atopic eczema in children and, if so, to establish its likely cost and cost-effectiveness. Design: An observer-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial of 12 weeks duration followed by a 4-week observational period. Eczema was assessed by research nurses blinded to intervention at baseline, 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 16 weeks. The primary outcome was analysed as intent-to-treat, using...

  9. Capturing Cognitive Processing Time for Active Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    the password with password -based access control to generate a hardened password [4]. Here, we present a biometric -based active authentication...typing rhythm (CTR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Behavioral Biometrics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF... biometrics , extracted from keystroke dynamics, as “something a user is” for active authentication. This scheme performs continual verification in the

  10. Transforming Internal Activities of Business Process Models to Services Compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirgahayu, Teduh; Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Mostefaoui, S.K.; Maamar, Z.; Ferreira Pires, L.; Hammoudi, S.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Sadiq, S.; Schulz, K.

    As a service composition language, BPEL imposes as constraint that a business process model should consist only of activities for interacting with other business processes. BPEL provides limited support for implementing internal activities, i.e. activities that are performed by a single business

  11. A program for activation analysis data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Loska, L.; Taczanowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    An ALGOL program for activation analysis data handling is presented. The program may be used either for single channel spectrometry data or for multichannel spectrometry. The calculation of instrumental error and of analysis standard deviation is carried out. The outliers are tested, and the regression line diagram with the related observations are plotted by the program. (author)

  12. Process & Quality procedures for transport & handling activities

    CERN Document Server

    Böttcher, O

    2002-01-01

    To respect the detailed and complex planning of the LHC installation project it is essential to reduce possible faults in every technical service that can cause delays in the schedule. In order to ensure proper execution of transport and handling activities it is important to get detailed information from the clients as early as possible in order to do the planning and the organisation of the required resources. One procedure that requires greater focus in the future is the preparation of the resources. The goal is to prevent equipment breakdowns and accidents while executing transport and handling activities. In the LEP dismantling project multiple breakdowns of important cranes caused serious problems in the project schedule. For the LHC installation project similar incidents in the reliability of the equipment cannot be accepted because of the high sensitivity of the whole schedule. This paper shall outline the efforts and methods that are put in place in order to meet the LHC installation requirements.

  13. REGIONALIZATION OF MANAGEMENT PROCESS BY INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sibirskaia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In current market conditions, the economy and Russia's accession to international trade scholars and experts from various fields of knowledge paying special attention to a huge set of regional problems. The growing role of regional research determines the level of establishing effective mechanisms for the implementation of the economic interests of actors as well as economic development and improving the quality of human life is the priority objectives of federal, regional and local authorities. Today, the Russian economic science faces a global goal - to develop ways and means of transformation of the Russian economy and bring it to a path of sustainable, innovative development, providing new quality of life. Achieving this goal must surely be a central task of the Russian economics and politics, as in the near future and the long term In article authors opened the maintenance of determinants of innovative development of the territory, mediated by strengthening of regionalization of management by innovative activity: condition of resource and innovative potential; the developed forms and nature of interaction between public authorities of regional level, local community and business; applied forms of integration of subjects of managing for realization of their innovative potential due to expansion of opportunities of participation in the perspective directions of scientific and technical, economic and social development; system of the incentives developing favorable conditions for introduction and development of innovative technologies, and also increases in the enterprise activity, formed by the external institutional environment; regional economic policy as instrument of increase of efficiency of innovative activity.

  14. Influence of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composites. METHOD: With a given energy density and for each of two different light-curing units (QTH or LED), the curing rate was reduced by modulating the curing mode. Thus......, the irradiation of resin composite specimens (Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram, Esthet-X) was performed in a continuous curing mode and in a pulse-delay curing mode. Wallace hardness was used to determine the softening of resin composite after storage in ethanol. Degree of conversion was determined by infrared...... exposed to the pulse-delay curing mode were softer than resin composites exposed to continuous cure (Pconversion (P

  15. Acoustic softening in metals during ultrasonic assisted deformation via CP-FEM

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a phenomenological crystal plasticity model is modified to account for acoustic (ultrasonic) softening effects based on the level of ultrasonic intensity supplied to single and polycrystalline metals. The material parameters are identified using the inverse modeling approach by interfacing the crystal plasticity model with an optimization tool. The proposed model is validated and verified by comparing the microstructure evolution with experimental EBSD results reported in the literature. The model is able to capture the ultrasonic softening effect and the results show that as the ultrasonic intensity increases, the plastic deformation also increases. Differences in the stress-strain response are explained based on the slip system orientation tensor (Schmidt factors) which depends upon the crystal orientation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling cancer registration processes with an enhanced activity diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyalin, D; Williams, W

    2005-01-01

    Adequate instruments are needed to reflect the complexity of routine cancer registry operations properly in a business model. The activity diagram is a key instrument of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) for the modeling of business processes. The authors aim to improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other public health domains, through the enhancements of an activity diagram notation within the standard semantics of UML. The authors introduced the practical approach to enhance a conventional UML activity diagram, complementing it with the following business process concepts: timeline, duration for individual activities, responsibilities for individual activities within swimlanes, and descriptive text. The authors used an enhanced activity diagram for modeling surveillance processes in the cancer registration domain. Specific example illustrates the use of an enhanced activity diagram to visualize a process of linking cancer registry records with external mortality files. Enhanced activity diagram allows for the addition of more business concepts to a single diagram and can improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other domains. Additional features of an enhanced activity diagram allow to advance the visualization of cancer registration processes. That, in turn, promotes the clarification of issues related to the process timeline, responsibilities for particular operations, and collaborations among process participants. Our first experiences in a cancer registry best practices development workshop setting support the usefulness of such an approach.

  17. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  18. Softening and re-hardening of hadron transverse mass spectra in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isse, M.; Otuka, N.; Ohnishi, A.; Sahu, P.K.; Nara, Y.

    2002-01-01

    At RHIC experiments, started at 2000, the data obtained recently seem to exhibit QGP formation, but the conclusion is not drawn yet. Here, we pay out attention to the collective motion at hadronic freeze-out as an evidence of QGP formation. The transverse mass spectra may show softening to re-hardening with increasing incident energy. We compare simulated results obtained in JAM' - a hadronic cascade model - with experimental data, and discuss weather the QGP is formed or not. (author)

  19. Finite element implementation of the Hoek-Brown material model with general strain softening behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Smed; Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    A numerical implementation of the Hoek–Brown criterion is presented, which is capable of modeling different post-failure behaviors observed in jointed rock mass. This is done by making the material parameters a function of the accumulated plastic strain. The implementation is for use in finite...... for perfectly-plastic, brittle and strain softening material behavior and the results are compared with known solutions....

  20. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening

    OpenAIRE

    Wombacher, William D.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB...

  1. Visceral and Somatic Disorders: Tissue Softening with Frequency-Specific Microcurrent

    OpenAIRE

    McMakin, Carolyn R.; Oschman, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency-specific microcurrent (FSM) is an emerging technique for treating many health conditions. Pairs of frequencies of microampere-level electrical stimulation are applied to particular places on the skin of a patient via combinations of conductive graphite gloves, moistened towels, or gel electrode patches. A consistent finding is a profound and palpable tissue softening and warming within seconds of applying frequencies appropriate for treating particular conditions. Similar phenomena ...

  2. Low activity resin processing and disposal options review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, F.

    1996-01-01

    New processing options for low activity resin processing and disposal are available. This presentation reviews the economics and technical requirements associated with the following low activity resin processing options. (1) Bulk release resin. (2) Direct disposal. (3) Decontamination and bulk release of cleaned resin. New processing and disposal options have been developed during 1995. Commercial experience with each of these options will be reviewed and the economics associated with the processing method described in detail. Technical requirements for each option will be identified specifying the activity limits and operational requirements for implementation

  3. Nanoscale thermal-mechanical probe determination of 'softening transitions' in thin polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jing; Berry, Brian; Douglas, Jack F; Karim, Alamgir; Snyder, Chad R; Soles, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We report a quantitative study of the softening behavior of glassy polystyrene (PS) films at length scales on the order of 100 nm using nano-thermomechanometry (nano-TM), an emerging scanning probe technique in which a highly doped silicon atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip is resistively heated on the surface of a polymer film. The apparent 'softening temperature' T s of the film is found to depend on the logarithm of the square root of the thermal ramping rate R. This relation allows us to estimate a quasi-equilibrium (or zero rate) softening transition temperature T s0 by extrapolation. We observe marked shifts of T s0 with decreasing film thickness, but the nature of these shifts, and even their sign, depend strongly on both the thermal and mechanical properties of the supporting substrate. Finite element simulations suggest that thin PS films on rigid substrates with large thermal conductivities lead to increasing T s0 with decreasing film thickness, whereas softer, less thermally conductive substrates promote reductions in T s0 . Experimental observations on a range of substrates confirm this behavior and indicate a complicated interplay between the thermal and mechanical properties of the thin PS film and the substrate. This study directly points to relevant factors for quantitative measurements of thermophysical properties of materials at the nanoscale using this nano-TM based method.

  4. Dynamic induced softening in frictional granular materials investigated by discrete-element-method simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemrich, Laure; Carmeliet, Jan; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Jia, Xiaoping

    2017-12-01

    A granular system composed of frictional glass beads is simulated using the discrete element method. The intergrain forces are based on the Hertz contact law in the normal direction with frictional tangential force. The damping due to collision is also accounted for. Systems are loaded at various stresses and their quasistatic elastic moduli are characterized. Each system is subjected to an extensive dynamic testing protocol by measuring the resonant response to a broad range of ac drive amplitudes and frequencies via a set of diagnostic strains. The system, linear at small ac drive amplitudes, has resonance frequencies that shift downward (i.e., modulus softening) with increased ac drive amplitude. Detailed testing shows that the slipping contact ratio does not contribute significantly to this dynamic modulus softening, but the coordination number is strongly correlated to this reduction. This suggests that the softening arises from the extended structural change via break and remake of contacts during the rearrangement of bead positions driven by the ac amplitude.

  5. Strain softening during tension in cold drawn Cu–Ag alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, L.L., E-mail: lilichang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061 (China); Wen, S.; Li, S.L.; Zhu, X.D. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061 (China); Shang, X.J. [Jinan Baoshida Industrial Development Co., Ltd, Jinan, Shandong 250061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Experiments were conducted on Cu–0.1wt.%Ag alloys to evaluate the influence of producing procedures and annealing conditions on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of Cu–Ag alloys. Optical microscopy (OM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties were characterized by tensile tests. The results indicated that hot-extruded Cu–Ag alloys had a typical dynamic recrystallized microstructure with equiaxed grains. Cold drawing at room temperature leaded to partial recrystallized microstructure with a mixture of coarse and fine grains. The dominate {001}<100 > cubic texture formed during hot extrusion was changed to be {112}<111 > copper texture by cold drawing. Strain softening occurred during room temperature tension of cold drawn Cu–Ag alloys with an average grain size of 13–19.7 μm. - Highlights: • Strain softening occurred during tension of Cu–Ag alloys with coarse grain size. • Work hardening was observed in hot-extruded and annealed Cu–0.1wt.%Ag alloys. • Strain softening was ascribed to dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization.

  6. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not iden......Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were......, and one Chinese. After collection, saliva was dialysed and lyophilised and re-dissolved at 0.5% in Type I water. Next, four polished bovine enamel specimens were immersed into each sample under gentle and constant shaking for 12 hours. Last, specimens were exposed to an erosive challenge of pH 2.3 for 4......-TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had...

  7. Visceral and somatic disorders: tissue softening with frequency-specific microcurrent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Carolyn R; Oschman, James L

    2013-02-01

    Frequency-specific microcurrent (FSM) is an emerging technique for treating many health conditions. Pairs of frequencies of microampere-level electrical stimulation are applied to particular places on the skin of a patient via combinations of conductive graphite gloves, moistened towels, or gel electrode patches. A consistent finding is a profound and palpable tissue softening and warming within seconds of applying frequencies appropriate for treating particular conditions. Similar phenomena are often observed with successful acupuncture, cranial-sacral, and other energy-based techniques. This article explores possible mechanisms involved in tissue softening. In the 1970s, neuroscientist and osteopathic researcher Irvin Korr developed a "γ-loop hypothesis" to explain the persistence of increased systemic muscle tone associated with various somatic dysfunctions. This article summarizes how physiologists, neuroscientists, osteopaths, chiropractors, and fascial researchers have expanded on Korr's ideas by exploring various mechanisms by which injury or disease increase local muscle tension or systemic muscle tone. Following on Korr's hypothesis, it is suggested that most patients actually present with elevated muscle tone or tense areas due to prior traumas or other disorders, and that tissue softening indicates that FSM or other methods are affecting the cause of their pathophysiology. The authors believe this concept and the research it has led to will be of interest to a wide range of energetic, bodywork, and movement therapists.

  8. Stool Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 50 Plus® (as a combination product containing Docusate, Sennosides) ... Gentle Strength® (as a combination product containing Docusate, Sennosides) ... Gentlax S® (as a combination product containing Docusate, Sennosides)

  9. Analysis of papaya cell wall-related genes during fruit ripening indicates a central role of polygalacturonases during pulp softening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Fabi

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening.

  10. The Softening of Journalistic Political Communication: A Comprehensive Framework Model of Sensationalism, Soft News, Infotainment, and Tabloidization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, L.; Glogger, I.; Boukes, M.

    Despite the scholarly popularity of important developments of political communication, concepts like soft news or infotainment lack conceptual clarity. This article tackles that problem and introduces a multilevel framework model of softening of journalistic political communication, which shows that

  11. Selection of Activities in Dynamic Business Process Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Rusinaitė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining dynamicity of business processes is one of the core issues of today's business as it enables businesses to adapt to constantly changing environment. Upon changing the processes, it is vital to assess possible impact, which is achieved by using simulation of dynamic processes. In order to implement dynamicity in business processes, it is necessary to have an ability to change components of the process (a set of activities, a content of activity, a set of activity sequences, a set of rules, performers and resources or dynamically select them during execution. This problem attracted attention of researches over the past few years; however, there is no proposed solution, which ensures the business process (BP dynamicity. This paper proposes and specifies dynamic business process (DBP simulation model, which satisfies all of the formulated DBP requirements.

  12. Sensitivity study of reduced models of the activated sludge process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-07

    Aug 7, 2009 ... Sensitivity study of reduced models of the activated sludge process, for the purposes of parameter estimation and process optimisation: Benchmark process with ASM1 and UCT reduced biological models. S du Plessis and R Tzoneva*. Department of Electrical Engineering, Cape Peninsula University of ...

  13. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows unde...

  14. Strain-softening behavior of an Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy during warm deformation and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Huadong; Zhang Zhihao; Yang Qiang; Xie Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy exhibits strain-softening behavior after large deformation. → The decrease of the order degree is responsible for the strain-softening behavior. → The strain-softening behavior of Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy can be applied in cold rolling. → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm is fabricated by cold rolling. - Abstract: An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was compressed at a temperature below its recrystallization temperature. The Vickers hardness and structure of the alloy before and after deformation were investigated. The results showed that with an increase in the degree of deformation, Vickers hardness of the alloy initially increased rapidly and then decreased slowly, indicating that the alloy had a strain-softening behavior after a large deformation. Meanwhile, the work-hardening exponent of the alloy decreased significantly. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the decrease of the order degree was responsible for the strain-softening behavior of the deformed alloy. Applying its softening behavior, the Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was rolled at 400 deg. C and then at room temperature. An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm was fabricated. The surface of the strip was bright and had no obvious edge cracks.

  15. Predictive Active Set Selection Methods for Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We propose an active set selection framework for Gaussian process classification for cases when the dataset is large enough to render its inference prohibitive. Our scheme consists of a two step alternating procedure of active set update rules and hyperparameter optimization based upon marginal...... high impact to the classifier decision process while removing those that are less relevant. We introduce two active set rules based on different criteria, the first one prefers a model with interpretable active set parameters whereas the second puts computational complexity first, thus a model...... with active set parameters that directly control its complexity. We also provide both theoretical and empirical support for our active set selection strategy being a good approximation of a full Gaussian process classifier. Our extensive experiments show that our approach can compete with state...

  16. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly [Orlando, FL; Rossin, Joseph A [Columbus, OH; Knapke, Michael J [Columbus, OH

    2011-08-02

    Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least 180.degree. C. at a heating rate of from 1-20.degree./min. Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

  17. Quantitative assessment of cervical softening during pregnancy in the Rhesus macaque with shear wave elasticity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Carlson, Lindsey C.; Woo, Kaitlin M.; Santoso, Andrew P.; Guerrero, Quinton W.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Feltovich, Helen; Hall, Timothy J.

    2018-04-01

    Abnormal parturition, e.g. pre- or post-term birth, is associated with maternal and neonatal morbidity and increased economic burden. This could potentially be prevented by accurate detection of abnormal softening of the uterine cervix. Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) techniques that quantify tissue softness, such as shear wave speed (SWS) measurement, are promising for evaluation of the cervix. Still, interpretation of results can be complicated by biological variability (i.e. spatial variations of cervix stiffness, parity), as well as by experimental factors (i.e. type of transducer, posture during scanning). Here we investigated the ability of SWEI to detect cervical softening, as well as sources of SWS variability that can affect this task, in the pregnant and nonpregnant Rhesus macaque. Specifically, we evaluated SWS differences when imaging the cervix transabdominally with a typical linear array abdominal transducer, and transrectally with a prototype intracavitary linear array transducer. Linear mixed effects (LME) models were used to model SWS as a function of menstrual cycle day (in nonpregnant animals) and gestational age (in pregnant animals). Other variables included parity, shear wave direction, and cervix side (anterior versus posterior). In the nonpregnant cervix, the LME model indicated that SWS increased by 2% (95% confidence interval 0–3%) per day, starting eight days before menstruation. During pregnancy, SWS significantly decreased at a rate of 6% (95% CI 5–7%) per week (intracavitary approach) and 3% (95% CI 2–4%) per week (transabdominal approach), and interactions between the scanning approach and other fixed effects were also significant. These results suggest that, while absolute SWS values are influenced by factors such as scanning approach and SWEI implementation, these sources of variability do not compromise the sensitivity of SWEI to cervical softening. Our results also highlight the importance of standardizing SWEI

  18. Core-softened fluids, water-like anomalies, and the liquid-liquid critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Evy; de Oliveira, Alan Barros; Barraz, Ney M; Chakravarty, Charusita; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2011-07-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine the relationship between water-like anomalies and the liquid-liquid critical point in a family of model fluids with multi-Gaussian, core-softened pair interactions. The core-softened pair interactions have two length scales, such that the longer length scale associated with a shallow, attractive well is kept constant while the shorter length scale associated with the repulsive shoulder is varied from an inflection point to a minimum of progressively increasing depth. The maximum depth of the shoulder well is chosen so that the resulting potential reproduces the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function of the ST4 model of water. As the shoulder well depth increases, the pressure required to form the high density liquid decreases and the temperature up to which the high-density liquid is stable increases, resulting in the shift of the liquid-liquid critical point to much lower pressures and higher temperatures. To understand the entropic effects associated with the changes in the interaction potential, the pair correlation entropy is computed to show that the excess entropy anomaly diminishes when the shoulder well depth increases. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity in this class of fluids is demonstrated, showing that decreasing strength of the excess entropy anomaly with increasing shoulder depth results in the progressive loss of water-like thermodynamic, structural and transport anomalies. Instantaneous normal mode analysis was used to index the overall curvature distribution of the fluid and the fraction of imaginary frequency modes was shown to correlate well with the anomalous behavior of the diffusivity and the pair correlation entropy. The results suggest in the case of core-softened potentials, in addition to the presence of two length scales, energetic, and entropic effects associated with local minima and curvatures of the pair interaction play an important role in determining the presence of water

  19. Low-temperature behavior of core-softened models: Water and silica behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagla, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    A core-softened model of a glass forming fluid is numerically studied in the limit of very low temperatures. The model shows two qualitatively different behaviors depending on the strength of the attraction between particles. For no or low attraction, the changes of density as a function of pressure are smooth, although hysteretic due to mechanical metastabilities. For larger attraction, sudden changes of density upon compressing and decompressing occur. This global mechanical instability is correlated to the existence of a thermodynamic first-order amorphous-amorphous transition. The two different behaviors obtained correspond qualitatively to the different phenomenology observed in silica and water

  20. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced .... represents the protective barrier moderating the chloride attack which ... inhibitors and their influence on the physical properties of. Portland ...

  1. Evaluation of Control Parameters for the Activated Sludge Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, T. Ray; Sherrard, Josephy H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of the parameters currently being used to design and operate the activated sludge process is presented. The advantages and disadvantages for the use of each parameter are discussed. (MR)

  2. ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS SIMULATOR ASP-SIM, PART-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    The design of activated process is usually done manually; this is often difficult and susceptible to errors ... Table 1: Typical domestic wastewater characterization parameters for CMAS design. ..... g = 9.81: molarmass = 28.97: zb = 500: za = 0: r.

  3. Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the root bark of Catalpa ovata G. Don by response surface methodology. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...

  4. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    OpenAIRE

    J. Shervais; J. Evans; V. Toy; J. Kirkpatrick; A. Clarke; J. Eichelberger

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park C...

  5. Modeling of flash calcination process during clay activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrajo Perez, Ruben; Gonzalez Bayon, Juan Jose; Sanchez Rodriguez, Andy A.

    2011-01-01

    Pozzolanic activity in some materials can be increased by means of different processes, among them, thermal activation is one of the most promising. The activation process, occurring at high temperatures and velocities produces a material with better characteristics. In the last few years, high reactivity pozzolan during cure's early days has been produced. Temperature is an important parameter in the activation process and as a consequence, the activation units must consider temperature variation to allow the use of different raw materials, each one of them with different characteristics. Considering the high prices of Kaolin in the market, new materials are being tested, the clayey soil, which after a sedimentation process produces a clay that has turned out to be a suitable raw material, when the kinetics of the pozzolanic reaction is considered. Additionally, other material with higher levels of kaolin are being used with good results. This paper is about the modeling of thermal, hydrodynamics and dehydroxilation processes suffering for solids particles exposed to a hot gas stream. The models employed are discussed; the velocity and temperature of particles are obtained as a function of carrier gas parameters. The calculation include the heat losses and finally the model predict the residence time needed for finish the activation process. (author)

  6. Quality control of the documentation process in electronic economic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova A.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the main tool that will provide adequate information resources e economic activities of social and economic relations are documenting quality control processes as the basis of global information space. Directions problems as formation evaluation information resources in the process of documentation, namely development tools assess the efficiency of the system components – qualitative assessment; development of mathematical modeling tools – quantitative evaluation. A qualitative assessment of electronic documentation of economic activity through exercise performance, efficiency of communication; document management efficiency; effectiveness of flow control operations; relationship management effectiveness. The concept of quality control process documents electronically economic activity to components which include: the level of workflow; forms adequacy of information; consumer quality documents; quality attributes; type of income data; condition monitoring systems; organizational level process documentation; attributes of quality, performance quality consumer; type of management system; type of income data; condition monitoring systems. Grounded components of the control system electronic document subjects of economic activity. Detected components IT-audit management system economic activity: compliance audit; audit of internal control; detailed multilevel analysis; corporate risk assessment methodology. The stages and methods of processing electronic transactions economic activity during condition monitoring of electronic economic activity.

  7. The effect of gas tungsten arc welding and pulsed-gas tungsten arc welding processes’ parameters on the heat affected zone-softening behavior of strain-hardened Al–6.7Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadadzadeh, Amir; Ghaznavi, Majid Mahmoudi; Kokabi, Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The strain-hardened Al–6.7Mg alloy was welded using GTAW and PGTAW processes. • The HAZ softening behavior of the welding joint was characterized. • Employing pulsed current in GTAW process eliminated the HAZ softening. • Duration ratio did not affect the weld strength while the frequency influenced it. - Abstract: The heat affected zone (HAZ) softening behavior of strain-hardened Al–6.7Mg alloy welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process was investigated. Increasing the heat input during welding led to formation of a wider HAZ. Moreover, the size of the precipitates was increased at higher heat inputs. Consequently, by increasing the heat input, lower strength was obtained for the welding joints. At the second stage of the study, pulsed-GTAW (PGTAW) process was employed to improve the strength of the joints. It was observed that the overall strength of the welding joints was improved and the fracture during tensile test was moved from the HAZ to the fusion zone. Moreover, the effect of duration ratio and pulse frequency was studied. For the current study, the duration ratio did not have a significant effect on the strength and microstructure of the weld, but increasing the frequency led to higher strength of the weld and finer microstructure

  8. Processing of Building Binder Materials to Increase their Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Garmashov, I. S.; Kuzmin, D. E.; Stoyushko, N. Yu; Gladkova, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals modern physical methods of activation of building powder materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of Portland cement. Activated concrete has a number of features that are used as design characteristics of structures and are due to the structure of the activated binder and its contacts with concrete aggregates. These features also have a significant impact on the nature of the destruction of concrete under load, changing the boundaries of its microcracks and durability.

  9. Formal Verification of Effectiveness of Control Activities in Business Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Yasuhito; Iida, Shusaku; Futatsugi, Kokichi

    It has been an important issue to deal with risks in business processes for achieving companies' goals. This paper introduces a method for applying a formal method to analysis of risks and control activities in business processes in order to evaluate control activities consistently, exhaustively, and to give us potential to have scientific discussion on the result of the evaluation. We focus on document flows in business activities and control activities and risks related to documents because documents play important roles in business. In our method, document flows including control activities are modeled and it is verified by OTS/CafeOBJ Method that risks about falsification of documents are avoided by control activities in the model. The verification is done by interaction between humans and CafeOBJ system with theorem proving, and it raises potential to discuss the result scientifically because the interaction gives us rigorous reasons why the result is derived from the verification.

  10. Process for encapsulating active agents obtaining a gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the

  11. Students’ learning activities while studying biological process diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students’ learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each

  12. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  13. Cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing in written word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Adam; Falconer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of language production have identified processes involved in producing language and the presence and type of interaction among those processes. In the case of spoken language production, consensus has emerged that there is interaction among lexical selection processes and phoneme-level processing. This issue has received less attention in written language production. In this paper, we present a novel analysis of the writing-to-dictation performance of an individual with acquired dysgraphia revealing cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing. The individual produced frequent lexical-semantic errors (e.g., chipmunk → SQUIRREL) as well as letter errors (e.g., inhibit → INBHITI) and had a profile consistent with impairment affecting both lexical processing and letter-level processing. The presence of cascading activation is suggested by lower letter accuracy on words that are more weakly activated during lexical selection than on those that are more strongly activated. We operationalize weakly activated lexemes as those lexemes that are produced as lexical-semantic errors (e.g., lethal in deadly → LETAHL) compared to strongly activated lexemes where the intended target word (e.g., lethal) is the lexeme selected for production.

  14. TO SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF SOFTENING HEAT TREATMENT FOR HIGH CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Efremenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. High chromium cast irons with austenitic matrix have low machinability. The aim of work is search of new energy-saving modes of preliminary softening heat treatment enhancing the machinability of castings by forming an optimum microstructure. Methodology. Metallographic analysis, hardness testing and machinability testing are applied. Findings. It was found out that high temperature annealing with continuous cooling yields to martensite-austenite matrix in cast iron 270Х15Г2Н1MPhT, which abruptly affects the machinability of cast iron. Significant improvement of machinability is achieved by forming of structure "ferrite + granular carbides" and by decline of hardness to 37-39 HRC in the case of two-stage isothermal annealing in the subcritical temperature range or by the use of quenching and tempering (two-step or cyclic. Originality. It was found that the formation of the optimal structure of the matrix and achievement of desired hardness level needed for improving machinability of high chromium cast iron containing 3 % austenite-forming elements, can be obtained: 1 due to pearlite original austenite followed by spherodization eutectoid carbides, and 2 by getting predominantly martensite structure followed by the decay of martensite and carbides coagulation at high-temperature tempering. Practical value. The new energy-saving schemes of softening heat treatment to ensure the growth of machinability of high chromium cast iron, alloyed by higher quantity of austenite forming elements, are proposed.

  15. Softening Behavior of a New Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Due to TIG Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Xiaoyan; Nie, Zuoren; Huang, Hui; Sun, Jiantong

    2016-05-01

    A new Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy with T6 temper was welded by TIG welding, and the softening behavior of the joint was evaluated. Results show that the ultimate tensile strength of the joint is 436.2 ± 26.4 MPa which is about 64.5% of that of the base metal (BM). Fusion zone (FZ) is the weakest region even though its microhardness increases from 107.6 to 131.3 HV within 90 days after welding. Microhardness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) adjacent to FZ increases from 125.2 to 162.3 HV within 90 days. However, a valley value of microhardness appears in the rest of the HAZ that increases from 112.1 to 128.1 HV within 90 days. The variation of grain size and precipitates is regarded as the main cause of softening in both FZ and HAZ. The grain size of FZ is about 33.9 μm, whereas 8.7 and 8.4 μm for HAZ and BM, respectively. A large number of η' phases distribute dispersively in BM, whereas precipitates in FZ identified as GPI zones are finer and fewer. Besides, precipitates in HAZ adjacent to FZ are also GPI zones. Precipitates in HAZ far away from FZ are coarser and fewer than those in BM and η phases begin to emerge.

  16. Simulation of crack propagation in steel plate with strain softening model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, O.B.; Elwi, A.E.; Grondin, G.Y.

    2006-05-15

    A new material model for simulating the fracture behaviour of structural steel was presented. Recent research on crack initiation and continuum damage mechanics was presented. A modified continuum damage model was also evaluated. Strain softening elements were then used to simulate material cracks in a steel structure. The analysis then compared load versus displacement and load versus clip-gauge displacement curves from various different experimental and numerical studies. A finite element analysis technique was used to simulate the fracture behaviour of 3-points bending specimens. Results of the analysis showed that the model predicted 90 per cent of the load and stress intensity factor at fracture initiation. A BE 365 electric shovel boom was used in the study to simulate fracture behaviour. Coupon test specimens were used to validate analysis predictions. It was concluded that the model was able to reduce the stiffness of the boom when the softening element reached yield strength limits during fracture initiation. 29 refs., 12 tabs., 58 figs.

  17. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, William D; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-11-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB and AHTN were detected in 100% of the samples and at the highest concentrations. A mass balance on HHCB and AHTN was performed under warm and cold weather conditions. The total removal efficiency for HHCB and AHTN, which averaged between 67% to 89%, is dominated by adsorption to water softener sludge and its consequent removal by sludge wasting and media filtration. Volatilization, chlorine disinfection, and the disposal of backwash water play a minor role in the removal of both compounds. As a result of inefficient overall removal, HHCB and AHTN are a constant presence at low levels in finished drinking water.

  18. Softening of the elastic shear mode C{sub 66} in iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Anna; Burger, Philipp [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Fakultaet fuer Physik, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hardy, Frederic; Schweiss, Peter; Fromknecht, Rainer; Wolf, Thomas; Meingast, Christoph [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Reinecker, Marius; Schranz, Wilfried [Universitaet Wien, Fakultaet fuer Physik, A-1090 Wien, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The structural phase transition of underdoped iron-based superconductors is accompanied by a large softening of the elastic shear mode C{sub 66}, which has attracted considerable attention. This softening has been discussed both in terms of orbital and spin-nematic fluctuations which would be responsible for the structural phase transition and, possibly, superconductivity. However, sample requirements have so far restricted experimental investigations of C{sub 66} (via measurements of the ultrasound velocity) to the Ba(Fe,Co){sub 2}As{sub 2} system. Here, we report on a new technique, based on a three-point bending setup, to probe the Young's modulus of a sample with a capacitance dilatometer. For certain orientations, the Young's modulus is related to the elastic constant C{sub 66} whose effective temperature dependence can be obtained. Platelet-like samples, as frequently encountered for iron-based systems, are easily studied with our setup. Data on several systems are presented and discussed.

  19. Effect of a core-softened O-O interatomic interaction on the shock compression of fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekov, Sergei; Weingarten, N. Scott; Byrd, Edward F. C.

