WorldWideScience

Sample records for active ingredient work

  1. Active pharmaceutical ingredients entering the aquatic environment from wastewater treatment works: A cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Sean; Gardner, Mike; Sörme, Pernilla; Leverett, Dean; Ellor, Brian

    2018-02-01

    This work reports on the variation in wastewater treatment works (WwTW) influent concentrations of a wide variety of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), their removal efficiency, effluent concentrations and potential risks to the aquatic environment. The research is based on data generated from two large UK-wide WwTW monitoring programmes. Taking account of removal of parent compound from the aqueous phase during treatment in combination with estimates of dilution available it is possible to prioritise the APIs of greatest risk of exceeding estimates of predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) in receiving waters for all WwTW in the UK. The majority of substances studied were removed to a high degree, although with significant variation, both within and between WwTW. Poorer removal (between influent and effluent) was observed for ethinyloestradiol, diclofenac, propranolol, the macrolide antibiotics, fluoxetine, tamoxifen and carbamazepine. All except the last two of these substances were present in effluents at concentrations higher than their respective estimated PNEC (based on measurement of effluents from 45 WwTW on 20 occasions). Based on available dilution data as many as 890 WwTW in the UK (approximately 13% of all WwTW) may cause exceedances of estimated riverine PNECs after mixing of their effluents with receiving waters. The overall degree of risk is driven by the toxicity value selected, which in itself is controlled by the availability of reliable and relevant ecotoxicological data and consequently the safety factors applied. The dataset and discussion, provides information to assist in the future management of these types of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Encapsulation of new active ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components, protects the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organ. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in process...

  3. Active Ingredients of Instructional Coaching: Developing a Conceptual Framework. R2Ed Working Paper 2015-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew S.; Howell Smith, Michelle; Kunz, Gina M.; Nugent, Gwen C.

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have explored the impact of instructional coaching and named possible elements believed essential to effective coaching, there has yet to emerge from the literature a coherent model of those essential elements ("active ingredients"). This qualitative study sought to identify those elements through a systematic…

  4. Oil Dispersion with Abamectin as Active Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Gašić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abamectin was developed as an insecticide, nematocide and acaricide for use on a varietyof agricultural and horticultural crops. The products with this active ingredient can befound on the market mostly formulated as emulsifiable concentrate (EC. Usually producersrecommend using the EC formulation of abamectin together with some kind of adjuvants(natural oils to improve efficacy of the active ingredient. To overcome the efficacy problemwe tried to formulate the active ingredient abamectin as oil dispersion (OD. Oil dispersion,preferably based on naturally derived oils could improve pesticide efficacy. This type of pesticideformulation contains oil instead of water as in classical suspension concentrate andtypically has better retention and coverage. In the case of abamectin, in this investigationsoybean oil was used with the mixture of different nonionic emulsifiers. Content of abamecetinin formulation was 1.8 %. The developed formulation was tested for few importantparameters. The obtained physicochemical properties for the above mentioned formulationhave shown that it is stable and could be used in plant protection.

  5. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...

  6. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any of...

  7. 21 CFR 340.10 - Stimulant active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stimulant active ingredient. 340.10 Section 340.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE STIMULANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredient § 340.10...

  8. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ingredient: (a) Benzocaine 5 to 20 percent. (b) Benzyl alcohol 1 to 4 percent. (c) Dibucaine 0.25 to 1...

  9. Study on Chinese herbal medicine active ingredients labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Mo; Bao Guangliang

    2008-01-01

    Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients was labeled with triteium by using exchange of new synthesized tritiated water or exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. The active ingredients was Genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid .The radiochemical purity of the three labeled compounds were more than 95% after TLC and HPLC purification. The specific activities of tritium labeled-genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid were 5.97, 3.24 and 470 GBq/g, respectively. The results indicated that the unstable Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients could be labeled with tritium by the methods of exchange of new synthesized tritiated water and exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. (authors)

  10. Active ingredients in anti-stigma programmes in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, Vanessa; Thornicroft, Graham; Huxley, Peter; Farmer, Paul

    2005-04-01

    This paper draws upon a review of the relevant literature and the results of the recent Mental Health Awareness in Action (MHAA) programme in England to discuss the current evidence base on the active ingredients in effective anti-stigma interventions in mental health. The MHAA Programme delivered educational interventions to 109 police officers, 78 adults from different community groups whose working lives involved supporting people with mental health problems but who had received no mental health training and 472 schools students aged 14-15. Each adult target group received two intervention sessions lasting two hours. The two school lessons were 50 minutes each. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intent were assessed at baseline and follow-up. In addition focus groups were held with mental health service users to explore the impact of stigma on their lives and facilitators of educational workshops were interviewed to provide expert opinion on 'what works' to reduce psychiatric stigma. Personal contact was predictive of positive changes in knowledge and attitudes for the school students but not the police officers or community adult group. The key active ingredient identified by all intervention groups and workshop facilitators were the testimonies of service users. The statements of service users (consumers) about their experience of mental health problems and of their contact with a range of services had the greatest and most lasting impact on the target audiences in terms of reducing mental health stigma.

  11. Choleretic Activity of Turmeric and its Active Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonglu; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Xinyi; Wang, Dong; Li, Xueming

    2016-07-01

    Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcumin longa L. is widely used as both a spice and an herbal medicine. The traditional use of turmeric in gastroenterology is mainly based on its choleretic activity. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of turmeric on bile flow (BF) and total bile acids (TBAs) excretion in a bile fistula rat model after acute duodenal administration. A significant dose-dependent enhancement in both BF and TBAs was detected after treatment with the turmeric decoctions which suggested the choleretic activity was bile acid-dependent secretion. In order to direct the active group of compounds, aqueous (AE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts were investigated. The EtOAc and PE extracts showing high effects were purified to locate the active ingredients. Three curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and 2 sesquiterpenes (bisacurone B and ar-turmerone) were isolated. It was found Bisacurone B was the most potent choleretic ingredient followed by ar-turmerone, bisdemethoxycurcumin demethoxycurcumin, and then curcumin. The amounts of the active ingredients were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The EtOAc and PE extracts had high sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids content, while the AE extract had poor content of sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids which affected neither BF nor TBAs. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the content of BIS and TUR were dominant factors (P < 0.01) of controlling BL and TBAs in EtOAC and PE extracts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Lipases: particularly effective biocatalysts for cosmetic active ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvergnaux Florent

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are the tools of choice in the on-going quest for non-pollutant processes to discover molecules for use in skin products. Amongst these biocatalysts, lipases offer considerable potential in terms of ingredient development and are of interest in skin dermocosmetic formulations possessing sensory or biological activities. Lipases have been studied for around thirty years and, in most cases, these enzymes function under what are deemed to be mild conditions, displaying remarkable efficacy particularly in terms of selectivity. This particularly effective strategy will be illustrated through typical synthesis, demonstrating how ester or amide active ingredients are obtained.

  13. Downstream Processability of Crystal Habit-Modified Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pudasaini, Nawin; Upadhyay, Pratik Pankaj; Parker, Christian Richard

    2017-01-01

    Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability and tablet......Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability...

  14. Separation of Chiral Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein

    is regarded as a first step towards a fully continuous PC process. The current knowledge of the importance of crystallization processes in the pharmaceutical industry and the complex thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena accompanied with the separation of chiral compounds are addressed. The experimental work...

  15. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 352.20 Section 352.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effective date was stayed until further notice. For the convenience of the user, the text is set forth as...

  16. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... until further notice. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 352...

  17. 21 CFR 333.320 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 333.320 Section 333.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Note: At 75 FR 9776, Mar. 4, 2010, § 333.320 was revised, effective Mar. 4, 2011. For the convenience...

  18. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... alcohol 95 percent in an anhydrous glycerin 5 percent base. [65 FR 48905, Aug. 10, 2000] ...

  19. Taking ownership of safety. What are the active ingredients of safety coaching and how do they impact safety outcomes in critical offshore working environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauesslar, Victoria; Avery, Rachel E; Passmore, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Safety coaching interventions have become a common feature in the safety critical offshore working environments of the North Sea. Whilst the beneficial impact of coaching as an organizational tool has been evidenced, there remains a question specifically over the use of safety coaching and its impact on behavioural change and producing safe working practices. A series of 24 semi-structured interviews were conducted with three groups of experts in the offshore industry: safety coaches, offshore managers and HSE directors. Using a thematic analysis approach, several significant themes were identified across the three expert groups including connecting with and creating safety ownership in the individual, personal significance and humanisation, ingraining safety and assessing and measuring a safety coach's competence. Results suggest clear utility of safety coaching when applied by safety coaches with appropriate coach training and understanding of safety issues in an offshore environment. The current work has found that the use of safety coaching in the safety critical offshore oil and gas industry is a powerful tool in managing and promoting a culture of safety and care.

  20. Triboelectrification of active pharmaceutical ingredients: week acids and their salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinuma, Kenta; Ishii, Yuji; Yashihashi, Yasuo; Yonemochi, Estuo; Sugano, Kiyohiko; Tarada, Katsuhide

    2015-09-30

    The effect of salt formulation on the electrostatic property of active pharmaceutical ingredients was investigated. The electrostatic property of weak acids (carboxylic acids and amide-enole type acid) and their sodium salts was evaluated by a suction-type Faraday cage meter. Free carboxylic acids showed negative chargeability, whereas their sodium salts showed more positive chargeability than the free acids. However, no such trend was observed for amide-enole type acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of Continuous Crystallizers for Production of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capellades Mendez, Gerard; Christensen, Troels V.

    The production of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is conducted primarily in batch processes. This manufacturing approach is reinforced by a patent-driven business model and the need to minimize the process development times for newly patented drugs. However, the regulatory and business...... environments are now changing. The increasing costs of drug development, combined with the strict regulations and the competition from generic manufacturers, have pushed pharmaceutical companies to seek cheaper and more sustainable production methods. Transition from batch to Continuous Pharmaceutical...

  2. Nano-microdelivery systems for oral delivery of an active ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A composition for oral delivery of one or more active ingredients in the form of a lipid nano-micro-delivery system comprising a lipid nano-micro-structure comprising at least one lipid and at least one active ingredient, said at least one active ingredient being immobilized in said lipid nano...

  3. Lithium carbonate tablets. Preparation techniques influence over active ingredient liberation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, J.H.F.; Oliveira, A.G. de; Toledo Salgado, P.E. de

    1989-01-01

    Lithium carbonate tablets, prepared using wet and dry granulation, were assessed in vitro so as to determine the active ingredient dissolution. In this study, standardized formulations were used and developed with usual adjuvants (lactose - maize starch). Parallel to the dissolution testing. The influence of the preparation process over some physical characteristics (hardness, friability and disintegration) was also analysed. Although a better performance was observed of tables prepared using dry granulation, the authors concluded that the wet process is more suitable in preparing tables with the mentioned drug. (author)

  4. Process Analytical Technology for Crystallization of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Qu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is witnessing increased pressure to introduce innovative and efficient processes for manufacturing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in order to be competitive as well as to meet the stringent product quality requirements set by regulatory authorities...... parameters and their impact on quality of APIs and subsequently the drug products assume great significance for pharmaceutical industry. Methods: This review paper focuses on application of PAT tools, an integral part of Quality by Design (QbD) approach, for better understanding, control, and design...

  5. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of sunscreen active ingredients mediated by nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Vazquez, Loraine

    Water scarcity and pollution are environmental issues with terrible consequences. In recent years several pharmaceutical and personal care products, such as sunscreen active ingredients, have been detected in different water matrices. Its recalcitrant behavior in the environment has caused controversies and generated countless questions about its safety. During this research, we employed an advanced oxidation process (photocatalysis) to degrade sunscreen active ingredients. For this study, we used a 3x3 system, evaluating three photocatalysts and three different contaminants. From the three catalysts employed, two of them were synthesized. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using zinc acetate dihydrated as the precursor, and TiO2 nanowires were synthesized from titanium tetrachloride precursor. The third catalyst employed (namely, P25) was obtained commercially. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the morphology, elemental composition, crystalline structure, elemental oxidation states, vibrational modes and surface area, using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements, respectively. The photocatalysts were employed during the study of the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and benzophenone-4. In all the cases, at least 50% degradation was achieved. P25 showed degradation efficiencies above 90%, and from the nine systems, 7 of them degraded at least 86%.

