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Sample records for active magnetic regenerative

  1. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  2. Passive force balancing of an active magnetic regenerative liquefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyber, R.; Meinhardt, K.; Thomsen, E.; Polikarpov, E.; Cui, J.; Rowe, A.; Holladay, J.; Barclay, J.

    2018-04-01

    Active magnetic regenerators (AMR) have the potential for high efficiency cryogen liquefaction. One active magnetic regenerative liquefier (AMRL) configuration consists of dual magnetocaloric regenerators that reciprocate in a persistent-mode superconducting solenoid. Issues with this configuration are the spatial and temporal magnetization gradients that induce large magnetic forces and winding currents. To solve the coupled problem, we present a force minimization approach using passive magnetic material to balance a dual-regenerator AMR. A magnetostatic model is developed and simulated force waveforms are compared with experimental measurements. A genetic algorithm identifies force-minimizing passive structures with virtually ideal balancing characteristics. Implementation details are investigated which affirm the potential of the proposed methodology.

  3. Conceptual design of an active magnetic regenerative heat circulator based on self-heat recuperation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Yui; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual design of an active magnetic regenerative (AMR) heat circulator for self-heat recuperation to realize energy savings in thermal processes is proposed. The process fluid heat is recuperated by the magnetocaloric effect of ferromagnetic material through the AMR heat circulation cycle. In an AMR heat circulator, all the process fluid heat is circulated and no make-up heat is added to raise the process fluid to its set temperature. A one-dimensional mathematical model of the AMR heat circulator was constructed to understand its behavior and verify its energy-saving potential. From the constructed one-dimensional mathematical model, it is seen that AMR heat circulator has potential to drastically reduce the total energy consumption in a thermal process. The temperature–entropy diagram shows that in order to gain the maximum energy saving, optimization of the parameters such as the flow rate and geometry of the ferromagnetic working material beds is needed. - Highlights: • Self-heat recuperative active magnetic regenerative heat circulator is introduced. • One-dimensional model is constructed to verify its energy-saving potential. • Total energy consumption in thermal process is drastically reduced. • Further energy can be saved by reducing the overlapping of thermodynamic cycles

  4. Experimental investigation of an active magnetic regenerative heat circulator applied to self-heat recuperation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Yui; Kansha, Yasuki; Ishizuka, Masanori; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation into an active magnetic regenerative (AMR) heat circulator based on self-heat recuperation technology, was conducted to evaluate its energy saving potential in heat circulation. In an AMR heat circulator, magnetocaloric effect is applied to recuperate the heat exergy of the process fluid. The recuperated heat can be reused to heat the feed process fluid and realize self-heat recuperation. In this paper, AMR heat circulator has newly been constructed to determine the amount of heat circulated when applied to self-heat recuperation and the energy consumption of the heat circulator. Gadolinium and water was used as the magnetocaloric working material and the process fluid, respectively. The heat circulated amount was determined by measuring the temperature of the process fluid and gadolinium. The net work input for heat circulation was obtained from the magnetizing and demagnetizing forces and the distance travelled by the magnetocaloric bed. The results were compared with the minimum work input needed for heat circulation derived from exergy loss during heat exchange. It was seen that the experimentally obtained value was close to the minimum work input needed for heat circulation. - Highlights: • AMR heat circulator has newly been constructed for experimental evaluation. • Heat circulation in the vicinity of Curie temperature was observed. • Energy consumption of an AMR heat circulator has been measured. • Energy saving for processes near Curie temperature of working material was seen

  5. Development of the active magnetic regenerative refrigerator operating between 77 K and 20 K with the conduction cooled high temperature superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Inmyong; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2017-12-01

    The experimental investigation of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) operating between 77 K and 20 K is discussed in this paper, with detailed energy transfer analysis. A multi-layered active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is used, which consists of four different rare earth intermetallic compounds in the form of irregular powder. Numerical simulation confirms that the AMR can attain its target operating temperature range. Magnetic field alternation throughout the AMR is generated by a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet. The HTS magnet is cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler. Helium gas was employed as a working fluid and its oscillating flow in the AMR is controlled in accordance with the magnetic field variation. The AMR is divided into two stages and each stage has a different mass flow rate as needed to achieve the desired cooling performance. The temperature variation of the AMR during the experiment is monitored by temperature sensors installed inside the AMR. The experimental results show that the AMRR is capable of achieving no-load temperature of 25.4 K while the warm end temperature is 77 K. The performance of the AMRR is analyzed by observing internal temperature variations at cyclic steady state. Furthermore, numerical estimation of the cooling capacity and the temperature variation of the AMR are examined and compared with the experimental results.

  6. Comparison between a 1D and a 2D numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2008-01-01

    The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration system represents an environmentally attractive alternative to vapour-compression refrigeration. This paper compares the results of two numerical AMR models: (1) a 1D finite difference model and (2) a 2D finite element model. Both models simulate...... a reciprocating AMR and can determine the cyclical steady-state temperature profile of the system as well as performance parameters such as the refrigeration capacity, the work input and the coefficient of performance (COP). The models are used to analyse an AMR with a regenerator made of flat parallel plates...... results of overall results such as the refrigeration capacity but that a 2D model is required for a detailed analysis of the phenomena occurring inside the AMR....

  7. Applications concepts of small regenerative cryocoolers in superconducitng magnet systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, M.T.G.; van der Laan, M.T.G.; Tax, R.B.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are in growing use outside laboratories for example MRI scanners in hospitals. Other applications under development are magnet systems for separation, levitated trains and ship propulsion. The application of cryocoolers can make these systems more practical. Interfacing these

  8. Ultrasonography, angiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance in nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarche, C.; Pelletier, G.; Attali, P.; Ladouch-Badre, A.; Fabre, M.; Roche, A.; Etienne, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Ultrasonographic, computed tomographic, and angiographic abnormalities of nodular regenerative hyperplasia have been described in very few cases. We report here the case of a 50-year-old man with round, well-limited hypoechogenic lesions involving the two lobes of the liver, and hypervascular, poorly delineated angiographic lesions. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance of the liver were normal. Histological examination of large liver specimens provided by intraoperative biopsy allowed the diagnosis of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Such a pseudo-tumoral ultrasonographic and angiographic pattern must be recognized in order to avoid diagnostic and therapeutic mistakes, especially since percutaneous liver biopsy usually fails to diagnose this disease. (author)

  9. Regenerative Rehabilitation: Combining Stem Cell Therapies and Activity-Dependent Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Chet T; Ambrosio, Fabrisia

    2017-07-01

    The number of clinical trials in regenerative medicine is burgeoning, and stem cell/tissue engineering technologies hold the possibility of becoming the standard of care for a multitude of diseases and injuries. Advances in regenerative biology reveal novel molecular and cellular targets, with potential to optimize tissue healing and functional recovery, thereby refining rehabilitation clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to (1) highlight the potential for synergy between the fields of regenerative medicine and rehabilitation, a convergence of disciplines known as regenerative rehabilitation; (2) provide translational examples of regenerative rehabilitation within the context of neuromuscular injuries and diseases; and (3) offer recommendations for ways to leverage activity dependence via combined therapy and technology, with the goal of enhancing long-term recovery. The potential clinical benefits of regenerative rehabilitation will likely become a critical aspect in the standard of care for many neurological and musculoskeletal disorders.

  10. Performance Analysis of Regenerative Braking in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Adib

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and analysis of a regenerative braking system for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive for electric vehicle (EV applications. First studied is the principle for electric braking control of a PMSM motor under field-oriented control (FOC. Next, the maximum braking torque in the regeneration mode as well as the braking torque for the maximum regeneration power, respectively, are deduced. Additionally, an optimum switching scheme for the inverter is developed with the objective of maximizing energy recovery during regenerative braking to the DC-bus capacitor. The integration of an ultra-capacitor module with the battery allows for the efficient and high power transfer under regenerative braking. It was important to manage the power flow to the DC-bus as this is a key issue that affects the efficiency of the overall system. Finally, the amounts of braking energy that can be recovered, and the efficiency with which it can be returned to the battery/ultra-capacitor, is analyzed for a PMSM coupled with a DC motor as the load. The results of the analysis are validated through experimentation.

  11. Analysis and Design of an Energy Regenerative Snubber for Magnetically Coupled Impedance Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Abdelhakim, Ahmed; Siwakoti, Yam

    2018-01-01

    Magnetically coupled impedance source (MCIS) converters are prone to high voltage spikes across the inverter bridge (or dc-link) due to the presence of leakage and stray inductances in the high frequency loop. The problem manifolds because of a shoot-through state in impedance source converters......, but the solutions are not generic (i.e. structure-oriented) and they are quite lossy with intuitive modification in the circuit itself, resulting in significant changes in the performance of the power converter (e.g. increase in components stresses). To address this concern, a general passive regenerative inductor......-capacitor-diode (L-C-D) snubber is presented in this paper for all MCIS converters without any modification in the original circuit. The proposed circuit rechannel the leakage energy of the coupled magnetics and feedback it to input or network itself, which does not only avoid extreme voltage spikes across...

  12. Harnessing magnetic-mechano actuation in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lívia J; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2015-08-01

    Mechanical stimulus is of upmost importance in tissues developmental and regeneration processes as well as in maintaining body homeostasis. Classical physiological reactions encompass an increase of blood vessel diameter upon exposure to high blood pressure, or the expansion of cortical bone after continuous high-impact exercise. At a cellular level, it is well established that extracellular stiffness, topography, and remote magnetic actuation are instructive mechanical signals for stem cell differentiation. Based on this, biomaterials and their properties can be designed to act as true stem cell regulators, eventually leading to important advances in conventional tissue engineering techniques. This review identifies the latest advances and tremendous potential of magnetic actuation within the scope of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and experiment study of a semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Dehua; Chen, Long; Wang, Ruochen; Jiang, Haobin; Shen, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system is proposed to recover suspension vibration energy, as well as to reduce the suspension cost and demands for the motor-rated capacity. The system consists of an energy-regenerative damper and a DC-DC converter-based energy-regenerative circuit. The energy-regenerative damper is composed of an electromagnetic linear motor and an adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels. The linear motor just works as the generator to harvest the suspension vibration energy. The circuit can be used to improve the system’s energy-regenerative performance and to continuously regulate the motor’s electromagnetic damping force. Therefore, although the motor works as a generator and damps the isolation without an external power source, the motor damping force is controllable. The damping characteristics of the system are studied based on a two degrees of freedom vehicle vibration model. By further analyzing the circuit operation characteristics under different working modes, the double-loop controller is designed to track the desired damping force. The external-loop is a fuzzy controller that offers the desired equivalent damping. The inner-loop controller, on one hand, is used to generate the pulse number and the frequency to control the angle and the rotational speed of the step motor; on the other hand, the inner-loop is used to offer the duty cycle of the energy-regenerative circuit. Simulations and experiments are conducted to validate such a new suspension system. The results show that the semi-active energy-regenerative suspension can improve vehicle ride comfort with the controllable damping characteristics of the linear motor. Meanwhile, it also ensures energy regeneration. (paper)

  14. Numerical Modeling of Multi-Material Active Magnetic Regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2009-01-01

    and the specific heat as a function of temperature at constant magnetic field. A 2.5-dimensional numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative (AMR) refrigerator device is presented. The experimental AMR located at Risø DTU has been equipped with a parallel-plate based regenerator made of the two materials...

  15. Nonlinear Modeling and Coordinate Optimization of a Semi-Active Energy Regenerative Suspension with an Electro-Hydraulic Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farong Kou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to coordinate the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of energy regenerative suspension, this paper proposes a structure of a vehicle semi-active energy regenerative suspension with an electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA. In light of the proposed concept, a specific energy regenerative scheme is designed and a mechanical properties test is carried out. Based on the test results, the parameter identification for the system model is conducted using a recursive least squares algorithm. On the basis of the system principle, the nonlinear model of the semi-active energy regenerative suspension with an EHA is built. Meanwhile, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control strategy of the system is designed. Then, the influence of the main parameters of the EHA on the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of the suspension is analyzed. Finally, the main parameters of the EHA are optimized via the genetic algorithm. The test results show that when a sinusoidal is input at the frequency of 2 Hz and the amplitude of 30 mm, the spring mass acceleration root meam square value of the optimized EHA semi-active energy regenerative suspension is reduced by 22.23% and the energy regenerative power RMS value is increased by 40.51%, which means that while meeting the requirements of vehicle ride comfort and driving safety, the energy regenerative performance is improved significantly.

  16. Effect of geometrical shape of the working substance Gadolinium on the performance of a regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diguet, Gildas; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2013-01-01

    Based on Mean Field Theory (MFT), the entropy of magnetic material Gadolinium (Gd), which is a function of the local magnetic field and temperature, is calculated and analyzed. This local magnetic field is the sum of the applied field H 0 plus the exchange field H W =λM and the demagnetizing field H d =−NM, where the demagnetizing factor N depends on the shape of magnetic materials. Hereby, the impacts of the demagnetizing factor N on the magnetic entropy, magnetic entropy change and main thermodynamics performance of a regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle using Gd as the working substance are investigated and evaluated in detail. The results obtained underline the importance of the shape of the working substance used in magnetic refrigerators for room-temperature application; elongated materials provide better thermodynamics performance such as higher COP and net heat absorption. It is pointed out that for low external fields, the magnetic refrigerator ceased to be functional if flat materials were used. - Highlights: ► Gd entropy is calculated as a function of temperature and internal magnetic field. ► Magnetic Brayton cycle properties generally depend on the demagnetizing factor. ► Redundant heat transfer is highly sensitive to the demagnetizing factor. ► The net cooling quantity is highly sensitive to the demagnetizing factor. ► Coefficient of performance is dependant to the magnetic material shape.

  17. High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Identifies a Subset of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Vascular Regenerative Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephen E; Kuljanin, Miljan; Cooper, Tyler T; Putman, David M; Lajoie, Gilles A; Hess, David A

    2017-06-01

    During culture expansion, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentially express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), an intracellular detoxification enzyme that protects long-lived cells against oxidative stress. Thus, MSC selection based on ALDH-activity may be used to reduce heterogeneity and distinguish MSC subsets with improved regenerative potency. After expansion of human bone marrow-derived MSCs, cell progeny was purified based on low versus high ALDH-activity (ALDH hi ) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and each subset was compared for multipotent stromal and provascular regenerative functions. Both ALDH l ° and ALDH hi MSC subsets demonstrated similar expression of stromal cell (>95% CD73 + , CD90 + , CD105 + ) and pericyte (>95% CD146 + ) surface markers and showed multipotent differentiation into bone, cartilage, and adipose cells in vitro. Conditioned media (CDM) generated by ALDH hi MSCs demonstrated a potent proliferative and prosurvival effect on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) under serum-free conditions and augmented HMVEC tube-forming capacity in growth factor-reduced matrices. After subcutaneous transplantation within directed in vivo angiogenesis assay implants into immunodeficient mice, ALDH hi MSC or CDM produced by ALDH hi MSC significantly augmented murine vascular cell recruitment and perfused vessel infiltration compared with ALDH l ° MSC. Although both subsets demonstrated strikingly similar mRNA expression patterns, quantitative proteomic analyses performed on subset-specific CDM revealed the ALDH hi MSC subset uniquely secreted multiple proangiogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor beta, platelet derived growth factor alpha, and angiogenin) and actively produced multiple factors with chemoattractant (transforming growth factor-β, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1, 2, and 3 (GRO), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8) and matrix

  18. Regenerative medicine primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Andre; Nelson, Timothy J

    2013-07-01

    The pandemic of chronic diseases, compounded by the scarcity of usable donor organs, mandates radical innovation to address the growing unmet needs of individuals and populations. Beyond life-extending measures that are often the last available option, regenerative strategies offer transformative solutions in treating degenerative conditions. By leveraging newfound knowledge of the intimate processes fundamental to organogenesis and healing, the emerging regenerative armamentarium aims to boost the aptitude of human tissues for self-renewal. Regenerative technologies strive to promote, augment, and reestablish native repair processes, restituting organ structure and function. Multimodal regenerative approaches incorporate transplant of healthy tissues into damaged environments, prompt the body to enact a regenerative response in damaged tissues, and use tissue engineering to manufacture new tissue. Stem cells and their products have a unique aptitude to form specialized tissues and promote repair signaling, providing active ingredients of regenerative regimens. Concomitantly, advances in materials science and biotechnology have unlocked additional prospects for growing tissue grafts and engineering organs. Translation of regenerative principles into practice is feasible and safe in the clinical setting. Regenerative medicine and surgery are, thus, poised to transit from proof-of-principle studies toward clinical validation and, ultimately, standardization, paving the way for next-generation individualized management algorithms. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) in Regenerative Medicine: Molecular Mechanism for PPAR in Stem Cells' Adipocyte Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiang; Tian, Taoran; Chen, Zhaozhao; Deng, Shuwen; Sun, Ke; Xie, Jing; Cai, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine plays an indispensable role in modern medicine and many trials and researches have therefore been developed to fit our medical needs. Tissue engineering has proven that adipose tissue can widely be used and brings advantages to regenerative medicine. Moreover, a trait of adipose stem cells being isolated and grown in vitro is a cornerstone to various applications. Since the adipose tissue has been widely used in regenerative medicine, numerous studies have been conducted to seek methods for gaining more adipocytes. To investigate molecular mechanism for adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) has been widely studied to find out its functional mechanism, as a key factor for adipocyte differentiation. However, the precise molecular mechanism is still unknown. This review thus summarizes recent progress on the study of molecular mechanism and role of PPAR in adipocyte differentiation.

  20. Actuators for Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H. Maslen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature of active magnetic bearing (AMB technology dates back to at least 1937 when the earliest work that clearly describes an active magnetic bearing system was published by Jesse Beams [...

  1. Active Magnetic Bearings – Magnetic Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Parameter identification procedures and model validation are major steps towards intelligent machines supported by active magnetic bearings (AMB). The ability of measuring the electromagnetic bearing forces, or deriving them from measuring the magnetic flux, strongly contributes to the model...... of the work is the characterization of magnetic forces by using two experimental different experimental approaches. Such approaches are investigated and described in details. A special test rig is designed where the 4 poles - AMB is able to generate forces up to 1900 N. The high precision characterization...... of the magnetic forces are led by using different experimental tests: (I) by using hall sensors mounted directly on the poles (precise measurements of the magnetic flux) and by an auxiliary system, composed of strain gages and flexible beams attached to the rotor; (II) by measuring the input current and bearing...

  2. Stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidotto A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that magnetic activity could be enhanced due to interactions between close-in massive planets and their host stars. In this article, I present a brief overview of the connection between stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets. Stellar activity can be probed in chromospheric lines, coronal emission, surface spot coverage, etc. Since these are manifestations of stellar magnetism, these measurements are often used as proxies for the magnetic field of stars. Here, instead of focusing on the magnetic proxies, I overview some recent results of magnetic field measurements using spectropolarimetric observations. Firstly, I discuss the general trends found between large-scale magnetism, stellar rotation, and coronal emission and show that magnetism seems to be correlated to the internal structure of the star. Secondly, I overview some works that show evidence that exoplanets could (or not act as to enhance the activity of their host stars.

  3. Regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S; Smith, A J

    2014-03-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of the biological processes involved in tooth development and repair at the cellular and molecular levels have underpinned the newly emerging area of regenerative endodontics. Development of treatment protocols based on exploiting the natural wound healing properties of the dental pulp and applying tissue engineering principles has allowed reporting of case series showing preservation of tissue vitality and apexogenesis. To review current case series reporting regenerative endodontics. Current treatment approaches tend to stimulate more reparative than regenerative responses in respect of the new tissue generated, which often does not closely resemble the physiological structure of dentine-pulp. However, despite these biological limitations, such techniques appear to offer significant promise for improved treatment outcomes. Improved biological outcomes will likely emerge from the many experimental studies being reported and will further contribute to improvements in clinical treatment protocols.

  4. Stellar magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrijver, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The stellar emission in the chromospheric Ca II H+K lines is compared with the coronal soft X-ray emission, measuring the effects of non-radiative heating in the outer atmosphere at temperatures differing two orders of magnitude. The comparison of stellar flux densities in Ca II H+K and X-rays is extended to fluxes from the transition-region and the high-temperature chromosphere. The stellar magnetic field is probably generated in the differentially rotating convective envelope. The relation between rotation rate and the stellar level of activity measured in chromospheric, transition-region, and coronal radiative diagnostics is discovered. X-ray observations of the binary λ Andromedae are discussed. The departure of M-type dwarfs from the main relations, and the implications for the structure of the chromospheres of these stars are discussed. Variations of the average surface flux densities of the Sun during the 11-year activity cycle agree with flux-flux relations derived for other cool stars, suggesting that the interpretation of the stellar relations may be furthered by studying the solar analogue in more detail. (Auth.)

  5. Bioprinting in Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Monti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prof. Turksen is a very well known scientist in the stem cell biology field and he is also internationally known for his fundamental studies on claudin-6. In addition to his research activity he is editor for the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series (Humana Press and editor-in-chief of Stem Cell Reviews and Reports.....

  6. An active magnetic regenerator device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) device comprising two or more regenerator beds, a magnet arrangement and a valve arrangement. The valve arrangement comprises a plurality of valve elements arranged substantially immovably with respect to the regenerator beds along a rotational direction...

  7. Oxygen consumption and cytochrome exidase activity of axolotl limbs muscle tissue in restoration of regenerative ability suprressed by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teplits, N.A.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of oxygen use and activity of cytochrome oxidase in a homogenate of mitochondria and nuclei of muscle tissue of axolotl limbs after suppression of their regenerative capability by x irradiation and their restoration was studied experimentally. With suppression of the regenative capability the use of oxygen was depressed. Cytochrome oxidase activity in the homogenate and mitochondria decreased compared to that of the intact limb, in the nuclei of muscle tissue it was the same or greater. With restoration of the regenerative capability of the limbs the respiration rate of the homogenate and the mitochondria increased, accompanied by increased cytochrome oxidase activity. In the nuclei the cytochrome oxidase activity did not change in the blastema stage and sharply decreased in the limb formation state. (E.T.)

  8. Oxygen consumption and cytochrome exidase activity of axolotl limbs muscle tissue in restoration of regenerative ability suppressed by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplits, N A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Biologii Razvitiya

    1975-01-01

    The rate of oxygen use and activity of cytochrome oxidase in a homogenate of mitochondria and nuclei of muscle tissue of axolotl limbs after suppression of their regenerative capability by x irradiation and their restoration was studied experimentally. With suppression of the regenative capability the use of oxygen was depressed. Cytochrome oxidase activity in the homogenate and mitochondria decreased compared to that of the intact limb, in the nuclei of muscle tissue it was the same or greater. With restoration of the regenerative capability of the limbs the respiration rate of the homogenate and the mitochondria increased, accompanied by increased cytochrome oxidase activity. In the nuclei the cytochrome oxidase activity did not change in the blastema stage and sharply decreased in the limb formation state.

  9. A flexible numerical model to study an active magnetic refrigerator for near room temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprea, Ciro; Maiorino, Angelo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Salerno) (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging technology based on the magnetocaloric effect in solid-state refrigerants. This technology offers a smaller global environmental impact than the refrigeration obtained by means of the classical vapor compression machines operating with fluids such as HFCs. The Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration (AMRR) is currently the most studied ant tested magnetic cycle. It combines the regenerative properties of a high specific heat solid porous matrix with the ability of performing thermo-magnetic cycles thanks to the magnetocaloric property of the refrigerant; while a fluid pulsing through the regenerator works as a heat transfer medium. An active magnetic regenerator can provide larger temperature spans making up for the local small temperature variation of the refrigerant. In the present paper, a practical model for predicting the performance and efficiency of an AMRR cycle has been developed. The model evaluates both the refrigerant properties and the entire cycle of an AMR operating in conformity with a Brayton regenerative cycle. The magnetocaloric material of choice is gadolinium, while the heat transfer medium is liquid water. With this model can be predicted the refrigeration capacity, the power consumption and consequently the Coefficient of Performance. The results show a greater COP when compared to a classical vapor compression plant working between the same temperature levels. (author)

  10. A flexible numerical model to study an active magnetic refrigerator for near room temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprea, Ciro; Maiorino, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging technology based on the magnetocaloric effect in solid-state refrigerants. This technology offers a smaller global environmental impact than the refrigeration obtained by means of the classical vapor compression machines operating with fluids such as HFCs. The Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration (AMRR) is currently the most studied ant tested magnetic cycle. It combines the regenerative properties of a high specific heat solid porous matrix with the ability of performing thermo-magnetic cycles thanks to the magnetocaloric property of the refrigerant; while a fluid pulsing through the regenerator works as a heat transfer medium. An active magnetic regenerator can provide larger temperature spans making up for the local small temperature variation of the refrigerant. In the present paper, a practical model for predicting the performance and efficiency of an AMRR cycle has been developed. The model evaluates both the refrigerant properties and the entire cycle of an AMR operating in conformity with a Brayton regenerative cycle. The magnetocaloric material of choice is gadolinium, while the heat transfer medium is liquid water. With this model can be predicted the refrigeration capacity, the power consumption and consequently the Coefficient of Performance. The results show a greater COP when compared to a classical vapor compression plant working between the same temperature levels.

  11. Regenerative engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencin, Cato T

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative Engineering: The Future of Medicine Saadiq F. El-Amin III , MD , PhD; Joylene W.L. Thomas, MD ; Ugonna N. Ihekweazu, MD ; Mia D. Woods, MS; and Ashim Gupta, MSCell Biology Gloria Gronowicz, PhD and Karen Sagomonyants, DMDStem Cells and Tissue Regeneration Kristen Martins-Taylor, PhD; Xiaofang Wang, MD , PhD; Xue-Jun Li, PhD; and Ren-He Xu, MD , PhDIntroduction to Materials Science Sangamesh G. Kumbar, PhD and Cato T. Laurencin, MD , PhDBiomaterials A. Jon Goldberg, PhD and Liisa T. Kuhn, PhDIn Vitro Assessment of Cell-Biomaterial Interactions Yong Wang, PhDHost Response to Biomate

  12. Regenerative braking system of PM synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Lv, Chengxing; Zhao, Na; Zang, Hechao; Jiang, Huilue; Zhang, Zhaowen; Zhang, Fengli

    2018-04-01

    Permanent-magnet synchronous motor is widely adopted in many fields with the advantage of a high efficiency and a high torque density. Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist PMSM system achieve better fuel economy and lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of the regenerative braking systems of PMSM. The mode of PWM duty has been adjusted to control regenerative braking of PMSM using energy controller for the port-controlled Hamiltonian model. The simulation analysis indicates that a smooth control could be realized and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by Regenerative Braking Systems.

  13. Co-ordinate but disproportionate activation of apoptotic, regenerative and inflammatory pathways characterizes the liver response to acute amebic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosof, Lorraine C; Davis, Paul H; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaochun; Stanley, Samuel L

    2006-03-01

    The liver has the remarkable ability to respond to injury with repair and regeneration. The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the major cause of liver abscess worldwide. We report a transcriptional analysis of the response of mouse liver to E. histolytica infection, the first study looking at acute liver infection by a non-viral pathogen. Focusing on early time points, we identified 764 genes with altered transcriptional levels in amebic liver abscess. The response to infection is rapid and complex, with concurrent increased expression of genes linked to host defence through IL-1, TLR2, or interferon-induced pathways, liver regeneration via activation of IL-6 pathways, and genes associated with programmed cell death possibly through TNFalpha or Fas pathways. A comparison of amebic liver infection with the liver response to partial hepatectomy or toxins reveals striking similarities between amebic liver abscess and non-infectious injury in key components of the liver regeneration pathways. However, the response in amebic liver abscess is biased towards apoptosis when compared with acute liver injury from hepatectomy, toxins, or other forms of liver infection. E. histolytica infection of the liver simultaneously activates inflammatory, regenerative and apoptotic pathways, but the sum of these early responses is biased towards programmed cell death.

  14. Numerical analysis of a reciprocating active magnetic regenerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lionte, Sergiu; Vasile, Carmen; Siroux, Monica

    2015-01-01

    A time-dependent, two-dimensional mathematical model of a configuration system for magnetic refrigeration has been developed, based on a reciprocating active magnetic regenerator operating at room temperature. The model's geometry is made of parallel plates of magnetocaloric material separated by microchannels. Through the microchannels, the flow of a heat transfer fluid has also been simulated. Water has been used as heat transfer fluid and as magnetocaloric material we have used the benchmark material gadolinium. The heat transfer inside the regenerator and the fluid flow are modelled separately and the magnetocaloric effect is taken into account by the inclusion of a variable source term in the energy equation. The model simulates the steps of the active magnetic regenerative refrigeration cycle and evaluates the performance in terms of cooling load, COP, temperature span and pressure drop for the parallel-plate configuration. The model has been validated by comparing the numerical results with the results obtained from an experimental device made by a partner. This parametric study allows us to identify the most important characteristics that have a significant influence on the thermal behaviour of the active magnetic regenerator. Several simulation results are discussed and some optimal solutions are presented. - Highlights: • We have developed a 2D model of an active magnetic regenerator. • The MCE is included as a source term with data from experimental measurements. • A validation of the model with experimental data is included. • We analysed the temperature span, the cooling power, the COP and the pressure drop of the system

  15. Towards magnetic liquefaction of hydrogen: experiments with an active magnetic regenerator test apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.-A.; Rowe, A.M.; Chahine, R.; Bose, T.; Barclay, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Refrigeration based on an Active Magnetic Regenerative (AMR) cycle has the potential to be a more efficient way of liquefying hydrogen than conventional gas cycles. Because the magnetocaloric effect decreases quickly for most materials as the temperature moves away from the phase transition region, the combination of many magnetic refrigerants in a multi-layers active magnetic regenerator is needed as a way to produce larger temperature spans for each stage of a liquefier. An investigation of a multi layer regenerator has been performed using an AMR test apparatus (AMRTA). Gadolinium and a gadolinium-terbium alloy were used as the two layers in the fabrication of two reciprocating multi-layer regenerators working near room temperature. The performances of the multi-material regenerator is compared to a Gd regenerator in terms of temperature span (respectively 20 K and 16 K at 2 Tesla respectively) and cooling power. For the first time, a multi-material AMR has been shown to produce a larger temperature span and cooling power than a single material of equivalent mass and geometry. (author)

  16. Regenerative potential and anti-bacterial activity of tetracycline loaded apatitic nanocarriers for the treatment of periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhumathi, K; Sampath Kumar, T S

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment of periodontal infections includes mechanical debridement, administration of antibiotics and bone grafting. Oral administration of antibiotics results in undesirable side effects, while current modes of local administration are affected by problems concerning allergic response to the polymeric carrier agents. We have developed an osteoconductive drug delivery system composed of apatitic nanocarriers capable of providing sustained delivery of drugs in the periodontium. Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) nanocarriers of different Ca/P ratios were synthesized and characterized using the x-ray diffraction method, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the BET gas isotherm method. Loading and release studies performed with tetracycline showed a sustained release of up to 88% in phosphate buffered saline over a period of five days. Antibacterial activity studies showed that the tetracycline loaded CDHA (TC-CDHA) nanocarriers were effective against S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. The biocompatibility of the TC-CDHA nanocarriers was demonstrated using an alamar blue assay and further characterized by cell uptake studies. Interestingly, cell uptake of drug loaded CDHA also increased the cellular proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells. Hence, it can be concluded that the CDHA nanocarriers are ideal drug delivery agents and have bone regenerative potential for local periodontal applications. (paper)

  17. The Effect of PEI and PVP-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles on Equine Platelets Activation: Potential Application in Equine Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Hecold

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the effect of different stabilizing agents, for example, polyethylenimine (PEI and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and their influence on equine platelet activation and release of particular growth factors. The gold nanoparticles were produced by chemical reduction of chloroauric acid. UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles in investigated solutions. The AuNPs were incubated with whole blood at various concentrations. The morphology of platelets in PRP prepared from the blood incubated with AuNPs was characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, whereas the concentrations of growth factors and cytokines were evaluated by ELISA assays. The most promising results were obtained with equine platelets incubated with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI, which lead to secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1 and simultaneously cause decrease in concentration of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α. The qRT-PCR confirmed ELISA test results. The incubation with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI leads to upregulation of BMP-2 and VEGF transcripts of mRNA level and to downregulating expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6. Obtained data shed a promising light on gold nanoparticle application for future regenerative medicine application.

  18. Time-varying delays compensation algorithm for powertrain active damping of an electrified vehicle equipped with an axle motor during regenerative braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong; Lv, Chen; Gou, Jinfang; Yuan, Ye

    2017-03-01

    The flexibility of the electrified powertrain system elicits a negative effect upon the cooperative control performance between regenerative and hydraulic braking and the active damping control performance. Meanwhile, the connections among sensors, controllers, and actuators are realized via network communication, i.e., controller area network (CAN), that introduces time-varying delays and deteriorates the control performances of the closed-loop control systems. As such, the goal of this paper is to develop a control algorithm to cope with all these challenges. To this end, the models of the stochastic network induced time-varying delays, based on a real in-vehicle network topology and on a flexible electrified powertrain, were firstly built. In order to further enhance the control performances of active damping and cooperative control of regenerative and hydraulic braking, the time-varying delays compensation algorithm for the electrified powertrain active damping during regenerative braking was developed based on a predictive scheme. The augmented system is constructed and the H∞ performance is analyzed. Based on this analysis, the control gains are derived by solving a nonlinear minimization problem. The simulations and hardware-in-loop (HIL) tests were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the developed algorithm. The test results show that the active damping and cooperative control performances are enhanced significantly.

  19. Superconducting magnet activities at CEN Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesmond, C.

    1981-07-01

    The activities in superconducting magnets at DPhPE/Saclay spread over a wide range from DC magnets mainly for particle and nuclear physics and also for other fields of research, pulsed magnets for particle accelerators and for a controlled fusion tokamak machine. The superconducting magnets designed during recent years involve a variety of conductor types, winding schemes, materials and cooling modes, including the use of superfluid helium. (author)

  20. Competition and enhancement effect in coremoval of atenolol and copper by an easily regenerative magnetic cation exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qimeng; Wang, Zheng; Li, Qiang; Shuang, Chendong; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Gao, Canzhu

    2017-07-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the removal of combined Cu 2+ and atenolol (ATL) in aqueous solution by using a newly synthesized magnetic cation exchange resin (MCER) as the adsorbent. The MCER exhibited efficient removal performance in sole, binary, pre-loading and saline systems. The adsorption kinetics of Cu 2+ and ATL fitted both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order model, while better described by pseudo-second order model in binary system. In mixed Cu 2+ and ATL solution, the adsorption of ATL was suppressed due to direct competition of carboxylic groups, while Cu 2+ adsorption was enhanced because of the formation of surface complexes. This increasing in heterogeneity was demonstrated by adsorption isotherms, which were more suitable for Freundlich model in binary system, while better described by Langmuir model in sole system. As proved by FTIR and XPS spectra, both amino and hydroxyl groups of ATL could form complexes with Cu 2+ . Decomplexing-bridging interaction was elucidated as the leading mechanism in coremoval of Cu 2+ and ATL, which involved [Cu-ATL] decomplexing and newly created Cu- or ATL sites for additional bridging. For saline system, the resulting competition and enhancement effects in mixed solution were amplified with the addition of co-existing cations. Moreover, the MCER could be effectively regenerated by 0.01 M HCl solution and maintain high stability over 5 adsorption-desorption cycles, which render it great potential for practical applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Some statistical characteristics of magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'eva, V.I.; Shevnin, A.D.

    1978-01-01

    The secular range and 2-year cycle recurrence of the solar and magnetic activity are considered by the correlation of the solar spots and magnetic storms continuous series. Established are the duration of various categories of storms and their active periods, as well as the activity progress pattern inside the storm. The results of the research of the 27-day recurrence of magnetic storms are summed-up and the recurrence percentage of storms of all categories is given for several revolutions of the Sun. The latitudinal amplitude distribution of the magnetic storms is researched

  2. Adsorptive removal of organics from aqueous phase by acid-activated coal fly ash: preparation, adsorption, and Fenton regenerative valorization of "spent" adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Hao, Linlin; Chen, Jiaqing; Zhao, Qiang; Xu, Han

    2018-05-01

    Raw coal fly ash was activated to an adsorbent by sulfuric acid impregnation. The activation condition, the adsorption capacity, and the regenerative valorization of the adsorbent were studied. The results show that the optimal preparation conditions of the adsorbent are [H 2 SO 4 ] = 1 mol L -1 , activation time = 30 min, the ratio of coal fly ash to acid = 1:20 (g:mL), calcination temperature = 100 °C. The adsorption of p-nitrophenol on the adsorbent accords with the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and the adsorption rate constant is 0.089 g mg -1  min -1 . The adsorption on this adsorbent can be considered enough after 35 min, when the corresponding adsorption capacity is 1.07 mg g -1 (85.6% of p-nitrophenol removal). Compared with raw coal fly ash, the adsorbent has a stable adsorption performance at low pH range (pH = 1-6) and the adsorption of p-nitrophenol is an exothermic process. Ninety minutes is required for the regenerative valorization of saturated adsorbent by Fenton process. The regenerative valorization for this saturated adsorbent can reach 89% under the optimal proposed conditions (30 °C, pH = 3, [H 2 O 2 ] = 5.0 mmol L -1 , [Fe 2+ ] = 5.5 mmol L -1 ). Within 15 experimental runs, the adsorbent has a better and better stability with the increase of experimental runs. Finally, the mechanism of activating coal fly ash is proposed, being verified by the results of the SEM and BET test.

  3. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  4. Thermally activated magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guang-Hong, Zhou; Yin-Gang, Wang; Xian-Jin, Qi; Zi-Quan, Li; Jian-Kang, Chen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the magnetization reversal of the ferromagnetic layers in the IrMn/CoFe/AlO x /CoFe magnetic tunnel junction has been investigated using bulk magnetometry. The films exhibit very complex magnetization processes and reversal mechanism. Thermal activation phenomena such as the training effect, the asymmetry of reversal, the loop broadening and the decrease of exchange field while holding the film at negative saturation have been observed on the hysteresis loops of the pinned ferromagnetic layer while not on those of the free ferromagnetic layer. The thermal activation phenomena observed can be explained by the model of two energy barrier distributions with different time constants. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Regenerative medicine blueprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Andre; Harper, C Michel; Gores, Gregory J; Pfenning, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Regenerative medicine, a paragon of future healthcare, holds unprecedented potential in extending the reach of treatment modalities for individuals across diseases and lifespan. Emerging regenerative technologies, focused on structural repair and functional restoration, signal a radical transformation in medical and surgical practice. Regenerative medicine is poised to provide innovative solutions in addressing major unmet needs for patients, ranging from congenital disease and trauma to degenerative conditions. Realization of the regenerative model of care predicates a stringent interdisciplinary paradigm that will drive validated science into standardized clinical options. Designed as a catalyst in advancing rigorous new knowledge on disease causes and cures into informed delivery of quality care, the Mayo Clinic regenerative medicine blueprint offers a patient-centered, team-based strategy that optimizes the discovery-translation-application roadmap for the express purpose of science-supported practice advancement.

  6. Magnetic helicity and active filament configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Poedts, S.; Soenen, A.; Zuccarello, F. P.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The role of magnetic helicity in active filament formation and destabilization is still under debate. Aims: Although active filaments usually show a sigmoid shape and a twisted configuration before and during their eruption, it is unclear which mechanism leads to these topologies. In order to provide an observational contribution to clarify these issues, we describe a filament evolution whose characteristics seem to be directly linked to the magnetic helicity transport in corona. Methods: We applied different methods to determine the helicity sign and the chirality of the filament magnetic field. We also computed the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints. Results: All the observational signatures provided information on the positive helicity and sinistral chirality of the flux rope containing the filament material: its forward S shape, the orientation of its barbs, the bright and dark threads at 195 Å. Moreover, the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints showed a clear accumulation of positive helicity. Conclusions: The study of this event showed a correspondence between several signatures of the sinistral chirality of the filament and several evidences of the positive magnetic helicity of the filament magnetic field. We also found that the magnetic helicity transported along the filament footpoints showed an increase just before the change of the filament shape observed in Hα images. We argued that the photospheric regions where the filament was rooted might be the preferential ways where the magnetic helicity was injected along the filament itself and where the conditions to trigger the eruption were yielded.

  7. Demagnetizing fields in active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic material in an externally applied magnetic field will in general experience a spatially varying internal magnetic field due to demagnetizing effects. When the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMRs) is evaluated using numerical models the internal field is often assumed...... is in general both a function of the overall shape of the regenerator and its morphology (packed particles, parallel plates etc.) as well as the magnetization of the material. Due to the pronounced temperature dependence of the magnetization near the Curie temperature, the demagnetization field is also...... temperature dependent. We propose a relatively straightforward method to correct sufficiently for the demagnetizing field in AMR models. We discuss how the demagnetizing field behaves in regenerators made of packed spheres under realistic operation conditions....

  8. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  9. Temporomandibular Joint Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Van Bellinghen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The temporomandibular joint (TMJ is an articulation formed between the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle which is commonly affected. These affections are often so painful during fundamental oral activities that patients have lower quality of life. Limitations of therapeutics for severe TMJ diseases have led to increased interest in regenerative strategies combining stem cells, implantable scaffolds and well-targeting bioactive molecules. To succeed in functional and structural regeneration of TMJ is very challenging. Innovative strategies and biomaterials are absolutely crucial because TMJ can be considered as one of the most difficult tissues to regenerate due to its limited healing capacity, its unique histological and structural properties and the necessity for long-term prevention of its ossified or fibrous adhesions. The ideal approach for TMJ regeneration is a unique scaffold functionalized with an osteochondral molecular gradient containing a single stem cell population able to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation such as BMSCs, ADSCs or DPSCs. The key for this complex regeneration is the functionalization with active molecules such as IGF-1, TGF-β1 or bFGF. This regeneration can be optimized by nano/micro-assisted functionalization and by spatiotemporal drug delivery systems orchestrating the 3D formation of TMJ tissues.

  10. Personalized Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Arjmand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine as a novel field of medicine refers to the prescription of specific therapeutics procedure for an individual. This approach has established based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information and data. The terms precision and personalized medicines are sometimes applied interchangeably. However, there has been a shift from “personalized medicine” towards “precision medicine”. Although personalized medicine emerged from pharmacogenetics, nowadays it covers many fields of healthcare. Accordingly, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy as the new fields of medicine use cell-based products in order to develop personalized treatments. Different sources of stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have been considered in targeted therapies which could give many advantages. iPSCs as the novel and individual pluripotent stem cells have been introduced as the appropriate candidates for personalized cell therapies. Cellular therapies can provide a personalized approach. Because of person-to-person and population differences in the result of stem cell therapy, individualized cellular therapy must be adjusted according to the patient specific profile, in order to achieve best therapeutic results and outcomes. Several factors should be considered to achieve personalized stem cells therapy such as, recipient factors, donor factors, and the overall body environment in which the stem cells could be active and functional. In addition to these factors, the source of stem cells must be carefully chosen based on functional and physical criteria that lead to optimal outcomes.

  11. International program activities in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The following areas of our international activities in magnetic fusion are briefly described: (1) policy; (2) background; (3) strategy; (4) strategic considerations and concerns; (5) domestic program inplications, and (6) implementation. The current US activities are reviewed. Some of our present program needs are outlined

  12. Open magnetic fields in active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svestka, Z.; Solodyna, C.V.; Levine, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Soft X-ray observations confirm that some of the dark gaps seen between interconnecting loops and inner cores of active regions may be loci of open fields, as it has been predicted by global potential extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields. It seems that the field lines may open only in a later state of the active region development. (Auth.)

  13. Summary of: Regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of the biological processes involved in tooth development and repair at the cellular and molecular levels have underpinned the newly emerging area of regenerative endodontics. Development of treatment protocols based on exploiting the natural wound healing properties of the dental pulp and applying tissue engineering principles has allowed reporting of case series showing preservation of tissue vitality and apexogenesis. To review current case series reporting regenerative endodontics. Current treatment approaches tend to stimulate more reparative than regenerative responses in respect of the new tissue generated, which often does not closely resemble the physiological structure of dentine-pulp. However, despite these biological limitations, such techniques appear to offer significant promise for improved treatment outcomes. Improved biological outcomes will likely emerge from the many experimental studies being reported and will further contribute to improvements in clinical treatment protocols.

  14. Regenerative similariton laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault North

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-pulsating lasers based on cascaded reshaping and reamplification (2R are capable of initiating ultrashort pulses despite the accumulation of large amounts of nonlinearities in all-fiber resonators. The spectral properties of pulses in self-similar propagation are compatible with cascaded 2R regeneration by offset filtering, making parabolic pulses suitable for the design of a laser of this recently introduced class. A new type of regenerative laser giving birth to similaritons is numerically investigated and shows that this laser is the analog of regenerative sources based solely on self-phase modulation and offset filtering. The regenerative similariton laser does not suffer from instabilities due to excessive nonlinearities and enables ultrashort pulse generation in a simple cavity configuration.

  15. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  16. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the resistance as a function of temperature and magnetic field in clean polycrystalline samples of NbSe2, MgB2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (BSCCO) superconductors. Thermally activated flux flow behaviour is seen in all the three systems and clearly identified in bulk MgB2. While the activation energy at low fields for MgB2 ...

  17. MASC: Magnetic Activity of the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchere, Frederic; Fineschi, Silvano; Gan, Weiqun; Peter, Hardi; Vial, Jean-Claude; Zhukov, Andrei; Parenti, Susanna; Li, Hui; Romoli, Marco

    We present MASC, an innovative payload designed to explore the magnetic activity of the solar corona. It is composed of three complementary instruments: a Hard-X-ray spectrometer, a UV / EUV imager, and a Visible Light / UV polarimetric coronagraph able to measure the coronal magnetic field. The solar corona is structured in magnetically closed and open structures from which slow and fast solar winds are respectively released. In spite of much progress brought by two decades of almost uninterrupted observations from several space missions, the sources and acceleration mechanisms of both types are still not understood. This continuous expansion of the solar atmosphere is disturbed by sporadic but frequent and violent events. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale massive eruptions of magnetic structures out of the corona, while solar flares trace the sudden heating of coronal plasma and the acceleration of electrons and ions to high, sometimes relativistic, energies. Both phenomena are most probably driven by instabilities of the magnetic field in the corona. The relations between flares and CMEs are still not understood in terms of initiation and energy partition between large-scale motions, small-scale heating and particle acceleration. The initiation is probably related to magnetic reconnection which itself results magnetic topological changes due to e.g. flux emergence, footpoints motions, etc. Acceleration and heating are also strongly coupled since the atmospheric heating is thought to result from the impact of accelerated particles. The measurement of both physical processes and their outputs is consequently of major importance. However, despite its fundamental importance as a driver for the physics of the Sun and of the heliosphere, the magnetic field of our star’s outer atmosphere remains poorly understood. This is due in large part to the fact that the magnetic field is a very difficult quantity to measure. Our knowledge of its strength and

  18. Regenerative medicine in otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, J C R; Fishman, J M; Juniat, S; Tolley, N; Birchall, M A

    2015-08-01

    Tissue engineering using biocompatible scaffolds, with or without cells, can permit surgeons to restore structure and function following tissue resection or in cases of congenital abnormality. Tracheal regeneration has emerged as a spearhead application of these technologies, whilst regenerative therapies are now being developed to treat most other diseases within otolaryngology. A systematic review of the literature was performed using Ovid Medline and Ovid Embase, from database inception to 15 November 2014. A total of 561 papers matched the search criteria, with 76 fulfilling inclusion criteria. Articles were predominantly pre-clinical animal studies, reflecting the current status of research in this field. Several key human research articles were identified and discussed. The main issues facing research in regenerative surgery are translation of animal model work into human models, increasing stem cell availability so it can be used to further research, and development of better facilities to enable implementation of these advances.