    2018-03-01

    Isotropic soft-core potentials have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to reproduce thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalies observed in tetrahedral network-forming compounds such as water and silica. The aim of the present work is to assess the relevance of effective core-softening pertinent to the oxygen-oxygen interaction in silica to the thermodynamics and phase change mechanisms that occur in shock compressed fused silica. We utilize the MD simulation method with a recently published numerical interatomic potential derived from an ab initio MD simulation of liquid silica via force-matching. The resulting potential indicates an effective shoulder-like core-softening of the oxygen-oxygen repulsion. To better understand the role of the core-softening we analyze two derivative force-matching potentials in which the soft-core is replaced with a repulsive core either in the three-body potential term or in all the potential terms. Our analysis is further augmented by a comparison with several popular empirical models for silica that lack an explicit core-softening. The first outstanding feature of shock compressed glass reproduced with the soft-core models but not with the other models is that the shock compression values at pressures above 20 GPa are larger than those observed under hydrostatic compression (an anomalous shock Hugoniot densification). Our calculations indicate the occurrence of a phase transformation along the shock Hugoniot that we link to the O-O repulsion core-softening. The phase transformation is associated with a Hugoniot temperature reversal similar to that observed experimentally. With the soft-core models, the phase change is an isostructural transformation between amorphous polymorphs with no associated melting event. We further examine the nature of the structural transformation by comparing it to the Hugoniot calculations for stishovite. For stishovite, the Hugoniot exhibits temperature reversal and associated

  20. APPLICABILITY OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wanda MARUSZEWSKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to emphasis that activity based costing is a proper tool for engineers to enhance their deci-sion-making process while developing new product. The theoretical analysis shows that variety of factors shall be en-compassed into new product decision-making process and therefore engineers and management should pay great attention to proper cost allocation. The paper suggests the usage of Activity Based Costing methodology for new product development decision-making process. Author states that application ABC in the process of rational decision-making referring to new product development enables managers and engineers to prioritize possible solutions, and reallocate resources used in production process in order to meet wider organizational goals. It would also contribute in coopera-tion of managers and engineers for the sake of organizational goal.

  1. Process benchmarking for improvement of environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celorie, J.A.; Selman, J.R.; Larson, N.B.

    1995-01-01

    A process benchmarking study was initiated by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to analyze and improve the department's environmental assessment and environmental restoration (ER) processes. The purpose of this study was to identify specific differences in the processes and implementation procedures used at comparable remediation sites to determine best practices which had the greatest potential to minimize the cost and time required to conduct remedial investigation/ feasibility study (RI/FS) activities. Technical criteria were identified and used to select four DOE, two Department of Defense (DOD), and two Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restoration sites that exhibited comparable characteristics and regulatory environments. By comparing the process elements and activities executed at the different sites for similar endpoints, best practices were identified for streamlining process elements and minimizing non-value-added activities. Critical measures that influenced process performance were identified and characterized for the sites. This benchmarking study focused on two processes and the internal/external review of documents and the development of the initial evaluation and data collection plan (IEDCP)--since these had a great potential for savings, a high impact on other processes, and a high probability for implementation

  2. Experience with antimony activity removal process in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, S.; Mittal, Vinit K.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Bhat, H.R.; Krishna Rao, K.S.; Upadhyay, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of antimony (Sb) activity during decontamination was first encountered in NAPS-1 and Sb activity deposition took place during the decontamination resulting in poor decontamination factors (DF). Sb problem has been observed in PWRs and PHWRs elsewhere also. These utilities use an oxidative process involving the addition of H 2 O 2 to remove these Sb activities from the core and remove it on ion exchange resins. Experience in CANDU PHWRs indicated disappearance of H 2 O 2 in quantities higher than that observed in PWRs. This is attributed to the higher pick-up of H 2 O 2 by the magnetite/ferrites over large carbon steel surface present in the primary coolant system of PHWRs. Systematic work was carried out to understand the deposition of Sb on PHT system surfaces and a new method was evolved to remove the Sb activities from the system. This alternative reductive chemical process involve the addition of Nitrilo Tri Acetic Acid, Citric Acid and Rodine-92B and circulating the chemicals for a short period and then the Sb and other activities released from the core are removed by the mixed bed. Subsequent to the Sb removal process, the normal chemical decontamination of the system is carried out to remove 60 Co and other activities. This non-oxidizing Sb removal process was applied to NAPS-2 primary system prior to EMCCR. During this Sb removal process of NAPS-2, around 450 μCi/L activity of 124 Sb was released from the system surfaces to the formulation. Activity measurement in the samples collected and the on-line radiation field data indicated that deposition of Sb activities on system surfaces has been prevented by Rodine-92B and subsequently these activities have been removed by mixed bed IX columns. Antimony removal process worked successfully, but in the second normal decontamination process around 150 μCi/L activities came in the formulation which was not anticipated. As a result DF observed immediately after the decontamination campaign was not good

  3. Supply capability creation process: Key milestone criteria and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrollot, J.; Tolonen, A.; Harkonen, J.; Haapasalo, H.

    2017-07-01

    The article focuses on supply capability creation (SCC) within the new product development (NPD). The purpose is to establish an SCC process describing the main SCC activities and milestone criteria in preparing the supply process for new products Design/methodology/approach: The article analyses the earlier research, carries out current state analysis of six case companies regarding the SCC areas, and proposes a SCC process. Findings: The developed SCC process aims at preparing the operational supply capability for a developed new product based on the preferred, qualified and contracted suppliers and materials along the NPD process, and ultimately at the product ramp-up. Originality/value: This paper introduces a SCC process that has not been presented earlier in the literature, highlighting the important role of the SCC for successful product ramp-ups.

  4. Supply capability creation process: Key milestone criteria and activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Verrollot

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article focuses on supply capability creation (SCC within the new product development (NPD. The purpose is to establish an SCC process describing the main SCC activities and milestone criteria in preparing the supply process for new products Design/methodology/approach: The article analyses the earlier research, carries out current state analysis of six case companies regarding the SCC areas, and proposes a SCC process. Findings: The developed SCC process aims at preparing the operational supply capability for a developed new product based on the preferred, qualified and contracted suppliers and materials along the NPD process, and ultimately at the product ramp-up. Originality/value: This paper introduces a SCC process that has not been presented earlier in the literature, highlighting the important role of the SCC for successful product ramp-ups.

  5. Downstream Processability of Crystal Habit-Modified Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pudasaini, Nawin; Upadhyay, Pratik Pankaj; Parker, Christian Richard

    2017-01-01

    Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability and tablet......Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability...

  6. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki eGoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages.

  7. Activities relating to PSA in the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.F.; Grint, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to the IAEA activities concerning the use of PSA in the regulatory process there are two other international initiatives in this area by the European Commission and the OECD's Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Authorities (CRNA). The paper gives a brief outline of these activities as well as introducing an update on the regulatory use of PSA in the UK. 3 refs, 3 tabs

  8. Low and medium activity solid wastes processing and encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillard, D.; Claes, J.; Hennart, D.

    1983-01-01

    This work, carried out under contract with the European Atomic Energy Community, describes the techniques in use for waste management. The activity of low and medium activity solid wastes is from few curies to few tens of curies per cubic meter, they are produced by nuclear facilities and are often complex mixtures. Radioactive wastes are characterized and processing and conditioning are described. Leaching, stability, mechanical resistance and radiolysis of encapsulated wastes are examined. Handling, storage and disposal are treated

  9. Active non-volatile memory post-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Sudarsun; Milojicic, Dejan S.; Talwar, Vanish

    2017-04-11

    A computing node includes an active Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM) component which includes memory and a sub-processor component. The memory is to store data chunks received from a processor core, the data chunks comprising metadata indicating a type of post-processing to be performed on data within the data chunks. The sub-processor component is to perform post-processing of said data chunks based on said metadata.

  10. Lipídios estruturados obtidos a partir da mistura de gordura de frango, sua estearina e triacilgliceróis de cadeia média: II- pontos de amolecimento e fusão Structured lipids from chicken fat, its stearin, and medium chain triacyglycerol blends: II- softening and melting points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chih Chiu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of blending and chemical interesterification reactions on the softening and melting behavior of chicken fat, its stearin and medium chain triacylglycerols, and blends thereof in various ratios. Chemical interesterification is a promising alternative to the current processes of modifying the physical properties of fats. In the experimental design 7 samples corresponding to 7 different blend proportions were used. The results were represented in triangular diagrams. The addition of stearin influenced the softening and melting points. The mixture response surface methodology proved to be an extremely useful tool for the optimization of the fat mixtures.

  11. Waterlike anomalies in a two-dimensional core-softened potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, José Rafael; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the structural, thermodynamic, and dynamic behavior of a two-dimensional (2D) core-corona system using Langevin dynamics simulations. The particles are modeled by employing a core-softened potential which exhibits waterlike anomalies in three dimensions. In previous studies in a quasi-2D system a new region in the pressure versus temperature phase diagram of structural anomalies was observed. Here we show that for the two-dimensional case two regions in the pressure versus temperature phase diagram with structural, density, and diffusion anomalies are observed. Our findings indicate that, while the anomalous region at lower densities is due the competition between the two length scales in the potential at higher densities, the anomalous region is related to the reentrance of the melting line.

  12. Dynamic Softening or Stiffening a Supramolecular Hydrogel by Ultraviolet or Near-Infrared Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhao; Hu, Jingjing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Junlin; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2017-07-26

    The development of light-responsive hydrogels that exhibit switchable size and mechanical properties with temporal and spatial resolution is of great importance in many fields. However, it remains challenging to prepare smart hydrogels that dramatically change their properties in response to both ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) lights. Here, we designed a dual-light responsive supramolecular gel by integrating UV light-switchable host-guest recognition, temperature responsiveness, and NIR photothermal ability in the gel. The gel could rapidly self-heal and is capable of both softening and stiffening controlled by UV and NIR lights, respectively. Besides stiffness modulation, the bending direction of the gel can be controlled by UV or NIR light irradiation. The smart gel makes it possible to generate dynamic materials that respond to both UV and NIR lights and represents a useful tool that might be used to modulate cellular microenvironments with spatiotemporal resolution.

  13. Cloud fluid compression and softening in spiral arms and the formation of giant molecular cloud complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    In this, the second paper of a series on the galactodynamics of the cloudy interstellar medium, we consider the response of such a gas to a forcing potential in the tight-winding density wave theory. The cloud fluid is treated in the hydrodynamic limit with an equation of state which softens at high densities. It is shown that in the inner regions of the galaxy, cooling of the cloud fluid in the arms can result in gravitational instability and the formation of large bound complexes of clouds which we identify with the giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Masses dimensions, distributions, and scale heights of the GMCs are predicted by the theory. It is suggested that the interstellar gas density in the disk is regulated by the gravitational instability mechanism in the arms which siphons material into star formation. Implications for the evolution of individual GMCs and for galactic morphology are discussed

  14. Bandwidth broadening and asymmetric softening of collective spin waves in magnonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dependence on the applied field of the frequency/wavevector dispersion relations of collective spin waves in arrays of dots, close to a magnetic transition. In particular, we focus on the low frequency “soft” modes in three different cases: end modes in the transition between two different saturated states in ellipses, fundamental mode in the saturated-to-vortex transition in disks, and gyrotropic mode in the vortex-to-saturated transition in disks. Noteworthy, the spin waves with nonzero Bloch wavevector along the direction of the applied field happen to soften earlier than spin waves with a Bloch wavevector along different directions, and this feature is responsible for an asymmetric broadening of the bandwidth along the different lattice directions. This is particularly useful in magnonic/spin-logic device research, if different binary digits are associated to modes with the same cell function but different propagation directions.

  15. Phase-change materials: vibrational softening upon crystallization and its impact on thermal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki [Materials Science and Analysis Technology Centre, Panasonic Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute Hyogo (Japan); Yamada, Noboru [Digital and Network Technology Development Centre, Panasonic Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute Hyogo (Japan); Kojima, Rie [Digital and Network Technology Development Centre, Panasonic Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Shamoto, Shinichi [Neutron Science Research Centre, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Sato, Masugu; Tanida, Hajime; Uruga, Tomoya; Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Hyogo (Japan); Takata, Masaki [SPring-8/RIKEN, Hyogo, Japan, Department of Advanced Materials Science, School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan); Zalden, Peter; Bruns, Gunnar; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut und JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Sergueev, Ilya [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Wille, Hans Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Hermann, Raphael Pierre [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Gruenberg, Institut PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Liege (Belgium)

    2011-06-21

    Crystallization of an amorphous solid is usually accompanied by a significant change of transport properties, such as an increase in thermal and electrical conductivity. This fact underlines the importance of crystalline order for the transport of charge and heat. Phase-change materials, however, reveal a remarkably low thermal conductivity in the crystalline state. The small change in this conductivity upon crystallization points to unique lattice properties. The present investigation reveals that the thermal properties of the amorphous and crystalline state of phase-change materials show remarkable differences such as higher thermal displacements and a more pronounced anharmonic behavior in the crystalline phase. These findings are related to the change of bonding upon crystallization, which leads to an increase of the sound velocity and a softening of the optical phonon modes at the same time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Stress-Strain Law for Confined Concrete with Hardening or Softening Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Colajanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new general stress-strain law for concrete confined by steel, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP, or fiber reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM, obtained by a suitable modification of the well-known Sargin’s curve for steel confined concrete. The proposed law is able to reproduce stress-strain curve of any shape, having both hardening or softening behavior, by using a single closed-form simple algebraic expression with constant coefficients. The coefficients are defined on the basis of the stress and the tangent modulus of the confined concrete in three characteristic points of the curve, thus being related to physical meaningful parameters. It will be shown that if the values of the parameters of the law are deduced from experimental tests, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental curve. If they are evaluated on the basis of an analysis-oriented model, the proposed model provides a handy equivalent design model.

  17. Experimental model for neutron scattering in disordered systems: static structure factor determination of mode-softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, E.

    1982-01-01

    The generalized-disorder collective-boson mode-softening universality-principle (GDCBMSUP) for collective-boson mode dispersion in disordered systems (liquids, quantum liquids, glasses, powders, disordered magnets, plasmas...), a unified qualitative and semi-qualitative and semi-quantitative descriptive prescription for treating the properties of very differently disordered systems, is directly dependent upon a measurement (or calculation) of the static structure factor S(k) determined from a frequency average of the dynamic structure factor S(k,w), a multiple of the inelastic differential neutron scattering cross section d 2 sigma/dwdOMEGA. The prescription for this principle is given and, because of its universal applicability to disordered systems of any type with any type and/or degree of disorder, the neutron scattering determination of S(k) takes on renewed importance

  18. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identification...

  19. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  20. Waste monitoring of the uranium ore processing activities in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nica, L.

    2002-01-01

    The uranium ore processing activities at the Feldioara site produce a range of liquid and solid waste that are monitored. Liquids are treated through decantation, pH correction and uranium precipitation before their release into the environment. The solid waste is gathered into ore specific area and are covered regularly with clay materials. (author)

  1. Enhanced Passive and Active Processing of Syllables in Musician Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobert, Julie; Marie, Celine; Francois, Clement; Schon, Daniele; Besson, Mireille

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of musical expertise in 9-year-old children on passive (as reflected by MMN) and active (as reflected by discrimination accuracy) processing of speech sounds. Musician and nonmusician children were presented with a sequence of syllables that included standards and deviants in vowel frequency,…

  2. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced .... decrease of pH value by MeOx, a synergism of acidic and chloride ... inhibitors and their influence on the physical properties of. Portland ...

  3. Special issue on activity-travel decision processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doherty, S.; Ettema, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    Before you lies the 2006 TRB (Transportation Research Board) Special Issue of Transportation comprising selected papers presented at the 2006 Annual Meeting of the TRB in sessions sponsored by the Travel Behavior and Values committee on activity-travel decision processes. We are pleased to serve

  4. Short Horizon Control Strategies for an Alternating Activated Sludge Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1996-01-01

    Three control strategies allowing improved operational flexibility of an alternating type activated sludge process are presented in a unified model based framework. The control handles employed are the addition rate of an external carbon source to denitrification, the cycle length, and the dissol...

  5. Active Learning of Markov Decision Processes for System Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2012-01-01

    deterministic Markov decision processes from data by actively guiding the selection of input actions. The algorithm is empirically analyzed by learning system models of slot machines, and it is demonstrated that the proposed active learning procedure can significantly reduce the amount of data required...... demanding process, and this shortcoming has motivated the development of algorithms for automatically learning system models from observed system behaviors. Recently, algorithms have been proposed for learning Markov decision process representations of reactive systems based on alternating sequences...... of input/output observations. While alleviating the problem of manually constructing a system model, the collection/generation of observed system behaviors can also prove demanding. Consequently we seek to minimize the amount of data required. In this paper we propose an algorithm for learning...

  6. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Debra K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI. It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control. Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control, which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity.

  7. Use of Natural Zeolite to Upgrade Activated Sludge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanife Büyükgüngör

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to achieve better efficiency of phosphorus removal in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process by upgrading the system with different amounts of natural zeolite addition. The system performance for synthetic wastewater containing different carbon sources applied at different initial concentrations of phosphorus, as well as for municipal wastewater, was investigated. Natural zeolite addition in the aerobic phase of the anaerobic/aerobic bioaugmented activated sludge system contributed to a significant improvement of phosphorus removal in systems with synthetic wastewater and fresh municipal wastewater. Improvement of phosphorus removal with regard to the control reactors was higher with the addition of 15 than with 5 g/L of natural zeolite. In reactors with natural zeolite addition with regard to the control reactors significantly decreased chemical oxygen demand, ammonium and nitrate, while higher increment and better-activated sludge settling were achieved, without changes in the pH-values of the medium. It was shown that the natural zeolite particles are suitable support material for the phosphate-accumulating bacteria Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (DSM 1532, which were adsorbed on the particle surface, resulting in increased biological activity of the system. The process of phosphorus removal in a system with bioaugmented activated sludge and natural zeolite addition consisted of: metabolic activity of activated sludge, phosphorus uptake by phosphate-accumulating bacteria adsorbed on the natural zeolite particles and suspended in solution, and phosphorus adsorption on the natural zeolite particles.

  8. Human cortical activity evoked by contextual processing in attentional orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuo; Li, Chunlin; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-06-07

    The ability to assess another person's direction of attention is paramount in social communication, many studies have reported a similar pattern between gaze and arrow cues in attention orienting. Neuroimaging research has also demonstrated no qualitative differences in attention to gaze and arrow cues. However, these studies were implemented under simple experiment conditions. Researchers have highlighted the importance of contextual processing (i.e., the semantic congruence between cue and target) in attentional orienting, showing that attentional orienting by social gaze or arrow cues could be modulated through contextual processing. Here, we examine the neural activity of attentional orienting by gaze and arrow cues in response to contextual processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results demonstrated that the influence of neural activity through contextual processing to attentional orienting occurred under invalid conditions (when the cue and target were incongruent versus congruent) in the ventral frontoparietal network, although we did not identify any differences in the neural substrates of attentional orienting in contextual processing between gaze and arrow cues. These results support behavioural data of attentional orienting modulated by contextual processing based on the neurocognitive architecture.

  9. 40 CFR 141.564 - My system practices lime softening-is there any special provision regarding my individual filter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false My system practices lime softening-is... People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.564 My system practices lime softening—is there any special provision regarding my individual filter turbidity monitoring? If your system utilizes lime...

  10. Effects of Nitrogen Content on the HAZ Softening of Ti-Containing High Strength Steels Manufactured by Accelerated Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kook-soo; Jung, Ho-shin; Park, Chan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of nitrogen content on the HAZ softening of Ti-containing high strength steels manufactured by accelerating cooling were investigated and interpreted in terms of the microstructures in the softening zone. Regardless of their content, all of the steels investigated showed a softened zone 9-10 mm wide. The minimum hardness in the zone, however, was different, with lower hardness in the higher nitrogen content steel. Microstructural observations of the steel showed that the amount of soft ferrite was increased in the zone with an increase of nitrogen content of the steel, suggesting that microstructural evolution in the HAZ is influenced by the nitrogen content. Measurements of TiN particles showed that the degree of particles coarsening in the HAZ was lower in the higher nitrogen content steel. Therefore, it is believed that finer TiN particles in the HAZ inhibit austenite grain growth more effectively, and lead to an accelerated ferrite transformation in higher nitrogen content steel, resulting in a higher amount of soft ferrite microstructure in the softened zone.

  11. Influence of Softening Temperature of Azobenzene Polymers and External Electric Field on Diffraction Efficiency of Polarization Holograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolay Davidenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the diffraction efficiency and recording velocity was found in the films of copolymers 4-((2- nitrophenyl diazeniylphenylmethacrylate with octylmethacrylate at room temperature holographic recording for copolymer with less softening temperature. Effect of strengthening of the diffraction efficiency was observed when charging surface of the films with recorded hologram in crown discharge.

  12. Thermochemical transformations of hard-coal pitches at the stage of raising the softening temperature to 358-363 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekin, N.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Stepanenko, M.A.; Gordienko, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Using high-resolution NMR together with infra-red spectroscopy, data were obtained characterising changes in hydrogen content in various groups of compounds dissolved in fractions of the original pitch and its thermal product when raising the softening temperature to 358-363 K.

  13. Dynamic Stimuli And Active Processing In Human Visual Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Ralph N.

    1990-03-01

    Theories of visual perception traditionally have considered a static retinal image to be the starting point for processing; and has considered processing both to be passive and a literal translation of that frozen, two dimensional, pictorial image. This paper considers five problem areas in the analysis of human visually guided locomotion, in which the traditional approach is contrasted to newer ones that utilize dynamic definitions of stimulation, and an active perceiver: (1) differentiation between object motion and self motion, and among the various kinds of self motion (e.g., eyes only, head only, whole body, and their combinations); (2) the sources and contents of visual information that guide movement; (3) the acquisition and performance of perceptual motor skills; (4) the nature of spatial representations, percepts, and the perceived layout of space; and (5) and why the retinal image is a poor starting point for perceptual processing. These newer approaches argue that stimuli must be considered as dynamic: humans process the systematic changes in patterned light when objects move and when they themselves move. Furthermore, the processing of visual stimuli must be active and interactive, so that perceivers can construct panoramic and stable percepts from an interaction of stimulus information and expectancies of what is contained in the visual environment. These developments all suggest a very different approach to the computational analyses of object location and identification, and of the visual guidance of locomotion.

  14. Functional activation of the infant cortex during object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Stubbs, Jessica; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Boas, David A

    2012-09-01

    A great deal is known about the functional organization of the neural structures that mediate visual object processing in the adult observer. These findings have contributed significantly to our conceptual models of object recognition and identification and provided unique insight into the nature of object representations extracted from visual input. In contrast, little is known about the neural basis of object processing in the infant. The current research used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a neuroimaging tool to investigate functional activation of the infant cortex during an object processing task that has been used extensively with infants. The neuroimaging data revealed that the infant cortex is functionally specialized for object processing (i.e., individuation-by-feature) early in the first year but that patterns of activation also change between 3 and 12 months. These changes may reflect functional reorganization of the immature cortex or age-related differences in the cognitive processes engaged during the task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Graphical analysis of processes with multiple activation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachter, J.; Bragg, R.H.; Close, E.

    1986-01-01

    The activation energies characterizing a kinetic process are derived from the slopes of the Arrhenius diagrams obtained by plotting rate constants versus reciprocal temperature. Those rate constants correspond to the shifts along the time axis needed to superpose the successive isotherms. A general method based on Chebyshev interpolation is proposed for the optimization of the superposition of the experimental data points. This method is applied to determine the activation energies of the graphitization kinetics of the interlayer spacings of pitch coke and pyrocarbon samples

  16. Enhancement of activated sludge disintegration and dewaterability by Fenton process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, G. C.; Isa, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of sludge. This excess sludge is an inevitable drawback inherent to the activated sludge process. In this study, the waste activated sludge was obtained from the campus wastewater treatment plant at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. Fenton pretreatment was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effects of three operating conditions including the dosage of H2O2 (g H2O2/kg TS), the molar ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ and reaction time. The optimum operating variables to achieve MLVSS removal 65%, CST reduction 28%, sCOD 11000 mg/L and EPS 500 mg/L were: 1000 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 70 and reaction time 45 min. Fenton process was proved to be able to enhance the sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

  17. EXPERIENCE OF INTRODUCTION IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS FOR FORMATION OF ACTIVE MATHEMATICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shishko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Annotation In this article is described the information an experience of introduction in educational process of pedagogical program systems of support of practical activities for example pedagogical software "Algebra, 8 class" and also aspect of formation of mathematical activity during algebra studying.

  18. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform a......) that perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  19. Active Learning for Automatic Audio Processing of Unwritten Languages (ALAPUL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0074 ACTIVE LEARNING FOR AUTOMATIC AUDIO PROCESSING OF UNWRITTEN LANGUAGES (ALAPUL) Dimitra Vergyri Andreas Kathol Wen Wang...FA8650-15-C-9101 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) *Dimitra Vergyri; Andreas Kathol; Wen Wang; Chris Bartels; Julian VanHout...feature transform through deep auto-encoders for better phone recognition performance. We target iterative learning to improve the system through

  20. Memory suppression is an active process that improves over childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Paz-Alonso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We all have memories that we prefer not to think about. The ability to suppress retrieval of unwanted memories has been documented in behavioral and neuroimaging research using the Think/No-Think (TNT paradigm with adults. Attempts to stop memory retrieval are associated with increased activation of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC and concomitant reduced activation in medial temporal lobe (MTL structures. However, the extent to which children have the ability to actively suppress their memories is unknown. This study investigated memory suppression in middle childhood using the TNT paradigm. Forty children aged 8 to 12 and 30 young adults were instructed either to remember (Think or suppress (No-Think the memory of the second word of previously studied word-pairs, when presented with the first member as a reminder. They then performed two different cued recall tasks, testing their memory for the second word in each pair after the Think/No-Think phase using the same first studied word within the pair as a cue (intra-list cue and also an independent cue (extra-list cue. Children exhibited age-related improvements in memory suppression from age 8 to 12 in both memory tests, against a backdrop of overall improvements in declarative memory over this age range. These findings suggest that memory suppression is an active process that develops during late childhood, likely due to an age-related refinement in the ability to engage PFC to down-regulate activity in areas involved in episodic retrieval.

  1. Empathy and feedback processing in active and observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Natalia; Bellebaum, Christian; Thoma, Patrizia

    2013-12-01

    The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 have been related to the processing of one's own and other individuals' feedback during both active and observational learning. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of trait-empathic responding with regard to the modulation of the neural correlates of observational learning in particular. Thirty-four healthy participants completed an active and an observational learning task. On both tasks, the participants' aim was to maximize their monetary gain by choosing from two stimuli the one that showed the higher probability of reward. Participants gained insight into the stimulus-reward contingencies according to monetary feedback presented after they had made an active choice or by observing the choices of a virtual partner. Participants showed a general improvement in learning performance on both learning tasks. P200, FRN, and P300 amplitudes were larger during active, as compared with observational, learning. Furthermore, nonreward elicited a significantly more negative FRN than did reward in the active learning task, while only a trend was observed for observational learning. Distinct subcomponents of trait cognitive empathy were related to poorer performance and smaller P300 amplitudes for observational learning only. Taken together, both the learning performance and event-related potentials during observational learning are affected by different aspects of trait cognitive empathy, and certain types of observational learning may actually be disrupted by a higher tendency to understand and adopt other people's perspectives.

  2. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  3. Effect of softening precipitate composition and surface characteristics on natural organic matter adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Caroline G; Lawler, Desmond F; Speitel, Gerald E; Katz, Lynn E

    2009-10-15

    Natural organic matter (NOM) removal during water softening is thought to occur through adsorption onto or coprecipitation with calcium and magnesium solids. However, details of precipitate composition and surface chemistry and subsequent interactions with NOM are relatively unknown. In this study, zeta potentiometry analyses of precipitates formed from inorganic solutions under varying conditions (e.g., Ca-only, Mg-only, Ca + Mg, increasing lime or NaOH dose) indicated that both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 were positively charged at higher lime (Ca(OH)2) and NaOH doses (associated with pH values above 11.5), potentially yielding a greater affinity for adsorbing negatively charged organic molecules. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images of CaCO3 solids illustrated the rhombohedral shape characteristic of calcite. In the presence of increasing concentrations of magnesium, the CaCO3 rhombs shifted to more elongated crystals. The CaCO3 solids also exhibited increasingly positive surface charge from Mg incorporation into the crystal lattice, potentially creating more favorable conditions for adsorption of organic matter. NOM adsorption experiments using humic substances extracted from Lake Austin and Missouri River water elucidated the role of surface charge and surface area on adsorption.

  4. Ultrasonically assisted drilling: A finite-element model incorporating acoustic softening effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadnis, V A; Roy, A; Silberschmidt, V V

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) is a novel machining technique suitable for drilling in hard-to-machine quasi-brittle materials such as carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites (CFRP). UAD has been shown to possess several advantages compared to conventional drilling (CD), including reduced thrust forces, diminished burr formation at drill exit and an overall improvement in roundness and surface finish of the drilled hole. Recently, our in-house experiments of UAD in CFRP composites demonstrated remarkable reductions in thrust-force and torque measurements (average force reductions in excess of 80%) when compared to CD with the same machining parameters. In this study, a 3D finite-element model of drilling in CFRP is developed. In order to model acoustic (ultrasonic) softening effects, a phenomenological model, which accounts for ultrasonically induced plastic strain, was implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit. The model also accounts for dynamic frictional effects, which also contribute to the overall improved machining characteristics in UAD. The model is validated with experimental findings, where an excellent correlation between the reduced thrust force and torque magnitude was achieved

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of spring softening and hardening in folded-mems comb drive resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2011-08-01

    This paper studies analytically and numerically the spring softening and hardening phenomena that occur in electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical systems comb drive resonators utilizing folded suspension beams. An analytical expression for the electrostatic force generated between the combs of the rotor and the stator is derived and takes into account both the transverse and longitudinal capacitances present. After formulating the problem, the resulting stiff differential equations are solved analytically using the method of multiple scales, and a closed-form solution is obtained. Furthermore, the nonlinear boundary value problem that describes the dynamics of inextensional spring beams is solved using straightforward perturbation to obtain the linear and nonlinear spring constants of the beam. The analytical solution is verified numerically using a Matlab/Simulink environment, and the results from both analyses exhibit excellent agreement. Stability analysis based on phase plane trajectory is also presented and fully explains previously reported empirical results that lacked sufficient theoretical description. Finally, the proposed solutions are, once again, verified with previously published measurement results. The closed-form solutions provided are easy to apply and enable predicting the actual behavior of resonators and gyroscopes with similar structures. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Shear Behavior Models of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Modifying Softened Truss Model Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin-Ha; Lee, Deuck Hang; Ju, Hyunjin; Kim, Kang Su; Seo, Soo-Yeon; Kang, Joo-Won

    2013-10-23

    Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear strength equations based on their experimental results. Thus, this study attempts to estimate the strains and stresses in steel fibers by considering the detailed characteristics of steel fibers in SFRC members, from which more accurate estimation on the shear behavior and strength of SFRC members is possible, and the failure mode of steel fibers can be also identified. Four shear behavior models for SFRC members have been proposed, which have been modified from the softened truss models for reinforced concrete members, and they can estimate the contribution of steel fibers to the total shear strength of the SFRC member. The performances of all the models proposed in this study were also evaluated by a large number of test results. The contribution of steel fibers to the shear strength varied from 5% to 50% according to their amount, and the most optimized volume fraction of steel fibers was estimated as 1%-1.5%, in terms of shear performance.

  7. Shear Behavior Models of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Modifying Softened Truss Model Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Won Kang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear strength equations based on their experimental results. Thus, this study attempts to estimate the strains and stresses in steel fibers by considering the detailed characteristics of steel fibers in SFRC members, from which more accurate estimation on the shear behavior and strength of SFRC members is possible, and the failure mode of steel fibers can be also identified. Four shear behavior models for SFRC members have been proposed, which have been modified from the softened truss models for reinforced concrete members, and they can estimate the contribution of steel fibers to the total shear strength of the SFRC member. The performances of all the models proposed in this study were also evaluated by a large number of test results. The contribution of steel fibers to the shear strength varied from 5% to 50% according to their amount, and the most optimized volume fraction of steel fibers was estimated as 1%–1.5%, in terms of shear performance.