  7. Active ingredients from natural botanicals in the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W-L; Zhu, L; Jiang, J-G

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is considered as a chronic disease that can induce a series of comorbidities and complications. Chinese medicine has long clinical experiences in the treatment of obesity. This review summarizes the natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that are reported to have anti-obesity effects in the past two decades. Botanic TCM comprises 90% of total Chinese crude drugs, and generally contains various active ingredients, in which the effective anti-obesity ingredients identified can be divided into saponins, polysaccharides, alkaloids, polyphenols and others. Astragaloside IV, glycyrrhizin, macrostemonoside A, berberine, betaine, capsaicin, matrine, methyl piperate, piperine, rutaecarpine, asimilobine, epigallocatechingallate, magnolol, resveratrol, soybean-isoflavone, α-linolenic acid, emodin, geniposide, phillyrin, salidroside and ursolic acid are specified in this review, and their sources, models, efficacy are described. It is concluded that the mechanisms of these components for the treatment of obesity include: (i) suppression of appetite, increase of satiety, reduction of energy intake; (ii) reduction in the digestion and absorption of exogenous lipid; (iii) attenuation of the synthesis of endogenous lipid; (iv) promotion of the oxidation and expenditure of lipid and (v) improvement of lipid metabolism disorder. Authors believe that the effective compounds from TCM will provide an alternative and hopeful way for the treatment of obesity. © 2014 World Obesity.

  8. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  9. Impurities in Drug Products and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kątny, M; Frankowski, M

    2017-05-04

    Analytical methods should be selective and fast. In modern times, scientists strive to meet the criteria of green chemistry, so they choose analytical procedures that are as short as possible and use the least toxic solvents. It is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption should be characterized as completely as possible. The safety of a drug is dependent mainly on the impurities that it contains. High pressure liquid chromatography and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography have been proposed as the main techniques for forced degradation and impurity profiling. The aim of this article was to characterize the relevant classification of drug impurities and to review the methods of impurities determination for atorvastatin (ATV) and duloxetine (DLX) (both in active pharmaceutical ingredients and in different dosage forms). These drugs have an impact on two systems of the human body: cardiac and nervous. Simple characteristics of ATV and DLX, their properties and specificity of action on the human body, are also included in this review. The analyzed pharmaceuticals-ATV (brand name Lipiron) and DLX (brand name Cymbalta)-were selected for this study based on annual rankings prepared by Information Medical Statistics.

  10. 21 CFR 358.510 - Corn and callus remover active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn and callus remover active ingredients. 358.510 Section 358.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.510 Corn and callus remover active ingredients. The...

  11. Hypericum perforatum: a 'modern' herbal antidepressant: pharmacokinetics of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort [SJW]) counts among the most favourite herbal drugs, and is the only herbal alternative to classic synthetic antidepressants in the therapy of mild to moderate depression. Several clinical studies have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of ethanolic or methanolic extracts of SJW. Alcoholic SJW extracts are a mixture of substances with widely varying physical and chemical properties and activities. Hyperforin, a phloroglucinol derivative, is the main source of pharmacological effects caused by the consumption of alcoholic extracts of SJW in the therapy of depression. However, several studies indicate that flavone derivatives, e.g. rutin, and also the naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, take part in the antidepressant efficacy. In contrast to the amount of documentation concerning clinical efficacy, oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic data about the active components are rather scarce. The hyperforin plasma concentration in humans was investigated in a small number of studies. The results of these studies indicate a relevant plasma concentration, comparable with that used in in vitro tests. Furthermore, hyperforin is the only ingredient of H. perforatum that could be determined in the brain of rodents after oral administration of alcoholic extracts. The plasma concentrations of the hypericins were, compared with hyperforin, only one-tenth and, until now, the hypericins could not be found in the brain after oral administration of alcoholic H. perforatum extracts or pure hypericin. Until now, the pharmacokinetic profile of the flavonoids in humans after oral administration of an alcoholic H. perforatum extract has been investigated in only one study. More data are available for rutin and the aglycone quercetin after administration of pure substances or other flavonoid sources.

  12. Suspended particle and drug ingredient concentrations in hospital dispensaries and implications for pharmacists' working environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Hioki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Hiroki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the present status of working environments for pharmacists, including the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients in dispensaries. We conducted a survey on the work processes and working environment in 15 hospital dispensaries, and measured the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients using digital dust counter and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. Of 25 types of powdered drugs that were frequently handled in the 15 dispensaries surveyed, 11 could be quantitatively determined. The amounts of suspended particles were relatively high, but below the reference value, in three dispensaries without dust collectors. The sedative-hypnotic drug zopiclone was detected in the suspended particles at one dispensary that was not equipped with dust collectors, and the antipyretic and analgesic drug acetaminophen was detected in two dispensaries equipped with dust collectors. There was no correlation between the daily number of prescriptions containing powdered drugs and the concentration of suspended particles in dispensaries. On the basis of the suspended particle concentrations measured, we concluded that dust collectors were effective in these dispensaries. However, suspended drug ingredients were detected also in dispensaries with dust collectors. These results suggest that the drug dust control systems of individual dispensaries should be properly installed and managed.

  13. Work-related asthma in a population exposed to grain, flour and other ingredient dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Lumley, K P

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and causation of work-related asthmatic symptoms in a population exposed to grain, flour and other ingredient dusts. Where workers complained of asthmatic symptoms which were the result of dust exposure, follow-up aimed to identify whether the symptoms were the result of sensitisation or of non-specific irritation. A questionnaire was presented to 3,450 workers who had exposure to dust during the course of flour milling (528), bread baking (1,756), cake baking (209) and other activities in food preparation (957). Those with positive responses were followed-up by taking a formal history, examination, skin prick testing and serial peak flow measurement. The overall prevalence of work-related asthmatic symptoms was 4.4% (153 out of 3,450). In the group who were followed-up (128 out of 153), non-specific respiratory irritation was thought to be the cause in 90 (2.6%), whilst sensitisation was responsible for symptoms in 12 (0.3%). Of the 12 cases due to sensitisation, the agents responsible were: fungal amylase (10 cases, all associated with bread baking), flour (one case, associated with flour packing), and grain (one case, associated with flour milling). Non-specific irritation is considerably more common than sensitisation as the cause of work-related asthmatic symptoms in flour milling, baking and other flour-based industries. The prevalence of sensitisation to flour is very low (less than 1 in 1,000) in all these industries. The principal sensitiser encountered in modern plant bakeries appears to be fungal amylase. The most important source of exposure to fungal amylase is probably the debagging, sieving, weighing and mixing of bread improvers.

  14. Pesticide-exposure Matrix helps identify active ingredients in pesticides used in past years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide-exposure Matrix was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years

  15. Pesticide Active Ingredient Production Industry: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the pesticide active ingredient (PAI) production source category under section 112 of the Clean Air Act as amended (CAA or Act).

  16. Opinions expressed by Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee on some active ingredients of pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I [Ist. Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1996-03-01

    The opinions expressed by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) on some active ingredients of pesticides are presented. Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of these substances have been examined and, on this basis, an evaluation and relative classification were expressed.

  17. Fixed-Dose Combination Drug Approvals, Patents and Market Exclusivities Compared to Single Active Ingredient Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jing; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDC) contain two or more active ingredients. The effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC compared to single active ingredient has not been assessed. Trends in FDA approved FDC in the period 1980-2012 and time lag between approval of FDC and single active ingredients in the combination were assessed, and the effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC was compared with their single active ingredients. New molecular entities (NMEs), new therapeutic biologics license applications (BLAs) and FDC data were collected from the FDA Orange Book and Drugs@FDA. Analysis included FDC containing one or more NMEs or BLAs at first FDA approval (NMEs-FDC) and only already marketed drugs (Non-NMEs-FDC). Descriptive, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum analyses were performed. During the study period, the FDA approved 28 NMEs-FDC (3.5% of NMEs) and 117 non-NMEs-FDC. FDC approvals increased from 12 in the 1980s to 59 in the 2000s. Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 5.43 years (interquartile range 1.74, 10.31) after first FDA approval of single active ingredients in the combination. The Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 2.33 years (-7.55, 2.39) before approval of generic single active ingredient. Non-NME-FDC added a median of 9.70 (2.75, 16.24) years to the patent and exclusivity life of the single active ingredients in the combination. FDC approvals significantly increased over the last twenty years. Pharmaceutical companies market FDC drugs shortly before the generic versions of the single ingredients enter the market extending the patent and exclusivity life of drugs included in the combination.

  18. Fixed-Dose Combination Drug Approvals, Patents and Market Exclusivities Compared to Single Active Ingredient Pharmaceuticals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hao

    Full Text Available Fixed-dose combinations (FDC contain two or more active ingredients. The effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC compared to single active ingredient has not been assessed.Trends in FDA approved FDC in the period 1980-2012 and time lag between approval of FDC and single active ingredients in the combination were assessed, and the effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC was compared with their single active ingredients.New molecular entities (NMEs, new therapeutic biologics license applications (BLAs and FDC data were collected from the FDA Orange Book and Drugs@FDA. Analysis included FDC containing one or more NMEs or BLAs at first FDA approval (NMEs-FDC and only already marketed drugs (Non-NMEs-FDC. Descriptive, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum analyses were performed.During the study period, the FDA approved 28 NMEs-FDC (3.5% of NMEs and 117 non-NMEs-FDC. FDC approvals increased from 12 in the 1980s to 59 in the 2000s. Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 5.43 years (interquartile range 1.74, 10.31 after first FDA approval of single active ingredients in the combination. The Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 2.33 years (-7.55, 2.39 before approval of generic single active ingredient. Non-NME-FDC added a median of 9.70 (2.75, 16.24 years to the patent and exclusivity life of the single active ingredients in the combination.FDC approvals significantly increased over the last twenty years. Pharmaceutical companies market FDC drugs shortly before the generic versions of the single ingredients enter the market extending the patent and exclusivity life of drugs included in the combination.

  19. Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Mykola; Blagaia, Anna; Pelo, Ihor

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of the air environment significantly affects the health of the population. Chemical plant protection products in the spring and summer time may be the main pollutants of the air environment in rural areas. Chemical plant protection products are dangerous substances of anthropogenic origin. If applying pesticides in high concentrations, the risk of poisoning by active ingredients of pesticide preparations in workers directly contacting with it increases. The aim: Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides was the aim of the work. Materials and methods: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides, samples of air, and swabs from workers' skin and stripes from overalls were materials of the research. Methods of full-scale in-field hygienic experiment, gas-liquid chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, as well as statistical and bibliographic methods were used in the research. Results and conclusions: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides were not detected in the working zone air and atmospheric air at the levels exceeding the limits of its detection by appropriate chromatography methods. Findings confirmed the air environment safety for agricultural workers and rural population if studied combined fungicides are applied following the hygienically approved suggested application rates and in accordance of good agricultural practice rules. However the possible complex risk for workers after certain studied fungicides application may be higher than acceptable due to the elevated values for dermal effects. The complex risk was higher than acceptable in еру case of aerial spraying of both studied fungicides, meanwhile only one combination of active ingredients revealed possible risk for workers applying fungicides by rod method of cereal spiked crops treatment.

  20. Swift Quantification of Fenofibrate and Tiemonium methylsulfate Active Ingredients in Solid Drugs Using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejjani, A.; Nsouli, B.; Zahraman, K.; Assi, S.; Younes, Gh.; Yazbi, F.