  19. Open magnetic fields in active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svestka, Z.; Solodyna, C. V.; Howard, R.; Levine, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Soft X-ray images and magnetograms of several active regions and coronal holes are examined which support the interpretation that some of the dark X-ray gaps seen between interconnecting loops and inner cores of active regions are foot points of open field lines inside the active regions. Characteristics of the investigated dark gaps are summarized. All the active regions with dark X-ray gaps at the proper place and with the correct polarity predicted by global potential extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields are shown to be old active regions, indicating that field opening is accomplished only in a late phase of active-region development. It is noted that some of the observed dark gaps probably have nothing in common with open fields, but are either due to the decreased temperature in low-lying portions of interconnecting loops or are the roots of higher and less dense or cooler loops.

  20. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  1. Purification of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursors using magnetic activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gonçalo M C; Fernandes, Tiago G; Rodrigues, Carlos A V; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Diogo, Maria Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Neural precursor (NP) cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), and their neuronal progeny, will play an important role in disease modeling, drug screening tests, central nervous system development studies, and may even become valuable for regenerative medicine treatments. Nonetheless, it is challenging to obtain homogeneous and synchronously differentiated NP populations from hiPSCs, and after neural commitment many pluripotent stem cells remain in the differentiated cultures. Here, we describe an efficient and simple protocol to differentiate hiPSC-derived NPs in 12 days, and we include a final purification stage where Tra-1-60+ pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are removed using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), leaving the NP population nearly free of PSCs.

  2. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules in Alagille syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, Jordan B.; Bellah, Richard D.; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Maya, Carolina; Pawel, Bruce R.

    2017-01-01

    Children with Alagille syndrome undergo surveillance radiologic examinations as they are at risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is limited literature on the imaging of liver masses in Alagille syndrome. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of incidental benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules in this population. To describe the imaging findings of giant regenerative nodules in patients with Alagille syndrome. A retrospective search of the hospital database was performed to find all cases of hepatic masses in patients with Alagille syndrome during a 10-year period. Imaging, clinical charts, laboratory data and available pathology were reviewed and analyzed and summarized for each patient. Twenty of 45 patients with confirmed Alagille syndrome had imaging studies. Of those, we identified six with giant focal liver masses. All six patients had large central hepatic masses that were remarkably similar on US and MRI, in addition to having features of cirrhosis. In each case, the mass was located in hepatic segment VIII and imaging showed the mass splaying the main portal venous branches at the hepatic hilum, as well as smaller portal and hepatic venous branches coursing through them. On MRI, signal intensity of the mass was isointense to liver on T1-weighted sequences in four of six patients, but hyperintense on T1 in two of six patients. In all six cases, the mass was hypointense on T2- weighted sequences. The mass post-contrast was isointense to adjacent liver in all phases in five the cases. Five out of six patients had pathological correlation demonstrating preserved ductal architecture confirming the final diagnosis of a regenerative nodule. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules with characteristic US and MR features can occur in patients with Alagille syndrome with underlying cirrhosis. Recognizing these lesions as benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules should, thereby, mitigate any need for

  3. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules in Alagille syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jordan B. [Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Department of Radiology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bellah, Richard D.; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Maya, Carolina [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pawel, Bruce R. [University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Children with Alagille syndrome undergo surveillance radiologic examinations as they are at risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is limited literature on the imaging of liver masses in Alagille syndrome. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of incidental benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules in this population. To describe the imaging findings of giant regenerative nodules in patients with Alagille syndrome. A retrospective search of the hospital database was performed to find all cases of hepatic masses in patients with Alagille syndrome during a 10-year period. Imaging, clinical charts, laboratory data and available pathology were reviewed and analyzed and summarized for each patient. Twenty of 45 patients with confirmed Alagille syndrome had imaging studies. Of those, we identified six with giant focal liver masses. All six patients had large central hepatic masses that were remarkably similar on US and MRI, in addition to having features of cirrhosis. In each case, the mass was located in hepatic segment VIII and imaging showed the mass splaying the main portal venous branches at the hepatic hilum, as well as smaller portal and hepatic venous branches coursing through them. On MRI, signal intensity of the mass was isointense to liver on T1-weighted sequences in four of six patients, but hyperintense on T1 in two of six patients. In all six cases, the mass was hypointense on T2- weighted sequences. The mass post-contrast was isointense to adjacent liver in all phases in five the cases. Five out of six patients had pathological correlation demonstrating preserved ductal architecture confirming the final diagnosis of a regenerative nodule. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules with characteristic US and MR features can occur in patients with Alagille syndrome with underlying cirrhosis. Recognizing these lesions as benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules should, thereby, mitigate any need for

  4. The vector structure of active magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1985-01-01

    Observations are needed to show the form of the strains introduced into the fields above the surface of the Sun. The longitudinal component alone does not provide the basic information, so that it has been necessary in the past to use the filamentary structure observed in H sub alpha to supplement the longitudinal information. Vector measurements provide the additional essential information to determine the strains, with the filamentary structure available as a check for consistency. It is to be expected, then, that vector measurements will permit a direct mapping of the strains imposed on the magnetic fields of active regions. It will be interesting to study the relation of those strains to the emergence of magnetic flux, flares, eruptive prominences, etc. In particular we may hope to study the relaxation of the strains via the dynamical nonequilibrium.

  5. Observational Study of Solar Magnetic Active Phenomena Hongqi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1991-06-09

    Jun 9, 1991 ... Key words. Sun: activity—flares—magnetic fields. 1. Introduction. It is believed that the newly emerging magnetic flux of opposite polarities and the shear of transverse magnetic field ... magnetic poles of negative polarity increased faster than positive one in active region. NOAA 6580-6619-6659. The total ...

  6. Inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 induces complex immune activating, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative markers in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Cash, Howard A; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to document the immune activating and anti-inflammatory effects of inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (Staimune™) cells on human immune cells in vitro. Methods In vitro cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy blood donors were treated with inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells for 24 hours. After incubation, the PBMC were stained with fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies for CD3, CD56, and CD69 to monitor cellular activation by flow cytometry. The culture supernatants were tested for cytokine profile using a 27-plex Luminex array, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Results Inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells induced the CD69 early activation marker on CD3+ CD56− T lymphocytes, CD3+ CD56+ NKT cells, CD3−CD56+ NK cells, and also some cells within the CD3−CD56− non-T non-NK cell subset. Culture supernatants showed robust increases in the immune-activating cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α. IFN-γ levels were increased, along with three chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β. The two anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ra and IL-10 showed increases, as well as the G-CSF growth factor involved in repair and stem cell biology. In contrast, GM-CSF levels showed a mild decrease, showing a highly selective growth factor response. Conclusion The inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells activated human immune cells and altered the production of both immune activating and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Of special importance is the novel demonstration of a selective upregulation of the G-CSF growth factor involved in postinjury and postinflammation repair and regeneration. This suggests that important immunogenic cell wall components, such as lipoteichoic acid, are undamaged after the inactivation and retain the complex beneficial biological activities previously demonstrated for the cell walls

  7. Inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 induces complex immune activating, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative markers in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen GS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gitte S Jensen,1 Howard A Cash,2 Sean Farmer,2 David Keller2 1NIS Labs, Esplanade, Klamath Falls, OR, USA, 2Ganeden Biotech Inc., Landerbrook Drive Suite, Mayfield Heights, OH, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to document the immune activating and anti-inflammatory effects of inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (Staimune™ cells on human immune cells in vitro.Methods: In vitro cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from healthy blood donors were treated with inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells for 24 hours. After incubation, the PBMC were stained with fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies for CD3, CD56, and CD69 to monitor cellular activation by flow cytometry. The culture supernatants were tested for cytokine profile using a 27-plex Luminex array, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors.Results: Inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells induced the CD69 early activation marker on CD3+ CD56− T lymphocytes, CD3+ CD56+ NKT cells, CD3−CD56+ NK cells, and also some cells within the CD3−CD56− non-T non-NK cell subset. Culture supernatants showed robust increases in the immune-activating cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α. IFN-γ levels were increased, along with three chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β. The two anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ra and IL-10 showed increases, as well as the G-CSF growth factor involved in repair and stem cell biology. In contrast, GM-CSF levels showed a mild decrease, showing a highly selective growth factor response.Conclusion: The inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells activated human immune cells and altered the production of both immune activating and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Of special importance is the novel demonstration of a selective upregulation of the G-CSF growth factor involved in postinjury and postinflammation repair and regeneration. This suggests that

  8. Inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 induces complex immune activating, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative markers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Cash, Howard A; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the immune activating and anti-inflammatory effects of inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (Staimune™) cells on human immune cells in vitro. In vitro cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy blood donors were treated with inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells for 24 hours. After incubation, the PBMC were stained with fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies for CD3, CD56, and CD69 to monitor cellular activation by flow cytometry. The culture supernatants were tested for cytokine profile using a 27-plex Luminex array, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells induced the CD69 early activation marker on CD3 + CD56 - T lymphocytes, CD3 + CD56 + NKT cells, CD3 - CD56 + NK cells, and also some cells within the CD3 - CD56 - non-T non-NK cell subset. Culture supernatants showed robust increases in the immune-activating cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α. IFN-γ levels were increased, along with three chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β. The two anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ra and IL-10 showed increases, as well as the G-CSF growth factor involved in repair and stem cell biology. In contrast, GM-CSF levels showed a mild decrease, showing a highly selective growth factor response. The inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells activated human immune cells and altered the production of both immune activating and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Of special importance is the novel demonstration of a selective upregulation of the G-CSF growth factor involved in postinjury and postinflammation repair and regeneration. This suggests that important immunogenic cell wall components, such as lipoteichoic acid, are undamaged after the inactivation and retain the complex beneficial biological activities previously demonstrated for the cell walls from live B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086

  9. Regenerative rehabilitation: a new future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Childers, Martin K

    2014-11-01

    Modern rehabilitation medicine is propelled by newfound knowledge aimed at offering solutions for an increasingly aging population afflicted by chronic debilitating conditions. Considered a core component of future health care, the rollout of regenerative medicine underscores a paradigm shift in patient management targeted at restoring physiologic function and restituting normative impact. Nascent regenerative technologies offer unprecedented prospects in achieving repair of degenerated, diseased, or damaged tissues. In this context, principles of regenerative science are increasingly integrated in rehabilitation practices as illustrated in the present Supplement. Encompassing a growing multidisciplinary domain, the emergent era of "regenerative rehabilitation" brings radical innovations at the forefront of healthcare blueprints.

  10. Center for Neuroscience & Regenerative Medicine

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM) was established as a collaborative intramural federal program involving the U.S. Department of Defense...

  11. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  12. Nanotechnologies in regenerative medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Syková, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, 3-4 (2010), s. 144-156 ISSN 1364-5706 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500390902; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR KAN201110651 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) 1M0538; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1242; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520804; EC FP6 project ENIMET(XE) LSHM-CT-2005-019063 Program:1M; GA; KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Nanotechnology * regenerative medicine * nanofibers Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2010

  13. Regenerative laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancardi, F.R.; Landerman, A.; Melikian, G.

    1975-01-01

    Regenerative apparatus for exhausting the working medium from the optical cavity of a laser and for supplying preheated diluent to the reaction chamber of a laser is disclosed. In an aftercooler thermal energy is exchanged between the working medium exhausted from the optical cavity and a cryogenic coolant which is subsequently utilized as the motive fluid for an ejector and as a diluent in the production of laser gas. Highly toxic and corrosive gases are condensed out of the working medium as the cryogenic coolant is evaporated and superheated. A preheater transfers additional heat to the diluent before the diluent enters the reaction chamber. (U.S.)

  14. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-12-26

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  15. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Amy, Gary; Chunggaze, Mohammed; Al-Ghasham, Tawfiq

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  16. Inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 induces complex immune activating, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative markers in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Gitte S; Cash, Howard A; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David

    2017-01-01

    Gitte S Jensen,1 Howard A Cash,2 Sean Farmer,2 David Keller2 1NIS Labs, Esplanade, Klamath Falls, OR, USA, 2Ganeden Biotech Inc., Landerbrook Drive Suite, Mayfield Heights, OH, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to document the immune activating and anti-inflammatory effects of inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (Staimune™) cells on human immune cells in vitro.Methods: In vitro cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy blood do...

  17. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-01-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, α, of the energy spectrum, E(k) ∼ k -α , and the total spectral energy, W = ∫E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of α and W as A = 10 b (αW) c , with b = -7.92 ± 0.58 and c = 1.85 ± 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  18. Dual stage active magnetic regenerator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.

    1999-03-30

    A dual stage active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as well as method using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle includes a high temperature stage refrigerant comprising DyAl.sub.2 or (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 where x is selected to be greater than 0 and less than about 0.3 in combination with a low temperature stage comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 where x is selected to be greater than about 0.5 and less than 1 to provide significantly improved refrigeration efficiency in the liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen.

  19. Regenerative Medicine Build-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenning, Michael A.; Gores, Gregory J.; Harper, C. Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regenerative technologies strive to boost innate repair processes and restitute normative impact. Deployment of regenerative principles into practice is poised to usher in a new era in health care, driving radical innovation in patient management to address the needs of an aging population challenged by escalating chronic diseases. There is urgency to design, execute, and validate viable paradigms for translating and implementing the science of regenerative medicine into tangible health benefits that provide value to stakeholders. A regenerative medicine model of care would entail scalable production and standardized application of clinical grade biotherapies supported by comprehensive supply chain capabilities that integrate sourcing and manufacturing with care delivery. Mayo Clinic has rolled out a blueprint for discovery, translation, and application of regenerative medicine therapies for accelerated adoption into the standard of care. To establish regenerative medical and surgical service lines, the Mayo Clinic model incorporates patient access, enabling platforms and delivery. Access is coordinated through a designated portal, the Regenerative Medicine Consult Service, serving to facilitate patient/provider education, procurement of biomaterials, referral to specialty services, and/or regenerative interventions, often in clinical trials. Platforms include the Regenerative Medicine Biotrust and Good Manufacturing Practice facilities for manufacture of clinical grade products for cell-based, acellular, and/or biomaterial applications. Care delivery leverages dedicated interventional suites for provision of regenerative services. Performance is tracked using a scorecard system to inform decision making. The Mayo Clinic roadmap exemplifies an integrated organization in the discovery, development, and delivery of regenerative medicine within a growing community of practice at the core of modern health care. Significance Regenerative medicine is at the

  20. Regenerative Medicine Build-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Andre; Pfenning, Michael A; Gores, Gregory J; Harper, C Michel

    2015-12-01

    Regenerative technologies strive to boost innate repair processes and restitute normative impact. Deployment of regenerative principles into practice is poised to usher in a new era in health care, driving radical innovation in patient management to address the needs of an aging population challenged by escalating chronic diseases. There is urgency to design, execute, and validate viable paradigms for translating and implementing the science of regenerative medicine into tangible health benefits that provide value to stakeholders. A regenerative medicine model of care would entail scalable production and standardized application of clinical grade biotherapies supported by comprehensive supply chain capabilities that integrate sourcing and manufacturing with care delivery. Mayo Clinic has rolled out a blueprint for discovery, translation, and application of regenerative medicine therapies for accelerated adoption into the standard of care. To establish regenerative medical and surgical service lines, the Mayo Clinic model incorporates patient access, enabling platforms and delivery. Access is coordinated through a designated portal, the Regenerative Medicine Consult Service, serving to facilitate patient/provider education, procurement of biomaterials, referral to specialty services, and/or regenerative interventions, often in clinical trials. Platforms include the Regenerative Medicine Biotrust and Good Manufacturing Practice facilities for manufacture of clinical grade products for cell-based, acellular, and/or biomaterial applications. Care delivery leverages dedicated interventional suites for provision of regenerative services. Performance is tracked using a scorecard system to inform decision making. The Mayo Clinic roadmap exemplifies an integrated organization in the discovery, development, and delivery of regenerative medicine within a growing community of practice at the core of modern health care. Regenerative medicine is at the vanguard of health care

  1. Energy and information technologies in regenerative medicine: effect of the interaction of biologically active plant substrates with the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph P Babinets

    2015-06-01

    Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland   The results of development and research of new type device intended for correction of the functional state of the person, and to neutralize the negative influence of external electromagnetic radiation of different origin, which is a part of the active energy carrier in the form of extracts from plants located in the synergistic relationship. Keywords: electromagnetic radiation, the information signal, biocorrector, converter, Kirlian photography, acupuncture meridians.   В статье приведены результаты разработки и исследований устройств нового типа, предназначенных как для коррекции функционального состояния человека, так и для нейтрализации негативного влияния внешних электромагнитных излучений различного происхождения, в составе которых находится активный энергетический носитель в виде вытяжек из растений, находящихся в синергетической взаимосвязи. Ключевые слова: электромагнитные излучения, информационный сигнал, биокорректор, нейтрализатор, кирлианография, акупунктурные меридианы.

  2. Deciphering Solar Magnetic Activity: On Grand Minima in Solar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott William Mcintosh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sun provides the energy necessary to sustain our existence. While the Sun provides for us, it is also capable of taking away. The weather and climatic scales of solar evolution and the Sun-Earth connection are not well understood. There has been tremendous progress in the century since the discovery of solar magnetism - magnetism that ultimately drives the electromagnetic, particulate and eruptive forcing of our planetary system. There is contemporary evidence of a decrease in solar magnetism, perhaps even indicators of a significant downward trend, over recent decades. Are we entering a minimum in solar activity that is deeper and longer than a typical solar minimum, a grand minimum? How could we tell if we are? What is a grand minimum and how does the Sun recover? These are very pertinent questions for modern civilization. In this paper we present a hypothetical demonstration of entry and exit from grand minimum conditions based on a recent analysis of solar features over the past 20 years and their possible connection to the origins of the 11(-ish year solar activity cycle.

  3. Deciphering Solar Magnetic Activity: On Grand Minima in Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, Scott; Leamon, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The Sun provides the energy necessary to sustain our existence. While the Sun provides for us, it is also capable of taking away. The weather and climatic scales of solar evolution and the Sun-Earth connection are not well understood. There has been tremendous progress in the century since the discovery of solar magnetism - magnetism that ultimately drives the electromagnetic, particulate and eruptive forcing of our planetary system. There is contemporary evidence of a decrease in solar magnetism, perhaps even indicators of a significant downward trend, over recent decades. Are we entering a minimum in solar activity that is deeper and longer than a typical solar minimum, a "grand minimum"? How could we tell if we are? What is a grand minimum and how does the Sun recover? These are very pertinent questions for modern civilization. In this paper we present a hypothetical demonstration of entry and exit from grand minimum conditions based on a recent analysis of solar features over the past 20 years and their possible connection to the origins of the 11(-ish) year solar activity cycle.

  4. Active magnetic regenerator method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregoria, Anthony J.; Zimm, Carl B.; Janda, Dennis J.; Lubasz, Richard A.; Jastrab, Alexander G.; Johnson, Joseph W.; Ludeman, Evan M.

    1993-01-01

    In an active magnetic regenerator apparatus having a regenerator bed of material exhibiting the magnetocaloric effect, flow of heat transfer fluid through the bed is unbalanced, so that more fluid flows through the bed from the hot side of the bed to the cold side than from the cold side to the hot side. The excess heat transfer fluid is diverted back to the hot side of the bed. The diverted fluid may be passed through a heat exchanger to draw heat from a fluid to be cooled. The apparatus may be operated at cryogenic temperatures, and the heat transfer fluid may be helium gas and the fluid to be cooled may be hydrogen gas, which is liquified by the device. The apparatus can be formed in multiple stages to allow a greater span of cooling temperatures than a single stage, and each stage may be comprised of two bed parts. Where two bed parts are employed in each stage, a portion of the fluid passing from the hot side to the cold side of a first bed part which does not have a magnetic field applied thereto is diverted back to the cold side of the other bed part in the stage, where it is passed through to the hot side. The remainder of the fluid from the cold side of the bed part of the first stage is passed to the hot side of the bed part of the second stage.

  5. Lower activation materials and magnetic fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Bloom, E.E.; Davis, J.W.; Gold, R.E.; Little, R.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, D.L.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactivity in fusion reactors can be effectively controlled by materials selection. The detailed relationship between the use of a material for construction of a magnetic fusion reactor and the material's characteristics important to waste disposal, safety, and system maintainability has been studied. The quantitative levels of radioactivation are presented for many materials and alloys, including the role of impurities, and for various design alternatives. A major outcome has been the development of quantitative definitions to characterize materials based on their radioactivation properties. Another key result is a four-level classification scheme to categorize fusion reactors based on quantitative criteria for waste management, system maintenance, and safety. A recommended minimum goal for fusion reactor development is a reference reactor that (a) meets the requirements for Class C shallow land burial of waste materials, (b) permits limited hands-on maintenance outside the magnet's shield within 2 days of a shutdown, and (c) meets all requirements for engineered safety. The achievement of a fusion reactor with at least the characteristics of the reference reactor is a realistic goal. Therefore, in making design choices or in developing particular materials or alloys for fusion reactor applications, consideration must be given to both the activation characteristics of a material and its engineering practicality for a given application

  6. The pharmacology of regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, George J; Saul, Justin M; Furth, Mark E; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase "regenerative pharmacology" to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is "the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues." As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all.

  7. Magnetic activity at Mars - Mars Surface Magnetic Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Menvielle, M.; Merayo, José M.G.

    2012-01-01

    , and use this to provide an estimate of the expected magnetic disturbances at the Martian surface. Far from crustal anomaly regions the expected magnetic disturbances originating from currents associated with the induced magnetosphere are very weak at the day-side, but most likely larger on the night...... around medium intensity radial anomalies in the equatorial region appear to derive from local current loops or vortices around cusp-like radial fields, acting to partly cancel the crustal field. The radial perturbation is further found to depend on upstream solar wind dynamic pressure. We define...

  8. Regenerative Therapy for Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Daftarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in various disciplines of basic sciences including embryology, molecular and cell biology, genetics, and nanotechnology, as well as stem cell biology have opened new horizons for regenerative therapy. The unique characteristics of stem cells prompt a sound understanding for their use in modern regenerative therapies. This review article discusses stem cells, developmental stages of the eye field, eye field transcriptional factors, and endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. Recent studies and challenges in the application of stem cells for retinal pigment epithelial degeneration models will be summarized followed by obstacles facing regenerative therapy.

  9. An active antenna for ELF magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, John F.; Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The work of Nikola Tesla, especially that directed toward world-wide electrical energy distribution via excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances, has stimulated interest in the study of these resonances. Not only are they important for their potential use in the transmission of intelligence and electrical power, they are important because they are an integral part of our natural environment. This paper describes the design of a sensitive, untuned, low noise active antenna which is uniquely suited to modern earth-ionosphere cavity resonance measurements employing fast-Fourier transform techniques for near-real-time data analysis. It capitalizes on a little known field-antenna interaction mechanism. Recently, the authors made preliminary measurements of the magnetic fields in the earth-ionosphere cavity. During the course of this study, the problem of designing an optimized ELF magnetic field sensor presented itself. The sensor would have to be small, light weight (for portable use), and capable of detecting the 5-50 Hz picoTesla-level signals generated by the natural excitations of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances. A review of the literature revealed that past researchers had employed very large search coils, both tuned and untuned. Hill and Bostick, for example, used coils of 30,000 turns wound on high permeability cores of 1.83 m length, weighing 40 kg. Tuned coils are unsuitable for modern fast-Fourier transform data analysis techniques which require a broad spectrum input. 'Untuned' coils connected to high input impedance voltage amplifiers exhibit resonant responses at the resonant frequency determined by the coil inductance and the coil distributed winding capacitance. Also, considered as antennas, they have effective areas equal only to their geometrical areas.

  10. Perivascular cells for regenerative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); M. Corselli (Mirko); W.C. Chen (William); B. Péault (Bruno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are currently the best candidate therapeutic cells for regenerative medicine related to osteoarticular, muscular, vascular and inflammatory diseases, although these cells remain heterogeneous and necessitate a better biological characterization. We

  11. Pulse-driven magnetoimpedance sensor detection of cardiac magnetic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Nakayama

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish a convenient method for detecting biomagnetic activity in the heart. Electrical activity of the heart simultaneously induces a magnetic field. Detection of this magnetic activity will enable non-contact, noninvasive evaluation to be made. We improved the sensitivity of a pulse-driven magnetoimpedance (PMI sensor, which is used as an electric compass in mobile phones and as a motion sensor of the operation handle in computer games, toward a pico-Tesla (pT level, and measured magnetic fields on the surface of the thoracic wall in humans. The changes in magnetic field detected by this sensor synchronized with the electric activity of the electrocardiogram (ECG. The shape of the magnetic wave was largely altered by shifting the sensor position within 20 mm in parallel and/or perpendicular to the thoracic wall. The magnetic activity was maximal in the 4th intercostals near the center of the sterna. Furthermore, averaging the magnetic activity at 15 mm in the distance between the thoracic wall and the sensor demonstrated magnetic waves mimicking the P wave and QRS complex. The present study shows the application of PMI sensor in detecting cardiac magnetic activity in several healthy subjects, and suggests future applications of this technology in medicine and biology.

  12. Deciphering solar magnetic activity: on grand minima in solar activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2015-07-08

    The Sun provides the energy necessary to sustain our existence. While the Sun provides for us, it is also capable of taking away. The weather and climatic scales of solar evolution and the Sun-Earth connection are not well- understood. There has been tremendous progress in the century since the discovery of solar magnetism—magnetism that ultimately drives the electromagnetic, particulate, and eruptive forcing of our planetary system. There is contemporary evidence of a decrease in solar magnetism, perhaps even indicators of a significant downward trend, over recent decades. Are we entering a minimum in solar activity that is deeper and longer than a typical solar minimum, a “grand minimum”? How could we tell if we are? What is a grand minimum and how does the Sun recover? These are very pertinent questions for modern civilization. In this paper we present a hypothetical demonstration of entry and exit from grand minimum conditions based on a recent analysis of solar features over the past 20 years and their possible connection to the origins of the 11(&ish) year solar activity cycle.

  13. A helium regenerative compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, W.L.; Nutt, W.E.; Sixsmith, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a regenerative compressor that was developed primarily for use in cryogenic helium systems. The objectives for the development were to achieve acceptable efficiency in the machine using conventional motor and bearing technology while reducing the complexity of the system required to control contamination from the lubricants. A single stage compressor was built and tested. The compressor incorporates aerodynamically shaped blades on a 218 mm (8.6 inches) diameter impeller to achieve high efficiency. A gas-buffered non-contact shaft seal is used to oppose the diffusion of lubricant from the motor bearings into the cryogenic circuit. Since it is a rotating machine, the flow is continuous and steady, and the machine is very quiet. During performance testing with helium, the single stage machine has demonstrated a pressure ratio of 1.5 at a flow rate of 12 g/s with measured isothermal efficiencies in excess of 30%. This performance compares favorably with efficiencies generally achieved in oil flooded screw compressors

  14. The influence of the magnetic field on the performance of an active magnetic regenerator (AMR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the time variation of the magnetic field, termed the magnetic field profile, on the performance of a magnetocaloric refrigeration device using the active magnetic regeneration (AMR) cycle is studied for a number of process parameters for both a parallel plate and packed bed...... temperature span and the maximum cooling capacity of 20–40% for both parallel plate and packed bed regenerators. The maximum cooling capacity is shown to depend very weakly on the ramp rate of the magnetic field. Reducing the temporal width of the high field portion of the magnetic field profile by 10% leads...

  15. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for a Regenerative Heat Exchanger in the International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the system dynamics was created using Excel. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  16. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for an International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the systems dynamics was created using an Excel Spreadsheet. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  17. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  18. Light-Activated Magnetic Compass in Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss the suggest......Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss...... the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds....

  19. Activation of structural alloys in fusion reactor magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.; Doran, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Using the REAC2 code system, both short-term and long-term activation were calculated for possible structural and magnet materials at the shield-magnet interface. The flux was taken from the STARFIRE conceptual design and a 30-year lifetime was assumed. Short-term activation does not seem to be a problem. Only materials with large amounts of niobium appear to be a potential problem for long-term activation. 2 tabs

  20. Feasibility investigation of allogeneic endometrial regenerative cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Michael

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endometrial Regenerative Cells (ERC are a population of mesenchymal-like stem cells having pluripotent differentiation activity and ability to induce neoangiogenesis. In vitro and animal studies suggest ERC are immune privileged and in certain situations actively suppress ongoing immune responses. In this paper we describe the production of clinical grade ERC and initial safety experiences in 4 patients with multiple sclerosis treated intravenously and intrathecally. The case with the longest follow up, of more than one year, revealed no immunological reactions or treatment associated adverse effects. These preliminary data suggest feasibility of clinical ERC administration and support further studies with this novel stem cell type.

  1. Magnetic and Velocity Field Variations in the Active Regions NOAA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the magnetic and velocity field evolution in the two magnetically complex active regions NOAA 10486 and NOAA 10488 observed during October–November 2003. We have used the available data to examine net flux and Doppler velocity time profiles to identify changes associated with evolutionary and ...

  2. Regenerative endodontics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S G; Malek, M; Sigurdsson, A; Lin, L M; Kahler, B

    2018-05-19

    The European Society of Endodontology and the American Association for Endodontists have released position statements and clinical considerations for regenerative endodontics. There is increasing literature on this field since the initial reports of Iwaya et al. (Dental Traumatology, 17, 2001, 185) and Banchs & Trope (Journal of Endodontics, 30, 2004, 196). Endogenous stem cells from an induced periapical bleeding and scaffolds using blood clot, platelet rich plasma or platelet-rich fibrin have been utilized in regenerative endodontics. This approach has been described as a 'paradigm shift' and considered the first treatment option for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. There are three treatment outcomes of regenerative endodontics; (i) resolution of clinical signs and symptoms; (ii) further root maturation; and (iii) return of neurogenesis. It is known that results are variable for these objectives, and true regeneration of the pulp/dentine complex is not achieved. Repair derived primarily from the periodontal and osseous tissues has been shown histologically. It is hoped that with the concept of tissue engineering, namely stem cells, scaffolds and signalling molecules, that true pulp regeneration is an achievable goal. This review discusses current knowledge as well as future directions for regenerative endodontics. Patient-centred outcomes such as tooth discolouration and possibly more appointments with the potential for adverse effects needs to be discussed with patients and parents. Based on the classification of Cvek (Endodontics and Dental Traumatology, 8, 1992, 45), it is proposed that regenerative endodontics should be considered for teeth with incomplete root formation although teeth with near or complete root formation may be more suited for conventional endodontic therapy or MTA barrier techniques. However, much is still not known about clinical and biological aspects of regenerative endodontics. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by

  3. Thermal activation in statistical clusters of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovorka, O

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a kinetic Monte-Carlo study of thermally activated magnetisation dynamics in clusters of statistically distributed magnetic nanoparticles. The structure of clusters is assumed to be of fractal nature, consistently with recent observations of magnetic particle aggregation in cellular environments. The computed magnetisation relaxation decay and frequency-dependent hysteresis loops are seen to significantly depend on the fractal dimension of aggregates, leading to accelerated magnetisation relaxation and reduction in the size of hysteresis loops as the fractal dimension increases from one-dimensional-like to three-dimensional-like clusters. Discussed are implications for applications in nanomedicine, such as magnetic hyperthermia or magnetic particle imaging. (paper)

  4. Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Casper B.; Bendtsen, Michael; Berg, Lise C.

    2016-01-01

    to musculoskeletal pain and disability. The Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS) 2015 was motivated by the need to address regenerative challenges in an ageing population by engaging clinicians, basic scientists, and engineers. In this position paper, we review our contemporary understanding of societal......, patient-related, and basic science-related challenges in order to provide a reasoned roadmap for the future to deal with this compelling and urgent healthcare problem. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Nordic Orthopedic Federation....

  5. Magnetism and Electricity Activity "Attracts" Student Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity and magnetism are intimately linked, this relationship forming the basis of the modern electric utility system and the generation of bulk electrical energy. There is rich literature from which to teach students the basics, but nothing drives the point home like having them learn from firsthand experience--and that is what this…

  6. Activating human genes with zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors and CRISPR/Cas9 for gene therapy and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Perez-Pinera, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    New technologies have recently been developed to control the expression of human genes in their native genomic context by engineering synthetic transcription factors that can be targeted to any DNA sequence. The ability to precisely regulate any gene as it occurs naturally in the genome provides a means to address a variety of diseases and disorders. This approach also circumvents some of the traditional challenges of gene therapy. In this editorial, we review the technologies that have enabled targeted human gene activation, including the engineering of transcription factors based on zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Additionally, we highlight examples in which these methods have been developed for therapeutic applications and discuss challenges and opportunities.

  7. Vagus nerve stimulation magnet activation for seizures: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R S; Eggleston, K S; Wright, C W

    2015-01-01

    Some patients receiving VNS Therapy report benefit from manually activating the generator with a handheld magnet at the time of a seizure. A review of 20 studies comprising 859 subjects identified patients who reported on-demand magnet mode stimulation to be beneficial. Benefit was reported in a weighted average of 45% of patients (range 0-89%) using the magnet, with seizure cessation claimed in a weighted average of 28% (range 15-67%). In addition to seizure termination, patients sometimes reported decreased intensity or duration of seizures or the post-ictal period. One study reported an isolated instance of worsening with magnet stimulation (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157, 2003 and 560). All of the reviewed studies assessed adjunctive magnet use. No studies were designed to provide Level I evidence of efficacy of magnet-induced stimulation. Retrospective analysis of one pivotal randomized trial of VNS therapy showed significantly more seizures terminated or improved in the active stimulation group vs the control group. Prospective, controlled studies would be required to isolate the effect and benefit of magnet mode stimulation and to document that the magnet-induced stimulation is the proximate cause of seizure reduction. Manual application of the magnet to initiate stimulation is not always practical because many patients are immobilized or unaware of their seizures, asleep or not in reach of the magnet. Algorithms based on changes in heart rate at or near the onset of the seizure provide a methodology for automated responsive stimulation. Because literature indicates additional benefits from on-demand magnet mode stimulation, a potential role exists for automatic activation of stimulation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Stellar magnetic activity – Star-Planet Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppenhaeger, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellar magnetic activity is an important factor in the formation and evolution of exoplanets. Magnetic phenomena like stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, and high-energy emission affect the exoplanetary atmosphere and its mass loss over time. One major question is whether the magnetic evolution of exoplanet host stars is the same as for stars without planets; tidal and magnetic interactions of a star and its close-in planets may play a role in this. Stellar magnetic activity also shapes our ability to detect exoplanets with different methods in the first place, and therefore we need to understand it properly to derive an accurate estimate of the existing exoplanet population. I will review recent theoretical and observational results, as well as outline some avenues for future progress.

  9. Regenerative-filter-incinerator device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, T.L.

    1977-10-18

    A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.

  10. Regenerative Perspective in Modern Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihnea Ioan Nicolescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to trace the contour lines of regenerative dentistry, to offer an introductory overview on this emerging field to both dental students and practitioners. The crystallized depiction of the concept is a translational approach, connecting dental academics to scientific research and clinical utility. Therefore, this review begins by presenting the general features of regenerative medicine, and then gradually introduces the specific aspects of major dental subdomains, highlighting the progress achieved during the last years by scientific research and, in some cases, which has already been translated into clinical results. The distinct characteristics of stem cells and their microenvironment, together with their diversity in the oral cavity, are put into the context of research and clinical use. Examples of regenerative studies regarding endodontic and periodontal compartments, as well as hard (alveolar bone and soft (salivary glands related tissues, are presented to make the reader further acquainted with the topic. Instead of providing a conclusion, we will emphasize the importance for all dental community members, from young students to experienced dentists, of an early awareness rising regarding biomedical research progress in general and regenerative dentistry in particular.

  11. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active-magnetic

  12. Can earth's magnetic micropulsations induce brain activities modifications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Altair Souza de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: We present in this paper preliminary study on which level earth's magnetic micro pulsations might interact with human brain activities. Magnetic micro pulsations are magnetospheric plasma wave Eigenmodes that are generated at the earth's magnetosphere and, via magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling induce ionospheric currents, and this ionospheric current pattern creates surface geomagnetic perturbations, which induce earth's surface electrical currents, and they are easily detected by earth's based magnetometers. These Eigenmodes are basically of Alfven type, and can be generated, for instance, by magnetic storms, situation where they are more intense and, in principle, might be felt by a more sensible human brain. Here, we also show how the modes are generated and present theirs basic physical properties. Finally, we compare the magnetic field level at the brain with the micro pulsation magnetic intensity. (author)

  13. Experimental Studies with an Active Magnetic Regenerating Refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results for an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) are presented. The focus is on whether or not it pays off to partly substitute soft magnetic material with non-magnetic insulation in a flux-conducting core in the magnet system. Such a substitution reduces losses due to heat conduction...... and eddy currents, but also reduces the magnetic field. Two different cores were tested in the AMR system with different cooling loads and it is shown, that in the present case, replacing half of the iron with insulation lead to an average reduction in temperature span of 14%, but also a small decrease...... in COP, hence the substitution did not pay off. Furthermore, it is shown experimentally, that small imbalances in the heat transfer fluid flow greatly influence the system performance. A reduction of these imbalances through valve adjustments resulted in an increase in the temperature span from...

  14. Experimental Contribution to High Precision Characterization of Magnetic Forces in Active Magnetic Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Klaus; Santos, Ilmar

    2006-01-01

    Parameter identification procedures and model validation are major steps towards intelligent machines supported by active magnetic bearings (AMB). The ability of measuring the electromagnetic bearing forces, or deriving them from measuring the magnetic flux, strongly contributes to the model...... validation and leads to novel approaches in identifying crucial rotor parameters. This is the main focus of this paper, where an intelligent AMB is being developed with the aim of aiding the accurate identification of damping and stiffness coefficients of active lubricated journal bearings. The main...... of the magnetic forces is conducted using different experimental tests: (a) by using hall sensors mounted directly on the poles (precise measurements of the magnetic flux) and by an auxiliary system, composed of strain gages and flexible beams attached to the rotor, (b) by measuring the input current and bearing...

  15. Design concepts for a continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bjørk, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Design considerations for a prototype magnetic refrigeration device with a continuously rotating AMR are presented. Building the active magnetic regenerator (AMR) from stacks of elongated plates of the perovskite oxide material La0.67Ca0.33−xSrxMn1.05O3, gives both a low pressure drop and allows....... Focus is on maximising the magnetic field in the high field regions but also, importantly, minimising the flux in the low field regions. The design is iteratively optimised through 3D finite element magnetostatic modelling....

  16. Investigation of magnetic active core sizes and hydrodynamic diameters of a magnetically fractionated ferrofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büttner, Markus; Weber, Peter; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul; Röder, Michael; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Wagner, Kerstin; Görnert, Peter; Glöckl, Gunnar; Weitschies, Werner

    2011-01-01

    In this work we address the question which relates between the size of the magnetically active core of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and the size of the overall particle in the solution (the so-called hydrodynamic diameter d hyd ) exists. For this purpose we use two methods of examination that can deliver conclusions about the properties of MNP which are not accessible with normal microscopy. On the one hand, we use temperature dependent magnetorelaxation (TMRX) method, which enables direct access to the energy barrier distribution and by using additional hysteresis loop measurements can provide details about the size of the magnetically active cores. On the other hand, to determine the size of the overall particle in the solution, we use the magnetooptical relaxation of ferrofluids (MORFF) method, where the stimulation is done magnetically while the reading of the relaxation signal, however, is done optically. As a basis for the examinations in this work we use a ferrofluid that was developed for medicinal purposes and which has been fractioned magnetically to obtain differently sized fractions of MNPs. The two values obtained through these methods for each fraction shows the success in fractioning the original solution. Therefore, one can conclude a direct correlation between the size of the magnetically active core and the size of the complete particle in the solution from the experimental results. To calculate the size of the magnetically active core we found a temperature dependent anisotropy constant which was taken into account for the calculations. Furthermore, we found relaxation signals at 18 K for all fractions in these TMRX measurements, which have their origin in other magnetic effects than the Néel relaxation.

  17. A novel magnetic lead screw active suspension system for vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses a detailed study of the redesign of a novel Magnetic Lead Screw (MLS) active suspension system for possible regeneration of the energy dispatched in the suspension system and active control of vehicle body movement. The MLS converts a low speed high force linear motion...... of a translator into a high speed low torque rotational motion of a rotor through helically shaped magnets. The paper describes the drawback of the first MLS prototype v1.0 developed for active suspension system, which lead to a new design of the MLS prototype named v1.5. Furthermore the paper introduces detailed...

  18. Shielded regenerative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, J.H.; Neissel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    An ion chamber type neutron detector is disclosed which has a greatly extended lifespan. The detector includes a fission chamber containing a mixture of active and breeding material and a neutron shielding material. The breeding and shielding materials are selected to have similar or substantially matching neutron capture cross-sections so that their individual effects on increased detector life are mutually enhanced

  19. Nerve-muscle activation by rotating permanent magnet configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Peter A; Nicholson, Graham M

    2016-04-01

    The standard method of magnetic nerve activation using pulses of high current in coils has drawbacks of high cost, high electrical power (of order 1 kW), and limited repetition rate without liquid cooling. Here we report a new technique for nerve activation using high speed rotation of permanent magnet configurations, generating a sustained sinusoidal electric field using very low power (of order 10 W). A high ratio of the electric field gradient divided by frequency is shown to be the key indicator for nerve activation at high frequencies. Activation of the cane toad sciatic nerve and attached gastrocnemius muscle was observed at frequencies as low as 180 Hz for activation of the muscle directly and 230 Hz for curved nerves, but probably not in straight sections of nerve. These results, employing the first prototype device, suggest the opportunity for a new class of small low-cost magnetic nerve and/or muscle stimulators. Conventional pulsed current systems for magnetic neurostimulation are large and expensive and have limited repetition rate because of overheating. Here we report a new technique for nerve activation, namely high-speed rotation of a configuration of permanent magnets. Analytical solutions of the cable equation are derived for the oscillating electric field generated, which has amplitude proportional to the rotation speed. The prototype device built comprised a configuration of two cylindrical magnets with antiparallel magnetisations, made to rotate by interaction between the magnets' own magnetic field and three-phase currents in coils mounted on one side of the device. The electric field in a rectangular bath placed on top of the device was both numerically evaluated and measured. The ratio of the electric field gradient on frequency was approximately 1 V m(-2) Hz(-1) near the device. An exploratory series of physiological tests was conducted on the sciatic nerve and attached gastrocnemius muscle of the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Activation was

  20. PRMT7 Preserves Satellite Cell Regenerative Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roméo Sébastien Blanc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the continued presence of quiescent muscle stem cells (satellite cells, which become activated in response to injury. Here, we report that whole-body protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT7−/− adult mice and mice conditionally lacking PRMT7 in satellite cells using Pax7-CreERT2 both display a significant reduction in satellite cell function, leading to defects in regenerative capacity upon muscle injury. We show that PRMT7 is preferentially expressed in activated satellite cells and, interestingly, PRMT7-deficient satellite cells undergo cell-cycle arrest and premature cellular senescence. These defects underlie poor satellite cell stem cell capacity to regenerate muscle and self-renew after injury. PRMT7-deficient satellite cells express elevated levels of the CDK inhibitor p21CIP1 and low levels of its repressor, DNMT3b. Restoration of DNMT3b in PRMT7-deficient cells rescues PRMT7-mediated senescence. Our findings define PRMT7 as a regulator of the DNMT3b/p21 axis required to maintain muscle stem cell regenerative capacity.

  1. Optimal thermoeconomic performance of an irreversible regenerative ferromagnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhichao; Guo, Juncheng; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the Langevin theory of classical statistical mechanics, the magnetization, entropy, and iso-field heat capacity of ferromagnetic materials are analyzed and their mathematical expressions are derived. An irreversible regenerative Ericsson refrigeration cycle by using a ferromagnetic material as the working substance is established, in which finite heat capacity rates of low and high temperature reservoirs, non-perfect regenerative heat of the refrigeration cycle, additional regenerative heat loss, etc. are taken into account. Based on the regenerative refrigeration cycle model, a thermoeconomic function is introduced as one objective function and optimized with respect to the temperatures of the working substance in the two iso-thermal processes. By means of numerical calculation, the effects of the effective factor of the heat exchangers in high/low temperature reservoir sides, efficiency of the regenerator, heat capacity rate of the low temperature reservoir, and applied magnetic field on the optimal thermoeconomic function as well as the corresponding cooling rate and coefficient of performance are revealed. The results obtained in this paper can provide some theoretical guidance for the optimal design of actual regenerative magnetic refrigerator cycle. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic performance of ferromagnetic material is analyzed. • An irreversible regenerative ferromagnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle is set up. • The thermoeconomic objective function is introduced and optimized. • Impacts of the thermoeconomic and other parameters are discussed.

  2. Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sykova, Eva; Forostyak, Serhiy

    2013-01-01

    Background: A number of cardiovascular, neurological, musculoskeletal and other diseases have a limited capacity for repair and only a modest progress has been made in treatment of brain diseases. The discovery of stem cells has opened new possibilities for the treatment of these maladies, and cell therapy now stands at the cutting-edge of modern regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Experimental data and the first clinical trials employing stem cells have shown their broad therapeuti...

  3. Regenerative memory in time-delayed neuromorphic photonic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeira, B.; Avó, R.; Figueiredo, José M. L.; Barland, S.; Javaloyes, J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a photonic regenerative memory based upon a neuromorphic oscillator with a delayed self-feedback (autaptic) connection. We disclose the existence of a unique temporal response characteristic of localized structures enabling an ideal support for bits in an optical buffer memory for storage and reshaping of data information. We link our experimental implementation, based upon a nanoscale nonlinear resonant tunneling diode driving a laser, to the paradigm of neuronal activity, the FitzHugh-Nagumo model with delayed feedback. This proof-of-concept photonic regenerative memory might constitute a building block for a new class of neuron-inspired photonic memories that can handle high bit-rate optical signals.