  8. Softening mechanisms of the AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel under hot torsion simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago Santana de; Silva, Eden Santos; Rodrigues, Samuel Filgueiras; Nascimento, Carmem Celia Francisco; Leal, Valdemar Silva; Reis, Gedeon Silva, E-mail: samuel.filgueiras@ifma.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Maranhao (PPGEM/IFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    This study investigated the softening mechanisms of the AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel during torsion simulation under isothermal continuous in the temperature range of 900 to 1150 °C and strain rates of 0.1 to 5.0s{sup -1}. In the first part of the curves, before the peak, the results show that the critical (ε-c) and peak (ε-p) strains are elevated for higher strain rate and lower temperatures contributing for higher strain hardening rate (h). Moreover, this indicated that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and dynamic recovery (DRV) are not effective in this region. After the peak, the reductions in stresses are associated to the different DRX/DRV competitions. For lower temperatures and higher strain rates there is a delay in the DRX while the DRV is acting predominantly (with low Avrami exponent (n) and high t{sub 0.5}). The steady state was reached after large strains showing DRX grains, formation of retained austenite and the presence of chromium carbide (Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}) and ferrite δ at the martensitic grain boundaries. These contribute for impairing the toughness and ductility on the material. The constitutive equations at the peak strain indicated changes in the deformation mechanism, with variable strain rate sensitivity (m), which affected the final microstructure. (author)

  9. The anti-senescence effect of resveratrol reduces postharvest softening rate in cherimoya fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaran Aquilino Morales Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its climateric behavior, the cherimoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill. is a very perishable commodity. Present research aimed to observe the anti-senescence effect of resveratrol (RVS; this plant bioregulator was applied at 1.6, 0.16, 0.016 and 0 mM at 0, 8 and 15 days before harvest (DBH. At 1, 7 and 15 days of postharvest life, several physical and biochemical determinations were performed on the cherimoya fruit. After 15 days under room temperature conditions, in relation to control fruit, those fruit with 1.6 mM RVS applied 15 DBH reduced skin softening rate 78% and 54% for ‘Fino de Jete’ and ‘Bronceada’, respectively. Similarly, after 15 days of storage, a non-trained group of tasters preferred those fruit treated with 1.6 mM RVS 15 DBH; they qualified the fruit as better than the control fruit in presentation, aroma and taste.

  10. Process for processing and conditioning radioactive effluents of low and medium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taponier, Jean; Pierlas, Rene.

    1979-01-01

    Preferably continuous process for processing radioactive effluents of low and medium activity, comprising an effluent pre-treatment: precipitation of radioactive compounds to form a stable suspension that can be concentrated. Then a mix is made of 0.6 to 2 parts of cement by weight for one part by weight of suspension, from 0.5 to 5% by weight, in relation to the cement, of asbestos fibre and, if necessary, added water for the cement to set, this suspension containing from 15 to 75% by weight of dry extract and a suspension agent. The homogeneous mix achieved is poured into a container [fr

  11. Improvement in dry active waste segregation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillmer, T.P.; Anderson, K.D.; Dahlen, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    At the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) the majority of dry active waste (DAW) volume reduction activities are performed in the site's new DAW processing and storage facility. This facility houses an interim storage area for a five year volume of compacted DAW, a shredder/compactor, and a DAW segregation area. The DAW segregation program locates and separates non-radioactive and reusable materials from DAW generated at the three unit PVNGS site. This program has saved more than 24,000 cubic feet of burial space and has reclaimed more than $1,000,000 worth of materials. Palo Verde has made numerous changes to the DAW segregation program since its inception. To ensure that the DAW segregation program remained cost effective and in compliance with applicable regulatory guidance, segregation techniques were revised and new equipment was evaluated and procured. This paper details that effort and summarizes the operational data that has been collected

  12. Kinetics of Thermally Activated Physical Processes in Disordered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Poumellec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a framework for modeling the writing and erasure of thermally-distributed activated processes that we can specifically apply to UV-induced refractive index change, particularly in fibers. From experimental measurements (isochrons and/or isotherms, this framework allows to find the distribution function of the activation energy by providing only a constant, which can be determined by a simple variable change when a few assumptions are fulfilled. From this modeling, it is possible to know the complete evolution in time of the system. It is also possible to determine the annealing conditions for extending a lifetime. This approach can also be used for other physical quantities, such as photodarkening, stress relaxation, and luminescence decay, provided that it can be described by a distribution function.

  13. Nitrate control strategies in an activated sludge wastewater treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenhao; Tao, Erpan; Chen, Xiaoquan; Liu, Dawei [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Hongbin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We studied nitrate control strategies in an activated sludge wastewater treatment process (WWTP) based on the activated sludge model. Two control strategies, back propagation for proportional-integral-derivative (BP-PID) and adaptive-network based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), are applied in the WWTP. The simulation results show that the simple local constant setpoint control has poor control effects on the nitrate concentration control. However, the ANFIS (4*1) controller, which considers not only the local constant setpoint control of the nitrate concentration, but also three important indices in the effluent--ammonia concentration, total suspended sludge concentration and total nitrogen concentration--demonstrates good control performance. The results also prove that ANFIS (4*1) controller has better control performance than that of the controllers PI, BP-PID and ANFIS (2*1), and that the ANFIS (4*1) controller is effective in improving the effluent quality and maintaining the stability of the effluent quality.

  14. Neutron-activation analysis of routine mineral-processing samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.; Eddy, B.; Pearton, D.

    1974-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was applied to a suite of typical mineral-processing samples to establish which elements can be rapidly determined in them by this technique. A total of 35 elements can be determined with precisions (from the counting statistics) ranging from better than 1 per cent to approximately 20 per cent. The elements that can be determined have been tabulated together with the experimental conditions, the precision from the counting statistics, and the estimated number of analyses possible per day. With an automated system, this number can be as high as 150 in the most favourable cases [af

  15. Process Analytical Technology for Crystallization of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Qu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is witnessing increased pressure to introduce innovative and efficient processes for manufacturing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in order to be competitive as well as to meet the stringent product quality requirements set by regulatory authorities...... parameters and their impact on quality of APIs and subsequently the drug products assume great significance for pharmaceutical industry. Methods: This review paper focuses on application of PAT tools, an integral part of Quality by Design (QbD) approach, for better understanding, control, and design...

  16. Activation of inactivation process initiates rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Birendra Nath; Singh, Abhishek; Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Interactions among REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons form the basic scaffold for rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) regulation; however, precise mechanism of their activation and cessation, respectively, was unclear. Locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenalin (NA)-ergic neurons are REM-OFF type and receive GABA-ergic inputs among others. GABA acts postsynaptically on the NA-ergic REM-OFF neurons in the LC and presynaptically on the latter's projection terminals and modulates NA-release on the REM-ON neurons. Normally during wakefulness and non-REMS continuous release of NA from the REM-OFF neurons, which however, is reduced during the latter phase, inhibits the REM-ON neurons and prevents REMS. At this stage GABA from substantia nigra pars reticulate acting presynaptically on NA-ergic terminals on REM-ON neurons withdraws NA-release causing the REM-ON neurons to escape inhibition and being active, may be even momentarily. A working-model showing neurochemical-map explaining activation of inactivation process, showing contribution of GABA-ergic presynaptic inhibition in withdrawing NA-release and dis-inhibition induced activation of REM-ON neurons, which in turn activates other GABA-ergic neurons and shutting-off REM-OFF neurons for the initiation of REMS-generation has been explained. Our model satisfactorily explains yet unexplained puzzles (i) why normally REMS does not appear during waking, rather, appears following non-REMS; (ii) why cessation of LC-NA-ergic-REM-OFF neurons is essential for REMS-generation; (iii) factor(s) which does not allow cessation of REM-OFF neurons causes REMS-loss; (iv) the association of changes in levels of GABA and NA in the brain during REMS and its deprivation and associated symptoms; v) why often dreams are associated with REMS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cyclic softening based on dislocation annihilation at sub-cell boundary for SA333 Grade-6 C-Mn steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, S.; Dhar, S.; Acharyya, S. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the response of SA333 Grade-6 C-Mn steel subjected to uniaxial and in-phase biaxial tension-torsion cyclic loading is experimented and an attempt is made to model the material behaviour. Experimentally observed cyclic softening is modelled based on ‘dislocation annihilation at low angle grain boundary’, while Ohno-Wang kinematic hardening rule is used to simulate the stress-strain hysteresis loops. The relevant material parameters are extracted from the appropriate experimental results and metallurgical investigations. The material model is plugged as user material subroutine into ABAQUS FE platform to simulate pre-saturation low cycle fatigue loops with cyclic softening and other cyclic plastic behaviour under prescribed loading. The stress-strain hysteresis loops and peak stress with cycles were compared with the experimental results and good agreements between experimental and simulated results validated the material model.

  18. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit: implications for cell adhesion and fruit softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic...... polysaccharides to the non-softening and altered cell adhesion phenotype. Cell wall material (CWM) and solubilised fractions of mature green and red ripe fruit were analysed by chemical, enzymatic and immunochemical techniques. No major differences in CWM sugar composition were detected although differences were...... that was chelator-soluble was 50% less in Cnr cell walls at both the mature green and red ripe stages. Chelator-soluble material from ripe-stage Cnr was more susceptible to endo-polygalacturonase degradation than the corresponding material from wild-type fruit. In addition, cell walls from Cnr fruit contained...

  19. Submicroscopic structure role in resistance of microplastic deformation of precipitation hardening nickel-chromium base alloys. 2. Softening stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitgarts, M.I.; Kukareko, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reasons for decrease of elastic limit and hardness of KhN77TYuR, KhN56VMTYu and KhN67VMTYu alloys at early stages of ageing are analyzed. Alloy softening is shown to be conditioned by development of spatial ordering of γ'-particles by the matrix volume. It is concluded that regularity in particle disposition reduces resistance to microplastic shear to a greater extent than to macroplastic strains

  20. Softenin, a novel protein that softens the connective tissue of sea cucumbers through inhibiting interaction between collagen fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Takehana

    Full Text Available The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross

  1. A randomised controlled trial of ion-exchange water softeners for the treatment of eczema in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies and anecdotal reports suggest a possible link between household use of hard water and atopic eczema. We sought to test whether installation of an ion-exchange water softener in the home can improve eczema in children.This was an observer-blind randomised trial involving 336 children (aged 6 months to 16 years with moderate/severe atopic eczema. All lived in hard water areas (≥200 mg/l calcium carbonate. Participants were randomised to either installation of an ion-exchange water softener plus usual eczema care, or usual eczema care alone. The primary outcome was change in eczema severity (Six Area Six Sign Atopic Dermatitis Score, SASSAD at 12 weeks, measured by research nurses who were blinded to treatment allocation. Analysis was based on the intent-to-treat population. Eczema severity improved for both groups during the trial. The mean change in SASSAD at 12 weeks was -5.0 (20% improvement for the water softener group and -5.7 (22% improvement for the usual care group (mean difference 0.66, 95% confidence interval -1.37 to 2.69, p = 0.53. No between-group differences were noted in the use of topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors.Water softeners provided no additional benefit to usual care in this study population. Small but statistically significant differences were found in some secondary outcomes as reported by parents, but it is likely that such improvements were the result of response bias, since participants were aware of their treatment allocation. A detailed report for this trial is also available at http://www.hta.ac.uk.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71423189 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  2. Communication activities for NUMO's site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Okuyama, Shigeru; Kitayama, Kazumi; Kuba, Michiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    A siting program for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan has just started and is moving into a new stage of communication with the public. A final repository site will be selected via a stepwise process, as stipulated in the Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act promulgated in June 2000. Based on the Act, the site selection process of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO, established in October 2000) will be carried out in the three steps: selection of Preliminary Investigation Areas (PIAs), selection of Detailed Investigation Areas (DIAs) and selection of the Repository Site. The Act also defines NUMO's responsibilities in terms of implementing the HLW disposal program in an open and transparent manner. NUMO fully understands the importance of public participation in its activities and is aiming to promote public involvement in the process of site selection based on a fundamental policy, which consists of 'adopting a stepwise approach', 'respecting the initiative of municipalities' and 'ensuring transparency in information disclosure'. This policy is clearly reflected in the adoption of an open solicitation approach for volunteer municipalities for Preliminary Investigation Areas (PIAs). NUMO made the official announcement of the start of its open solicitation program on 19 December 2002. This paper outlines how NUMO's activities are currently carried out with a view to encouraging municipalities to volunteer as PIAs and how public awareness of the safety of the HLW disposal is evaluated at this stage

  3. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to the activated sludge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, Lauren A.; Zhang Xiaoqi

    2010-01-01

    The discharge of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from industrial waste or disposal of such materials from commercial and/or domestic use will inevitably occur with increasing production and enter into wastewater treatment facilities with unknown consequences. Therefore, a better knowledge of the toxicity of CNTs to biological processes in wastewater treatment will be critical. This study examined the toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the microbial communities in activated sludge. A comparative study using the activated sludge respiration inhibition test was performed on both unsheared mixed liquor and sheared mixed liquor to demonstrate the potential toxicity posed by MWCNTs and to illustrate the extent of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in protecting the microorganisms from the toxicity of CNTs. Respiration inhibition was observed for both unsheared and sheared mixed liquor when MWCNTs were present, however, greater respiration inhibition was observed for the sheared mixed liquor. The toxicity observed by the respiration inhibition test was determined to be dose-dependent; the highest concentration of MWCNTs exhibited the highest respiration inhibition. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated direct physical contact between MWCNTs and activated sludge flocs.

  4. Nitrogen in the Process of Waste Activated Sludge Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary or secondary sewage sludge in medium and large WWTP are most often processed by anaerobic digestion, as a method of conditioning, sludge quantity minimization and biogas production. With the aim to achieve the best results of sludge processing several modifications of technologies were suggested, investigated and introduced in the full technical scale. Various sludge pretreatment technologies before anaerobic treatment have been widely investigated and partially introduced. Obviously, there are always some limitations and some negative side effects. Selected aspects have been presented and discussed. The problem of nitrogen has been highlighted on the basis of the carried out investigations. The single and two step - mesophilic and thermophilic - anaerobic waste activated sludge digestion processes, preceded by preliminary hydrolysis were investigated. The aim of lab-scale experiments was pre-treatment of the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline and hydrodynamic disintegration. Depending on the pretreatment technologies and the digestion temperature large ammonia concentrations, up to 1800 mg NH4/dm3 have been measured. Return of the sludge liquor to the main sewage treatment line means additional nitrogen removal costs. Possible solutions are discussed.

  5. Effect of attractive interactions on the water-like anomalies of a core-softened model potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Shashank; Gera, Tarun; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2013-12-28

    It is now well established that water-like anomalies can be reproduced by a spherically symmetric potential with two length scales, popularly known as core-softened potential. In the present study we aim to investigate the effect of attractive interactions among the particles in a model fluid interacting with core-softened potential on the existence and location of various water-like anomalies in the temperature-pressure plane. We employ extensive molecular dynamic simulations to study anomalous nature of various order parameters and properties under isothermal compression. Order map analyses have also been done for all the potentials. We observe that all the systems with varying depth of attractive wells show structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies. As many of the previous studies involving model water and a class of core softened potentials have concluded that the structural anomaly region encloses the diffusion anomaly region, which in turn, encloses the density anomaly region, the same pattern has also been observed in the present study for the systems with less depth of attractive well. For the systems with deeper attractive well, we observe that the diffusion anomaly region shifts toward higher densities and is not always enclosed by the structural anomaly region. Also, density anomaly region is not completely enclosed by diffusion anomaly region in this case.

  6. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone (PGC25 3-0 and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data.

  7. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Baylón, Karen; Ferrer, Inés; Serenó, Lídia; Garcia-Romeu, Maria Luisa; Bagudanch, Isabel; Grabalosa, Jordi; Pérez-Recio, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Ortega-Lara, Wendy; Elizalde, Luis Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGC25 3-0) and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data. PMID:28788466

  8. Biocompatible water softening system using cationic protein from moringa oleifera extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, R. R.; Jegathambal, P.; Parameswari, K.; Kirupa, K.

    2017-10-01

    In developing countries like India, the deciding factors for the selection of the specific water purification system are the flow rate, cost of implementation and maintenance, availability of materials for fabrication or assembling, technical manpower, energy requirement and reliability. But most of them are energy and cost intensive which necessitate the development of cost-effective water purification system. In this study, the feasibility of development of an efficient and cost-effective water purifier using Moringa oleifera cationic protein coated sand column to treat drinking water is presented. Moringa oleifera seeds contain cationic antimicrobial protein which acts as biocoagulant in the removal of turbidity and also aids in water softening. The main disadvantage of using Moringa seeds in water purification is that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) which is left over in the water contributes to growth of any pathogens that come into contact with the stored water. To overcome this limitation, the Moringa oleifera cationic protein coated sand (MOCP c-sand) is prepared in which the flocculant and antimicrobial properties of the MOCP are maintained and the DOM to be rinsed away. The efficiency of MOCP c-sand in removing suspended particles and reducing total hardness (TH), chloride, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) was also studied. Also, it is shown that the functionalized sand showed the same treatment efficiency even after being stored dry and in dehydrated condition for 3 months. This confirms MOCP c-sand's potential as a locally sustainable water treatment option for developing countries since other chemicals used in water purification are expensive.

  9. AVIRIS and TIMS data processing and distribution at the land processes distributed active archive center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, G. R.; Myers, J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Government has initiated the Global Change Research program, a systematic study of the Earth as a complete system. NASA's contribution of the Global Change Research Program is the Earth Observing System (EOS), a series of orbital sensor platforms and an associated data processing and distribution system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the archiving, production, and distribution system for data collected by the EOS space segment and uses a multilayer architecture for processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data. The first layer consists of the spacecraft ground stations and processing facilities that receive the raw data from the orbiting platforms and then separate the data by individual sensors. The second layer consists of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC) that process, distribute, and archive the sensor data. The third layer consists of a user science processing network. The EOSDIS is being developed in a phased implementation. The initial phase, Version 0, is a prototype of the operational system. Version 0 activities are based upon existing systems and are designed to provide an EOSDIS-like capability for information management and distribution. An important science support task is the creation of simulated data sets for EOS instruments from precursor aircraft or satellite data. The Land Processes DAAC, at the EROS Data Center (EDC), is responsible for archiving and processing EOS precursor data from airborne instruments such as the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), and Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS, TIMS, and TMS are flown by the NASA-Ames Research Center ARC) on an ER-2. The ER-2 flies at 65000 feet and can carry up to three sensors simultaneously. Most jointly collected data sets are somewhat boresighted and roughly registered. The instrument data are being used to construct data sets that simulate the spectral and spatial

  10. Deformational mass transport and invasive processes in soil evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, George H.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Lewis, Chris J.; Compston, William; Williams, Ian S.; Danti, Kathy J.; Dietrich, William E.; Power, Mary E.; Hendricks, David; Bratt, James

    1992-01-01

    Channels left in soil by decayed roots and burrowing animals allow organic and inorganic precipitates and detritus to move through soil from above, to depths at which the minuteness of pores restricts further passage. Consecutive translocation-and-root-growth phases stir the soil, constituting an invasive, dilatational process which generates cumulative strains. Below the depths thus affected, mineral dissolution by descending organic acids leads to internal collapse; this softened/condensed precursor horizon is then transformed into soil via biological activity that mixes and expands the evolving residuum through root and micropore-network invasion.

  11. Homeostasis-altering molecular processes as mechanisms of inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Adrian; Masters, Seth L

    2017-03-01

    The innate immune system uses a distinct set of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate downstream inflammatory cascades. This recognition system is in stark contrast to the adaptive immune system, which relies on highly variable, randomly generated antigen receptors. A key limitation of the innate immune system's reliance on fixed PRRs is its inflexibility in responding to rapidly evolving pathogens. Recent advances in our understanding of inflammasome activation suggest that the innate immune system also has sophisticated mechanisms for responding to pathogens for which there is no fixed PRR. This includes the recognition of debris from dying cells, known as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which can directly activate PRRs in a similar manner to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Distinct from this, emerging data for the inflammasome components NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3) and pyrin suggest that they do not directly detect molecular patterns, but instead act as signal integrators that are capable of detecting perturbations in cytoplasmic homeostasis, for example, as initiated by infection. Monitoring these perturbations, which we term 'homeostasis-altering molecular processes' (HAMPs), provides potent flexibility in the capacity of the innate immune system to detect evolutionarily novel infections; however, HAMP sensing may also underlie the sterile inflammation that drives chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Bowen, W.R.; Bridger, N.J.; Junkinson, A.R.; Cox, D.R.

    1985-07-01

    Cross-flow electrokinetic dewatering has been developed on a lab-scale into an effective process for the treatment of such wastes as gravity-settled flocs, or sludges arising from fuel storage. The product may be concentrated to 25-42% solids while still remaining fluid, prior to immobilization - e.g. by addition of cement powder. Complete retention of activity in the concentrate was observed during the treatment of Harwell low-level waste sludges due to the high solids separation factor ( > 10 4 ). It is a low pressure, low temperature process - consuming only 0.03-0.13 kWh/L at permeation rates of 0.3-1.5 m/h (depending on the stream), corresponding to 1 /67 - 1 /15 that needed for evaporation. An advanced electrochemical ion-exchange system has been developed in which ionic material can be electrically adsorbed and eluted by polarity reversal > 1000 times, without any change in performance. Decontamination factors of about 2000 were achieved for Cs removal, up to 75% loading of the exchanger at flow rates of 8 bed volumes/h. Elution into water can give concentrates of >= 0.25 M - with consequent high volume reduction factors. Inorganic ion-exchangers have also demonstrated system selectivity for the removal of specific cations. Overall energy consumption is 3 ( 1 /400 evaporation). Significant cost savings over conventional ion-exchange may accrue from the improved performance under electrical control, and the reduced volumes of waste requiring disposal. (author)

  13. Active mems microbeam device for gas detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    Sensors and active switches for applications in gas detection and other fields are described. The devices are based on the softening and hardening nonlinear response behaviors of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeams

  14. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing processes: Variational model and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir; El Sayed, Tamer

    2012-01-01

    We present a computational study of ultrasonic assisted manufacturing processes including sheet metal forming, upsetting, and wire drawing. A fully variational porous plasticity model is modified to include ultrasonic softening effects

  15. Edge effect modeling and experiments on active lap processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Wu, Fan; Zeng, Zhige; Fan, Bin; Wan, Yongjian

    2014-05-05

    Edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, especially for large polishing tools. Computer controlled active lap (CCAL) uses a large size pad (e.g., 1/3 to 1/5 workpiece diameters) to grind and polish the primary mirror. Edge effect also exists in the CCAL process in our previous fabrication. In this paper the material removal rules when edge effects happen (i.e. edge tool influence functions (TIFs)) are obtained through experiments, which are carried out on a Φ1090-mm circular flat mirror with a 375-mm-diameter lap. Two methods are proposed to model the edge TIFs for CCAL. One is adopting the pressure distribution which is calculated based on the finite element analysis method. The other is building up a parametric equivalent pressure model to fit the removed material curve directly. Experimental results show that these two methods both effectively model the edge TIF of CCAL.

  16. Normal and Fibrotic Rat Livers Demonstrate Shear Strain Softening and Compression Stiffening: A Model for Soft Tissue Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Perepelyuk

    Full Text Available Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G' and G" and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver.

  17. Re-engineering quality related processes and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preisser, T.E.

    1995-01-01

    Given both desire and opportunity, improvements to program quality hinge upon a thorough understanding of what processes are currently performed, which are necessary to support the product or service, and what ideal processes should look like. Thorough understanding derives from process analysis, process mapping, and the use of other quality tools. Despite the level of knowledge any process team claims, there is likely to be at least one area that was hidden before the process was deeply analyzed. Finding that hidden element may mean the difference between evolving an improvement versus a breakthrough

  18. Study of Post-Peak Strain Softening Mechanical Behaviour of Rock Material Based on Hoek–Brown Criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Qibin Lin; Ping Cao; Peixin Wang

    2018-01-01

    In order to build the post-peak strain softening model of rock, the evolution laws of rock parameters m,s were obtained by using the evolutionary mode of piecewise linear function regarding the maximum principle stress. Based on the nonlinear Hoek–Brown criterion, the analytical relationship of the rock strength parameters m,s, cohesion c, and friction angle φ has been developed by theoretical derivation. According to the analysis on the four different types of rock, it is found that, within ...

  19. Multiplicative point process as a model of trading activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontis, V.; Kaulakys, B.

    2004-11-01

    Signals consisting of a sequence of pulses show that inherent origin of the 1/ f noise is a Brownian fluctuation of the average interevent time between subsequent pulses of the pulse sequence. In this paper, we generalize the model of interevent time to reproduce a variety of self-affine time series exhibiting power spectral density S( f) scaling as a power of the frequency f. Furthermore, we analyze the relation between the power-law correlations and the origin of the power-law probability distribution of the signal intensity. We introduce a stochastic multiplicative model for the time intervals between point events and analyze the statistical properties of the signal analytically and numerically. Such model system exhibits power-law spectral density S( f)∼1/ fβ for various values of β, including β= {1}/{2}, 1 and {3}/{2}. Explicit expressions for the power spectra in the low-frequency limit and for the distribution density of the interevent time are obtained. The counting statistics of the events is analyzed analytically and numerically, as well. The specific interest of our analysis is related with the financial markets, where long-range correlations of price fluctuations largely depend on the number of transactions. We analyze the spectral density and counting statistics of the number of transactions. The model reproduces spectral properties of the real markets and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution of trading activity. The study provides evidence that the statistical properties of the financial markets are enclosed in the statistics of the time interval between trades. A multiplicative point process serves as a consistent model generating this statistics.

  20. 12 CFR 211.604 - Data processing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (12 CFR part 225) at that time, as the Regulation K authority permitted limited non-financial data... such activity would be primarily related to financial activities. When Regulation K was issued in 1979... fact that most of the activity would relate to financial data. Regulation K does not address related...

  1. Extracting material response from simple mechanical tests on hardening-softening-hardening viscoplastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Nisha

    Compliant foams are usually characterized by a wide range of desirable mechanical properties. These properties include viscoelasticity at different temperatures, energy absorption, recoverability under cyclic loading, impact resistance, and thermal, electrical, acoustic and radiation-resistance. Some foams contain nano-sized features and are used in small-scale devices. This implies that the characteristic dimensions of foams span multiple length scales, rendering modeling their mechanical properties difficult. Continuum mechanics-based models capture some salient experimental features like the linear elastic regime, followed by non-linear plateau stress regime. However, they lack mesostructural physical details. This makes them incapable of accurately predicting local peaks in stress and strain distributions, which significantly affect the deformation paths. Atomistic methods are capable of capturing the physical origins of deformation at smaller scales, but suffer from impractical computational intensity. Capturing deformation at the so-called meso-scale, which is capable of describing the phenomenon at a continuum level, but with some physical insights, requires developing new theoretical approaches. A fundamental question that motivates the modeling of foams is `how to extract the intrinsic material response from simple mechanical test data, such as stress vs. strain response?' A 3D model was developed to simulate the mechanical response of foam-type materials. The novelty of this model includes unique features such as the hardening-softening-hardening material response, strain rate-dependence, and plastically compressible solids with plastic non-normality. Suggestive links from atomistic simulations of foams were borrowed to formulate a physically informed hardening material input function. Motivated by a model that qualitatively captured the response of foam-type vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) pillars under uniaxial compression [2011,"Analysis of

  2. 15 CFR 400.33 - Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-TRADE ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.33 Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity. (a) In general. In approving manufacturing or processing activity for a zone... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on manufacturing and...

  3. Magnetic resonance colonography without bowel cleansing using oral and rectal stool softeners (fecal cracking) - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Kuehle, Christiane; Herborn, Christoph U.; Goehde, Susanne C.; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Goyen, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effect of oral and rectal stool softeners on dark-lumen magnetic resonance (MR) colonography without bowel cleansing. Ten volunteers underwent MR colonography without colonic cleansing. A baseline examination was performed without oral or rectal administration of stool softeners. In a second set, volunteers ingested 60 ml of lactulose 24 h prior to MR examination. In a third examination, water as a rectal enema was replaced by a solution of 0.5%-docusate sodium (DS). A fourth MR examination was performed, in conjunction with both oral administration of lactulose and rectal application of DS. A T1-weighted data set was acquired at scanning times of 0, 5 and 10 min after colonic filling. A fourth data set was acquired 75 s after i.v. injection of contrast agent. Signal intensity of stool was calculated for all colonic segments. Without oral ingestion of lactulose or rectal enema with DS stool signal intensity was high and did not decrease over time. However, lactulose and DS caused a decrease in stool signal intensity. Both substances together led to a decreasing signal intensity of feces. Combination of lactulose and DS provided the lowest signal intensity of stool. Thus, feces could hardly be distinguished from dark rectal enema allowing for the assessment of the colonic wall. (orig.)

  4. Reduced softening of EUROFER 97 under thermo-mechanical and multiaxial fatigue loading and its impact on the design rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaa, J.; Weick, M.; Petersen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Toward test blanket module (TBM) in ITER and DEMO fusion power plants design rules for components built from EUROFER 97 get more and more in the midpoint of interest. One of the specific characteristic of EUROFER 97 as a ferritic-martensitic steel is its cyclic softening yielding to lower stresses under strain controlled fatigue loading and thus longer lifetimes. However our thermo-mechanical and multiaxial fatigue tests showed lifetimes remarkably lower than those expected on the base of isothermal uniaxial fatigue tests. Reduced cyclic softening observed in these experiments is believed as one of the reasons of the shorter fatigue lifetimes. When applying the design rules, derived for EUROFER 97 on the base of isothermal uniaxial data considering the recommendations in the ASME and RCC-MR code, to our thermo-mechanical and multiaxial fatigue tests for verification strong loss in their conservatism has been found. The lifetimes observed in a part of the multiaxial experiments are even lower than the design lifetimes supposed to be sufficiently conservative. To overcome this problem new design rules are proposed among others on the base of damage and lifetime prediction model developed lately for EUROFER 97. In this paper the experimental findings as well as the new design approaches will be presented and discussed. (authors)

  5. Preliminary studies of the antibacterial activities of processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-06

    Oct 6, 2006 ... Toda M, Okubo S, Ikigai H, Suzuki T, Shimamura T (1991). The protective activity of the tea against infection by Vibrio cholerae J. Appl. Bacterial 70: 109 – 112. Toda M, Okubo S, Hiyoshi R, Shimamura T(1989) Antibacterial and bactericidal activities of Japanese green tea. Jpn. J. Bacteriol 44(4):. 669-672.

  6. Preliminary studies of the antibacterial activities of processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activities of extracts in Kenyan and Nigerian tea bags were tested for activity against six organisms; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerea, Salmonella sp., Proteus sp. and Escherichia coli using the agar-gel diffusion method. The result obtained showed that 20% extract of both ...

  7. PASS-GP: Predictive active set selection for Gaussian processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    available in GPs to make a common ranking for both active and inactive points, allowing points to be removed again from the active set. This is important for keeping the complexity down and at the same time focusing on points close to the decision boundary. We lend both theoretical and empirical support...

  8. Estimation and characterization of activity duration in business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves, R.M.T.; Almeida, R.J.; Sousa, J.; Dijkman, R.M.; Carvalho, J.; Lesot, M.J.; Kaymak, U.; Vieira, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.

    2016-01-01

    Process-aware information systems are typically used to log events in a variety of domains (e.g. commercial, logistics, healthcare) de- scribing the execution of business processes. The analysis of such logs can provide meaningful knowledge for organizations to improve the quality of their services

  9. A Multiscale Survival Process for Modeling Human Activity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Peng; Song, Chaoming; Zhu, Wenwu; Yang, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Human activity plays a central role in understanding large-scale social dynamics. It is well documented that individual activity pattern follows bursty dynamics characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. Here we study a large-scale online chatting dataset consisting of 5,549,570 users, finding that individual activity pattern varies with timescales whereas existing models only approximate empirical observations within a limited timescale. We propose a novel approach that models the intensity rate of an individual triggering an activity. We demonstrate that the model precisely captures corresponding human dynamics across multiple timescales over five orders of magnitudes. Our model also allows extracting the population heterogeneity of activity patterns, characterized by a set of individual-specific ingredients. Integrating our approach with social interactions leads to a wide range of implications.

  10. Time and activity sequence prediction of business process instances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polato, Mirko; Sperduti, Alessandro; Burattin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The ability to know in advance the trend of running process instances, with respect to different features, such as the expected completion time, would allow business managers to timely counteract to undesired situations, in order to prevent losses. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict...... future features of running business process instances would be a very helpful aid when managing processes, especially under service level agreement constraints. However, making such accurate forecasts is not easy: many factors may influence the predicted features. Many approaches have been proposed...

  11. Water activity changes of multicomponent food mixture during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Štencl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Water activity of multicomponent food mixture was analysed and measured. Samples of dry fermented sausages with two different starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus + Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus carnosus + Staphylococcus xylosus + Lactobacillus farciminis were tested during ripening (21 days and storing (91 days. The basic raw materials were the same for all samples: lean beef meat, lean pork and pork fat in equal parts, nitrite salt mixture (2.5 %, and sugars (1.0 %. The method used for water activity tests was indirect manometric in a static environment. Moisture content of samples was measured using halogen dryer. The course of water activity and moisture content of sausages was variable during ripening and steady during storage. Diagrams showed gradual decrease of both parameters. Mathematical models of water activity and moisture content for storage of dry fermented sausages were developed and statistically verified. The influence of starter cultures was not significant.