    2011-01-01

    The quantification of active ingredients (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like LC-MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. However, if the active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl), elemental IBA like PIXE and PIGE techniques, using small tandem accelerator of 1-2 MV, can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparations. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Thick Target PIXE technique for rapid and accurate quantification of both low and high concentrations of active ingredients in different commercial drugs. Fenofibrate, a chlorinated active ingredient, is present in high amounts in two different commercial drugs, its quantification was done using the relative approach to an external standard. On the other hand, Tiemonium methylsulfate which exists in relatively low amount in commercial drugs, its quantification was done using GUPIX simulation code (absolute quantification). The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity (use of external standards, absolute quantification, matrix effect,...) are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Consensus Modeling for Prediction of Estrogenic Activity of Ingredients Commonly Used in Sunscreen Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreen products are predominantly regulated as over-the-counter (OTC drugs by the US FDA. The “active” ingredients function as ultraviolet filters. Once a sunscreen product is generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE via an OTC drug review process, new formulations using these ingredients do not require FDA review and approval, however, the majority of ingredients have never been tested to uncover any potential endocrine activity and their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER is unknown, despite the fact that this is a very extensively studied target related to endocrine activity. Consequently, we have developed an in silico model to prioritize single ingredient estrogen receptor activity for use when actual animal data are inadequate, equivocal, or absent. It relies on consensus modeling to qualitatively and quantitatively predict ER binding activity. As proof of concept, the model was applied to ingredients commonly used in sunscreen products worldwide and a few reference chemicals. Of the 32 chemicals with unknown ER binding activity that were evaluated, seven were predicted to be active estrogenic compounds. Five of the seven were confirmed by the published data. Further experimental data is needed to confirm the other two predictions.

  2. Data-mining of potential antitubercular activities from molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Salma; Scaria, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a well established alternate system of medicine based on a broad range of herbal formulations and is practiced extensively in the region for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In recent years, several reports describe in depth studies of the molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines on the biological activities including anti-bacterial activities. The availability of a well-curated dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and accurate in-silico cheminformatics models for data mining for antitubercular agents and computational filters to prioritize molecules has prompted us to search for potential hits from these datasets. Results. We used a consensus approach to predict molecules with potential antitubercular activities from a large dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines available in the public domain. We further prioritized 160 molecules based on five computational filters (SMARTSfilter) so as to avoid potentially undesirable molecules. We further examined the molecules for permeability across Mycobacterial cell wall and for potential activities against non-replicating and drug tolerant Mycobacteria. Additional in-depth literature surveys for the reported antitubercular activities of the molecular ingredients and their sources were considered for drawing support to prioritization. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that datasets of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines offer a new opportunity to mine for potential biological activities. In this report, we suggest a proof-of-concept methodology to prioritize molecules for further experimental assays using a variety of computational tools. We also additionally suggest that a subset of prioritized molecules could be used for evaluation for tuberculosis due to their additional effect against non-replicating tuberculosis as well as the additional hepato-protection offered by

  3. Eco-efficiency analysis for intensified production of an active pharmaceutical ingredient : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dencic, I.; Ott-Reinhardt, D.; Kralisch, D.; Noel, T.; Meuldijk, J.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Hessel, V.; Laribi, Y.; Perrichon, P.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results on cost and performance benefit analysis of optimization and intensification activities of a pharmaceutical process. A batch process for the production of a low-volume, high value active pharmaceutical ingredient, developed at Sanofi (France), has been used as a case

  4. Study on THz spectra of the active ingredients in the TCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, ShiHua; Wang, WenFeng; Liu, GuiFeng; Ge, Min; Zhu, ZhiYong

    2008-03-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy has tremendous potential for applications to evaluate the quality of the drugs including the TCM. In this paper, the Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy investigated two active ingredients: Andrographolide and Dehydroandrographoline, isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. We also measured the mixtures of two active ingredients at the different ratio and the quantitative analysis is also applied to determine the contents of compound. The Terahertz spectroscopy is a potential and promising technique in identifying the components, evaluating the drugs sanitation and inspecting the quality of medicine including TCM.

  5. Encapsulation of cosmetic active ingredients for topical application--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Francisca; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-02-01

    Microencapsulation is finding increasing applications in cosmetics and personal care markets. This article provides an overall discussion on encapsulation of cosmetically active ingredients and encapsulation techniques for cosmetic and personal care products for topical applications. Some of the challenges are identified and critical aspects and future perspectives are addressed. Many cosmetics and personal care products contain biologically active substances that require encapsulation for increased stability of the active materials. The topical and transdermal delivery of active cosmetic ingredients requires effective, controlled and safe means of reaching the target site within the skin. Preservation of the active ingredients is also essential during formulation, storage and application of the final cosmetic product. Microencapsulation offers an ideal and unique carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients, as it has the potential to respond to all these requirements. The encapsulated agent can be released by several mechanisms, such as mechanical action, heat, diffusion, pH, biodegradation and dissolution. The selection of the encapsulation technique and shell material depends on the final application of the product, considering physical and chemical stability, concentration, required particle size, release mechanism and manufacturing costs.

  6. Effect of penetration modifiers on the dermal and transdermal delivery of drugs and cosmetic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, A; Wiechers, J W; Kelly, C L; Hadgraft, J; du Plessis, J

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effect of 2 penetration modifiers, dimethyl isosorbide (DMI) and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME) on the skin delivery of hydroquinone (HQ), salicylic acid (SA) and octadecenedioic acid (DIOIC) was investigated. Ten percent DMI and DGME were separately formulated into oil-in-water emulsions containing 1.8% HQ, SA and DIOIC, respectively. Skin delivery and the flux across split-thickness human skin of the active ingredients were determined using Franz diffusion cells. An emulsion with 10% water incorporated instead of the water-soluble penetration modifiers served as a control. The study showed that neither 10% DMI nor 10% DGME significantly enhanced the skin permeation of the various lipophilic active ingredients or the uptake into the skin. It was hypothesized that the addition of the penetration modifiers to the emulsions not only enhanced the solubility of the various active ingredients in the skin but also in the formulation, resulting in a reduced thermodynamic activity and hence a weaker driving force for penetration. Therefore, the effect of DMI and DGME on the solubility of the active ingredients in the skin was counteracted by a simultaneous reduction in the thermodynamic activity in the formulation. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Solar Cell Polymer Based Active Ingredients PPV and PCBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeli, H.; Sanjaya, H.; Resikarnila, R.; Nitami H, R.

    2018-04-01

    A polymer solar cell is a solar cell based on a polymer bulk heterojunction structure using the method of thin film, which can convert solar energy into electrical energy. Absorption of light is carried by active material layer PPV: PCBM. This study aims to make solar cells tandem and know the value of converting solar energy into electrical energy and increase the value of efficiency generated through morphological control, ie annealing temperature and the ratio of active layer mixture. The active layer is positioned above the PEDOT:PSS layer on ITO glass substrate. The characterization results show the surface morphology of the PPV:PCBM active layer is quite evenly at annealing temperature of 165 ° C. The result of conversion of electrical energy with a UV light source in annealing samples with temperature 165 ° C is 0.03 mA and voltage of 4.085 V with an efficiency of 2.61% and mixed ratio variation was obtained in comparison of P3HT: PCBM is 1: 3

  8. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements of basic ingredients of pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I; Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive use of pan, by one-tenth of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in its ingredients. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 36 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in its four basic ingredients, leaf of betel pepper, betel nut, catechu and lime. The radiochemical separation methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in these ingredients is provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pan was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  9. How active ingredient localisation in plant tissues determines the targeted pest spectrum of different chemistries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Anke; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    information sets revealed that the intracellular localisation of active ingredients determines the performance of test compounds against different target pests because of different feeding behaviours: mites feed on mesophyll, and aphids and whiteflies mostly in the vascular system. Polar compounds have a slow...

  10. X-ray diffraction study of kanwa used as active ingredient in achu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, x-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) technique was used to identify the mineral constituents of kanwa; an earthy material widely used as active ingredient in achu soup and other vegetable soups in Cameroon and several other West African countries. Results depicted trona (Na3H (CO3)2.2H2O) to be the main ...

  11. Nano-microdelivery systems for oromucosal delivery of an active ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A composition for oromucosal delivery of at least one active ingredient, more particularly a lipid nano-microdelivery system comprising a nicotine component and/or a flavour component, wherein the nicotine component may be delivered to the oral cavity via absorption through the mucosal membranes...

  12. 21 CFR 358.710 - Active ingredients for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. 358.710 Section 358.710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Psoriasis § 358.710 Active ingredients for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. The... psoriasis. (1) Coal tar, 0.5 to 5 percent. When a coal tar solution, derivative, or fraction is used as the...

  13. Standardization of the Manufacturing Process of Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Containing Melittin as the Active Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonmi Lee; Sung-Geun Kim; In-Su Kim; Hwa-Dong Lee

    2018-01-01

    Background. Pharmacopuncture is a unique treatment in oriental medicine that combines chemical stimulation with conventional acupuncture. However, there are no standardized methods for preparing the herbal medicines used in pharmacopuncture, and it is not clear whether the active ingredients are safe and stable. Several studies have investigated nonstandardized preparation processes, but few investigations have addressed safety and preparation methods. Pharmacopuncture may provide an alternat...

  14. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight

  15. Edible Nanoemulsions as Carriers of Active Ingredients: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Rojas-Graü, M Alejandra; McClements, D Julian; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2017-02-28

    There has been growing interest in the use of edible nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic active substances, such as oil-soluble vitamins, antimicrobials, flavors, and nutraceuticals, because of their unique physicochemical properties. Oil-in-water nanoemulsions consist of oil droplets with diameters typically between approximately 30 and 200 nm that are dispersed within an aqueous medium. The small droplet size usually leads to an improvement in stability, gravitational separation, and aggregation. Moreover, the high droplet surface area associated with the small droplet size often leads to a high reactivity with biological cells and macromolecules. As a result, lipid digestibility and bioactive bioavailability are usually higher in nanoemulsions than conventional emulsions, which is an advantage for the development of bioactive delivery systems. In this review, the most important factors affecting nanoemulsion formation and stability are highlighted, and a critical analysis of the potential benefits of using nanoemulsions in food systems is presented.

  16. Agglomeration Control during Ultrasonic Crystallization of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Gielen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of ultrasound during crystallization can efficiently inhibit agglomeration. However, the mechanism is unclear and sonication is usually enabled throughout the entire process, which increases the energy demand. Additionally, improper operation results in significant crystal damage. Therefore, the present work addresses these issues by identifying the stage in which sonication impacts agglomeration without eroding the crystals. This study was performed using a commercially available API that showed a high tendency to agglomerate during seeded crystallization. The crystallization progress was monitored using process analytical tools (PAT, including focus beam reflectance measurements (FBRM to track to crystal size and number and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to quantify the supersaturation level. These tools provided insight in the mechanism by which ultrasound inhibits agglomeration. A combination of improved micromixing, fast crystal formation which accelerates depletion of the supersaturation and a higher collision frequency prevent crystal cementation to occur. The use of ultrasound as a post-treatment can break some of the agglomerates, but resulted in fractured crystals. Alternatively, sonication during the initial seeding stage could assist in generating nuclei and prevent agglomeration, provided that ultrasound was enabled until complete desupersaturation at the seeding temperature. FTIR and FBRM can be used to determine this end point.

  17. On the direct characterization and quantification of active ingredients in commercial solid drugs using PIXE, PIGE and TOF-SIMS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsouli, B. [IBA laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission (CNRS), Beirut (Lebanon)], E-mail: bnsouli@cnrs.edu.lb; Zahraman, K; Roumie, M [IBA laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission (CNRS), Beirut (Lebanon); Yazbi, F [Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); Thomas, J P [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon, Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-07-01

    The quantification of the active ingredient (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like LC-MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. In the case of an active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl, . . .), elemental IBA like PIXE and PIGE techniques, using small tandem accelerator of 1 - 2 MV, can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparations. This is an advantage when the number of sample is relatively large. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Thick Target PIXE and PIGE technique for rapid and accurate quantification of low concentration of different fluorinated, sulfured and chlorinated active ingredients in several commercial anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory commercial drugs. In this work we will demonstrate the ability of PIXE and PIGE techniques for rapid and accurate quantification of Celecoxib and Atorvastatin active ingredients contained in several solid commercial drugs. The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity are presented and discussed. In addition, the Time of Flight Secondary Ion Emission using multicharged Ar ions with {approx} 10 MeV energy, delivered by a 4 MV Vander Graaf single stage accelerator, was used for structural and chemical analysis for some cases of binary commercial drugs containing two different active ingredients. The aspect of sample preparation and the role of excipient will be highlighted and discussed. (author)

  18. The Role of Biologically Active Ingredients from Natural Drug Treatments for Arrhythmias in Different Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie; Hu, Dan; Song, Xiaoli; Han, Tao; Gao, Yonghong; Xing, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    Arrhythmia is a disease that is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the heart rate or rhythm. It is the major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although several antiarrhythmic drugs have been used in clinic for decades, their application is often limited by their adverse effects. As a result, natural drugs, which have fewer side effects, are now being used to treat arrhythmias. We searched for all articles on the role of biologically active ingredients from natural drug t...