  4. Regenerative endodontics: A way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogenes, Anibal; Ruparel, Nikita B; Shiloah, Yoav; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2016-05-01

    Immature teeth are susceptible to infections due to trauma, anatomic anomalies, and caries. Traditional endodontic therapies for immature teeth, such as apexification procedures, promote resolution of the disease and prevent future infections. However, these procedures fail to promote continued root development, leaving teeth susceptible to fractures. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) have evolved in the past decade, being incorporated into endodontic practice and becoming a viable treatment alternative for immature teeth. The authors have summarized the status of regenerative endodontics on the basis of the available published studies and provide insight into the different levels of clinical outcomes expected from these procedures. Substantial advances in regenerative endodontics are allowing a better understanding of a multitude of factors that govern stem cell-mediated regeneration and repair of the damaged pulp-dentin complex. REPs promote healing of apical periodontitis, continued radiographic root development, and, in certain cases, vitality responses. Despite the clinical success of these procedures, they appear to promote a guided endodontic repair process rather than a true regeneration of physiological-like tissue. Immature teeth with pulpal necrosis with otherwise poor prognosis can be treated with REPs. These procedures do not preclude the possibility of apexification procedures if attempts are unsuccessful. Therefore, REPs may be considered first treatment options for immature teeth with pulpal necrosis. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic activity in the Galactic Centre region - fast downflows along rising magnetic loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiuchi, Kensuke; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Enokiya, Rei; Machida, Mami; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2018-06-01

    We studied roles of the magnetic field on the gas dynamics in the Galactic bulge by a three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamical simulation data, particularly focusing on vertical flows that are ubiquitously excited by magnetic activity. In local regions where the magnetic field is stronger, it is frequently seen that fast downflows slide along inclined magnetic field lines that are associated with buoyantly rising magnetic loops. The vertical velocity of these downflows reaches ˜100 km s-1 near the footpoint of the loops by the gravitational acceleration towards the Galactic plane. The two footpoints of rising magnetic loops are generally located at different radial locations and the field lines are deformed by the differential rotation. The angular momentum is transported along the field lines, and the radial force balance breaks down. As a result, a fast downflow is often observed only at the one footpoint located at the inner radial position. The fast downflow compresses the gas to form a dense region near the footpoint, which will be important in star formation afterwards. Furthermore, the horizontal components of the velocity are also fast near the footpoint because the downflow is accelerated along the magnetic sliding slope. As a result, the high-velocity flow creates various characteristic features in a simulated position-velocity diagram, depending on the viewing angle.

  6. Active magnetic bearing for use in compressors and other turbomachinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennau, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings and dry gas seals are now in operation on quite a number of compressors, turbines and generators, proving than an oil-free system is actually working and that furthermore, it has merits in energy savings, rotor dynamic monitoring and improved reliability. The technology of active magnetic bearing has been developed mainly in France after the Second World War for space application, but soon there appeared the large possibilities in industrial applications starting with the vacuum industry (turbomolecular pump), followed by the machine tool industry (high power and high speed milling and grinding spindles) and the large turbomachinery field (centrifugal compressors, blowers, steam and gas turbines, turbogenerators). Merits of the active magnetic bearing vary from one application to another, but they all derive from the fact that we have no contact between the rotor and the stator and that the electronic control of the bearings can cope with the rotor dynamics and provide useful information on the operating conditions

  7. Nerve–muscle activation by rotating permanent magnet configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Graham M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The standard method of magnetic nerve activation using pulses of high current in coils has drawbacks of high cost, high electrical power (of order 1 kW), and limited repetition rate without liquid cooling.Here we report a new technique for nerve activation using high speed rotation of permanent magnet configurations, generating a sustained sinusoidal electric field using very low power (of order 10 W).A high ratio of the electric field gradient divided by frequency is shown to be the key indicator for nerve activation at high frequencies.Activation of the cane toad sciatic nerve and attached gastrocnemius muscle was observed at frequencies as low as 180 Hz for activation of the muscle directly and 230 Hz for curved nerves, but probably not in straight sections of nerve.These results, employing the first prototype device, suggest the opportunity for a new class of small low‐cost magnetic nerve and/or muscle stimulators. Abstract Conventional pulsed current systems for magnetic neurostimulation are large and expensive and have limited repetition rate because of overheating. Here we report a new technique for nerve activation, namely high‐speed rotation of a configuration of permanent magnets. Analytical solutions of the cable equation are derived for the oscillating electric field generated, which has amplitude proportional to the rotation speed. The prototype device built comprised a configuration of two cylindrical magnets with antiparallel magnetisations, made to rotate by interaction between the magnets’ own magnetic field and three‐phase currents in coils mounted on one side of the device. The electric field in a rectangular bath placed on top of the device was both numerically evaluated and measured. The ratio of the electric field gradient on frequency was approximately 1 V m−2 Hz−1 near the device. An exploratory series of physiological tests was conducted on the sciatic nerve and attached gastrocnemius muscle of the cane toad

  8. Measurements of flux pumping activation of trapped field magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Parks, Drew; Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Texas Center for Superconductivity, 202 Houston Science Center, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5002 (United States); Davey, Kent [Physics Department, 617 Science and Research Building I, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Large grains of high temperature superconducting (HTS) material can be utilized as trapped field magnets (TFMs). Persistent currents are set up in the HTS when it is cooled in a magnetic field, or exposed to a magnetic field after cooling. TFMs have been improved over the past two decades by the efforts of a large number of worldwide research groups. However, applications using TFMs have lagged, in part due to the problem of high fields needed for activation. We describe herein experiments designed to observe the behaviour of TFM activation using repeated applications of low fields (called 'pumping'). Significant partial activation is obtained using a non-uniform pumping field (e.g., a small permanent magnet) which is higher in the centre of the HTS than at the periphery. Cooling in zero field followed by pumping with such a field results in trapping the full applied field, in comparison to half of the applied field being trapped by cooling in zero field followed by application of a uniform field. We find that for partial activation by cooling in a field and subsequent activation by pumping, the resulting fields are additive. We also conclude that for activation by fluxoid pumping, creep assists the process.

  9. Active Magnetic Shielding with magneto-impedance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Yasuo; Yanase, Shunji; Sugimoto, Noriko

    2002-01-01

    Active shielding effect was examined in a negative feedback circuit system consisting of a magneto-impedance effective sensor, an amplifier and a canceling coil to compensate external magnetic field noise. The phase difference between the input and output sensor signals in a loop was less than 90 degree up to 20,000 Hz. An excellent frequency characteristic of active shielding effectiveness, 48 dB was obtained for the external magnetic field at the frequency of 0 - 2,000 Hz. (Author)

  10. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of higher brain activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui He; Wang Yunjiu; Chen Runsheng; Tang Xiaowei.

    1996-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs) exhibit small differences in the magnetic resonance signal intensity in positions corresponding to focal areas of brain activation. These signal are caused by variation in the oxygenation state of the venous vasculature. Using this non-invasive and dynamic method, it is possible to localize functional brain activation, in vivo, in normal individuals, with an accuracy of millimeters and a temporal resolution of seconds. Though a series of technical difficulties remain, fMRI is increasingly becoming a key method for visualizing the working brain, and uncovering the topographical organization of the human brain, and understanding the relationship between brain and the mind

  11. Hybrid magnetic mechanism for active locomotion based on inchworm motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Hashi, Shuichiro; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic robots have been studied in the past. Insect-type micro-robots are used in various biomedical applications; researchers have developed inchworm micro-robots for endoscopic use. A biological inchworm has a looping locomotion gait. However, most inchworm micro-robots depend on a general bending, or bellows, motion. In this paper, we introduce a new robotic mechanism using magnetic force and torque control in a rotating magnetic field for a looping gait. The proposed robot is controlled by the magnetic torque, attractive force, and body mechanisms (two stoppers, flexible body, and different frictional legs). The magnetic torque generates a general bending motion. In addition, the attractive force and body mechanisms produce the robot’s looping motion within a rotating magnetic field and without the use of an algorithm for field control. We verified the device’s performance and analyzed the motion through simulations and various experiments. The robot mechanism can be applied to active locomotion for various medical robots, such as wireless endoscopes. (technical note)

  12. REGEN: Ancestral Genome Reconstruction for Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Kuan; Heath, Lenwood S.; Setubal, João C.

    2012-01-01

    Ancestral genome reconstruction can be understood as a phylogenetic study with more details than a traditional phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We present a new computational system called REGEN for ancestral bacterial genome reconstruction at both the gene and replicon levels. REGEN reconstructs gene content, contiguous gene runs, and replicon structure for each ancestral genome. Along each branch of the phylogenetic tree, REGEN infers evolutionary events, including gene creation and deleti...

  13. Human resource development contributes to the creation of outstanding regenerative medicine products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusako Nishigaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine is currently the focus of global attention. Countries all around the world are actively working to create new regenerative treatment modalities through pioneering research and novel technologies. This is wonderful news for patients who could not be treated with existing medical options. New venture businesses and companies are being established in regenerative medicine and their rapid industrialization is anticipated. However, to ensure high-quality products, human resources qualified in research and development and the manufacturing of these products are essential. The Forum for Innovative Regenerative Medicine (FIRM conducted a questionnaire of its industry members to examine the training and hiring of people in research and development, product creation, manufacturing, and more. Regenerative medicine is a brand new field; thus, many different businesses will need to cooperate together. People with a broad range of technical skills, abilities, and knowledge will be in demand, with various levels of expertise, from basic to advanced.

  14. Effects of flow balancing on active magnetic regenerator performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Experiments with a recently constructed rotary multi-bed active magnetic regnenerator (AMR) prototype have revealed strong impacts on the temperature span from variations in the resistances of the flow channels carrying heat transfer fluid in and out of the regenerator beds. In this paper we show...

  15. 2-dimensional numerical modeling of active magnetic regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Various aspects of numerical modeling of Active Magnetic Regeneration (AMR) are presented. Using a 2-dimensional numerical model for solving the unsteady heat transfer equations for the AMR system, a range of physical effects on both idealized and non-idealized AMR are investigated. The modeled...

  16. Probing Active Nematic Films with Magnetically Manipulated Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, David; Chen, Kui; Henry, Robert; Reich, Daniel; Leheny, Robert

    We study microtubule-based extensile active nematic films using rod-like and disk-shaped magnetic colloids to probe the mechanical and hydrodynamic properties of this quasi-two dimensional out-of-equilibrium system. The active nematics are driven by molecular motors that hydrolyze ATP and cause sliding motion between microtubular bundles. This motion produces a dynamic nematic director field, which continuously creates pairs of +1/2 and -1/2 defects. In the absence of externally applied forces or torques, we observe that the magnetic rods in contact with the films align with the local director, indicating the existence of mechanical coupling between the film and probe. By applying known magnetic torques to the rods and observing their rotation with respect to the director, we gain insight into this coupling. We also find that by rotating magnetic microdisks using magnetic fields, hydrodynamic flows are produced that compete with the films' intrinsic flow, leading to significant effects on the director field and the defect landscape. At certain rotation rates, the disks produce a vortex-like structure in the director field and cause the creation and shedding of defects from the disk boundary.

  17. Regenerative Engineering and Bionic Limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Laurencin, Cato T

    2015-03-01

    Amputations of the upper extremity are severely debilitating, current treatments support very basic limb movement, and patients undergo extensive physiotherapy and psychological counselling. There is no prosthesis that allows the amputees near-normal function. With increasing number of amputees due to injuries sustained in accidents, natural calamities and international conflicts, there is a growing requirement for novel strategies and new discoveries. Advances have been made in technological, material and in prosthesis integration where researchers are now exploring artificial prosthesis that integrate with the residual tissues and function based on signal impulses received from the residual nerves. Efforts are focused on challenging experts in different disciplines to integrate ideas and technologies to allow for the regeneration of injured tissues, recording on tissue signals and feed-back to facilitate responsive movements and gradations of muscle force. A fully functional replacement and regenerative or integrated prosthesis will rely on interface of biological process with robotic systems to allow individual control of movement such as at the elbow, forearm, digits and thumb in the upper extremity. Regenerative engineering focused on the regeneration of complex tissue and organ systems will be realized by the cross-fertilization of advances over the past thirty years in the fields of tissue engineering, nanotechnology, stem cell science, and developmental biology. The convergence of toolboxes crated within each discipline will allow interdisciplinary teams from engineering, science, and medicine to realize new strategies, mergers of disparate technologies, such as biophysics, smart bionics, and the healing power of the mind. Tackling the clinical challenges, interfacing the biological process with bionic technologies, engineering biological control of the electronic systems, and feed-back will be the important goals in regenerative engineering over the next

  18. Regenerative Rehabilitation – a New Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Childers, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Modern rehabilitation medicine is propelled by newfound knowledge aimed at offering solutions for an increasingly aging population afflicted by chronic debilitating conditions. Considered a core component of future healthcare, the roll-out of regenerative medicine underscores a paradigm shift in patient management targeted at restoring physiologic function and restituting normative impact. Nascent regenerative technologies offer unprecedented prospects in achieving repair of degenerated, diseased or damaged tissues. In this context, principles of regenerative science are increasingly integrated in rehabilitation practices as illustrated in the present Supplement. Encompassing a growing multidisciplinary domain, the emergent era of “regenerative rehabilitation” brings radical innovations at the forefront of healthcare blueprints. PMID:25310603

  19. The imperative for regenerative agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    A review is made of the current state of agriculture, emphasising issues of soil erosion and dependence on fossil fuels, in regard to achieving food security for a relentlessly enlarging global population. Soil has been described as "the fragile, living skin of the Earth", and yet both its aliveness and fragility have all too often been ignored in the expansion of agriculture across the face of the globe. Since it is a pivotal component in a global nexus of soil-water-air-energy, how we treat the soil can impact massively on climate change - with either beneficial or detrimental consequences, depending on whether the soil is preserved or degraded. Regenerative agriculture has at its core the intention to improve the health of soil or to restore highly degraded soil, which symbiotically enhances the quality of water, vegetation and land-productivity. By using methods of regenerative agriculture, it is possible not only to increase the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) in existing soils, but to build new soil. This has the effect of drawing down carbon from the atmosphere, while simultaneously improving soil structure and soil health, soil fertility and crop yields, water retention and aquifer recharge - thus ameliorating both flooding and drought, and also the erosion of further soil, since runoff is reduced. Since food production on a more local scale is found to preserve the soil and its quality, urban food production should be seen as a significant potential contributor to regenerative agriculture in the future, so long as the methods employed are themselves 'regenerative'. If localisation is to become a dominant strategy for dealing with a vastly reduced use of fossil fuels, and preserving soil quality - with increased food production in towns and cities - it will be necessary to incorporate integrated ('systems') design approaches such as permaculture and the circular economy (which minimise and repurpose 'waste') within the existing urban infrastructure. In

  20. Experimental and modelling results of a parallel-plate based active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, A.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Rowe, A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator (PMMR) using gadolinium parallel plates is described. The configuration and operating parameters are described in detail. Experimental results are compared to simulations using an established twodimensional model of an active magnetic...

  1. Applying Standard Industrial Components for Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert-Uwe Koehler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of active magnetic bearing applications, satisfying additional requirements is becoming increasingly more important. As for every technology, moving away from being a niche product and achieving a higher level of maturity, these requirements relate to robustness, reliability, availability, safety, security, traceability, certification, handling, flexibility, reporting, costs, and delivery times. Employing standard industrial components, such as those from flexible modular motion control drive systems, is an approach that allows these requirements to be satisfied while achieving rapid technological innovation. In this article, we discuss technical and non-technical aspects of using standard industrial components in magnetic bearing applications.

  2. Researches on regenerative medicine-current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Since 1980s, the rapid development of tissue engineering and stem cell research has pushed re-generative medicine to a new fastigium, and regenerative medicine has become a noticeable research field in the international biology and medicine. In China, about 100 million patients need repair and regeneration treatment every year, while the number is much larger in the world. Regenerative medicine could provide effective salvation for these patients. Both Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering have made roadmaps of 2010-2050 and 2011-2030 for regenerative medicine. The final goal of the two roadmaps is to make China go up to leading position in most research aspects of regenerative medicine. In accord with this strategy, the government and some enterprises have invested 3-5 billion RMB (0.5-0.8 billion USD for the research on regenerative medicine. In order to push the translation of regenerative medicine forward—from bench to bedside, a strategic alliance has been established, and it includes 27 top-level research institutes, medical institutes, colleges, universities and enterprises in the field of stem cell and regeneration medicine. Recently the journal, Science, has published a special issue—Regenerative Medi-cine in China, consisting of 35 papers dealing with stem cell and regeneration, tissue engineering and regeneration, trauma and regeneration and bases for tissue repair and regenerative medicine. It is predicated that a greater breakthrough in theory and practice of regenerative medicine will be achieved in the near future (20 to 30 years. Key words: Regenerative medicine; Tissue engineering; Stem cells; Wound healing

  3. Advanced regenerative heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A.; Jasti, J. K.

    1982-02-01

    A regenerative heat recovery system was designed and fabricated to deliver 1500 scfm preheated air to a maximum temperature of 1600 F. Since this system is operating at 2000 F, the internal parts were designed to be fabricated with ceramic materials. This system is also designed to be adaptable to an internal metallic structure to operate in the range of 1100 to 1500 F. A test facility was designed and fabricated to test this system. The test facility is equipped to impose a pressure differential of up to 27 inches of water column in between preheated air and flue gas lines for checking possible leakage through the seals. The preliminary tests conducted on the advanced regenerative heat recovery system indicate the thermal effectiveness in the range of 60% to 70%. Bench scale studies were conducted on various ceramic and gasket materials to identify the proper material to be used in high temperature applications. A market survey was conducted to identify the application areas for this heat recovery system. A cost/benefit analysis showed a payback period of less than one and a half years.

  4. Engineering cell fitness: lessons for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Nika; Zandstra, Peter W

    2017-10-01

    Cell competition results in the loss of weaker cells and the dominance of stronger cells. So-called 'loser' cells are either removed by active elimination or by limiting their access to survival factors. Recently, competition has been shown to serve as a surveillance mechanism against emerging aberrant cells in both the developing and adult organism, contributing to overall organism fitness and survival. Here, we explore the origins and implications of cell competition in development, tissue homeostasis, and in vitro culture. We also provide a forward look on the use of cell competition to interpret multicellular dynamics while offering a perspective on harnessing competition to engineer cells with optimized and controllable fitness characteristics for regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2007-01-01

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  6. Magnetic field structures in active compact radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.W.; Rudnick, L.; Fiedler, R.L.; Aller, H.D.; Aller, M.F.; Hodge, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of simultaneous multifrequency linear polarimetry data between 1.4 GHz and 90 GHz for about 20 active, compact radio sources at six epochs from 1977 December 10 1980 July is presented. In addition, monthly 8 Ghz polarization data on the same sources were examined. The general polarization characteristics of these sources can be well described in terms of magnetic fields which are largely turbulent and slightly anisotropic. The magnetic field symmetry axes are generally aligned with the source structural axes on the milli-arcsecond scale (OJ 287 is a notable exception.) Monte Carlo calculations indicate that observed polarization variations and in particular rotator polarization events can be produced in this model as a consequence of random walks generated through evolution of the turbulent magnetic field. 43 references

  7. Magnetic field effects on brain monoamine oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borets, V.M.; Ostrovskiy, V.Yu.; Bankovskiy, A.A.; Dudinskaya, T.F.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the increasing use of magnetotherapy, studies were conducted on the effects of 35 mTesla magnetic fields on monoamine oxidase activity in the rat brain. Under in vitro conditions a constant magnetic field in the continuous mode was most effective in inhibiting deamination of dopamine following 1 min exposure, while in vivo studies with 8 min or 10 day exposures showed that inhibition was obtained only with a variable field in the continuous mode. However, inhibition of dopamine deamination was only evident within the first 24 h after exposure was terminated. In addition, in none of the cases was norepinephrine deamination inhibited. The effects of the magnetic fields were, therefore, transient and selective with the CNS as the target system. 9 references.

  8. KIC 9451096: Magnetic Activity, Flares and Differential Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdarcan, O.; Yoldaş, E.; Dal, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a spectroscopic and photometric analysis of KIC 9451096. The combined spectroscopic and photometric modelling shows that the system is a detached eclipsing binary in a circular orbit and composed of F5V + K2V components. Subtracting the best-fitting light curve model from the whole long cadence data reveals additional low (mmag) amplitude light variations in time and occasional flares, suggesting a low, but still remarkable level of magnetic spot activity on the K2V component. Analyzing the rotational modulation of the light curve residuals enables us to estimate the differential rotation coefficient of the K2V component as k = 0.069 ± 0.008, which is 3 times weaker compared with the solar value of k = 0.19, assuming a solar type differential rotation. We find the stellar flare activity frequency for the K2V component as 0.000368411 h-1 indicating a low magnetic activity level.

  9. FINE MAGNETIC FEATURES AND CHIRALITY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongqi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present fine magnetic features near the magnetic inversion line in the solar active region NOAA 10930. The high-resolution vector magnetograms obtained by Hinode allow detailed analyses around magnetic fibrils in the active region. The analyses are based on the fact that the electric current density can be divided into two components: the shear component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity and the twist component caused by the magnetic field twist. The relationships between magnetic field, electric current density, and its two components are examined. It is found that the individual magnetic fibrils are dominated by the current density component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity, while the large-scale magnetic region is generally dominated by the electric current component associated with the magnetic twist. The microstructure of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere is far from the force-free field. The current mainly flows around the magnetic flux fibrils in the active regions.

  10. Magnetic activity effect on equatorial spread-F under high and low solar activity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, K S.V.; Somayajulu, V V; Krishna Murthy, B V

    1986-08-01

    The effect of magnetic activity on spread-F at two equatorial stations, Trivandrum and Huancayo, separated in longitude by about 150 deg, under high and low solar activity conditions has been investigated. Magnetic activity produces strong inhibition effect on spread-F at Huancayo compared to that at Trivandrum especially during high solar activity period. This results in a decrease of spread-F with solar activity at Huancayo in contrast to Trivandrum. These findings are explained in terms of F-region electrodynamics and Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism for spread-F.

  11. Turning Regenerative Medicine Breakthrough Ideas and Innovations into Commercial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Culme-Seymour, Emily; Mason, Chris; Stroemer, Paul; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Wilson, Clayton; Barone, Joe; Aras, Rahul; Chiesi, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The TERMIS-Europe (EU) Industry committee intended to address the two main critical issues in the clinical/commercial translation of Advanced Therapeutic Medicine Products (ATMP): (1) entrepreneurial exploitation of breakthrough ideas and innovations, and (2) regulatory market approval. Since January 2012, more than 12,000 publications related to regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have been accepted for publications, reflecting the intense academic research activity in this field. The TERMIS-EU 2014 Industry Symposium provided a reflection on the management of innovation and technological breakthroughs in biotechnology first proposed to contextualize the key development milestones and constraints of allocation of financial resources, in the development life-cycle of radical innovation projects. This was illustrated with the biofuels story, sharing similarities with regenerative medicine. The transition was then ensured by an overview of the key identified challenges facing the commercialization of cell therapy products as ATMP examples. Real cases and testimonies were then provided by a palette of medical technologies and regenerative medicine companies from their commercial development of cell and gene therapy products. Although the commercial development of ATMP is still at the proof-of-concept stage due to technology risks, changing policies, changing markets, and management changes, the sector is highly dynamic with a number of explored therapeutic approaches, developed by using a large diversity of business models, both proposed by the experience, pitfalls, and successes of regenerative medicine pioneers, and adapted to the constraint resource allocation and environment in radical innovation projects.

  12. Institutional framework and the principles of regenerative medicine centers and rehabilitation in a megapolis

    OpenAIRE

    Shapovalenko Т.V.

    2013-01-01

    A concept of development of centers for regenerative medicine and rehabilitation, organizational bases of rehabilitation centers, basic principles and approaches to the creation and activities of the rehabilitation treatment and rehabilitation in the city are presented in the study.

  13. MATERIAL SUPPLY AND MAGNETIC CONFIGURATION OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, P.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.; Yang, K.; Hao, Q. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: fangc@nju.edu.cn [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    It is important to study the fine structures of solar filaments with high-resolution observations, since it can help us understand the magnetic and thermal structures of the filaments and their dynamics. In this paper, we study a newly formed filament located inside the active region NOAA 11762, which was observed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory from 16:40:19 UT to 17:07:58 UT on 2013 June 5. As revealed by the H α filtergrams, cool material is seen to be injected into the filament spine with a speed of 5–10 km s{sup -1}. At the source of the injection, brightenings are identified in the chromosphere, which are accompanied by magnetic cancellation in the photosphere, implying the importance of magnetic reconnection in replenishing the filament with plasmas from the lower atmosphere. Counter-streamings are detected near one endpoint of the filament, with the plane-of-the-sky speed being 7–9 km s{sup -1} in the H α red-wing filtergrams and 9–25 km s{sup -1} in the blue-wing filtergrams. The observations are indicative that this active region filament is supported by a sheared arcade without magnetic dips, and the counter-streamings are due to unidirectional flows with alternative directions, rather than due to the longitudinal oscillations of filament threads as in many other filaments.

  14. Micromagnetics of thermally activated switching in nonuniformly magnetized nanodots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Moro, E.; Francisco, C. de; Alejos, O.

    2001-01-01

    Patterned magnetic elements are being proposed as media for the future ultrahigh density storage systems. The equilibrium states of different patterned magnetic dots at zero temperature have been studied in numerous micromagnetic works while in the last year some studies have begun to include the effect of temperature in the computations. In this research a stochastic dynamic micromagnetic study is carried out for rectangular magnetic dots with size 10 by 3.1 times the exchange length, patterned in a film with a thickness of 5 times the exchange length. Two kinds of nonuniform magnetized nanodots are studied in detail: those in which the state prior to the switching follows the shape of a 'C' and those following an 'S'. In both cases a field near to the zero-temperature switching field is applied and then the thermally activated switching is observed. The dependence of the switching time on temperature is analyzed. It is observed how for the 'C' configuration an Arrhenius-like behavior is obtained in a large temperature window while this is not the case for the 'S' configuration. The micromagnetic structure of the switching thermally activated modes leading to these behaviors is also studied

  15. Towards age/rotation/magnetic activity relation with seismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Savita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of stellar ages directly impacts the characterization of a planetary system as it puts strong constraints on the moment when the system was born. Unfortunately, the determination of precise stellar ages is a very difficult task. Different methods can be used to do so (based on isochrones or chemical element abundances but they usually provide large uncertainties. During its evolution a star goes through processes leading to loss of angular momentum but also changes in its magnetic activity. Building rotation, magnetic, age relations would be an asset to infer stellar ages model independently. Several attempts to build empirical relations between rotation and age (namely gyrochronology were made with a focus on cluster stars where the age determination is easier and for young stars on the main sequence. For field stars, we can now take advantage of high-precision photometric observations where we can perform asteroseismic analyses to improve the accuracy of stellar ages. Furthermore, the variability in the light curves allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar rotation and magnetic activity. By combining these precise measurements, we are on the way of understanding and improving relations between magnetic activity, rotation, and age, in particular at different stages of stellar evolution. I will review the status on gyrochronology relationships based on observations of young cluster stars. Then I will focus on solar-like stars and describe the inferences on stellar ages, rotation, and magnetism that can be provided by high-quality photometric observations such as the ones of the Kepler mission, in particular through asteroseismic analyses.

  16. REGEN: Ancestral Genome Reconstruction for Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Setubal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ancestral genome reconstruction can be understood as a phylogenetic study with more details than a traditional phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We present a new computational system called REGEN for ancestral bacterial genome reconstruction at both the gene and replicon levels. REGEN reconstructs gene content, contiguous gene runs, and replicon structure for each ancestral genome. Along each branch of the phylogenetic tree, REGEN infers evolutionary events, including gene creation and deletion and replicon fission and fusion. The reconstruction can be performed by either a maximum parsimony or a maximum likelihood method. Gene content reconstruction is based on the concept of neighboring gene pairs. REGEN was designed to be used with any set of genomes that are sufficiently related, which will usually be the case for bacteria within the same taxonomic order. We evaluated REGEN using simulated genomes and genomes in the Rhizobiales order.

  17. Changes in Regenerative Capacity through Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximina H. Yun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Most organisms experience changes in regenerative abilities through their lifespan. During aging, numerous tissues exhibit a progressive decline in homeostasis and regeneration that results in tissue degeneration, malfunction and pathology. The mechanisms responsible for this decay are both cell intrinsic, such as cellular senescence, as well as cell-extrinsic, such as changes in the regenerative environment. Understanding how these mechanisms impact on regenerative processes is essential to devise therapeutic approaches to improve tissue regeneration and extend healthspan. This review offers an overview of how regenerative abilities change through lifespan in various organisms, the factors that underlie such changes and the avenues for therapeutic intervention. It focuses on established models of mammalian regeneration as well as on models in which regenerative abilities do not decline with age, as these can deliver valuable insights for our understanding of the interplay between regeneration and aging.

  18. REGEN: Ancestral Genome Reconstruction for Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuan; Heath, Lenwood S; Setubal, João C

    2012-07-18

    Ancestral genome reconstruction can be understood as a phylogenetic study with more details than a traditional phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We present a new computational system called REGEN for ancestral bacterial genome reconstruction at both the gene and replicon levels. REGEN reconstructs gene content, contiguous gene runs, and replicon structure for each ancestral genome. Along each branch of the phylogenetic tree, REGEN infers evolutionary events, including gene creation and deletion and replicon fission and fusion. The reconstruction can be performed by either a maximum parsimony or a maximum likelihood method. Gene content reconstruction is based on the concept of neighboring gene pairs. REGEN was designed to be used with any set of genomes that are sufficiently related, which will usually be the case for bacteria within the same taxonomic order. We evaluated REGEN using simulated genomes and genomes in the Rhizobiales order.

  19. Exploring the efficiency potential for an active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Haffenden Bahl, Christian Robert

    2016-01-01

    A novel rotary state of the art active magnetic regenerator refrigeration prototype was used in an experimental investigation with special focus on efficiency. Based on an applied cooling load, measured shaft power, and pumping power applied to the active magnetic regenerator, a maximum second-la...... and replacing the packed spheres with a theoretical parallel plate regenerator. Furthermore, significant potential efficiency improvements through optimized regenerator geometries are estimated and discussed......., especially for the pressure drop, significant improvements can be made to the machine. However, a large part of the losses may be attributed to regenerator irreversibilities. Considering these unchanged, an estimated upper limit to the second-law efficiency of 30% is given by eliminating parasitic losses...

  20. Forecasting intense geomagnetic activity using interplanetary magnetic field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, E.; Cid, C.; Cerrato, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Southward interplanetary magnetic fields are considered traces of geoeffectiveness since they are a main agent of magnetic reconnection of solar wind and magnetosphere. The first part of this work revises the ability to forecast intense geomagnetic activity using different procedures available in the literature. The study shows that current methods do not succeed in making confident predictions. This fact led us to develop a new forecasting procedure, which provides trustworthy results in predicting large variations of Dst index over a sample of 10 years of observations and is based on the value Bz only. The proposed forecasting method appears as a worthy tool for space weather purposes because it is not affected by the lack of solar wind plasma data, which usually occurs during severe geomagnetic activity. Moreover, the results obtained guide us to provide a new interpretation of the physical mechanisms involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere using Faraday's law.

  1. ADRES : autonomous decentralized regenerative energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, G.; Einfalt, A.; Leitinger, C.; Tiefgraber, D. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The autonomous decentralized regenerative energy systems (ADRES) research project demonstrates that decentralized network independent microgrids are the target power systems of the future. This paper presented a typical structure of a microgrid, demonstrating that all types of generation available can be integrated, from wind and small hydro to photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass or biogas operated stirling motors and micro turbines. In grid connected operation the balancing energy and reactive power for voltage control will come from the public grid. If there is no interconnection to a superior grid, it will form an autonomous micro grid. In order to reduce peak power demand and base energy, autonomous microgrid technology requires highly efficient appliances. Otherwise large collector design, high storage and balancing generation capacities would be necessary, which would increase costs. End-use energy efficiency was discussed with reference to demand side management (DSM) strategies that match energy demand with actual supply in order to minimize the storage size needed. This paper also discussed network controls that comprise active and reactive power. Decentralized robust algorithms were investigated with reference to black-start ability and congestion management features. It was concluded that the trend to develop small decentralized grids in parallel to existing large systems will improve security of supply and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Decentralized grids will also increase energy efficiency because regenerative energy will be used where it is collected in the form of electricity and heat, thus avoiding transport and the extension of transmission lines. Decentralized energy technology is now becoming more economic by efficient and economic mass production of components. Although decentralized energy technology requires energy automation, computer intelligence is becoming increasingly cost efficient. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Numerical and experimental analyses of different magnetic thermodynamic cycles with an active magnetic regenerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaznik, Uroš; Tušek, Jaka; Kitanovski, Andrej; Poredoš, Alojz

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed the influence of different magnetic thermodynamic cycles on the performance of a magnetic cooling device with an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) based on the Brayton, Ericsson and Hybrid Brayton–Ericsson cycles. Initially, a numerical simulation was performed using a 1D, time-dependent, numerical model. Then a comparison was made with respect to the cooling power and the COP for different temperature spans. We showed that applying the Ericsson or the Hybrid Brayton–Ericsson cycle with an AMR, instead of the standard Brayton cycle, can increase the efficiency of the selected cooling device. Yet, in the case of the Ericsson cycle, the cooling power was decreased compared to the Hybrid and especially compared to the Brayton cycle. Next, an experimental analysis was carried out using a linear-type magnetic cooling device. Again, the Brayton, Ericsson and Hybrid Brayton–Ericsson cycles with an AMR were compared with respect to the cooling power and the COP for different temperature spans. The results of the numerical simulation were confirmed. The Hybrid Brayton–Ericsson cycle with an AMR showed the best performance if a no-load temperature span was considered as a criterion. -- Highlights: • New thermodynamic cycles with an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) are presented. • Three different thermodynamic cycles with an AMR were analyzed. • Numerical and experimental analyses were carried out. • The best overall performance was achieved with the Hybrid Brayton–Ericsson cycle. • With this cycle the temperature span of test device was increased by almost 10%

  3. Regenerative Therapies for Diabetic Microangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bassi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia occurring in diabetes is responsible for accelerated arterial remodeling and atherosclerosis, affecting the macro- and the microcirculatory system. Vessel injury is mainly related to deregulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin/insulin-precursors production, generation of advanced glycation end-products, reduction in nitric oxide synthesis, and oxidative and reductive stress. It occurs both at extracellular level with increased calcium and matrix proteins deposition and at intracellular level, with abnormalities of intracellular pathways and increased cell death. Peripheral arterial disease, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke are the main causes of morbidity/mortality in diabetic patients representing a major clinical and economic issue. Pharmacological therapies, administration of growth factors, and stem cellular strategies are the most effective approaches and will be discussed in depth in this comprehensive review covering the regenerative therapies of diabetic microangiopathy.

  4. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dallolio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years...... a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg−1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices...... based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications....

  5. Regenerative Medicine: Solution in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingjie; Stern, Jeffrey H; Temple, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The retina, like other central nervous system tissues, has poor regenerative properties in humans. Therefore, diseases that cause retinal cell loss, such as Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis, Usher syndrome, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy, typically result in permanent visual impairment. Stem cell technologies have revolutionized our ability to produce neural cells in abundant supply. Much stem cell research effort is focused on producing the required cell types for cell replacement, or to generate disease-in-a-dish models to elucidate novel disease mechanisms for therapeutic development. Here we review the recent advances in stem cell studies relevant to producing RPE and retinal cells, and highlight future directions.

  6. Chirality of Intermediate Filaments and Magnetic Helicity of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Chae, J.

    2009-05-01

    Filaments that form either between or around active regions (ARs) are called intermediate filaments. Even though there have been many theoretical studies, the origin of the chirality of filaments is still unknown. We investigated how intermediate filaments are related to their associated ARs, especially from the point of view of magnetic helicity and the orientation of polarity inversion lines (PILs). The chirality of filaments has been determined based on the orientations of barbs observed in the full-disk Hα images taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the rising phase of solar cycle 23. The sign of magnetic helicity of ARs has been determined using S/inverse-S shaped sigmoids from Yohkoh SXT images. As a result, we have found a good correlation between the chirality of filaments and the magnetic helicity sign of ARs. Among 45 filaments, 42 filaments have shown the same sign as helicity sign of nearby ARs. It has been also confirmed that the role of both the orientation and the relative direction of PILs to ARs in determining the chirality of filaments is not significant, against a theoretical prediction. These results suggest that the chirality of intermediate filaments may originate from magnetic helicity of their associated ARs.

  7. A rotary permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator based on AMR cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprea, C.; Cardillo, G.; Greco, A.; Maiorino, A.; Masselli, C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by magneto-caloric effect (MCE). The reference cycle for magnetic refrigeration is AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative refrigeration). In order to demonstrate the potential of magnetic refrigeration to provide useful cooling in the near room temperature range, a novel Rotary Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator (RPMMR) is described in this paper. Gadolinium has been selected as magnetic refrigerant and demineralized water has been employed as regenerating fluid. The total mass of gadolinium (1.20 kg), shaped as packed bed spheres, is housed in 8 regenerators. A magnetic system, based on a double U configuration of permanent magnets, provides a magnetic flux density of 1.25 T with an air gap of 43 mm. A rotary vane pump forces the regenerating fluid through the regenerators. The operational principle of the magnetic refrigerator and initial experimental results are reported and analyzed.

  8. MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR ε ERIDANI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Petrucci, R.; Brown, B. P.; Soderblom, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Hall, J. C.; Basu, S.

    2013-01-01

    The active K2 dwarf ε Eri has been extensively characterized both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3-year magnetic activity cycle in ε Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3-year and 13-year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed by the resurgence of a coherent 3-year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95 ± 0.03 years and 12.7 ± 0.3 years, which, by analogy with the solar case, suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called 'active' and 'inactive' sequences as proposed by Böhm-Vitense. Finally, based on the observed properties of ε Eri, we argue that the rotational history of the Sun is what makes it an outlier in the context of magnetic cycles observed in other stars (as also suggested by its Li depletion), and that a Jovian-mass companion cannot be the universal explanation for the solar peculiarities.

  9. MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR {epsilon} ERIDANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Petrucci, R. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET), C.C. 67 Sucursal 28, C1428EHA-Buenos Aires (Argentina); Brown, B. P. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Soderblom, D. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Henry, T. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); Hall, J. C. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Basu, S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The active K2 dwarf {epsilon} Eri has been extensively characterized both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3-year magnetic activity cycle in {epsilon} Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3-year and 13-year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed by the resurgence of a coherent 3-year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95 {+-} 0.03 years and 12.7 {+-} 0.3 years, which, by analogy with the solar case, suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called 'active' and 'inactive' sequences as proposed by Boehm-Vitense. Finally, based on the observed properties of {epsilon} Eri, we argue that the rotational history of the Sun is what makes it an outlier in the context of magnetic cycles observed in other stars (as also suggested by its Li depletion), and that a Jovian-mass companion cannot be the universal explanation for the solar peculiarities.

  10. Magnetic structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, C.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: While the magnetic field in quiescent prominences has been widely investigated, less is known about the field in activated prominences. We report observational results on the magnetic field structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region. In particular, we studied its magnetic structure and line-of-sight flows during its early activated phase, shortly before it displayed signs of rotation. Methods: We inverted the Stokes profiles of the chromospheric He i 10 830 Å triplet and the photospheric Si i 10 827 Å line observed in this filament by the Vacuum Tower Telescope on Tenerife. Using these inversion results, we present and interpret the first maps of the velocity and magnetic field obtained in an activated filament, both in the photosphere and the chromosphere. Results: Up to five different magnetic components are found in the chromospheric layers of the filament, while outside the filament a single component is sufficient to reproduce the observations. Magnetic components displaying an upflow are preferentially located towards the centre of the filament, while the downflows are concentrated along its periphery. Moreover, the upflowing gas is associated with an opposite-polarity magnetic configuration with respect to the photosphere, while the downflowing gas is associated with a same-polarity configuration. Conclusions: The activated filament has a very complex structure. Nonetheless, it is compatible with a flux rope, albeit a distorted one, in the normal configuration. The observations are best explained by a rising flux rope in which part of the filament material is still stably stored (upflowing material, rising with the field), while the rest is no longer stably stored and flows down along the field lines. The movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in the activation of working memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzer, M.; Kammer, T.; Bellemann, M.E.; Gueckel, F.; Georgi, M.; Gass, A.; Brix, G.

    1996-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in conjunction with a letter detection task for the study of working memory in 16 normal subjects. Because of movement artifacts, data from only 9 subjects were analysed. In the activation taks, subjects responded by pressing a button whenever any presented letter was the same as the second last in the sequence. In the control condition, the subjects had to respond to a fixed letter. Hence, the activation condition and the control condition differend only subjectively, i.e., regarding the task demand, whereas the stimuli and the type and frequency of response were identical. The activation condition produced significant activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's areas 10, 46, and 9). In contrast to experimental tasks previsouly used rather extensively to study the prefrontal cortex, the present paradigm is characterized by its simplicity, interpretability, and its ties to known neurophysiology of the frontal cortex. (orig.) [de

  12. Alumina support prodn. with active component by sol-gel method - and use esp. for regenerative absorption of sulphur dioxide, oxygen or hydrogen sulphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frens, G.

    1991-01-01

    Prodn. of a support contg. Al2O3 with an active component and/or precursor for this is carried out by the sol/gel technique by (a) producing a sol from AlCl3 or material forming Al2O3, (b) supplying the sol to the top of a column filled with a water-immiscible solvent (I) in the upper pt. and an

  13. Measurement of secondary cosmic ray intensity at Regener-Pfotzer height using low-cost weather balloons and its correlation with solar activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Ritabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Pal, Partha Sarathi; Bhowmick, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    Cosmic ray flux in our planetary system is primarily modulated by solar activity. Radiation effects of cosmic rays on the Earth strongly depend on latitude due to the variation of the geomagnetic field strength. To study these effects we carried out a series of measurements of the radiation characteristics in the atmosphere due to cosmic rays from various places (geomagnetic latitude: ~ 14.50 deg N) in West Bengal, India, located near the Tropic of Cancer, for several years (2012-2016) partic...

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  15. Regenerative memory in time-delayed neuromorphic photonic resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Romeira, B.; Avó, R.; Figueiredo, José M. L.; Barland, S.; Javaloyes, J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a photonic regenerative memory based upon a neuromorphic oscillator with a delayed self-feedback (autaptic) connection. We disclose the existence of a unique temporal response characteristic of localized structures enabling an ideal support for bits in an optical buffer memory for storage and reshaping of data information. We link our experimental implementation, based upon a nanoscale nonlinear resonant tunneling diode driving a laser, to the paradigm of neuronal activity, the...

  16. Ethanol induces cell-cycle activity and reduces stem cell diversity to alter both regenerative capacity and differentiation potential of cerebral cortical neuroepithelial precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingling Joseph D

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fetal cortical neuroepithelium is a mosaic of distinct progenitor populations that elaborate diverse cellular fates. Ethanol induces apoptosis and interferes with the survival of differentiating neurons. However, we know little about ethanol's effects on neuronal progenitors. We therefore exposed neurosphere cultures from fetal rat cerebral cortex, to varying ethanol concentrations, to examine the impact of ethanol on stem cell fate. Results Ethanol promoted cell cycle progression, increased neurosphere number and increased diversity in neurosphere size, without inducing apoptosis. Unlike controls, dissociated cortical progenitors exposed to ethanol exhibited morphological evidence for asymmetric cell division, and cells derived from ethanol pre-treated neurospheres exhibited decreased proliferation capacity. Ethanol significantly reduced the numbers of cells expressing the stem cell markers CD117, CD133, Sca-1 and ABCG2, without decreasing nestin expression. Furthermore, ethanol-induced neurosphere proliferation was not accompanied by a commensurate increase in telomerase activity. Finally, cells derived from ethanol-pretreated neurospheres exhibited decreased differentiation in response to retinoic acid. Conclusion The reduction in stem cell number along with a transient ethanol-driven increase in cell proliferation, suggests that ethanol promotes stem to blast cell maturation, ultimately depleting the reserve proliferation capacity of neuroepithelial cells. However, the lack of a concomitant change in telomerase activity suggests that neuroepithelial maturation is accompanied by an increased potential for genomic instability. Finally, the cellular phenotype that emerges from ethanol pre-treated, stem cell depleted neurospheres is refractory to additional differentiation stimuli, suggesting that ethanol exposure ablates or delays subsequent neuronal differentiation.

  17. Reflective Self-Regenerative Systems Architecture Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pu, Carlton; Blough, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we develop the Reflective Self-Regenerative Systems (RSRS) architecture in detail, describing the internal structure of each component and the mutual invocations among the components...

  18. Regenerative medicine applications in combat casualty care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mark E; Bharmal, Husain; Valerio, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe regenerative medicine applications in the management of complex injuries sustained by service members injured in support of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Improvements in body armor, resuscitative techniques and faster transport have translated into increased patient survivability and more complex wounds. Combat-related blast injuries have resulted in multiple extremity injuries, significant tissue loss and amputations. Due to the limited availability and morbidity associated with autologous tissue donor sites, the introduction of regenerative medicine has been critical in managing war extremity injuries with composite massive tissue loss. Through case reports and clinical images, this report reviews the application of regenerative medicine modalities employed to manage combat-related injuries. It illustrates that the novel use of hybrid reconstructions combining traditional and regenerative medicine approaches are an effective tool in managing wounds. Lessons learned can be adapted to civilian care.

  19. Photocatalytically active titanium dioxide nanopowders: Synthesis, photoactivity and magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkanen, J-P; Heinonen, S; Saarivirta, E Huttunen; Honkanen, M; Levänen, E

    2013-01-01

    Two approaches were used to obtain nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) photocatalyst powders. Firstly, low-temperature synthesis method and secondly liquid flame spraying. The structural properties of the produced powders were determined with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption tests. The photocatalytic properties of the powders were studied with methylene blue (MB) discoloration tests. After discolorations tests, TiO 2 was coagulated with magnetite particles using FeCl 3 ·6 H 2 O at a fixed pH value. Magnetic separation of coagulated TiO 2 and magnetite was carried out by a permanent magnet. The obtained results showed that the particle size of the powders synthesized at low-temperature was very small and the specific surface area high. The phase content of the powder was also shown to depend greatly on the acidity of the synthesis solution. Powder synthesized by liquid flame spraying was mixture of anatase and rutile phases with essentially larger particle size and lower specific surface area than those of low-temperature synthesized powders. The MB discoloration test showed that photocatalytic activity depends on the phase structure as well as the specific surface area of the synthesized TiO 2 powder. The magnetic separation of TiO 2 –magnetite coagulate from solution proved to be efficient around pH:8

  20. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tušek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dall'Olio, Stefano; Tušek, Janez; Pryds, Nini

    2016-10-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years; however, caloric-based technologies (those using the magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, barocaloric or elastocaloric effect) have recently shown a significant potential as alternatives to replace this technology due to high efficiency and the use of green solid-state refrigerants. Here, we report a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg-1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications.