  12. Activity Specific Knowledge Characteristics in the Internationalization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2012-01-01

    /methodology/approach – The paper presents a framework primarily based on knowledge management theory, which is illustrated in relation to interesting cases of four companies that are global leaders. Findings – An R&D knowledge gap still exists in China and India. Differences across business activities exist in terms......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in the characteristics of knowledge, which is very important for the internationalization of different business activities. In particular, the focus is on internationalization in emerging markets such as China and India. Design...... of the characteristics of the knowledge, which is most important for the internationalization in emerging markets within multinational corporations (MNCs). The most important knowledge for the internationalization of R&D activities is more tacit than it is for manufacturing activities and international purchasing...

  13. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R.L.; Fernandes, L.; Sun, X. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R L; Fernandes, L; Sun, X [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Metal Catalyzed Fusion: Nuclear Active Environment vs. Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot

    2009-03-01

    To achieve radiationless dd fusion and/or other LENR reactions via chemistry: some focus on environment of interior or altered near-surface volume of bulk metal; some on environment inside metal nanocrystals or on their surface; some on the interface between nanometal crystals and ionic crystals; some on a momentum shock-stimulation reaction process. Experiment says there is also a spontaneous reaction process.

  16. Numerical modeling of AA2024-T3 friction stir welding process for residual stress evaluation, including softening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Palazzo, Gaetano S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, a numerical finite element model of the precipitation hardenable AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy, consisting of a heat transfer analysis based on the Thermal Pseudo Mechanical model for heat generation, and a sequentially coupled quasi-static stress analysis is proposed. Metallurgi...

  17. Saharan Dust, Transport Processes, and Possible Impacts on Hurricane Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present observational evidence of significant relationships between Saharan dust outbreak, and African Easterly wave activities and hurricane activities. We found two dominant paths of transport of Saharan dust: a northern path, centered at 25degN associated with eastward propagating 6-19 days waves over northern Africa, and a southern path centered at 15degN, associated with the AEW, and the Atlantic ITCZ. Seasons with stronger dust outbreak from the southern path are associated with a drier atmosphere over the Maximum Development Region (MDR) and reduction in tropical cyclone and hurricane activities in the MDR. Seasons with stronger outbreak from the northern path are associated with a cooler N. Atlantic, and suppressed hurricane in the western Atlantic basin.

  18. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Niki H; Lewis, Daniel J; van den Bos, Wouter; Morton, J Bruce

    2017-08-01

    Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain's sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki H. Kamkar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain’s sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children.

  20. Adding structure to the transition process to advanced mathematical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2010-03-01

    The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical deductive reasoning, required in advanced mathematics. It is necessary to assist students in this transition process, in moving from general to mathematical thinking. In this article some structure is suggested for this transition period. This essay is an argumentative exposition supported by personal experience and international literature. This makes this study theoretical rather than empirical.

  1. Activated sludge process simulator ASP-Sim, Part-1: Bod and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most commonly used biological treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater is the Activated Sludge Process. The design of activated process is usually done manually; this is ... is a useful tool for predicting the effect of temperature on design and operation of completely mixed activated plant design and operation.

  2. Effect of Drug Active Substance Particles on Wet Granulation Process.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bělohlav, Z.; Břenková, L.; Hanika, Jiří; Durdil, P.; Rapek, P.; Tomášek, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 85, A7 (2007) , s. 974-980 ISSN 0263-8762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wet granulation * control * active substance Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2007

  3. Active processes on the Sun and the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirskii, B M [AN SSSR, Crimea. Krymskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya

    1977-02-01

    The possible effect of the solar activity on the biosphere of the Earth is analyzed. Biological effects of the background electromagnetic field (BEMF) detected on the surface of the Earth within the range of low and ultralow frequencies are discussed. A significant effect of BEMF with a frequency of several Hz upon the cardiovascular system is discovered. The nervous system is sensitive to the BEMF effect within a wide frequency range. It is assumed that physiological variations in biological objects is a consequence of the solar activity (mighty chromospheral flares). Small amplitude infrasomic oscillations which are little known and which are generated in the development of an aurora as well as the increase of the radon (/sup 222/Rn) concentration in the atmosphere during geomagnetic disturbances are closely connected with the solar activity as well. The study of daily rhythems shows that they can be compulsorily synchronized by changing environmental factors. It is found out that biological rhythems are closely connected with cycles of the solar and geomagnetic activity. Investigations of such interrelations is of great theoretical and practical importance for biology and medicine.

  4. Neural activities during affective processing in people with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Sun, Delin; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chu, Leung-Wing; Keysers, Christian

    This study examined brain activities in people with Alzheimer's disease when viewing happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions of others. A functional magnetic resonance imaging and a voxel-based morphometry methodology together with a passive viewing of emotional faces paradigm were employed to

  5. Sensitivity study of reduced models of the activated sludge process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of derivation and calculation of sensitivity functions for all parameters of the mass balance reduced model of the COST benchmark activated sludge plant is formulated and solved. The sensitivity functions, equations and augmented sensitivity state space models are derived for the cases of ASM1 and UCT ...

  6. 15 CFR 400.31 - Manufacturing and processing activity; criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consider the contributory effect zone savings have as an incremental part of cost effectiveness programs... criteria—(1) Threshold factors. It is the policy of the Board to authorize zone activity only when it is... and as components of imported products. (2) Economic factors. After its review of threshold factors...

  7. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamkar, N.H.; Lewis, D.J.; van den Bos, W.; Morton, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive

  8. Adding Structure to the Transition Process to Advanced Mathematical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2010-01-01

    The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical…

  9. Processing method and processing device for liquid waste containing surface active agent and radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Baba, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Ryozo; Yukita, Atsushi.

    1998-01-01

    Washing liquid wastes containing surface active agents and radioactive materials are sent to a deaerating vessel. Ozone is blown into the deaerating vessel. The washing liquid wastes dissolved with ozone are introduced to a UV ray irradiation vessel. UV rays are irradiated to the washing liquid wastes, and hydroxy radicals generated by photodecomposition of dissolved ozone oxidatively decompose surface active agents contained in the washing liquid wastes. The washing liquid wastes discharged from the UV ray irradiation vessel are sent to an activated carbon mixing vessel and mixed with powdery activated carbon. The surface active agents not decomposed in the UV ray irradiation vessel are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Then, the activated carbon and washing liquid wastes are separated by an activated carbon separating/drying device. Radioactive materials (iron oxide and the like) contained in the washing liquid wastes are mostly granular, and they are separated and removed from the washing liquid wastes in the activated carbon separating/drying device. (I.N.)

  10. Digital active material processing platform effort (DAMPER), SBIR phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

    1992-11-01

    Applied Technology Associates, Inc., (ATA) has demonstrated that inertial actuation can be employed effectively in digital, active vibration isolation systems. Inertial actuation involves the use of momentum exchange to produce corrective forces which act directly on the payload being actively isolated. In a typical active vibration isolation system, accelerometers are used to measure the inertial motion of the payload. The signals from the accelerometers are then used to calculate the corrective forces required to counteract, or 'cancel out' the payload motion. Active vibration isolation is common technology, but the use of inertial actuation in such systems is novel, and is the focus of the DAMPER project. A May 1991 report was completed which documented the successful demonstration of inertial actuation, employed in the control of vibration in a single axis. In the 1 degree-of-freedom (1DOF) experiment a set of air bearing rails was used to suspend the payload, simulating a microgravity environment in a single horizontal axis. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology was used to calculate in real time, the control law between the accelerometer signals and the inertial actuators. The data obtained from this experiment verified that as much as 20 dB of rejection could be realized by this type of system. A discussion is included of recent tests performed in which vibrations were actively controlled in three axes simultaneously. In the three degree-of-freedom (3DOF) system, the air bearings were designed in such a way that the payload is free to rotate about the azimuth axis, as well as translate in the two horizontal directions. The actuator developed for the DAMPER project has applications beyond payload isolation, including structural damping and source vibration isolation. This report includes a brief discussion of these applications, as well as a commercialization plan for the actuator.

  11. Effects of nickel(II) addition on the activity of activated sludge microorganisms and activated sludge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Soon-An; Toorisaka, Eiichi; Hirata, Makoto; Hano, Tadashi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Ni(II) in a synthetic wastewater on the activity of activated sludge microorganisms and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment process were investigated. Two parallel lab-scale SBR systems were operated. One was used as a control unit, while the other received Ni(II) concentrations equal to 5 and 10 mg/l. The SBR systems were operated with FILL, REACT, SETTLE, DRAW and IDLE modes in the time ratio of 0.5:3.5:1.0:0.75:0.25 for a cycle time of 6 h. The addition of Ni(II) into SBR system caused drastically dropped in TOC removal rate (k) and specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) by activated sludge microorganisms due to the inhibitory effects of Ni(II) on the bioactivity of microorganisms. The addition of 5 mg/l Ni(II) caused a slight reduction in TOC removal efficiency, whereas 10 mg/l Ni(II) addition significantly affected the SBR performance in terms of suspended solids and TOC removal efficiency. Termination of Ni(II) addition led to almost full recovery of the bioactivity in microorganisms as shown in the increase of specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and SBR treatment performance

  12. Application of statistical process control and process capability analysis procedures in orbiter processing activities at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Robert R.; Jackson, Andrew E.; Swart, William W.; Barth, Timothy S.

    1994-01-01

    Successful ground processing at KSC requires that flight hardware and ground support equipment conform to specifications at tens of thousands of checkpoints. Knowledge of conformance is an essential requirement for launch. That knowledge of conformance at every requisite point does not, however, enable identification of past problems with equipment, or potential problem areas. This paper describes how the introduction of Statistical Process Control and Process Capability Analysis identification procedures into existing shuttle processing procedures can enable identification of potential problem areas and candidates for improvements to increase processing performance measures. Results of a case study describing application of the analysis procedures to Thermal Protection System processing are used to illustrate the benefits of the approaches described in the paper.

  13. Experimental research on the characteristics of softening and melting of iron ores as significant factor of influence on gas permeability of blast furnace charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branescu, E; Blajan, A O; Constantin, N

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted as a cohesive zone is directly influenced by softening and melting properties of iron ores, preparations (crowded, pellets, which represents about 90%, of the loads with metal furnace intake), or uncooked (raw ores ranked). Important results can be obtained through the study of behavior of ferrous materials at temperatures above 1000 ° C. Starting from research methods presented in the literature, this paper presents itself in carrying out their own laboratory experiments, conducted with the aim of analysing the softening and melting properties of sinter iron cores. (paper)

  14. Meltlets(®) of soy isoflavones: process optimization and the effect of extrusion spheronization process parameters on antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ketkee; Amin, Purnima

    2013-07-01

    In the current research work an attempt was made to develop "Melt in mouth pellets" (Meltlets(®)) containing 40% herbal extract of soy isoflavones that served to provide antioxidants activity in menopausal women. The process of extrusion-spheronization was optimized for extruder speed, extruder screen size, spheronization speed, and time. While doing so the herbal extract incorporated in the pellet matrix was subjected to various processing conditions such as the effect of the presence of other excipients, mixing or kneading to prepare wet mass, heat generated during the process of extrusion, spheronization, and drying. Thus, the work further investigates the effect of these processing parameters on the antioxidant activity of the soy isoflavone herbal extract incorporated in the formula. Thereby, the antioxidant activity of the soya bean herbal extract, Meltlets(®) and of the placebo pellets was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and total reduction capacity.

  15. Gamification - The process of designing our activities into games

    OpenAIRE

    Christofer, Monsen; Oscar, Lindholm

    2016-01-01

    The trend of adjusting our activities, making them more attractive and less like chores is apparent just by looking at the applications and systems we use for our everyday lives. In this study we investigate this phenomenon, in both training and dating applications, from a design perspective using the frameworks of gamification and Fogg´s behavior model. Using these tools in complement with qualitative interviews we answer questions regarding how one can design gamification to achieve behavio...

  16. How does crowdfunding work? Understanding the process through its activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stiver, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Crowdfunding is a process featuring incremental financial donations from a ‘crowd’ of backers to help fund a project initiated by a creator. In recent years, crowdfunding has generated significant revenue as well as great interest from industry, government, and creative entrepreneurs. However, rate of successful funding for crowdfunding projects remains around 35% for global crowdfunding leader Kickstarter1, and lower yet for other platforms.\\ud \\ud The identified gap between crowdfunding gro...

  17. IAEA Activities in Nuclear High Temperature Heat for Industrial Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    IAEA activities to support Member States: Information Exchange; Modelling and Simulations; Development of Methodologies; Safety; Technology Support; Education and Training; Knowledge Preservation. Assist MSs with national nuclear programmes; Support innovations in nuclear power deployment; Facilitate and assist international R&D collaborations. Interest in HTGR technology • The IAEA activities in the area of HTGR are guided by the recommendations of the TWG-GCRs – Currently 14 members: China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (Rep. of), Netherlands, Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America – 3 International Organizations: OECD/NEA, European Commission, Gen-IV Forum. – 2 new members in 2017: Poland and Singapore. Meetings • Meet every 24 months • Next meeting: 30 October – 1 November 2017 • Other Member states with some activities on HTGRs – Kazakhstan – history of close cooperation with Japan – Saudi Arabia – feasibility study for HTGRs to provide heat for the petro-chemical industry – Canada – three HTR designs under consideration in the nuclear regulator pre-licensing vendor design reviews

  18. Decay Process in an Active Medium. An Example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atamanuk, B.; Volokitin, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    In the background of many plasma phenomena are wave-wave interactions, wave-particle interactions, energy transfers, and so on. In natural and laboratory plasma, very often there are situations when a plasma is weakly unstable, that is not far above a threshold of instability. In these cases, we can describe a perturbed state in terms of a small finite number of plasma waves. In the present work, we will consider non-linear stabilization of the current instability in isothermal magnetized plasma by a three-wave decay process. This problem was studied in the many works, but some questions remain unclear, e.g. the existence and properties of chaotic regimes for certain parameters. We will consider an interesting, realistic plasma system with current instability in isothermal plasmas. To assume that only three waves are involved in the process of stabilization we have to consider instability in the conditions very close to the threshold, when only one low hybrid mode is unstable. This wave decays on two other strongly damped low hybrids waves. The dynamic stabilization of instability and swapping of energy from a radiant in area of damping (heat of plasma) thus happens. This example shows a common situation and that represents practical interest at the analysis of natural processes in ionosphere. (author)

  19. Combined effect of structural softening and magneto-elastic coupling on elastic coefficients of Ni-Mn-Ga austenite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Heczko, Oleg; Sedlák, Petr; Bodnárová, Lucie; Novotný, Michal; Kopeček, Jaromír; Landa, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 577, November 2013 (2013), S131-S135 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/10/0824; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/0702; GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0391; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Ni2MnGa * elastic constants of Ni-Mn-Ga austenite * magnetic shape memory effect * martensitic transformation * elastic softening Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925838812000539

  20. Effect of water treatment additives on lime softening residual trace chemical composition--implications for disposal and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weizhi; Roessler, Justin; Blaisi, Nawaf I; Townsend, Timothy G

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residues (WTR) offer potential benefits when recycled through land application. The current guidance in Florida, US allows for unrestricted land application of lime softening WTR; alum and ferric WTR require additional evaluation of total and leachable concentrations of select trace metals prior to land application. In some cases a mixed WTR is produced when lime softening is accompanied by the addition of a coagulant or other treatment chemical; applicability of the current guidance is unclear. The objective of this research was to characterize the total and leachable chemical content of WTR from Florida facilities that utilize multiple treatment chemicals. Lime and mixed lime WTR samples were collected from 18 water treatment facilities in Florida. Total and leachable concentrations of the WTR were measured. To assess the potential for disposal of mixed WTR as clean fill below the water table, leaching tests were conducted at multiple liquid to solid ratios and under reducing conditions. The results were compared to risk-based soil and groundwater contamination thresholds. Total metal concentrations of WTR were found to be below Florida soil contaminant thresholds with Fe found in the highest abundance at a concentration of 3600 mg/kg-dry. Aluminum was the only element that exceeded the Florida groundwater contaminant thresholds using SPLP (95% UCL = 0.23 mg/L; risk threshold = 0.2 mg/L). Tests under reducing conditions showed elevated concentrations of Fe and Mn, ranging from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than SPLP leachates. Mixed lime WTR concentrations (total and leachable) were lower than the ferric and alum WTR concentrations, supporting that mixed WTR are appropriately represented as lime WTR. Testing of WTR under reducing conditions demonstrated the potential for release of certain trace metals (Fe, Al, Mn) above applicable regulatory thresholds; additional evaluation is needed to assess management options where

  1. Anisotropic lattice softening near the structural phase transition in the thermosalient crystal 1,2,4,5-tetrabromobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Boris A; Michalchuk, Adam A L; Morrison, Carole A; Boldyreva, Elena V

    2018-03-28

    The thermosalient effect (crystal jumping on heating) attracts much attention as both an intriguing academic phenomenon and in relation to its potential for the development of molecular actuators but its mechanism remains unclear. 1,2,4,5-Tetrabromobenzene (TBB) is one of the most extensively studied thermosalient compounds that has been shown previously to undergo a phase transition on heating, accompanied by crystal jumping and cracking. The difference in the crystal structures and intermolecular interaction energies of the low- and high-temperature phases is, however, too small to account for the large stress that arises over the course of the transformation. The energy is released spontaneously, and crystals jump across distances that exceed the crystal size by orders of magnitude. In the present work, the anisotropy of lattice strain is followed across the phase transition by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, focusing on the structural evolution from 273 to 343 K. A pronounced lattice softening is observed close to the transition point, with the structure becoming more rigid immediately after the phase transition. The diffraction studies are further supported by theoretical analysis of pairwise intermolecular energies and zone-centre lattice vibrations. Only three modes are found to monotonically soften up to the phase transition, with complex behaviour exhibited by the remaining lattice modes. The thermosalient effect is delayed with respect to the structural transformation itself. This can originate from the martensitic mechanism of the transformation, and the accumulation of stress associated with vibrational switching across the phase transition. The finding of this study sheds more light on the nature of the thermosalient effect in 1,2,4,5-tetrabromobenzene and can be applicable also to other thermosalient compounds.

  2. Characterization of Wastewater for Modelling of Activated Sludge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The fractionation of organic matter in the various parts which are used for mathematical modelling is discussed. The fractions include inert soluble, readily biodegradable, rapidly hydrolyzable, slowly hydrolyzable, biomass and inert suspended material. Methods for measuring are also discussed....... Fractionation of biomass in wastewater and in activated sludge is difficult at present, as methods are only partly developed. Nitrogen fractions in wastewater are mainly inorganic. The organic nitrogen fractions are coupled to the organic COD fractions. The fractions of COD, biomass and nitrogen found...

  3. Contagion processes on the static and activity driven coupling networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Yanjun; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Quantong; Ma, Yifang; Li, Meng; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of network structure and the spreading of epidemic are common coexistent dynamical processes. In most cases, network structure is treated either static or time-varying, supposing the whole network is observed in a same time window. In this paper, we consider the epidemic spreading on a network consisting of both static and time-varying structures. At meanwhile, the time-varying part and the epidemic spreading are supposed to be of the same time scale. We introduce a static and a...

  4. Efficient peroxydisulfate activation process not relying on sulfate radical generation for water pollutant degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Yin; Wang, Yuru; Le Roux, Julien; Yang, Yang; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Peroxydisulfate (PDS) is an appealing oxidant for contaminated groundwater and toxic industrial wastewaters. Activation of PDS is necessary for application because of its low reactivity. Present activation processes always generate sulfate radicals

  5. Nonlinear processes in laser heating of chemically active media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkin, F V; Kirichenko, N A; Luk' yanchuk, B S

    1984-08-01

    After it had been discovered and in due measure physically comprehended that numerous nontrivial phenomena observed during laser heating of chemically active media are caused primarily by self-stress of laser radiation due to the chemical intertial nonlinearity of the medium, an approach was found for solving problems of laser thermochemistry that is most adequate from the mathematical (and physical) standpoint: the approach of the theory of nonlinear oscillations in point systems and distributed systems. This approach has provided a uniform viewpoint for examination of a variety of phenomena of spatiotemporal self-organization of chemically active media under the effect of laser radiation, qualitative, and in some cases quantitative description of such phenomena as the onset of thermochemical instability, self-oscillations, various spatial structures and the like. Evidently it can be rightly considered that at this juncture a definite stage has been completed in the development of laser thermochemistry marked by the creation of an ideology, method and overall approach to interpretation of the most diverse phenomena under conditions of actual physical experiments. References to the numerous studies that make up the content of this stage of development of laser thermochemistry are to be found in survey papers. 48 references, 10 figures.

  6. State-of-the-art dry active waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillmer, T.; Ingalsbe, H.; Alcorn, G.; Anderson, K.; Dahlen, D.

    1989-01-01

    Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) is operated by Arizona Public Service for a consortium of seven owners. The site consists of three identical single unit power plants. Each unit is a Combustion Engineering Series 80 pressurized water reactor (PWR) rated at 1270 Megawatts electric. The site is located 100 kilometers west of Phoenix, Arizona in the arid southwest desert region of the United States of America. Since the start up of Unit One in 1985, Palo Verde has aggressively pursued waste volume reduction. This includes a dry active waste (DAW) segregation program that locates and separates nonradioactive and reusable materials that have been mixed with the radioactive DAW. The DAW program is described in further detail in the paper

  7. Process to produce pellet-shaped neutron activation detector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanischvili, T.S.; Dundua, V.J.; Kiknadse, G.I.; Kolomijzev, M.A.; Zezchladse, T.V.; Gromov, V.A.; Bagdavadse, N.V.

    1979-01-01

    The neutron activator detector elements to measure integral neutron flux contain cobalt, zinc, phosphorous, iron, gold, indium, nickel or aluminium as detector material. Its non-aqueous nitric or acetic acid salts are solvated in an alcohol solution and mixed with an alcohol solution of phenol formaldehyde resol resin. The alcohol is destilled off under vacuum at a temperature of 60 to 90 0 C whereby the detector material in the resin matrix is homogenized. This mass is their ground, pressed to pellets and is heated to convert the resin into its unsoluble state. In order to improve the radioresistance, one can add powdered carbon to the alcohol mixture, where the carbon itself can be prepared by pyrolysis and carbonization of phenol formaldehyde resin. To improve the temperature change resistance, the pellets may be additionally heated giving rise to puyrolysis of the polycondensation resin. (DG) [de

  8. Carbon activation process for increased surface accessibility in electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    2001-01-01

    A process for making carbon film or powder suitable for double capacitor electrodes having a capacitance of up to about 300 F/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. This is accomplished by treating in aqueous nitric acid for a period of about 5 to 15 minutes thin carbon films obtained by carbonizing carbon-containing polymeric material having a high degree of molecular directionality, such as polyimide film, then heating the treated carbon film in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a non-graphitizing temperature of at least 350.degree. C. for about 20 minutes, and repeating alternately the nitric acid step and the heating step from 7 to 10 times. Capacitors made with this carbon may find uses ranging from electronic devices to electric vehicle applications.

  9. Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, A.J.; McTaggart, D.R.; Van Essen, D.C.; Kent, T.E.; West, G.D.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality

  10. Sensor Data Acquisition and Processing Parameters for Human Activity Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian D. Bersch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that parameter selection for data sampling frequency and segmentation techniques (including different methods and window sizes has an impact on the classification accuracy. For Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, no clear information to select these parameters exists, hence a wide variety and inconsistency across today’s literature is observed. This paper presents the empirical investigation of different data sampling rates, segmentation techniques and segmentation window sizes and their effect on the accuracy of Activity of Daily Living (ADL event classification and computational load for two different accelerometer sensor datasets. The study is conducted using an ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA based on 32 different window sizes, three different segmentation algorithm (with and without overlap, totaling in six different parameters and six sampling frequencies for nine common classification algorithms. The classification accuracy is based on a feature vector consisting of Root Mean Square (RMS, Mean, Signal Magnitude Area (SMA, Signal Vector Magnitude (here SMV, Energy, Entropy, FFTPeak, Standard Deviation (STD. The results are presented alongside recommendations for the parameter selection on the basis of the best performing parameter combinations that are identified by means of the corresponding Pareto curve.

  11. Anticancer Activity of Metal Complexes: Involvement of Redox Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Ute; Kowol, Christian R.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Hartinger, Christian G.; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cells require tight regulation of the intracellular redox balance and consequently of reactive oxygen species for proper redox signaling and maintenance of metal (e.g., of iron and copper) homeostasis. In several diseases, including cancer, this balance is disturbed. Therefore, anticancer drugs targeting the redox systems, for example, glutathione and thioredoxin, have entered focus of interest. Anticancer metal complexes (platinum, gold, arsenic, ruthenium, rhodium, copper, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, gadolinium, and molybdenum) have been shown to strongly interact with or even disturb cellular redox homeostasis. In this context, especially the hypothesis of “activation by reduction” as well as the “hard and soft acids and bases” theory with respect to coordination of metal ions to cellular ligands represent important concepts to understand the molecular modes of action of anticancer metal drugs. The aim of this review is to highlight specific interactions of metal-based anticancer drugs with the cellular redox homeostasis and to explain this behavior by considering chemical properties of the respective anticancer metal complexes currently either in (pre)clinical development or in daily clinical routine in oncology. PMID:21275772

  12. Escape time, relaxation, and sticky states of a softened Henon-Heiles model: Low-frequency vibrational mode effects and glass relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2018-04-01

    Here we study the relaxation of a chain consisting of three masses joined by nonlinear springs and periodic conditions when the stiffness is weakened. This system, when expressed in their normal coordinates, yields a softened Henon-Heiles system. By reducing the stiffness of one low-frequency vibrational mode, a faster relaxation is enabled. This is due to a reduction of the energy barrier heights along the softened normal mode as well as for a widening of the opening channels of the energy landscape in configurational space. The relaxation is for the most part exponential, and can be explained by a simple flux equation. Yet, for some initial conditions the relaxation follows as a power law, and in many cases there is a regime change from exponential to power-law decay. We pinpoint the initial conditions for the power-law decay, finding two regions of sticky states. For such states, quasiperiodic orbits are found since almost for all components of the initial momentum orientation, the system is trapped inside two pockets of configurational space. The softened Henon-Heiles model presented here is intended as the simplest model in order to understand the interplay of rigidity, nonlinear interactions and relaxation for nonequilibrium systems such as glass-forming melts or soft matter. Our softened system can be applied to model β relaxation in glasses and suggest that local reorientational jumps can have an exponential and a nonexponential contribution for relaxation, the latter due to asymmetric molecules sticking in cages for certain orientations.

  13. The thermochemical transformations of hard-coal pitches at the stage of raising the softening temperature to 358-363K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekin, N.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Gordienko, V.G.; Stepanenko, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    By using the PMR method in association with IR spectroscopy, information has been obtained on the nature of the change in the amount of hydrogen in various groups of substances of the soluble fraction of the initial pitch and its thermal product at the stage of raising the softening temperature to 358-363K.

  14. Application of trilinear softening functions based on a cohesive crack approach to the simulation of the fracture behaviour of fibre reinforced cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfedaque, A.; Alberti, M. G.; Gálvez, J. C.

    2017-09-01

    The relevance of fibre reinforced cementitious materials (FRC) has increased due to the appearance of regulations that establish the requirements needed to take into account the contribution of the fibres in the structural design. However, in order to exploit the properties of such materials it is a key aspect being able to simulate their behaviour under fracture conditions. Considering a cohesive crack approach, several authors have studied the suitability of using several softening functions. However, none of these functions can be directly applied to FRC. The present contribution analyses the suitability of multilinear softening functions in order to obtain simulation results of fracture tests of a wide variety of FRC. The implementation of multilinear softening functions has been successfully performed by means of a material user subroutine in a commercial finite element code obtaining accurate results in a wide variety of FRC. Such softening functions were capable of simulating a ductile unloading behaviour as well as a rapid unloading followed by a reloading and afterwards a slow unloading. Moreover, the implementation performed has been proven as versatile, robust and efficient from a numerical point of view.

  15. Assessing the allelotypic effect of two aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase-encoding genes MdACS1 and MdACS3a on fruit ethylene production and softening in Malus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Laura; Zhu, Yuandi; Xu, Kenong

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone ethylene largely determines apple fruit shelf life and storability. Previous studies demonstrated that MdACS1 and MdACS3a, which encode 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACS), are crucial in apple fruit ethylene production. MdACS1 is well-known to be intimately involved in the climacteric ethylene burst in fruit ripening, while MdACS3a has been regarded a main regulator for ethylene production transition from system 1 (during fruit development) to system 2 (during fruit ripening). However, MdACS3a was also shown to have limited roles in initiating the ripening process lately. To better assess their roles, fruit ethylene production and softening were evaluated at five time points during a 20-day post-harvest period in 97 Malus accessions and in 34 progeny from 2 controlled crosses. Allelotyping was accomplished using an existing marker (ACS1) for MdACS1 and two markers (CAPS866 and CAPS870) developed here to specifically detect the two null alleles (ACS3a-G289V and Mdacs3a) of MdACS3a. In total, 952 Malus accessions were allelotyped with the three markers. The major findings included: The effect of MdACS1 was significant on fruit ethylene production and softening while that of MdACS3a was less detectable; allele MdACS1–2 was significantly associated with low ethylene and slow softening; under the same background of the MdACS1 allelotypes, null allele Mdacs3a (not ACS3a-G289V) could confer a significant delay of ethylene peak; alleles MdACS1–2 and Mdacs3a (excluding ACS3a-G289V) were highly enriched in M. domestica and M. hybrid when compared with those in M. sieversii. These findings are of practical implications in developing apples of low and delayed ethylene profiles by utilizing the beneficial alleles MdACS1-2 and Mdacs3a. PMID:27231553

  16. Future planning: default network activity couples with frontoparietal control network and reward-processing regions during process and outcome simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Kathy D; Spreng, R Nathan; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-12-01

    We spend much of our daily lives imagining how we can reach future goals and what will happen when we attain them. Despite the prevalence of such goal-directed simulations, neuroimaging studies on planning have mainly focused on executive processes in the frontal lobe. This experiment examined the neural basis of process simulations, during which participants imagined themselves going through steps toward attaining a goal, and outcome simulations, during which participants imagined events they associated with achieving a goal. In the scanner, participants engaged in these simulation tasks and an odd/even control task. We hypothesized that process simulations would recruit default and frontoparietal control network regions, and that outcome simulations, which allow us to anticipate the affective consequences of achieving goals, would recruit default and reward-processing regions. Our analysis of brain activity that covaried with process and outcome simulations confirmed these hypotheses. A functional connectivity analysis with posterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior inferior parietal lobule seeds showed that their activity was correlated during process simulations and associated with a distributed network of default and frontoparietal control network regions. During outcome simulations, medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala seeds covaried together and formed a functional network with default and reward-processing regions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Temperature dependent investigation on optically active process of higher-order bands in irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Nanjing Univ., JS; Wu Fengmei; Nanjing Univ., JS; Zheng Youdou; Nanjing Univ., JS; Suezawa, M.; Imai, M.; Sumino, K.

    1996-01-01

    Optically active processes of the higher-order bands (HOB) are investigated at different temperatures in fast neutron irradiated silicon using Fourier transform infrared absorption measurement. It is shown that the optically active process is nearly temperature independent below 80 K, the slow decay process remains up to a heating temperature of 180 K. The observations are analyzed in terms of the relaxation behavior of photoexcited carriers governed by fast neutron radiation induced defect clusters. (orig.)