  19. [Screening of anti-aging active ingredients and mechanism analysis based on molecular docking technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ran-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Ye, Xiao-Tong; Yu, Wen-Kang; Wang, Yun

    2016-07-01

    Dampness evil is the source of all diseases, which is easy to cause disease and promote aging, while aging could also promote the occurence and development of diseases. In this paper, the relationship between the dampness evil and aging would be discussed, to find the anti-aging active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and analyze the anti-aging mechanism of dampness eliminating drug. Molecular docking technology was used, with aging-related mammalian target of rapamycin as the docking receptors, and chemical components of Fuling, Sangzhi, Mugua, Yiyiren and Houpo as the docking molecules, to preliminarily screen the anti-aging active ingredients in dampness eliminating drug. Through the comparison with active drugs already on the market (temsirolimus and everolimus), 12 kinds of potential anti-aging active ingredients were found, but their drug gability still needs further study. The docking results showed that various components in the dampness eliminating drug can play anti-aging activities by acting on mammalian target of rapamycin. This result provides a new thought and direction for the method of delaying aging by eliminating dampness. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Analysis of the main active ingredients and bioactivities of essential oil from Osmanthus fragrans Var. thunbergii using a complex network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Tan, Nana; Hu, Jiayao; Wang, Huan; Duan, Dongzhu; Ma, Lin; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Xiaoling

    2017-12-28

    Osmanthus fragrans has been used as folk medicine for thousands of years. The extracts of Osmanthus fragrans flowers were reported to have various bioactivities including free radical scavenging, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection and antitumor effects. However, there is still lack of knowledge about its essential oil. In this work, we analyzed the chemical composition of the essential oil from Osmanthus fragrans var. thunbergii by GC-MS. A complex network approach was applied to investigate the interrelationships between the ingredients, target proteins, and related pathways for the essential oil. Statistical characteristics of the networks were further studied to explore the main active ingredients and potential bioactivities of O. fragrans var. thunbergii essential oil. A total of 44 ingredients were selected from the chemical composition of O. fragrans var. thunbergii essential oil, and that 191 potential target proteins together with 70 pathways were collected for these compounds. An ingredient-target-pathway network was constructed based on these data and showed scale-free property as well as power-law degree distribution. Eugenol and geraniol were screened as main active ingredients with much higher degree values. Potential neuroprotective and anti-tumor effect of the essential oil were also found. A core subnetwork was extracted from the ingredient-target-pathway network, and indicated that eugenol and geraniol contributed most to the neuroprotection of this essential oil. Furthermore, a pathway-based protein association network was built and exhibited small-world property. MAPK1 and MAPK3 were considered as key proteins with highest scores of centrality indices, which might play an important role in the anti-tumor effect of the essential oil. This work predicted the main active ingredients and bioactivities of O. fragrans var. thunbergii essential oil, which would benefit the development and utilization of Osmanthus fragrans flowers. The application of

  1. Co-crystallization: An approach to improve the performance characteristics of active pharmaceutical ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Jignasa Ketan Savjani

    2015-01-01

    Co-crystal chemistry has recently attracted supramolecular scientists. Co-crystals are comprising of hydrogen boding assembly between different molecules. Many issues related to performance characteristics of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) can be resolved using co-crystallization approach. Proper understanding of crystal structure of an API is required for successful formation of co-crystals with the selected co-former. This review article focus on explanation about co-crystals, in...

  2. Validation of the quality control methods for active ingredients of Fungirex cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Navarro, Maikel; Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Suarez Perez, Yania

    2014-01-01

    Fungirex cream is a two-drug product, that is, undecylenic acid and zinc undecylenate over a suitable basis. Since this is a product not documented in the official monographs of the pharmacopoeia, simple analytical methods were suggested for quantitation of analytes of interest in the cream, which are useful for release of newly prepared cream batches. To validate two volumetric methods for the quality control of active ingredients in Fungirex cream

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL AND SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF INGREDIENTS OF BETEL QUID ON ORAL AND ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Niraj A Ghanwate; Prashant Thakare

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antimicrobial and synergistic activity of ingredients of betel quid i.e. kattha, lime, betel leaf, betel nut, cardamom, clove and fennel seeds was tested against microbial population of oral cavity and four enteric pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri. For this purpose two methods were used. Pour plate method was used for calculating the reduction in microbial population in oral cavity and disk diffusion method was u...

  4. [Changed accumulation of active ingredient in different localities and growth period of Hemsleya zhejiangensis (Cucurbitaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wang-Wei; Lei, Zu-Pei; Wang, Wei-Min; Liang, Wei-qing; Zhou, Wei-Qing; Jin, Xiao-Feng

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the content of moisture, ethanol-soluble extractives, total saponins and polysaccharide of different tuber samples of Hemsleya zhejiangensis, from different localities, years and seasons, were detected based upon Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 version. The samples of roots, stems and leaves in summer were detected as well. The results are mainly as follows. (1)With tuber quality increasing, the content of total saponins increased and then decreased. The individual quality of tubers getting 594.06 g, the content of total saponins reached the peak. (2) The content of active ingredients in different localities was significantly different, and the population of Wuyanling had the maximum content of total saponins and polysaccharide. (3) The content of active ingredients revealed stability between the years 2012 and 2013, but the content of polysaccharide was significantly different. The content in 2012 was higher than that of 2013. (4) The content of active ingredients reached the peak in autumn, which was the best harvest season. (5) Among different component content detection of nutritional organs, tubers had the maximum content of ethanol-soluble extractives, total saponins and polysaccharide. Leaves also contained higher content of ethanol-soluble extractives and total saponins than roots and stems. All of these provide theoretical basis for plant, harvest and production of H. zhejiangensis, which is an endemic, rare, and endangered medicinal plants.

  5. Development of new polysilsesquioxane spherical particles as stabilized active ingredients for sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Stephanie Helene

    Healthy skin is a sign of positive self-worth, attractiveness and vitality. Compromises to this are frequently caused by extended periods of recreation in the sun and in turn exposure to the harmful effects of UV radiation. To maintain strength and integrity, protection of the skin is paramount. This can be achieved by implementing skin-care products which contain sunscreen active ingredients that provide UV protection. Unfortunately, photo-degradation, toxicity, and photo-allergies limit the effectiveness of present day sunscreen ingredients. Currently, this is moderated by physically embedding within inert silica particles, but leaching of the active ingredient can occur, thereby negating protective efforts. Alternatively, this research details the preparation and investigation of bridged silsesquioxane analogues of commercial ingredients which can be chemically grafted to the silica matrix. Studies with bridged salicylate particles detail facile preparation, minimized leaching, and enhanced UV stability over physically encapsulated and pendant salicylate counterparts. In terms of UVB protective ability, the highest maintenance of sun protection factor (SPF) after extended UV exposure was achieved with bridged incorporation, and has been attributed to corollary UV stability. Additionally, bridged salicylate particles can be classified as broad-spectrum, and rate from moderate to good in terms of UVA protective ability. Particles incorporated with a bridged curcuminoid silsesquioxane were also prepared and displayed comparable results. As such, an attractive method for sunscreen isolation and stabilization has been developed to eliminate the problems associated with current sunscreens, all while maintaining the established UV absorbance profiles of the parent compound. To appreciate the technology utilized in this research, a thorough understanding of sol-gel science as it pertains to hybrid organic/silica particles, including methods of organic fragment

  6. Anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma lucidum: active ingredients and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi H.J. Kao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGanoderma lucidum, commonly referred to as Lingzhi, has been used in Asia for health promotion for centuries. The anti-cancer effects of G. lucidum have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, the observed anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma have prompted its usage by cancer patients alongside chemotherapy.The main two bioactive components of G. lucidum can be broadly grouped into triterpenes and polysaccharides. Despite triterpenes and polysaccharides being widely known as the major active ingredients, the different biological pathways by which they exert their anti-cancer effect remain poorly defined. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of action may lead to more widespread use of Ganoderma as an anti-cancer agent.The aim of this paper is to summarise the various bioactive mechanisms that have been proposed for the anti-cancer properties of triterpenes and polysaccharides extracted from G. lucidum. A literature search of published papers on NCBI with keywords “Ganoderma” and “cancer” was performed. Among those, studies which specifically examined the anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma triterpenes and polysaccharides were selected to be included in this paper.We have found five potential mechanisms which are associated with the anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma triterpenes and three potential mechanisms for Ganoderma polysaccharides. In addition, G. lucidum has been used in combination with known anti-cancer agents to improve the anti-cancer efficacies. This suggests Ganoderma’s bioactive pathways may compliment that of anti-cancer agents. In this paper we present several potential anti-cancer mechanisms of Ganoderma triterpenes and polysaccharides which can be used for the development of Ganoderma as an anti-cancer agent.

  7. [Important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of active ingredients of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolin; Du, Qiu; Di, Liuqing

    2010-02-01

    Oral drug bioavailability depends on gastrointestinal absorption, intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes are the important factors in drug gastrointestinal absorption and they can also be induced or inhibited by the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica. This article presents important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica, and points out the importance of research on transport and metabolism of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica in Chinese extract and Chinese medicinal formulae.

  8. Stronger effects of Roundup than its active ingredient glyphosate in damselfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-12-01

    Pesticides are causing strong decreases in aquatic biodiversity at concentrations assumed safe by legislation. One reason for the failing risk assessment may be strong differences in the toxicity of the active ingredient of pesticides and their commercial formulations. Sublethal effects, especially those on behaviour, have been largely ignored in this context, yet can be equally important as lethal effects at the population and ecosystem levels. Here, we compared the toxicity of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate on survival, but also on ecologically relevant sublethal traits (life history, behaviour and physiology) in damselfly larvae. Roundup was more toxic than glyphosate with negative effects on survival, behaviour and most of the physiological traits being present at lower concentrations (food intake, escape swimming speed) or even only present (survival, sugar and total energy content and muscle mass) following Roundup exposure. This confirms the toxicity of the surfactant POEA. Notably, also glyphosate was not harmless: a realistic concentration of 2mg/l resulted in reduced growth rate, escape swimming speed and fat content. Our results therefore indicate that the toxicity of Roundup cannot be fully attributed to its surfactant, thereby suggesting that also the new generation of glyphosate-based herbicides with other mixtures of surfactants likely will have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicological studies comparing the toxicity of active ingredients and their commercial formulations typically ignore behaviour while the here observed differential effects on behaviour likely will negatively impact damselfly populations. Our data highlight that risk assessment of pesticides ignoring sublethal effects may contribute to the negative effects of pesticides on aquatic biodiversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali S. Bharate

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literature reports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different active pharmaceutical ingredients in solid dosage forms. Examples of active drug/excipient interactions, such as transacylation, the Maillard browning reaction, acid base reactions and physical changes are discussed for different active pharmaceutical ingredients belonging to different therapeutic categories viz antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-convulsant, antibiotic, bronchodialator, antimalarial, antiemetic, antiamoebic, antipsychotic, antidepressant, anticancer, anticoagulant and sedative/hypnotic drugs and vitamins. Once the solid-state reactions of a pharmaceutical system are understood, the necessary steps can be taken to avoid reactivity and improve the stability of drug substances and products.

  10. The A Priori Design and Selection of Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Weber, Cameron C.; Rogers, Robin D.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we derive a straightforward computational approach to predict the optimal ionic liquid (IL) solvent for a given compound, based on COSMO-RS calculations. These calculations were performed on 18 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using a matrix of 210 hypothetical ILs...... on the N-alkylguanidinium cation were prepared and characterized. The solubility of the APIs in each of these classes was found to be qualitatively consistent with the predictions of the COSMO-RS model. The suitability of these novel guanidinium salts as crystallization solvents was demonstrated by the use...