  1. Regenerative Medicine for Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyuk Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual meeting of the American Society for Neural Therapy and Repair (ASNTR has always introduced us to top-notch and up-to-date approaches for regenerative medicine related to neuroscience, ranging from stem cell–based therapy to novel drugs. The 16th ASNTR meeting focused on a variety of different topics, including the unknown pathogenesis or mechanisms of specific neurodegenerative diseases, stem cell biology, and development of novel alternative medicines or devices. Newly developed stem cells, such as amniotic epithelial stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as well-known traditional stem cells, such as neural, embryonic, bone marrow mesenchymal, and human umbilical cord blood–derived stem cells, were reported. A number of commercialized stem cells were also covered at this meeting. Fetal neural tissues, such as ventral mesencephalon, striatum, and Schwann cells, were investigated for neurodegenerative diseases or spinal cord injury. A number of studies focused on novel methods for drug monitoring or graft tracking, and combination therapy with stem cells and medicine, such as cytokines or trophic factors. Finally, the National Institutes of Health guidelines for human stem cell research, clinical trials of commercialized stem cells without larger animal testing, and prohibition of medical tourism were big controversial issues that led to heated discussion.

  2. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  3. Recent considerations in regenerative endodontic treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Aksel

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Although the regenerative treatment approaches have good clinical outcomes in the majority of case reports, the outcomes are unpredictable. Since the current clinical protocols for regenerative endodontics do not fully fulfill the triad of tissue engineering ((growth factors, scaffold and stem cells, further translational studies are required to achieve more pulp- and dentin-like tissue in the root canal system to achieve pulp regeneration.

  4. Experimental results for a novel rotary active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigerators represent an alternative to vapor compression technology and have great potential in realizing cooling devices with high efficiency, which are highly desirable for a broad range of applications. The technology relies on the magnetocaloric effect...... in a solid refrigerant rather than the temperature change that occurs when a gas is compressed/expanded. This paper presents the general considerations for the design and construction of a high frequency rotary AMR device. Experimental results are presented at various cooling powers for a range of operating...

  5. A review of magnetic heat pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The area of technology classified as heat pumps generally refers to refrigerators, heat pumps and heat engines. This review is restricted to the literature on magnetic refrigerators and magnetic heat pumps which are referred to interchangeably. Significant progress has been made on the development of engineering prototypes of cryogenic, nonregenerative magnetic refrigerators utilizing conductive heat transfer in the 0.1 K to 20 K temperature range. Advances have also been made in analysis of regenerative magnetic refrigerators and heat pumps utilizing the active magnetic regeneration (AMR) concept. Units based on AMR are being modeled, designed and/or built to operate in various temperature ranges including 1.8-4.5 K, 4-15 K, 15-85 K, and 270-320 K. The near room temperature units have been scaled to 50 kW as both refrigerators and heat pumps. The progress of magnetic refrigeration over the last three years is summarized and discussed

  6. [The specific features of the development of metabolic and regenerative processes under the action of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in radiation exposure conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Yu N; Mihajlik, L V; Nikulina, L A; Geniatulina, M S

    The experiments on male white rats with the use of biochemical, photo-optical, and electron-microscopic techniques have demonstrated that the use of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of ultrahigh frequency (EMR UHF) and low-intensity low-frequency magnetic field (MF) during the post-irradiation period (within 21 days after exposure to radiation) enhanced the metabolic and regenerative processes in the testes and liver. It was shown that the application of MF largely intensified the antioxidant activity whereas EMR UHF preferentially stimulated the biosynthetic processes as well as the processes of cellular and intracellular regeneration.

  7. Current overview on challenges in regenerative endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Regenerative endodontics provides hope of converting the non-vital tooth into vital once again. It focuses on substituting traumatized and pathological pulp with functional pulp tissue. Current regenerative procedures successfully produce root development but still fail to re-establish real pulp tissue and give unpredictable results. There are several drawbacks that need to be addressed to improve the quality and efficiency of the treatment. Aim: The aim of this review article is to discuss major priorities that ought to be dealt before applications of regenerative endodontics flourish the clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A web-based research on MEDLINE was done using filter terms Review, published in the last 10 years and Dental journals. Keywords used for research were “regenerative endodontics,” “dental stem cells,” “growth factor regeneration,” “scaffolds,” and “challenges in regeneration.” This review article screened about 150 articles and then the relevant information was compiled. Results: Inspite of the impressive growth in regenerative endodontic field, there are certain loopholes in the existing treatment protocols that might sometimes result in undesired and unpredictable outcomes. Conclusion: Considerable research and development efforts are required to improve and update existing regenerative endodontic strategies to make it an effective, safe, and biological mode to save teeth. PMID:25657518

  8. Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

  9. Applied CATIA Secondary Development to Parametric Design of Active Magnetic Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the properties of active magnetic bearing, the electromagnetic parameters and structure parameters are analyzed, parametric design method is introduced to study the structure of active magnetic bearing. Through a program personalization process that is in accordance with active magnetic bearing is established. Personalization process aims to build the parametric model of active magnetic bearings and component library by use of CATIA secondary development. Component library is to build assembly model for a multiple degree of freedom magnetic bearing system. Parametric design is a method that provides the direction for its structural design.

  10. Self-Assembled Complexes of Horseradish Peroxidase with Magnetic Nanoparticles Showing Enhanced Peroxidase Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Corgié , Sté phane C.; Kahawong, Patarawan; Duan, Xiaonan; Bowser, Daniel; Edward, Joseph B.; Walker, Larry P.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    Bio-nanocatalysts (BNCs) consisting of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) self-assembled with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) enhance enzymatic activity due to the faster turnover and lower inhibition of the enzyme. The size and magnetization of the MNPs

  11. Experimental and numerical results of a high frequency rotating active magnetic refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Jaime; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results for a recently developed prototype magnetic refrigeration device at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) were obtained and compared with numerical simulation results. A continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) using 2.8 kg packed sphere regenerators...

  12. Experimental and numerical results of a high frequency rotating active magnetic refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Jaime; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental results for a recently developed prototype magnetic refrigeration device at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) were obtained and compared with numerical simulation results. A continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) using 2.8 kg packed sphere regenerators...

  13. Performance analysis of a rotary active magnetic refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.A.; Engelbrecht, K.; Bahl, C.R.H.; Nielsen, K.K.; Eriksen, D.; Olsen, U.L.; Barbosa, J.R.; Smith, A.; Prata, A.T.; Pryds, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental results of a novel rotary active magnetic refrigerator are obtained. • Experiments are compared to predictions from a 1D numerical AMR model. • Performance is evaluated considering parasitic losses for a range of conditions. • A cooling power of 200 W is produced at a span of 16.8 K with a COP of 0.69. • The attained overall second-law efficiency is around 5%. - Abstract: Performance results for a novel rotary active magnetic regenerator (AMR) and detailed numerical model of it are presented. The experimental device consists of 24 regenerators packed with gadolinium (Gd) spheres rotating inside a four-pole permanent magnet with magnetic field of 1.24 T. A parametric study of the temperature span, cooling power, coefficient of performance (COP) and efficiency of the system was carried out over a range of different hot reservoir temperatures, volumetric flow rates and cooling powers. Detailed modeling of the AMR using a 1D model was performed and compared with the experimental results. An overall mapping of the thermal losses of the system was performed, and good agreement between the experimental and numerical results was found when parasitic heat losses were subtracted from the modeling results. The performance of the system was evaluated via the COP, the exergetic-equivalent cooling power (Ex Q ), and the overall second law efficiency, η 2nd . Losses mapping indicated that friction and thermal leakage to the ambient are the most important contributors to the reduction of the system performance. Based on modeling results, improvements on the flow distributor design and reduction of the cold end thermal parasitic losses are expected to enhance the efficiency of the system. For an operating frequency of 1.5 Hz, a volumetric flow rate of 400 L/h, a hot reservoir temperature of 297.7 K, and thermal loads of 200 and 400 W, the obtained temperature spans, ΔT S , were 16.8 K and 7.1 K, which correspond to COPs of 0.69 and 1

  14. A novel regenerative shock absorber with a speed doubling mechanism and its Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenwei

    2018-03-01

    A novel regenerative shock absorber has been designed and fabricated. The novelty of the presented work is the application of the double speed regenerative shock absorber that utilizes the rack and pinion mechanism to increase the magnet speed with respect to the coils for higher power output. The simulation models with parameters identified from finite element analysis and the experiments are developed. The proposed regenerative shock absorber is compared with the regenerative shock absorber without the rack and pinion mechanism, when they are integrated into the same quarter vehicle suspension system. The sinusoidal wave road profile displacement excitation and the random road profile displacement excitation with peak amplitude of 0.035 m are applied as the inputs in the frequency range of 0-25 Hz. It is found that with the sinusoidal and random road profile displacement input, the proposed innovative design can increase the output power by 4 times comparing to the baseline design. The proposed double speed regenerative shock absorber also presents to be more sensitive to the road profile irregularity than the single speed regenerative shock absorber as suggested by Monte Carlo simulation. Lastly the coil mass and amplification factor are studied for sensitivity analysis and performance optimization, which provides a general design method of the regenerative shock absorbers. It shows that for the system power output, the proposed design becomes more sensitive to either the coil mass or amplification factor depending on the amount of the coil mass. With the specifically selected combination of the coil mass and amplification factor, the optimized energy harvesting performance can be achieved.

  15. Inertia Wheel on Low-Noise Active Magnetic Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabelli, S.; Genta, G.; Silvagni, M.; Tonoli, A.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are particularly suited for space applications for a number of reasons: - they are ideally suited for vacuum applications; - the lack of lubrication and wear enhances the reliability and guaranties a long maintenance-free operation - the low drag torque decreases power consumption and reduces the torque exerted on the stator of the machine. - the possibility of insulating actively the spacecraft from the excitation due to unbalance of the rotating system In the case of reaction wheels, a well designed magnetic suspension allows high speed operation with a very low power consumption and vibration level. Conversely, microgravity (and possibly vacuum) operation is an advantage for magnetic bearings. The absence of static forces allows to operate with low current levels, thus reducing electrical noise and allowing to reach even lower vibration levels than in Earth applications of magnetic bearings. Active magnetic bearings (AMB) allow to adapt the working characteristics of the system to the operating needs: it is possible to use the actuators to lock the system during launch (absence of grabbers) and to stiffen the suspension when the spacecraft is accelerated (impulsive phases), while working in conditions optimised for microgravity when this is needed. Magnetic suspension systems designed for microgravity environment cannot be correctly tested on the ground. Testing in ground conditions results in the need of grossly overdesigning the levitation device; furthermore, in some cases ground testing is completely impossible, if not by introducing devices which compensate for the Earth gravitational field. If the compensation for the gravitational force is supplied by the same actuators used for microgravity operation, the actuators and the power amplifiers must be overdesigned and in some cases the suspension can be altogether impossible. They work in conditions which are much different from nominal ones and, above all, it is impossible to reach the

  16. Roles of superconducting magnetic bearings and active magnetic bearings in attitude control and energy storage flywheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jiqiang; Fang Jiancheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    2012-01-01

    Compared with conventional energy storage flywheel, the rotor of attitude control and energy storage flywheel (ACESF) used in space not only has high speed, but also is required to have precise and stable direction. For the presented superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) and active magnetic bearing (AMB) suspended ACESF, the rotor model including gyroscopic couples is established originally by taking the properties of SMB and AMB into account, the forces of SMB and AMB are simplified by linearization within their own neighbors of equilibrium points. For the high-speed rigid discal rotor with large inertia, the negative effect of gyroscopic effect of rotor is prominent, the radial translation and tilting movement of rotor suspended by only SMB, SMB with equivalent PMB, or SMB together with PD controlled AMB are researched individually. These analysis results proved originally that SMB together with AMB can make the rotor be stable and make the radial amplitude of the vibration of rotor be small while the translation of rotor suspended by only SMB or SMB and PM is not stable and the amplitude of this vibration is large. For the stability of the high-speed rotor in superconducting ACESF, the AMB can suppress the nutation and precession of rotor effectively by cross-feedback control based on the separated PD type control or by other modern control methods.

  17. Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, S.; Pendry, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We derive the effective permeability and permittivity of a nanostructured metallic photonic crystal by analysing the complex reflection and transmission coefficients for slabs of various thicknesses. These quantities were calculated using the transfer matrix method. Our results indicate that these structures could be used to realize a negative effective permeability, at least up to infrared frequencies. The origin of the negative permeability is a resonance due to the internal inductance and capacitance of the structure. We also present an analytic model for the effective permeability of the crystal. The model reveals the importance of the inertial inductance due to the finite mass of the electrons in the metal. We find that this contribution to the inductance has implications for the design of metallic magnetic structures in the optical region of the spectrum. We show that the magnetic activity in the structure is accompanied by the concentration of the incident field energy into very small volumes within the structure. This property will allow us to considerably enhance non-linear effects with minute quantities of material. (author)

  18. Cell and biomolecule delivery for regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian O; Ma, Peter X

    2010-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an exciting field that aims to create regenerative alternatives to harvest tissues for transplantation. In this approach, the delivery of cells and biological molecules plays a central role. The scaffold (synthetic temporary extracellular matrix) delivers cells to the regenerative site and provides three-dimensional environments for the cells. To fulfil these functions, we design biodegradable polymer scaffolds with structural features on multiple size scales. To enhance positive cell–material interactions, we design nano-sized structural features in the scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix. We also integrate micro-sized pore networks to facilitate mass transport and neo tissue regeneration. We also design novel polymer devices and self-assembled nanospheres for biomolecule delivery to recapitulate key events in developmental and wound healing processes. Herein, we present recent work in biomedical polymer synthesis, novel processing techniques, surface engineering and biologic delivery. Examples of enhanced cellular/tissue function and regenerative outcomes of these approaches are discussed to demonstrate the excitement of the biomimetic scaffold design and biologic delivery in regenerative medicine. PMID:27877317

  19. Deciphering solar magnetic activity. I. On the relationship between the sunspot cycle and the evolution of small magnetic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Wang, Xin; Markel, Robert S.; Thompson, Michael J. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Leamon, Robert J.; Malanushenko, Anna V. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Davey, Alisdair R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Howe, Rachel [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Krista, Larisza D. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80205 (United States); Cirtain, Jonathan W. [Marshall Space Flight Center, Code ZP13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Gurman, Joseph B.; Pesnell, William D., E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sunspots are a canonical marker of the Sun's internal magnetic field which flips polarity every ∼22 yr. The principal variation of sunspots, an ∼11 yr variation, modulates the amount of the magnetic field that pierces the solar surface and drives significant variations in our star's radiative, particulate, and eruptive output over that period. This paper presents observations from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory indicating that the 11 yr sunspot variation is intrinsically tied to the spatio-temporal overlap of the activity bands belonging to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle. Using a systematic analysis of ubiquitous coronal brightpoints and the magnetic scale on which they appear to form, we show that the landmarks of sunspot cycle 23 can be explained by considering the evolution and interaction of the overlapping activity bands of the longer-scale variability.

  20. ON MAGNETIC ACTIVITY BAND OVERLAP, INTERACTION, AND THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@hao.ucar.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Recent work has revealed a phenomenological picture of the how the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle of the Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal-temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun's convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle, we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particularly susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown, producing flares and coronal mass ejections of the most severe magnitude.

  1. Supercritical CO2 Compressor with Active Magnetic Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, JeKyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2016-01-01

    For the stable operation of the sCO 2 integral test facility SCIEL, KAERI prepared Active Magnetic Bearing sCO 2 compressor for the 70,000RPM operation. Power generation test with AMB compressor will be finished within first half year of 2016 under supercritical state. The principal advantages of the sCO 2 Cycle are high efficiency at moderate temperature range, compact components size, simple cycle configuration, and compatibility with various heat sources. The Supercritical CO 2 Brayton Cycle Integral Experiment Loop (SCIEL) has been installed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to develop the base technologies for the sCO 2 cycle power generation system. The operation of the SCIEL has mainly focused on sCO 2 compressor development and establishing sCO 2 system control logic

  2. Quantitative forecasting of the 27-day recurrent magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.; Olmsted, C.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that forecasting of the recurrent geomagnetic activity is reduced to predicting the solar wind speed V and the magnitude B of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field IMF for a 27-day period. It is shown further that the prediction of V and B is reduced to inferring the geometry of the neutral line on the source surface which is an imaginary spherical surface of radius 2.5 solar radii. For this purpose, we note that it has recently been found that the neutral line on the source surface can be reproduced fairly accurately by a dipole at the center of the Sun and a few dipoles on the photosphere. This finding provides us with an opportunity to predict the geometry of the neutral line on the source surface by extrapolating time variations of the magnitude and orientation of the dipoles. We show that time variations of the dipoles are fairly systematic, making the extrapolation possible. (author)

  3. Identification of Parameters in Active Magnetic Bearing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Voigt, Andreas Jauernik; Mandrup-Poulsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A method for identifying uncertain parameters in Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) based rotordynamic systems is introduced and adapted for experimental application. The Closed Loop Identification (CLI) method is utilised to estimate the current/force factors Ki and the displacement/force factors Ks...... as well as a time constant Τe for a first order approxima-tion of unknown actuator dynamics. To assess the precision with which CLI method can be employed to estimate AMBparameters the factors Ki, estimated using the CLI method, is compared to Ki factors attained through a Static Loading(SL) method....... The CLI method and SL method produce similar results, indicating that the CLI method is able to performclosed loop identification of uncertain AMB parameters....

  4. Improved modelling of a parallel plate active magnetic regenerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, K; Nielsen, K K; Bahl, C R H; Tušek, J; Kitanovski, A; Poredoš, A

    2013-01-01

    Much of the active magnetic regenerator (AMR) modelling presented in the literature considers only the solid and fluid domains of the regenerator and ignores other physical effects that have been shown to be important, such as demagnetizing fields in the regenerator, parasitic heat losses and fluid flow maldistribution in the regenerator. This paper studies the effects of these loss mechanisms and compares theoretical results with experimental results obtained on an experimental AMR device. Three parallel plate regenerators were tested, each having different demagnetizing field characteristics and fluid flow maldistributions. It was shown that when these loss mechanisms are ignored, the model significantly over predicts experimental results. Including the loss mechanisms can significantly change the model predictions, depending on the operating conditions and construction of the regenerator. The model is compared with experimental results for a range of fluid flow rates and cooling loads. (paper)

  5. Supercritical CO{sub 2} Compressor with Active Magnetic Bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jae Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, JeKyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    For the stable operation of the sCO{sub 2} integral test facility SCIEL, KAERI prepared Active Magnetic Bearing sCO{sub 2} compressor for the 70,000RPM operation. Power generation test with AMB compressor will be finished within first half year of 2016 under supercritical state. The principal advantages of the sCO{sub 2} Cycle are high efficiency at moderate temperature range, compact components size, simple cycle configuration, and compatibility with various heat sources. The Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle Integral Experiment Loop (SCIEL) has been installed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to develop the base technologies for the sCO{sub 2} cycle power generation system. The operation of the SCIEL has mainly focused on sCO{sub 2} compressor development and establishing sCO{sub 2} system control logic.

  6. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  7. Deciphering Solar Magnetic Activity: Spotting Solar Cycle 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-06-26

    We present observational signatures of solar cycle 25 onset. Those signatures are visibly following a migratory path from high to low latitudes. They had starting points that are asymmetrically offset in each hemisphere at times that are 21–22 years after the corresponding, same polarity, activity bands of solar cycle 23 started their migration. Those bands define the so-called “extended solar cycle.” The four magnetic bands currently present in the system are approaching a mutually cancelling configuration, and solar minimum conditions are imminent. Further, using a tuned analysis of the daily band latitude-time diagnostics, we are able to utilize the longitudinal wave number (m = 1) variation in the data to more clearly reveal the presence of the solar cycle 25 bands. This clarification illustrates that prevalently active longitudes (different in each hemisphere) exist at mid-latitudes presently, lasting many solar rotations, that can be used for detailed study over the next several years with instruments like the Spectrograph on IRIS, the Spectropolarimeter on Hinode, and, when they come online, similar instruments on the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) as we watch those bands evolve following the cancellation of the solar cycle 24 activity bands at the equator late in 2019.

  8. A 2-Tesla active shield magnet for whole body imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, F.J.; Elliott, R.T.; Hawksworth, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and testing of a 2T superconducting Active Shield magnet, with a 0.99m diameter warm bore for whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy. The magnet and cryostat were designed to meet the same performance standards as existing MRI magnets, but with the volume of the stray field region reduced to less than 4% of that for an unshielded magnet. The 0.5 mT stray field contour is within 5m axially and 3m radially of the magnet center. The system weight is only 14 tonnes

  9. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

    1979-08-09

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  10. Overcoming immunological barriers in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Johannes L; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    Regenerative therapies that use allogeneic cells are likely to encounter immunological barriers similar to those that occur with transplantation of solid organs and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Decades of experience in clinical transplantation hold valuable lessons for regenerative medicine, offering approaches for developing tolerance-induction treatments relevant to cell therapies. Outside the field of solid-organ and allogeneic HSC transplantation, new strategies are emerging for controlling the immune response, such as methods based on biomaterials or mimicry of antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. Novel biomaterials can alter the behavior of cells in tissue-engineered constructs and can blunt host immune responses to cells and biomaterial scaffolds. Approaches to suppress autoreactive immune cells may also be useful in regenerative medicine. The most innovative solutions will be developed through closer collaboration among stem cell biologists, transplantation immunologists and materials scientists.

  11. Advances in using MRI probes and sensors for in vivo cell tracking as applied to regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit K; Kadayakkara, Deepak K; Bar-Shir, Amnon; Gilad, Assaf A; McMahon, Michael T; Bulte, Jeff W M

    2015-04-01

    The field of molecular and cellular imaging allows molecules and cells to be visualized in vivo non-invasively. It has uses not only as a research tool but in clinical settings as well, for example in monitoring cell-based regenerative therapies, in which cells are transplanted to replace degenerating or damaged tissues, or to restore a physiological function. The success of such cell-based therapies depends on several critical issues, including the route and accuracy of cell transplantation, the fate of cells after transplantation, and the interaction of engrafted cells with the host microenvironment. To assess these issues, it is necessary to monitor transplanted cells non-invasively in real-time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a tool uniquely suited to this task, given its ability to image deep inside tissue with high temporal resolution and sensitivity. Extraordinary efforts have recently been made to improve cellular MRI as applied to regenerative medicine, by developing more advanced contrast agents for use as probes and sensors. These advances enable the non-invasive monitoring of cell fate and, more recently, that of the different cellular functions of living cells, such as their enzymatic activity and gene expression, as well as their time point of cell death. We present here a review of recent advancements in the development of these probes and sensors, and of their functioning, applications and limitations. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Clinical considerations for regenerative endodontic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Todd M

    2012-07-01

    The management of a tooth with incomplete root maturation and a necrotic pulp is an endodontic and a restorative challenge. Apexification procedures alone leave the tooth in a weakened state and at risk for reinfection. Regenerative endodontic procedures potentially offer advantages, including the possibility of hard tissue deposition and continued root development. Case studies have reported regeneration of human pulplike tissues in vivo, but there is no protocol that reliably regenerates pulplike tissue. This article summarizes historical, current, and future regenerative treatment approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrospun magnetic nanofibre mats – A new bondable biomaterial using remotely activated magnetic heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yi [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Key Laboratory of Science & Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); Leung, Victor; Yuqin Wan, Lynn [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Dutz, Silvio [Institut für Biomedizinische Technik und Informatik, Technische Universität Ilmenau (Germany); Department of Nano Biophotonics, Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany); Ko, Frank K., E-mail: frank.ko@ubc.ca [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Häfeli, Urs O., E-mail: urs.hafeli@ubc.ca [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    A solvothermal process was adopted to produce hydrophilic magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles which were subsequently emulsified with a chloroform/methanol (70/30 v/v) solution of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and then electrospun into a 0.2 mm thick PCL mat. The magnetic heating of the mats at a field amplitude of 25 kA/m and frequency of 400 kHz exhibited promising efficiency for magnetic hyperthermia, with a specific absorption rate of about 40 W/g for the magnetic mat. The produced heat was used to melt the magnetic mat onto the surrounding non-magnetic polymer mat from within, without destroying the nanostructure of the non-magnetic polymer more than 0.5 mm away. Magnetic nanofibre mats might thus be useful for internal heat sealing applications, and potentially also for thermotherapy.

  14. Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

  15. Using Magnets and Magnetic Beads to Dissect Signaling Pathways Activated by Mechanical Tension Applied to Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoram, R.J.; Guilluy, C; Burridge, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular tension has implications in normal biology and pathology. Membrane adhesion receptors serve as conduits for mechanotransduction that lead to cellular responses. Ligand-conjugated magnetic beads are a useful tool in the study of how cells sense and respond to tension. Here we detail methods for their use in applying tension to cells and strategies for analyzing the results. We demonstrate the methods by analyzing mechanotransduction through VE-cadherin on endothelial cells using both permanent magnets and magnetic tweezers. PMID:26427549

  16. Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lu, Xin; Xue, Junliang; Li, Bos

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series regenerative braking system and two of which are parallel regenerative braking systems. The existing friction based Adjustable Braking System (ABS) on the bus is integrated with each of the new braking systems in order to ensure bus...

  17. Significance of magnetic resonance imaging for early rheumatoid arthritis activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Y Pogozeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess possibility of magnetic resonance image (MRI application for rheu- matoid arthritis (RA activity and severity assessment.Material and methods. 100 pts with RA who fulfilled the 1987 ACR criteria with disease duration less than 12 months were included. Standard clinical examination with evaluation of tender and swollen joint counts, acute phase markers, hand and foot X-ray and hand MRI with 0,2 T Artoscan apparatus (ESAOTE Biomedica, Italy were performed.Results. MRI showed hand joint synovitis in 94,5%, erosions – in 67,3% of cases. X-ray examination revealed erosions in only 20,8% of pts. Localization of erosions revealed by X-ray and MRI coincided in 36,4% of cases and in 61,8% of pts erosions were detected only by MRI. MRI confirmed clinical conclusion about presence or absence of metacarpophalangeal and wrist joint synovitis in 64,5% and 74,5% of cases respectively. In8,2% and 21,8% MRI revealed signs of synovitis in clinically intact joints. MRI synovitis score correlated with clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity – DAS 28 (r=0,37, p=0,001, CRP(r=0,30, p=0,001, ESR (r=0,42, p=0,001, HAQ (r=0,24, p=0,001. Weak correlation was revealed between ESR and presence of erosions (r=0,29, CRP, ESR and MRI signs of bone marrow edema (r=0,27, p=0,005 and r=0,29, p=0,002 respectively. Relationship between laboratory and clinical features was weaker and referred only to CRP level and swollen joint count (p=0,05.Conclusion. MRI signs may be used as additional and independent measures of inflammatory activity (particularly synovitis score and severity of RA

  18. REGENERATIVE DESIGN PRACTICES IN NIGERIA: A CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... a view to effectively implement the concept within the study area. ... REGENERATIVE DESIGN PRACTICES IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF NGOZIKA HOUSING .... could mean greater acceptance of new development by the public and .... human/environment relations based on the Cartesian separation of ...

  19. On friction braking demand with regenerative braking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, A.M.; Lampérth, M.U.; Wilkins, S.

    2002-01-01

    Developments in Hybrid Electric and pure Electric Vehicles are intended to improve the operational efficiency of road vehicles. Regenerative braking, which has long been established in rail vehicles, is integral to efficiency improvement, with up to 30% of overall traction energy demand satisfied by

  20. Regenerative Payload for GSAT-3 & Advanced Communication ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Regenerative Payload for GSAT-3 & Advanced Communication Series Satellite. GSAT-4. 8 Ka -Band Spot Beams; 8 Narrow Band (64Kbps) Channels/ Beam; 1 Wide Band (2Mbps) Channel/ Beam;; 64 Kbps Signaling Channel; On-Board Switch Matrix; 8 Channel ...

  1. Use of elastomers in regenerative braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The storage of potential energy as strain energy in elastomers was investigated. The evolution of the preferred stressing scheme is described, and test results on full-size elastomeric energy storage units sized for an automotive regenerative braking system application are presented. The need for elastomeric material improvements is also discussed.

  2. Optimization of Multi-layer Active Magnetic Regenerator towards Compact and Efficient Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic refrigerators can theoretically be more efficient than current vapor compression systems and use no vapor refrigerants with global warming potential. The core component, the active magnetic regenerator (AMR) operates based on the magnetocaloric effect of magnetic materials and the heat r....... In addition, simulations are carried out to investigate the potential of applying nanofluid in future magnetic refrigerators.......Magnetic refrigerators can theoretically be more efficient than current vapor compression systems and use no vapor refrigerants with global warming potential. The core component, the active magnetic regenerator (AMR) operates based on the magnetocaloric effect of magnetic materials and the heat...... their Curie temperature. Simulations are implemented to investigate how to layer the FOPT materials for obtaining higher cooling capacity. Moreover, based on entropy generation minimization, optimization of the regenerator geometry and related operating parameters is presented for improving the AMR efficiency...

  3. Relationships between the solar wind and the polar cap magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelier, A.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of solar wind conditions on magnetic activity is described in order to delineate the differences in the response of the magnetic activity to the arrival on the magnetopause of different typical solar wind variations. By determining a new index of local magnetic activity free from seasonal and diurnal effects we put in evidence the dependence of the various effects upon the invariant latitude. Most important results are: (1) the main increase of the magnetic activity does not occur at the same invariant latitude for different interplanetary variations, e.g. peaks of Bz tend to increase magnetic activity mainly in the auroral zones while peaks of B correspond to a uniform increase in magnetic activity over the polar cap and auroral zone; (2) there is a two steps response of magnetic activity to the high speed plasma streams; (3) an increase of magnetic activity is observed for large and northward Bz, which probably indicates that the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling is efficient under these circumstances. The specific influences of the IMF polarity are also briefly reviewed. (orig.)

  4. Experimental Contribution to High-Precision Characterization of Magnetic Forces in Active Magnetic Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Klaus; Santos, Ilmar

    2007-01-01

    of the magnetic forces is conducted using different experimental tests: (i) by using hall sensors mounted directly on the poles (precise measurements of the magnetic flux) and by an auxiliary system, composed of strain gages and flexible beams attached to the rotor (ii) by measuring the input current and bearing...

  5. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  6. Metrology in electricity and magnetism: EURAMET activities today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquemal, F.; Jeckelmann, B.; Callegaro, L.; Hällström, J.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Melcher, J.; Rietveld, G.; Siegner, U.; Wright, P.; Zeier, M.

    2017-10-01

    Metrology dedicated to electricity and magnetism has changed considerably in recent years. It encompasses almost all modern scientific, industrial, and societal challenges, e.g. the revision of the International System of Units, the profound transformation of industry, changes in energy use and generation, health, and environment, as well as nanotechnologies (including graphene and 2D materials) and quantum engineering. Over the same period, driven by the globalization of worldwide trade, the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (referred to as the CIPM MRA) was set up. As a result, the regional metrology organizations (RMOs) of national metrology institutes have grown in significance. EURAMET is the European RMO and has been very prominent in developing a strategic research agenda (SRA) and has established a comprehensive research programme. This paper reviews the highlights of EURAMET in electrical metrology within the European Metrology Research Programme and its main contributions to the CIPM MRA. In 2012 EURAMET undertook an extensive roadmapping exercise for proposed activities for the next decade which will also be discussed in this paper. This work has resulted in a new SRA of the second largest European funding programme: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research.

  7. Characteristics of motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zhenyu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings (AMBs is generally used for ultra-high-speed machining. Iron loss of radial AMB is very great owing to high rotation speed, and it will cause severe thermal deformation. The problem is particularly serious on the occasion of large power application, such as all electric aero-engine. In this study, a prototype motorized spindle supported by five degree-of-freedom AMBs is developed. Homopolar and heteropolar AMBs are independently adopted as radial bearings. The influences of the two types of radial AMBs on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle are comparatively investigated by theoretical analysis, test modal analysis and actual operation of the system. The iron loss of the two types of radial AMBs is analyzed by finite element software and verified through run-down experiments of the system. The results show that the structures of AMB have less influence on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle. However, the homopolar structure can effectively reduce the iron loss of the radial AMB and it is useful for improving the overall performance of the motorized spindle.

  8. Removal of dyes by adsorption on magnetically modified activated sludge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maděrová, Z.; Baldíková, E.; Pospíšková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2016), s. 1653-1664 ISSN 1735-1472 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biosorption * dyes * magnetic adsorbent * magnetic modification * microwave-assisted synthesis Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.915, year: 2016

  9. The role of activity complexes in the distribution of solar magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de La Rosa, J. I.; Reyes, R. C.

    Using published data on the large-scale distribution of solar activity, the authors conclude that the longlived coronal holes are formed and maintained by the unbalanced magnetic flux which developes at both extremes of the complexes of activity.

  10. Magnetographic observations of magnetic fields in quiet and active regions of the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsap, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of measurement of the solar longitudinal magnetic field carried out on the double magnetograph of the Crimea astrophysical observatory in the FeI 5250 A and 5233 A lines are presented. The registration of magnetic field is performed with the high resolution of 1x1''. It is found that in the most cases the measured magnetic field intensity outside active areas does not exceed 20-25 Hauss. In rare cases magnetic fields with the intensity greater than 500 Hauss are observed. The magnetic field intensity in the flocculas is greater in average than in nondisturbed areas

  11. Eco-friendly (green) synthesis of magnetically active gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadasala, Naveen Reddy; Lin, Lu; Gilpin, Christopher; Wei, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Au-FexOy composite nanoparticles (NPs) are of great technological interest due to their combined optical and magnetic properties. However, typical syntheses are neither simple nor ecologically friendly, creating a challenging situation for process scale-up. Here we describe conditions for preparing Au-FexOy NPs in aqueous solutions and at ambient temperatures, without resorting to solvents or amphiphilic surfactants with poor sustainability profiles. These magnetic gold nanoclusters (MGNCs) are prepared in practical yields with average sizes slightly below 100 nm, and surface plasmon resonances that extend to near-infrared wavelengths, and sufficient magnetic moment (up to 6 emu g-1) to permit collection within minutes by handheld magnets. The MGNCs also produce significant photoluminescence when excited at 488 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicates a relatively even distribution of Fe within the MGNCs, as opposed to a central magnetic core.

  12. Vibration control of an energy regenerative seat suspension with variable external resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Nong

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, an energy regenerative seat suspension with a variable external resistance is proposed and built, and a semi-active controller for its vibration control is also designed and validated. The energy regenerative seat suspension is built with a three-phase generator and a gear reducer, which are installed in the scissors structure centre of the seat suspension, and the vibration energy is directly harvested from the rotary movement of suspension's scissors structure. The electromagnetic torque of the semi-active seat suspension actuator is controlled by an external variable resistor. An integrated model including the seat suspension's kinematics and the generator is built and proven to match the test result very well. A simplified experimental phenomenon model is also built based on the test results for the controller design. A state feedback H∞ controller is proposed for the regenerative seat suspension's semi-active vibration control. The proposed regenerative seat suspension and its controller are validated with both simulations and experiments. A well-tuned passive seat suspension is applied to evaluate the regenerative seat's performance. Based on ISO 2631-1, the frequency-weighted root mean square (FW-RMS) acceleration of the proposed seat suspension has a 22.84% reduction when compared with the passive one, which indicates the improvement of ride comfort. At the same time, the generated RMS power is 1.21 W. The proposed regenerative seat suspension can greatly improve the driver's ride comfort and has the potential to be developed to a self-powered semi-active system.

  13. ABRUPT LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD CHANGES IN FLARING ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Sudol, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the changes in the longitudinal photospheric magnetic field during 38 X-class and 39 M-class flares within 65 0 of disk center using 1 minute GONG magnetograms. In all 77 cases, we identify at least one site in the flaring active region where clear, permanent, stepwise field changes occurred. The median duration of the field changes was about 15 minutes and was approximately equal for X-class and for M-class flares. The absolute values of the field changes ranged from the detection limit of ∼10 G to as high as ∼450 G in two exceptional cases. The median value was 69 G. Field changes were significantly stronger for X-class than for M-class flares and for limb flares than for disk-center flares. Longitudinal field changes less than 100 G tended to decrease longitudinal field strengths, both close to disk center and close to the limb, while field changes greater than 100 G showed no such pattern. Likewise, longitudinal flux strengths tended to decrease during flares. Flux changes, particularly net flux changes near disk center, correlated better than local field changes with GOES peak X-ray flux. The strongest longitudinal field and flux changes occurred in flares observed close to the limb. We estimate the change of Lorentz force associated with each flare and find that this is large enough in some cases to power seismic waves. We find that longitudinal field decreases would likely outnumber increases at all parts of the solar disk within 65 0 of disk center, as in our observations, if photospheric field tilts increase during flares as predicted by Hudson et al.

  14. Thermally activated magnetization reversal in monatomic magnetic chains on surfaces studied by classical atomistic spin-dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, David S G; Mavropoulos, Phivos; Bluegel, Stefan; Lounis, Samir

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the spontaneous magnetization reversal of supported monatomic chains of finite length due to thermal fluctuations via atomistic spin-dynamics simulations. Our approach is based on the integration of the Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion of a classical spin Hamiltonian in the presence of stochastic forces. The associated magnetization lifetime is found to obey an Arrhenius law with an activation barrier equal to the domain wall energy in the chain. For chains longer than one domain wall width, the reversal is initiated by nucleation of a reversed magnetization domain primarily at the chain edge followed by a subsequent propagation of the domain wall to the other edge in a random-walk fashion. This results in a linear dependence of the lifetime on the chain length, if the magnetization correlation length is not exceeded. We studied chains of uniaxial and triaxial anisotropy and found that a triaxial anisotropy leads to a reduction of the magnetization lifetime due to a higher reversal attempt rate, even though the activation barrier is not changed.

  15. Magnetic fluid poly(ethylene glycol) with moderate anticancer activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavisova, Vlasta, E-mail: zavisova@saske.s [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Koneracka, Martina [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Muckova, Marta; Lazova, Jana [Hameln, rds a.s., Horna 36, Modra (Slovakia); Jurikova, Alena; Lancz, Gabor; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Timko, Milan; Kovac, Jozef [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Vavra, Ivo [IEE SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Fabian, Martin [IGT SAS, Watsonova 45, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Feoktystov, Artem V. [FLNP JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna Moscow Reg. 141980 (Russian Federation); KNU, Academician Glushkov Ave. 2/1, 03187 Kyiv (Ukraine); Garamus, Vasil M. [GKSS research center, Max-Planck-Str.1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [FLNP JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna Moscow Reg. 141980 (Russian Federation); Kopcansky, Peter [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing magnetic fluids - magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) stabilized by sodium oleate - were prepared. Magnetic measurements confirmed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The structure of that kind of magnetic fluid was characterized using different techniques, including electron microscopy, photon cross correlation spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering, while the adsorption of PEG on magnetic particles was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the in vitro toxicity tests it was found that a magnetic fluid containing PEG (MFPEG) partially inhibited the growth of cancerous B16 cells at the highest tested dose (2.1 mg/ml of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in MFPEG). - Research Highlights: A new type of biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF) with poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared. Structuralization effects of magnetite particles depend on PEG concentration. Large fractals of magnetite nanoparticles in MF were observed (SANS indication). MF partially inhibited (approximately 50%) the growth of cancerous B16 cells.

  16. Magnetic fluid poly(ethylene glycol) with moderate anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavisova, Vlasta; Koneracka, Martina; Muckova, Marta; Lazova, Jana; Jurikova, Alena; Lancz, Gabor; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Timko, Milan; Kovac, Jozef; Vavra, Ivo; Fabian, Martin; Feoktystov, Artem V.; Garamus, Vasil M.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Kopcansky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing magnetic fluids - magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) stabilized by sodium oleate - were prepared. Magnetic measurements confirmed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The structure of that kind of magnetic fluid was characterized using different techniques, including electron microscopy, photon cross correlation spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering, while the adsorption of PEG on magnetic particles was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the in vitro toxicity tests it was found that a magnetic fluid containing PEG (MFPEG) partially inhibited the growth of cancerous B16 cells at the highest tested dose (2.1 mg/ml of Fe 3 O 4 in MFPEG). - Research Highlights: → A new type of biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF) with poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared. → Structuralization effects of magnetite particles depend on PEG concentration. → Large fractals of magnetite nanoparticles in MF were observed (SANS indication). → MF partially inhibited (approximately 50%) the growth of cancerous B16 cells.

  17. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  18. [Progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libin; Zhu, He; Hao, Jie; Zhou, Qi

    2015-06-01

    Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all types of cells in the body and therefore have great application potential in regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modelling and drug screening. In recent years, stem cell technology has made great progress, and induced pluripotent stem cell technology revolutionizes the whole stem cell field. At the same time, stem cell research in our country has also achieved great progress and becomes an indispensable power in the worldwide stem cell research field. This review mainly focuses on the research progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine in our country since the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, including induced pluripotent stem cells, transdifferentiation, haploid stem cells, and new gene editing tools.

  19. Induced pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Karen K; Li, Song; Roy, Krishnendu

    2014-07-11

    With the discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, it is now possible to convert differentiated somatic cells into multipotent stem cells that have the capacity to generate all cell types of adult tissues. Thus, there is a wide variety of applications for this technology, including regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modeling, and drug screening/discovery. Although biological and biochemical techniques have been well established for cell reprogramming, bioengineering technologies offer novel tools for the reprogramming, expansion, isolation, and differentiation of iPS cells. In this article, we review these bioengineering approaches for the derivation and manipulation of iPS cells and focus on their relevance to regenerative medicine.

  20. Regenerative endodontics: A state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue grafting, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. Non-vital infected teeth have long been treated with root canal therapy (for mature root apex and apexification (for immature root apex, or doomed to extraction. Although successful, current treatments fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in these teeth. But, what if the non-vital tooth could be made vital once again? That is the hope offered by regenerative endodontics, an emerging field focused on replacing traumatized and diseased pulp with functional pulp tissue. Restoration of vitality of non-vital tooth is based on tissue engineering and revascularization procedures. The purpose of this article is to review these biological procedures and the hurdles that must be overcome to develop regenerative endodontic procedures.

  1. Regenerative Endodontics: A Road Less Travelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ramta; Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Kaur, Dilpreet

    2014-01-01

    Although traditional approaches like root canal therapy and apexification procedures have been successful in treating diseased or infected root canals, but these modalities fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in treated teeth. Regeneration-based approaches aims to offer high levels of success by replacing diseased or necrotic pulp tissues with healthy pulp tissue to revitalize teeth. The applications of regenerative approaches in dental clinics have potential to dramatically improve patients’ quality of life. This review article offers a detailed overview of present regenerative endodontic approaches aiming to revitalize teeth and also outlines the problems to be dealt before this emerging field contributes to clinical treatment protocols. It conjointly covers the basic trilogy elements of tissue engineering. PMID:25478476

  2. Micro-Scale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    A micro-scale regenerative heat exchanger has been designed, optimized and fabricated for use in a micro-Stirling device. Novel design and fabrication techniques enabled the minimization of axial heat conduction losses and pressure drop, while maximizing thermal regenerative performance. The fabricated prototype is comprised of ten separate assembled layers of alternating metal-dielectric composite. Each layer is offset to minimize conduction losses and maximize heat transfer by boundary layer disruption. A grating pattern of 100 micron square non-contiguous flow passages were formed with a nominal 20 micron wall thickness, and an overall assembled ten-layer thickness of 900 microns. Application of the micro heat exchanger is envisioned in the areas of micro-refrigerators/coolers, micropower devices, and micro-fluidic devices.

  3. Introduction to regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, J-F; Decot, V; Huseltein, C; He, X; Zhang, L; Magdalou, J; Li, Y P; Menu, P; Li, N; Wang, Y Y; de Isla, N; Bensoussan, D

    2012-01-01

    Human tissues don't regenerate spontaneously, explaining why regenerative medicine and cell therapy represent a promising alternative treatment (autologous cells or stem cells of different origins). The principle is simple: cells are collected, expanded and introduced with or without modification into injured tissues or organs. Among middle-term therapeutic applications, cartilage defects, bone repair, cardiac insufficiency, burns, liver or bladder, neurodegenerative disorders could be considered.

  4. Optimization of an irreversible Stirling regenerative cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragón-González, G; Cano-Bianco, M; León-Galicia, A; Rivera-Camacho, J M

    2015-01-01

    In this work a Stirling regenerative cycle with some irreversibilities is analyzed. The analyzed irreversibilities are located at the heat exchangers. They receive a finite amount of heat and heat leakage occurs between both reservoirs. Using this model, power and the efficiency at maximum power are obtained. Some optimal design parameters for the exchanger heat areas and thermal conductances are presented. The relation between the power, efficiency and the results obtained are shown graphically

  5. Adaptive Regenerative Braking in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kubaisi, Rayad

    2018-01-01

    Elektrofahrzeuge fahren lokal emissionsfrei und tragen damit dazu bei, die Emissionen in Städten zu reduzieren. Zusätzlich, zeichnen sich Elektrofahrzeuge durch ein dynamisches Fahrverhalten aus. Nachteilig wirkt sich bei den meisten Elektrofahrzeugen, die geringe Reichweite auf die Akzeptanz bei Neuwagenkäufern aus. Eine der Maßnahmen zur Erhöhung der Reichweite von Elektrofahrzeuge ist das regenerative Bremsen. Hierbei wird die kinetische Energie des Fahrzeugs durch generatorisches...

  6. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschi, Karen K.; Li, Song; Roy, Krishnendu

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, it is now possible to convert differentiated somatic cells into multipotent stem cells that have the capacity to generate all cell types of adult tissues. Thus, there is a wide variety of applications for this technology, including regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modeling, and drug screening/discovery. Although biological and biochemical techniques have been well established for cell reprogramming, bioengineering technologies...

  7. Regenerative Intelligent Brake Control for Electric Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Castillo Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle models whose propulsion system is based on electric motors are increasing in number within the automobile industry. They will soon become a reliable alternative to vehicles with conventional propulsion systems. The main advantages of this type of vehicles are the non-emission of polluting gases and noise and the effectiveness of electric motors compared to combustion engines. Some of the disadvantages that electric vehicle manufacturers still have to solve are their low autonomy due to inefficient energy storage systems, vehicle cost, which is still too high, and reducing the recharging time. Current regenerative systems in motorcycles are designed with a low fixed maximum regeneration rate in order not to cause the rear wheel to slip when braking with the regenerative brake no matter what the road condition is. These types of systems do not make use of all the available regeneration power, since more importance is placed on safety when braking. An optimized regenerative braking strategy for two-wheeled vehicles is described is this work. This system is designed to recover the maximum energy in braking processes while maintaining the vehicle’s stability. In order to develop the previously described regenerative control, tyre forces, vehicle speed and road adhesion are obtained by means of an estimation algorithm. A based-on-fuzzy-logic algorithm is programmed to carry out an optimized control with this information. This system recuperates maximum braking power without compromising the rear wheel slip and safety. Simulations show that the system optimizes energy regeneration on every surface compared to a constant regeneration strategy.

  8. A solar regenerative thermoelectrochemical converter (RTEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, C.W.; McHardy, J. (Hughes Aircraft Co., El Segundo, CA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    This is an executive summary of a final subcontract report that describes the successful completion of a closed-loop demonstration of a regenerative thermoelectromechanical device using solar heat input for the production of electricity. The full report, which contains a detailed description of the two-year effort, is currently subject to a government secrecy order which precludes public release of the information. Copies of the full report will be made available for general release whenever the secrecy order is lifted.