  18. Correlation of neural activity with behavioral kinematics reveals distinct sensory encoding and evidence accumulation processes during active tactile sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Ioannis; Dmochowski, Jacek P; Sajda, Paul; Wang, Qi

    2018-03-23

    Many real-world decisions rely on active sensing, a dynamic process for directing our sensors (e.g. eyes or fingers) across a stimulus to maximize information gain. Though ecologically pervasive, limited work has focused on identifying neural correlates of the active sensing process. In tactile perception, we often make decisions about an object/surface by actively exploring its shape/texture. Here we investigate the neural correlates of active tactile decision-making by simultaneously measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and finger kinematics while subjects interrogated a haptic surface to make perceptual judgments. Since sensorimotor behavior underlies decision formation in active sensing tasks, we hypothesized that the neural correlates of decision-related processes would be detectable by relating active sensing to neural activity. Novel brain-behavior correlation analysis revealed that three distinct EEG components, localizing to right-lateralized occipital cortex (LOC), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and supplementary motor area (SMA), respectively, were coupled with active sensing as their activity significantly correlated with finger kinematics. To probe the functional role of these components, we fit their single-trial-couplings to decision-making performance using a hierarchical-drift-diffusion-model (HDDM), revealing that the LOC modulated the encoding of the tactile stimulus whereas the MFG predicted the rate of information integration towards a choice. Interestingly, the MFG disappeared from components uncovered from control subjects performing active sensing but not required to make perceptual decisions. By uncovering the neural correlates of distinct stimulus encoding and evidence accumulation processes, this study delineated, for the first time, the functional role of cortical areas in active tactile decision-making. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Activiti in action executable business processes in BPMN 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Rademakers, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    Activiti in Action is a comprehensive tutorial designed to introduce developers to the world of business process modeling using Activiti. Before diving into the nuts and bolts of Activiti, this book presents a solid introduction to BPMN 2.0 from a developer's perspective.

  20. Cortical gamma activity during auditory tone omission provides evidence for the involvement of oscillatory activity in top-down processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtubay, I G; Alegre, M; Valencia, M; Artieda, J

    2006-11-01

    Perception is an active process in which our brains use top-down influences to modulate afferent information. To determine whether this modulation might be based on oscillatory activity, we asked seven subjects to detect a silence that appeared randomly in a rhythmic auditory sequence, counting the number of omissions ("count" task), or responding to each omission with a right index finger extension ("move" task). Despite the absence of physical stimuli, these tasks induced a 'non-phase-locked' gamma oscillation in temporal-parietal areas, providing evidence of intrinsically generated oscillatory activity during top-down processing. This oscillation is probably related to the local neural activation that takes place during the process of stimulus detection, involving the functional comparison between the tones and the absence of stimuli as well as the auditory echoic memory processes. The amplitude of the gamma oscillations was reduced with the repetition of the tasks. Moreover, it correlated positively with the number of correctly detected omissions and negatively with the reaction time. These findings indicate that these oscillations, like others described, may be modulated by attentional processes. In summary, our findings support the active and adaptive concept of brain function that has emerged over recent years, suggesting that the match of sensory information with memory contents generates gamma oscillations.

  1. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes--a process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera-Padrell, Albert E; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren; Gani, Rafiqul; Gernaey, Krist V

    2012-10-01

    A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermentation-based products. The method exploits the synergic combination of continuous flow technologies (e.g., microfluidic techniques) and process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools for faster process design and increased process understanding throughout the whole drug product and process development cycle. The design framework structures the many different and challenging design problems (e.g., solvent selection, reactor design, and design of separation and purification operations), driving the user from the initial drug discovery steps--where process knowledge is very limited--toward the detailed design and analysis. Examples from the literature of PSE methods and tools applied to pharmaceutical process design and novel pharmaceutical production technologies are provided along the text, assisting in the accumulation and interpretation of process knowledge. Different criteria are suggested for the selection of batch and continuous processes so that the whole design results in low capital and operational costs as well as low environmental footprint. The design framework has been applied to the retrofit of an existing batch-wise process used by H. Lundbeck A/S to produce an API: zuclopenthixol. Some of its batch operations were successfully converted into continuous mode, obtaining higher yields that allowed a significant simplification of the whole process. The material and environmental footprint of the process--evaluated through the process mass intensity index, that is, kg of material used per kg of product--was reduced to half of its initial value, with potential for further reduction. The case-study includes reaction steps typically used by the pharmaceutical

  2. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin films sandwiched between low-softening-point glasses and application in spin devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misawa, Takahiro; Mori, Sumito [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Komine, Takashi [Faculty of Engineering, Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Fujioka, Masaya; Nishii, Junji [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Kaiju, Hideo, E-mail: kaiju@es.hokudai.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan)

    2016-12-30

    proposed and established technique, especially, the thermal pressing technique, is a significant advance in the surface and interface engineering and spin-device application. - Highlights: • Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} films between low-softening-point glasses were formed by thermal pressing. • The thermal pressing technique gives rise to a 100-fold enhancement in coercivity. • The stray magnetic field is uniformly generated from the Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin-film edge. • The calculation revealed the generation of a high stray field of 5 kOe in SQC device. - Abstract: We investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin films sandwiched between low-softening-point (LSP) glasses, which can be used in spin quantum cross (SQC) devices utilizing stray magnetic fields generated from magnetic thin-film edges. We also calculate the stray magnetic field generated between the two edges of Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin-film electrodes in SQC devices and discuss the applicability to spin-filter devices. Using the established fabrication technique, we successfully demonstrate the formation of LSP-glass/Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22}/LSP-glass structures with smooth and clear interfaces. The coercivity of the Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin films is enhanced from 0.9 to 103 Oe by increasing the applied pressure from 0 to 1.0 MPa in the thermal pressing process. According to the random anisotropy model, the enhancement of the coercivity is attributed to the increase in the crystal grain size. The stray magnetic field is also uniformly generated from the Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin-film edge in the direction perpendicular to the cross section of the LSP-glass/Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22}/LSP-glass structures. Theoretical calculation reveals that a high stray field of approximately 5 kOe is generated when the distance between two edges of the Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin-film electrodes is less than 5 nm and the thickness of Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} is greater than 20 nm. These experimental and

  3. Available processing resources influence encoding-related brain activity before an event

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, Giulia; Gebert, A. Dorothea; Otten, Leun J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective cognitive functioning not only relies on brain activity elicited by an event, but also on activity that precedes it. This has been demonstrated in a number of cognitive domains, including memory. Here, we show that brain activity that precedes the effective encoding of a word into long-term memory depends on the availability of sufficient processing resources. We recorded electrical brain activity from the scalps of healthy adult men and women while they memorized intermixed visual ...

  4. Production of activated carbon by using pyrolysis process in an ammonia atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indayaningsih, N.; Destyorini, F.; Purawiardi, R. I.; Insiyanda, D. R.; Widodo, H.

    2017-04-01

    Activated carbon is materials that have wide applications, including supercapacitor materials, absorbent in chemical industry, and absorbent material in the chemical industry. This study has carried out for the manufacturing of activated carbon from inexpensive materials through efficient processes. Carbon material was made from coconut fibers through pyrolysis process at temperature of 650, 700, 750 and 800°C. Aim of this study was to obtain carbon material that has a large surface area. Pyrolysis process is carried out in an inert atmosphere (N2 gas) at a temperature of 450°C for 30 minutes, followed by pyrolysis process in an ammonia atmosphere at 800°C for 2 hours. The pyrolysis results showed that the etching process in ammonia is occurred; as it obtained some greater surface area when compared with the pyrolisis process in an atmosphere by inert gas only. The resulted activated carbon also showed to have good properties in surface area and total pore volume.

  5. Artichoke as a non-conventional precursor for activated carbon: Role of the activation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal M.S. ElShafei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Artichoke peels were used to produce activated carbon using chemical activation methods. Two activation protocols were compared: a two-step method A and a one-step method B. As newly used activating agents, KCl, CrCl3 and TiCl4 were compared. The results show that method B is superior to A. KOH with method B had an area of 2321 m2/g and a total pore volume 1.0071 cm3/g, of which 0.9794 cm3/g was confined to micropores. The corresponding values for KCl are 1731, 0.6925 and 0.6718. TiCl4 had lower but comparable values with those of KCl. CrCl3 appeared to be the least successful among the three newly used activating agents. The post-activation washing step strongly affects the characteristics of the final product. The differences among the effects of Zn, Cr and Ti are discussed in terms of the differences in polarizing power.

  6. The complementariness of the business process reengineering and activity-based management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta DOMANOVIC

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to sustain long term growth and development, an enterprise has toenvisage and implement contemporary management innovations altogether. Intransition economies, like Serbia is, it is of great importance to redesign businessprocesses and activities, to analyse activity profitability in order to select value-addedactivities and reduce non-value added ones. This paper considers the possibility forcomplementary implementation of the business process reengineering and activitybased management in the process of long term efficiency improvement. Namely, thebasic postulate of business process reengineering concept might be established in theprocess of activity based management implementation and conversely.

  7. Unified description of the softening behavior of beta-metastable and alpha+beta titanium alloys during hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, Cecilia; Germain, Lionel; Warchomicka, Fernando; Dikovits, Martina; Mitsche, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a unified description of the softening behavior of a β metastable alloy and Ti6Al4V alloy. In the first part we provide sound evidence that the hot deformation of Ti6Al4V of the beta phase above and below the beta transus temperature takes place solely by dynamic recovery at moderate strains, similarly to the behavior of the Ti5Al5Mo5V3Cr1Zr near-beta alloy. This study was possible due to the combination of the fast cooling rates achieved after controlled hot deformation and the reconstruction of the parent beta phase from electron backscattered diffraction measurements of the frozen alpha phase by using an innovative developed algorithm. The dynamic recovery as a common dynamic restoration behavior for Ti6Al4V and Ti5Al5Mo5V3Cr1Zr is described mathematically with a Derby type relationship of the subgrain size and the stress of the beta phase. A rule of mixture allows the determination of the load partition between the two allotropic phases.

  8. Phonon stiffen and soften at zigzag- and armchair-dominated edges of exfoliated bilayer graphene ribbon presented by Raman spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minggang; Zhou, Xiaohua; Xin, Duqiang; Xu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The Raman spectra at the edge of the exfoliated bilayer graphene ribbon (GR) were investigated in detail. Results show that both G and 2D phonons stiffen (wave number increases) at zigzag-dominated edge, while they soften at armchair-dominated edge compared with those at the middle position in the GR. Furthermore, the full widths at half maximum intensity of both G and 2D Raman peaks narrow at the zigzag-dominated edge, while they broaden at the armchair-dominated edge. The stiffness and softness are attributed to the C-C bonds at the edge. For zigzag-dominated edge, the stiffness may originate in the increase of the force constant induced by the shrinking of C-C bond. For armchair-dominated edge, the softness may be due to the decrease of the force constant induced by the unsaturated hanging bonds at edge, which is different from Kohn anomaly and charge doping. The analysis is in agreement well with others calculation results about C-C bonds and the edge energy. These results may be useful to understand physical properties at the bilayer graphene edge and for applications in the device by taking advantage of the edge states in bilayer graphene.

  9. Antioxidant Activity in Two Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum Cultivars as Influenced by Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Suma Pushparaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively on the antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra (MRB. The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay (RPA and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays respectively. The samples were also evaluated for tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid content which was then correlated with the antioxidant activity assayed using three methods. The results indicated that the bran rich fraction showed high antioxidant activity (RPA owing to high tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid levels. Heat treatments exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity and RPA reflecting the high flavonoid content. Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay in the K variety was largely due to the presence of flavonoid content, however in MRB, no relationship was found between antioxidant activities and antioxidant components.

  10. Role of activated carbon on micropollutans degradation by different radiation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Velo Gala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of the presence of activated carbon on radiation processes. The triiodinated contrast medium diatrizoate was chosen as the contaminant model. We selected four commercial activated carbons and sixteen gamma radiation-modified carbons derived from these. The different advanced oxidation/reduction processes that have been studied were improved through the addition of activated carbon in the UV light and gamma radiating processes. In the UV/activated carbon process, the synergic activity of the activated carbon is enhanced in the samples with higher percentages of surface oxygen, ester/anhydride groups and carbon atoms with sp2 hybridization. Band gap determination of activated carbons revealed that they behave as semiconductor materials and, therefore, as photoactive materials in the presence of UV radiation, given that all band gap values are <4 eV. We also observed that the gamma radiation treatment reduces the band gap values of the activated carbons and that, in a single series of commercial carbons, lower band gap values correspond to higher contaminant removal rate values. We observed that the activity of the reutilized activated carbons is similar to that of the original carbons. Based on these results, we proposed that the activated carbon acts as a photocatalyst, promoting electrons of the valence band to the conduction band and increasing the generation of HO• radicals in the medium. Similarly, there was a synergic effect made by the presence of activated carbon in gamma radiation system, which favours pollutant removal. This synergic effect is independent of the textural but not the chemical characteristics of the activated carbon, observing a higher synergic activity for carbons with a higher surface content of oxygen, specifically quinone groups. We highlight that the synergic effect of the activated carbon requires adsorbent–adsorbate electrostatic interaction and is absent

  11. Analysis: AIDS and the private sector. Tolerance at work will soften epidemic's impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barese, P

    1995-06-01

    With a population of only 1.3 million, Botswana relies heavily upon imported skilled labor and management. Officially, all forms of discrimination based upon a citizen's HIV/AIDS status are illegal in Botswana. The government, however, screens all expatriates considered for contractual jobs with the state, and does not employ HIV-seropositive candidates. Recent government efforts to train local people to replace expatriates and diversify and expand the economy by supporting local business and encouraging foreign investment may, however, be seriously jeopardized by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The development and implementation of prevention and coping strategies, especially at the workplace, have been slow even though AIDS-in-the-Workplace program materials, including videos, posters, brochures, and condoms, are provided free of charge. The lack of a clear understanding by senior management of the legal and financial ramifications of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is one reason for the widespread nonuse by companies of the materials. AIDSCAP in Botswana recently reviewed the activities of four companies which had, however, developed model AIDS-in-the-Workplace programs. Three of the companies chose a peer education model, holding regular formal education sessions as well as informal small group sessions run by peer educators. The peer educators have as much time during their work day as they need to work upon HIV/AIDS activities. The other company has a health department which holds a formal prevention education session for all employees yearly, while clinics in the on-site employee housing complex provide continuous information on women's health, prenatal and infant care as it relates to HIV/AIDS, and negotiating safer sex. Management reports that employees seem to have responded well to the programs, but changing their attitudes toward infected colleagues is proving more difficult. The author notes that managers over time will also have to begin thinking about training

  12. Impact of accelerated electrons on activating process and foaming potential of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba, V.; Pospisil, M.; Mucka, V.; Silber, R.; Jenicek, P.; Dohanyos, M.; Zabranska, J.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Presently, anaerobic and/or aerobic biological treatment is the cheapest and the most effective method of wastewater and sludge processing. However, due to some non-biodegradable substances present in wastewater and also due to limited capacity of wastewater treatment plants, it is necessary to find effective processes, that would be complementary to existing sludge treatment methods. Beside chemical and physical processes, radiation technology seems to offer improvement of effectivity of biological treatment. The paper describes possibilities of irradiation in activating process. Activated sludge can be affected in all its parameters, including physico chemical properties, such as sedimentation rate, or resulting volume of sludge. For the purpose of this research, laboratory experimental reactors simulating activating process were operated. According to previous results, accelerated electrons were used for irradiation, for e-beam seems to be more expedient than gamma irradiation. Reactor with irradiated sludge has been compared with the one without irradiation. It is shown, that pre-irradiation of sludge can positively affect following process of activation. Beside the activating process, another goal has been pursued. Radiation can strongly affect sludge foaming potential. Biological foaming caused by surfactant microorganisms, represents quite serious problem in many wastewater treatment plants, especially in digesters. It was proved that after irradiation foaming potential of sludge decreases. Pre-irradiation of activated sludge with relatively low doses also results in reduction of number of pathogenic microorganisms, presented in sludge

  13. Softening the Blow of Social Exclusion: The Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Freedman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is an interactive process between multiple people, yet previous research has focused almost solely on the negative impacts on targets. What advice is there for people on the other side (i.e., sources who want to minimize its negative impact and preserve their own reputation? To provide an impetus for research on the interactive nature of exclusion, we propose the Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. Our theory postulates that targets and sources’ needs are better maintained if sources use clear, explicit verbal communication. We propose that sources have three options: explicit rejection (clearly stating no, ostracism (ignoring, and ambiguous rejection (being unclear. Drawing on psychology, sociology, communications, and business research, we propose that when sources use explicit rejection, targets’ feelings will be less hurt, their needs will be better protected, and sources will experience less backlash and emotional toil than if sources use ambiguous rejection or ostracism. Finally, we propose how the language of rejections may impact both parties.

  14. Softening the Blow of Social Exclusion: The Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Gili; Williams, Kipling D.; Beer, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Social exclusion is an interactive process between multiple people, yet previous research has focused almost solely on the negative impacts on targets. What advice is there for people on the other side (i.e., sources) who want to minimize its negative impact and preserve their own reputation? To provide an impetus for research on the interactive nature of exclusion, we propose the Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. Our theory postulates that targets and sources’ needs are better maintained if sources use clear, explicit verbal communication. We propose that sources have three options: explicit rejection (clearly stating no), ostracism (ignoring), and ambiguous rejection (being unclear). Drawing on psychology, sociology, communications, and business research, we propose that when sources use explicit rejection, targets’ feelings will be less hurt, their needs will be better protected, and sources will experience less backlash and emotional toil than if sources use ambiguous rejection or ostracism. Finally, we propose how the language of rejections may impact both parties. PMID:27777566

  15. Softened and flexible biodegradable poly(lactic acid) and its electromechanical properties for actuator application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummarungsan, Natlita; Pattavarakorn, Datchanee; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2016-12-01

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with high stiffness presenting a limitation for using in actuator applications. Adding a plasticizer is one way to solve this problem to enhance flexibility and improve electromechanical properties of pristine PLA. In this work, the PLA films were prepared via a simple solvent casting method. The influences of plasticizer type and electric field strength on electromechanical behavior of PLA films were investigated by the melt rheometer and bending measurement. For the PLA films filled with dibutyl phthalate (DBP), the storage modulus, G', immediately increased towards its steady state and rapidly recovered to its original value with and without electric field, respectively, which can be referred to a reversible system. On the other hand, the PLA film with Tween 20 processed the highest ∆G׳/G׳0 of 1.34 due to the available amount of polarized groups. In the bending measurement, the dielectrophoresis forces of plasticized PLA films were found to increase with increasing electric field where the deflections occurred towards anode side as the polarized groups generated negative charges. The DBP_PLA1.5D film exhibited the greatest bending and dielectrophoresis force. Thus, the biodegradable PLA along with DBP combine to have a great potential towards actuator application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure and pozzolanic activity of calcined coal gangue during the process of mechanical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Guo; Dongxu Li; Jianhua Chen; Nanru Yang [Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng (China). Department of Material Engineering

    2009-04-15

    On the basis of analyzing coal gangue's chemical and mineral compositions, the structure change of coal gangue during the mechanical activation was investigated by XRD, FTIR, NMR, and the mechanical strength of the cement doped coal gangue with various specific surface area was tested. The experimental results indicate that the lattice structure of metakaolin in coal gangue samples calcined at 700{sup o}C disorganizes gradually and becomes disordered, and the lattice structure of {alpha}-quartz is distorted slightly. The pozzolanic activity of the coal gangue increases obviously with its structural disorganization.

  17. GRAVIDY, a GPU modular, parallel direct-summation N-body integrator: dynamics with softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2018-01-01

    A wide variety of outstanding problems in astrophysics involve the motion of a large number of particles under the force of gravity. These include the global evolution of globular clusters, tidal disruptions of stars by a massive black hole, the formation of protoplanets and sources of gravitational radiation. The direct-summation of N gravitational forces is a complex problem with no analytical solution and can only be tackled with approximations and numerical methods. To this end, the Hermite scheme is a widely used integration method. With different numerical techniques and special-purpose hardware, it can be used to speed up the calculations. But these methods tend to be computationally slow and cumbersome to work with. We present a new graphics processing unit (GPU), direct-summation N-body integrator written from scratch and based on this scheme, which includes relativistic corrections for sources of gravitational radiation. GRAVIDY has high modularity, allowing users to readily introduce new physics, it exploits available computational resources and will be maintained by regular updates. GRAVIDY can be used in parallel on multiple CPUs and GPUs, with a considerable speed-up benefit. The single-GPU version is between one and two orders of magnitude faster than the single-CPU version. A test run using four GPUs in parallel shows a speed-up factor of about 3 as compared to the single-GPU version. The conception and design of this first release is aimed at users with access to traditional parallel CPU clusters or computational nodes with one or a few GPU cards.

  18. The socialization of students in the process of art activity in a mixed-age organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomenko N.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article analyzes the experience of pedagogical research of students’ socialization in the process of their art activity in a mixed-age organization. It also provides the characteristic of some results, obtained in the research.

  19. Effect of temperature and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the optimum time interval for effluent removal after temporarily stopping stirring in otherwise continuously stirred tank reactors. Influence of temperature (10 and 55 degrees C) and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure, where...... no outside mechanical or chemical action was used, within the reactor was studied in three vertical settling columns (100 cm deep). Variations in solids and microbial distribution at top, middle and bottom layers of column were assessed over a 15 day settling period. Results showed that best solids...... separation was achieved when digested manure was allowed to settle at 55 degrees C with active biogas process (pre-incubated at 55 degrees C) compared to separation at 55 degrees C without active biogas process (autoclaved at 120 degrees C, for 20 min) or at 10 degrees C with active biogas process. Maximum...

  20. System of economics' security management in economic activity of meat processing enterprises formation

    OpenAIRE

    Iryna Sosnovska

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to creation of economics' security management system production and economic activity of meat current processing enterprises. The article reflects research results of various scientists scientific works regarding interpretation of economic security system and shows the lack of this concept single interpretation. There are summarized observation of current activities of meat processing plants specifics as a conclusion there are a large number of different programs and c...

  1. Proposal of Instruction Process for Improvement of Language Activities in Technology Education Course

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 智広; 山本, 利一

    2012-01-01

    This study is a proposal of instruction process for improvement of language activities in the technology education course in the junior high school in Japan. In this study, two efforts were carried out for the technology concerning material and processing. The first effort was the extraction of the learning situations that develop abilities of thinking, judgment and expression through language activities peculiar to the technology education course. The second effort was the verification o...

  2. Decarboxilase activity and biosynthetic processes in Saccharomyces carlsbergenesis upon the action of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotarev, L.N.; Shaburova, G.V.; Licyuk, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is established that visible light of 410-520 nm wave-- lengths stimulated decarboxylase activity, protein biosynthesis and increase in the number of cells in the Saccharomyces carlsbergenesis yeast culture. A limiting link of these yeast metabolism is decarboxylizing of pyuvate providing the formation of a substrate for functioning of the di- and pericarboxilic acid cycle. The light effect can activate this process thus eliminating substrate deficiency of the Krebs cycle which results in the increase of anabolic processes intensity

  3. Ensuring the Process of Realisation of Financial Planning of Banking Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkach Svitlana M.

    2014-01-01

    The article studies theoretical aspects of the process of realisation of financial planning of the bank's activity and identifies and justifies its six main stages: 1) goal formation stage; 2) preparation stage; 3) assessment; 4) financial plan approval; 5) financial plan execution, and 6) stage of the financial plan monitoring, control and adjustment. The above sequence of stages of the process of realisation of financial planning of the bank's activity allows a trustworthy assessment of the...

  4. Disentangling brain activity related to the processing of emotional visual information and emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniecki, Michał; Wołoszyn, Kinga; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Pilarczyk, Joanna

    2018-05-01

    Processing of emotional visual information engages cognitive functions and induces arousal. We aimed to examine the modulatory role of emotional valence on brain activations linked to the processing of visual information and those linked to arousal. Participants were scanned and their pupil size was measured while viewing negative and neutral images. The visual noise was added to the images in various proportions to parametrically manipulate the amount of visual information. Pupil size was used as an index of physiological arousal. We show that arousal induced by the negative images, as compared to the neutral ones, is primarily related to greater amygdala activity while increasing visibility of negative content to enhanced activity in the lateral occipital complex (LOC). We argue that more intense visual processing of negative scenes can occur irrespective of the level of arousal. It may suggest that higher areas of the visual stream are fine-tuned to process emotionally relevant objects. Both arousal and processing of emotional visual information modulated activity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Overlapping activations within the vmPFC may reflect the integration of these aspects of emotional processing. Additionally, we show that emotionally-evoked pupil dilations are related to activations in the amygdala, vmPFC, and LOC.

  5. Unconventional emergence of elastic softening induced by magnetic fields in the unusual heavy-fermion compound PrFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Nakanishi, Y; Yamaguchi, T; Hazama, H; Nemoto, Y; Goto, T; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurement on the filled skutterudite compound PrFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2 exhibits a mysterious temperature dependence of the elastic constant (C sub 1 sub 1 - C sub 1 sub 2)/2. Pronounced elastic softening at low temperatures is revived by applying a magnetic field. This fact strongly suggests the 4f-multiplet ground state of the Pr ion split by the crystalline electric field (CEF) to be a GAMMA sub 3 non-Kramers doublet. The expectation value of a quadrupole moment with GAMMA sub 3 symmetry in the CEF ground state, which leads to elastic softening at low temperature, was evaluated by theoretical fitting to the present results. This may imply that suppression of the electric quadrupole Kondo effect occurs in PrFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2 and the quadrupole moment becomes steady due to the application of a magnetic field. (letter to the editor)

  6. Process, Goal and Social Interaction Differences in Recreation: What Makes an Activity Substitutable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Robert; Heberlein, Thomas A.

    Two recreational activities, deer hunting and goose hunting, both similar in form, are compared. It was hypothesized that the activity for which participants rated the process, the goal, and the social interaction as most important to the experience and for which participants showed the strongest family ties and social support for participation…

  7. 75 FR 71677 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium... in FY 2011 from eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under... approximately $24.3 million of Recovery Act funds available for reimbursement in FY 2011, as well as the $10...

  8. Plan before You Play: An Activity for Teaching the Managerial Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Norm R.; Hedges, Peggy L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a 60-minute classroom activity using LEGO® bricks that demonstrates and reinforces the importance of the managerial process. The activity, Plan Before You Play (PBP), is targeted to introductory business classes, and differs from others in that it requires little investment or up-front planning, is easily scalable, and, with…

  9. The Relationships of Mental States and Intellectual Processes in the Learning Activities of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Alexander O.; Chernov, Albert V.; Yusupov, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the interaction of mental states and cognitive processes in the classroom allows us to solve the problem of increasing the effectiveness of training by activating cognitive processes and management of students' mental states. This article is concerned with the most general patterns of interaction between mental state and…

  10. Use of electronic computers for processing of spectrometric data in instrument neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyropaev, V.Ya.; Zlokazov, V.B.; Kul'kina, L.I.; Maslov, O.D.; Fefilov, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program is described for processing gamma spectra in the instrumental activation analysis of multicomponent objects. Structural diagrams of various variants of connection with the computer are presented. The possibility of using a mini-computer as an analyser and for preliminary processing of gamma spectra is considered

  11. Interrogating History: Promoting Student Activism Using Children's Literature and the Full Circling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Trisha Wies

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are often disengaged in the learning process, being more focused on social media and self-interest than classroom content. Full circling is a process that can be used to help students collaboratively engage in learning and actively reflect on historical events--especially those that are under reported in history books. In the present…

  12. Mesophilic and thermophilic activated sludge post-treatment of paper mill process water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Bouwhuis, E.; Klapwijk, A.; Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing system closure in paper mills and higher process water temperatures make the applicability of thermophilic treatment systems increasingly important. The use of activated sludge as a suitable thermophilic post-treatment system for anaerobically pre-treated paper process water from a paper

  13. Effect of spray drying processing parameters on the insecticidal activity of two encapsulated formulations of baculovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray dryer processing parameters on the process yield and insecticidal activity of baculovirus to support the development of this beneficial group of microbes as biopesticides. For each of two baculoviruses [granulovirus (GV) from Pieris rapae (L....

  14. External Carbon Source Addition as a Means to Control an Activated Sludge Nutrient Removal Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    In alternating type activated sludge nutrient removal processes, the denitrification rate can be limited by the availability of readily-degradable carbon substrate. A control strategy is proposed by which an easily metabolizable COD source is added directly to that point in the process at which d...

  15. Active Interaction Mapping as a tool to elucidate hierarchical functions of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Jean-Claude; Kramer, Michael; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh

    2017-07-03

    Increasingly, various 'omics data are contributing significantly to our understanding of novel biological processes, but it has not been possible to iteratively elucidate hierarchical functions in complex phenomena. We describe a general systems biology approach called Active Interaction Mapping (AI-MAP), which elucidates the hierarchy of functions for any biological process. Existing and new 'omics data sets can be iteratively added to create and improve hierarchical models which enhance our understanding of particular biological processes. The best datatypes to further improve an AI-MAP model are predicted computationally. We applied this approach to our understanding of general and selective autophagy, which are conserved in most eukaryotes, setting the stage for the broader application to other cellular processes of interest. In the particular application to autophagy-related processes, we uncovered and validated new autophagy and autophagy-related processes, expanded known autophagy processes with new components, integrated known non-autophagic processes with autophagy and predict other unexplored connections.

  16. Activity of LPO Processes in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, L I; Kolesnikov, S I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Nikitina, O A; Lazareva, L M; Suturina, L V; Danusevich, I N; Druzhinina, E B; Semendyaev, A A

    2017-01-01

    Specific features of LPO processes and antioxidant defense were studied in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and infertility. Changes in LPO processes in patients with PCOS were compensatory, which manifested in increased α-tocopherol and retinol concentrations and moderate decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. Intensification of prooxidant processes was found in the group of patients with infertility without PCOS. The observed changes necessitate differentiated approach to the treatment of these patients.

  17. Intuition & reason: re-assessing dual-process theories with representational sub-activation

    OpenAIRE

    Trafford, James; Tillas, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevalent distinction in the literature on reasoning, between Type-1 processes, (fast, automatic, associative, heuristic and intuitive); and Type-2 processes (rule-based, analytical and reflective). In this paper, we follow up recent empirical evidence [De Neys (2006b); Osman (2013)] in favour of a unitary cognitive system. More specifically, we suggest that intuitions (T1-processes) are sub-activated representations, which are in turn influenced by the weightings of the connection...

  18. The role of the party leadership to activization the political process of modern Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Morar

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the conceptual position of the party leadership as a factor in activation processes of political transformation in societies. The place of the party leaders in the political processes in Ukraine, which belongs to the transitional societies. It is proved that the main factor determining the place and role of party leaders in the political processes of transformation of societies dynamics. Where society is experiencing political transformation implemented constitutional...

  19. Predicting the mixed-mode I/II spatial damage propagation along 3D-printed soft interfacial layer via a hyperelastic softening model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Yaning

    2018-07-01

    A methodology was developed to use a hyperelastic softening model to predict the constitutive behavior and the spatial damage propagation of nonlinear materials with damage-induced softening under mixed-mode loading. A user subroutine (ABAQUS/VUMAT) was developed for numerical implementation of the model. 3D-printed wavy soft rubbery interfacial layer was used as a material system to verify and validate the methodology. The Arruda - Boyce hyperelastic model is incorporated with the softening model to capture the nonlinear pre-and post- damage behavior of the interfacial layer under mixed Mode I/II loads. To characterize model parameters of the 3D-printed rubbery interfacial layer, a series of scarf-joint specimens were designed, which enabled systematic variation of stress triaxiality via a single geometric parameter, the slant angle. It was found that the important model parameter m is exponentially related to the stress triaxiality. Compact tension specimens of the sinusoidal wavy interfacial layer with different waviness were designed and fabricated via multi-material 3D printing. Finite element (FE) simulations were conducted to predict the spatial damage propagation of the material within the wavy interfacial layer. Compact tension experiments were performed to verify the model prediction. The results show that the model developed is able to accurately predict the damage propagation of the 3D-printed rubbery interfacial layer under complicated stress-state without pre-defined failure criteria.

  20. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r2 ≥ −0.86) as well as calcium release (r2 ≥ −0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r2 = 0.42–0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo. PMID:22029364

  1. Inelastic constitutive models for the simulation of a cyclic softening behavior of modified 9Cr-lMo steel at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, Jae Han

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the inelastic constitutive models for the simulations of the cyclic softening behavior of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, which has a significant cyclic softening characteristic especially in elevated temperature regions, are investigated in detail. To do this, the plastic modulus, which primarily governs the calculation scheme of the plasticity, is formulated for the inelastic constitutive models such as the Armstrong-Frederick model, Chaboche model, and Ohno-Wang model. By implementing the extracted plastic modulus and the consistency conditions into the computer program, the inelastic constitutive parameters are identified to present the best fit of the uniaxial cyclic test data by strain-controlled simulations. From the computer simulations by using the obtained constitutive parameters, it is found that the Armstrong-Frederick model is simple to use but it causes significant overestimated strain results when compared with the Chaboche and the Ohno-Wang models. And from the ratcheting simulation results, it is found that the cyclic softening behavior of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel can invoke a ratcheting instability when the applied cyclic loads exceed a certain level of the ratchet loading condition

  2. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r2 >= -0.86) as well as calcium release (r2 >= -0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r2 = 0.42-0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of thin metallic silver flakes, waste products of a manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Manuela; Tosti, Alessandra; Lasagni, Marina; Campiglio, Alfredo; Pitea, Demetrio; Collina, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop new products and processes from a manufacturing waste from an Italian metallurgic company. The company produced thin silver metallic films and the production scraps were silver flakes. The possibility to use the silver flakes in water disinfection processes was studied. The antimicrobial activity of the flakes was investigated in batch using Escherichia coli as Gram-negative microorganism model. The flakes did not show any antimicrobial activity, so they were activated with two different processes: thermal activation in reducing atmosphere and chemical activation, obtaining, respectively, reduced flakes (RF) and chemical flakes (CF). The flakes, activated with either treatment, showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. The kill rate was dependent on the type of activated flakes. The chemical flakes were more efficient than reduced flakes. The kill rate determined for 1 g of CF, 1.0 +/- 0.2 min(-1), was greater than the kill rate determined for 1 g of RF, 0.069 +/- 0.004 min(-1). This was confirmed also by the minimum inhibitory concentration values. It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial capability was dependent on flakes amount and on the type of aqueous medium. Furthermore, the flakes maintained their properties also when used a second time. Finally, the antimicrobial activities of flakes were tested in an effluent of a wastewater treatment plant where a variety of heterotrophic bacteria were present.