  11. Active ingredients in Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation as Na+/K+ -ATPase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ronald J Y; Jinn, Tzyy-rong; Chen, Yi-ching; Chung, Tse-yu; Yang, Wei-hung; Tzen, Jason T C

    2011-02-01

    The positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides lies in their reversible inhibition on the membrane-bound Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in human myocardium. Steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides are found in many Chinese medicines conventionally used for promoting blood circulation. Some of them are demonstrated to be Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitors and thus putatively responsible for their therapeutic effects via the same molecular mechanism as cardiac glycosides. On the other hand, magnesium lithospermate B of danshen is also proposed to exert its cardiac therapeutic effect by effectively inhibiting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Theoretical modeling suggests that the number of hydrogen bonds and the strength of hydrophobic interaction between the effective ingredients of various medicines and residues around the binding pocket of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase are crucial for the inhibitory potency of these active ingredients. Ginsenosides, the active ingredients in ginseng and sanqi, substantially inhibit Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase when sugar moieties are attached only to the C-3 position of their steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides. Their inhibitory potency is abolished, however, when sugar moieties are linked to C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid nucleus; presumably, these sugar attachments lead to steric hindrance for the entrance of ginsenosides into the binding pocket of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, several steroid-like compounds, and magnesium lithospermate B against ischemic stroke have been accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model, and cumulative data support that effective inhibitors of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the brain could be potential drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  12. The Role of Biologically Active Ingredients from Natural Drug Treatments for Arrhythmias in Different Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Hu, Dan; Song, Xiaoli; Han, Tao; Gao, Yonghong; Xing, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    Arrhythmia is a disease that is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the heart rate or rhythm. It is the major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although several antiarrhythmic drugs have been used in clinic for decades, their application is often limited by their adverse effects. As a result, natural drugs, which have fewer side effects, are now being used to treat arrhythmias. We searched for all articles on the role of biologically active ingredients from natural drug treatments for arrhythmias in different mechanisms in PubMed. This study reviews 19 natural drug therapies, with 18 active ingredient therapies, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, quinones, and terpenes, and two kinds of traditional Chinese medicine compound (Wenxin-Keli and Shensongyangxin), all of which have been studied and reported as having antiarrhythmic effects. The primary focus is the proposed antiarrhythmic mechanism of each natural drug agent. Conclusion . We stress persistent vigilance on the part of the provider in discussing the use of natural drug agents to provide a solid theoretical foundation for further research on antiarrhythmia drugs.

  13. Development and validation of stability indicating UPLC assay method for ziprasidone active pharma ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziprasidone, a novel antipsychotic, exhibits a potent highly selective antagonistic activity on D2 and 5HT2A receptors. Literature survey for ziprasidone revealed several analytical methods based on different techniques but no UPLC method has been reported so far. Aim: Aim of this research paper is to present a simple and rapid stability indicating isocratic, ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC method which was developed and validated for the determination of ziprasidone active pharmaceutical ingredient. Forced degradation studies of ziprasidone were studied under acid, base, oxidative hydrolysis, thermal stress and photo stress conditions. Materials and Methods: The quantitative determination of ziprasidone drug was performed on a Supelco analytical column (100×2.1 mm i.d., 2.7 ΅m with 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH: 6.7 and acetonitrile (ACN as mobile phase with the ratio (55:45-Buffer:ACN at a flow rate of 0.35 ml/ min. For UPLC method, UV detection was made at 318 nm and the run time was 3 min. Developed UPLC method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Results and Conclusion: Mild degradation of the drug substance was observed during oxidative hydrolysis and considerable degradation observed during basic hydrolysis. During method validation, parameters such as precision, linearity, ruggedness, stability, robustness, and specificity were evaluated, which remained within acceptable limits. Developed UPLC method was successfully applied for evaluating assay of Ziprasidone active Pharma ingredient.

  14. Curing Ingredients, Characteristics, Total Phenolic, and Antioxidant Activity of Commercial Indonesian Dried Meat Product (Dendeng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Suryati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendeng is Indonesian dried meat product that used spices rich in antioxidant component as ingredient. In addition, commercial dendeng usually use saltpeter (nitrate/nitrite salt as curing ingredient to inhibit rancidity and to produce stable red color. The aims of this study were to investigate composition of spices and saltpeter added, characteristic, total phenolic, and antioxidant activity of commercial dendeng. This research was conducted through interview with some dendeng producers to get information about saltpeter adding and spices composition used in their products. Then the interview results were verified by laboratory analysis. The results showed that spices and saltpeter adding from some producers varied. The saltpeter added in curing process produced inconsistent red color on commercial dendeng in this investigation. Total phenolic of dendeng from producers ranged from 42.47 to 102.0 mg GAE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 36.51 to 95.49 mg GAE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity against DPPH ranged from 79.35 to 379.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 94.30 to 559.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity of raw dendeng was influenced by phenolic content about 87.2%, but in fried dendeng was only 59.0%. In conclusion, dendeng has a significant antioxidant activity, even after frying, and saltpeter addition was not effective to maintain stable red color in dendeng products.

  15. Study of base influence on the active pharmaceutical ingredients releasing from combined ointments with antimycotic action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Luc

    2018-03-01

    characteristics of medicine and its efficacy. The aim of this work is biopharmaceutical validation of rational composition of semisolid dosage form for external use containing the combination of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and chinosolum. Materials and methods. As a delivery vehicle for developing pharmacotherapeutical medicine the bases widely used in manufacturing of semisolid dosage forms, providing easy “wipe-off" effect after application, non-allergic and non-sensibilic after tracing, available for national producer and described in literature were studied. As the active pharmaceutical ingredients for antimycotic ointment 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and chinosolum in concentration 1% and 1% accordingly providing with suitable level of antifungal activity were used. Taking into account the advisability of high dispersion degree of medical substances in semisolid dosage forms for external use and physical-chemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was added in all bases after preliminary dissolution in polyethylenoxyde 400 with heating and chinosolum was added after dissolution in prescribed or minimal amount of water. 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and chinosolum releasing from ointment compositions was studied with equilibrium dialysis method by Kruvchinsky at the temperature 32±0,5˚С through the semipermeable film “Kuprofan” in the Franz cell apparatus (producer PermeGear, Inc., USA. As a dialysis medium taking into account 2-mercaptobenzothiazole solubility we used solution containing methanol and water 1:1 and chinosolum releasing was carried out into water. Concentration of active pharmaceutical substances released from experimental ointments after 30 min was determined by spectrophotometric method. Results. The obtained results indicate significant advantage of the hydrophilic ointment bases, which provide an optimal level of release of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and chinosolum from the experimental composite soft dosage forms for external

  16. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qingcui; Wu, Ting; Fu, Liang; Ye, Jiannong

    2005-03-09

    A high-performance capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ED) method was developed for the determination of the pharmacologically active ingredients in Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. and its extract phytopharmaceuticals in this work. Under the optimum conditions, nine analytes, baicalein, naringenin, scopoletin, kaempferol, apigenin, scutellarin, luteolin, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid were separated within 24 min in a borax buffer (pH 8.7). Notably, excellent linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 1.0 x 10(-7) g/mL to 5.6 x 10(-7) g/mL for all nine analytes. This method was successfully used in the analysis of E. breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. and its phytopharmaceuticals with a relatively simple extraction procedure, and the assay results were satisfactory.

  17. Grapefruit-felodipine interaction: effect of unprocessed fruit and probable active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D G; Dresser, G K; Kreeft, J H; Munoz, C; Freeman, D J; Bend, J R

    2000-11-01

    To determine whether unprocessed grapefruit can cause a drug interaction, whether the active ingredients are naturally occurring, and whether specific furanocoumarins or flavonoids are involved. The oral pharmacokinetics of felodipine and its dehydrofelodipine metabolite were determined after administration of felodipine 10 mg extended-release tablet with 250 mL commercial grapefruit juice, homogenized grapefruit segments, or extract of segment-free parts equivalent to one unprocessed fruit or water in a randomized four-way crossover study. Inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 by furanocoumarins (bergamottin, 6',7'-epoxybergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin) and flavonoids (naringenin optical isomers) was determined. Furanocoumarin and naringenin precursor (naringin) concentrations were measured in each grapefruit treatment. Felodipine AUC with commercial grapefruit juice, grapefruit segments, or grapefruit extract was on average 3-fold higher than that with water. Felodipine peak concentration was higher, but the half-life was unchanged. The dehydrofelodipine/felodipine AUC ratio was reduced. The furanocoumarins produced mechanism-based and competitive inhibition of CYP3A4. Bergamottin was the most potent mechanism-based inhibitor. Naringenin isomers produced only competitive inhibition. Bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and naringin concentrations varied among grapefruit treatments but were sufficient to inhibit markedly in vitro CYP3A4 activity. Unprocessed grapefruit can cause a drug interaction with felodipine. The active ingredients are naturally occurring in the grapefruit. Bergamottin is likely important in drug interactions with commercial grapefruit juice. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and naringin may be more important in grapefruit segments because they are present in higher concentrations. Any therapeutic concern for a drug interaction with commercial grapefruit juice should now be extended to include whole fruit and possibly confectioneries made

  18. Oxidation of Mixed Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Biologically Treated Wastewater by ClO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradas, Gerly; Fick, Jerker; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater containing a mixture of 53 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)was treated with 0-20 mg/l chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution. Wastewater effluents were taken from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with (low COD) and one without (high COD) extended...... removed at 5 mg/l ClO2 dose. Removal of the same APIs from the high COD effluent was observed when the ClO2 dose was increased to 1.25 mg/l and an increase in API removal only after treatment with 8 mg/l ClO2. This illustrates that treatment of wastewater effluents with chlorine dioxide has potential...

  19. Bioequivalence of eslicarbazepine acetate from two different sources of its active product ingredient in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Amílcar; Lima, Ricardo; Sousa, Rui; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-06-01

    To compare the bioavailability (BA) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and to demonstrate the bioequivalence (BE) between two active product ingredient (API) sources of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in healthy volunteers. Forty healthy male and female subjects aged 18-40 years were randomized to treatment with 400 or 800 mg ESL marketed (MF) formulation [current active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) source] and 400 or 800 mg ESL to-be-marketed (TBM) formulation (new API source) under a gender-balanced, two-period, two-sequence crossover open-label study design. Subjects were assigned to receive either 400 or 800 mg ESL dose strengths, and each was randomly administered on two occasions--either a single oral tablet of MF or a single oral tablet of TBM--separated by a washout period of at least 7 days. Formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if, for both 400 or 800 mg ESL dosage strengths, the test (TBM)/reference (MF) geometric mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) were within the predetermined range of 80-125%. Test/reference GMR (90% CI) for the Cmax and AUC was respectively 100% (94-109%) and 96% (94-98%) following 400 mg ESL and 100% (95-105%) and 100% (97-103%) following 800 mg ESL. Oral tablet formulations of either 400 or 800 mg ESL from the new API source were found to be bioequivalent to the corresponding marketed Zebinix® formulation according to the regulatory definition of bioequivalence.

  20. [Adherence to treatment, by active ingredient, in patients over 65 years on multiple medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Montenegro, Antonio J; Montiel Luque, Alonso; Martín Aurioles, Esther; Torres Verdú, Barbara; Lara Moreno, Celinda; González Correa, José Antonio

    2014-05-01

    To assess the level of adherence, by active ingredient, to treatment and associated factors in polymedicated patients over 65 years-old. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study over polymedicated patients over 65 years of the Costa del Sol Health District and the North Malaga Health Area. The study was performed between January 2011 and September 2012 on 375 subjects obtained by simple random sampling from lists provided by each health centre. Data was collected by means of an interview with structured questions. Informed consent was given and signed by all patients before interview. Main results variable adherence to treatment (Morisky-Green's test). Prescription by active ingredient, socio-demographic variables, health care centre variables, and treatment associated variables. A descriptive analysis of variables was performed. Statistical inference was determined using univariate analysis (t test of Student or Mann-Whitney U, and Chi-squared), and controlling for confounding factors by multivariate analysis (linear and logistic regression). The result for therapeutic compliance was 51.7%. No statistically significant differences were observed as regards sex and age. A relationship was found in those who resided in rural areas (P=.001), lived with family (P<.05), and were not at risk of suffering from anxiety (P=.046). We found similar patient adherence to treatment despite the prescribing generic drugs. Failure to therapeutic compliance was greater in those patients who lived by themselves, in a city close to the coast, or in those patients who were at risk of suffering from anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.