  9. Flare activity, sunspot motions, and the evolution of vector magnetic fields in Hale region 17244

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidig, Donald F.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Machado, Marcos E.; Smith, Jesse B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic and dynamical circumstances leading to the 1B/M4 flare of November 5, 1980 are studied, and a strong association is found between the buildup of magnetic shear and the onset of flare activity within the active region. The development of shear, as observed directly in vector magnetograms, is consistent in detail with the dynamical history of the active region and identifies the precise location of the optical and hard-X-ray kernels of the flare emission.

  10. An animal model to study regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Corr, Robert; Buhrley, Matthew; Wright, Kenneth; Shabahang, Shahrokh

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of evidence is demonstrating the possibility for regeneration of tissues within the pulp space and continued root development in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. There are areas of research related to regenerative endodontics that need to be investigated in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate ferret cuspid teeth as a model to investigate factors involved in regenerative endodontics. Six young male ferrets between the ages of 36-133 days were used in this investigation. Each animal was anesthetized and perfused with 10% buffered formalin. Block sections including the mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth and their surrounding periapical tissues were obtained, radiographed, decalcified, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine various stages of apical closure in these teeth. The permanent mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth with open apices erupted approximately 50 days after birth. Initial signs of closure of the apical foramen in these teeth were observed between 90-110 days. Complete apical closure was observed in the cuspid teeth when the animals were 133 days old. Based on the experiment, ferret cuspid teeth can be used to investigate various factors involved in regenerative endodontics that cannot be tested in human subjects. The most appropriate time to conduct the experiments would be when the ferrets are between the ages of 50 and 90 days. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Regenerative endodontics--Creating new horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Harnoor; Kaushik, Mamta; Sharma, Roshni

    2016-05-01

    Trauma to the dental pulp, physical or microbiologic, can lead to inflammation of the pulp followed by necrosis. The current treatment modality for such cases is non-surgical root canal treatment. The damaged tissue is extirpated and the root canal system prepared. It is then obturated with an inert material such a gutta percha. In spite of advances in techniques and materials, 10%-15% of the cases may end in failure of treatment. Regenerative endodontics combines principles of endodontics, cell biology, and tissue engineering to provide an ideal treatment for inflamed and necrotic pulp. It utilizes mesenchymal stem cells, growth factors, and organ tissue culture to provide treatment. Potential treatment modalities include induction of blood clot for pulp revascularization, scaffold aided regeneration, and pulp implantation. Although in its infancy, successful treatment of damaged pulp tissue has been performed using principles of regenerative endodontics. This field is dynamic and exciting with the ability to shape the future of endodontics. This article highlights the fundamental concepts, protocol for treatment, and possible avenues for research in regenerative endodontics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Macroenvironmental regulation of hair cycling and collective regenerative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The hair follicle (HF) regeneration paradigm provides a unique opportunity for studying the collective behavior of stem cells in living animals. Activation of HF stem cells depends on the core inhibitory BMP and activating WNT signals operating within the HF microenvironment. Additionally, HFs receive multilayered signaling inputs from the extrafollicular macroenvironment, which includes dermis, adipocytes, neighboring HFs, hormones, and external stimuli. These activators/inhibitors are integrated across multiple stem-cell niches to produce dynamic hair growth patterns. Because of their pigmentation, these patterns can be easily studied on live shaved animals. Comparing to autonomous regeneration of one HF, populations of HFs display coupled decision making, allowing for more robust and adaptable regenerative behavior to occur collectively. The generic cellular automata model used to simulate coordinated HF cycling here can be extended to study population-level behavior of other complex biological systems made of cycling elements.

  13. Active magnetic bearings: As applied to centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelik, Lev; Cooper, Paul; Jones, Graham; Galecki, Dennis; Pinckney, Frank; Kirk, Gordon

    1992-05-01

    Application of magnetic bearings to boiler feed pumps presents various attractive features, such as longer bearing life, lower maintenance costs, and improved operability through control of the rotordynamics. Magnetic bearings were fitted to an eight-stage, 600 hp boiler feed pump, which generates 2600 ft of heat at 680 gpm and 3560 rpm. In addition to the varied and severe operating environment in steady state operation of this pump in a power plant, it is also subjected to transient loads during frequent starts and stops. These loads can now be measured by the in-built instrumentation of the magnetic bearings. Following site installation, a follow-up bearing tune-up was performed, and pump transient response testing was conducted. The bearing response was completely satisfactory, ensuring trouble-free pump operation even in the range of reduced load. The experience gained so far through design and testing proves feasibility of magnetic bearings for boiler feed pumps, which sets the stage for application of even higher energy centrifugal pumps equipped with magnetic bearings.

  14. Electric-current Neutralization, Magnetic Shear, and Eruptive Activity in Solar Active Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Leake, James E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The physical conditions that determine whether or not solar active regions (ARs) produce strong flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are not yet well understood. Here, we investigate the association between electric-current neutralization, magnetic shear along polarity inversion lines (PILs), and eruptive activity in four ARs: two emerging and two well-developed ones. We find that the CME-producing ARs are characterized by a strongly non-neutralized total current, while the total current in the ARs that did not produce CMEs is almost perfectly neutralized. The difference in the PIL shear between these two groups is much less pronounced, which suggests that the degree of current neutralization may serve as a better proxy for assessing the ability of ARs to produce CMEs.

  15. Magnetic nanoparticle imaging using multiple electron paramagnetic resonance activation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coene, A.; Dupré, L.; Crevecoeur, G.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles play an important role in several biomedical applications such as hyperthermia, drug targeting, and disease detection. To realize an effective working of these applications, the spatial distribution of the particles needs to be accurately known, in a non-invasive way. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a promising and sensitive measurement technique for recovering these distributions. In the conventional approach, EPR is applied with a homogeneous magnetic field. In this paper, we employ different heterogeneous magnetic fields that allow to stabilize the solution of the associated inverse problem and to obtain localized spatial information. A comparison is made between the two approaches and our novel adaptation shows an average increase in reconstruction quality by 5% and is 12 times more robust towards noise. Furthermore, our approach allows to speed up the EPR measurements while still obtaining reconstructions with an improved accuracy and noise robustness compared to homogeneous EPR

  16. Magnetically Active and Coated Gadolinium-Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Fidiani, Elok; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Wolter, Anja U. B.; Maier, Diana; Buechner, Bernd; Hampel, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Gd-filled carbon nanotubes (which include the so-called gadonanotubes(1)) have been attracting much interest due to their potential use in medical diagnostic applications. In the present work, a vacuum filling method was performed to confine gadolinium(III) iodide in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filling yields in excess of 50% were obtained. Cleaning and dosing of the external walls was undertaken, as well as the study of the filled CNT magnetic properties. Overall, we found that the encapsulating procedure can lead to reduction of the lanthanide metal and induce disorder in the initial GdI3-type structure. Notwithstanding, the magnetic response of the material is not compromised, retaining a strong paramagnetic response and an effective magnetic moment of similar to 6 mu B. Our results may entice further investigation into whether an analogous Gd3+ to Gd2+ reduction takes place in other Gd-filled CNT systems.

  17. Magnetically Active and Coated Gadolinium-Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Fidiani, Elok

    2013-08-15

    Gd-filled carbon nanotubes (which include the so-called gadonanotubes(1)) have been attracting much interest due to their potential use in medical diagnostic applications. In the present work, a vacuum filling method was performed to confine gadolinium(III) iodide in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filling yields in excess of 50% were obtained. Cleaning and dosing of the external walls was undertaken, as well as the study of the filled CNT magnetic properties. Overall, we found that the encapsulating procedure can lead to reduction of the lanthanide metal and induce disorder in the initial GdI3-type structure. Notwithstanding, the magnetic response of the material is not compromised, retaining a strong paramagnetic response and an effective magnetic moment of similar to 6 mu B. Our results may entice further investigation into whether an analogous Gd3+ to Gd2+ reduction takes place in other Gd-filled CNT systems.

  18. Researches on regenerative medicine-current state and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Guo; Xiao, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Since 1980s, the rapid development of tissue engineering and stem cell research has pushed regenerative medicine to a new fastigium, and regenerative medicine has become a noticeable research field in the international biology and medicine. In China, about 100 million patients need repair and regeneration treatment every year, while the number is much larger in the world. Regenerative medicine could provide effective salvation for these patients. Both Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering have made roadmaps of 2010-2050 and 2011-2030 for regenerative medicine. The final goal of the two roadmaps is to make China go up to leading position in most research aspects of regenerative medicine. In accord with this strategy, the government and some enterprises have invested 3-5 billion RMB (0.5-0.8 billion USD) for the research on regenerative medicine. In order to push the translation of regenerative medicine forward-from bench to bedside, a strategic alliance has been established, and it includes 27 top-level research institutes, medical institutes, colleges, universities and enterprises in the field of stem cell and regeneration medicine. Recently the journal, Science, has published a special issue-Regenerative Medicine in China, consisting of 35 papers dealing with stem cell and regeneration, tissue engineering and regeneration, trauma and regeneration and bases for tissue repair and regenerative medicine. It is predicated that a greater breakthrough in theory and practice of regenerative medicine will be achieved in the near future (20 to 30 years).

  19. Clinical concepts for regenerative therapy in intrabony defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Tonetti, Maurizio S

    2015-06-01

    Evidence indicates that periodontal regeneration is an efficacious and predictable procedure for the treatment of isolated and multiple intrabony defects. Meta-analyses from systematic reviews indicate an added benefit, in terms of clinical attachment level gain, when demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft, barrier membranes and active biologic products/compounds are applied in addition to open flap debridement. On the other hand, a consistent amount of variability of the outcomes is evident among different studies and within the experimental population of each study. This variability is explained, at least in part, by different patient and defect characteristics. Patient-related factors include smoking habit, compliance with home oral hygiene and residual inflammation after cause-related therapy. Defect-associated factors include defect depth and radiographic angle, the number of residual bony walls, pocket depth and the degree of hypermobility. In addition, surgical-related variables, such as surgical skill, clinical experience and knowledge, and application of the different regenerative materials, have a significant impact on clinical outcomes. This paper presents a strategy to optimize the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration. The surgical design of the flap, the use of different regenerative materials and the application of appropriate passive sutures are discussed in this review along with the scientific foundations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  2. A study of an active magnetic shielding method for the superconductive Maglev vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, K.; Komori, M.

    2010-01-01

    Various methods of magnetic shielding have been studied so far to reduce magnetic field strength inside the passenger room of the superconductive Maglev vehicle. Magnetic shielding methods with ferromagnetic materials are very useful, but they tend to be heavier for large space. Though some passive magnetic shielding methods using induced currents in superconducting bulks or superconducting coils have also been studied, the induced current is relatively small and it is difficult to get satisfactory magnetic shielding performance for the passenger room of the Maglev vehicle. Thus, we have proposed an active magnetic shielding method with some superconducting coils of the same length as propulsion-levitation-guidance superconducting coils of the Maglev vehicle. They are arranged under the passenger room of the Maglev vehicle. Then, we studied the shielding effect by canceling magnetic flux density in the passenger room by way of adjusting magnetomotive-forces of the magnetic shielding coils. As a result, it is found that a simple arrangement of two magnetic shielding coils for one propulsion-levitation-guidance superconducting coil on the vehicle shows an effective magnetic shielding.

  3. A study of an active magnetic shielding method for the superconductive Maglev vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, K., E-mail: nemoto@kamakuranet.ne.j [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Dept. of Applied Science for Integrated System Engineering, 1-1 Sensui, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Komori, M. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Dept. of Applied Science for Integrated System Engineering, 1-1 Sensui, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Various methods of magnetic shielding have been studied so far to reduce magnetic field strength inside the passenger room of the superconductive Maglev vehicle. Magnetic shielding methods with ferromagnetic materials are very useful, but they tend to be heavier for large space. Though some passive magnetic shielding methods using induced currents in superconducting bulks or superconducting coils have also been studied, the induced current is relatively small and it is difficult to get satisfactory magnetic shielding performance for the passenger room of the Maglev vehicle. Thus, we have proposed an active magnetic shielding method with some superconducting coils of the same length as propulsion-levitation-guidance superconducting coils of the Maglev vehicle. They are arranged under the passenger room of the Maglev vehicle. Then, we studied the shielding effect by canceling magnetic flux density in the passenger room by way of adjusting magnetomotive-forces of the magnetic shielding coils. As a result, it is found that a simple arrangement of two magnetic shielding coils for one propulsion-levitation-guidance superconducting coil on the vehicle shows an effective magnetic shielding.

  4. Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xianghong; Jia Shaoxia; Wan Jun; Wang Shouguo; Xu Feng; Bai Yanqiang; Liu Hongtao; Jiang Rui; Ma Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration. The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far. The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles. One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric. A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz, which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side. The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt, but the mechanism has yet to be understood. A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions, and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power. (authors)

  5. Dynamics of Magnetic Bright Points in an Active Region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Möstl, C.; Hanslmeier, A.; Sobotka, Michal; Puschmann, K.G.; Muthsam, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 237, č. 1 (2006), s. 13-23 ISSN 0038-0938 Grant - others:FWF(AT) P-17024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * photosphere * magnetic fields Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.887, year: 2006

  6. Design Concepts for a Continuously Rotating Active Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bjørk, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Design considerations for a prototype magnetic refrigeration device with a continuously rotating AMR are presented. Building the AMR from stacks of elongated plates of the perovskite oxide material La0.67Ca0.33-xSrxMn1.05O3, gives both a low pressure drop and allows grading of the Curie temperatu...

  7. THE FORMATION AND MAGNETIC STRUCTURES OF ACTIVE-REGION FILAMENTS OBSERVED BY NVST, SDO, AND HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Wang, J. C.; Xiang, Y. Y.; Kong, D. F.; Yang, L. H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China); Pan, G. M. [College of Mathematics Physics and Information Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China)

    2015-08-15

    To better understand the properties of solar active-region filaments, we present a detailed study on the formation and magnetic structures of two active-region filaments in active region NOAA 11884 during a period of four days. It is found that the shearing motion of the opposite magnetic polarities and the rotation of the small sunspots with negative polarity play an important role in the formation of two active-region filaments. During the formation of these two active-region filaments, one foot of the filaments was rooted in a small sunspot with negative polarity. The small sunspot rotated not only around another small sunspot with negative polarity, but also around the center of its umbra. By analyzing the nonlinear force-free field extrapolation using the vector magnetic fields in the photosphere, twisted structures were found in the two active-region filaments prior to their eruptions. These results imply that the magnetic fields were dragged by the shearing motion between opposite magnetic polarities and became more horizontal. The sunspot rotation twisted the horizontal magnetic fields and finally formed the twisted active-region filaments.

  8. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  9. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Use of density gradient centrifugation, magnetically activated cell sorting and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagnoli, C; Multhaupt, H A; Ludomirski, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a noninvasive method suitable for clinical prenatal diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Fetal nucleated erythrocytes were separated from peripheral blood of 17 healthy pregnant women using small magnetically activated cell sorting columns (MiniMACS) following density gradient centrifug...

  10. Leach-proof magnetic thrombolytic nanoparticles and coatings of enhanced activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, Andrey S.; Vinogradov, Vasiliy V.; Dudanov, Ivan P.; Vinogradov, Vladimir V.

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fact that magnetic thrombolytic composites is an emerging area, all known so far systems are based on the similar mechanism of action: thrombolytic enzyme releases from the magnetic carrier leaving non-active matrix, thus making the whole system active only for a limited period of time. Such systems often have very complex structure organization and composition, consisting of materials not approved for parenteral injection, making them poor candidates for real clinical trials and implementation. Here we report, for the first time, the production of thrombolytic magnetic composite material with non-releasing behavior and prolonged action. Obtained composite shows good thrombolytic activity, consists of fully biocompatible materials and could be applied as infinitely active thrombolytic coatings or magnetically-targetable thrombolytic agents.

  11. On a forecast of geomagnetic activity according to magnetic fields on the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponyavin, D.I.; Pudovkin, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Technique for tracking the current layer orientation in the solar corona and solar wind high-velocity flux sources is suggested according to the observation of large-scale magnetic fields at the Sun. Ionospheric magnetic fields in potential approximation are extrapolated to the Sun atmosphere high layers - in the region of probable formation of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. The chart of isocline-lines of field vector even inclination to the surface of R=1.8R sun radius sphere is plotted according to the calculated magnetic field. Daily plotting of such charts allows to continuosly track the large-scale structure and evolution of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. Th comparison of isoclinic charts with geomagnetic activity for October 1982 has shown the principal possibility to use this technique for the purposes of geomagnetic activity forecasting

  12. Technical and economic considerations of using actively shielded superconducting magnets for MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, L.; Hawksworth, D.

    1986-01-01

    Air-cored superconducting magnets provide uniform fields for MR imaging over large volumes at the lowest cost per gauss of available technologies. Traditional solenoidal designs have an air flux return path and contaminate the clinical environment. Actively shielded magnets comprising one magnet inside another provide the maximum possible fringe field reduction per unit cost. The use of iron to reduce fringe field is more costly than active shielding and much less flexible. Solutions to providing fringe field cancellation are possible using industry standard cryostat dimensions. Costs of materials are minimized by designing with coil optimization routines that include stress parameters

  13. Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0593 TITLE: Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis PRINCIPAL...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 09/15/2011 - 08/14/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis 5a...4 Title of the Grant: Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis Award number: W81XWH-11-1-0593 Principal Investigator

  14. Regenerative Endodontics: Barriers and Strategies for Clinical Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sahng G.; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Ling; Cho, Shoko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Fu, Susan Y.; Yang, Rujing; Zhou, Xuedong; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a great deal of enthusiasm and effort, regenerative endodontics has encountered substantial challenges towards clinical translation. Recent adoption by the American Dental Association (ADA) of evoked pulp bleeding in immature permanent teeth is an important step for regenerative endodontics. However, there is no regenerative therapy for the majority of endodontic diseases. Simple recapitulation of cell therapy and tissue engineering strategies that are under development for other orga...

  15. Young Scientists Explore Electricity & Magnetism. Book 7--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of electricity and magnetism. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  16. Variability in foF2 at an equatorial station and the influence of magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, J.O.; Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in foF2 is investigated for an equatorial station in the African region. Variability during the day time at high solar activity varies between 10 and 30 percent. It varies between 10 and 20 percent at high solar activity. Magnetic storms increase the variability at both solar activity periods. (author)

  17. Regenerative Medicine Applications in Wound Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Sisakht, Mahsa Mollapour; Seifalian, Alexander Marcus; Amirkhani, Mohammad Amir; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Verdi, Javad; Sharifzad, Farzaneh; Taghiabadi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    During the last two decades, a number of studies have been carried out on the application of regenerative medicine in the field of dermatology. The aim of this research was to critically review the application of regenerative medicine in the field of dermatology. The next aim was to look in depth to see whether regenerative medicine strategies have a place in the future of wound healing in a clinical setting. More specifically, to see if these strategies would apply for burns and non-healing diabetic wounds. Billions of dollars have been spent worldwide on research in wound treatment and skin regeneration. Although a high number of clinical trials show promising results, there is still no commercially available treatment for use. In addition, the outcome data from the clinical trials, taking place throughout the world, are not published in a standardized manner. Standardization within clinical trials is required for: protocols, outcome, endpoint values, and length of follow-up. The lack of standardization makes it much more difficult to compare the data collected and the different types of treatment. Despite several promising results from research and early phase clinical studies, the treatment for wounds as well as skin regeneration is still considered as an unmet clinical need. However, in the past three years, more promising research has been approaching clinical trials; this could be the solution that clinicians have been waiting for. This is a multibillion dollar industry for which there should be enough incentive for researchers and industry to seek the solution. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Stem cells and the future of regenerative medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council, Committee on the Biological and Biomedical Applications of Stem Cell Research; Commission on Life Sciences; National Research Council; Board on Life Sciences; Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Institute of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    .... Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine provides a deeper exploration of the biological, ethical, and funding questions prompted by the therapeutic potential of undifferentiated human cells...

  19. Platelet rich fibrin - a novel acumen into regenerative endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Hotwani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research into regenerative dentistry has added impetus onto the field of molecular biology. It can be documented as a prototype shift in the therapeutic armamentarium for dental disease. Regenerative endodontic procedures are widely being added to the current armamentarium of pulp therapy procedures. The regenerative potential of platelets has been deliberated. A new family of platelet concentrates called the platelet rich fibrin (PRF has been recently used by several investigators and has shown application in diverse disciplines of dentistry. This paper is intended to add light on the various prospects of PRF and clinical insights to regenerative endodontic therapy.

  20. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  1. Redundant unbalance compensation of an active magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Markus; Kalteis, Gerald; Schrödl, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    To achieve a good running behavior of a magnetic levitated rotor, a well-developed position controller and different compensation methods are required. Two very important structures in this context are the reduction of the gyroscopic effect and the unbalance vibration. Both structures have in common that they need the angular velocity information for calculation. For industrial applications this information is normally provided by an angle sensor which is fixed on the rotor. The angle information is also necessary for the field oriented control of the electrical drive. The main drawback of external position sensors are the case of a breakdown or an error of the motor controller. Therefore, the magnetic bearing can get unstable, because no angular velocity information is provided. To overcome this problem the presented paper describes the development of a selfsensing unbalance rejection in combination with a selfsensing speed control of the motor controller. Selfsensing means in this context that no angle sensor is required for the unbalance or torque control. With such structures two redundant speed and angle information sources are available and can be used for the magnetic bearing and the motor controller without the usage of an angle sensor.

  2. REAC regenerative treatment efficacy in experimental chondral lesions: a pilot study on ovine animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Passino E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eraldo Sanna Passino,1,2 Stefano Rocca,1 Sabrina Caggiu,1 Nicolò Columbano,1,2 Alessandro Castagna,3 Vania Fontani,3–5 Salvatore Rinaldi3–51Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 2Comparative Surgery Research Laboratory, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 3Department of Regenerative Medicine, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, Italy; 4Research Department, Rinaldi Fontani Foundation, Florence, Italy; 5Research Department, IRF Shanghai Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC technology is a platform designed to optimize cell polarity. Cell polarity is a universal biological phenomenon that is implicated in cell differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, aging, and rejuvenation. In this work, we investigate a timing and administration protocol for tissue optimization regenerative treatment type C, in order to treat aging-related chondral damage or injuries and gain insights into regenerative processes of articular cartilage in humans. The chondral lesion produced in this study in an animal model (6 knee joints of 4 adult sheep was 6 mm in diameter and about 2 mm deep. These lesions, which did not involve subchondral bone, tend to increase in size and depth and are not completely repaired with normal hyaline articular cartilage since adult articular cartilage is avascular and has a very slow turnover at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the hydration of articular cartilage is reduced with aging and with decreased mitotic activity, synthesis, and population size of chondrocytes. Six months posttreatment, lesions appeared filled, though not completely, with newly generated tissue of the light opalescent color of healthy articular cartilage, which otherwise covered the underlying subchondral bone. The newly formed tissue surface appeared to be quite regular. Nearly complete regeneration of subchondral bone occurred, with

  3. Extended magnetic resonance imaging studies on the effect of classically activated microglia transplantation on white matter regeneration following spinal cord focal injury in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcol, Wiesław; Ślusarczyk, Wojciech; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Kapustka, Bartosz; Staszkiewicz, Rafał; Rosicka, Paulina; Kalita, Katarzyna; Węglarz, Władysław; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries are still a serious problem for regenerative medicine. Previous research has demonstrated that activated microglia accumulate in spinal lesions, influencing the injured tissues in various ways. Therefore, transplantation of activated microglia may have a beneficial role in the regeneration of the nervous system. The present study examined the influence of transplanted activated microglial cells in adult rats with injured spinal cords. Rats were randomly divided into an experimental (M) and control (C) group, and were subjected to non-laminectomy focal injury of spinal cord white matter by means of a high-pressured air stream. In group M, activated cultured microglial cells were injected twice into the site of injury. Functional outcome and morphological features of regeneration were analyzed during a 12-week follow-up. The lesions were characterized by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neurons in the brain stem and motor cortex were labeled with FluoroGold (FG). A total of 12 weeks after surgery, spinal cords and brains were collected and subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. Lesion sizes in the spinal cord were measured and the number of FG-positive neurons was counted. Rats in group M demonstrated significant improvement of locomotor performance when compared with group C (PMRI analysis demonstrated moderate improvement in water diffusion along the spinal cord in the group M following microglia treatment, as compared with group C. The water diffusion perpendicular to the spinal cord in group M was closer to the reference values for a healthy spinal cord than it was in group C. The sizes of lesions were also significantly smaller in group M than in the group C (P<0.05). The number of brain stem and motor cortex FG-positive neurons in group M was significantly higher than in group C. The present study demonstrated that delivery of activated microglia directly into the injured spinal cord gives some

  4. Regenerative nanotechnology in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, Kaveh; Tan, Aaron; Soskic, Vukic; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-12-01

    Regenerative nanotechnology is at the forefront of medical research, and translational medicine is a challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Although there has been an exponential rise in the volume of research generated about it for both medical and surgical uses, key questions remain about its actual benefits. Nevertheless, some people think that therapeutics based on its principles may form the core of applied research for the future. Here we give an account of its current use in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and implications and challenges for the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...... for tissue engineering and drug screening applications....... cell differentiation into tissue-specifi c lineages. The use of 3D biomaterial microarrays can, if optimized correctly, result in a more than 1000-fold reduction in biomaterials and cells consumption when engineering optimal materials combinations, which makes these miniaturized systems very attractive...

  6. Bioprinting is changing regenerative medicine forever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Scott Forrest

    2014-12-01

    3D printing, or solid freeform fabrication, applied to regenerative medicine brings technologies from several industries together to help solve unique challenges in both basic science and tissue engineering. By more finely organizing cells and supporting structures precisely in 3D space, we will gain critical knowledge of cell-cell communications and cell-environment interactions. As we increase the scale, we will move toward complex tissue and organ structures where several cell phenotypes will functionally and structurally interact, thus recapitulating the form and function of native tissues and organs.

  7. Phosphorous-Containing Polymers for Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendan M.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2014-01-01

    Disease and injury have resulted in a large, unmet need for functional tissue replacements. Polymeric scaffolds can be used to deliver cells and bioactive signals to address this need for regenerating damaged tissue. Phosphorous-containing polymers have been implemented to improve and accelerate the formation of native tissue both by mimicking the native role of phosphorous groups in the body and by attachment of other bioactive molecules. This manuscript reviews the synthesis, properties, and performance of phosphorous-containing polymers that can be useful in regenerative medicine applications. PMID:24565855

  8. MicroRNA Delivery for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages an...

  9. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  10. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  12. Regeneration-associated macrophages: a novel approach to boost intrinsic regenerative capacity for axon regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Axons in central nervous system (CNS do not regenerate spontaneously after injuries such as stroke and traumatic spinal cord injury. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are responsible for the regeneration failure. Although intensive research efforts have been invested on extrinsic regeneration inhibitors, the extent to which glial inhibitors contribute to the regeneration failure in vivo still remains elusive. Recent experimental evidence has rekindled interests in intrinsic factors for the regulation of regeneration capacity in adult mammals. In this review, we propose that activating macrophages with pro-regenerative molecular signatures could be a novel approach for boosting intrinsic regenerative capacity of CNS neurons. Using a conditioning injury model in which regeneration of central branches of dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons is enhanced by a preceding injury to the peripheral branches, we have demonstrated that perineuronal macrophages surrounding dorsal root ganglia neurons are critically involved in the maintenance of enhanced regeneration capacity. Neuron-derived chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 seems to mediate neuron-macrophage interactions conveying injury signals to perineuronal macrophages taking on a soley pro-regenerative phenotype, which we designate as regeneration-associated macrophages (RAMs. Manipulation of the CCL2 signaling could boost regeneration potential mimicking the conditioning injury, suggesting that the chemokine-mediated RAM activation could be utilized as a regenerative therapeutic strategy for CNS injuries.

  13. QUANTIFYING THE TOPOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE ASSOCIATED WITH MULTI-FLARE ACTIVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kai; Guo, Yang; Ding, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) play an important role in solar activities. The quantitative assessment of the topology of an MFR and its evolution is crucial for a better understanding of the relationship between the MFR and associated activities. In this paper, we investigate the magnetic field of active region (AR) 12017 from 2014 March 28–29, during which time 12 flares were triggered by intermittent eruptions of a filament (either successful or confined). Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory , we calculate the magnetic energy and helicity injection in the AR, and extrapolate the 3D magnetic field with a nonlinear force-free field model. From the extrapolations, we find an MFR that is cospatial with the filament. We further determine the configuration of this MFR from the closed quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) around it. Then, we calculate the twist number and the magnetic helicity for the field lines composing the MFR. The results show that the closed QSL structure surrounding the MFR becomes smaller as a consequence of flare occurrence. We also find that the flares in our sample are mainly triggered by kink instability. Moreover, the twist number varies more sensitively than other parameters with the occurrence of flares.

  14. Quantifying the Topology and Evolution of a Magnetic Flux Rope Associated with Multi-flare Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Guo, Yang; Ding, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) play an important role in solar activities. The quantitative assessment of the topology of an MFR and its evolution is crucial for a better understanding of the relationship between the MFR and associated activities. In this paper, we investigate the magnetic field of active region (AR) 12017 from 2014 March 28-29, during which time 12 flares were triggered by intermittent eruptions of a filament (either successful or confined). Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we calculate the magnetic energy and helicity injection in the AR, and extrapolate the 3D magnetic field with a nonlinear force-free field model. From the extrapolations, we find an MFR that is cospatial with the filament. We further determine the configuration of this MFR from the closed quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) around it. Then, we calculate the twist number and the magnetic helicity for the field lines composing the MFR. The results show that the closed QSL structure surrounding the MFR becomes smaller as a consequence of flare occurrence. We also find that the flares in our sample are mainly triggered by kink instability. Moreover, the twist number varies more sensitively than other parameters with the occurrence of flares.

  15. QUANTIFYING THE TOPOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE ASSOCIATED WITH MULTI-FLARE ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kai; Guo, Yang; Ding, M. D., E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-06-20

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) play an important role in solar activities. The quantitative assessment of the topology of an MFR and its evolution is crucial for a better understanding of the relationship between the MFR and associated activities. In this paper, we investigate the magnetic field of active region (AR) 12017 from 2014 March 28–29, during which time 12 flares were triggered by intermittent eruptions of a filament (either successful or confined). Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory , we calculate the magnetic energy and helicity injection in the AR, and extrapolate the 3D magnetic field with a nonlinear force-free field model. From the extrapolations, we find an MFR that is cospatial with the filament. We further determine the configuration of this MFR from the closed quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) around it. Then, we calculate the twist number and the magnetic helicity for the field lines composing the MFR. The results show that the closed QSL structure surrounding the MFR becomes smaller as a consequence of flare occurrence. We also find that the flares in our sample are mainly triggered by kink instability. Moreover, the twist number varies more sensitively than other parameters with the occurrence of flares.

  16. Active tensor magnetic gradiometer system final report for Project MM–1514

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David V.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hutton, S. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    An interactive computer simulation program, based on physical models of system sensors, platform geometry, Earth environment, and spheroidal magnetically-permeable targets, was developed to generate synthetic magnetic field data from a conceptual tensor magnetic gradiometer system equipped with an active primary field generator. The system sensors emulate the prototype tensor magnetic gradiometer system (TMGS) developed under a separate contract for unexploded ordnance (UXO) detection and classification. Time-series data from different simulation scenarios were analyzed to recover physical dimensions of the target source. Helbig-Euler simulations were run with rectangular and rod-like source bodies to determine whether such a system could separate the induced component of the magnetization from the remanent component for each target. This report concludes with an engineering assessment of a practical system design.

  17. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: manufacturing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J; Sebastine, I M

    2005-12-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are interdisciplinary fields that apply principles of engineering and life sciences to develop biological substitutes, typically composed of biological and synthetic components, that restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Many tissue engineering technologies are still at a laboratory or pre-commercial scale. The short review paper describes the most significant manufacturing and bio-process challenges inherent in the commercialisation and exploitation of the exciting results emerging from the biological and clinical laboratories exploring tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A three-generation road map of the industry has been used to structure a view of these challenges and to define where the manufacturing community can contribute to the commercial success of the products from these emerging fields. The first-generation industry is characterised by its demonstrated clinical applications and products in the marketplace, the second is characterised by emerging clinical applications, and the third generation is characterised by aspirational clinical applications. The paper focuses on the cost reduction requirement of the first generation of the industry to allow more market penetration and consequent patient impact. It indicates the technological requirements, for instance the creation of three-dimensional tissue structures, and value chain issues in the second generation of the industry. The third-generation industry challenges lie in fundamental biological and clinical science. The paper sets out a road map of these generations to identify areas for research.

  18. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation

  19. Engineering growth factors for regenerative medicine applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Aaron C.; Briquez, Priscilla S.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Cochran, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-15

    Growth factors are important morphogenetic proteins that instruct cell behavior and guide tissue repair and renewal. Although their therapeutic potential holds great promise in regenerative medicine applications, translation of growth factors into clinical treatments has been hindered by limitations including poor protein stability, low recombinant expression yield, and suboptimal efficacy. This review highlights current tools, technologies, and approaches to design integrated and effective growth factor-based therapies for regenerative medicine applications. The first section describes rational and combinatorial protein engineering approaches that have been utilized to improve growth factor stability, expression yield, biodistribution, and serum half-life, or alter their cell trafficking behavior or receptor binding affinity. The second section highlights elegant biomaterial-based systems, inspired by the natural extracellular matrix milieu, that have been developed for effective spatial and temporal delivery of growth factors to cell surface receptors. Although appearing distinct, these two approaches are highly complementary and involve principles of molecular design and engineering to be considered in parallel when developing optimal materials for clinical applications.

  20. Scaffolds in regenerative endodontics: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathani, Kinjal M.; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya

    2016-01-01

    Root canal therapy has enabled us to save numerous teeth over the years. The most desired outcome of endodontic treatment would be when diseased or nonvital pulp is replaced with healthy pulp tissue that would revitalize the teeth through regenerative endodontics. ‘A search was conducted using the Pubmed and MEDLINE databases for articles with the criteria ‘Platelet rich plasma’, ‘Platelet rich fibrin’, ‘Stem cells’, ‘Natural and artificial scaffolds’ from 1982–2015’. Tissues are organized as three-dimensional structures, and appropriate scaffolding is necessary to provide a spatially correct position of cell location and regulate differentiation, proliferation, or metabolism of the stem cells. Extracellular matrix molecules control the differentiation of stem cells, and an appropriate scaffold might selectively bind and localize cells, contain growth factors, and undergo biodegradation over time. Different scaffolds facilitate the regeneration of different tissues. To ensure a successful regenerative procedure, it is essential to have a thorough and precise knowledge about the suitable scaffold for the required tissue. This article gives a review on the different scaffolds providing an insight into the new developmental approaches on the horizon. PMID:27857762

  1. Liver regenerative medicine: advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the standard care for many end-stage liver diseases. However, donor organs are scarce and some people succumb to liver failure before a donor is found. Liver regenerative medicine is a special interdisciplinary field of medicine focused on the development of new therapies incorporating stem cells, gene therapy and engineered tissues in order to repair or replace the damaged organ. In this review we consider the emerging progress achieved in the hepatic regenerative medicine within the last decade. The review starts with the characterization of liver organogenesis, fetal and adult stem/progenitor cells. Then, applications of primary hepatocytes, embryonic and adult (mesenchymal, hematopoietic and induced pluripotent) stem cells in cell therapy of liver diseases are considered. Current advances and challenges in producing mature hepatocytes from stem/progenitor cells are discussed. A section about hepatic tissue engineering includes consideration of synthetic and natural biomaterials in engineering scaffolds, strategies and achievements in the development of 3D bioactive matrices and 3D hepatocyte cultures, liver microengineering, generating bioartificial liver and prospects for fabrication of the bioengineered liver. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Advances in individualized and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Hubert E

    2014-03-01

    Molecular and cell biology have resulted in major advances in our understanding of disease pathogenesis as well as in novel strategies for the diagnosis, therapy and prevention of human diseases. Based on modern molecular, genetic and biochemical methodologies it is on the one hand possible to identify for example disease-related point mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms. On the other hand, using high throughput array and other technologies, it is for example possible to simultaneously analyze thousands of genes or gene products (RNA and proteins), resulting in an individual gene or gene expression profile ('signature'). Such data increasingly allow to define the individual disposition for a given disease and to predict disease prognosis as well as the efficacy of therapeutic strategies in the individual patient ('individualized medicine'). At the same time, the basic discoveries in cell biology, including embryonic and adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, genetically modified cells and others, have moved regenerative medicine into the center of biomedical research worldwide with a major translational impact on tissue engineering as well as transplantation medicine. All these aspects have greatly contributed to the recent advances in regenerative medicine and the development novel concepts for the treatment of many human diseases, including liver diseases. Copyright © 2014 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Scaffolds in regenerative endodontics: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal M Gathani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy has enabled us to save numerous teeth over the years. The most desired outcome of endodontic treatment would be when diseased or nonvital pulp is replaced with healthy pulp tissue that would revitalize the teeth through regenerative endodontics. ′A search was conducted using the Pubmed and MEDLINE databases for articles with the criteria ′Platelet rich plasma′, ′Platelet rich fibrin′, ′Stem cells′, ′Natural and artificial scaffolds′ from 1982-2015′. Tissues are organized as three-dimensional structures, and appropriate scaffolding is necessary to provide a spatially correct position of cell location and regulate differentiation, proliferation, or metabolism of the stem cells. Extracellular matrix molecules control the differentiation of stem cells, and an appropriate scaffold might selectively bind and localize cells, contain growth factors, and undergo biodegradation over time. Different scaffolds facilitate the regeneration of different tissues. To ensure a successful regenerative procedure, it is essential to have a thorough and precise knowledge about the suitable scaffold for the required tissue. This article gives a review on the different scaffolds providing an insight into the new developmental approaches on the horizon.

  4. Stem Cells and Engineered Scaffolds for Regenerative Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biraja C. Dash

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The normal wound healing process involves a well-organized cascade of biological pathways and any failure in this process leads to wounds becoming chronic. Non-healing wounds are a burden on healthcare systems and set to increase with aging population and growing incidences of obesity and diabetes. Stem cell-based therapies have the potential to heal chronic wounds but have so far seen little success in the clinic. Current research has been focused on using polymeric biomaterial systems that can act as a niche for these stem cells to improve their survival and paracrine activity that would eventually promote wound healing. Furthermore, different modification strategies have been developed to improve stem cell survival and differentiation, ultimately promoting regenerative wound healing. This review focuses on advanced polymeric scaffolds that have been used to deliver stem cells and have been tested for their efficiency in preclinical animal models of wounds.

  5. Stem Cells and Engineered Scaffolds for Regenerative Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Biraja C; Xu, Zhenzhen; Lin, Lawrence; Koo, Andrew; Ndon, Sifon; Berthiaume, Francois; Dardik, Alan; Hsia, Henry

    2018-03-09

    The normal wound healing process involves a well-organized cascade of biological pathways and any failure in this process leads to wounds becoming chronic. Non-healing wounds are a burden on healthcare systems and set to increase with aging population and growing incidences of obesity and diabetes. Stem cell-based therapies have the potential to heal chronic wounds but have so far seen little success in the clinic. Current research has been focused on using polymeric biomaterial systems that can act as a niche for these stem cells to improve their survival and paracrine activity that would eventually promote wound healing. Furthermore, different modification strategies have been developed to improve stem cell survival and differentiation, ultimately promoting regenerative wound healing. This review focuses on advanced polymeric scaffolds that have been used to deliver stem cells and have been tested for their efficiency in preclinical animal models of wounds.

  6. Sparse QSAR modelling methods for therapeutic and regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, David A.

    2018-02-01

    The quantitative structure-activity relationships method was popularized by Hansch and Fujita over 50 years ago. The usefulness of the method for drug design and development has been shown in the intervening years. As it was developed initially to elucidate which molecular properties modulated the relative potency of putative agrochemicals, and at a time when computing resources were scarce, there is much scope for applying modern mathematical methods to improve the QSAR method and to extending the general concept to the discovery and optimization of bioactive molecules and materials more broadly. I describe research over the past two decades where we have rebuilt the unit operations of the QSAR method using improved mathematical techniques, and have applied this valuable platform technology to new important areas of research and industry such as nanoscience, omics technologies, advanced materials, and regenerative medicine. This paper was presented as the 2017 ACS Herman Skolnik lecture.

  7. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  8. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  9. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  10. Twist of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions Hongqi Zhang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    in active regions also shows the butterfly pattern through the solar cycle. And, less than 30% of the active regions do not follow the general trend (Zhang & Bao 1998). The longitudinal distribution of current helicity parameter h|| of active regions in both the hemispheres in the last decade was presented by Zhang & Bao ...

  11. Extended magnetic resonance imaging studies on the effect of classically activated microglia transplantation on white matter regeneration following spinal cord focal injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcol, Wiesław; Ślusarczyk, Wojciech; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Kapustka, Bartosz; Staszkiewicz, Rafał; Rosicka, Paulina; Kalita, Katarzyna; Węglarz, Władysław; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2017-11-01

    Spinal cord injuries are still a serious problem for regenerative medicine. Previous research has demonstrated that activated microglia accumulate in spinal lesions, influencing the injured tissues in various ways. Therefore, transplantation of activated microglia may have a beneficial role in the regeneration of the nervous system. The present study examined the influence of transplanted activated microglial cells in adult rats with injured spinal cords. Rats were randomly divided into an experimental (M) and control (C) group, and were subjected to non-laminectomy focal injury of spinal cord white matter by means of a high-pressured air stream. In group M, activated cultured microglial cells were injected twice into the site of injury. Functional outcome and morphological features of regeneration were analyzed during a 12-week follow-up. The lesions were characterized by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neurons in the brain stem and motor cortex were labeled with FluoroGold (FG). A total of 12 weeks after surgery, spinal cords and brains were collected and subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. Lesion sizes in the spinal cord were measured and the number of FG-positive neurons was counted. Rats in group M demonstrated significant improvement of locomotor performance when compared with group C (Pspinal cord in the group M following microglia treatment, as compared with group C. The water diffusion perpendicular to the spinal cord in group M was closer to the reference values for a healthy spinal cord than it was in group C. The sizes of lesions were also significantly smaller in group M than in the group C (Pspinal cord gives some positive effects for the regeneration of the white matter.

  12. EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    We adopt an isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field to estimate the magnetic energy and helicity spectra as well as current helicity spectra of two individual active regions (NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11515) and the change of the spectral indices during their development as well as during the solar cycle. The departure of the spectral indices of magnetic energy and current helicity from 5/3 are analyzed, and it is found that it is lower than the spectral index of the magnetic energy spectrum. Furthermore, the fractional magnetic helicity tends to increase when the scale of the energy-carrying magnetic structures increases. The magnetic helicity of NOAA 11515 violates the expected hemispheric sign rule, which is interpreted as an effect of enhanced field strengths at scales larger than 30–60 Mm with opposite signs of helicity. This is consistent with the general cycle dependence, which shows that around the solar maximum the magnetic energy and helicity spectra are steeper, emphasizing the large-scale field

  13. EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongqi [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Brandenburg, Axel [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Sokoloff, D. D., E-mail: hzhang@bao.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Moscow University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-10

    We adopt an isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field to estimate the magnetic energy and helicity spectra as well as current helicity spectra of two individual active regions (NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11515) and the change of the spectral indices during their development as well as during the solar cycle. The departure of the spectral indices of magnetic energy and current helicity from 5/3 are analyzed, and it is found that it is lower than the spectral index of the magnetic energy spectrum. Furthermore, the fractional magnetic helicity tends to increase when the scale of the energy-carrying magnetic structures increases. The magnetic helicity of NOAA 11515 violates the expected hemispheric sign rule, which is interpreted as an effect of enhanced field strengths at scales larger than 30–60 Mm with opposite signs of helicity. This is consistent with the general cycle dependence, which shows that around the solar maximum the magnetic energy and helicity spectra are steeper, emphasizing the large-scale field.

  14. Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship Program: Summary of program activities for calendar year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship program (MFETF) for the 1985 calendar year. The MFETF program has continued to support the mission of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) and its Division of Development and Technology (DDT) by ensuring the availability of appropriately trained engineering manpower needed to implement the OFE/DDT magnetic fusion energy agenda. This program provides training and research opportunities to highly qualified students at DOE-designated academic, private sector, and government magnetic fusion energy institutions. The objectives of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship program are: (1) to provide support for graduate study, training, and research in magnetic fusion energy technology; (2) to ensure an adequate supply of appropriately trained manpower to implement the nation's magnetic fusion energy agenda; (3) to raise the visibility of careers in magnetic fusion energy technology and to encourage students to pursue such careers; and (4) to make national magnetic fusion energy facilities available for manpower training

  15. Regenerative Medicine as an Emergent Cluster in Tampere Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Heinonen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clusters are important for regional economies and emergent clusters are in a key position, as a means of adding more diversification to the current economic activity by involving new technologies and industries. Science-based industries may be the most promising in this regard since they are encouraged to develop and enhance the economic imaginaries of territories under the umbrella of radical innovations or in the name of broadening the current economic model based on mostly traditional industries. Regenerative medicine (RM could be an example of these so-called emergent clusters. Regenerative medicine is highly dependent on academic research, which means that local territories must fund the research in this field and, hence, they expect some returns as well. As territories do not typically have existing industries specifically in RM, these industries must emerge or expand from existing ones. Regenerative medicine involves a wide spectrum of different technologies and industries that are likely to form a cluster and benefit from it if successfully developed. The first aim of this paper is to show how some obstacles eventually impede the proper development of these emergent clusters. The second aim is to shed light on how innovations emerge in the cluster and what are the main implications for the territory. In this study, existing literature is used in order to describe the technology market and commercial aspects of the RM sector. Empirically this study is based on the emergent RM cluster in the region of Tampere in Finland. Analysis of 24 conducted interviews helps to contextualize the emergence of the RM cluster in Tampere, where academia is both the booster and the driver of the emergent RM cluster. Commercialization of research in the RM field is one of the goals at the university, even though there are no commercial outcomes yet available. This study contributes to the understanding of emergent cluster development in science

  16. Review on numerical modeling of active magnetic regenerators for room temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Tusek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is an alternative refrigeration cycle with a potential gain of energy efficiency compared to conventional refrigeration techniques. The AMR poses a complex problem of heat transfer, fluid dynamics and magnetic fields, which requires detailed and robust modeling....... This paper reviews the existing numerical modeling of room temperature AMR to date. The governing equations, implementation of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE), fluid flow and magnetic field profiles, thermal conduction etc. are discussed in detail as is their impact on the AMR cycle. Flow channeling effects...