  4. Evaluation of different treatment processes with respect to mutagenic activity in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kool, H J; Hrubec, J; van Kreijl, C F; Piet, G J

    1985-12-01

    Treatment processes which are applied in The Netherlands during the preparation of drinking water have been evaluated with regard to introduction and removal of organic mutagens as well as halogenated organics. It appeared that the most efficient processes in reducing mutagenic activity were activated carbon filtration and artificial dune recharge. In general these processes were also the most efficient in removing halogenated organics. Using low doses of chlorine dioxide (less than 1 mg C1O2/l) for safety disinfection of drinking water, no change or substantial less mutagenic activity than by chlorination (1 mg Cl/l) was found. This counts too for the formation of halogenated organics. Transport chlorination of stored river Meuse water was able to introduce or activate mutagenic nitro organics which have not been found previously. Ozone treatment under field conditions showed mostly a tendency to decrease the activity of organic mutagens. It was also shown that dependent on the water quality and treatment conditions a slight increase of mutagenic activity occurred, but this activity would be reduced by increasing the ozone dose. It seems possible to optimize the ozone treatment conditions regarding the level of ozone dose and the contact time to avoid an increase of mutagenic activity. Furthermore it was shown that when a mutagenic raw water source was used a proper combination of treatment processes is able to produce drinking water in which no mutagenic activity could be detected under the test conditions. Finally it is stated that before far-reaching decisions with respect to use mutagenicity data for a selection of water sources or treatment processes will be made, more information on the relation mutagenic activity from drinking water and effects on human health should become available.

  5. Passive and partially active fault tolerance for massively parallel stream processing engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Li; Zhou, Yongluan

    2018-01-01

    . On the other hand, an active approach usually employs backup nodes to run replicated tasks. Upon failure, the active replica can take over the processing of the failed task with minimal latency. However, both approaches have their own inadequacies in Massively Parallel Stream Processing Engines (MPSPE...... also propose effective and efficient algorithms to optimize a partially active replication plan to maximize the quality of tentative outputs. We implemented PPA on top of Storm, an open-source MPSPE and conducted extensive experiments using both real and synthetic datasets to verify the effectiveness...

  6. Effect of potassium hydroxide activation in the desulfurization process of activated carbon prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hui; Liao, Li

    2018-03-01

    Series sludge straw-based activated carbons were prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation, and the desulfurization performance of activated carbons was studied. To obtain the best desulfurization performance, the optimum ratio between the raw materials and the activator was investigated. The results showed that when the mass ratio of sewage sludge, corn straw, and KOH was 3:7:2, the activated carbon obtained the best breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacities, which were 12.38 and 5.74 times, respectively, those of samples prepared by the nonactivated raw materials. The appropriate KOH could improve the microporosity and alkaline groups, meanwhile reducing the lactone groups, which were all beneficial to desulfurization performance. The chemical adsorption process of desulfurization can be simplified to four main steps, and the main desulfurization products are elemental sulfur and sulfate. Sewage sludge (SS) and corn straw (CS) both have great production and wide distribution and are readily available in China. Much attention has been paid on how to deal with them effectively. Based on the environment protection idea of waste treatment with waste and resource recycling, low-cost adsorbents were prepared by these processes. The proposed method can be expanded to the municipal solid waste recycling programs and renewable energy plan. Thus, proceeding with the study of preparing activated carbon by SS and straw as a carbon-based dry desulfurization agent could obtain huge social, economic, and environmental benefits.

  7. Formation of the Cycle of Business Processes of Management of Marketing Activity of a Transport Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horielov Dmytro O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problems of organisation of the process of management of marketing activity of an enterprise. It specifies the model of services of a transport enterprise and provides levels of services and their structure: basic, real, expanded, expected and prospective. The article offers to differentiate planning and realisation of the transportation service by its levels, each of which would correspond with a separate business process of management. It reveals specific features of use of instruments of the traditional, internal and interactive marketing in the market of transportation services. It identifies the structure of the object when managing marketing activity of a transportation enterprise. The article uses the Deming cycle to formulate general principles of formation of business processes of management of marketing activity: “Motivation – Plan – Do – Check – Act”. The proposed cycle would ensure continuous improvement of the said business processes of an enterprise in accordance with international quality standards (ISO.

  8. Development of a model describing virus removal process in an activated sludge basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.; Shiragami, N. Unno, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-20

    The virus removal process from the liquid phase in an activated sludge basin possibly consists of physicochemical processes, such as adsorption onto sludge flocs, biological processes such as microbial predating and inactivation by virucidal components excreted by microbes. To describe properly the virus behavior in an activated sludge basin, a simple model is proposed based on the experimental data obtained using a poliovirus type 1. A three-compartments model, which include the virus in the liquid phase and in the peripheral and inner regions of sludge flocs is employed. By using the model, the Virus removal process was successfully simulated to highlight the implication of its distribution in the activated sludge basin. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Integral Public Activities as a Support to the Site Selection Process for LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.

    2008-01-01

    The first site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository took place between 1990 and 1993 in Slovenia was stopped unsuccessfully with very strong public opposition at local level, followed by political withdrawal on national level. As one of the consequences ARAO started to develop new approach to the site selection based also on the findings from sociology, psychology and other human sciences. The recommendations on public involvement and transparency were so strong that ARAO started with first limited public relation (PR) activities which later grew to the PR process which supports all technical activities in ARAO. Presently the PR process covers communication, information and research activities and assures careful planning, prompt responds and involvement of the highest responsible persons at ARAO. Integral public relation activities are divided in several parts. Majority of activities support the on-going site selection process where activities are presently focused on functioning of local partnerships developed as a basic communication tool to involve as much citizens and public as possible on local level. Presently two local partnerships are working in Krsko and Brezice community with clear role to enhance public involvement according to Aarchus convention. Each of the partnerships is organized in a specific way adjusted to the local needs. Communication activities are organized also for different other projects and are preparing the necessary basis for the work with different groups of stake holders and in different situations. As a foundation very broad information material, such as books, leaflets, reports, magazines, video cassettes, CD and DVD on the radioactive waste management is prepared and used for different purposes. We also try to be proactive with web pages and have a well organized visitors' center. Improvement of public relation process is achieved through constant survey and feed-back information

  10. Marked point process for modelling seismic activity (case study in Sumatra and Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Hasih; Sulistya Rini, Lia; Wayan Mangku, I.

    2018-05-01

    Earthquake is a natural phenomenon that is random, irregular in space and time. Until now the forecast of earthquake occurrence at a location is still difficult to be estimated so that the development of earthquake forecast methodology is still carried out both from seismology aspect and stochastic aspect. To explain the random nature phenomena, both in space and time, a point process approach can be used. There are two types of point processes: temporal point process and spatial point process. The temporal point process relates to events observed over time as a sequence of time, whereas the spatial point process describes the location of objects in two or three dimensional spaces. The points on the point process can be labelled with additional information called marks. A marked point process can be considered as a pair (x, m) where x is the point of location and m is the mark attached to the point of that location. This study aims to model marked point process indexed by time on earthquake data in Sumatra Island and Java Island. This model can be used to analyse seismic activity through its intensity function by considering the history process up to time before t. Based on data obtained from U.S. Geological Survey from 1973 to 2017 with magnitude threshold 5, we obtained maximum likelihood estimate for parameters of the intensity function. The estimation of model parameters shows that the seismic activity in Sumatra Island is greater than Java Island.

  11. The influence of spontaneous activity on stimulus processing in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölvinck, M L; Friston, K J; Rees, G

    2012-02-01

    Spontaneous activity in the resting human brain has been studied extensively; however, how such activity affects the local processing of a sensory stimulus is relatively unknown. Here, we examined the impact of spontaneous activity in primary visual cortex on neuronal and behavioural responses to a simple visual stimulus, using functional MRI. Stimulus-evoked responses remained essentially unchanged by spontaneous fluctuations, combining with them in a largely linear fashion (i.e., with little evidence for an interaction). However, interactions between spontaneous fluctuations and stimulus-evoked responses were evident behaviourally; high levels of spontaneous activity tended to be associated with increased stimulus detection at perceptual threshold. Our results extend those found in studies of spontaneous fluctuations in motor cortex and higher order visual areas, and suggest a fundamental role for spontaneous activity in stimulus processing. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento; Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Cuna, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO 3 Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  13. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: alinerodrigues_1@msn.com [Instituto Tecnologico Aeroespacial (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Cuna, Andres [Faculdade de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO{sub 3}Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  14. Characterization of emission factors related to source activity for trichloroethylene degreasing and chrome plating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, R A; Hawkins, J L; Scheff, P A; Franke, J E

    1991-09-01

    A study at an automotive parts fabrication plant evaluated four metal surface treatment processes during production conditions. The evaluation provides examples of how to estimate process emission factors from activity and air concentration data. The processes were open tank and enclosed tank degreasing with trichloroethylene (TCE), chromium conversion coating, and chromium electroplating. Area concentrations of TCE and chromium (Cr) were monitored for 1-hr periods at three distances from each process. Source activities at each process were recorded during each sampling interval. Emission rates were determined by applying appropriate mass balance models to the concentration patterns around each source. The emission factors obtained from regression analysis of the emission rate and activity data were 16.9 g TCE/basket of parts for the open-top degreaser; 1.0 g TCE/1000 parts for the enclosed degreaser; 1.48-1.64 mg Cr/1000 parts processed in the hot CrO3/HNO3 tank for the chrome conversion coating; and 5.35-9.17 mg Cr/rack of parts for chrome electroplating. The factors were also used to determine the efficiency of collection for the local exhaust systems serving each process. Although the number of observations were limited, these factors may be useful for providing initial estimates of emissions from similar processes in other settings.

  15. Business process modeling of industrial maintenance at TRANSPETRO: integrating oil pipeline and marine terminals activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of TRANSPETRO in remodeling industrial maintenance activities focusing on: preparing for business process modeling (BPM); mapping and analyzing 'As-Is' process; designing 'To-Be' process; implementing remodeled process; improving process continuously. The conceptual model and results achieved will contribute to several areas within the company as: reliability engineering; human resources, including employees' selective processes, training and development, and certifications; standardization process encompassing standard and operational procedures adoption according to up-dating external normative references and legal requirements; health, safety and environment (HSE) performance improvement. These are some of potential benefits from BPM focusing on TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance area in the search of operational excellence. (author)

  16. Effect of Tomato Industrial Processing on Phenolic Profile and Antiplatelet Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Palomo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (e.g., tomatoes has been shown to be beneficial in terms of reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The industrial processing of tomatoes into tomato-based products includes several thermal treatments. Very little is known on the effect of tomato industrial processing on antiaggregatory activity and phenolic profile. Methods: It was assessed the effect of tomato and by-products extracts on platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6 and arachidonic acid. These in vitro antithrombotic properties were further supported in an in vivo model of thrombosis. A set of antiplatelet compounds has been selected for HPLC analysis in the different extracts. Results: Some natural compounds such as chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were identified by HPLC in tomatoes and its products may inhibit platelet activation. Red tomatoes, tomato products (sauce, ketchup and juice and by-products extracts inhibited platelet aggregation induced adenosine 5'-diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 and arachidonic acid, but to a different extent. Also, pomace extract presents antithrombotic activity. Conclusions: Processed tomatoes may have a higher content of health-benefiting compounds than fresh ones. Pomace even presents the best antiplatelet activity. Finally, tomato products may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities to processed foods.

  17. Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, Lauren L; Light, Sharee N; Langenecker, Scott A; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Welsh, Robert; Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-09-01

    Visuospatial abilities are sensitive to age-related decline, although the neural basis for this decline (and its everyday behavioral correlates) is as yet poorly understood. fMRI was employed to examine age-related differences in patterns of functional activation that underlie changes in visuospatial processing. All participants completed a brief neuropsychological battery and also a figure ground task (FGT) assessing visuospatial processing while fMRI was recorded. Participants included 16 healthy older adults (OA; aged 69-82 years) and 16 healthy younger adults (YA; aged 20-35 years). We examined age-related differences in behavioral performance on the FGT in relation to patterns of fMRI activation. OA demonstrated reduced performance on the FGT task and showed increased activation of supramarginal parietal cortex as well as increased activation of frontal and temporal regions compared to their younger counterparts. Performance on the FGT related to increased supramarginal gyrus activity and increased medial prefrontal activity in OAs, but not YAs. Our results are consistent with an anterior-posterior compensation model. Successful FGT performance requires the perception and integration of multiple stimuli and thus it is plausible that healthy aging may be accompanied by changes in visuospatial processing that mimic a subtle form of dorsal simultanagnosia. Overall, decreased visuospatial processing in OA relates to an altered frontoparietal neurobiological signature that may contribute to the general phenomenon of increasingly fragmented execution of behavior associated with normal aging.

  18. PROCESS APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT OF ACTIVITY LOGISTIC OPERATOR OF WAREHOUSE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryacheva Natalia Evgenievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article methodological and practical aspects of improvement of activity of the logistic operator of warehouse services on the basis of use of a process approach in management of the organization are considered. The object of the research is justification of necessity of process approach’s in logistic operation’s activity and development of algorithm of their work at clients’ business processes and approbation of assessment technique of logistics service efficiency. Scientific novelty of this article is that it is the first time when models of business processes of warehouse logistics one developed. Also algorithmization and standartization are carried out and indicators of an assessment of efficiency of rendered logistic service are developed. Use of process approach in logistics operator activity gives him powerful advantages in competitive rivalry. The increase of efficiency of logistic operator’s commercial activity (LLC Company «Logy Log» Nizhny Novgorod after the transition in management from functions to processes fully confirms this statement. Consolidation of logistic operator’s positions in different functional areas becomes an incentive to development of logistics and as a result to reduction of costs at delivery of industrial freights and consumer goods to the final user.

  19. PROCESS APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT OF ACTIVITY LOGISTIC OPERATOR OF WAREHOUSE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Евгеньевна Горячева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article methodological and practical aspects of improvement of activity of the logistic operator of warehouse services on the basis of use of a process approach in management of the organization are considered.The object of the research is justification of necessity of process approach’s in logistic operation’s activity and development of algorithm of their work at clients’ business processes and approbation of assessment technique of logistics service efficiency.Scientific novelty of this article is that it is the first time when models of business processes of warehouse logistics one developed. Also algorithmization and standartization are carried out and indicators of an assessment of efficiency of rendered logistic service are developed.Use of process approach in logistics operator activity gives him powerful advantages in competitive rivalry. The increase of efficiency of logistic operator’s commercial activity (LLC Company «Logy Log» Nizhny Novgorod after the transition in management from functions to processes fully confirms this statement.Consolidation of logistic operator’s positions in different functional areas becomes an incentive to development of logistics and as a result to reduction of costs at delivery of industrial freights and consumer goods to the final user.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-30

  20. Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Early Atypical Neural Activity during Emotional Face Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Leung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The ability to perceive and interpret affect is integral to successful social functioning and has an extended developmental course. However, the neural mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in ASD are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG, the present study explored neural activation during implicit emotional face processing in young adults with and without ASD. Twenty-six young adults with ASD and 26 healthy controls were recruited. Participants indicated the location of a scrambled pattern (target that was presented alongside a happy or angry face. Emotion-related activation sources for each emotion were estimated using the Empirical Bayes Beamformer (pcorr ≤ 0.001 in Statistical Parametric Mapping 12 (SPM12. Emotional faces elicited elevated fusiform, amygdala and anterior insula and reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC activity in adults with ASD relative to controls. Within group comparisons revealed that angry vs. happy faces elicited distinct neural activity in typically developing adults; there was no distinction in young adults with ASD. Our data suggest difficulties in affect processing in ASD reflect atypical recruitment of traditional emotional processing areas. These early differences may contribute to difficulties in deriving social reward from faces, ascribing salience to faces, and an immature threat processing system, which collectively could result in deficits in emotional face processing.

  1. A hands-on activity for teaching product-process matrix: roadmap and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Costa Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The product-process matrix is a well-known framework proposed by Hayes and Wheelwright (1979 that is commonly used to identify processes types and to analyze the alignment of these processes with the products of a company. For didactic purposes, the matrix helps undergraduates beginners from Production Engineering to understand the logic of production systems, providing knowledge that will be essential for various course subjects. Considering the high level of abstraction of the concepts underlying the product-process matrix, this paper presents a way to facilitate the learning of them through the application of a hands-on activity which relies on the active learning philosophy. The proposed dynamic uses colored plastic sheets and PVC pipes as main materials, differing from the original proposal of Penlesky and Treleven (2005 . In addition to presenting an extremely simple exercise, which encourages its application in the classroom, another contribution of this paper is to define a complete roadmap for conducting the activity. This roadmap describes the assembly of fictitious products in customization and standardization scenarios for the comparison of two processes types of product-process matrix, job shop and assembly line. The activity revealed very successful after its application to two groups of Production Engineering undergraduates, confirmed with positive feedback from the students surveyed.

  2. Neural Activations of Guided Imagery and Music in Negative Emotional Processing: A Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun; Han, Yeji; Park, HyunWook

    2016-01-01

    The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music uses music and imagery to access and explore personal emotions associated with episodic memories. Understanding the neural mechanism of guided imagery and music (GIM) as combined stimuli for emotional processing informs clinical application. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate neural mechanisms of GIM for negative emotional processing when personal episodic memory is recalled and re-experienced through GIM processes. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in the study, which used classical music and verbal instruction stimuli to evoke negative emotions. To analyze the neural mechanism, activated regions associated with negative emotional and episodic memory processing were extracted by conducting volume analyses for the contrast between GIM and guided imagery (GI) or music (M). The GIM stimuli showed increased activation over the M-only stimuli in five neural regions associated with negative emotional and episodic memory processing, including the left amygdala, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, bilateral culmen, and left angular gyrus (AG). Compared with GI alone, GIM showed increased activation in three regions associated with episodic memory processing in the emotional context, including the right posterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and AG. No neural regions related to negative emotional and episodic memory processing showed more activation for M and GI than for GIM. As a combined multimodal stimulus, GIM may increase neural activations related to negative emotions and episodic memory processing. Findings suggest a neural basis for GIM with personal episodic memories affecting cortical and subcortical structures and functions. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Plasmalogens Inhibit APP Processing by Directly Affecting γ-Secretase Activity in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Grösgen, Sven; Haupenthal, Viola J.; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Mett, Janine; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias; Grimm, Marcus O. W.

    2012-01-01

    Lipids play an important role as risk or protective factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously it has been shown that plasmalogens, the major brain phospholipids, are altered in AD. However, it remained unclear whether plasmalogens themselves are able to modulate amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing or if the reduced plasmalogen level is a consequence of AD. Here we identify the plasmalogens which are altered in human AD postmortem brains and investigate their impact on APP processing resulting in Aβ production. All tested plasmalogen species showed a reduction in γ-secretase activity whereas β- and α-secretase activity mainly remained unchanged. Plasmalogens directly affected γ-secretase activity, protein and RNA level of the secretases were unaffected, pointing towards a direct influence of plasmalogens on γ-secretase activity. Plasmalogens were also able to decrease γ-secretase activity in human postmortem AD brains emphasizing the impact of plasmalogens in AD. In summary our findings show that decreased plasmalogen levels are not only a consequence of AD but that plasmalogens also decrease APP processing by directly affecting γ-secretase activity, resulting in a vicious cycle: Aβ reduces plasmalogen levels and reduced plasmalogen levels directly increase γ-secretase activity leading to an even stronger production of Aβ peptides. PMID:22547976

  4. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  5. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A

    2016-12-31

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone ( Haliotis rubra ) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  6. Storage effects on anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activity of thermally processed conventional and organic blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamaladevi, Roopesh M; Andrews, Preston K; Davies, Neal M; Walters, Thomas; Sablani, Shyam S

    2012-03-15

    Consumer demand for products rich in phytochemicals is increasing as a result of greater awareness of their potential health benefits. However, processed products are stored for long-term and the phytochemicals are susceptible to degradation during storage. The objective of this study was to assess the storage effects on phytochemicals in thermally processed blueberries. Thermally processed canned berries and juice/puree were analysed for phytochemicals during their long-term storage. The phytochemical retention of thermally processed blueberries during storage was not influenced by production system (conventional versus organic). During 13 months of storage, total anthocyanins, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity in canned blueberry solids decreased by up to 86, 69 and 52% respectively. In canned blueberry syrup, total anthocyanins and total antioxidant activity decreased by up to 68 and 15% respectively, while total phenolic content increased by up to 117%. Similar trends in phytochemical content were observed in juice/puree stored for 4 months. The extent of changes in phytochemicals of thermally processed blueberries during storage was significantly influenced by blanching. Long-term storage of thermally processed blueberries had varying degrees of influence on degradation of total anthocyanins, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity. Blanching before thermal processing helped to preserve the phytochemicals during storage of blueberries. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing processes: Variational model and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2012-04-01

    We present a computational study of ultrasonic assisted manufacturing processes including sheet metal forming, upsetting, and wire drawing. A fully variational porous plasticity model is modified to include ultrasonic softening effects and then utilized to account for instantaneous softening when ultrasonic energy is applied during deformation. Material model parameters are identified via inverse modeling, i.e. by using experimental data. The versatility and predictive ability of the model are demonstrated and the effect of ultrasonic intensity on the manufacturing process at hand is investigated and compared qualitatively with experimental results reported in the literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Harvesting thermal fluctuations: Activation process induced by a nonlinear chain in thermal equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reigada, Ramon; Sarmiento, Antonio; Romero, Aldo H.; Sancho, J. M.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2000-01-01

    We present a model in which the immediate environment of a bistable system is a molecular chain which in turn is connected to a thermal environment of the Langevin form. The molecular chain consists of masses connected by harmonic or by anharmonic springs. The distribution, intensity, and mobility of thermal fluctuations in these chains is strongly dependent on the nature of the springs and leads to different transition dynamics for the activated process. Thus, all else (temperature, damping, coupling parameters between the chain and the bistable system) being the same, the hard chain may provide an environment described as diffusion-limited and more effective in the activation process, while the soft chain may provide an environment described as energy-limited and less effective. The importance of a detailed understanding of the thermal environment toward the understanding of the activation process itself is thus highlighted. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Sex differences in functional activation patterns revealed by increased emotion processing demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey B C; Witelson, Sandra F; Szechtman, Henry; Nahmias, Claude

    2004-02-09

    Two [O(15)] PET studies assessed sex differences regional brain activation in the recognition of emotional stimuli. Study I revealed that the recognition of emotion in visual faces resulted in bilateral frontal activation in women, and unilateral right-sided activation in men. In study II, the complexity of the emotional face task was increased through tje addition of associated auditory emotional stimuli. Men again showed unilateral frontal activation, in this case to the left; whereas women did not show bilateral frontal activation, but showed greater limbic activity. These results suggest that when processing broader cross-modal emotional stimuli, men engage more in associative cognitive strategies while women draw more on primary emotional references.

  10. Decreased medial prefrontal cortex activation during self-referential processing in bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Dorrit; Usnich, Tatiana; Spengler, Stephanie; Sajonz, Bastian; Bauer, Michael; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-09-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder in mania exhibit symptoms pointing towards altered self-referential processing, such as decreased self-focus, flight of ideas and high distractibility. In depression, the opposite pattern of symptoms has been connected to increased activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during self-referential processing. In this study, we hypothesized that (1) patients with mania will exhibit decreased activation in the mPFC during self-referential processing and (2) will be more alexithymic and that levels of alexithymia will correlate negatively with mPFC activation. The neural response to standardized pictures was compared in 14 patients with bipolar I disorder in mania to 14 healthy controls using blood oxygen level dependent contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were asked to indicate with button press during the scanning session for each picture whether the pictures personally related to them or not. Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) scores were recorded from all participants. In the group analysis, patients with mania exhibited decreased activation in a predefined region of interest in the mPFC during self-referential processing compared to healthy controls. Patients with mania showed significantly higher levels of alexithymia, attributable to difficulties in identifying and describing emotions. Activation in the mPFC correlated negatively with levels of alexithymia. Results presented here should be replicated in a larger group, potentially including unmedicated patients. The finding of decreased mPFC activation during self-referential processing in mania may reflect decreased self-focus and high distractibility. Support for this view comes from the negative correlation between higher alexithymia scores and decreased mPFC activation. These findings represent an opposite clinical and neuroimaging pattern to findings in depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Inactive experiments for advanced separation processes prior to high activity trials in ATALANTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamet, Jean; Lanoe, Jean-Yves; Rivalier, Patrick; Borda, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    Many trials have been performed in ATALANTE's shielded cells to demonstrate the technical feasibility of processes involving minor actinide separation. They required developments of new extractors as well as a step by step procedure have been used to lower the risks of malfunction during high active operation. The design of the extractors developed by Cea has included shielded cells restrictions, miniaturization to lower the quantity of high active material and wastes and the care for being representative of industrial equipment. After individual shake down inactive tests, with actual phases, each process experiment scheduled in ATALANTE has been tested at G1 Facility in Marcoule. The objective was to reproduce as much as possible all the equipment chosen for active tests. This procedure has demonstrated its efficiency to detect many problems that would have heavy impact if they have been discovered during active trials. It was also used for operators'training. (authors)

  12. Removal of the antiviral agent oseltamivir and its biological activity by oxidative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestankova, Hana; Schirmer, Kristin; Escher, Beate I.; Gunten, Urs von

    2012-01-01

    The antiviral agent oseltamivir acid (OA, the active metabolite of Tamiflu ® ) may occur at high concentrations in wastewater during pandemic influenza events. To eliminate OA and its antiviral activity from wastewater, ozonation and advanced oxidation processes were investigated. For circumneutral pH, kinetic measurements yielded second-order rate constants of 1.7 ± 0.1 × 10 5 and 4.7 ± 0.2 × 10 9 M −1 s −1 for the reaction of OA with ozone and hydroxyl radical, respectively. During the degradation of OA by both oxidants, the antiviral activity of the treated aqueous solutions was measured by inhibition of neuraminidase activity of two different viral strains. A transient, moderate (two-fold) increase in antiviral activity was observed in solutions treated up to a level of 50% OA transformation, while for higher degrees of transformation the activity corresponded to that caused exclusively by OA. OA was efficiently removed by ozonation in a wastewater treatment plant effluent, suggesting that ozonation can be applied to remove OA from wastewater. - Highlights: ► Oseltamivir acid (OA) is oxidized by ozone and hydroxyl radical. ► Kinetics: We determined rate constants for the reaction with these oxidants. ► The specific activity of OA as neuraminidase inhibitor disappeared during oxidation. ► Ozonation and advanced oxidation can effectively remove OA from wastewaters. - Ozone and hydroxyl radical treatment processes can degrade aqueous oseltamivir acid and remove its antiviral activity.

  13. Startup of the Anammox Process in a Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) from Conventional Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutwiński, P; Cema, G; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A; Surmacz-Górska, J; Osadnik, M

    2016-12-01

      In this study, a laboratory-scale anammox process in a membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was used to startup the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process from conventional activated sludge. Stable operation was achieved after 125 days. From that time, nitrogen load was gradually increased. After six months, the average nitrogen removal efficiency exceeded 80%. The highest obtained special anammox activity (SAA) achieved was 0.17 g (-N + -N) (g VSS × d)-1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization also proved the presence of the anammox bacteria, typically a genus of Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis.

  14. Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

    2006-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

  15. Right Occipital Cortex Activation Correlates with Superior Odor Processing Performance in the Early Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Cécile B.; Dricot, Laurence; Plaza, Paula; Lerens, Elodie; Rombaux, Philippe; De Volder, Anne G.

    2013-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in ten early blind humans, we found robust occipital activation during two odor-processing tasks (discrimination or categorization of fruit and flower odors), as well as during control auditory-verbal conditions (discrimination or categorization of fruit and flower names). We also found evidence for reorganization and specialization of the ventral part of the occipital cortex, with dissociation according to stimulus modality: the right fusiform gyrus was most activated during olfactory conditions while part of the left ventral lateral occipital complex showed a preference for auditory-verbal processing. Only little occipital activation was found in sighted subjects, but the same right-olfactory/left-auditory-verbal hemispheric lateralization was found overall in their brain. This difference between the groups was mirrored by superior performance of the blind in various odor-processing tasks. Moreover, the level of right fusiform gyrus activation during the olfactory conditions was highly correlated with individual scores in a variety of odor recognition tests, indicating that the additional occipital activation may play a functional role in odor processing. PMID:23967263

  16. Assessment of MSFCs Process for the Development and Activation of Space Act Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Space Act Agreements (SAAs) are contractual agreements that NASA utilizes to form partnerships with researchers, industry, and academia to stimulate cutting-edge innovation within the science and technology communities. center dot This study assessed the current SAA development and activation process at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to determine if improvements could be implemented to increase productivity, decrease time to activation, and improve the quality of deliverables.

  17. PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF TETRA ACETYL ETHYLENE DIAMINE ACTIVATED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF POPULUS NIGRA CTMP

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Zhao; Junwen Pu; Shulei Mao; Guibo Qi

    2010-01-01

    To enhance the bleaching efficiency, the activator of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) was used in conventional H2O2 bleaching. The H2O2/TAED bleaching system can accelerate the reaction rate and shorten bleaching time at relative low temperature, which can reduce the production cost. In this research, the process with hydrogen peroxide activated by TAED bleaching of Populus nigra chemi-thermo mechanical pulp was optimized. Suitable bleaching conditions were confirmed as follows: pulp con...

  18. Influence of Technological Processes on Biologically Active Compounds of Produced Grapes Juices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Strohalm, J.; Novotná, P.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Lefnerová, D.; Landfeld, A.; Híc, P.; Tománková, E.; Veverka, J.; Houška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 421-429 ISSN 1935-5130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1210258; GA MZe QI91B094 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Grapevine juices * Thermomaceration * Biologically active compounds * Antioxidative capacity * Total polyphenols * Antimutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.576, year: 2016

  19. Adsorption of pesticides onto granular activated carbon in water treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    Kopecká, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    The diploma thesis is aimed at adsorption processes during the removal of pesticides onto granular activated carbon (GAC) in the process of drinking water treatment. Adsorption onto GAC represents an efficient method for pesticides removal. High adsorption efficiency can be significantly reduced due to the occurrence of natural organic matter (NOM) in raw water, which involves AOM (Algal Organic Matter) produced by phytoplankton. Analogous to NOM, AOM probably affects adsorption of pesticides...

  20. Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in Polymers: A New Route toward Highly Efficient Solution Processable OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Cass, Michael; Bourcet, Florence; Mohamad, David; Roberts, Matthew

    2015-11-25

    Efficient intermonomer thermally activated delayed fluorescence is demonstrated for the first time, opening a new route to achieving high-efficiency solution processable polymer light-emitting device materials. External quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 10% is achieved in a simple fully solution-processed device structure, and routes for further EQE improvement identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Excess sludge reduction in activated sludge processes by integrating ultrasound treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Elvira, S.; Fdz-Polanco, M.; Plaza, F. I.; Garralon, G.; Fdz-Polanco, F.

    2009-01-01

    Biological sludge produced in the activated sludge process can be minimised modifying the water line, the sludge line or the final disposal strategy. Selecting the water line the general idea is to reduce the sludge producing the yield coefficient by means of the called lysis cryptic growth process. The main techniques referenced in literature are onization, chlorination and chemical and heat treatment. Ultrasounds are widely used to increase anaerobic biodegradability but are not reported as system to control excess sludge production. (Author)

  2. Influence of Prolonged Storage Process, Pasteurization, and Heat Treatment on Biologically-active Human Milk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Chin Chang

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status.