  2. [Enzyme kinetic analysis of Oncomelania hupensis exposed to active ingredient of Buddleja lindleyana (AIBL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang-Xing, Han; Jun, Chen

    2016-07-01

    To analyze the enzyme kinetics of active ingredient of Buddleja lindleyana (AIBL) against Oncomelania hupensis , the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum . O . hupensis snails were placed in 1 000 ml of 3.55 mg/L AIBL solution for 24, 48 h and 72 h, respectively, and the enzyme kinetics of alanine aminotransferase (GPT) was determined by Reitman-Frankel assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by the chemical inhibition lactic acid substrate method, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) by the disodium phenyl phosphate colorimetric method, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and malate dehydrogenas (MDH) by ELISA, and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) by the phenazine methyl sulfate reaction method (PMS) in the soft tissues of O. hupensis before and after AIBL treatment. Following exposure to 3.55 mg/L AIBL solution for 24 h, the GPT, LDH, and AKP activities significantly improved in the soft tissues of O. hupensis , while the SDH and MDH activities were significantly lowered in the head-foot and liver. However, AIBL treatment did not cause significant effect on AChE activity in O. hupensis . AIBL causes significant damages to O. hupensis liver and can efficiently act on anaerobic and aerobic respiration loci, which will hinder energy metabolism, and cause inadequate energy supply in cells used for normal secretion, eventually leading to O. hupensis death.

  3. On the direct characterization and quantification of active ingredients in commercial solid drugs using PIXE, PIGE and ToF-SIMS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsouli, B; Zahraman, K; Bejjani, A; Roumie, M; Noun, M [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission - CNRS, P.O.Box: 11-8281 Beirut (Lebanon); Younes, G [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry - Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); Assi, S; El-Yazbi, F; Mahmoud, R [Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry - Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); Thomas, J P [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon - Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France)

    2010-01-15

    The quantification of the active ingredient (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like HPLC, LC-MS/MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. In the case of an active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl, Br, ...), elemental IBA technique can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparation. This is an advantage when the number of sample is relatively large. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Thick target PIXE (TT-PIXE) and the TT-PIGE techniques for rapid and accurate quantification of celecoxib and atorvastatin in commercial solid drugs. The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. On the direct characterization and quantification of active ingredients in commercial solid drugs using PIXE, PIGE and ToF-SIMS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsouli, B.; Zahraman, K.; Bejjani, A.; Roumie, M.; Noun, M.; Younes, G.; Assi, S.; El-Yazbi, F.; Mahmoud, R.; Thomas, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of the active ingredient (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like HPLC, LC-MS/MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. In the case of an active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl, Br, ...), elemental IBA technique can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparation. This is an advantage when the number of sample is relatively large. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Thick target PIXE (TT-PIXE) and the TT-PIGE techniques for rapid and accurate quantification of celecoxib and atorvastatin in commercial solid drugs. The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. [Immune mechanisms of the active ingredients of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhou, Yu-chun; Xue, Jian-guo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis is a common male disease, and its pathogenesis is not yet clear. Most scholars believe that oxidative stress and immune imbalance are the keys to the occurrence and progression of chronic prostatitis. Currently immunotherapy of chronic prostatitis remains in the exploratory stage. This article relates the active ingredients of 5 Chinese medicinal herbs (total glucosides of paeony, tripterigium wilfordii polglycosidium, curcumin, geniposide, and quercetin) for the treatment of chronic prostatitis and their possible action mechanisms as follows: 1) inhibiting the immune response and activation and proliferation of T-cells, and adjusting the proportion of Th1/Th2 cells; 2) upregulating the expression of Treg and enhancing the patient's tolerability; 3) suppressing the activation of the NF-kB factor, reducing the release of iNOS, and further decreasing the release of NO, IL-2 and other inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to the suppression of the immune response; 4) inhibiting the production of such chemokines as MCP-1 and MIP-1α in order to reduce their induction of inflammatory response. Studies on the immune mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs in the treatment of chronic prostatitis are clinically valuable for the development of new drugs for this disease.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Thai traditional nootropic remedy and its herbal ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term.

  7. Optimization of the Method of Active Ingredients Adding to the Base of Medicinal Films Depending on Certain Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Davtian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of variables of pharmaceutical factors on the technological processes of drugs manufacturing is incredibly important. Thus, in the development of a new drug in the form of medicinal films, the relevance and necessity of determining the effect of the methods of active substances adding on the effectiveness of the drug was determined. The aim is rationalization of the method of the active pharmaceutical ingredients adding into the composition of the developed drug. Materials and methods. As experimental samples we used medicinal films, which were made using various methods of active ingredients adding. The quality of the samples was evaluated by the antimicrobial activity against Clostridium sporogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, which was determined by the diffusion method in agar. Results. The study of the antimicrobial activity of medicinal films with various methods of active ingredients adding showed that the adding of metronidazole as an aqueous solution increases the antimicrobial activity of the films by 21.23%, 16.89%, 28.59%, respectively, compared with films of similar composition, in which metronidazole was added as a suspension, and the remaining ingredients were added by the same way. The introduction of chlorhexidine bigluconate and glucosamine hydrochloride in the film-forming solution lastly together with the solution of metronidazole increases the antimicrobial activity by 24.67%, which is probably due to the absence of contact between thermolabile ingredients and solutions of film-forming substances having a high dissolution temperature. Conclusions. The most rational is adding of metronidazole to the medicinal films in the form of a 0.01% aqueous solution in a mixture with the chlorhexidine bigluconate and glucosamine hydrochloride solution to the final film-forming solution.

  8. Anti-bacteria Effect of Active Ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi on the Spoilage Bacteria of Sauced Pork Head Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Xu, Lingyi; Cui, Yuqian; Pang, Meixia; Wang, Fang; Qi, Jinghua

    2017-12-01

    Extraction and anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi were studied in this paper. Extraction combined with ultrasonic was adopted. The optimum extraction condition was determined by single factor test; the anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients and minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) were valued by Oxford-cup method. The results indicated that kaempferol was the active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi whose optimum extraction condition for ethanol concentrations were sixty-five percent and twenty minutes with ultrasonic assisted extraction.; the active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi had anti-bacteria effect on Staphylococcus, Proteus, Bacillus, Serratia and MIC was 0.5 g/mL,0.5 g/mL,0.0313 g/mL and 0.0625 g/mL. The active constituent of Cacumen Platycladi is kaempferol which has obvious anti-bacteria effect and can be used to prolong the shelf-life of Low-temperature meat products.

  9. Anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of siraitia grosvenorii on the spoilage bacteria isolated from sauced pork head meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Xu, L. Y.; Cui, Y. Q.; Pang, M. X.; Wang, F.; Qi, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Extraction and anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii were studied in this paper. Extraction combined with ultrasonic was adopted. The optimum extraction condition was determined by single factor test; the anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were valued by Oxford-cup method. The results indicated that optimum extraction condition of active ingredients extracted from Siraitia grosvenorii were described as follows: ethanol concentrations of sixty-five percent and twenty minutes with ultrasonic assisted extraction; the active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii had anti-bacteria effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus sp, Serratia sp and MIC was 0.125g/mL, 0.0625g/mL, 0.125g/mL and 0.125g/mL. The active constituent of Siraitia grosvenorii has obvious anti-bacteria effect on the spoilage bacteria isolated from Sauced pork head meat and can be used as a new natural food preservation to prolong the shelf-life of Low-temperature meat products.

  10. Dampened neural activity and abolition of epileptic-like activity in cortical slices by active ingredients of spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Maurizio; Elhamdani, Abdeladim; Camacho, Susana; Meystre, Julie; González, Stephanie Michlig; le Coutre, Johannes; Markram, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Active ingredients of spices (AIS) modulate neural response in the peripheral nervous system, mainly through interaction with TRP channel/receptors. The present study explores how different AIS modulate neural response in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of S1 neocortex. The AIS tested are agonists of TRPV1/3, TRPM8 or TRPA1. Our results demonstrate that capsaicin, eugenol, menthol, icilin and cinnamaldehyde, but not AITC dampen the generation of APs in a voltage- and time-dependent manner. This effect was further tested for the TRPM8 ligands in the presence of a TRPM8 blocker (BCTC) and on TRPM8 KO mice. The observable effect was still present. Finally, the influence of the selected AIS was tested on in vitro gabazine-induced seizures. Results coincide with the above observations: except for cinnamaldehyde, the same AIS were able to reduce the number, duration of the AP bursts and increase the concentration of gabazine needed to elicit them. In conclusion, our data suggests that some of these AIS can modulate glutamatergic neurons in the brain through a TRP-independent pathway, regardless of whether the neurons are stimulated intracellularly or by hyperactive microcircuitry. PMID:25359561

  11. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an aphrodisiac. 310.528 Section 310.528 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean...

  12. [In vitro susceptibility of Trichoconiella padwickii to various active ingredients used as fungicides in the cultivation of rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato Echeverria, Alfonso D; Gutiérrez, Susana A; Carmona, Marcelo A

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the mycelial susceptibility of Trichoconiella padwickii to different active ingredients through average median concentration IC 50 calculation. Inoculum disks were seeded on bean agar at different concentrations (0.1; 1; 10; 30, 50; 100 and 1000mg/l) of various fungicides. After seven days the colony diameter was measured. The data obtained were fitted to nonlinear regression models. Susceptibility was classified using the scale proposed by Edgington. The results show that the pathogen is very sensitive to products that act on the respiratory chain (quinone outside inhibitors [QoI] and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors [SDHI]) and cell membrane (multi-site contact activity), and moderately sensitive to those products interfering with cell division (methyl benzimidazole carbamates [MBC]), synthesis of nucleic acids (phenylamides [PA]) and osmotic signal transduction (multi-site contact activity). This work is the first record on the sensitivity of T. padwickii. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of active ingredients in semi-solid pharmaceutical formulations by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Lisa B; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2017-08-05

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is increasingly gaining significance in the pharmaceutical industry for quality and in-process control. However, the potential of this method for quantitative quality control in pharmacies has long been neglected and little data is available on its application in analysis of creams and ointments. This study evaluated the applicability of NIR spectrometer with limited wavelength range (1000-1900nm) for quantitative quality control of six different dermatological semi-solid pharmaceutical preparations. Each contained a frequently used active ingredient in a common concentration either in a water-free lipid base or in an aqueous cream matrix. Based on direct NIR transflectance measurements through standardized glass beakers and partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration, quantitative models were generated comparing several data pre-processing methods Whereas difficulties were observed for mixtures containing 2% (w/w) metronidazole or 4% (w/w) erythromycin, content determination was possible with sufficient accuracy for salicylic acid (5 % (w/w)) and urea (10% (w/w)) in hydrophilic as well as in lipophilic formulations meeting the limit of a maximum deviation of±5% (relative) from the reference values. Exemplarily, one of the methods was successfully validated according to the EMA Guideline, determining several figures of merit such as specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of active pharmaceutical ingredients content using locally weighted partial least squares and statistical wavelength selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2011-12-15

    Development of quality estimation models using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis has been accelerated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Although linear regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS) are widely used, they cannot always achieve high estimation accuracy because physical and chemical properties of a measuring object have a complex effect on NIR spectra. In this research, locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS) which utilizes a newly defined similarity between samples is proposed to estimate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content in granules for tableting. In addition, a statistical wavelength selection method which quantifies the effect of API content and other factors on NIR spectra is proposed. LW-PLS and the proposed wavelength selection method were applied to real process data provided by Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., and the estimation accuracy was improved by 38.6% in root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) compared to the conventional PLS using wavelengths selected on the basis of variable importance on the projection (VIP). The results clearly show that the proposed calibration modeling technique is useful for API content estimation and is superior to the conventional one. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adsorption chromatography to purify Spacer disaccharide of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient of QuimiHib vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Belinda; Heynngnezz, Lazaro; Beldarrain, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the conditions of adsorption chromatography on Silica gel 60 for purification of Spacer disaccharide a component of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) of QuimiHib vaccine. For that, we made a scale down on an analytical scale that represented at 1.8% of industrial process, indicating reproducibility between two procedures in terms of packing efficiency, purity and recovery. Dynamic binding capacity of the resin Silicagel 60 by the DSE was roughly 125±0.2 mg /mL, 3.4 times the base process. The elution profile obtained, showed the possibility of collecting a unique fraction at range 195±2 and 260±2 minutes, if it is maintained a proper packing of the chromatography resin determined by asymmetry factor from 0.8 to 1.2, which ensures a recovery of 58.9±4.5% and high purity analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography. Adjusting the adsorption conditions increases the productivity of chromatographic operation up to 3.5 fold, indicating that it is feasible in economic terms