  17. Exploiting the Bioactive Properties of the Dentin-Pulp Complex in Regenerative Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony J; Duncan, Henry F; Diogenes, Anibal; Simon, Stephane; Cooper, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The development of regenerative endodontic therapies offers exciting opportunities for future improvements in treatment outcomes. Advances in our understanding of regenerative events at the molecular and cellular levels are helping to underpin development of these therapies, although the various strategies differ in the translational challenges they pose. The identification of a variety of bioactive molecules, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and matrix molecules, sequestered within dentin and dental pulp provides the opportunity to present key signaling molecules promoting reparative and regenerative events after injury. The protection of the biological activity of these molecules by mineral in dentin before their release allows a continuing supply of these molecules, while avoiding the short half-life and the non-human origin of exogenous molecules. The ready release of these bioactive molecules by the various tissue preparation agents, medicaments, and materials commonly used in endodontics highlights the opportunities for translational regenerative strategies exploiting these molecules with little change to existing clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  19. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Autonomous Operation of Super-Regenerative Receiver in BAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyanasundaram, P.; Huang, L.; Dolmans, G.; Imamura, K.

    2012-01-01

    Super-regenerative receiver is one of the potential candidates to achieve ultra low power wireless communication in body area network (BAN). The main limitations of the super-regenerative receiver include the difficulty in choosing a good quench waveform to optimize its sensitivity and selectivity,

  1. Comparative energy analysis on a new regenerative Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New regenerative Brayton cycle has been introduced. • New cycle has higher thermal efficiency and lower exhausted heat per output power. • Regenerator may remain useful in the new cycle even at high pressure ratio. • New regenerative Brayton cycle is suggested for low pressure ratio operations. - Abstract: Gas turbines are frequently used for power generation. Brayton cycle is the basis for gas turbine operation and developing the alternative cycles. Regenerative Brayton cycle is a developed cycle for basic Brayton cycle with higher thermal efficiency at low to moderate pressure ratios. A new regenerative Brayton cycle has been introduced in the present study. Energy analysis has been conducted on ideal cycles to compare them from the first law of thermodynamics viewpoint. Comparative analyses showed that the new regenerative Brayton cycle has higher thermal efficiency than the original one at the same pressure ratio, and also lower heat absorption and exhausted heat per unite output power. Computed results show that new cycle improves thermal efficiency from 12% to 26% relative to the original regenerative Brayton cycle in the range of studied pressure ratios. Contrary to the original regenerative Brayton cycle, regenerator remains useful in the new regenerative Brayton cycle even at higher pressure ratio.

  2. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressors by Active Magnetic Bearings Theory and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Se Young; Allaire, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressors by Active Magnetic Bearings sets out the fundamentals of integrating the active magnetic bearing (AMB) rotor suspension technology in compressor systems, and describes how this relatively new bearing technology can be employed in the active control of compressor surge. The authors provide a self-contained and comprehensive review of rotordynamics and the fundamentals of the AMB technology. The active stabilization of compressor surge employing AMBs in a machine is fully explored, from the modeling of the instability and the design of feedback controllers, to the implementation and experimental testing of the control algorithms in a specially-constructed, industrial-size centrifugal compression system. The results of these tests demonstrate the great potential of the new surge control method developed in this text. This book will be useful for engineers in industries that involve turbocompressors and magnetic bearings, as well as for researchers and graduate students...

  3. Activity of an enzyme immobilized on superparamagnetic particles in a rotational magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuki, Toru; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Nagaoka, Yutaka [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Tadamasa [Shimadzu GLC Ltd., Phenomenex Support Centre, Tokyo 110-0016 (Japan); Morimoto, Hisao; Usami, Ron [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Maekawa, Toru, E-mail: maekawa@toyonet.toyo.ac.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    We immobilize {alpha}-amylase extracted from Bacillus Iicheniformis on the surfaces of superparamagnetic particles and investigate the effect of a rotational magnetic field on the enzyme's activity. We find that the activity of the enzyme molecules immobilized on superparamagnetic particles increases in the rotational magnetic field and reaches maximum at a certain frequency. We clarify the effect of the cluster structures formed by the superparamagnetic particles on the activity. Enzyme reactions are enhanced even in a tiny volume of solution using the present method, which is very important for the development of efficient micro reactors and micro total analysis systems ({mu}-TAS).

  4. Strong geomagnetic activity forecast by neural networks under dominant southern orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valach, F.; Bochníček, Josef; Hejda, Pavel; Revallo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2014), s. 589-598 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608; GA MŠk OC09070 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geomagnetic activity * interplanetary magnetic field * artificial neural network * ejection of coronal mass * X-ray flares Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014

  5. Coupling of the solar wind to measures of magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherron, R.L.; Fay, R.A.; Garrity, C.R.; Bargatze, L.F.; Baker, D.N.; Clauer, C.R.; Searls, C.

    1984-01-01

    The technique of linear prediction filtering has been used to generate empirical response functions relating the solar wind electric field to the most frequently used magnetic indices, AL, AU, Dst and ASYM. Two datasets, one from 1967-1968 and one from 1973-1974, provided the information needed to calculate the empirical response functions. These functions have been convolved with solar wind observations obtained during the IMS to predict the indices. These predictions are compared with the observed indices during two, three-day intervals studied extensively by participants in the CDAW-6 workshop. Differences between the observed and predicted indices are discussed in terms of the linear assumption and in terms of physical processes other than direct solar wind-magnetosphere interaction

  6. Active magnetic regenerator refrigeration with rotary multi-bed technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan

    is a flux conducting iron core which was laminated for electrical and thermal insulation to minimize heat leaks and eddy current losses. Experimental investigations with different configurations of iron and insulation in the core focusing on the impact on temperature span and COP were conducted. AMR...... magnetic regenerator (AMR) prototypes. The starting point is the design and ex- periments with a rotary multi-bed prototype at the Technical University of Denmark. Promising results were obtained with this machine in terms of temperature span and cooling power. However, issues limiting the energy...... the former may be reduced by simple design improvements, the latter is non- trivial and requires detailed geometrical optimization assisted by numerical modeling and improved manufacturing techniques. Finally, possible applications are discussed and a concept of operating the AMR machine in combination...

  7. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  8. Design and test of a novel magnetic lead screw for active suspension system in a vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore the Magnetic Lead Screw is introduced and its benefits when used with an active suspension system are discussed. Based on a model of a quarter car, the design specifications for the MLS active suspension system are found, which leads to a design study. The design study investigates the relation...

  9. MAGNETIC FLUX TRANSPORT AND THE LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Upton, Lisa; Warren, Harry P.; Hathaway, David H.

    2015-01-01

    With multiple vantage points around the Sun, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and Solar Dynamics Observatory imaging observations provide a unique opportunity to view the solar surface continuously. We use He ii 304 Å data from these observatories to isolate and track ten active regions and study their long-term evolution. We find that active regions typically follow a standard pattern of emergence over several days followed by a slower decay that is proportional in time to the peak intensity in the region. Since STEREO does not make direct observations of the magnetic field, we employ a flux-luminosity relationship to infer the total unsigned magnetic flux evolution. To investigate this magnetic flux decay over several rotations we use a surface flux transport model, the Advective Flux Transport model, that simulates convective flows using a time-varying velocity field and find that the model provides realistic predictions when information about the active region's magnetic field strength and distribution at peak flux is available. Finally, we illustrate how 304 Å images can be used as a proxy for magnetic flux measurements when magnetic field data is not accessible

  10. Antibacterial activity of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Raid A.; Sulaiman, Ghassan M.; Abdulrahman, Safa A.; Marzoog, Thorria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, (50–110 nm) magnetic iron oxide (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of iron target in dimethylformamide (DMF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The structural properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV–VIS absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of laser fluence on the characteristics of these nanoparticles was studied. Antibacterial activities of iron oxide nanoparticles were tested against Gram-positive; Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The results showed a noteworthy inhibition on both bacterial strains. The preparation conditions were found to affect significantly the antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were used to capture rapidly S. aureus bacteria under the magnetic field effect. - Highlights: • Synthesis magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation • Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria • Captured magnetic nanoparticles by S. aureus bacteria under effect of magnetic field

  11. Antibacterial activity of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Raid A., E-mail: raidismail@yahoo.com [Laser Physics Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Sulaiman, Ghassan M. [Biotechnology Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Abdulrahman, Safa A. [Laser Physics Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Marzoog, Thorria R. [Biotechnology Division, Applied Science Department, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, (50–110 nm) magnetic iron oxide (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of iron target in dimethylformamide (DMF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The structural properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV–VIS absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of laser fluence on the characteristics of these nanoparticles was studied. Antibacterial activities of iron oxide nanoparticles were tested against Gram-positive; Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The results showed a noteworthy inhibition on both bacterial strains. The preparation conditions were found to affect significantly the antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were used to capture rapidly S. aureus bacteria under the magnetic field effect. - Highlights: • Synthesis magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation • Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria • Captured magnetic nanoparticles by S. aureus bacteria under effect of magnetic field.

  12. Effect of energy-regenerative braking on electric vehicle battery thermal management and control method based on simulation investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jingying; Qin, Datong; Peng, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-degree-of-freedom lumped thermal model is developed for battery. • The battery thermal model is integrated with vehicle driving model. • Real-time battery thermal responses is obtained. • Active control of current by regenerative braking ratio adjustment is proposed. • More energy is recovered with smaller battery temperature rise. - Abstract: Battery thermal management is important for the safety and reliability of electric vehicle. Based on the parameters obtained from battery hybrid pulse power characterization test, a two-degree-of-freedom lumped thermal model is established. The battery model is then integrated with vehicle driving model to simulate real-time battery thermal responses. An active control method is proposed to reduce heat generation due to regenerative braking. The proposed control method not only subjects to the braking safety regulation, but also adjusts the regenerative braking ratio through a fuzzy controller. By comparing with other regenerative braking scenarios, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy has been validated. According to the results, the proposed control strategy suppresses battery temperature rise by modifying the charge current due to regenerative braking. The overlarge components of current are filtered out whereas the small ones are magnified. Therefore, with smaller battery temperature rise, more energy is recovered. Compared to the traditional passive heat dissipating, the proposed active methodology is feasible and provides a novel solution for electric vehicle battery thermal management.

  13. Solar Airplanes and Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A solar electric aircraft with the potential to "fly forever" has captured NASA's interest, and the concept for such an aircraft was pursued under Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Feasibility of this aircraft happens to depend on the successful development of solar power technologies critical to NASA's Exploration Initiatives; hence, there was widespread interest throughout NASA to bring these technologies to a flight demonstration. The most critical is an energy storage system to sustain mission power during night periods. For the solar airplane, whose flight capability is already limited by the diffuse nature of solar flux and subject to latitude and time of year constraints, the feasibility of long endurance flight depends on a storage density figure of merit better than 400-600 watt-hr per kilogram. This figure of merit is beyond the capability of present day storage technologies (other than nuclear) but may be achievable in the hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC). This potential has led NASA to undertake the practical development of a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell, initially as solar energy storage for a high altitude UAV science platform but eventually to serve as the primary power source for NASAs lunar base and other planet surface installations. Potentially the highest storage capacity and lowest weight of any non-nuclear device, a flight-weight RFC aboard a solar-electric aircraft that is flown continuously through several successive day-night cycles will provide the most convincing demonstration that this technology's widespread potential has been realized. In 1998 NASA began development of a closed cycle hydrogen oxygen PEM RFC under the Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project and continued its development, originally for a solar electric airplane flight, through FY2005 under the Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP) project. Construction of

  14. Using Magnetic Helicity Diagnostics to Determine the Nature of Solar Active-Region Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    Employing a novel nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method that self-consistently infers instantaneous free magnetic-energy and relative magnetic-helicity budgets from single photospheric vector magnetograms, we recently constructed the magnetic energy-helicity (EH) diagram of solar active regions. The EH diagram implies dominant relative helicities of left-handed or right-handed chiralities for the great majority of active regions. The amplitude (budget) of these helicities scales monotonically with the free magnetic energy. This constructive, strongly preferential accumulation of a certain sense of magnetic helicity seems to disqualify recently proposed mechanisms relying on a largely random near-surface convection for the formation of the great majority of active regions. The existing qualitative formation mechanism for these regions remains the conventional Omega-loop emergence following a buoyant ascension from the bottom of the convection zone. However, exceptions to this rule include even eruptive active regions: NOAA AR 11283 is an obvious outlier to the EH diagram, involving significant free magnetic energy with a small relative magnetic helicity. Relying on a timeseries of vector magnetograms of this region, our methodology shows nearly canceling amounts of both senses of helicity and an overall course from a weakly left-handed to a weakly right-handed structure, in the course of which a major eruption occurs. For this and similarly behaving active regions the latest near-surface formation scenario might conceivably be employed successfully. Research partially supported by the EU Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No. PIRG07-GA-2010-268245 and by the European Union Social Fund (ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  15. New tools in regenerative medicine: gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Ruiz, Miguel; Regueiro, José R

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy aims to transfer genetic material into cells to provide them with new functions. A gene transfer agent has to be safe, capable of expressing the desired gene for a sustained period of time in a sufficiently large population of cells to produce a biological effect. Identifying a gene transfer tool that meets all of these criteria has proven to be a difficult objective. Viral and nonviral vectors, in vivo, ex vivo and in situ strategies co-exist at present, although ex vivo lenti-or retroviral vectors are presently the most popular.Natural stem cells (from embryonic, hematopoietic, mesenchymal, or adult tissues) or induced progenitor stem (iPS) cells can be modified by gene therapy for use in regenerative medicine. Among them, hematopoietic stem cells have shown clear clinical benefit, but iPS cells hold humongous potential with no ethical concerns.

  16. A regenerative approach towards mucosal fenestration closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandi, Padma; Anumala, Naveen; Reddy, Amarender; Viswa Chandra, Rampalli

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal fenestration is an opening or an interstice through the oral mucosa. A lesion which occurs with greater frequency than generally realised, its occurrence is attributed to a myriad of causes. Mucogingival procedures including connective tissue grafts, free gingival grafts and lateral pedicle grafts are generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the closure of a mucosal fenestration. More often, these procedures are performed in conjunction with other procedures such as periradicular surgery and with bone grafts. However, the concomitant use of gingival grafts and bone grafts in mucosal fenestrations secondary to infections in sites exhibiting severe bone loss is highly debatable. In this article, we report two cases of mucosal fenestrations secondary to trauma and their management by regenerative periodontal surgery with the placement of guided tissue regeneration membrane and bone graft. The final outcome was a complete closure of the fenestration in both the cases. PMID:23749826

  17. A regenerative zinc-air fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, Stuart I. [Electrochemical Technology Development Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Zhang, X. Gregory [Teck Cominco Metals Ltd., 2380 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-20

    The zinc regenerative fuel cell (ZRFC) developed by the former Metallic Power Inc. over the period from 1998 to 2004 is described. The component technologies and engineering solutions for various technical issues are discussed in relation to their functionality in the system. The system was designed to serve as a source of backup emergency power for remote or difficult to access cell phone towers during periods when the main power was interrupted. It contained a 12 cell stack providing 1.8 kW, a separate fuel tank containing zinc pellet fuel and electrolyte, and a zinc electrolyzer to regenerate the zinc pellets during standby periods. Offsite commissioning and testing of the system was successfully performed. The intellectual property of the ZRFC technology is now owned by Teck Cominco Metals Ltd. (author)

  18. Why regenerative medicine needs an extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Glenn D; Healy, Kevin E

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is now coming of age. Many attempts at cell therapy have failed to show significant efficacy, and the umbrella term 'stem cell therapy' is perceived in some quarters as hype or just expensive and unnecessary medical tourism. Here we present a short editorial in three parts. First, we examine the importance of using a semisynthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) mimetic, or sECM, to deliver and retain therapeutic cells at the site of administration. Second, we describe one approach in which biophysical and biochemical properties are tailored to each tissue type, which we call "design for optimal functionality." Third, we describe an alternative approach to sECM design and implementation, called "design for simplicity," in which a deconstructed, minimalist sECM is employed and biology is allowed to perform the customization in situ. We opine that an sECM, whether minimal or instructive, is an essential contributor to improve the outcomes of cell-based therapies.

  19. Tissue Engineering in Regenerative Dental Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiral Jhaveri-Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is amongst the latest exciting technologies having impacted the field of dentistry. Initially considered as a futuristic approach, tissue engineering is now being successfully applied in regenerative surgery. This article reviews the important determinants of tissue engineering and how they contribute to the improvement of wound healing and surgical outcomes in the oral region. Furthermore, we shall address the clinical applications of engineering involving oral and maxillofacial surgical and periodontal procedures along with other concepts that are still in experimental phase of development. This knowledge will aid the surgical and engineering researchers to comprehend the collaboration between these fields leading to extounding dental applications and to ever-continuing man-made miracles in the field of human science.

  20. Regenerative immunology: the immunological reaction to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravedi, Paolo; Farouk, Samira; Angeletti, Andrea; Edgar, Lauren; Tamburrini, Riccardo; Duisit, Jerome; Perin, Laura; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Regenerative medicine promises to meet two of the most urgent needs of modern organ transplantation, namely immunosuppression-free transplantation and an inexhaustible source of organs. Ideally, bioengineered organs would be manufactured from a patient's own biomaterials-both cells and the supporting scaffolding materials in which cells would be embedded and allowed to mature to eventually regenerate the organ in question. While some groups are focusing on the feasibility of this approach, few are focusing on the immunogenicity of the scaffolds that are being developed for organ bioengineering purposes. This review will succinctly discuss progress in the understanding of immunological characteristics and behavior of different scaffolds currently under development, with emphasis on the extracellular matrix scaffolds obtained decellularized animal or human organs which seem to provide the ideal template for bioengineering purposes. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF ACTIVE SCREENING SYSTEM OF MAGNETIC FIELD OF HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINES OF DIFFERENT DESIGN TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines with different design allowing and development of recommendations for the design of active screening systems by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Methodology. Analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing is made on the basis of Maxwell's equations solutions in the quasi-stationary approximation. Determination of the number, configuration, spatial arrangement and the compensation coil currents is formulated in the form of multiobjective optimization problem that is solved by multi-agent multiswarm stochastic optimization based on Pareto optimal solutions. Results of active screening system for the synthesis of various types of transmission lines with different numbers of windings controlled. The possibility of a significant reduction in the level of the flux density of the magnetic field source within a given region of space. Originality. For the first time an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of power lines with different types and based on findings developed recommendations for the design of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Practical value. Practical recommendations on reasonable choice of the number and spatial arrangement of compensating windings of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing for the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field. Results of active screening system synthesis of the magnetic field of industrial frequency generated by single-circuit 110 kV high voltage power lines with the supports have 330 - 1T «triangle» rotating magnetic field with full polarization in a residential five-storey building, located near the power lines. The system contains three compensating coil and reduces

  2. The TMI Regenerative Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.; Ruhl, Robert C.; Petrik, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. Systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate (during sunlight cycles) to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis and (during dark cycles) fuel cells convert hydrogen into electricity. Common configurations use two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Reliability, power to weight and power to volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cells) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based design integrates fuel cell and electrolyzer functions and potentially simplifies system requirements. The integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer design also utilizes innovative gas storage concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H20 electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for regenerative fuel cells. Tests have shown improved cell performance in both fuel and electrolysis modes in reversible fuel cell tests. Regenerative fuel cell efficiencies, ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer mode), improved from 50 percent using conventional electrode materials to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow a single SOFC system to operate as both the electolyzer and fuel cell. Preliminary system designs have also been developed to show the technical feasibility of using the design for space applications requiring high energy storage efficiencies and high specific energy. Small space systems also have potential for dual-use, terrestrial applications.

  3. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  4. Study of static and dynamic magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles composited with activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Satyendra Prakash, E-mail: sppal85@gmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 (India); Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Knowledge city, Sector81, SAS Nagar, Manauli-140306, Punjab (India); Kaur, Guratinder [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Knowledge city, Sector81, SAS Nagar, Manauli-140306, Punjab (India); Sen, P. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Nanocomposite of Fe nanoparticles with activated carbon has been synthesized to alter the magnetic spin-spin interaction and hence study the dilution effect on the static and dynamic magnetic properties of the Fe nanoparticle system. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image shows the spherical Fe nanoparticles dispersed in carbon matrix with 13.8 nm particle size. Temperature dependent magnetization measurement does not show any blocking temperature at all, right up to the room temperature. Magnetic hysteresis curve, taken at 300 K, shows small value of the coercivity and this small hysteresis indicates the presence of an energy barrier and inherent magnetization dynamics. Langevin function fitting of the hysteresis curve gives almost similar value of particle size as obtained from TEM analysis. Magnetic relaxation data, taken at a temperature of 100 K, were fitted with a combination of two exponentially decaying function. This diluted form of nanoparticle system, which has particles size in the superparamagnetic limit, behaves like a dilute ensemble of superspins with large value of the magnetic anisotropic barrier.

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  6. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  7. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  8. Recommendations for using regenerative endodontic procedures in permanent immature traumatized teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Murray, Peter E

    2012-02-01

    The regeneration of immature permanent teeth following trauma could be beneficial to reduce the risk of fracture and loss of millions of teeth each year. Regenerative endodontic procedures include revascularization, partial pulpotomy, and apexogenesis. Several case reports give these procedures a good prognosis as an alternative to apexification. Care is needed to deliver regenerative endodontic procedures that maintain or restore the vitality of teeth, but which also disinfect and remove necrotic tissues. Regeneration can be accomplished through the activity of the cells from the pulp, periodontium, vascular, and immune system. Most therapies use the host's own pulp or vascular cells for regeneration, but other types of dental stem cell therapies are under development. There are no standardized treatment protocols for endodontic regeneration. The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature and suggest guidelines for using regenerative endodontic procedures for the treatment of permanent immature traumatized teeth. Recommendations for the selection of regenerative and conventional procedures based on the type of tooth injury, fracture type, presence of necrosis or infection, periodontal status, presence of periapical lesions, stage of tooth development, vitality status, patient age, and patient health status will be reviewed. Because of the lack of long-term evidence to support the use of regenerative endodontic procedures in traumatized teeth with open apices, revascularization regeneration procedures should only be attempted if the tooth is not suitable for root canal obturation, and after apexogenesis, apexification, or partial pulpotomy treatments have already been attempted and have a poor prognosis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including: Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

  10. Ionospheric reflection of the magnetic activity described by the index η

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziak-Jankowska, Beata; Stanisławska, Iwona; Ernst, Tomasz; Tomasik, Łukasz

    2011-09-01

    Differences in the external part of the vertical geomagnetic component point to the existence of local inhomogeneities in the magnetosphere or the ionosphere. Usually used magnetic indices are not sufficient to express the state of ionosphere, the common used global Kp index derived in the three-hour interval does not indicate much more rapidly changes appearing in ionosphere. Magnetic index η reflects ionospheric disturbances when other indices show very quiet conditions. Data of ionospheric characteristics (foE, foEs, h'E, h'F2) during 28-day long quiet day conditions (Kp = 0-2) in 2004 were analyzed. The correlations between strong local disturbances in ionosphere during very quiet days and high values of magnetic index η were found. The most sensitive to magnetic influence - ionospheric E layer data (foE characteristic) - reaches median deviations up to (+0.8 MHz and -0.8 MHz) during very low magnetic activity (Kp = 0-1). The high peaks (2-2.7) of the magnetic index η correlate in time with large local median deviations of foE. Such local deviations can suggest local inhomogeneities (vertical drifts) in the ionosphere. The correlation in space is not trivial. The strong peak of η is situated between the positive and negative deviations of foE. Additional observation is connected with correlation in time of the high η value with the negative median deviations of h'F2 (in some cases up to -90 km). The analysis was based on one-minute data recorded at each of 20 European Magnetic Observatories working in the INTERMAGNET network and from 19 ionosondes for 2004. Ionospheric data are sparse in time and in space in opposite to the magnetic data. The map of the magnetic indices can suggest the behavior of ionospheric characteristics in the areas where we have no data.

  11. Nano-regenerative medicine towards clinical outcome of stem cell and tissue engineering in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Pooja; Sindhu, Annu; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Chaudhury, Ashok; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a fast growing area of research that aims to create nanomaterials or nanostructures development in stem cell and tissue-based therapies. Concepts and discoveries from the fields of bio nano research provide exciting opportunities of using stem cells for regeneration of tissues and organs. The application of nanotechnology to stem-cell biology would be able to address the challenges of disease therapeutics. This review covers the potential of nanotechnology approaches towards regenerative medicine. Furthermore, it focuses on current aspects of stem- and tissue-cell engineering. The magnetic nanoparticles-based applications in stem-cell research open new frontiers in cell and tissue engineering. PMID:22260258

  12. A survey of dental residents' expectations for regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manguno, Christine; Murray, Peter E; Howard, Cameron; Madras, Jonathan; Mangan, Stephen; Namerow, Kenneth N

    2012-02-01

    The objective was to survey a group of dental residents regarding their expectations for using regenerative endodontic procedures as part of future dental treatments. After institutional review board approval, the opinions of 32 dentists who were having postgraduate residency training to become specialists in a dental school were surveyed. The survey had 40 questions about professional status, ethical beliefs, judgment, and clinical practice. It was found that 83.9% of dentists had no continuing education or training in stem cells or regenerative endodontic procedures. Results showed that 96.8% of dentists are willing to receive training to be able to provide regenerative endodontic procedures for their patients. Of the total group, 49.1% of dentists already use membranes, scaffolds, or bioactive materials to provide dental treatment. It was determined that 47.3% of dentists agree that the costs of regenerative procedures should be comparable with current treatments. It was also found that 55.1% of dentists were unsure whether regenerative procedures would be successful. Dentists are supportive of using regenerative endodontic procedures in their dental practice, and they are willing to undergo extra training and to buy new technology to provide new procedures. Nevertheless, dentists also need more evidence for the effectiveness and safety of regenerative treatments before they will be recommended for most patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A review of the regenerative endodontic treatment procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Na Lee,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, apexification has been used to treat immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This technique promotes the formation of an apical barrier to close the open apex so that the filling materials can be confined to the root canal. Because tissue regeneration cannot be achieved with apexification, a new technique called regenerative endodontic treatment was presented recently to treat immature permanent teeth. Regenerative endodontic treatment is a treatment procedure designed to replace damaged pulp tissue with viable tissue which restores the normal function of the pulp-dentin structure. After regenerative endodontic treatment, continued root development and hard tissue deposition on the dentinal wall can occur under ideal circumstances. However, it is difficult to predict the result of regenerative endodontic treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to summarize multiple factors effects on the result of regenerative endodontic treatment in order to achieve more predictable results. In this study, we investigated the features of regenerative endodontic treatment in comparison with those of other pulp treatment procedures and analyzed the factors that have an effect on regenerative endodontic treatment.

  14. Magnetic Energy and Helicity in Two Emerging Active Regions in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Schuck, P. W.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in two emerging solar active regions, AR 11072 and AR 11158,are studied. They are computed by integrating over time the energy and relative helicity fluxes across the photosphere. The fluxes consist of two components: one from photospheric tangential flows that shear and braid field lines (shear term), the other from normal flows that advect magnetic flux into the corona (emergence term). For these active regions: (1) relative magnetic helicity in the active-region corona is mainly contributed by the shear term,(2) helicity fluxes from the emergence and the shear terms have the same sign, (3) magnetic energy in the corona (including both potential energy and free energy) is mainly contributed by the emergence term, and(4) energy fluxes from the emergence term and the shear term evolved consistently in phase during the entire flux emergence course.We also examine the apparent tangential velocity derived by tracking field-line footpoints using a simple tracking method. It is found that this velocity is more consistent with tangential plasma velocity than with the flux transport velocity, which agrees with the conclusion by Schuck.

  15. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, C; Braun, J; van der Heijde, D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is increasingly important in the assessment of inflammatory activity in clinical trials with patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We investigated feasibility, inter-reader reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory ability...... of 3 different scoring methods for MRI activity and change in activity of the spine in patients with AS. METHODS: Thirty sets of spinal MRI at baseline and after 24 weeks of followup, derived from a randomized clinical trial comparing a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking drug (n = 20) with placebo (n...... the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per vertebral unit in 23 units]; the Berlin modification of the ASspiMRI-a; and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring system, which scores the 6 vertebral units considered...

  16. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-11-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  17. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  18. ADSORPTION PROPERTIES OF NICKEL-BASED MAGNETIC ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED BY PD-FREE ELECTROLESS PLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Jia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based magnetic activated carbon was synthesized from coconut shell activated carbon by electroless plating with palladium-free activation. The effect of plating solution volume on metallic ratio and adsorption capacity were evaluated. The effect of metallic ratio on specific area, pore volume, and magnetic properties were investigated. The morphologies of activated carbon before and after plating were observed by SEM, and the composition of the layer was analyzed by EDS analysis. The results showed that the metallic ratio was increased with the increase of the plating solution volume. The magnetic activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for methylene blue and a high iodine number. Those values reached 142.5 mg/g and 1035 mg/g, respectively. The specific area and pore volume decreased from 943 m2/g to 859 m2/g and 0.462 ml/g to 0.417 ml/g, respectively. And the layer was more compact and continuous when the metallic ratio reached 16.37 wt.%. In the layer, there was about 97 wt.% nickel and 3 wt.% phosphorus, which indicates that the layer was a low-phosphorus one. At the same time, magnetism was enhanced, making the product suitable for some special applications.

  19. Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Roy I.

    1990-01-01

    A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more roadwheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the roadwheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the roadwheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded.

  20. The past, present and future of ligament regenerative engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengsteab, Paulos Y; Nair, Lakshmi S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2016-12-01

    Regenerative engineering has been defined as the convergence of Advanced Materials Sciences, Stem Cell Sciences, Physics, Developmental Biology and Clinical Translation for the regeneration of complex tissues and organ systems. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction necessitates the regeneration of bone, ligament and their interface to achieve superior clinical results. In the past, the ACL has been repaired with the use of autologous and allogeneic grafts, which have their respective drawbacks. Currently, investigations on the use of biodegradable matrices to achieve knee stability and permit tissue regeneration are making promising advancements. In the future, utilizing regenerative biology cues to induce an endogenous regenerative response may aid the enhancement of clinical ACL reconstruction outcomes.

  1. Regenerative endodontics: barriers and strategies for clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jeremy J; Kim, Sahng G; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Ling; Cho, Shoko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Fu, Susan Y; Yang, Rujing; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-07-01

    Regenerative endodontics has encountered substantial challenges toward clinical translation. The adoption by the American Dental Association of evoked pulp bleeding in immature permanent teeth is an important step for regenerative endodontics. However, there is no regenerative therapy for most endodontic diseases. Simple recapitulation of cell therapy and tissue engineering strategies that are under development for other organ systems has not led to clinical translation in regeneration endodontics. Recent work using novel biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors that orchestrate the homing of host endogenous cells represents a departure from traditional cell transplantation approaches and may accelerate clinical translation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomolecule delivery to engineer the cellular microenvironment for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Corey J; Kim, Jayoung; Green, Jordan J

    2014-07-01

    To realize the potential of regenerative medicine, controlling the delivery of biomolecules in the cellular microenvironment is important as these factors control cell fate. Controlled delivery for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine often requires bioengineered materials and cells capable of spatiotemporal modulation of biomolecule release and presentation. This review discusses biomolecule delivery from the outside of the cell inwards through the delivery of soluble and insoluble biomolecules as well as from the inside of the cell outwards through gene transfer. Ex vivo and in vivo therapeutic strategies are discussed, as well as combination delivery of biomolecules, scaffolds, and cells. Various applications in regenerative medicine are highlighted including bone tissue engineering and wound healing.

  3. The relationship between functional magnetic resonance imaging activation, diffusion tensor imaging, and training effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Danielle; Budson, Andrew E

    2017-04-01

    While the relationship between diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements and training effects is explored by Voelker et al. (this issue), a cursory discussion of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements categorizes increased activation with findings of greater white matter integrity. Evidence of the relationship between fMRI activation and white matter integrity is conflicting, as is the relationship between fMRI activation and training effects. An examination of the changes in fMRI activation in response to training is helpful, but the relationship between DTI and fMRI activation, particularly in the context of white matter changes, must be examined further before general conclusions can be drawn.

  4. Visual activation in infants and young children studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, Alfred Peter; Leth, H; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether visual stimulation in sleeping infants and young children can be examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging. We studied 17 children, aged 3 d to 48 mo, and three healthy adults. Visual stimulation was performed with 8-Hz flickering light...... through the sleeping childs' closed eyelids. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed with a gradient echoplanar sequence in a l.5-T magnetic resonance scanner. Six subjects were excluded because of movement artifacts; the youngest infant showed no response. In 10 children, we could demonstrate...... flow during activation. The different response patterns in young children and adults can reflect developmental or behavioral differences. Localization of the activation seemed to be age-dependent. In the older children and the adults, it encompassed the whole length of the calcarine sulcus, whereas...

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  6. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  7. Observations of vector magnetic fields in flaring active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jimin; Wang, Haimin; Zirin, Harold; Ai, Guoxiang

    1994-01-01

    We present vector magnetograph data of 6 active regions, all of which produced major flares. Of the 20 M-class (or above) flares, 7 satisfy the flare conditions prescribed by Hagyard (high shear and strong transverse fields). Strong photospheric shear, however, is not necessarily a condition for a flare. We find an increase in the shear for two flares, a 6-deg shear increase along the neutral line after a X-2 flare and a 13-deg increase after a M-1.9 flare. For other flares, we did not detect substantial shear changes.

  8. Conical Magnetic Bearings Developed for Active Stall Control in Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Kascak, Albert F.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Buccieri, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Active stall control is a current research area at the NASA Glenn Research Center that offers a great benefit in specific fuel consumption by allowing the gas turbine to operate beyond the onset of stall. Magnetic bearings are being investigated as a new method to perform active stall control. This enabling global aviation safety technology would result in improved fuel efficiency and decreased carbon dioxide emissions, as well as improve safety and reliability by eliminating oil-related delays and failures of engine components, which account for 40 percent of the commercial aircraft departure delays. Active stall control works by perturbing the flow in front of the compressor stage such that it cancels the pressure wave, which causes the compressor to go into stall. Radial magnetic bearings are able to whirl the shaft so that variations in blade tip leakage would flow upstream causing a perturbation wave that could cancel the rotating stall cell. Axial or thrust magnetic bearings cannot be used to cancel the surge mode in the compressor because they have a very low bandwidth and thus cannot modulate at a high enough frequency. Frequency response is limited because the thrust runner cannot be laminated. To improve the bandwidth of magnetic thrust bearings, researchers must use laminations to suppress the eddy currents. A conical magnetic bearing can be laminated, resulting in increased bandwidth in the axial direction. In addition, this design can produce both radial and thrust force in a single bearing, simplifying the installation. The proposed solution combines the radial and thrust bearing into one design that can be laminated--a conical magnetic bearing. The new conical magnetic bearing test rig, funded by a Glenn fiscal year 2002 Director's Discretionary Fund, was needed because none of the existing rigs has an axial degree of freedom. The rotor bearing configuration will simulate that of the main shaft on a gas turbine engine. One conical magnetic bearing

  9. EUV and Magnetic Activities Associated with Type-I Solar Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, B.; Ruan, G. P.; Feng, S. W.; Du, G. H.; Kong, X. L.

    2017-06-01

    Type-I bursts ( i.e. noise storms) are the earliest-known type of solar radio emission at the meter wavelength. They are believed to be excited by non-thermal energetic electrons accelerated in the corona. The underlying dynamic process and exact emission mechanism still remain unresolved. Here, with a combined analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV), radio and photospheric magnetic field data of unprecedented quality recorded during a type-I storm on 30 July 2011, we identify a good correlation between the radio bursts and the co-spatial EUV and magnetic activities. The EUV activities manifest themselves as three major brightening stripes above a region adjacent to a compact sunspot, while the magnetic field there presents multiple moving magnetic features (MMFs) with persistent coalescence or cancelation and a morphologically similar three-part distribution. We find that the type-I intensities are correlated with those of the EUV emissions at various wavelengths with a correlation coefficient of 0.7 - 0.8. In addition, in the region between the brightening EUV stripes and the radio sources there appear consistent dynamic motions with a series of bi-directional flows, suggesting ongoing small-scale reconnection there. Mainly based on the induced connection between the magnetic motion at the photosphere and the EUV and radio activities in the corona, we suggest that the observed type-I noise storms and the EUV brightening activities are the consequence of small-scale magnetic reconnection driven by MMFs. This is in support of the original proposal made by Bentley et al. ( Solar Phys. 193, 227, 2000).

  10. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Bergander

    2005-08-29

    The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and

  11. Hilbert-Huang transform analysis of long-term solar magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linhua

    2018-04-01

    Astronomical time series analysis is one of the hottest and most important problems, and becomes the suitable way to deal with the underlying dynamical behavior of the considered nonlinear systems. The quasi-periodic analysis of solar magnetic activity has been carried out by various authors during the past fifty years. In this work, the novel Hilbert-Huang transform approach is applied to investigate the yearly numbers of polar faculae in the time interval from 1705 to 1999. The detected periodicities can be allocated to three components: the first one is the short-term variations with periods smaller than 11 years, the second one is the mid- term variations with classical periods from 11 years to 50 years, and the last one is the long-term variations with periods larger than 50 years. The analysis results improve our knowledge on the quasi-periodic variations of solar magnetic activity and could be provided valuable constraints for solar dynamo theory. Furthermore, our analysis results could be useful for understanding the long-term variations of solar magnetic activity, providing crucial information to describe and forecast solar magnetic activity indicators.

  12. Design and experimental tests of a rotary active magnetic regenerator prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A rotary active magnetic regenerator (AMR) prototype with efficiency and compact design as focus points has been designed and built. The main objective is to demonstrate improved efficiency for rotary devices by reducing heat leaks from the environment and parasitic mechanical work losses while...

  13. Effect of Magnetic Activity on Ionospheric Time Delay at Low Latitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of magnetic activity on ionospheric time delay at low latitude Station Bhopal (geom. lat. 23.2°N, geom. long. 77.6°E) using ... Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462 026, India. National Institute of Technical, ...

  14. A new numerical scheme for the simulation of active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torregrosa-Jaime, B.; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Payá, J.

    2014-01-01

    A 1D model of a parallel-plate active magnetic regenerator (AMR) has been developed based on a new numerical scheme. With respect to the implicit scheme, the new scheme achieves accurate results, minimizes computational time and prevents numerical errors. The model has been used to check the boun...

  15. Detailed numerical modeling of a linear parallel-plate Active Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model simulating Active Magnetic Regeneration (AMR) is presented and compared to a selection of experiments. The model is an extension and re-implementation of a previous two-dimensional model. The new model is extended to 2.5D, meaning that parasitic thermal losses are included...

  16. Magnetic Characteristics of Active Region Heating Observed with TRACE, SOHO/EIT, and Yohkoh/SXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J. G.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have reported results from studies that have compared the magnetic structure and heating of the transition region and corona (both in active regions and in the quiet Sun) by combining X-ray and EUV images from Yohkoh and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) with photospheric magnetograms from ground-based observatories. Our findings have led us to the hypothesis that most heating throughout the corona is driven from near and below the base of the corona by eruptive microflares occurring in compact low-lying "core magnetic fields (i.e., fields rooted along and closely enveloping polarity inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic flux). We now extend these studies, comparing sequences of UV images from Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) with longitudinal magnetograms from Kitt Peak and vector magnetograms from MUSIC. These comparisons confirm the previous results regarding the importance of core-field activity to active region heating. Activity in fields associated with satellite polarity inclusions and/or magnetically sheared configurations is especially prominent. This work is funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program and the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program.

  17. Relation of flare activity to the approach and separation of sunspots in an active region and to its magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, E.

    1978-01-01

    The relation between the flare activity of active regions within the scope of a large complex and the magnetic gradients of these active regions and their daily variations is investigated in the interval of the exceptionally high flare activity occurring in June 1970. New indices, characterizing the active region, were defined, e.g., the instantaneous sunspot-area density and the instantaneous sunspot-number density. These indices were determined on the basis of measurements of the surface containing all sunspots of the complex of active regions enclosed by an envelope. An attempt was made to substitute the surface in the relation for the individual indices by distance. The daily variations of these indices were again compared with the flare activity and some mutual relations were derived. (author)

  18. Review of magnetic refrigeration system as alternative to conventional refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezaal, N. A.; Osintsev, K. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    The refrigeration system is one of the most important systems in industry. Developers are constantly seeking for how to avoid the damage to the environment. Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by magneto-caloric effect (MCE). In the case of ferromagnetic materials, MCE warms as the magnetic moments of the atom are aligned by the application of a magnetic field. There are two types of magnetic phase changes that may occur at the Curie point: first order magnetic transition (FOMT) and second order magnetic transition (SOMT). The reference cycle for magnetic refrigeration is AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle), where the magnetic material matrix works both as a refrigerating medium and as a heat regenerating medium, while the fluid flowing in the porous matrix works as a heat transfer medium. Regeneration can be accomplished by blowing a heat transfer fluid in a reciprocating fashion through the regenerator made of magnetocaloric material that is alternately magnetized and demagnetized. Many magnetic refrigeration prototypes with different designs and software models have been built in different parts of the world. In this paper, the authors try to shed light on the magnetic refrigeration and show its effectiveness compared with conventional refrigeration methods.

  19. In situ nuclear magnetic response of permafrost and active layer soil in boreal and tundra ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kass, Mason Andrew; Irons, Trevor; Minsley, Burke J.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of permafrost, particularly warm and near-surface permafrost which can contain significant liquid water, is critical to understanding complex interrelationships with climate change, ecosystems, and disturbances such as wildfires. Understanding the vulnerability and resilience...... of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) response of the active layer and permafrost in a variety of soil conditions, types, and saturations. In this paper, we summarize the NMR data and present quantitative relationships between active layer and permafrost liquid water content and pore sizes and show...

  20. Active instrumental guidance in interventional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildermuth, S.; Erhart, P.; Leung, D.A.; Goehde, S.; Schoenenberger, A.; Debatin, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: An active MR-based guidance system for visualisation of invasive instruments is described. Methods: The principle of MR tracking is based on the integration of a miniaturised coil into the tip of the instrument itself. A phantom experiment was designed to demonstrate the localising accuracy of this technique. In [dition, bicompatibility and warming effects were evaluated. Preliminary intravascular applications that were performed in animal experiments under MR guidance included embolisation, vascular occlusion as well as transjugular intrahepatic punctures. Percutaneous biopsies, cholecystostomies and laparoscopic applications were also evaluated with MR tracking. Results: Phantom experiments confirmed an excellent localisation accuracy of MR tracking compared to conventional r[iography. At a field strength of 0.5 T, the temperature increase remained below 2 C. Results of phantom experiments revealed a potential of significant heating dependent on the sequence parameters employed. MR tracking allowed a robust, simultaneously biplanar visualisation of the instrument tips in real time. Based on MR 'ro[ map' images, various intravascular and percutaneous interventions were successfully performed in vivo under MR guidance. Conclusions: MR tracking is a flexible concept permitting monitoring in the guidance of instruments in an MR environment. Various preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate safety, localisation accuracy and feasibility of this biplanar localisation technique in real time. (orig.) [de

  1. Electrolyzer for NASA Lunar Regenerative Fuel Cells, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water electrolyzer stacks are a key component of regenerative fuel cells, designed to replace batteries as a means of storing electric energy on the lunar surface....

  2. Platelet-rich fibrin: a boon in regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebentish, Priyanka D; Umashetty, Girish; Kaur, Harpreet; Doizode, Trupthi; Kaslekar, Mithun; Chowdhury, Shouvik

    2016-12-01

    Research into regenerative dentistry has contributed momentum to the field of molecular biology. Periapical surgery aims at removing periapical pathology to achieve complete wound healing and regeneration of bone and periodontal tissue. Regenerative endodontic procedures are widely being added to the current armamentarium of pulp therapy procedures. The regenerative potential of platelets has been deliberated. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a wonderful tissue-engineering product and has recently gained much popularity due its promising results in wound healing bone induction. The features of this product are an attribute of platelets which, after cellular interactions, release growth factors and have shown application in diverse disciplines of dentistry. This paper is intended to shed light onto the various prospects of PRF and to provide clinical insight into regenerative endodontic therapy.

  3. Regenerative medicine: A ray of light for medical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Supekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The perimeters of medical science have expanded to include regenerative medicine as a translational science, which has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of incapacitating diseases and chronic disorders.

  4. LOX/Methane Regeneratively-Cooled Rocket Engine Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to advance the technologies required to build a subcritical regeneratively cooled liquid oxygen/methane rocket combustion chamber for...

  5. Conference Report: 6th Annual International Symposium on Regenerative Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loghmani, M Terry; Roche, Joseph A

    2018-04-03

    The 6th International Symposium on Regenerative Rehabilitation, hosted by the Alliance for Regenerative Rehabilitation Research and Training (AR 3 T), included a preconference meeting of institutional representatives of the International Consortium of Regenerative Rehabilitation, keynote talks from distinguished scientists, platform and poster presentations from experts and trainees, panel discussions and postconference workshops. The following priorities were identified: increasing rigor in basic, preclinical and clinical studies, especially the use of better controls; developing better outcome measures for preclinical and clinical trials; focusing on developing more tissue-based interventions versus cell-based interventions; including regenerative rehabilitation in curricula of professional programs like occupational and physical therapy; and developing better instruments to quantify rehabilitative interventions.

  6. Advancing pig cloning technologies towards application in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, H; Matsunari, H; Nakano, K; Watanabe, M; Umeyama, K; Nagaya, M

    2012-08-01

    Regenerative medicine is expected to make a significant contribution by development of novel therapeutic treatments for intractable diseases and for improving the quality of life of patients. Many advances in regenerative medicine, including basic and translational research, have been developed and tested in experimental animals; pigs have played an important role in various aspects of this work. The value of pigs as a model species is being enhanced by the generation of specially designed animals through cloning and genetic modifications, enabling more sophisticated research to be performed and thus accelerating the clinical application of regenerative medicine. This article reviews the significant aspects of the creation and application of cloned and genetically modified pigs in regenerative medicine research and considers the possible future directions of the technology. We also discuss the importance of reproductive biology as an interface between basic science and clinical medicine. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2006. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.; Luschtinetz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains 25 contributions, which were held on the 13th symposium ''Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology'' in Stralsund (Germany). Separate documentation items analysing 16 of the contributions have been prepared for the ENERGY database

  8. Error-rate performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can

  9. New results on performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may

  10. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the regenerative fuel cell project element is to develop power and energy storage technologies that enable new capabilities for future human space...

  11. Quo Vadis medycyno regeneracyjna?: Quo Vadis Regenerative Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Suszyńska, Malwina

    2013-07-01

    There are presented the most important sources of pluripotent stem cells for potential application in the regenerative medicine. This review summarizes also advantages and disadvantages for potential application of these cells in clinical medicine.