  3. Perceptions Towards Non-Value-Adding Activities During The Construction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Haryati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-value-adding activities are pure waste during the construction process. However, most of the construction practitioner does not realise that most of the activities performed during the construction process add no value to their project. A total of 375 numbers of questionnaires distributed to the Developer, Jabatan Kerja Raya, Consultants and Contractors. The study found that awareness by construction participants in Malaysia to take actions against non-value-adding activities during the construction process is relatively low. Through analysed by using the Pareto Chart, it has been found that defects and waiting time are two categories of non-value-adding activities that need to be prioritised by the industry. It is also found that non-value-adding activities most frequently occurred during structural and architectural work. This paper also reviewed on the causes of non-value-adding activities and discussed its effect towards time, cost, quality and productivity of the construction project. This paper is also important to give clearness and broader understandings on this form of waste other than material waste.

  4. Available processing resources influence encoding-related brain activity before an event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Giulia; Gebert, A Dorothea; Otten, Leun J

    2013-09-01

    Effective cognitive functioning not only relies on brain activity elicited by an event, but also on activity that precedes it. This has been demonstrated in a number of cognitive domains, including memory. Here, we show that brain activity that precedes the effective encoding of a word into long-term memory depends on the availability of sufficient processing resources. We recorded electrical brain activity from the scalps of healthy adult men and women while they memorized intermixed visual and auditory words for later recall. Each word was preceded by a cue that indicated the modality of the upcoming word. The degree to which processing resources were available before word onset was manipulated by asking participants to make an easy or difficult perceptual discrimination on the cue. Brain activity before word onset predicted later recall of the word, but only in the easy discrimination condition. These findings indicate that anticipatory influences on long-term memory are limited in capacity and sensitive to the degree to which attention is divided between tasks. Prestimulus activity that affects later encoding can only be engaged when the necessary cognitive resources can be allocated to the encoding process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ensuring the Process of Realisation of Financial Planning of Banking Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkach Svitlana M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies theoretical aspects of the process of realisation of financial planning of the bank’s activity and identifies and justifies its six main stages: 1 goal formation stage; 2 preparation stage; 3 assessment; 4 financial plan approval; 5 financial plan execution, and 6 stage of the financial plan monitoring, control and adjustment. The above sequence of stages of the process of realisation of financial planning of the bank’s activity allows a trustworthy assessment of the bank’s activity environment, formation of specific goals and tasks of the bank’s activity, and also to determine the ways of their achievement, and so on. The result of the process of realisation of financial planning of the bank’s activity is the bank’s financial plan, which is proposed to divide into four sub-sections: plan of the bank’s assets and liabilities; plan of the bank’s receipts and expenditures; plan of the bank’s cash flows; and plan of forecast values of basic financial indicators of the bank’s activity.

  6. Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstolpe, Lisa; Johansson, Andreas; Skau, Tommy; Rutberg, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR) containing two interrelated parts, "ProcessGuide and CostControl," was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management.

  7. Impact of blood processing variations on Natural Killer cell frequency, activation, chemokine receptor expression and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Bartman, Pat; Ndlovu, Dudu; Ramkalawon, Pamela; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Wilson, Douglas; Altfeld, Marcus; Carr, William H

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the role of natural killer (NK) cells in human disease pathogenesis is crucial and necessitates study of patient samples directly ex vivo. Manipulation of whole blood by density gradient centrifugation or delays in sample processing due to shipping, however, may lead to artifactual changes in immune response measures. Here, we assessed the impact of density gradient centrifugation and delayed processing of both whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at multiple timepoints (2–24 hrs) on flow cytometric measures of NK cell frequency, activation status, chemokine receptor expression, and effector functions. We found that density gradient centrifugation activated NK cells and modified chemokine receptor expression. Delays in processing beyond 8 hours activated NK cells in PBMC but not in whole blood. Likewise, processing delays decreased chemokine receptor (CCR4 and CCR7) expression in both PBMC and whole blood. Finally, delays in processing PBMC were associated with a decreased ability of NK cells to degranulate (as measured by CD107a expression) or secrete cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF-α). In summary, our findings suggest that density gradient centrifugation and delayed processing of PBMC can alter measures of clinically relevant NK cell characteristics including effector functions; and therefore should be taken into account in designing clinical research studies. PMID:21255578

  8. Treatment of coke-oven wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suidan, M.T.; Deady, M.A.; Gee, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine optimum parameters for the operation of an innovative process train used in the treatment of coke-over wastewater. The treatment process train consisted of a contact-stabilization activated sludge system with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition, followed by activated sludge nitrification, followed by denitrification in an anoxic filter. The control and operating parameters evaluated during the study were: (a) the average mixed-liquor PAC concentration maintained in the contact-stabilization system, (b) the solids retention time practiced in the contact-stabilization system, and (c) the hydraulic detention time maintained in the contact aeration tank. Three identical treatement process trains were constructed and employed in this study. The coke-oven wastewater used for this investigation was fed to the treatment units at 30% strength. The first part of the study was devoted to determining the interactions between the mixed liquor PAC concentration and the solids retention time in the contact-stabilization tanks. Results showed that optimum overall system performance is attainable when the highest sludge age (30 day) and highest mixed liquor PAC concentration were practiced. During the second phase of the study, all three systems were operated at a 30 day solids retention time while different detention times of 1, 2/3 and 1/3 day were evaluated in the contact tank. PAC addition rates were maintained at the former levels and, consequently, reduced contact times entailed higher mixed liquor carbon concentrations. Once again, the system receiving the highest PAC addition rate of PAC exhibited the best overall performance. This system exhibited no deterioration in process performance as a result of decreased contact detention time. 72 references, 41 figures, 24 tables.

  9. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep processing activates the medial temporal lobe in young but not in old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daselaar, Sander M; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Raaijmakers, Jeroen G W; Jonker, Cees

    2003-11-01

    Age-related impairments in episodic memory have been related to a deficiency in semantic processing, based on the finding that elderly adults typically benefit less than young adults from deep, semantic as opposed to shallow, nonsemantic processing of study items. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that elderly adults are not able to perform certain cognitive operations under deep processing conditions. We further hypothesised that this inability does not involve regions commonly associated with lexical/semantic retrieval processes, but rather involves a dysfunction of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system. To this end, we used functional MRI on rather extensive groups of young and elderly adults to compare brain activity patterns obtained during a deep (living/nonliving) and a shallow (uppercase/lowercase) classification task. Common activity in relation to semantic classification was observed in regions that have been previously related to semantic retrieval, including mainly left-lateralised activity in the inferior prefrontal, middle temporal, and middle frontal/anterior cingulate gyrus. Although the young adults showed more activity in some of these areas, the finding of mainly overlapping activation patterns during semantic classification supports the idea that lexical/semantic retrieval processes are still intact in elderly adults. This received further support by the finding that both groups showed similar behavioural performances as well on the deep and shallow classification tasks. Importantly, though, the young revealed significantly more activity than the elderly adults in the left anterior hippocampus during deep relative to shallow classification. This finding is in line with the idea that age-related impairments in episodic encoding are, at least partly, due to an under-recruitment of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  11. Influence of chemical sprinkle on the processes in activated tank of wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Búgel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research deals with processes occurring in the activation tank during the snow-melt inflow of chemical component of roadsalt. Chemical composition of the suspension in the activation tank is changing following the metabolism of organisms and chemicalcomposition of the influent wastewater. Sludge and wastewater in nitrification tail of the activation tank has higher conductivity, highercontents of chloride, higher sludge index and other characteristics are changing during snow – melt. The amount of the inflow road saltis a determining factor of lyses of microorganism cells.

  12. Surface characterization of activated chalcopyrite particles via the FLSmidth ROL process. Part 1: Electron microscope investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karcz, Adam Paul; Damø, Anne Juul; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    Because of its unique semiconductor properties, the world’s most abundant copper mineral (chalcopyrite) is refractory with respect to atmospheric leaching using traditional ferric sulfate lixiviants. A novel approach to address this issue – conducted at FLSmidth – utilizes a mechanochemical Rapid...... of copper(II) to dope the semiconductor lattice and thereby "activate" the chalcopyrite, thereby reducing leach times below 2 hours (>98% recovery). Because the activation plays a major role in accelerating the leaching step, it is critical to understand the nature of this intermediate and its part...... in the ROL process. The current work presents results from electron microscope investigations of surface-activated particles....

  13. Activity of fuel batches processed through Hanford separations plants, 1944 through 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, R.A.; Wootan, D.W.

    1997-07-29

    This document provides a printout of the ``Fuel Activity Database`` (version U6) generated by the Hanford DKPRO code and transmitted to the Los Alamos National Laboratory for input to their ``Hanford Defined Waste`` model of waste tank inventories. This fuel activity file consists of 1,276 records--each record representing the activity associated with a batch of spent reactor fuel processed by month (or shorter period) through individual Hanford separations plants between 1944 and 1989. Each record gives the curies for 46 key radionuclides, decayed to a common reference date of January 1, 1994.

  14. Community Vision and Interagency Alignment: A Community Planning Process to Promote Active Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregory, Sarah Timmins; Chaudhury, Nupur; Kennedy, Patrick; Noyes, Philip; Maybank, Aletha

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer streets locally. Consensus among residents and key multisectoral stakeholders, including city agencies and community-based organizations, was garnered in support of a planned expansion of bicycling infrastructure. The process of building on community assets and applying a collective impact approach yielded changes in the built environment, attracted new partners and resources, and helped to restore a sense of power among residents.

  15. Active liquid treatment by a combination of precipitation and membrane processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutman, R.G.; Cumming, I.W.; Williams, G.H.

    1986-08-01

    New ultrafiltration processes developed for the treatment of low and medium active radioactive wastes, were applied successfully to a variety of simulated and real wastes, including magnesium alloy clad spent storage fuel pond waters, reprocessing plant solvent wash liquors, plutonium production effluents and mixed site effluents. After initial laboratory scale feasibility experiments the process was scaled up successfully, using a variety of different ultrafiltration modules. The information accumulated on membrane performance, membrane fouling and flux restoration techniques, and ancillary equipment performance was used to design a much larger demonstration pilot plant. This plant has been constructed and is now processing continuously each day over 1m 3 of a real radioactive effluent. (author)

  16. Alterations in protein kinase C activity and processing during zinc-deficiency-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Susan S; Clegg, Michael S; Momma, Tony Y; Niles, Brad J; Duffy, Jodie Y; Daston, George P; Keen, Carl L

    2004-10-01

    Protein kinases C (PKCs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are critical for signal transduction pathways involved in growth, differentiation and cell death. All PKC isoforms have four conserved domains, C1-C4. The C1 domain contains cysteine-rich finger-like motifs, which bind two zinc atoms. The zinc-finger motifs modulate diacylglycerol binding; thus, intracellular zinc concentrations could influence the activity and localization of PKC family members. 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient or zinc-supplemented medium for up to 32 h. Cells cultured in zinc-deficient medium had decreased zinc content, lowered cytosolic classical PKC activity, increased caspase-3 processing and activity, and reduced cell number. Zinc-deficient cytosols had decreased activity and expression levels of PKC-alpha, whereas PKC-alpha phosphorylation was not altered. Inhibition of PKC-alpha with Gö6976 had no effect on cell number in the zinc-deficient group. Proteolysis of the novel PKC family member, PKC-delta, to its 40-kDa catalytic fragment occurred in cells cultured in the zinc-deficient medium. Occurrence of the PKC-delta fragment in mitochondria was co-incident with caspase-3 activation. Addition of the PKC-delta inhibitor, rottlerin, or zinc to deficient medium reduced or eliminated proteolysis of PKC-delta, activated caspase-3 and restored cell number. Inhibition of caspase-3 processing by Z-DQMD-FMK (Z-Asp-Gln-Met-Asp-fluoromethylketone) did not restore cell number in the zinc-deficient group, but resulted in processing of full-length PKC-delta to a 56-kDa fragment. These results support the concept that intracellular zinc concentrations influence PKC activity and processing, and that zinc-deficiency-induced apoptosis occurs in part through PKC-dependent pathways.

  17. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  18. Indicators of activity-friendly communities: an evidence-based consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan Ramirez, Laura K; Hoehner, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Cook, Rebeka; Orleans, C Tracy; Hollander, Marla; Barker, Dianne C; Bors, Philip; Ewing, Reid; Killingsworth, Richard; Petersmarck, Karen; Schmid, Thomas; Wilkinson, William

    2006-12-01

    Regular physical activity, even at modest intensities, is associated with many health benefits. Most Americans, however, do not engage in the recommended levels. As practitioners seek ways to increase population rates of physical activity, interventions and advocacy efforts are being targeted to the community level. Yet, advocates, community leaders, and researchers lack the tools needed to assess local barriers to and opportunities for more active, healthy lifestyles. Investigators used a systematic review process to identify key indicators of activity-friendly communities that can assess and improve opportunities for regular physical activity. Investigators conducted a comprehensive literature review of both peer-reviewed literature and fugitive information (e.g., reports and websites) to generate an initial list of indicators for review (n=230). The review included a three-tiered, modified Delphi consensus-development process that incorporated input of international, national, state, and local researchers and practitioners from academic institutions, federal and state government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and funding agencies in public health, transportation, urban planning, parks and recreation, and public policy. Ten promising indicators of activity-friendly communities were identified: land use environment, access to exercise facilities, transportation environment, aesthetics, travel patterns, social environment, land use economics, transportation economics, institutional and organizational policies, and promotion. Collaborative, multidisciplinary approaches are underway to test, refine, and expand this initial list of indicators and to develop measures that communities, community leaders, and policymakers can use to design more activity-friendly community environments.

  19. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  20. Top3 processes recombination intermediates and modulates checkpoint activity after DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Hickson, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Mutation of TOP3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes poor growth, hyperrecombination, and a failure to fully activate DNA damage checkpoints in S phase. Here, we report that overexpression of a dominant-negative allele of TOP3, TOP3(Y356F), which lacks the catalytic (decatenation) activity of Top3......, the catalytic activity of Top3 is not required for DNA damage checkpoint activation, but it is required for normal S-phase progression after DNA damage. We also present evidence that the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle delay and persistence of X-shaped DNA molecules resulting from overexpression of TOP3(Y356F......) are downstream of Rad51 function. We propose that Top3 functions in S phase to both process homologous recombination intermediates and modulate checkpoint activity....

  1. A study on pore-opening behaviors of graphite nanofibers by a chemical activation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Joo; Lee, Young-Seak; Park, Soo-Jin

    2007-02-15

    In this work, porous graphite nanofibers (GNFs) were prepared by a KOH activation method in order to manufacture porous carbon nanofibers. The process was conducted in the activation temperature range of 900-1100 degrees C, and the KOH:GNFs ratio was fixed at 3.5:1. The textural properties of the porous carbons were analyzed using N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The BET, D-R, and BJH equations were used to observe the specific surface areas and the micro- and mesopore structures, respectively. From the results, it was found that the textural properties, including the specific surface area and the pore volumes, were proportionally enhanced with increasing activation temperatures. However, the activation mechanisms showed quite significant differences between the samples activated at low and high temperatures.

  2. Active in-database processing to support ambient assisted living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Wagner O; Lundström, Jens; Wickström, Nicholas

    2014-08-12

    As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL) systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs) exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare.

  3. In Vitro Activities against Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens of Synthetic Host Defence Propeptides Processed by Neutrophil Elastase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desgranges, Stephane

    2011-02-22

    The antimicrobial and haemolytic activities of a host defence peptide can be controlled by modification as a propeptide of reduced net charge which can be processed by neutrophil elastase, a serine protease involved in chronic airway inflammation and infections associated with cystic fibrosis.

  4. From left to right: Processing acronyms referring to names of political parties activates spatial associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elk, M. van; Schie, H.T. van; Bekkering, H.

    2010-01-01

    In line with previous studies, showing that abstract concepts like opowero or ogodo implicitly activate spatial associations, in the present study we hypothesized that spatial associations are coactivated during the processing of acronyms referring to names of political parties as well. In four

  5. Brain activity patterns induced by interrupting the cognitive processes with online advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejer, Izabela; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the increasing role of online advertising and strong competition among advertisers, intrusive techniques are commonly used to attract web users' attention. Moreover, since marketing content is usually delivered to the target audience when they are performing typical online tasks, like searching for information or reading online content, its delivery interrupts the web user's current cognitive process. The question posed by many researchers in the field of online advertising is: how should we measure the influence of interruption of cognitive processes on human behavior and emotional state? Much research has been conducted in this field; however, most of this research has focused on monitoring activity in the simulated environment, or processing declarative responses given by users in prepared questionnaires. In this paper, a more direct real-time approach is taken, and the effect of the interruption on a web user is analyzed directly by studying the activity of his brain. This paper presents the results of an experiment that was conducted to find the brain activity patterns associated with interruptions of the cognitive process by showing internet advertisements during a text-reading task. Three specific aspects were addressed in the experiment: individual patterns, the consistency of these patterns across trials, and the intra-subject correlation of the individual patterns. Two main effects were observed for most subjects: a drop in activity in the frontal and prefrontal cortical areas across all frequency bands, and significant changes in the frontal/prefrontal asymmetry index.

  6. PROPOSAL FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SPRAY DRYING IN THE ACTIVATION PROCESS OF BENTONITE WITH SULFURIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, P.; Otiniano, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present work propose the replacement of the three stages of the activation process of bentonite with sulfuric acid by the only stage spray drying. El presente trabajo propone reemplazar tres etapas del proceso de activación de la bentonita con ácido sulfúrico por una sola etapa, la del secado por atomización.

  7. Active In-Database Processing to Support Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner O. de Morais

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare.

  8. Working through: In-Session Processes that Promote Between-Session Thoughts and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Rodolfa, Emil

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether clients' ratings of the working alliance as well as their perception of cognitive-behavioral (CB) and psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) techniques (delivered by therapists who used both) were associated with clients' intersession processes (i.e., their thoughts about therapy and therapeutic activity between sessions).…

  9. Analyzing the Learning Process of an Online Role-Playing Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse

    2012-01-01

    Instructional activities based on online discussion strategies have gained prevalence in recent years. Within this context, a crucial research topic is to design innovative and appropriate online discussion strategies that assist learners in attaining a deeper level of interaction and higher cognitive skills. By analyzing the process of online…

  10. An Analysis of Creative Process Learning in Computer Game Activities through Player Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchamnan, Wilawan

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the extent to which creative processes can be fostered through computer gaming. It focuses on creative components in games that have been specifically designed for educational purposes: Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL). A behavior analysis for measuring the creative potential of computer game activities and learning…

  11. KPI-based activity planning for people working in flexible processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van M.L.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Grabis, J.; Sandkuhl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Planning human activities within business processes often happens based on the same methods and algorithms as are used in the area of manufacturing systems. However, human resources are more complex than machines. Their performance depends on a number of factors, including stress, personal

  12. Standardization of the Manufacturing Process of Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Containing Melittin as the Active Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonmi Lee; Sung-Geun Kim; In-Su Kim; Hwa-Dong Lee

    2018-01-01

    Background. Pharmacopuncture is a unique treatment in oriental medicine that combines chemical stimulation with conventional acupuncture. However, there are no standardized methods for preparing the herbal medicines used in pharmacopuncture, and it is not clear whether the active ingredients are safe and stable. Several studies have investigated nonstandardized preparation processes, but few investigations have addressed safety and preparation methods. Pharmacopuncture may provide an alternat...

  13. Specific and Nonspecific Neural Activity during Selective Processing of Visual Representations in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwamee; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2010-01-01

    In this fMRI study, we investigated prefrontal cortex (PFC) and visual association regions during selective information processing. We recorded behavioral responses and neural activity during a delayed recognition task with a cue presented during the delay period. A specific cue ("Face" or "Scene") was used to indicate which one of the two…

  14. Identification and quantification of nitrogen nutrient deficiency in the activated sludge process using respirometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ning, Z.; Patry, G.G.; Spanjers, H.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental protocols to identify and quantify nitrogen nutrient deficiency in the activated sludge process were developed and tested using respirometry. Respirometric experiments showed that when a nitrogen nutrient deficient sludge is exposed to ammonia nitrogen, the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) of

  15. Actively Teaching Research Methods with a Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary H.

    2017-01-01

    Active learning approaches have shown to improve student learning outcomes and improve the experience of students in the classroom. This article compares a Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning style approach to a more traditional teaching method in an undergraduate research methods course. Moving from a more traditional learning environment to…

  16. The processed neutron activation cross-section data files of the FENDL project. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.; Pashchenko, A.B.; Lemmle, H.D.; Mann, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document summarises a neutron activation cross-section database which has been processed in two formats for input to MCNP Monte Carlo codes and to REAC transmutation codes. The data are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section online via INTERNET by FTP command. (author)

  17. Control and identification in activated sludge processes = Regeling en identifikatie in aktief-slib processen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is about control and identification in activated sludge processes (ASP's). The chapters in this thesis are divided in two parts. Part I deals with the development of the best feasible, close-to-optimal adaptive receding horizon optimal controller (RHOC) for N-removal in a

  18. A Framework for Semantic Recovery Strategies in Case of Process Activity Failures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinderle, S.B.; Bassil, S.; Reichert, M.U.; Manolopoulos, Y.; Filipe, J.; Constantopoulos, P.; Cordeiro, J.

    During automated process execution semantic activity failures may frequently occur, e.g., when a vehicle transporting a container has a breakdown. So far there are no applicable solutions to overcome such exceptional situations. Often the only possibility is to cancel and roll back respective

  19. Gas treatment processes for keeping the environment of nuclear plants free from gas-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, H.

    1977-01-01

    The separation processes in gas treatment steps for the decontamination of circuit or offgas streams are described and their practicability is evaluated. Examples of the effectiveness of gas separation plants for keeping the environment within and without nuclear plants free from harmful gas-borne activity are presented. (orig.) [de

  20. A Joint Learning Activity in Process Control and Distance Collaboration between Future Engineers and Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Jean-Sebastien; Barka, Noureddine; Michaud, Mario; Paradis, Denis; Brousseau, Jean

    2013-01-01

    A joint learning activity in process control is presented, in the context of a distance collaboration between engineering and technical-level students, in a similar fashion as current practices in the industry involving distance coordination and troubleshooting. The necessary infrastructure and the setup used are first detailed, followed by a…

  1. Effective treatment of oily scum via catalytic wet persulfate oxidation process activated by Fe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Guan, Renpeng; Wu, Zhibin; Jiang, Longbo; Li, Yifu; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-04-05

    Oily scum, a hazardous by-product of petroleum industry, need to be deposed urgently to reduce environmental risks. This paper introduces catalytic wet persulfate oxidation (CWPO) process in the treatment of oily scum to realize risk relief. Under the activation of heat and Fe 2+ , persulfate (PS) was decomposed into sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals, which played a major role on the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The effects of wet air oxidation (WAO) and CWPO process on the degradation of oily scum were compared. In CWPO process, the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) content of oily scum was decreased from 92.63% to 16.75%, which was still up to 70.19% in WAO process. The degradation rate of TPHs in CWPO process was about 3.38 times higher than that in WAO process. The great performance of CWPO process was also confirmed by elemental analysis, which indicated that the C and H contents of oily scum were reduced significantly by CWPO process. These results indicated that CWPO process has high potential on the degradation of oily scum for environmental protection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Color vision predicts processing modes of goal activation during action cascading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongkees, Bryant J; Steenbergen, Laura; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2017-09-01

    One of the most important functions of cognitive control is action cascading: the ability to cope with multiple response options when confronted with various task goals. A recent study implicates a key role for dopamine (DA) in this process, suggesting higher D1 efficiency shifts the action cascading strategy toward a more serial processing mode, whereas higher D2 efficiency promotes a shift in the opposite direction by inducing a more parallel processing mode (Stock, Arning, Epplen, & Beste, 2014). Given that DA is found in high concentration in the retina and modulation of retinal DA release displays characteristics of D2-receptors (Peters, Schweibold, Przuntek, & Müller, 2000), color vision discrimination might serve as an index of D2 efficiency. We used color discrimination, assessed with the Lanthony Desaturated Panel D-15 test, to predict individual differences (N = 85) in a stop-change paradigm that provides a well-established measure of action cascading. In this task it is possible to calculate an individual slope value for each participant that estimates the degree of overlap in task goal activation. When the stopping process of a previous task goal has not finished at the time the change process toward a new task goal is initiated (parallel processing), the slope value becomes steeper. In case of less overlap (more serial processing), the slope value becomes flatter. As expected, participants showing better color vision were more prone to activate goals in a parallel manner as indicated by a steeper slope. Our findings suggest that color vision might represent a predictor of D2 efficiency and the predisposed processing mode of goal activation during action cascading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nondirective meditation activates default mode network and areas associated with memory retrieval and emotional processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eXu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nondirective meditation techniques are practiced with a relaxed focus of attention that permits spontaneously occurring thoughts, images, sensations, memories and emotions to emerge and pass freely, without any expectation that mind wandering should abate. These techniques are thought to facilitate mental processing of emotional experiences, thereby contributing to wellness and stress management. The present study assessed brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging in 14 experienced practitioners of Acem meditation in two experimental conditions. In the first, nondirective meditation was compared to rest. Significantly increased activity was detected in areas associated with attention, mind wandering, retrieval of episodic memories and emotional processing. In the second condition, participants carried out concentrative practicing of the same meditation technique, actively trying to avoid mind wandering. The contrast nondirective meditation > concentrative practicing was characterized by higher activity in the right medial temporal lobe (parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala. In conclusion, the present results support the notion that nondirective meditation, which permits mind wandering, involves more extensive activation of brain areas associated with episodic memories and emotional processing, than during concentrative practicing or regular rest.

  4. Nondirective meditation activates default mode network and areas associated with memory retrieval and emotional processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Vik, Alexandra; Groote, Inge R.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Holen, Are; Ellingsen, Øyvind; Håberg, Asta K.; Davanger, Svend

    2014-01-01

    Nondirective meditation techniques are practiced with a relaxed focus of attention that permits spontaneously occurring thoughts, images, sensations, memories, and emotions to emerge and pass freely, without any expectation that mind wandering should abate. These techniques are thought to facilitate mental processing of emotional experiences, thereby contributing to wellness and stress management. The present study assessed brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 14 experienced practitioners of Acem meditation in two experimental conditions. In the first, nondirective meditation was compared to rest. Significantly increased activity was detected in areas associated with attention, mind wandering, retrieval of episodic memories, and emotional processing. In the second condition, participants carried out concentrative practicing of the same meditation technique, actively trying to avoid mind wandering. The contrast nondirective meditation > concentrative practicing was characterized by higher activity in the right medial temporal lobe (parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala). In conclusion, the present results support the notion that nondirective meditation, which permits mind wandering, involves more extensive activation of brain areas associated with episodic memories and emotional processing, than during concentrative practicing or regular rest. PMID:24616684

  5. DAT by perceived MC interaction on human prefrontal activity and connectivity during emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurisano, Paolo; Blasi, Giuseppe; Romano, Raffaella; Sambataro, Fabio; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Ursini, Gianluca; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Ferrante, Francesca; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Porcelli, Annamaria; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Popolizio, Teresa; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    Maternal care (MC) and dopamine modulate brain activity during emotion processing in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), striatum and amygdala. Reuptake of dopamine from the synapse is performed by the dopamine transporter (DAT), whose abundance is predicted by variation in its gene (DAT 3'VNTR; 10 > 9-repeat alleles). Here, we investigated the interaction between perceived MC and DAT 3'VNTR genotype on brain activity during processing of aversive facial emotional stimuli. Sixty-one healthy subjects were genotyped for DAT 3'VNTR and categorized in low and high MC individuals. They underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task requiring gender discrimination of facial stimuli with angry, fearful or neutral expressions. An interaction between facial expression, DAT genotype and MC was found in left IFG, such that low MC and homozygosity for the 10-repeat allele are associated with greater activity during processing of fearful faces. This greater activity was also inversely correlated with a measure of emotion control as scored with the Big Five Questionnaire. Moreover, MC and DAT genotype described a double dissociation on functional connectivity between IFG and amygdala. These findings suggest that perceived early parental bonding may interact with DAT 3'VNTR genotype in modulating brain activity during emotionally relevant inputs.

  6. Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Roelofs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by cloud droplets growing on particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.

  7. A cluster expansion model for predicting activation barrier of atomic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Tafizur; Jaipal, M.; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a procedure based on cluster expansion models for predicting the activation barrier of atomic processes encountered while studying the dynamics of a material system using the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method. Starting with an interatomic potential description, a mathematical derivation is presented to show that the local environment dependence of the activation barrier can be captured using cluster interaction models. Next, we develop a systematic procedure for training the cluster interaction model on-the-fly, which involves: (i) obtaining activation barriers for handful local environments using nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations, (ii) identifying the local environment by analyzing the NEB results, and (iii) estimating the cluster interaction model parameters from the activation barrier data. Once a cluster expansion model has been trained, it is used to predict activation barriers without requiring any additional NEB calculations. Numerical studies are performed to validate the cluster expansion model by studying hop processes in Ag/Ag(100). We show that the use of cluster expansion model with KMC enables efficient generation of an accurate process rate catalog

  8. Activity-based costing as an information basis for an efficient strategic management process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC provides an information basis for monitoring and controlling one of two possible sources of competitive advantage, low-cost production and lowcost distribution. On the basis of cost information about particular processes and activities, management may determine their contribution to the success of a company, and may decide to transfer certain processes and activities to another company. Accuracy of cost information is conditioned by finding an adequate relation between overhead costs and cost objects, identifying and tracing cost drivers and output measures of activities, and by monitoring cost behaviour of different levels of a product. Basic characteristics of the ABC approach, such as more accurate cost price accounting of objects, focusing on process and activity output (rather than only on resource consumption and on understanding and interpretation of cost structure (rather than on cost measurement, enable managers to estimate and control future costs more reliably. Thus the ABC methodology provides a foundation for cost tracing, analysis, and management, which entails making quality and accurate operative and strategic decisions as a basis for the longterm orientation of a company. ABC is also complementary to the widely accepted technique of strategic planning and strategy implementation known as Balanced Scorecard (BSC.

  9. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes?: A descriptive study of teacher activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.; de Jong, Ton

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of expertise in that subject. These models have been provided by earlier research. The model of instruction distinguishes three main categories of instruction process: presenting new information, integrating (i.e., bringing structure into) new knowledge, and connecting elements of new knowledge to prior knowledge. Each of the main categories has been divided into a number of specific instruction processes. Hereby any limited and specific cognitive teacher activity can be described along the two dimensions of process and type of knowledge. The model was validated by application to lectures and problem-solving classes of first year university courses. These were recorded and analyzed as to instruction process and type of knowledge. Results indicate that teachers are indeed involved in the various types of instruction processes defined. The importance of this study lies in the creation of a terminology that makes it possible to discuss instruction in an explicit and specific way.

  10. Enzyme activity as an indicator of soil-rehabilitation processes at a zinc and lead ore mining and processing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarkowska, Krystyna; Sołek-Podwika, Katarzyna; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The activities of soil enzymes in relation to the changes occurring in the soil on a degraded area in southern Poland after zinc and lead mining were analyzed. An evaluation of the usefulness of urease and invertase activities for estimating the progress of the rehabilitation processes in degraded soil was performed. The data show that the soil samples differed significantly in organic carbon (0.68-104.0 g kg(-1)) and total nitrogen (0.03-8.64 g kg(-1)) content in their surface horizons. All of the soil samples (apart from one covered with forest) had very high total concentrations of zinc (4050-10,884 mg kg(-1)), lead (959-6661 mg kg(-1)) and cadmium (24.4-174.3 mg kg(-1)) in their surface horizons, and similar concentrations in their deeper horizons. Nevertheless, the amounts of the soluble forms of the above-mentioned heavy metals were quite low and they accounted for only a small percentage of the total concentrations: 1.4% for Zn, 0.01% for Pb and 2.6% for Cd. Urease activities were ranked as follows: soil from flotation settler (0.88-1.78 μg N-NH4(+) 2h(-1) g(-1))slag heaps (1.77-2.51 μg N-NH4(+) 2h(-1) g(-1))slag heaps, ranging from 20.5 to 77.1mg of the inverted sugar, but they were much lower in soil from the flotation settler (0.12-6.95 mg of the inverted sugar). The results demonstrated that heavy pollution with Zn, Pb and Cd slightly decreased the activities of urease and invertase. It is thought that it resulted from the enzyme reactions occurring in slightly acidic or alkaline soil conditions. Under such conditions, heavy metals occur mainly in insoluble forms. The activities of these enzymes are strongly dependent on the content and decomposition of organic matter in the soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The brain as a dream state generator: an activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J A; McCarley, R W

    1977-12-01

    Recent research in the neurobiology of dreaming sleep provides new evidence for possible structural and functional substrates of formal aspects of the dream process. The data suggest that dreaming sleep is physiologically determined and shaped by a brain stem neuronal mechanism that can be modeled physiologically and mathematically. Formal features of the generator processes with strong implications for dream theory include periodicity and automaticity of forebrain activation, suggesting a preprogrammed neural basis for dream mentation in sleep; intense and sporadic activation of brain stem sensorimotor circuits including reticular, oculomotor, and vestibular neurons, possibly determining spatiotemporal aspects of dream imagery; and shifts in transmitter ratios, possibly accounting for dream amnesia. The authors suggest that the automatically activated forebrain synthesizes the dream by comparing information generated in specific brain stem circuits with information stored in memory.