  16. Evaluation of soy-based surface active copolymers as surfactant ingredients in model shampoo formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadyuk, A; Kalita, H; Chisholm, B J; Voronov, A

    2014-12-01

    A new non-toxic soybean oil-based polymeric surfactant (SBPS) for personal-care products was developed and extensively characterized, including an evaluation of the polymeric surfactant performance in model shampoo formulations. To experimentally assure applicability of the soy-based macromolecules in shampoos, either in combination with common anionic surfactants (in this study, sodium lauryl sulfate, SLS) or as a single surface-active ingredient, the testing of SBPS physicochemical properties, performance and visual assessment of SBPS-based model shampoos was carried out. The results obtained, including foaming and cleaning ability of model formulations, were compared to those with only SLS as a surfactant as well as to SLS-free shampoos. Overall, the results show that the presence of SBPS improves cleaning, foaming, and conditioning of model formulations. SBPS-based formulations meet major requirements of multifunctional shampoos - mild detergency, foaming, good conditioning, and aesthetic appeal, which are comparable to commercially available shampoos. In addition, examination of SBPS/SLS mixtures in model shampoos showed that the presence of the SBPS enables the concentration of SLS to be significantly reduced without sacrificing shampoo performance. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of hederacoside C, an active ingredient in AG NPP709, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Myung; Yoon, Ji Na; Jung, Ji Won; Choi, Hye Duck; Shin, Young June; Han, Chang Kyun; Lee, Hye Suk; Kang, Hee Eun

    2013-11-01

    1. Hederacoside C (HDC) is one of the active ingredients in Hedera helix leaf extract (Ivy Ex.) and AG NPP709, a new botanical drug to treat acute respiratory infection and chronic inflammatory bronchitis. However, information regarding its pharmacokinetic properties remains limited. 2. Here, we report the pharmacokinetics of HDC in rats after intravenous administration of HDC (3, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg) and after oral administration of HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709 (equivalent to 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg HDC). 3. Linear pharmacokinetics of HDC were identified upon its intravenous administration at doses of 3-25 mg/kg. Intravenous administration of HDC results in relatively slow clearance (1.46-2.08 mL/min/kg) and a small volume of distribution at steady state (138-222 mL/kg), while oral administration results in a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of 0.118-0.250%. The extremely low F of HDC may be due to poor absorption of HDC from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and/or its decomposition therein. 4. The oral pharmacokinetics of HDC did not differ significantly among pure HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709.

  18. Quantification of active ingredients in suppositories by FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Roman; Mazurek, Sylwester

    2013-02-01

    An efficient method for the quantitative determination of acetaminophen (AAP) and diclofenac sodium (DS) in commercial suppositories based on partial least squares (PLS) treatment of FT-Raman spectra is described. The relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were calculated for calibration and validation data sets to evaluate the quality of the constructed models. In the case of DS determination, RSEP error values of 1.9 % and 2.3 % for the calibration and validation data sets, respectively, were found. For AAP these errors amounted to 1.6-2.3 % and 1.8-2.8 %, respectively, for the different calibration models. Four commercial preparations containing 5, 12.5, 16.7 and 33.3 % (w/w) AAP and one containing 5 % (w/w) DS were successfully quantified using the developed models. Concentrations derived from the developed models correlated strongly with the declared values and yielded recoveries of 99.4-100.2 % and 99.6 % for AAP and DS, respectively. The proposed procedure can be used as a fast, economic and reliable method for quantification of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in suppositories. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  20. Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adelina; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Morona, Domenica; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2017-09-06

    Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae. The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active compounds percentage composition analysis and structures identification. Probit regression analysis was used for LC 50 and LC 95 calculations while a t-test was used to test for significant differences between laboratory-reared and wild larvae populations in each concentration of plant extract. Mortality effect of clove and cinnamon essential oils against wild and laboratory-reared larvae had variations indicated by their LC 50 and LC 95 values. The mortality at different concentrations of cinnamon and clove post-exposure for wild and laboratory-reared larvae were dosage-dependent and were higher for cinnamon than for clove essential oils. The mortality effect following exposure to a blend of the two essential oils was higher for blends containing a greater proportion of cinnamon oil. In the chemical analysis of the active ingredients of cinnamon essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol, and the rarest was β-Linalool while for clove essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol and the rarest was Bicyclo. The essential oils showed a larvicidal effect which was concentration-dependent for both laboratory and wild collected larvae. The active ingredient compositions triggered different responses in mortality. Further research in small-scale should be conducted with concentrated extracted compounds.

  1. Study on the mechanism of the bronchodilatory effects of Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) and identification of the active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maulik R; Bhalodia, Yagnik S; Pathak, Nimish L; Patel, Maulik S; Suthar, Kunal; Patel, Nilesh; Golwala, Dharmesh K; Jivani, Nurudin P

    2013-12-12

    In the traditional medicine, Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) is used in asthma, but scientific studies to provide evidence for medicinal uses are sparse. Thus this study was undertaken to provide evidence for medicinal use in asthma as a bronchodilator, and to identify active ingredient(s). In vivo, acetylcholine (Ach)-induced bronchospasm was conducted in guinea pig while isolated rat tracheal strip was suspended in organ bath to measure the concentration response curve using multichannel data acquisition system. The chloroform extract of Cynodon dactylon (CECD) protected against Ach-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs, similar to atropine. In the in vitro studies, CECD relaxed carbachol (CCh) and high K+-induced contraction of rat tracheal strip, similar to atropine and verapamil respectively, suggesting antimuscarinic and calcium channel blocking (CCB) activities, which were confirmed by right ward shifting of CCh and Ca(+2) concentration response curve (CRC). The phosphodiestrase (PDE) inhibitory activity was confirmed by potentiation of isoprenaline-induced inhibitory response, similar to papaverine. Densitometry analyses led to the identification of scopoletin as an active ingredient. Effectively, it significantly inhibited high K+, and Ca(+2) induced contractile response, similar to verapamil. The phosphodiestrase (PDE) inhibitory activity was confirmed by direct evidence of potentiation of isoprenaline-induced inhibitory response, similar to papaverine. These results suggest that the bronchodilator activity of CECD is partly due to presence of scopoletin, and mediated possibly through CCB and PDE inhibition.

  2. Antidotal or protective effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and its active ingredient, curcumin, against natural and chemical toxicities: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Azar; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    Curcuma longa is a rhizomatous perennial herb that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae, native to South Asia and is commonly known as turmeric. It is used as herbal remedy due to the prevalent belief that the plant has medical properties. C. longa possesses different effects such as antioxidant, anti-tumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and gastroprotective activities. The recent studies have shown that C. longa and curcumin, its important active ingredient, have protective effects against toxic agents. In this review article, we collected in vitro and animal studies which are related to protective effects of turmeric and its active ingredient against natural and chemical toxic agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Young-Joon

    2002-08-01

    A wide variety of phenolic substances derived from spice possess potent antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Examples are curcumin, a yellow colouring agent, contained in turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), [6]-gingerol, a pungent ingredient present in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) and capsaicin, a principal pungent principle of hot chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L, Solanaceae). The chemopreventive effects exerted by these phytochemicals are often associated with their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been recognized as a molecular target of many chemopreventive as well as anti-inflammatory agents. Recent studies have shown that COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB. This short review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive effects of the aforementioned spice ingredients in terms of their effects on intracellular signaling cascades, particularly those involving NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

  4. Polymorph characterization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using low-frequency Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Peter J; Dabros, Marta; Sarsfield, Beth; Chan, Eric; Carriere, James T; Smith, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Polymorph detection, identification, and quantitation in crystalline materials are of great importance to the pharmaceutical industry. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques used for this purpose include Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and terahertz (THz) and far-infrared (FIR) spectroscopy. Typically, the fundamental molecular vibrations accessed using high-frequency Raman and MIR spectroscopy or the overtone and combination of bands in the NIR spectra are used to monitor the solid-state forms of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The local environmental sensitivity of the fundamental molecular vibrations provides an indirect probe of the long-range order in molecular crystals. However, low-frequency vibrational spectroscopy provides access to the lattice vibrations of molecular crystals and, hence, has the potential to more directly probe intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Recent advances in filter technology enable high-quality, low-frequency Raman spectra to be acquired using a single-stage spectrograph. This innovation enables the cost-effective collection of high-quality Raman spectra in the 200-10 cm(-1) region. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of low-frequency Raman spectroscopy for the polymorphic characterization of APIs. This approach provides several benefits over existing techniques, including ease of sampling and more intense, information-rich band structures that can potentially discriminate among crystalline forms. An improved understanding of the relationship between the crystalline structure and the low-frequency vibrational spectrum is needed for the more widespread use of the technique.

  5. Standardization of the Manufacturing Process of Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Containing Melittin as the Active Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonmi; Kim, Sung-Geun; Kim, In-Su; Lee, Hwa-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Pharmacopuncture is a unique treatment in oriental medicine that combines chemical stimulation with conventional acupuncture. However, there are no standardized methods for preparing the herbal medicines used in pharmacopuncture, and it is not clear whether the active ingredients are safe and stable. Several studies have investigated nonstandardized preparation processes, but few investigations have addressed safety and preparation methods. Pharmacopuncture may provide an alternative treatment for incurable diseases. However, it must be as valid and safe as standardized medicine. In this way, the present project may contribute to the industrialization of medicine in Korea. It may also expand health insurance coverage by promoting evidence-based medical insurance benefits. Thus, the present study attempted to standardize and improve the raw materials, preparation, and efficacy of bee venom pharmacopuncture (BVP), which is a highly effective technique in oriental medicine. To purify the crude bee venom, the extract was subjected to a stepped-gradient open column (ODS-A; 120 Å, 150 mesh). Using this method, the yield of melittin was significantly increased and the allergen proteins were effectively removed. The melittin content of the purified bee venom was determined using HPLC, and the product was then diluted to 0.1 mg/mL using injection water in preparation for BVP. In the present study, we standardized the purification process to provide safe and stable BVP by increasing the main effective components and eliminating allergens. This study will be seminal in the industrialization and regulation of BVP. We developed an effective strategy for melittin purification and allergen removal from bee venom to create safe BVP.

  6. Standardization of the Manufacturing Process of Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Containing Melittin as the Active Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonmi Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pharmacopuncture is a unique treatment in oriental medicine that combines chemical stimulation with conventional acupuncture. However, there are no standardized methods for preparing the herbal medicines used in pharmacopuncture, and it is not clear whether the active ingredients are safe and stable. Several studies have investigated nonstandardized preparation processes, but few investigations have addressed safety and preparation methods. Pharmacopuncture may provide an alternative treatment for incurable diseases. However, it must be as valid and safe as standardized medicine. In this way, the present project may contribute to the industrialization of medicine in Korea. It may also expand health insurance coverage by promoting evidence-based medical insurance benefits. Thus, the present study attempted to standardize and improve the raw materials, preparation, and efficacy of bee venom pharmacopuncture (BVP, which is a highly effective technique in oriental medicine. Method. To purify the crude bee venom, the extract was subjected to a stepped-gradient open column (ODS-A; 120 Å, 150 mesh. Using this method, the yield of melittin was significantly increased and the allergen proteins were effectively removed. The melittin content of the purified bee venom was determined using HPLC, and the product was then diluted to 0.1 mg/mL using injection water in preparation for BVP. Results. In the present study, we standardized the purification process to provide safe and stable BVP by increasing the main effective components and eliminating allergens. This study will be seminal in the industrialization and regulation of BVP. Conclusion. We developed an effective strategy for melittin purification and allergen removal from bee venom to create safe BVP.