  12. From regenerative dentistry to regenerative medicine: progress, challenges, and potential applications of oral stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Xiao,1 Masanori Nasu2 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Research Center, The Nippon Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and epithelial stem cells play essential roles in tissue repair and self-healing. Oral MSCs and epithelial stem cells can be isolated from adult human oral tissues, for example, teeth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Cocultivated adult oral epithelial stem cells and MSCs could represent some developmental events, such as epithelial invagination and tubular structure formation, signifying their potentials for tissue regeneration. Oral epithelial stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine over 1 decade. They are able to form a stratified cell sheet under three-dimensional culture conditions. Both experimental and clinical data indicate that the cell sheets can not only safely and effectively reconstruct the damaged cornea in humans, but also repair esophageal ulcer in animal models. Oral MSCs include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED, stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs, and mesenchymal stem cells from gingiva (GMSCs. They are widely applied in both regenerative dentistry and medicine. DPSCs, SHED, and SCAP are able to form dentin–pulp complex when being transplanted into immunodeficient animals. They have been experimentally used for the regeneration of dental pulp, neuron, bone muscle and blood vessels in animal models and have shown promising results. PDLSCs and GMSCs are demonstrated to be ideal cell sources for repairing the damaged tissues of periodontal, muscle, and tendon. Despite the abovementioned applications of oral stem cells, only a few human clinical trials are now underway to use them for the treatment of certain diseases. Since clinical use is the end goal, their true regenerative power and safety need to be further examined.Keywords: oral mesenchymal stem cells, oral

  13. Bifunctional electrodes for unitised regenerative fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, Sebastian; Kaz, Till; Friedrich, Kaspar Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Different oxygen electrode configurations for the operation in a unitised reversible fuel cell were tested. → Polarisation curves and EIS measurements were recorded. → The mixture of catalysts performs best for the present stage of electrode development. → Potential improvements for the different compositions are discussed. - Abstract: The effects of different configurations and compositions of platinum and iridium oxide electrodes for the oxygen reaction of unitised regenerative fuel cells (URFC) are reported. Bifunctional oxygen electrodes are important for URFC development because favourable properties for the fuel cell and the electrolysis modes must be combined into a single electrode. The bifunctional electrodes were studied under different combinations of catalyst mixtures, multilayer arrangements and segmented configurations with single catalyst areas. Distinct electrochemical behaviour was observed for both modes and can be explained on the basis of impedance spectroscopy. The mixture of both catalysts performs best for the present stage of electrode development. Also, the multilayer electrodes yielded good results with the potential for optimisation. The influence of ionic and electronic resistances on the relative performance is demonstrated. However, penalties due to cross currents in the heterogeneous electrodes were identified and explained by comparing the performance curves with electrodes composed of a single catalyst. Potential improvements for the different compositions are discussed.

  14. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  15. Recent advancements in regenerative dentistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrollahi, Pouya; Shah, Brinda; Seifi, Amir; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-12-01

    Although human mouth benefits from remarkable mechanical properties, it is very susceptible to traumatic damages, exposure to microbial attacks, and congenital maladies. Since the human dentition plays a crucial role in mastication, phonation and esthetics, finding promising and more efficient strategies to reestablish its functionality in the event of disruption has been important. Dating back to antiquity, conventional dentistry has been offering evacuation, restoration, and replacement of the diseased dental tissue. However, due to the limited ability and short lifespan of traditional restorative solutions, scientists have taken advantage of current advancements in medicine to create better solutions for the oral health field and have coined it "regenerative dentistry." This new field takes advantage of the recent innovations in stem cell research, cellular and molecular biology, tissue engineering, and materials science etc. In this review, the recently known resources and approaches used for regeneration of dental and oral tissues were evaluated using the databases of Scopus and Web of Science. Scientists have used a wide range of biomaterials and scaffolds (artificial and natural), genes (with viral and non-viral vectors), stem cells (isolated from deciduous teeth, dental pulp, periodontal ligament, adipose tissue, salivary glands, and dental follicle) and growth factors (used for stimulating cell differentiation) in order to apply tissue engineering approaches to dentistry. Although they have been successful in preclinical and clinical partial regeneration of dental tissues, whole-tooth engineering still seems to be far-fetched, unless certain shortcomings are addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mesenchymal dental stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Francisco-Javier; Insausti, Carmen-Luisa; Iniesta, Francisca; Blanquer, Miguel; Ramírez, María-del-Carmen; Meseguer, Luis; Meseguer-Henarejos, Ana-Belén; Marín, Noemí; Martínez, Salvador; Moraleda, José-María

    2012-11-01

    In the last decade, tissue engineering is a field that has been suffering an enormous expansion in the regenerative medicine and dentistry. The use of cells as mesenchymal dental stem cells of easy access for dentist and oral surgeon, immunosuppressive properties, high proliferation and capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts, cementoblasts, osteoblasts and other cells implicated in the teeth, suppose a good perspective of future in the clinical dentistry. However, is necessary advance in the known of growth factors and signalling molecules implicated in tooth development and regeneration of different structures of teeth. Furthermore, these cells need a fabulous scaffold that facility their integration, differentiation, matrix synthesis and promote multiple specific interactions between cells. In this review, we give a brief description of tooth development and anatomy, definition and classification of stem cells, with special attention of mesenchymal stem cells, commonly used in the cellular therapy for their trasdifferentiation ability, non ethical problems and acceptable results in preliminary clinical trials. In terms of tissue engineering, we provide an overview of different types of mesenchymal stem cells that have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs), and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs), growth factors implicated in regeneration teeth and types of scaffolds for dental tissue regeneration.

  17. Translating Regenerative Biomaterials Into Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Edward T; Dakin, Stephanie G; Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Globally health care spending is increasing unsustainably. This is especially true of the treatment of musculoskeletal (MSK) disease where in the United States the MSK disease burden has doubled over the last 15 years. With an aging and increasingly obese population, the surge in MSK related spending is only set to worsen. Despite increased funding, research and attention to this pressing health need, little progress has been made toward novel therapies. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies could provide the solutions required to mitigate this mounting burden. Biomaterial-based treatments in particular present a promising field of potentially cost-effective therapies. However, the translation of a scientific development to a successful treatment is fraught with difficulties. These barriers have so far limited translation of TERM science into clinical treatments. It is crucial for primary researchers to be aware of the barriers currently restricting the progression of science to treatments. Researchers need to act prospectively to ensure the clinical, financial, and regulatory hurdles which seem so far removed from laboratory science do not stall or prevent the subsequent translation of their idea into a treatment. The aim of this review is to explore the development and translation of new treatments. Increasing the understanding of these complexities and barriers among primary researchers could enhance the efficiency of biomaterial translation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Alkaline Materials and Regenerative Endodontics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Kahler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periapical health is the primary goal of endodontic treatment in mature and immature teeth. In addition, the goals of treatment of immature teeth with arrested root development include root growth to length and maturation of the apex, as well as thickening of the canal wall. These goals are valid for immature teeth that have been subjected to trauma and dental caries or that are the result of developmental anomalies that expose the tooth to the risk of pulp necrosis and consequently result in the cessation of root maturation. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs have been described as a “paradigm shift” in the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis and underdeveloped roots, as there is the potential for further root maturation and return of vitality. Treatment with REPs is advocated as the treatment of choice for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. REP protocols involve the use of alkaline biomaterials, primarily sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates and Biodentine, and are the essential components of a successful treatment regimen.

  19. Hierarchical Design of Tissue Regenerative Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonas C; De Laporte, Laura

    2018-03-01

    The worldwide shortage of organs fosters significant advancements in regenerative therapies. Tissue engineering and regeneration aim to supply or repair organs or tissues by combining material scaffolds, biochemical signals, and cells. The greatest challenge entails the creation of a suitable implantable or injectable 3D macroenvironment and microenvironment to allow for ex vivo or in vivo cell-induced tissue formation. This review gives an overview of the essential components of tissue regenerating scaffolds, ranging from the molecular to the macroscopic scale in a hierarchical manner. Further, this review elaborates about recent pivotal technologies, such as photopatterning, electrospinning, 3D bioprinting, or the assembly of micrometer-scale building blocks, which enable the incorporation of local heterogeneities, similar to most native extracellular matrices. These methods are applied to mimic a vast number of different tissues, including cartilage, bone, nerves, muscle, heart, and blood vessels. Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in the last decade, it remains a hurdle to build biomaterial constructs in vitro or in vivo with a native-like structure and architecture, including spatiotemporal control of biofunctional domains and mechanical properties. New chemistries and assembly methods in water will be crucial to develop therapies that are clinically translatable and can evolve into organized and functional tissues. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Regenerative periapical surgery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Bhandari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periapical surgery is an important treatment alternative in the presence of a large periapical cyst. To achieve optimal healing and regeneration of the bone different bone substitutes can be used. Case Report: A 35 year old male patient reported with the soft diffuse swelling in anterior palatal region and drainings in us with 21 labially. He had a history of trauma 5 years back. The clinical and radiographic diagnosis of infected periapical cyst with 11,21; invasive cervical root resorption with 21 and internal root resorption with 11 was made. Endodontic treatment was performed with11,2 followed by periapical curettage. A picectomy and retrograde filling with white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was carried out with 11,21. The cervical resorption defect with 21 was restored with white MTA. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF was mixed with demineralised bone matrix (Osseograft and used as a regenerative biomaterial in the periapiacl defect. 14 months follow up shows satisfactory healing and regeneration of periapical region. Discussion: There is considerable clinical interest in using PRF alone or in combination with graft materials as it is a reservoir of many growth factors and have potential for accelerated soft-and hard tissue healing. PRF is a new generation of platelet concentrate, derived from patients own blood.

  1. MicroRNA delivery for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W

    2015-07-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages and disadvantages. A number of studies have demonstrated success in augmenting osteogenesis, improving cardiogenesis, and reducing fibrosis among many other tissue engineering applications. A scaffold-based approach with the possibility of local and sustained delivery of miRNA is particularly attractive since the physical cues provided by the scaffold may synergize with the biochemical cues induced by miRNA therapy. Herein, we first briefly cover the application of miRNA to direct stem cell fate via replacement and inhibition therapies, followed by the discussion of the promising viral and nonviral delivery systems. Next we present the unique advantages of a scaffold-based delivery in achieving lineage-specific differentiation and tissue development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of the interplanetary conditions on the magnetic activity observed in the southern auroral zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazeneuve, H.A.; Tabocchini, H.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between the interplanetary conditions and the magnetic activity recorded at Belgrano is examined. H-component magnetograms, rheometer records and the concurrent interplanetary data are used. It is found that the geomagnetic activity is generated by the combined effect of a variety of interplanetary conditions. The data distinctly show that each physical entity of the interplanetary medium has a specific and precise role in the development of active periods. The reversal of the IMF polarity appears to be the critical step in the generation of geomagnetic activity. (author)

  3. A high-power compact regenerative amplifier FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.C.; Sheffield, R.L.; Fortgang, C.M.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Goldstein, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Regenerative Amplifier FEL (RAFEL) is a new FEL approach aimed at achieving the highest optical power from a compact rf-linac FEL. The key idea is to feed back a small fraction ( 5 in single pass) wiggler to enable the FEL to reach saturation in a few passes. This paper summarizes the design of a high-power compact regenerative amplifier FEL and describes the first experimental demonstration of the RAFEL concept

  4. An Overview of the Thermal Calculation and the Cooling Technology for Active Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yu, Meiyun; Luo, Yanyan; Liu, Jun; Ren, Yafeng

    2017-10-01

    The cooling process of AMB is that the energy loss is sent out to the outside world when the system is operating. The energy loss transfers to the surrounding medium in the form of heat, which leads to raise the temperature of system components and influences the performance of the system. So it is necessary to study the internal loss of the magnetic bearing system and thermal calculation method. Three kinds of thermal calculation methods are compared, which is important for the design and calculation of cooling. At the same time, the cooling way, the cooling method, and the cooling system is summarized on the basis of cooling technology of active magnetic bearing, and the design method of the cooling system is studied. But for the active magnetic bearing system, when designing the cooling system, heat dissipation of the motor can not be ignored. It is important not only for the performance of the active magnetic bearing system and stable operation, and but also for the improvement of the cooling technology.

  5. Design of An Energy Efficient Hydraulic Regenerative circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S.; Ashok, S. Denis; Nagaraj, Shanmukha; Adithyakumar, C. R.; Reddy, M. Lohith Kumar; Naulakha, Niranjan Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Increasing cost and power demand, leads to evaluation of new method to increase through productivity and help to solve the power demands. Many researchers have break through to increase the efficiency of a hydraulic power pack, one of the promising methods is the concept of regenerative. The objective of this research work is to increase the efficiency of a hydraulic circuit by introducing a concept of regenerative circuit. A Regenerative circuit is a system that is used to speed up the extension stroke of the double acting single rod hydraulic cylinder. The output is connected to the input in the directional control value. By this concept, increase in velocity of the piston and decrease the cycle time. For the research, a basic hydraulic circuit and a regenerative circuit are designated and compared both with their results. The analysis was based on their time taken for extension and retraction of the piston. From the detailed analysis of both the hydraulic circuits, it is found that the efficiency by introducing hydraulic regenerative circuit increased by is 5.3%. The obtained results conclude that, implementing hydraulic regenerative circuit in a hydraulic power pack decreases power consumption, reduces cycle time and increases productivity in a longer run.

  6. The regenerative medicine coalition. Interview with Frank-Roman Lauter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauter, Frank-Roman

    2012-11-01

    Frank-Roman Lauter, Secretary General of the recently launched Regenerative Medicine Coalition, explains how the coalition was formed and what they hope to achieve. Frank-Roman Lauter has served as Secretary General of the Regenerative Medicine Coalition since 2012, and as Head of Business Development at Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies since 2007. Frank-Roman Lauter's interest is the organization of academic infrastructures to promote efficient translation of research findings into new therapies. He co-organizes joined strategy development for regenerative medicine clusters from seven European countries (FP7-EU Project) and has initiated cooperation between the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine and the German Federal Ministry for Education & Research, resulting in a joined funding program. Recently, he cofounded the international consortium of Regenerative Medicine translational centers (RMC; www.the-rmc.org ). Trained as a molecular biologist at the Max-Planck Institute in Berlin-Dahlem and at Stanford, he has 16 years of experience as an entrepreneur and life science manager in Germany and the USA.

  7. Retreatment of failed regenerative endodontic of orthodontically treated immature permanent maxillary central incisor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaed Fahad Al-Tammami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A revascularization procedure was shown to be the best alternative therapy for immature teeth with necrotic pulp and apical infection. A 12 year old female with a history of trauma to her upper central incisor and a sinus tract was referred for endodontic treatment. She was an active orthodontic patient and had undergone regenerative endodontic treatment for the past 2 years. Clinical examination revealed no response to sensibility, percussion, and palpation tests. The preoperative radiograph showed an open apex and apical rarefaction. The case was diagnosed as previously treated tooth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Regenerative endodontic retreatment was performed, and the case was followed for 3 years. Clinical, radiographic, and cone-beam computed tomography follow-up examination revealed an asymptomatic tooth, with evidence of periapical healing and root maturation.

  8. Solar Activity Across the Scales: From Small-Scale Quiet-Sun Dynamics to Magnetic Activity Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiashvili, Irina N.; Collins, Nancy N.; Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Wray, Alan A.

    2017-01-01

    Observations as well as numerical and theoretical models show that solar dynamics is characterized by complicated interactions and energy exchanges among different temporal and spatial scales. It reveals magnetic self-organization processes from the smallest scale magnetized vortex tubes to the global activity variation known as the solar cycle. To understand these multiscale processes and their relationships, we use a two-fold approach: 1) realistic 3D radiative MHD simulations of local dynamics together with high resolution observations by IRIS, Hinode, and SDO; and 2) modeling of solar activity cycles by using simplified MHD dynamo models and mathematical data assimilation techniques. We present recent results of this approach, including the interpretation of observational results from NASA heliophysics missions and predictive capabilities. In particular, we discuss the links between small-scale dynamo processes in the convection zone and atmospheric dynamics, as well as an early prediction of Solar Cycle 25.

  9. Effect of solar and magnetic activity on VHF scintillations near the equatorial anomaly crest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Singh

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The VHF amplitude scintillation recorded during the period January 1991 to December 1993 in the declining phase of a solar cycle and April 1998 to December 1999 in the ascending phase of the next solar cycle at Varanasi (geogr. lat.=25.3°, long.=83.0°, dip=37°N have been analyzed to study the behavior of ionospheric irregularities during active solar periods and magnetic storms. It is shown that irregularities occur at arbitrary times and may last for <30min. A rise in solar activity increases scintillations during winter (November-February and near equinoxes (March-April; September-October, whereas it depresses the scintillations during the summer (May-July. In general, the role of magnetic activity is to suppress scintillations in the pre-midnight period and to increase it in the post-midnight period during equinox and winter seasons, whilst during summer months the effect is reversed. The pre-midnight scintillation is sometimes observed when the main phase of Dst corresponds to the pre-midnight period. The annual variation shows suppression of scintillations on disturbed days, both during pre-midnight and post-midnight period, which becomes more effective during years of high solar activity. It is observed that for magnetic storms for which the recovery phase starts post-midnight, the probability of occurrence of irregularities is enhanced during this time. If the magnetic storm occurred during daytime, then the probability of occurrence of scintillations during the night hours is decreased. The penetration of magnetospheric electric fields to the magnetic equator affects the evolution of low-latitude irregularities. A delayed disturbance dynamo electric field also affects the development of irregularities.

  10. Magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Document Server

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  13. MSCs-derived exosomes: cell-secreted nanovesicles with regenerative potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marote

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are membrane-enclosed nanovesicles (30-150 nm that shuttle active cargoes between different cells. These tiny extracellular vesicles have been recently isolated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs conditioned medium, a population of multipotent cells identified in several adult tissues. MSCs paracrine activity has been already shown to be the key mediator of their elicited regenerative effects. On the other hand, the individual contribution of MSCs-derived exosomes for these effects is only now being unraveled. The administration of MSCs-derived exosomes has been demonstrated to restore tissue function in multiple diseases/injury models and to induce beneficial in vitro effects, mainly mediated by exosomal-enclosed miRNAs. Additionally, the source and the culture conditions of MSCs have been shown to influence the regenerative responses induced by exosomes. Therefore, these studies reveal that MSCs-derived exosomes hold a great potential for cell-free therapies that are safer and easier to manipulate than cell-based products. Nevertheless, this is an emerging research field and hence, further studies are required to understand the full dimension of this complex intercellular communication system and how it can be optimized to take full advantage of its therapeutic effects. In this mini-review, we summarize the most significant new advances in the regenerative properties of MSCs-derived exosomes and discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  14. Adsorptive performance of coal-based magnetic activated carbon for cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Wenwen

    2018-02-01

    Bituminous coal-based magnetic activated carbon (MAC) was prepared, characterized, and used successfully for removal of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) from treated landfill leachate. Batch adsorption studies were performed at different adsorption dosages and contact times. With adsorptive dosage of 0.75 g/L and contact time of 60 min, the removal efficiencies achieved by MAC for octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D 4 ), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D 5 ), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D 6 ) are 100, 82.8, and 71.4%, respectively. The specific magnetization coefficients of MAC before and after adsorption are 4.6 × 10 -7 and 5.2 × 10 -7  m 3 /kg, between 1.26 × 10 -7 and 3.8 × 10 -5  m 3 /kg, which suggests that MAC can be recycled by the high-intensity magnetic separators.

  15. The magnetic fields at the surface of active single G-K giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurière, M.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Wade, G. A.; Tsvetkova, S.; Petit, P.; Dintrans, B.; Drake, N. A.; Decressin, T.; Lagarde, N.; Donati, J.-F.; Roudier, T.; Lignières, F.; Schröder, K.-P.; Landstreet, J. D.; Lèbre, A.; Weiss, W. W.; Zahn, J.-P.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: We investigate the magnetic field at the surface of 48 red giants selected as promising for detection of Stokes V Zeeman signatures in their spectral lines. In our sample, 24 stars are identified from the literature as presenting moderate to strong signs of magnetic activity. An additional 7 stars are identified as those in which thermohaline mixing appears not to have occured, which could be due to hosting a strong magnetic field. Finally, we observed 17 additional very bright stars which enable a sensitive search to be performed with the spectropolarimetric technique. Methods: We use the spectropolarimeters Narval and ESPaDOnS to detect circular polarization within the photospheric absorption lines of our targets. We treat the spectropolarimetric data using the least-squares deconvolution method to create high signal-to-noise ratio mean Stokes V profiles. We also measure the classical S-index activity indicator for the Ca ii H&K lines, and the stellar radial velocity. To infer the evolutionary status of our giants and to interpret our results, we use state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models with predictions of convective turnover times. Results: We unambiguously detect magnetic fields via Zeeman signatures in 29 of the 48 red giants in our sample. Zeeman signatures are found in all but one of the 24 red giants exhibiting signs of activity, as well as 6 out of 17 bright giant stars. However no detections were obtained in the 7 thermohaline deviant giants. The majority of the magnetically detected giants are either in the first dredge up phase or at the beginning of core He burning, i.e. phases when the convective turnover time is at a maximum: this corresponds to a "magnetic strip" for red giants in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. A close study of the 16 giants with known rotational periods shows that the measured magnetic field strength is tightly correlated with the rotational properties, namely to the rotational period and to the Rossby number Ro

  16. Magnetically-focusing biochip structures for high-speed active biosensing with improved selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Haneul; Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Chen, Xing; Hong, Seunghun

    2018-06-01

    We report a magnetically-focusing biochip structure enabling a single layered magnetic trap-and-release cycle for biosensors with an improved detection speed and selectivity. Here, magnetic beads functionalized with specific receptor molecules were utilized to trap target molecules in a solution and transport actively to and away from the sensor surfaces to enhance the detection speed and reduce the non-specific bindings, respectively. Using our method, we demonstrated the high speed detection of IL-13 antigens with the improved detection speed by more than an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the release step in our method was found to reduce the non-specific bindings and improve the selectivity and sensitivity of biosensors. This method is a simple but powerful strategy and should open up various applications such as ultra-fast biosensors for point-of-care services.

  17. Recent perspectives in solar physics - Elemental composition, coronal structure and magnetic fields, solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Elemental abundances in the solar corona are studied. Abundances in the corona, solar wind and solar cosmic rays are compared to those in the photosphere. The variation in silicon and iron abundance in the solar wind as compared to helium is studied. The coronal small and large scale structure is investigated, emphasizing magnetic field activity and examining cosmic ray generation mechanisms. The corona is observed in the X-ray and EUV regions. The nature of coronal transients is discussed with emphasis on solar-wind modulation of galactic cosmic rays. A schematic plan view of the interplanetary magnetic field during sunspot minimum is given showing the presence of magnetic bubbles and their concentration in the region around 4-5 AU by a fast solar wind stream.

  18. Magnet Architectures and Active Radiation Shielding Study - SR2S Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Shane; Meinke, Rainer; Burger, William; Ilin, Andrew; Nerolich, Shaun; Washburn, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Analyze new coil configurations with maturing superconductor technology -Develop vehicle-level concept solutions and identify engineering challenges and risks -Shielding performance analysis Recent advances in superconducting magnet technology and manufacturing have opened the door for re-evaluating active shielding solutions as an alternative to mass prohibitive passive shielding.Publications on static magnetic field environments and its bio-effects were reviewed. Short-term exposure information is available suggesting long term exposure may be okay. Further research likely needed. center dotMagnetic field safety requirements exist for controlled work environments. The following effects have been noted with little noted adverse effects -Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects on ionized fluids (e.g. blood) creating an aortic voltage change -MHD interaction elevates blood pressure (BP) center dot5 Tesla equates to 5% BP elevation -Prosthetic devises and pacemakers are an issue (access limit of 5 gauss).

  19. Regenerative braking strategies, vehicle safety and stability control systems: critical use-case proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksowicz, Selim A.; Burnham, Keith J.; Southgate, Adam; McCoy, Chris; Waite, Gary; Hardwick, Graham; Harrington, Cian; McMurran, Ross

    2013-05-01

    The sustainable development of vehicle propulsion systems that have mainly focused on reduction of fuel consumption (i.e. CO2 emission) has led, not only to the development of systems connected with combustion processes but also to legislation and testing procedures. In recent years, the low carbon policy has made hybrid vehicles and fully electric vehicles (H/EVs) popular. The main virtue of these propulsion systems is their ability to restore some of the expended energy from kinetic movement, e.g. the braking process. Consequently new research and testing methods for H/EVs are currently being developed. This especially concerns the critical 'use-cases' for functionality tests within dynamic events for both virtual simulations, as well as real-time road tests. The use-case for conventional vehicles for numerical simulations and road tests are well established. However, the wide variety of tests and their great number (close to a thousand) creates a need for selection, in the first place, and the creation of critical use-cases suitable for testing H/EVs in both virtual and real-world environments. It is known that a marginal improvement in the regenerative braking ratio can significantly improve the vehicle range and, therefore, the economic cost of its operation. In modern vehicles, vehicle dynamics control systems play the principal role in safety, comfort and economic operation. Unfortunately, however, the existing standard road test scenarios are insufficient for H/EVs. Sector knowledge suggests that there are currently no agreed tests scenarios to fully investigate the effects of brake blending between conventional and regenerative braking as well as the regenerative braking interaction with active driving safety systems (ADSS). The paper presents seven manoeuvres, which are considered to be suitable and highly informative for the development and examination of H/EVs with regenerative braking capability. The critical manoeuvres presented are considered to be

  20. Static magnetic field changes the activity of venom phospholipase of Vipera Lebetina snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibova, L.S.; Avetisyan, T.O.; Ajrapetyan, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the static magnetic field (SMF) on the phospholipid activity of the class-A snake venom is studied. The Vipera Lebetina snake venom was subjected during 10 days to 30 minute impact of the CMF daily. It is established that increase in the phospholipase A 1 and A 2 approximately by 21 and 32 % correspondingly and in the phosphodiesterase C - by 33 % was observed. The decrease in the total protein level of the snake venom by 31.6 ± 2.2 % was noted thereby. It may be assumed that the described phospholipase and phosphoesterase changes may lead to essential shifts in the total metabolic activity of cells and organism as a whole. The activity index of these ferments may serve as an indicator of changes in the environmental magnetic field [ru

  1. Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities.

  2. A magnetic bald-patch flare in solar active region 11117

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang; Wu, Shi-Tsan; Hu, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    With SDO observations and a data-constrained magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model, we identify a confined multi-ribbon flare that occurred on 2010 October 25 in solar active region 11117 as a magnetic bald patch (BP) flare with strong evidence. From the photospheric magnetic field observed by SDO/HMI, we find there are indeed magnetic BPs on the polarity inversion lines (PILs) which match parts of the flare ribbons. From the 3D coronal magnetic field derived from an MHD relaxation model constrained by the vector magnetograms, we find strikingly good agreement of the BP separatrix surface (BPSS) footpoints with the flare ribbons, and the BPSS itself with the hot flaring loop system. Moreover, the triggering of the BP flare can be attributed to a small flux emergence under the lobe of the BPSS, and the relevant change of coronal magnetic field through the flare is reproduced well by the pre-flare and post-flare MHD solutions, which match the corresponding pre- and post-flare AIA observations, respectively. Our work contributes to the study of non-typical flares that constitute the majority of solar flares but which cannot be explained by the standard flare model.

  3. Observation of magnetic field perturbations during sawtooth activity in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltwisch, H.; Koslowski, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sawtooth activity is a prominent example of a global plasma instability which is observed in virtually all tokamak devices. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical investigations, the phenomenon is still barely understood. As far as experimental effort is concerned, much attention has been paid to soft X-ray emission from the plasma and to its analysis in terms of two-dimensional contour plots, because it is thought to reflect the shape and temporal behaviour of magnetic flux surfaces during a sawtooth cycle. Recently, more direct methods of detecting sawtooth-related changes in the magnetic field structure have become available and have added new facets to the general picture. In this picture, some observations made on the Juelich tokamak TEXTOR by means of a Faraday rotation diagnostic technique will be reported. First, in correlation with the sawtooth collapse a localized periodic perturbation of the magnetic field with principal mode numbers m = 1 and n = 0 has been detected which, in the presence of an m = n = 1 island, may give rise to magnetic field line stochastization and thereby contribute significantly to a rapid expulsion of electronic energy from the plasma core region. Second, the so-called precursor oscillations prior to a sawtooth crash have been investigated and estimates have been obtained for the growth rate and width of a magnetic island forming immediately before the collapse. (Author)

  4. MAGNETIC ACTIVITY ANALYSIS FOR A SAMPLE OF G-TYPE MAIN SEQUENCE KEPLER TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrabi, Ahmad [Department of Physics, Bu Ali Sina University, 65178, 016016, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); He, Han [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Khosroshahi, Habib, E-mail: mehrabi@basu.ac.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-10

    The variation of a stellar light curve owing to rotational modulation by magnetic features (starspots and faculae) on the star’s surface can be used to investigate the magnetic properties of the host star. In this paper, we use the periodicity and magnitude of the light-curve variation as two proxies to study the stellar magnetic properties for a large sample of G-type main sequence Kepler targets, for which the rotation periods were recently determined. By analyzing the correlation between the two magnetic proxies, it is found that: (1) the two proxies are positively correlated for most of the stars in our sample, and the percentages of negative, zero, and positive correlations are 4.27%, 6.81%, and 88.91%, respectively; (2) negative correlation stars cannot have a large magnitude of light-curve variation; and (3) with the increase of rotation period, the relative number of positive correlation stars decreases and the negative correlation one increases. These results indicate that stars with shorter rotation period tend to have positive correlation between the two proxies, and a good portion of the positive correlation stars have a larger magnitude of light-curve variation (and hence more intense magnetic activities) than negative correlation stars.

  5. [The influence of variable and constant magnetic fields on biota and biological activity of ordinary chernozem soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, T V; Kazeev, K Sh

    2007-01-01

    In model experiments on influence variable magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) an induction of 1500 and of 6000 mkTl and the constant magnetic field an induction of 6000 mkTl and of 15000 mkTl during 5 days of exposure on biological properties of chernozem ordinary is shown, that the soil microflora is more sensitive to magnetic fields, than enzymes activity. Bacteria are more sensitive, than microscopic mushrooms. Dehydrogenase it is steady against influence of all variants. Constant magnetic field by the induction of 15000 mkTl rendered practically identical authentic overwhelming influence on catalase and saccharase activity - on 51 and 47% accordingly.

  6. Study of geometries of active magnetic regenerators for room temperature magnetocaloric refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2017-01-01

    Room temperature magnetic refrigeration has attracted substantial attention during the past decades and continuing to increase the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMR) is of great interest. Optimizing the regenerator geometry and related operating parameters is a practical and effect......Room temperature magnetic refrigeration has attracted substantial attention during the past decades and continuing to increase the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMR) is of great interest. Optimizing the regenerator geometry and related operating parameters is a practical...... and effective way to obtain the desired cooling performance. To investigate how to choose and optimize the AMR geometry, a quantitative study is presented by simulations based on a one-dimensional (1D) numerical model. Correlations for calculating the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient are reviewed...... and chosen for modeling different geometries. Moreover, the simulated impacts of various parameters on the regenerator efficiency with a constant specific cooling capacity are presented. An analysis based on entropy production minimization reveals how those parameters affect the main losses occurring inside...

  7. Self-Assembled Complexes of Horseradish Peroxidase with Magnetic Nanoparticles Showing Enhanced Peroxidase Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Corgié, Stéphane C.

    2012-02-15

    Bio-nanocatalysts (BNCs) consisting of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) self-assembled with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) enhance enzymatic activity due to the faster turnover and lower inhibition of the enzyme. The size and magnetization of the MNPs affect the formation of the BNCs, and ultimately control the activity of the bound enzymes. Smaller MNPs form small clusters with a low affinity for the HRP. While the turnover for the bound fraction is drastically increased, there is no difference in the H 2O 2 inhibitory concentration. Larger MNPs with a higher magnetization aggregate in larger clusters and have a higher affinity for the enzyme and a lower substrate inhibition. All of the BNCs are more active than the free enzyme or the MNPs (BNCs > HRP ≤laquo; MNPs). Since the BNCs show surprising resilience in various reaction conditions, they may pave the way towards new hybrid biocatalysts with increased activities and unique catalytic properties for magnetosensitive enzymatic reactions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF CLOSE COMPANIONS (AND ROTATION) ON THE MAGNETIC ACTIVITY OF M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Dhital, Saurav; Fuchs, Miriam; Garcés, Ane; Catalán, Silvia; Silvestri, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of close white dwarf and M dwarf (WD+dM) binary systems and examine the effect that a close companion has on the magnetic field generation in M dwarfs. We use a base sample of 1602 white dwarf main-sequence binaries from Rebassa-Mansergas et al. to develop a set of color cuts in GALEX, SDSS, UKIDSS, and 2MASS color space. Then using the SDSS Data Release 8 spectroscopic database, we construct a sample of 1756 WD+dM high-quality pairs from our color cuts and previous catalogs. We separate the individual WD and dM from each spectrum using an iterative technique that compares the WD and dM components to best-fit templates. Using the absolute height above the Galactic plane as a proxy for age, and the Hα emission line as an indicator for magnetic activity, we investigate the age-activity relation for our sample for spectral types ≤ M7. Our results show that early-type M dwarfs (≤M4) in close binary systems are more likely to be active and have longer activity lifetimes compared to their field counterparts. However, at a spectral type of M5 (just past the onset of full convection in M dwarfs), the activity fraction and lifetimes of WD+dM binary systems become more comparable to that of the field M dwarfs. One of the implications of having a close binary companion is presumed to be increased stellar rotation through disk disruption, tidal effects, or angular momentum exchange. Thus, we interpret the similarity in activity behavior between late-type dMs in WD+dM pairs and late-type field dMs to be due to a decrease in sensitivity in close binary companions (or stellar rotation), which has implications for the nature of magnetic activity in fully convective stars. Using the WD components of the pairs, we find WD cooling ages to use as an additional constraint on the age-activity relation for our sample. We find that, on average, active early-type dMs tend to be younger and that active late-type dMs span a much broader age regime making them

  9. Biomaterials and mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Nina; Schulze, Margit; Tobiasch, Edda

    2010-01-01

    The reconstruction of hard and soft tissues is a major challenge in regenerative medicine, since diseases or traumas are causing increasing numbers of tissue defects due to the aging of the population. Modern tissue engineering is increasingly using three-dimensional structured biomaterials in combination with stem cells as cell source, since mature cells are often not available in sufficient amounts or quality. Biomaterial scaffolds are developed that not only serve as cell carriers providing mechanical support, but actively influence cellular responses including cell attachment and proliferation. Chemical modifications such as the incorporation of chemotactic factors or cell adhesion molecules are examined for their ability to enhance tissue development successfully. E.g. growth factors have been investigated extensively as substances able to support cell growth, differentiation and angiogenesis. Thus, continuously new patents and studies are published, which are investigating the advantages and disadvantages of different biomaterials or cell types for the regeneration of specific tissues. This review focuses on biomaterials, including natural and synthetic polymers, ceramics and corresponding composites used as scaffold materials to support cell proliferation and differentiation for hard and soft tissues regeneration. In addition, the local delivery of drugs by scaffold biomaterials is discussed.

  10. Translating regenerative medicine techniques for the treatment of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Yasuhara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is considered a chronic neurological disorder and is accompanied by persistent and diverse disturbances in electrical brain activity. While antiepileptic pharmaceuticals are still the predominant treatment for epilepsy, the advent of numerous surgical interventions has further improved outcomes for patients. Despite these advancements, a subpopulation continues to experience intractable seizures which are resistant to current conventional and nonconventional therapeutic options. In this review, we begin with an introduction to the clinical presentation of epilepsy before discussing the clinically relevant laboratory models of epilepsy. Finally, we explore the implications of regenerative medicine – including cell therapy, neuroprotective agents, and electrical stimulation – for epilepsy, supplemented with our laboratory's data. This paper is a review article. Referred literature in this paper has been listed in the references section. The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are available online by searching various databases, including PubMed. Some original points in this article come from the laboratory practice in our research center and the authors' experiences.

  11. Regenerative agriculture: merging farming and natural resource conservation profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCanne, Claire E; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2018-01-01

    Most cropland in the United States is characterized by large monocultures, whose productivity is maintained through a strong reliance on costly tillage, external fertilizers, and pesticides (Schipanski et al., 2016). Despite this, farmers have developed a regenerative model of farm production that promotes soil health and biodiversity, while producing nutrient-dense farm products profitably. Little work has focused on the relative costs and benefits of novel regenerative farming operations, which necessitates studying in situ , farmer-defined best management practices. Here, we evaluate the relative effects of regenerative and conventional corn production systems on pest management services, soil conservation, and farmer profitability and productivity throughout the Northern Plains of the United States. Regenerative farming systems provided greater ecosystem services and profitability for farmers than an input-intensive model of corn production. Pests were 10-fold more abundant in insecticide-treated corn fields than on insecticide-free regenerative farms, indicating that farmers who proactively design pest-resilient food systems outperform farmers that react to pests chemically. Regenerative fields had 29% lower grain production but 78% higher profits over traditional corn production systems. Profit was positively correlated with the particulate organic matter of the soil, not yield. These results provide the basis for dialogue on ecologically based farming systems that could be used to simultaneously produce food while conserving our natural resource base: two factors that are pitted against one another in simplified food production systems. To attain this requires a systems-level shift on the farm; simply applying individual regenerative practices within the current production model will not likely produce the documented results.

  12. Bioconjugation of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator to magnetic nanocarriers for targeted thrombolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang HW

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hung-Wei Yang,1,* Mu-Yi Hua,1,* Kun-Ju Lin,2,* Shiaw-Pyng Wey,3 Rung-Ywan Tsai,4 Siao-Yun Wu,5 Yi-Ching Lu,5 Hao-Li Liu,6 Tony Wu,7 Yunn-Hwa Ma5 1Chang Gung Molecular Medicine Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, 2Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, 4Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsin-chu, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Healthy Aging Research Center, 6Department of Electrical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 7Department of Neurology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Low-toxicity magnetic nanocarriers (MNCs composed of a shell of poly [aniline-co-N-(1-one-butyric acid aniline] over a Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle core were developed to carry recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA in MNC-rtPA for targeted thrombolysis. With an average diameter of 14.8 nm, the MNCs exerted superparamagnetic properties. Up to 276 µg of active rtPA was immobilized per mg of MNCs, and the stability of the immobilized rtPA was greatly improved during storage at 4°C and 25°C. In vitro thrombolysis testing with a tubing system demonstrated that magnet-guided MNC-rtPA showed significantly improved thrombolysis compared with free rtPA and reduced the clot lysis time from 39.2 ± 3.2 minutes to 10.8 ± 4.2 minutes. In addition, magnet-guided MNC-rtPA at 20% of the regular rtPA dose restored blood flow within 15–25 minutes of treatment in a rat embolism model without triggering hematological toxicity. In conclusion, this improved system is based on magnetic targeting accelerated thrombolysis and is

  13. Fetal skeletal muscle progenitors have regenerative capacity after intramuscular engraftment in dystrophin deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakai

    Full Text Available Muscle satellite cells (SCs are stem cells that reside in skeletal muscles and contribute to regeneration upon muscle injury. SCs arise from skeletal muscle progenitors expressing transcription factors Pax3 and/or Pax7 during embryogenesis in mice. However, it is unclear whether these fetal progenitors possess regenerative ability when transplanted in adult muscle. Here we address this question by investigating whether fetal skeletal muscle progenitors (FMPs isolated from Pax3(GFP/+ embryos have the capacity to regenerate muscle after engraftment into Dystrophin-deficient mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The capacity of FMPs to engraft and enter the myogenic program in regenerating muscle was compared with that of SCs derived from adult Pax3(GFP/+ mice. Transplanted FMPs contributed to the reconstitution of damaged myofibers in Dystrophin-deficient mice. However, despite FMPs and SCs having similar myogenic ability in culture, the regenerative ability of FMPs was less than that of SCs in vivo. FMPs that had activated MyoD engrafted more efficiently to regenerate myofibers than MyoD-negative FMPs. Transcriptome and surface marker analyses of these cells suggest the importance of myogenic priming for the efficient myogenic engraftment. Our findings suggest the regenerative capability of FMPs in the context of muscle repair and cell therapy for degenerative muscle disease.

  14. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nogami, Makiko; Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori; Noto, Zenko; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  15. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  16. How does transcranial magnetic stimulation modify neuronal activity in the brain? Implications for studies of cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Kassuba, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) uses a magnetic field to "carry" a short lasting electrical current pulse into the brain where it stimulates neurones, particularly in superficial regions of cerebral cortex. TMS can interfere with cognitive functions in two ways. A high intensity TMS pulse...... in the human brain. This transient neurodisruption has been termed a "virtual lesion". Smaller intensities of stimulation produce less activity; in such cases, cognitive operations can probably continue but are disrupted because of the added noisy input from the TMS pulse. It is usually argued that if a TMS...... pulse affects performance, then the area stimulated must provide an essential contribution to behaviour being studied. However, there is one exception to this: the pulse could be applied to an area that is not involved in the task but which has projections to the critical site. Activation of outputs...

  17. Passive characterization and active testing of epoxy bonded regenerators for room temperature magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Navickaité, Kristina; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    -layer AMR based on spherical particles is tested actively in a small reciprocating magnetic refrigerator, achieving a no-load temperature span of 16.8 °C using about 143 g of epoxy-bonded La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hy materials. Simulations based on a one-dimensional (1D) AMR model are also implemented to validate......Epoxy bonded regenerators of both spherical and irregular La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hy particles have been developed aiming at increasing the mechanical strength of active magnetic regenerators (AMR) loaded with brittle magnetocaloric materials and improving the flexibility of shaping the regenerator geometry....... Although the magnetocaloric properties of these materials are well studied, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the epoxy bonded regenerators have seldom been investigated. This paper presents a test apparatus that passively characterizes regenerators using a liquid heat transfer fluid...

  18. The Stellar Imager (SI) Project: Resolving Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, K.; Karovska, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV/Optical. Space-Based Interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsec (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. The ultra-sharp images of SI will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes by transforming point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. The science of SI focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. Its prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. In this paper we discuss the science goals, technology needs, and baseline design of the SI mission.

  19. The influence of demagnetizing effects on the performance of active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Active magnetic regenerators (AMR) comprise an involved, multi-physics problem including heat transfer, fluid flow, magnetocaloric properties and demagnetizing fields. In this paper a method is developed that combines previously published models that simulate a parallel-plate AMR and the magnetos......Active magnetic regenerators (AMR) comprise an involved, multi-physics problem including heat transfer, fluid flow, magnetocaloric properties and demagnetizing fields. In this paper a method is developed that combines previously published models that simulate a parallel-plate AMR...... are varied and the results show that not only do demagnetizing effects have a significant impact on the AMR performance, but the magnitude of the effect is very sensitive to a range of parameters such as stack geometry (number of plates, dimensions of the plates and flow channels and overall dimensions...

  20. Preparation of thermosensitive magnetic liposome encapsulated recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for targeted thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hao-Lung [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping, E-mail: jpchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Health Industry and Technology, Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Tai-Shan, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML) prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, cholesterol and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles by solvent evaporation/sonication and freeze-thaw cycles method. Response surface methodology was proved to be a powerful tool to predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release. Validation experiments verified the accuracy of the model that provides a simple and effective method for fabricating TML with controllable encapsulation efficiency and predictable temperature-sensitive drug release behavior. The prepared samples were characterized for physico-chemical properties by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA could be confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. A thrombolytic drug delivery system using TML could be proposed for magnetic targeted delivery of rtPA to the site of thrombus followed by temperature-triggered controlled drug release in an alternating magnetic field. - Highlights: • rtPA and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP were encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML). • RSM could predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release from TML. • Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA was confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. • TML-rtPA will be useful as a magnetic targeted nanodrug to improve clinical thrombolytic therapy.

  1. PRODUCTIVITY OF SOLAR FLARES AND MAGNETIC HELICITY INJECTION IN ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-hong; Wang Haimin; Chae, Jongchul

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to better understand how magnetic helicity injection in an active region (AR) is related to the occurrence and intensity of solar flares. We therefore investigate the magnetic helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux, as a reference. In total, 378 ARs are analyzed using SOHO/MDI magnetograms. The 24 hr averaged helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux are compared with the flare index and the flare-productive probability in the next 24 hr following a measurement. In addition, we study the variation of helicity over a span of several days around the times of the 19 flares above M5.0 which occurred in selected strong flare-productive ARs. The major findings of this study are as follows: (1) for a sub-sample of 91 large ARs with unsigned magnetic fluxes in the range from (3-5) x 10 22 Mx, there is a difference in the magnetic helicity injection rate between flaring ARs and non-flaring ARs by a factor of 2; (2) the GOES C-flare-productive probability as a function of helicity injection displays a sharp boundary between flare-productive ARs and flare-quiet ones; (3) the history of helicity injection before all the 19 major flares displayed a common characteristic: a significant helicity accumulation of (3-45) x 10 42 Mx 2 during a phase of monotonically increasing helicity over 0.5-2 days. Our results support the notion that helicity injection is important in flares, but it is not effective to use it alone for the purpose of flare forecast. It is necessary to find a way to better characterize the time history of helicity injection as well as its spatial distribution inside ARs.

  2. A Timely Intervention: Endoscopic Retrieval of a Swallowed Magnetized Activity Watch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S. Radowsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accidental ingestion of a foreign object often presents a difficult scenario for the clinician. This includes not only the decision to retrieve the material but also the appropriate technique to use. We present the case of a young asymptomatic girl who swallowed a magnetic activity watch, which was then successfully retrieved with an endoscopic snare. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of salvaging an operational watch from the stomach using an endoscopic technique.

  3. An efficient numerical scheme for the simulation of parallel-plate active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torregrosa-Jaime, Bárbara; Corberán, José M.; Payá, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of a parallel-plate active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is presented in this work. The model is based on an efficient numerical scheme which has been developed after analysing the heat transfer mechanisms in the regenerator bed. The new finite difference scheme optimally com...... to the fully implicit scheme, the proposed scheme achieves more accurate results, prevents numerical errors and requires less computational effort. In AMR simulations the new scheme can reduce the computational time by 88%....

  4. The active filter voltage ripple correction system of the Brookhaven AGS main magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marneris, I.; Bonati, R.; Geller, J.; Sandberg, J.N.; Soukas, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, and a companion paper, describe the improvements to the Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) so that it enables a more flexible operation of the AGS, enhances its reliability, and also improves the MMPS's ultimate performance specifications. One of the major areas for the latter is the fixed target program operating off the AGS slow extracted beam lines. The active filter, by improving the MMPS output ripple, is instrumental in the improvement of the ultimate duty factor of the extraction beam spill

  5. Progress in magnetic refrigeration and future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Pryds, Nini

    2014-01-01

    Since a regenerative magnetic cooling cycle was first demonstrated in 1976, many developments have been made in the areas of system modeling, magnetocaloric materials and system design. Systems have gone from laboratory demonstrators using superconducting magnets to near commercial systems using ...