  12. [Cost management: the implementation of the activity-based costing method in sterile processing department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; Castilho, Valéria

    2010-09-01

    This exploratory case study was performed aiming at implementing the Activity-based Costing (ABC) method in a sterile processing department (SPD) of a major teaching hospital. Data collection was performed throughout 2006. Documentary research techniques and non participant closed observation were used. The ABC implementation allowed for learning the activity-based costing of both the chemical and physical disinfection cycle/load: (dollar 9.95) and (dollar 12.63), respectively; as well as the cost for sterilization by steam under pressure (autoclave) (dollar 31.37) and low temperature steam and gaseous formaldehyde sterilization (LTSF) (dollar 255.28). The information provided by the ABC method has optimized the overall understanding of the cost driver process and provided the foundation for assessing performance and improvement in the SPD processes.

  13. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, L

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included...

  14. A new microcomputer program for processing data in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeley, P.A.; Page, J.A.; Heimlich, M.S.; Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON; Edward, J.B.; Bennett, L.G.I.

    1993-01-01

    A new utility program for processing data in neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been developed for use on MS-DOS microcomputers. Peak areas are read from ASCII data files of gamma-ray spectra which have been processed by a Gaussian peak fitting program, GAMANAL-PC. Elemental concentrations are then calculated by this new program, QUACANAL, via a semi-absolute algorithm that uses pre-determined activation constants. User-defined ASCII library files are employed to specify the elements of interest required for analysis, and (n, p) and (n, α) interferences are taken into account. The program has been written in turbo PASCAL, is menu driven and contains options for processing data from cyclic NAA. An interactive philosophy has been used in designing the program. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Firmness at Harvest Impacts Postharvest Fruit Softening and Internal Browning Development in Mechanically Damaged and Non-damaged Highbush Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Claudia; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel; González, Guillermina; Lobos, Gustavo A

    2017-01-01

    Fresh blueberries are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which limits postharvest life and firmness. Softening and susceptibility of cultivars "Duke" and "Brigitta" to developing internal browning (IB) after mechanical impact and subsequent storage was evaluated during a 2-year study (2011/2012, 2012/2013). On each season fruit were carefully hand-picked, segregated into soft (<1.60 N), medium (1.61-1.80 N), and firm (1.81-2.00 N) categories, and then either were dropped (32 cm) onto a hard plastic surface or remained non-dropped. All fruit were kept under refrigerated storage (0°C and 85-88% relative humidity) to assess firmness loss and IB after 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. In general, regardless of cultivar or season, high variability in fruit firmness was observed within each commercial harvest, and significant differences in IB and softening rates were found. "Duke" exhibited high softening rates, as well as high and significant r 2 between firmness and IB, but little differences for dropped vs. non-dropped fruit. "Brigitta," having lesser firmness rates, exhibited almost no relationships between firmness and IB (especially for non-dropped fruit), but marked differences between dropping treatments. Firmness loss and IB development were related to firmness at harvest, soft and firm fruit being the most and least damaged, respectively. Soft fruit were characterized by greater IB development during storage along with high soluble solids/acid ratio, which could be used together with firmness to estimate harvest date and storage potential of fruit. Results of this work suggest that the differences in fruit quality traits at harvest could be related to the time that fruit stay on the plant after turning blue, soft fruit being more advanced in maturity. Finally, the observed differences between segregated categories reinforce the importance of analyzing fruit condition for each sorted group separately.

  16. In vitro study of the effect of a dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and sodium monofluorophosphate on acid-softened enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Aarti; Heu, Rod; Stranick, Michael; Sullivan, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the possible mode of action of a dentifrice containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (Pro-Argin Technology), and sodium monofluorophosphate in delivering the benefits of preventing acid erosion and rehardening acid-softened enamel. The surfaces of acid-softened bovine enamel specimens were evaluated after application of a dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and sodium monofluorophosphate in vitro. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Electronic Spectrometry for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) were used to characterize the enamel surfaces. Exposure of pristine enamel surfaces to citric acid resulted in clear roughening of the surface. Multiple applications of a dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and sodium monofluorophosphate to the surface of the enamel resulted in the disappearance of the microscopic voids observed by SEM as a function of treatment applications. The ESCA analysis demonstrated that both the nitrogen and carbonate levels increased as the number of treatments increased, which provides evidence that arginine and calcium carbonate were bound to the surface. Observance of arginine's signature mass fragmentation pattern by SIMS analysis confirmed the identity of arginine on the enamel surface. A series of in vitro experiments has demonstrated a possible mode of action by which a dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and sodium monofluorophosphate delivers the benefits of preventing acid erosion and rehardening acid-softened enamel. The combination of arginine and calcium carbonate adheres to the enamel surface and helps to fill the microscopic gaps created by acid, which in turn helps repair the enamel and provides a protective coating against future acid attacks.

  17. Activation of midbrain and ventral striatal regions implicates salience processing during a modified beads task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Esslinger

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metacognition, i.e. critically reflecting on and monitoring one's own reasoning, has been linked behaviorally to the emergence of delusions and is a focus of cognitive therapy in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the neural processing underlying metacognitive function. To address this issue, we studied brain activity during a modified beads task which has been used to measure a "Jumping to Conclusions" (JTC bias in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify neural systems active in twenty-five healthy subjects when solving a modified version of the "beads task", which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of data has been requested by the participants. We assessed brain activation over the duration of a trial and at the time point of decision making. RESULTS: Analysis of activation during the whole process of probabilistic reasoning showed an extended network including the prefronto-parietal executive functioning network as well as medial parieto-occipital regions. During the decision process alone, activity in midbrain and ventral striatum was detected, as well as in thalamus, medial occipital cortex and anterior insula. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that probabilistic reasoning shares neural substrates with executive functions. In addition, our finding that brain regions commonly associated with salience processing are active during probabilistic reasoning identifies a candidate mechanism that could underlie the behavioral link between dopamine-dependent aberrant salience and JTC in schizophrenia. Further studies with delusional schizophrenia patients will have to be performed to substantiate this link.

  18. Dopamine modulates reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Nicole Y L; Rombouts, Serge Arb; Soeter, Roelof P; van Gerven, Joop M; Both, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    Dopaminergic medication influences conscious processing of rewarding stimuli, and is associated with impulsive-compulsive behaviors, such as hypersexuality. Previous studies have shown that subconscious subliminal presentation of sexual stimuli activates brain areas known to be part of the 'reward system'. In this study, it was hypothesized that dopamine modulates activation in key areas of the reward system, such as the nucleus accumbens, during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli. Young healthy males (n=53) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups or a control group, and were administered a dopamine antagonist (haloperidol), a dopamine agonist (levodopa), or placebo. Brain activation was assessed during a backward-masking task with subliminally presented sexual stimuli. Results showed that levodopa significantly enhanced the activation in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal anterior cingulate when subliminal sexual stimuli were shown, whereas haloperidol decreased activations in those areas. Dopamine thus enhances activations in regions thought to regulate 'wanting' in response to potentially rewarding sexual stimuli that are not consciously perceived. This running start of the reward system might explain the pull of rewards in individuals with compulsive reward-seeking behaviors such as hypersexuality and patients who receive dopaminergic medication.

  19. Mental and Active Preparation: Examining Variations in Women's Processes of Preparing to Leave Abusive Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermea, Autumn M; Khaw, Lyndal; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Rosenbloom, Lindsay; Salerno, Craig

    2017-02-01

    Although the process of leaving abusive relationships has received increased research attention, preparing to leave is still largely understudied. Despite an emphasis on safety planning, not all women take active steps to prepare, and the characteristics and experiences of those who do or do not actively prepare are unknown. We address this gap with a secondary data analysis of interviews with 25 abused mothers in the process of leaving. All women initially engaged in mental planning, where they had emotionally disconnected from their partners. Using constructivist grounded theory techniques, we identified two distinct groups: those whose mental planning led to active planning ( n = 11), and those who moved directly from mental planning to leaving ( n = 14) with little time or need to actively plan. The groups differed on several individual, relationship, and child factors, which may have impacted the ability or decisions to prepare. This study supports the feminist view that survivors are not helpless victims but active agents who strategize for safety. Those who engage solely in mental planning still prepare to leave, even if they do not engage in active planning. Practitioners should consider factors affecting preparations and acknowledge mental planning as a necessary effort in leaving.

  20. Effect of Dissolved Air Flotation Process on Thickening of Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamaleki A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Sludge is an inescapable component of all wastewaters that originated from their treatment. dissolved air flotation (DAF process as an alternative clarifier is used in treatment of drinking water, pretreatment of wastewater, and as a phase separator in sludge activation processes. This study aimed to calibrated the usage of DAF process in a laboratory scale and under various conditions, to achieve the optimum efficiency in recycling the activated sludge. Instrument & Methods: In this experimental study, of Kashan's Shahid Beheshti hospital and immediately transported to the laboratory. The optimal dose of polyaluminum chloride coagulant and pH was determined and then applied in DAF process. Finally turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC and total solids (TS parameters were measured and compared with control sample. Findings: The optimal pH and optimal dose of coagulant were 6.5 and 25mg/l, respectively. Also Optimal process efficiency to reduce EC, TS and turbidity parameters were 23.4, 44.5 and 88%, respectively. Conclusion: Dissolved air flotation process removes the turbidity, EC and TS effectively; however, it has minimal impact on EC and TS.

  1. Encoding-related brain activity during deep processing of verbal materials: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshikatsu; Okuda, Jiro; Tsukiura, Takashi; Ohtake, Hiroya; Suzuki, Maki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Yamadori, Atsushi

    2002-12-01

    The recent advent of neuroimaging techniques provides an opportunity to examine brain regions related to a specific memory process such as episodic memory encoding. There is, however, a possibility that areas active during an assumed episodic memory encoding task, compared with a control task, involve not only areas directly relevant to episodic memory encoding processes but also areas associated with other cognitive processes for on-line information. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to differentiate these two kinds of regions. Normal volunteers were engaged in deep (semantic) or shallow (phonological) processing of new or repeated words during PET. Results showed that deep processing, compared with shallow processing, resulted in significantly better recognition performance and that this effect was associated with activation of various brain areas. Further analyses revealed that there were regions directly relevant to episodic memory encoding in the anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and medial frontal lobe in the left hemisphere. Our results demonstrated that several regions, including the medial temporal lobe, play a role in episodic memory encoding.

  2. Influence of trace elements on the activity of some microbiological processes in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliszewska, W

    1972-01-01

    It was found that N fixation was stimulated by B, Zn, Mo and Co. Fe and Cu had an evident inhibiting and Cd even toxic influence on this process. Zn and Fe stimulated proteolase activity. Mo showed almost no effect on that process. The other microelements used had a more or less inhibiting influence. Ammonification was affected with B and Mo. The other treatments had different hampering effects on that process. The nitrifyers were mostly stimulated by Fe and Al. The other microelements B, Zn, Mo and Mn, stimulated the development of nitifyers, but to a lesser degree. Cu and Cd were toxic. The highest intensity of denitrification was found without any microelement addition. The most distinct inhibition of the process was caused by Cu, Zn, and Co. Hemicellulose decomposition activity was very sensitive to a deficiency of microelements investigated. Only Zn and Mo inhibited this process. In general Cu and Cd showed the most inhibiting effect on all the biological processes investigated in the experiments. The highest stimulatory effect in all experiments was caused by B and Mo. 5 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain activation during semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Tristan J; Raj, Vidya; Lee, Junghee; Dietrich, Mary S; Cao, Aize; Blackford, Jennifer U; Salomon, Ronald M; Park, Sohee; Benningfield, Margaret M; Di Iorio, Christina R; Cowan, Ronald L

    2013-05-01

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) polydrug users have verbal memory performance that is statistically significantly lower than that of control subjects. Studies have correlated long-term MDMA use with altered brain activation in regions that play a role in verbal memory. The aim of our study was to examine the association of lifetime ecstasy use with semantic memory performance and brain activation in ecstasy polydrug users. A total of 23 abstinent ecstasy polydrug users (age = 24.57 years) and 11 controls (age = 22.36 years) performed a two-part functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) semantic encoding and recognition task. To isolate brain regions activated during each semantic task, we created statistical activation maps in which brain activation was greater for word stimuli than for non-word stimuli (corrected p ecstasy polydrug users had greater activation during semantic encoding bilaterally in language processing regions, including Brodmann areas 7, 39, and 40. Of this bilateral activation, signal intensity with a peak T in the right superior parietal lobe was correlated with lifetime ecstasy use (r s = 0.43, p = 0.042). Behavioral performance did not differ between groups. These findings demonstrate that ecstasy polydrug users have increased brain activation during semantic processing. This increase in brain activation in the absence of behavioral deficits suggests that ecstasy polydrug users have reduced cortical efficiency during semantic encoding, possibly secondary to MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Although pre-existing differences cannot be ruled out, this suggests the possibility of a compensatory mechanism allowing ecstasy polydrug users to perform equivalently to controls, providing additional support for an association of altered cerebral neurophysiology with MDMA exposure.

  4. LSD Increases Primary Process Thinking via Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Pokorny, Dan; Aicher, Helena; Preller, Katrin H.; Pokorny, Thomas; Bosch, Oliver G.; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking – an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD increases primary process thinking and that primary process thinking depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects. Methods: Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audio-recorded mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally) and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally). The main outcome variable in this study was primary index (PI), a formal measure of primary process thinking in the imagery reports. State of consciousness was evaluated using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC) rating scale. Results: LSD, compared with placebo, significantly increased primary index (p LSD-induced increase in primary index was positively correlated with LSD-induced disembodiment (p LSD-induced increases in primary index and changes in state of consciousness were fully blocked by ketanserin. Conclusion: LSD induces primary process thinking via activation of 5-HT2A receptors and in relation to disembodiment and blissful state. Primary process thinking appears to crucially organize inner experiences during both dreams and psychedelic states of consciousness. PMID:29167644

  5. LSD Increases Primary Process Thinking via Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kraehenmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking – an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD increases primary process thinking and that primary process thinking depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects.Methods: Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audio-recorded mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally. The main outcome variable in this study was primary index (PI, a formal measure of primary process thinking in the imagery reports. State of consciousness was evaluated using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC rating scale.Results: LSD, compared with placebo, significantly increased primary index (p < 0.001, Bonferroni-corrected. The LSD-induced increase in primary index was positively correlated with LSD-induced disembodiment (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected, and blissful state (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected on the 5D-ASC. Both LSD-induced increases in primary index and changes in state of consciousness were fully blocked by ketanserin.Conclusion: LSD induces primary process thinking via activation of 5-HT2A receptors and in relation to disembodiment and blissful state. Primary process thinking appears to crucially organize inner experiences during both dreams and

  6. Effect of ozone on the performance of a hybrid ceramic membrane-biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianning; Hu, Jiangyong; Tao, Yi; Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Xihui

    2014-04-01

    Two hybrid processes including ozonation-ceramic membrane-biological activated carbon (BAC) (Process A) and ceramic membrane-BAC (Process B) were compared to treat polluted raw water. The performance of hybrid processes was evaluated with the removal efficiencies of turbidity, ammonia and organic matter. The results indicated that more than 99% of particle count was removed by both hybrid processes and ozonation had no significant effect on its removal. BAC filtration greatly improved the removal of ammonia. Increasing the dissolved oxygen to 30.0 mg/L could lead to a removal of ammonia with concentrations as high as 7.80 mg/L and 8.69 mg/L for Processes A and B, respectively. The average removal efficiencies of total organic carbon and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254, a parameter indicating organic matter with aromatic structure) were 49% and 52% for Process A, 51% and 48% for Process B, respectively. Some organic matter was oxidized by ozone and this resulted in reduced membrane fouling and increased membrane flux by 25%-30%. However, pre-ozonation altered the components of the raw water and affected the microorganisms in the BAC, which may impact the removals of organic matter and nitrite negatively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical activity in the elderly is associated with improved executive function and processing speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    or dementia, were included. Multiple variable linear regression analysis with baseline MMSE, education, gender, age, stroke, diabetes and ARWMC rating as covariates revealed that physical activity was associated with better scores at baseline and 3-year follow-up for executive function (baseline: β: 0.39, 95......OBJECTIVES: Physical activity reduces the risk of cognitive decline but may affect cognitive domains differently. We examined whether physical activity modifies processing speed, executive function and memory in a population of non-dementia elderly subjects with age-related white matter changes......-year follow-up. Physical activity was assessed at baseline, and cognitive compound scores at baseline and 3-year assessment were used. RESULTS: Two-hundred-eighty-two subjects (age, y (mean (SD)): 73.1 (± 5.1); gender (f/m): 164/118); MMSE (mean (SD)): 28.3 (± 1.7)) who had not progressed to MCI...

  8. ACTIV - a program for automatic processing of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlokazov, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    Program ACTIV is intended for precise analysis of γ-rays and X-ray spectra and allows the user to carry out the full cycle of automatic processing of a series of spectra, i.e. calibration, automatic peak search, determination of peak positions and areas, identification of the radioisotopes and the transformation of the areas found into masses of isotopes in the irradiated sample. ACTIV uses a complex mathematical technique and is oriented mainly to large computers, but using overlaid loading, it can be run also on small computers like the PDP 11/70. Compared with other similar programs, ACTIV has some advantages in accuracy of peak shape description and in the reliability of the peak search and its least-square analysis. The program can be used for the purpose of activation analysis. The program can analyze spectra with poor statistics and with broad and narrow peaks. (orig.)

  9. Automatic sample changer control software for automation of neutron activation analysis process in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussup, N.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Rahman, N. A. A.; Mokhtar, M.; Salim, N. A. A.; Soh@Shaari, S. C.; Azman, A.; Lombigit, L.; Azman, A.; Omar, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Most of the procedures in neutron activation analysis (NAA) process that has been established in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) since 1980s were performed manually. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel are time consuming and inefficient especially for sample counting and measurement process. The sample needs to be changed and the measurement software needs to be setup for every one hour counting time. Both of these procedures are performed manually for every sample. Hence, an automatic sample changer system (ASC) that consists of hardware and software is developed to automate sample counting process for up to 30 samples consecutively. This paper describes the ASC control software for NAA process which is designed and developed to control the ASC hardware and call GammaVision software for sample measurement. The software is developed by using National Instrument LabVIEW development package.

  10. Effect of Thermal Processing and Maceration on the Antioxidant Activity of White Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Karina; Brigide, Priscila; Bretas, Eloá Bolis; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, which naturally occur in beans, are known to have antioxidant activity, which may be partially lost during the processing of this legume. This study evaluated the effect of thermal processing and maceration on the phenolic acid and flavonoids profile and content and on the antioxidant activity of white beans. According to the results obtained from the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method, there were no significant differences among treatment groups analysed. When was using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl method (DPPH), beans cooked without maceration present the higher antioxidant activity, and raw beans the lower. The phenolic acids found in greater amounts were gallic acid and chlorogenic acid. Kaempferol was only detected in the soaked and cooked samples; catechin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside were found in the highest concentrations. Quercetin and kaempferol-3-glucoside were not affected by the cooking process, either with or without maceration. In general, the heat treatment increased the antioxidant activity. PMID:24991931

  11. Differentiating maturational and training influences on fMRI activation during music processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert J; Norton, Andrea C; Overy, Katie; Winner, Ellen; Alsop, David C; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2012-04-15

    Two major influences on how the brain processes music are maturational development and active musical training. Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating music processing have typically focused on either categorical differences between "musicians versus nonmusicians" or "children versus adults." In the present study, we explored a cross-sectional data set (n=84) using multiple linear regression to isolate the performance-independent effects of age (5 to 33 years) and cumulative duration of musical training (0 to 21,000 practice hours) on fMRI activation similarities and differences between melodic discrimination (MD) and rhythmic discrimination (RD). Age-related effects common to MD and RD were present in three left hemisphere regions: temporofrontal junction, ventral premotor cortex, and the inferior part of the intraparietal sulcus, regions involved in active attending to auditory rhythms, sensorimotor integration, and working memory transformations of pitch and rhythmic patterns. By contrast, training-related effects common to MD and RD were localized to the posterior portion of the left superior temporal gyrus/planum temporale, an area implicated in spectrotemporal pattern matching and auditory-motor coordinate transformations. A single cluster in right superior temporal gyrus showed significantly greater activation during MD than RD. This is the first fMRI which has distinguished maturational from training effects during music processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex differences in brain activation patterns during processing of positively and negatively valenced emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Alex; Siedentopf, Christian M; Ischebeck, Anja; Rettenbacher, Maria A; Verius, Michael; Felber, Stephan; Wolfgang Fleischhacker, W

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that men and women process emotional stimuli differently. In this study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate gender differences in regional cerebral activity during the perception of positive or negative emotions. The experiment comprised two emotional conditions (positively/negatively valenced words) during which fMRI data were acquired. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers (19 males, 19 females) were investigated. A direct comparison of brain activation between men and women revealed differential activation in the right putamen, the right superior temporal gyrus, and the left supramarginal gyrus during processing of positively valenced words versus non-words for women versus men. By contrast, during processing of negatively valenced words versus non-words, relatively greater activation was seen in the left perirhinal cortex and hippocampus for women versus men, and in the right supramarginal gyrus for men versus women. Our findings suggest gender-related neural responses to emotional stimuli and could contribute to the understanding of mechanisms underlying the gender disparity of neuropsychiatric diseases such as mood disorders.

  13. Active chatter suppression with displacement-only measurement in turning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haifeng; Wu, Jianhua; Yang, Liuqing; Xiong, Zhenhua

    2017-08-01

    Regenerative chatter is a major hindrance for achieving high quality and high production rate in machining processes. Various active controllers have been proposed to mitigate chatter. However, most of existing controllers were developed on the basis of multi-states feedback of the system and state observers were usually needed. Moreover, model parameters of the machining process (mass, damping and stiffness) were required in existing active controllers. In this study, an active sliding mode controller, which employs a dynamic output feedback sliding surface for the unmatched condition and an adaptive law for disturbance estimation, is designed, analyzed, and validated for chatter suppression in turning process. Only displacement measurement is required by this approach. Other sensors and state observers are not needed. Moreover, it facilitates a rapid implementation since the designed controller is established without using model parameters of the turning process. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experiments on a computer numerical control (CNC) lathe are presented. It shows that the chatter can be substantially attenuated and the chatter-free region can be significantly expanded with the presented method.

  14. APPLICATION OF RESPIROMETRIC TESTS FOR ASSESSMENT OF METHANOGENIC BACTERIA ACTIVITY IN WASTEWATER SLUDGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cimochowicz-Rybicka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of a methane-rich gas (‘biogas’ is contemporary popular sludges processing technology which allows to generate thermal and/or electric energy. Formal requirements issued by the European Union to promote so called renewable energy resources made these process more attractive leading to its application in WWTPs which were designed based on different sludge handling processes. Authors (as active design engineers noted that dimensioning sludge digestion chamber is usually based on SRT assessment without any emphasis on sludge characteristics. Bio-mass characteristics and the estimation of its activity with respect to methane production are of great importance, from both scientific and practical points of view, as anaerobic digestion appears to be one of crucial processes in municipal wastewater handling and disposal. The authors propose respirometric tests to estimate a biomass potential to produce ‘a biogas’ and several years’ laboratory and full scale experience proved its usefulness and reliability both as a measurement and a design tool applicable in sludge handling. Dimensioning method proposed by authors, allows to construct and optimize operation of digestion chambers based on a methanogenic activity.

  15. The Treatment of Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste Containing Detergent by Biological Activated Sludge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing persil detergent from laundry operation of contaminated clothes by activated sludge process has been done, for alternative process replacing the existing treatment by evaporation. The detergent concentration in water solution from laundry operation is 14.96 g/l. After rinsing operation of clothes and mixing of laundry water solution with another liquid waste, the waste water solution contains about ≤ 1.496 g/l of detergent and 10 -3 Ci/m 3 of Cs-137 activity. The simulation waste having equivalent activity of Cs-137 10 -3 Ci/m 3 , detergent content (X) 1.496, 0.748, 0.374, 0.187, 0.1496 and 0.094 g/l on BOD value respectively 186, 115, 71, 48, 19, and 16 ppm was processed by activated sludge in reactor of 18.6 l capacity on ambient temperature. It is used Super Growth Bacteria (SGB) 102 and SGB 104, nitrogen and phosphor nutrition, and aeration. The result show that bacteria of SGB 102 and SGB 104 were able to degrade the persil detergent for attaining standard quality of water release category B in which BOD values 6 ppm. It was need 30 hours for X ≤ 0.187 g/l, 50 hours for 0.187 < X ≤ 0.374 g/l, 75 hours for 0.374 < X ≤ 0.748, and 100 hours for 0.748 < X ≤ 1.496 g/l. On the initial period the bacteria of SGB 104 interact most quickly to degrade the detergent comparing SGB 102. Biochemical oxidation process decontaminate the solution on the decontamination factor of 350, Cs-137 be concentrate in sludge by complexing with the bacteria wall until the activity of solution be become very low. (author)

  16. Effectiveness of sensory processing strategies on activity level in inclusive preschool classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Lin Lin,1,2 Yu-Fan Min,3 Li-Wei Chou,1,2,* Chin-Kai Lin,4,* 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Faith, Hope and Love, Center for Children and Adults With Disabilities, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of sensory processing strategies in improving the activity level of children with sensory integration dysfunction.Methods: The study used a matching-only pretest–posttest control group design, which requires random matching of sensory integration dysfunction to the corresponding intervention group (n = 18 and control group (n = 18. The intervention group comprised 3–6-year-old children who received an 8-week school-day intervention during implementation of the theme curriculum.Results: The 8-week treatment significantly reduced the activity level and foot-swinging episodes in children with sensory integration dysfunction, and obtained a medium-effect size. However, the level of improvement in the control group did not show any statistically significant change.Conclusion: Sensory processing strategies could improve activity levels in children with sensory integration dysfunction. However, this study was unable to exclude a developmental effect. The social validity results show that sensory processing strategies can be integrated into the theme curriculum and improve activity levels in children.Keywords: activity level, preschool inclusive classroom, sensory integration dysfunction, sensory processing strategy

  17. Visual Short-Term Memory Activity in Parietal Lobe Reflects Cognitive Processes beyond Attentional Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremata, Summer L; Somers, David C; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-02-07

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and attention are distinct yet interrelated processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires the maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection; therefore, it is important to determine whether overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands. While attention and VSTM activated similar cortical areas, BOLD amplitude and functional connectivity in parietal cortex differentiated the two tasks. Relative to attention, VSTM increased BOLD amplitude in dorsal parietal cortex and decreased BOLD amplitude in the angular gyrus. Additionally, the tasks differentially modulated parietal functional connectivity. Contrasting VSTM and attention, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) 1-2 were more strongly connected with anterior frontoparietal areas and more weakly connected with posterior regions. This divergence between tasks demonstrates that parietal activation reflects memory-specific functions and consequently modulates functional connectivity across the cortex. In contrast, both tasks demonstrated hemispheric asymmetries for spatial processing, exhibiting a stronger contralateral visual field bias in the left versus the right hemisphere across tasks, suggesting that asymmetries are characteristic of a shared selection process in IPS. These results demonstrate that parietal activity and patterns of functional connectivity distinguish VSTM from more general attention processes, establishing a central role of the parietal cortex in maintaining visual information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and

  18. Degradation of flumequine by the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes: Evaluation of residual antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Caio; Maniero, Milena Guedes; Rath, Susanne; Guimarães, José Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Flumequine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent of the quinolone class, and it is widely used as a veterinary drug in food-producing animals. The presence of flumequine in the environment may contribute to the development of drug resistant bacterial strains. In this study, water samples fortified with flumequine (500 μg L −1 ) were degraded using the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The maximum degradation efficiency for flumequine by the Fenton process was approximately 40% (0.5 mmol L −1 Fe(II), 2.0 mmol L −1 H 2 O 2 and 15 min). By applying UV radiation (photo-Fenton process), the efficiency reached more than 94% in 60 min when 0.25 mmol L −1 Fe(II) and 10.0 mmol L −1 H 2 O 2 were used. Under these conditions, the Fenton process was able to reduce the biological activity, whereas the photo-Fenton process eliminated almost all of the antimicrobial activity because it was not detected. Four byproducts with an m/z of 244, 238, 220 and 202 were identified by mass spectrometry, and a degradation pathway for flumequine was proposed. The byproducts were derived from decarboxylation and defluorination reactions and from modifications in the alkylamino chain of the fluoroquinolone. - Highlights: ► Photo-Fenton process achieved the maximum performance, degrading 94% of flumequine. ► As the flumequine concentration decreased, antimicrobial activity also decreased. ► Four byproducts with m/z of 244, 238, 220 and 202 were identified. ► A degradation pathway for flumequine was proposed

  19. Overview of R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technology in JAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko, E-mail: yamanishi.toshihiko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Oyaidsu, Makoto; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi; Hayashi, Takumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tritium technologies have been studied at Tritium Process Laboratory of JAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A monitoring method for the blanket system of a fusion reactor have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Basic studies on the tritium behavior in confinement system have been carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studies on the detritiation have been carried out as another significant activity. - Abstract: In JAEA, the tritium processing and handling technologies have been studied at TPL (Tritium Process Laboratory). The main R and D activities are: the tritium processing technology for the blanket recovery systems; the basic tritium behavior in confinement materials; and detritiation and decontamination. The R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technologies for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) are also planned to be carried out in the broader approach (BA) program by JAEA with Japanese universities. The ceramic proton conductor has been studied as a possible tritium processing method for the blanket system. The BIXS method has also been studied as a monitoring of tritium in the blanket system. The hydrogen transfer behavior from water to metal has been studied as a function of temperature. As for the behavior of high concentration tritium water, it was observed that the formation of the oxidized layer was prevented by the presence of tritium in water (0.23 GBq/cc). A new hydrophobic catalyst has been developed for the conversion of tritium to water. The catalyst could convert tritium to water at room temperature. A new Nafion membrane has also been developed by gamma ray irradiation to get the strong durability for tritium.

  20. Degradation of flumequine by the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes: Evaluation of residual antimicrobial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Caio; Maniero, Milena Guedes [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6021, CEP 13083-852, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rath, Susanne [Chemistry Institute, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, CEP 13084-971, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, José Roberto, E-mail: jorober@fec.unicamp.br [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6021, CEP 13083-852, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    Flumequine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent of the quinolone class, and it is widely used as a veterinary drug in food-producing animals. The presence of flumequine in the environment may contribute to the development of drug resistant bacterial strains. In this study, water samples fortified with flumequine (500 μg L{sup −1}) were degraded using the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The maximum degradation efficiency for flumequine by the Fenton process was approximately 40% (0.5 mmol L{sup −1} Fe(II), 2.0 mmol L{sup −1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and 15 min). By applying UV radiation (photo-Fenton process), the efficiency reached more than 94% in 60 min when 0.25 mmol L{sup −1} Fe(II) and 10.0 mmol L{sup −1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were used. Under these conditions, the Fenton process was able to reduce the biological activity, whereas the photo-Fenton process eliminated almost all of the antimicrobial activity because it was not detected. Four byproducts with an m/z of 244, 238, 220 and 202 were identified by mass spectrometry, and a degradation pathway for flumequine was proposed. The byproducts were derived from decarboxylation and defluorination reactions and from modifications in the alkylamino chain of the fluoroquinolone. - Highlights: ► Photo-Fenton process achieved the maximum performance, degrading 94% of flumequine. ► As the flumequine concentration decreased, antimicrobial activity also decreased. ► Four byproducts with m/z of 244, 238, 220 and 202 were identified. ► A degradation pathway for flumequine was proposed.