  6. LONG-TERM VARIATION IN THE SUN’S ACTIVITY CAUSED BY MAGNETIC ROSSBY WAVES IN THE TACHOCLINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz (Austria); Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hanslmeier, Arnold [Institute für Physik, Geophysik Astrophysik und Meteorologie, University of Graz, Univ.-Platz 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Carbonell, Marc [Departament de Matemàtiques i Informàtica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Gachechiladze, Tamar [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory at Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Usoskin, Ilya G., E-mail: teimuraz.zaqarashvili@oeaw.ac.at [Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory and ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulo (Finland)

    2015-06-01

    Long-term records of sunspot number and concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides (10Be and 14C) on the Earth reveal the variation of the Sun's magnetic activity over hundreds and thousands of years. We identify several clear periods in sunspot, 10Be, and 14C data as 1000, 500, 350, 200, and 100 years. We found that the periods of the first five spherical harmonics of the slow magnetic Rossby mode in the presence of a steady toroidal magnetic field of 1200–1300 G in the lower tachocline are in perfect agreement with the timescales of observed variations. The steady toroidal magnetic field can be generated in the lower tachocline either due to the steady dynamo magnetic field for low magnetic diffusivity or due to the action of the latitudinal differential rotation on the weak poloidal primordial magnetic field, which penetrates from the radiative interior. The slow magnetic Rossby waves lead to variations of the steady toroidal magnetic field in the lower tachocline, which modulate the dynamo magnetic field and consequently the solar cycle strength. This result constitutes a key point for long-term prediction of the cycle strength. According to our model, the next deep minimum in solar activity is expected during the first half of this century.

  7. LONG-TERM VARIATION IN THE SUN’S ACTIVITY CAUSED BY MAGNETIC ROSSBY WAVES IN THE TACHOCLINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Carbonell, Marc; Gachechiladze, Tamar; Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term records of sunspot number and concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides (10Be and 14C) on the Earth reveal the variation of the Sun's magnetic activity over hundreds and thousands of years. We identify several clear periods in sunspot, 10Be, and 14C data as 1000, 500, 350, 200, and 100 years. We found that the periods of the first five spherical harmonics of the slow magnetic Rossby mode in the presence of a steady toroidal magnetic field of 1200–1300 G in the lower tachocline are in perfect agreement with the timescales of observed variations. The steady toroidal magnetic field can be generated in the lower tachocline either due to the steady dynamo magnetic field for low magnetic diffusivity or due to the action of the latitudinal differential rotation on the weak poloidal primordial magnetic field, which penetrates from the radiative interior. The slow magnetic Rossby waves lead to variations of the steady toroidal magnetic field in the lower tachocline, which modulate the dynamo magnetic field and consequently the solar cycle strength. This result constitutes a key point for long-term prediction of the cycle strength. According to our model, the next deep minimum in solar activity is expected during the first half of this century

  8. Activity in Very Cool Stars: Magnetic Dissipation in Late M and L Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Basri, Gibor; Shu, Frank; Allard, France; Chabrier, Gilles

    2002-05-01

    Recent observations show that chromospheric Hα activity in late M and L dwarfs is much lower than in the earlier M types. This is particularly surprising given that the late M and L dwarfs are comparatively very rapid rotators: in the early M dwarfs, rapid rotation is associated with high activity levels. One possibility is that the drop-off in activity in the late M and L dwarfs is a result of very high electrical resistivities in their dense, cool, and predominantly neutral atmospheres.We calculate the magnetic field diffusivity in the atmospheres of objects with Teff in the range 3000-1500 K (mid M to late L) using the atmospheric structure models of Allard and Hauschildt. We find that the combination of very low ionization fraction and high density in these atmospheres results in very large resistivities and thus efficient field diffusion. While both ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic decay of currents due to ion-electron collisions occur, the primary diffusion effects are due to current decay through collisions of charged particles with neutrals. Moreover, the latter resistivity is a strong function of both effective temperature and optical depth, increasing rapidly as either Teff or optical depth decreases. This has two implications: (1) Any magnetic field present is increasingly decoupled from atmospheric fluid motions as one moves from mid M to L. In the late M and L dwarfs, atmospheric motions cannot lead to equilibrium field configurations very different from potential ones. That is, the magnitude of magnetic stresses generated by atmospheric motions is very small in these objects. We quantify this effect by a simple Reynolds number calculation. (2) Even if magnetic stresses are easily produced by fluid motions in the hot interior (where the coupling between field and matter is good), their propagation up through the atmosphere will be increasingly hampered by the growing atmospheric resistivity as one moves from mid M to late L. Thus both the generation and

  9. Online Detection of Peroxidase Using 3D Printing, Active Magnetic Mixing, and Spectra Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for online detection of peroxidase (POD using 3D printing, active magnetic mixing, fluidic control, and optical detection was developed and demonstrated in this study. The proposed POD detection system consisted of a 3D printing and active magnetic mixing based fluidic chip for online catalytic reaction, an optical detector with a fluidic flow cell for quantitative determination of the final catalysate, and a single-chip microcontroller based controller for automatic control of two rotating magnetic fields and four precise peristaltic pumps. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was used as research model and a linear relationship between the absorbance at the characteristic wavelength of 450 nm and the concentration of HRP of 1/4–1/128 μg mL−1 was obtained as A  =  0.257ln⁡(C + 1.425 (R2  = 0.976. For the HRP spiked pork tests, the recoveries of HRP ranged from 93.5% to 110.4%, indicating that this proposed system was capable of detecting HRP in real samples. It has the potential to be extended for online detection of the activity of other enzymes and integration with ELISA method for biological and chemical analysis.

  10. HER Catalytic Activity of Electrodeposited Ni-P Nanowires under the Influence of Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Bin Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel alloy electrodes both in plane and nanowire morphologies were fabricated by electrodeposition in sulfamate bath. With the increasing concentration of phosphorous acid in the electrolyte, the P content in the deposition increased accordingly. In the meantime, the grain refined and even became amorphous in microstructure as the P content was raised. For the nanowire electrode, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM measurement showed that its coercivity was anisotropic and decreased with P-content. In addition, the easy axis for magnetization of the electrode was parallel to the axial direction of nanowire. The electrocatalytic activity measurement of the electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte showed that the nanowire electrode had higher activity than the plane one, and the alloying of P in Ni electrode raised its hydrogen evolution reaction (HER performance. The enhanced performance of nanowire electrode was attributed to the smaller and more uniform hydrogen bubbles generated in HER reaction. Finally, the applied magnetic field (3.2 T improved significantly the HER activity of Ni but not Ni-P electrode. By using nanowire morphology and applying magnetic field, the current density at −0.75 V HER stability test of the Ni electrode increased fourfold more than its plane counterpart.

  11. Enhancement of Feedback Efficiency by Active Galactic Nucleus Outflows via the Magnetic Tension Force in the Inhomogeneous Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, Yuta; Ohsuga, Ken [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nomura, Mariko, E-mail: asahina@cfca.jp [Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    By performing three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of subrelativistic jets and disk winds propagating into the magnetized inhomogeneous interstellar medium (ISM), we investigate the magnetic effects on the active galactic nucleus feedback. Our simulations reveal that the magnetic tension force promotes the acceleration of the dense gas clouds, since the magnetic field lines, which are initially straight, bend around the gas clouds. In the jet models, the velocity dispersion of the clouds increases with an increase in the initial magnetic fields. The increment of the kinetic energy of the clouds is proportional to the initial magnetic fields, implying that the magnetic tension force increases the energy conversion efficiency from the jet to the gas clouds. Through simulations of the mildly collimated disk wind and the funnel-shaped disk wind, we confirm that such an enhancement of the energy conversion efficiency via the magnetic fields appears even if the energy is injected via the disk winds. The enhancement of the acceleration of the dense part of the magnetized ISM via the magnetic tension force will occur wherever the magnetized inhomogeneous matter is blown away.

  12. Enhancement of Feedback Efficiency by Active Galactic Nucleus Outflows via the Magnetic Tension Force in the Inhomogeneous Interstellar Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahina, Yuta; Ohsuga, Ken; Nomura, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    By performing three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of subrelativistic jets and disk winds propagating into the magnetized inhomogeneous interstellar medium (ISM), we investigate the magnetic effects on the active galactic nucleus feedback. Our simulations reveal that the magnetic tension force promotes the acceleration of the dense gas clouds, since the magnetic field lines, which are initially straight, bend around the gas clouds. In the jet models, the velocity dispersion of the clouds increases with an increase in the initial magnetic fields. The increment of the kinetic energy of the clouds is proportional to the initial magnetic fields, implying that the magnetic tension force increases the energy conversion efficiency from the jet to the gas clouds. Through simulations of the mildly collimated disk wind and the funnel-shaped disk wind, we confirm that such an enhancement of the energy conversion efficiency via the magnetic fields appears even if the energy is injected via the disk winds. The enhancement of the acceleration of the dense part of the magnetized ISM via the magnetic tension force will occur wherever the magnetized inhomogeneous matter is blown away.

  13. The dissolution kinetics of magnetite under regenerative conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dissolution studies of magnetite were carried out under regenerative conditions in dilute chemical decontamination formulations. During regeneration of the formulation, the H + from the strong acid cation exchange resin gets released and the metal is absorbed on the resin. The efficiency of the regenerative process depends on the stability constants of the complexes involved and the selectivity on the ion exchange column. The regenerative condition helps to maintain a constant chelating agent concentration and pH during the dissolution experiment. Such a condition is ideal for obtaining data on the dissolution behaviour of the corrosion products with special application to actual reactor decontamination. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) based formulation used was found to be ineffective due to the high stability constant of Fe(III)-EDTA complex, which is not easily cleaved by the cation exchange resin. Hence, knowledge of the kinetics of magnetite dissolution under regenerative condition is of primary importance. The 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid formulation is found to be better for the dissolution of Fe 3 O 4 in both static and regenerative modes in the presence of reductants than nitrilotriacetic acid and EDTA. (orig.)

  14. The dissolution kinetics of magnetite under regenerative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S. [New Brunswick Univ., Frederiction (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Raghavan, P.S.; Gopalan, R.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V. [Water and Steam Chemistry Lab. of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) (India)

    2004-07-01

    Dissolution studies of magnetite were carried out under regenerative conditions in dilute chemical decontamination formulations. During regeneration of the formulation, the H{sup +} from the strong acid cation exchange resin gets released and the metal is absorbed on the resin. The efficiency of the regenerative process depends on the stability constants of the complexes involved and the selectivity on the ion exchange column. The regenerative condition helps to maintain a constant chelating agent concentration and pH during the dissolution experiment. Such a condition is ideal for obtaining data on the dissolution behaviour of the corrosion products with special application to actual reactor decontamination. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) based formulation used was found to be ineffective due to the high stability constant of Fe(III)-EDTA complex, which is not easily cleaved by the cation exchange resin. Hence, knowledge of the kinetics of magnetite dissolution under regenerative condition is of primary importance. The 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid formulation is found to be better for the dissolution of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in both static and regenerative modes in the presence of reductants than nitrilotriacetic acid and EDTA. (orig.)

  15. Erich Regener and the ionisation maximum of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P.; Watson, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the 1930s the German physicist Erich Regener (1881-1955) did important work on the measurement of the rate of production of ionisation deep under water and in the atmosphere. Along with one of his students, Georg Pfotzer, he discovered the altitude at which the production of ionisation in the atmosphere reaches a maximum, often, but misleadingly, called the Pfotzer maximum. Regener was one of the first to estimate the energy density of cosmic rays, an estimate that was used by Baade and Zwicky to bolster their postulate that supernovae might be their source. Yet Regener's name is less recognised by present-day cosmic ray physicists than it should be, largely because in 1937 he was forced to take early retirement by the National Socialists as his wife had Jewish ancestors. In this paper we briefly review his work on cosmic rays and recommend an alternative naming of the ionisation maximum. The influence that Regener had on the field through his son, his son-in-law, his grandsons and his students, and through his links with Rutherford's group in Cambridge, is discussed in an appendix. Regener was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physics by Schrödinger in 1938. He died in 1955 at the age of 73.

  16. Repairing quite swimmingly: advances in regenerative medicine using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessling, Wolfram; North, Trista E

    2014-07-01

    Regenerative medicine has the promise to alleviate morbidity and mortality caused by organ dysfunction, longstanding injury and trauma. Although regenerative approaches for a few diseases have been highly successful, some organs either do not regenerate well or have no current treatment approach to harness their intrinsic regenerative potential. In this Review, we describe the modeling of human disease and tissue repair in zebrafish, through the discovery of disease-causing genes using classical forward-genetic screens and by modulating clinically relevant phenotypes through chemical genetic screening approaches. Furthermore, we present an overview of those organ systems that regenerate well in zebrafish in contrast to mammalian tissue, as well as those organs in which the regenerative potential is conserved from fish to mammals, enabling drug discovery in preclinical disease-relevant models. We provide two examples from our own work in which the clinical translation of zebrafish findings is either imminent or has already proven successful. The promising results in multiple organs suggest that further insight into regenerative mechanisms and novel clinically relevant therapeutic approaches will emerge from zebrafish research in the future. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Song

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from experiencing wheel lock and slip phenomena during braking. Then, a fuzzy RBS using the driver’s braking force command, vehicle speed, battery SOC, battery temperature are designed to determine the distribution between friction braking force and regenerative braking force to improve the energy recuperation efficiency. The experimental results on an “LF620” prototype EV validated the feasibility and effectiveness of regenerative braking and showed that the proposed fuzzy RBS was endowed with good control performance. The maximum driving range of LF620 EV was improved by 25.7% compared with non-RBS conditions.

  18. Evaluation strategy of regenerative braking energy for supercapacitor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhongyue; Cao, Junyi; Cao, Binggang; Chen, Wen

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of energy conversion and increase the driving range of electric vehicles, the regenerative energy captured during braking process is stored in the energy storage devices and then will be re-used. Due to the high power density of supercapacitors, they are employed to withstand high current in the short time and essentially capture more regenerative energy. The measuring methods for regenerative energy should be investigated to estimate the energy conversion efficiency and performance of electric vehicles. Based on the analysis of the regenerative braking energy system of a supercapacitor vehicle, an evaluation system for energy recovery in the braking process is established using USB portable data-acquisition devices. Experiments under various braking conditions are carried out. The results verify the higher efficiency of energy regeneration system using supercapacitors and the effectiveness of the proposed measurement method. It is also demonstrated that the maximum regenerative energy conversion efficiency can reach to 88%. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interrogating the activities of conformational deformed enzyme by single-molecule fluorescence-magnetic tweezers microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; He, Yufan; Lu, H. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the impact of fluctuating enzyme conformation on enzymatic activity is critical in understanding the structure–function relationship and enzymatic reaction dynamics. Different from studying enzyme conformations under a denaturing condition, it is highly informative to manipulate the conformation of an enzyme under an enzymatic reaction condition while monitoring the real-time enzymatic activity changes simultaneously. By perturbing conformation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) molecules using our home-developed single-molecule total internal reflection magnetic tweezers, we successfully manipulated the enzymatic conformation and probed the enzymatic activity changes of HRP in a catalyzed H2O2–amplex red reaction. We also observed a significant tolerance of the enzyme activity to the enzyme conformational perturbation. Our results provide a further understanding of the relation between enzyme behavior and enzymatic conformational fluctuation, enzyme–substrate interactions, enzyme–substrate active complex formation, and protein folding–binding interactions. PMID:26512103

  20. Active galaxies. A strong magnetic field in the jet base of a supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Muller, Sébastien; Vlemmings, Wouter; Horellou, Cathy; Aalto, Susanne

    2015-04-17

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) host some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe. AGN are thought to be powered by accretion of matter onto a rotating disk that surrounds a supermassive black hole. Jet streams can be boosted in energy near the event horizon of the black hole and then flow outward along the rotation axis of the disk. The mechanism that forms such a jet and guides it over scales from a few light-days up to millions of light-years remains uncertain, but magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have detected a polarization signal (Faraday rotation) related to the strong magnetic field at the jet base of a distant AGN, PKS 1830-211. The amount of Faraday rotation (rotation measure) is proportional to the integral of the magnetic field strength along the line of sight times the density of electrons. The high rotation measures derived suggest magnetic fields of at least tens of Gauss (and possibly considerably higher) on scales of the order of light-days (0.01 parsec) from the black hole. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Wooden Magnetic Activated Carbon Fibers with Hierarchical Pore Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongna Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wooden magnetic activated carbon fibers (WMACFs with hierarchical pore structures were obtained by adding magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles into the liquefied wood. The structures and properties of WMACFs were analyzed by scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, N2 adsorption, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The results showed that WMACFs had high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area (1578 m2/g and total pore volume (0.929 cm3/g, of which 45% was the contribution of small mesopores of 2–3 nm. It is believed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles play an important role in the formation of hierarchical pores. With the Fe3O4 content increasing, the yield rate of WMACFs decreased, and the Fe3O4 crystal plane diffraction peaks and characteristic adsorption peaks were obviously observed. At the same time, it was also found that WMACFs had favorable magnetic properties when the Fe3O4 content was above 1.5%. As a result, WMACFs could be a promising candidate for high efficiency, low cost, and convenient separation for the magnetic field.

  2. Magnetic Properties of Solar Active Regions that Govern Large Solar Flares and Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Shin; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Harra, Louise; Hudson, Hugh S.; Nagashima, Kaori

    2017-08-01

    Strong flares and CMEs are often produced from active regions (ARs). In order to better understand the magnetic properties and evolutions of such ARs, we conducted statistical investigations on the SDO/HMI and AIA data of all flare events with GOES levels >M5.0 within 45 deg from the disk center for 6 years from May 2010 (from the beginning to the declining phase of solar cycle 24). Out of the total of 51 flares from 29 ARs, more than 80% have delta-sunspots and about 15% violate Hale’s polarity rule. We obtained several key findings including (1) the flare duration is linearly proportional to the separation of the flare ribbons (i.e., scale of reconnecting magnetic fields) and (2) CME-eruptive events have smaller sunspot areas. Depending on the magnetic properties, flaring ARs can be categorized into several groups, such as spot-spot, in which a highly-sheared polarity inversion line is formed between two large sunspots, and spot-satellite, where a newly-emerging flux next to a mature sunspot triggers a compact flare event. These results point to the possibility that magnetic structures of the ARs determine the characteristics of flares and CMEs. In the presentation, we will also show new results from the systematic flux emergence simulations of delta-sunspot formation and discuss the evolution processes of flaring ARs.

  3. The effect of stress on magnetic Barkhausen activity in ferromagnetic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiles, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of measurements of the effect of uniaxial tensile stresses of up to 85 MPa on Barkhausen activity and magnetic properties of AISI 4130 and AISI 4140 steels. The results showed that the location of maximum Barkhausen activity was very close to the coercive point. Barkhausen peak height and the total number of pulses were affected by the stress, although there was considerable scatter in some of the results so that it was not clear how the peak height of the AISI 4130 varied with stress

  4. The Relation Between Magnetic Fields and X-ray Emission for Solar Microflares and Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the result of a comparison between magnetic field parameters and the intensity of X-ray emission for solar microflares with Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) classes from A0.02 to B5.1. For our study, we used the monochromatic MgXII Imaging Spectroheliometer (MISH), the Full-disk EUV Telescope (FET), and the Solar PHotometer in X-rays (SphinX) instruments onboard the Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun-Photon CORONAS- Photon spacecraft because of their high sensitivity in soft X-rays. The peak flare flux (PFF) for solar microflares was found to depend on the strength of the magnetic field and on the total unsigned magnetic flux as a power-law function. In the spectral range 2.8 - 36.6 Å, which shows very little increase related to microflares, the power-law index of the relation between the X-ray flux and magnetic flux for active regions is 1.48 ±0.86, which is close to the value obtained previously by Pevtsov et al. ( Astrophys. J. 598, 1387, 2003) for different types of solar and stellar objects. In the spectral range 1 - 8 Å, the power-law indices for PFF(B) and PFF(Φ) for microflares are 3.87 ±2.16 and 3 ±1.6, respectively. We also make suggestions on the heating mechanisms in active regions and microflares under the assumption of loops with constant pressure and heating using the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling laws.

  5. Creating a Magnetic Imaging System for Diagnosing Infant Brain Activity Based on NI PXI and LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G. Atwood

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing a noninvasive magnetic imaging system to spatially and temporally map the magnetic fields generated by brain activity in infants at severe risk of developing cerebral palsy and epilepsy, so that medical doctors can intervene at an early stage.

  6. Relevance of southward magnetic fields in the neutral sheet to anisotropic distribution of energetic electrons and substorm activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, A.T.Y.; Meng, C.

    1979-01-01

    The implications of southward magnetic fields at the magnetotail neutral sheet to the development of streaming anisotropy of energetic electrons and magnetospheric substorm activity are examined. Magnetic field and energetic particle measurements from the Imp 6 spacecraft, the AE index, and global auroral images from DMSP spacecraft are utilized in this study. Criteria are developed to identify events of southward magnetic fields at the neutral sheet which imply the presence of X-type magnetic neutral lines. Several features of the observations suggest that the southward magnetic fields and the implied X-type neutral lines are associated with magnetic bubbles in the neutral sheet region. It is found that the signatures of magnetic bubbles are sometimes detected in association with tailward streaming and flux enhancement of energetic electrons (47 keV< E<350keV). A cigar-shaped anisotropy in the energetic electron distribution is frequently but not always observed before the onset of tailward streaming of energetic electrons. The tailward streaming is magnetic field-aligned and occurs in the form of bursts, suggestic electrons. The tailward streaming is magnetic field-aligned and occurs in the form of bursts, suggesting that the generating process is activated somewhat quasi-periodically and is not in a steady state. Signatures of magnetic bubbles are also detected without any substantial enhancement or detectable tailward streaming of energetic electrons. By comparing Imp 6 observations with the AW index and global auroral images from DMSP spacecraft. It is found that signatures of magnetic bubbles in the neutral sheet are observed during substorms as well as during quiet geomagnetic conditions, indicating that magnetic bubbles are intrinsic features of the neutral sheet in the magnetotail regardless of substorm activity

  7. Magnetic nanoparticle imaging by random and maximum length sequences of inhomogeneous activation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Daniel; Eichardt, Roland; Crevecoeur, Guillaume; Supriyanto, Eko; Haueisen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles require a precise knowledge of their biodistribution. From multi-channel magnetorelaxometry measurements, this distribution can be determined by means of inverse methods. It was recently shown that the combination of sequential inhomogeneous excitation fields in these measurements is favorable regarding the reconstruction accuracy when compared to homogeneous activation . In this paper, approaches for the determination of activation sequences for these measurements are investigated. Therefor, consecutive activation of single coils, random activation patterns and families of m-sequences are examined in computer simulations involving a sample measurement setup and compared with respect to the relative condition number of the system matrix. We obtain that the values of this condition number decrease with larger number of measurement samples for all approaches. Random sequences and m-sequences reveal similar results with a significant reduction of the required number of samples. We conclude that the application of pseudo-random sequences for sequential activation in the magnetorelaxometry imaging of magnetic nanoparticles considerably reduces the number of required sequences while preserving the relevant measurement information.

  8. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  9. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1995-09-12

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 10 figs.

  10. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; Natasha, G; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. PMID:26422652

  11. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; G, Natasha; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  12. Regenerative strategies for the treatment of knee joint disabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Rui

    2017-01-01

    This book presents regenerative strategies for the treatment of knee joint disabilities. The book is composed of four main sections totaling 19 chapters which review the current knowledge on the clinical management and preclinical regenerative strategies. It examines the role of different natural-based biomaterials as scaffolds and implants for addressing different tissue lesions in the knee joint. Section one provides an updated and comprehensive discussion on articular cartilage tissue regeneration. Section two focuses on the important contributions for bone and osteochondral tissue engineering. Section three overview the recent advances on meniscus repair/regeneration strategies. Finally, section four further discusses the current strategies for treatment of ligament lesions. Each chapter is prepared by world know expert on their fields, so we do firmly believe that the proposed book will be a reference in the area of biomaterials for regenerative medicine.

  13. Accelerating regenerative medicine: the Japanese experiment in ethics and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Tamra

    2017-09-01

    In 2014, the Japanese National Diet introduced new laws aimed at promoting the clinical translation of stem cells and regenerative medicine. The basic action of these laws is to allow the early introduction of regenerative medicine products into the Japanese market through an accelerated approval process, while providing patients with access to certain types of stem cell and cell-based therapies in the context of private clinical practice. While this framework appears to offer enormous opportunities for the translation of stem cell science, it raises ethical challenges that have not yet been fully explored. This paper critically analyzes this framework with respect to the prioritization of safety over clinical benefit, distributive justice and public trust in science and medicine. It is argued that the framework unfairly burdens patients and strained healthcare systems without any clear benefits, and may undermine the credibility of the regenerative medicine field as it emerges.

  14. Platelet concentrates: Bioengineering dentistry′s regenerative dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Naag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in the fields of medicine and allied sciences had given much needed momentum into the field of molecular biology and regenerative medicine. They indeed provided a boost to innovate new yields for both hard tissue and soft tissue regeneration in dentistry. One among them is the use of platelet concentrates (platelet rich plasma [PRP], platelet rich fibrin [PRF]. Autologous concentrate of blood platelets with a suspension of growth factors offers an enhanced healing of hard and soft tissues. It is an auxiliary benefit for an operator to be aware of platelet concentrates and its healing properties for delivering unsurpassed oral health care to patients. The current article outlines the principles, objectives and clinical insight to the regenerative potential of platelet concentrates in various fields of dentistry. The search words of the PubMed data base were PRF and other permutations of keywords such as "PRP dentistry", PRF dentistry, PRF regenerative dentistry.

  15. The Ovonic regenerative fuel cell, a fundamentally new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovshinsky, S.R.; Venkatesan, S.; Corrigan, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Ovonic Regenerative Fuel Cell utilizes Ovonic metal hydride materials in place of traditional noble metal catalysts in the hydrogen fuel electrode. This provides unique features including the ability to capture and utilize regenerative braking energy at high efficiency and the ability to operate for a significant period upon interruption of the hydrogen fuel supply. Additionally, this novel fuel cell does not use high price components, such as platinum catalysts, microporous membranes, and graphite bipolar plates, used in PEM fuel cells. Proof of concept has been demonstrated in full-size multicell prototypes delivering about 100 W power. The Ovonic Regenerative Fuel Cell is yet another component of ECD Ovonic technology contributing to the emerging hydrogen economy which already includes Uni-Solar PV solar cells, Ovonic solid-state hydrogen storage devices, and Ovonic nickel-metal hydride batteries from Cobasys, a joint venture between ECD Ovonics and ChevronTexaco. (author)

  16. Regenerative medicine: looking backward 10 years further on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has seen considerable changes in the Regenerative Medicine industry, but unfortunately the hope for numerous treatments that 'replace or regenerate human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function' has not yet emerged. In contrast to this, there have been major advances in the field of cellular immunotherapy though some do not consider these to be Regenerative Medicines. Regulatory changes have in some cases improved the route to a marketing license but they have not been matched by clarification of the complex, national reimbursement processes for cell-based treatments and this has adversely affected a number of leading Regenerative Medicine Companies. The review considers the direction that the industry may go in the future in relation to scientific, manufacturing and clinical strategies which may improve the rate of success of new therapies..

  17. Magnetic field topology of the cool, active, short-period binary system σ2 Coronae Borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Alecian, E.; Neiner, C.; Morin, J.; Wade, G. A.; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to study the cool, active binary star σ2 CrB, focussing on its magnetic field. The two F9-G0 components of this system are tidally locked and in a close orbit, increasing the chance of interaction between their magnetospheres. Methods: We used Stokes IV data from the twin spectropolarimeters Narval at the TBL and ESPaDOnS at the CFHT. The least-squares deconvolution multi-line technique was used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We then applied a new binary Zeeman-Doppler imaging code to reconstruct simultaneously the magnetic topology and brightness distribution of both components of σ2 CrB. This analysis was carried out for two observational epochs in 2014 and 2017. Results: A previously unconfirmed magnetic field of the primary star has been securely detected. At the same time, the polarisation signatures of the secondary appear to have a systematically larger amplitude than that of the primary. This corresponds to a stronger magnetic field, for which the magnetic energy of the secondary exceeds that of the primary by a factor of 3.3-5.7. While the magnetic energy is similar for the secondary star in the two epochs, the magnetic energy is about twice as high in 2017 for the primary. The magnetic field topology of the two stars in the earlier epoch (2014) is very different. The fractions of energy in the dipole and quadrupole components of the secondary are similar and thereafter decrease with increasing harmonic angular degree ℓ. At the same time, for the primary the fraction of energy in the dipole component is low and the maximum energy contribution comes from ℓ = 4. However, in the 2017 epoch both stars have similar field topologies and a systematically decreasing energy with increasing ℓ. In the earlier epoch, the magnetic field at the visible pole appears to be of opposite polarity for the primary and secondary, suggesting linked magnetospheres. The apparent rotational periods of both σ2 Cr

  18. The Use of Activated Alumina and Magnetic Field for the Removal Heavy Metals from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szatyłowicz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the granular activated alumina (AA sorption properties, during the process of removing copper, lead and cadmium from water, and to monitor the impact of magnetic field (MF on the effectiveness of removing copper, lead and cadmium from water. Activated alumina adsorption is known to be an effective and inexpensive technology for the removal of selenium and arsenic from water and was suggested by EPA as a BAT for point-of-use applications. The removal of copper, lead and cadmium from water using AA and impact of magnetic field was less reported. Pilot tests showed that the use of AA sorption materials with MF impact could possibly decrease the copper, lead and cadmium content in the model water. The MF had also a positive effect on the efficiency of removal copper, lead and cadmium on AA. Increasing the efficiency of heavy metals removal in the samples had been exposed magnetic field varied from 1.9% to 8.2% compared to the control samples.

  19. Geometric coupling effects on the bifurcations of a flexible rotor response in active magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inayat-Hussain, Jawaid I.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on a numerical investigation on the bifurcations of a flexible rotor response in active magnetic bearings taking into account the nonlinearity due to the geometric coupling of the magnetic actuators as well as that arising from the actuator forces that are nonlinear function of the coil current and the air gap. For the values of design and operating parameters of the rotor-bearing system investigated in this work, numerical results showed that the response of the rotor was always synchronous when the values of the geometric coupling parameter α were small. For relatively larger values of α, however, the response of the rotor displayed a rich variety of nonlinear dynamical phenomena including sub-synchronous vibrations of periods-2, -3, -6, -9, and -17, quasi-periodicity and chaos. Numerical results further revealed the co-existence of multiple attractors within certain ranges of the speed parameter Ω. In practical rotating machinery supported by active magnetic bearings, the possibility of synchronous rotor response to become non-synchronous or even chaotic cannot be ignored as preloads, fluid forces or other external excitation forces may cause the rotor's initial conditions to move from one basin of attraction to another. Non-synchronous and chaotic vibrations should be avoided as they induce fluctuating stresses that may lead to premature failure of the machinery's main components.

  20. TIME EVOLUTION OF CORONAL MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE FLARING ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Jing, Ju; Wang Haimin; Chae, Jongchul; Tan, Changyi

    2010-01-01

    To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the coronal relative magnetic helicity in the flaring active region (AR) NOAA 10930 during the time period of December 8-14. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free magnetic fields reconstructed by the weighted optimization method of Wiegelmann, and is compared with the amount of helicity injected through the photospheric surface of the AR. The helicity injection is determined from the magnetic helicity flux density proposed by Pariat et al. using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. The major findings of this study are the following. (1) The time profile of the coronal helicity shows a good correlation with that of the helicity accumulation by injection through the surface. (2) The coronal helicity of the AR is estimated to be -4.3 x 10 43 Mx 2 just before the X3.4 flare. (3) This flare is preceded not only by a large increase of negative helicity, -3.2 x 10 43 Mx 2 , in the corona over ∼1.5 days but also by noticeable injections of positive helicity through the photospheric surface around the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line during the time period of the channel structure development. We conjecture that the occurrence of the X3.4 flare is involved with the positive helicity injection into an existing system of negative helicity.

  1. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formisano, E; Pepino, A; Bracale, M [Department of Electronic Engineering, Biomedical Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Salle, F [Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Radiologucal Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Lanfermann, H; Zanella, F E [Department of Neuroradiology, J.W. Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt/M. (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors) 17 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Cédric; Braun, Jürgen; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2007-01-01

    = 10) and selected to cover a wide range of activity at baseline and change in activity, were presented electronically in a partial latin-square design to 9 experienced readers from different countries (Europe, Canada). Readers scored each set of MRI 3 times, using 3 different methods including...... the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per vertebral unit in 23 units]; the Berlin modification of the ASspiMRI-a; and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring system, which scores the 6 vertebral units considered......) assessed by Z-scores was good and comparable among methods. CONCLUSION: This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of multiple-reader MRI scoring exercises for method comparison, provides evidence for the feasibility, reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory capacity of all 3 tested scoring...

  3. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formisano, E.; Pepino, A.; Bracale, M.; Di Salle, F.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors)

  4. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Cédric; Braun, Jürgen; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2007-01-01

    ability was assessed using Z-scores (Mann-Whitney test) comparing change in score between patients treated with TNF-blocking drug and placebo. RESULTS: The mean time to score one set of MRI was shortest for the Berlin method. SDC was lowest for the Berlin method and highest for SPARCC. Overall inter...... of 3 different scoring methods for MRI activity and change in activity of the spine in patients with AS. METHODS: Thirty sets of spinal MRI at baseline and after 24 weeks of followup, derived from a randomized clinical trial comparing a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking drug (n = 20) with placebo (n...... the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per vertebral unit in 23 units]; the Berlin modification of the ASspiMRI-a; and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring system, which scores the 6 vertebral units considered...

  5. Active Magnetic Bearings Stiffness and Damping Identification from Frequency Characteristics of Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the stiffness and damping identification for active magnetic bearings (AMBs are still in the stage of theoretical analysis. The theoretical analysis indicates that if the mechanical structure and system parameters are determined, AMBs stiffness and damping are only related to frequency characteristic of control system, ignoring operating condition. More importantly, few verification methods are proposed. Considering the shortcomings of the theoretical identification, this paper obtains these coefficients from the experiment by using the magnetic bearing as a sine exciter. The identification results show that AMBs stiffness and damping have a great relationship with the control system and rotating speed. Specifically, at low rotating speed, the stiffness and damping can be obtained from the rotor static suspension by adding the same excitation frequency. However, at high speed, different from the static suspension situation, the AMBs supporting coefficients are not only related to the frequency characteristics of control system, but also related to the system operating conditions.

  6. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance and Thermal Activation Spectroscopy Study of Organic Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Hwan Kim

    2003-01-01

    Organic electronic materials are a new class of emerging materials. Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are the most promising candidates for future flat panel display technologies. The photophysical characterization is the basic research step one must follow to understand this new class of materials and devices. The light emission properties are closely related to the transport properties of these materials. The objective of this dissertation is to probe the relation between transport and photophysical properties of organic semiconductors. The transport characteristics were evaluated by using thermally stimulated current and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques. The photoluminescence detected magnetic resonance and photoluminescence quantum yield studies provide valuable photophysical information on this class of materials. OLEDs are already in the market. However, detailed studies on the degradation mechanisms are still lacking. Since both optically detected magnetic resonance and thermal activation spectroscopy probe long-lived defect-related states in organic semiconductors, the combined study generates new insight on the OLED operation and degradation mechanisms

  7. D.C. side active filter for high stability accelerator magnet power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Yash Pal; Thakurta, A.C.; Kotaiah, S.

    2006-01-01

    Accelerator d.c, magnets have to produce a highly stable magnetic field which in turn needs highly stable d.c. current sources to energise them. Indus-II Q4 and Q5 power supplies are SCR based power supplies wherein the rectified voltage is fed to a passive filter to reduce the ripple voltage. The output of the passive filter still contains some ripple particularly on the low frequency side. The design and the test results of an active filter module have been discussed wherein the low frequency attenuation can be very effectively taken care of by allowing this to be absorbed in a coupling transformer put after the passive filter. Considerable size reduction has been achieved by using switching techniques. Low frequency attenuation has been made quite a simple task. This filter also helps in handling transients from input. (author)

  8. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance and Thermal Activation Spectroscopy Study of Organic Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Hwan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Organic electronic materials are a new class of emerging materials. Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are the most promising candidates for future flat panel display technologies. The photophysical characterization is the basic research step one must follow to understand this new class of materials and devices. The light emission properties are closely related to the transport properties of these materials. The objective of this dissertation is to probe the relation between transport and photophysical properties of organic semiconductors. The transport characteristics were evaluated by using thermally stimulated current and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques. The photoluminescence detected magnetic resonance and photoluminescence quantum yield studies provide valuable photophysical information on this class of materials. OLEDs are already in the market. However, detailed studies on the degradation mechanisms are still lacking. Since both optically detected magnetic resonance and thermal activation spectroscopy probe long-lived defect-related states in organic semiconductors, the combined study generates new insight on the OLED operation and degradation mechanisms.

  9. Improved Performance of Magnetic Cross-Linked Lipase Aggregates by Interfacial Activation: A Robust and Magnetically Recyclable Biocatalyst for Transesterification of Jatropha Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are the most widely employed enzymes in commercial industries. The catalytic mechanism of most lipases involves a step called “interfacial activation”. As interfacial activation can lead to a significant increase in catalytic activity, it is of profound importance in developing lipase immobilization methods. To obtain a potential biocatalyst for industrial biodiesel production, an effective strategy for enhancement of catalytic activity and stability of immobilized lipase was developed. This was performed through the combination of interfacial activation with hybrid magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates. This biocatalyst was investigated for the immobilization of lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML. Under the optimal conditions, the activity recovery of the surfactant-activated magnetic RML cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs was as high as 2058%, with a 20-fold improvement over the free RML. Moreover, the immobilized RML showed excellent catalytic performance for the biodiesel reaction at a yield of 93%, and more importantly, could be easily separated from the reaction mixture by simple magnetic decantation, and retained more than 84% of its initial activities after five instances of reuse. This study provides a new and versatile approach for designing and fabricating immobilized lipase with high activation and stability.

  10. Regenerative endodontics and tissue engineering: what the future holds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E; Kinaia, Bassam Michael; Kinaia, Atheel M; Chogle, Sami M A

    2012-07-01

    The work performed by researchers in regenerative endodontics and tissue engineering over the last decades has been superb; however, many questions remain to be answered. The basic biologic mechanisms must be elucidated that will allow the development of dental pulp and dentin in situ. Stress must be placed on the many questions that will lead to the design of effective, safe treatment options and therapies. This article discusses those questions, the answers to which may become the future of regenerative endodontics. The future remains bright, but proper support and patience are required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance enhancement of a solar still using cotton regenerative medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalai Gopal Sakthivel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of a single slope solar still using cotton cloth regenerative medium. The performance was evaluated under the metrological conditions of Chennai city in India during the summer months of 2016. Two single-slope solar stills are fabricated with an effective area of 0.5 m2 with various thicknesses (2, 4, 6, and 8 mm of cotton cloth were used for the performance comparison. The results showed, the solar still with 6 mm thick cotton assisted regenerative solar still has about 28% improved productivity when compared to conventional solar still.

  12. Formation of a double-decker magnetic flux rope in the sigmoidal solar active region 11520

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Zhang, J.; Guo, Y. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, X. D. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Wang, Y. M. [School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Kliem, B. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Deng, Y. Y., E-mail: xincheng@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-07-10

    In this paper, we address the formation of a magnetic flux rope (MFR) that erupted on 2012 July 12 and caused a strong geomagnetic storm event on July 15. Through analyzing the long-term evolution of the associated active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, it is found that the twisted field of an MFR, indicated by a continuous S-shaped sigmoid, is built up from two groups of sheared arcades near the main polarity inversion line a half day before the eruption. The temperature within the twisted field and sheared arcades is higher than that of the ambient volume, suggesting that magnetic reconnection most likely works there. The driver behind the reconnection is attributed to shearing and converging motions at magnetic footpoints with velocities in the range of 0.1-0.6 km s{sup –1}. The rotation of the preceding sunspot also contributes to the MFR buildup. Extrapolated three-dimensional non-linear force-free field structures further reveal the locations of the reconnection to be in a bald-patch region and in a hyperbolic flux tube. About 2 hr before the eruption, indications of a second MFR in the form of an S-shaped hot channel are seen. It lies above the original MFR that continuously exists and includes a filament. The whole structure thus makes up a stable double-decker MFR system for hours prior to the eruption. Eventually, after entering the domain of instability, the high-lying MFR impulsively erupts to generate a fast coronal mass ejection and X-class flare; while the low-lying MFR remains behind and continuously maintains the sigmoidicity of the active region.

  13. Filament Activation in Response to Magnetic Flux Emergence and Cancellation in Filament Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of two filaments that showed a quite different activation in response to the flux emergence within the filament channels. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) were made to analyze the two filaments on 2013 August 17 - 20 (SOL2013-08-17) and September 29 (SOL2013-09-29). The first event showed that the main body of the filament was separated into two parts when an active region (AR) emerged with a maximum magnetic flux of about 6.4×1021 Mx underlying the filament. The close neighborhood and common direction of the bright threads in the filament and the open AR fan loops suggest a similar magnetic connectivity of these two flux systems. The equilibrium of the filament was not destroyed three days after the start of the emergence of the AR. To our knowledge, similar observations have never been reported before. In the second event, the emerging flux occurred nearby a barb of the filament with a maximum magnetic flux of 4.2×1020 Mx, about one order of magnitude lower than that of the first event. Two patches of parasitic polarity in the vicinity of the barb merged, then cancelled with nearby network fields. About 20 hours after the onset of the emergence, the filament erupted. Our findings imply that the location of emerging flux within the filament channel is probably crucial to filament evolution. If the flux emergence appears nearby the barbs, it is highly likely that the emerging flux and the filament magnetic fields will cancel, which may lead to the eruption of the filament. The comparison of the two events shows that the emergence of a small AR may still not be enough to disrupt the stability of a filament system, and the actual eruption only occurs after the flux cancellation sets in.

  14. CALCULATING SEPARATE MAGNETIC FREE ENERGY ESTIMATES FOR ACTIVE REGIONS PRODUCING MULTIPLE FLARES: NOAA AR11158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana; Millhouse, Margaret [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and storing magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C-class, two M-class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on 2011 February 12. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we propose a minimization algorithm for estimating the amount of reconnected flux and resulting drop in magnetic free energy during a flare. For the M6.6, M2.2, and X2.2 flares, we find a flux exchange of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, and 21.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, respectively, resulting in free energy drops of 3.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, and 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg.

  15. Observations of photospheric magnetic fields and shear flows in flaring active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Frank, Z.; Title, A.; Topka, K.

    1988-01-01

    Horizontal flows in the photosphere and subsurface convection zone move the footpoints of coronal magnetic field lines. Magnetic energy to power flares can be stored in the corona if the flows drive the fields far from the potential configuration. Videodisk movies were shown with 0.5 to 1 arcsecond resolution of the following simultaneous observations: green continuum, longitudinal magnetogram, Fe I 5576 A line center (mid-photosphere), H alpha wings, and H alpha line center. The movies show a 90 x 90 arcsecond field of view of an active region at S29, W11. When viewed at speeds of a few thousand times real-time, the photospheric movies clearly show the active region fields being distorted by a remarkable combination of systematic flows and small eruptions of new flux. Magnetic bipoles are emerging over a large area, and the polarities are systematically flowing apart. The horizontal flows were mapped in detail from the continuum movies, and these may be used to predict the future evolution of the region. The horizontal flows are not discernable in H alpha. The H alpha movies strongly suggest reconnection processes in the fibrils joining opposite polarities. When viewed in combination with the magnetic movies, the cause for this evolution is apparent: opposite polarity fields collide and partially cancel, and the fibrils reconnect above the surface. This type of reconnection, driven by subphotospheric flows, complicates the chromospheric and coronal fields, causing visible braiding and twisting of the fibrils. Some of the transient emission events in the fibrils and adjacent plage may also be related

  16. Formation of a double-decker magnetic flux rope in the sigmoidal solar active region 11520

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Zhang, J.; Guo, Y.; Sun, X. D.; Wang, Y. M.; Kliem, B.; Deng, Y. Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the formation of a magnetic flux rope (MFR) that erupted on 2012 July 12 and caused a strong geomagnetic storm event on July 15. Through analyzing the long-term evolution of the associated active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, it is found that the twisted field of an MFR, indicated by a continuous S-shaped sigmoid, is built up from two groups of sheared arcades near the main polarity inversion line a half day before the eruption. The temperature within the twisted field and sheared arcades is higher than that of the ambient volume, suggesting that magnetic reconnection most likely works there. The driver behind the reconnection is attributed to shearing and converging motions at magnetic footpoints with velocities in the range of 0.1-0.6 km s –1 . The rotation of the preceding sunspot also contributes to the MFR buildup. Extrapolated three-dimensional non-linear force-free field structures further reveal the locations of the reconnection to be in a bald-patch region and in a hyperbolic flux tube. About 2 hr before the eruption, indications of a second MFR in the form of an S-shaped hot channel are seen. It lies above the original MFR that continuously exists and includes a filament. The whole structure thus makes up a stable double-decker MFR system for hours prior to the eruption. Eventually, after entering the domain of instability, the high-lying MFR impulsively erupts to generate a fast coronal mass ejection and X-class flare; while the low-lying MFR remains behind and continuously maintains the sigmoidicity of the active region.

  17. Smart Dressings Based on Nanostructured Fibers Containing Natural Origin Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Regenerative Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Andreu

    2015-08-01

    the beneficial or inert effects of those natural origin occurring materials, the scientific community leads towards the identification of the main active components involved and their mechanism of action during the corresponding healing, antimicrobial, or regenerative processes and in carrying out systematic and comparative controlled tests. Once those natural origin components have been identified and their efficacy validated through solid clinical trials, their combination within nanostructured dressings can open up new avenues in the fabrication of bioactive dressings with outstanding characteristics for wound care. The motivation of this work is to analyze the state of the art in the use of different essential oils, honey, cationic peptides, aloe vera, plant extracts, and other natural origin occurring materials as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and regenerative components with the aim of clarifying their potential clinical use in bioactive dressings. We conclude that, for those natural occurring materials, more clinical trials are needed to reach a sufficient level of evidence as therapeutic agents for wound healing management.

  18. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, l-minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  19. Auroral Electrojet Indices Designed to Provide a Global Measure, 2.5-Minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of hippocampal activation during silent mantra meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Maria; Pihlsgård, Johan; Lundberg, Peter; Söderfeldt, Birgitta

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether moderately experienced meditators activate hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex during silent mantra meditation, as has been observed in earlier studies on subjects with several years of practice. Subjects with less than 2 years of meditation practice according to the Kundalini yoga or Acem tradition were examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging during silent mantra meditation, using an on-off block design. Whole-brain as well as region-of-interest analyses were performed. The most significant activation was found in the bilateral hippocampus/parahippocampal formations. Other areas with significant activation were the bilateral middle cingulate cortex and the bilateral precentral cortex. No activation in the anterior cingulate cortex was found, and only small activation clusters were observed in the prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, the main finding in this study was the significant activation in the hippocampi, which also has been correlated with meditation in several previous studies on very experienced meditators. We propose that the hippocampus is activated already after moderate meditation practice and also during different modes of meditation, including relaxation. The role of hippocampal activity during meditation should be further clarified in future studies, especially by investigating whether the meditation-correlated hippocampal activity is related to memory consolidation.