  7. DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Pinon, Arthur C; Emsley, Lyndon; Rossini, Aaron J

    2017-11-28

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has become a valuable tool for the characterization of both pure and formulated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). However, NMR generally suffers from poor sensitivity that often restricts NMR experiments to nuclei with favorable properties, concentrated samples, and acquisition of one-dimensional (1D) NMR spectra. Here, we review how dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be applied to routinely enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments by one to two orders of magnitude for both pure and formulated APIs. Sample preparation protocols for relayed DNP experiments and experiments on directly doped APIs are detailed. Numerical spin diffusion models illustrate the dependence of relayed DNP enhancements on the relaxation properties and particle size of the solids and can be used for particle size determination when the other factors are known. We then describe the advanced solid-state NMR experiments that have been enabled by DNP and how they provide unique insight into the molecular and macroscopic structure of APIs. For example, with large sensitivity gains provided by DNP, natural isotopic abundance, 13 C- 13 C double-quantum single-quantum homonuclear correlation NMR spectra of pure APIs can be routinely acquired. DNP also enables solid-state NMR experiments with unreceptive quadrupolar nuclei such as 2 H, 14 N, and 35 Cl that are commonly found in APIs. Applications of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy for the molecular level characterization of low API load formulations such as commercial tablets and amorphous solid dispersions are described. Future perspectives for DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR experiments on APIs are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A Hybrid MPC-PID Control System Design for the Continuous Purification and Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a hybrid MPC (model predictive control-PID (proportional-integral-derivative control system has been designed for the continuous purification and processing framework of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. The specific unit operations associated with the purification and processing of API have been developed from first-principles and connected in a continuous framework in the form of a flowsheet model. These integrated unit operations are highly interactive along with the presence of process delays. Therefore, a hybrid MPC-PID is a promising alternative to achieve the desired control loop performance as mandated by the regulatory authorities. The integrated flowsheet model has been simulated in gPROMSTM (Process System Enterprise, London, UK. This flowsheet model has been linearized in order to design the control scheme. The ability to track the set point and reject disturbances has been evaluated. A comparative study between the performance of the hybrid MPC-PID and a PID-only control scheme has been presented. The results show that an enhanced control loop performance can be obtained under the hybrid control scheme and demonstrate that such a scheme has high potential in improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  9. The role of active ingredients nanopowder Stichopus hermanii gel to bone resorption in tension area of orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noengki Prameswari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic tooth movement is a continual and balanced process between bone deposition and bone resorption in pressure and tension sites. Stichopus hermanii is one of the best fishery commodities in Indonesia. It is natural and contains various active ingredients such as hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulphate, cell growth factor, eicosa pentaenoic acid (EPA docosa hexaenoic acid (DHA and flavonoid that potentially play a role in orthodontic tooth movement. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the active ingredients of nanopowder Stichopus hermanii promoting bone resorption in tension area orthodontic tooth movement. Methods: A quantitative test for active ingredients of stichopus hermanii was conducted. Thirty two male Cavia cobaya were divisibled became four groups. K (– groups as a negative control group (without treatment, K (+ groups as a positive control group which were provided with a separator rubber for orthodontic tooth movement, and P1, P2 groups, which were treated with 3% and 3.5% stichopus hermanii for orthodontic tooth movement. After treatment the cavia cobaya were sacrificed. TRAP-6 expression as a osteoclast marker was examined by means of an immunohistochemistry method. Results: A one-way Anova test confirmed that TRAP-6 expression was significantly increased with p = 0.00 (p≤0,05 in P2 compared to K (+. P2 to K (–, P2 to P1 and P1 to K (+ had no significant differences Conclusion: Nanopowder Stichopus hermanii 3.5% has an active ingredient that could increase osteoclast activity to resorb periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in tension areas of orthodontic tooth movement.

  10. Chitin-Hyaluronan Nanoparticles: A Multifunctional Carrier to Deliver Anti-Aging Active Ingredients through the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Morganti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process to produce Chitin Nanofibril-Hyaluronan nanoparticles (CN-HA, showing their ability to easily load active ingredients, facilitate penetration through the skin layers, and increase their effectiveness and safety as an anti-aging agent. Size and characterization of CN-HA nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Zetasizer, while encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the entrapped ingredients were controlled by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Safeness was evidenced on fibroblasts and keratinocytes culture viability by the MTT (Methylthiazol assay; anti-aging activity was evaluated in vitro measuring antioxidant capacity, anti-collagenase activity, and metalloproteinase and pro-inflammatory release; efficacy was shown in vivo by a double-blind vehicle-controlled study for 60 days on 60 women affected by photo-aging. In addition, the CN-HA nanoparticles have shown interesting possibility to be used as active ingredients, for designing and making advanced medication by the electrospinning technology, as well as to produce transparent films for food packaging, by the casting method, and can be used also in their dry form as tissues or films without adding preservatives. These unusual CN-HA nanoparticles obtained from the use of raw materials of waste origin may offer an unprecedented occasion for making innovative products, ameliorating the quality of life, reducing pollution and safeguarding the environment’s integrity.

  11. APT drug R&D: the right active ingredient in the right presentation for the right therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalla, David

    2009-11-01

    Drug repurposing, in which an established active pharmaceutical ingredient is applied in a new way - for example, for a new indication, and often combined with an alternative method of presentation, such as a novel delivery route - is an evolving strategy for pharmaceutical R&D. This article discusses examples of the success of this strategy, and presents an analysis of sales of US pharmaceutical products that suggests that this low-risk approach to new product development retains substantial commercial value.

  12. Content of Selected Minerals and Active Ingredients in Teas Containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Marzec, Zbigniew; Sembratowicz, Iwona; Samolińska, Wioletta; Kiczorowska, Bożena; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of selected elements: sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and active ingredients such as phenolic acids and tannins in teas containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos cultivated in various areas. The study material comprised six samples of Yerba Mate teas and of Rooibos teas, both tea bags and leaves, purchased in Puławy and online via Allegro. In total, 24 samples were tested. Yerba Mate was particularly abundant in Mn and Fe. The richest source of these elements was Yerba Mate Yer-Vita (2261.3 mg · kg(-1) d.m.) and (691.6 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). The highest content of zinc was determined in Yerba Mate Amanda with lime (106.0 mg · kg(-1) d.m.), while copper was most abundant in Yerba Mate Big-Active cocoa and vanilla (14.05 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos, the content of sodium was several times higher than in Yerba Mate. A clear difference was observed in the content of minerals in dry weight of the examined products, which could be a result of both the taxonomic distinctness and the origin of the raw material. Leaf teas turned out to be a better source of tannins; on the other hand, tea bags contained substantially more phenolic acids. The richest source of phenolic acids was Yer-Vita in bags (1.8 %), and the highest amount of tannins was recorded in the leaf tea Green Goucho caramel and dark chocolate (9.04 g · 100 g(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos products, the highest content of phenolic acids was recorded in tea bags (Savannah with honey and vanilla 0.96 %), and tannins in (Lord Nelson with strawberry and cream 7.99 g · 100 g (-1) d.m.).

  13. Anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma lucidum: active ingredients and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Chi H.J. Kao; Amalini C. Jesuthasan; Karen S. Bishop; Marcus P. Glucina; Lynnette R. Ferguson

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTGanoderma lucidum, commonly referred to as Lingzhi, has been used in Asia for health promotion for centuries. The anti-cancer effects of G. lucidum have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, the observed anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma have prompted its usage by cancer patients alongside chemotherapy.The main two bioactive components of G. lucidum can be broadly grouped into triterpenes and polysaccharides. Despite triterpenes and polysaccharides bei...

  14. Quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredient and impurities in sildenafil citrate obtained from the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronin, Michael A; Nutan, Mohammad T; Dodla, Uday Krishna Reddy

    2014-10-01

    The accessibility of prescription drugs produced outside of the United States, most notably sildenafil citrate (innovator product, Viagra®), has been made much easier by the Internet. Of greatest concern to clinicians and policymakers is product quality and patient safety. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued warnings to potential buyers that the safety of drugs purchased from the Internet cannot be guaranteed, and may present a health risk to consumers from substandard products. The objective of this study was to determine whether generic sildenafil citrate tablets from international markets obtained via the Internet are equivalent to the US innovator product regarding major aspects of pharmaceutical quality: potency, accuracy of labeling, and presence and level of impurities. This will help identify aspects of drug quality that may impact public health risks. A total of 15 sildenafil citrate tablets were obtained for pharmaceutical analysis: 14 generic samples from international Internet pharmacy websites and the US innovator product. According to US Pharmacopeial guidelines, tablet samples were tested using high-performance liquid chromatography for potency of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and levels of impurities (impurities A, B, C, and D). Impurity levels were compared with International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) limits. Among the 15 samples, 4 samples possessed higher impurity B levels than the ICH qualification threshold, 8 samples possessed higher impurity C levels than the ICH qualification threshold, and 4 samples possessed more than 1% impurity quantity of maximum daily dose (MDD). For API, 6 of the samples failed to fall within the 5% assay limit. Quality assurance tests are often used to detect formulation defects of drug products during the manufacturing and/or storage process. Results suggest that manufacturing standards for sildenafil citrate generic drug products compared with the US innovator product are not

  15. Derivation of general expression for variance in difference in the contents of active ingredient in raw material as determined at seller's and purchaser's site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha Murty, B.; Prahlad, B.

    2012-01-01

    Material supply from a supplier to purchaser involve weighing of the material at both the sites. It is always of interest to know whether there is any difference in the weight of the material and more importantly in the weight of the active ingredient supplied and received. This paper describes the derivation of general expression for variance in difference in the contents of active ingredient in raw material as determined at the seller's and purchaser's site. The derived expression for the variance in difference in the content of active ingredient as determined at seller's and purchaser's site is a generic one though its application is demonstrated for two raw materials

  16. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2–4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods. - Highlights: • A TXRF method for PGM catalyst residue determination in API samples is presented. • Analysis can be performed using 10 μL of the internal standardized dissolved API. • The method is rapid, simple and suitable according to the USP requirements

  17. Work activities within sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of a Franco-Brazilian Research project entitled "Work, Innovation and Development". The aim is to conceptually consider work activity within sustainable development, and to contribute methodologically towards developing strategies for designing sustainable work systems. After a brief description of the factors and the dimensions that have contributed to the creation of ideas on sustainable development, we will put forward two main approaches for understanding work activity within the context of sustainability, these being: the durability of work activity and the development of work activities for sustainable development. Both approaches are presented and examples are given. This is followed by a discussion of the design of sustainable work systems that focuses particularly on the political and technical dimensions of project management.

  18. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  19. Methodologies on estimating the energy requirements for maintenance and determining the net energy contents of feed ingredients in swine: a review of recent work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongchao; Liu, Hu; Li, Yakui; Lv, Zhiqian; Liu, Ling; Lai, Changhua; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Fenglai; Li, Defa; Zhang, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    In the past two decades, a considerable amount of research has focused on the determination of the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of feed ingredients fed to swine. Compared with the DE and ME systems, the net energy (NE) system is assumed to be the most accurate estimate of the energy actually available to the animal. However, published data pertaining to the measured NE content of ingredients fed to growing pigs are limited. Therefore, the Feed Data Group at the Ministry of Agricultural Feed Industry Centre (MAFIC) located at China Agricultural University has evaluated the NE content of many ingredients using indirect calorimetry. The present review summarizes the NE research works conducted at MAFIC and compares these results with those from other research groups on methodological aspect. These research projects mainly focus on estimating the energy requirements for maintenance and its impact on the determination, prediction, and validation of the NE content of several ingredients fed to swine. The estimation of maintenance energy is affected by methodology, growth stage, and previous feeding level. The fasting heat production method and the curvilinear regression method were used in MAFIC to estimate the NE requirement for maintenance. The NE contents of different feedstuffs were determined using indirect calorimetry through standard experimental procedure in MAFIC. Previously generated NE equations can also be used to predict NE in situations where calorimeters are not available. Although popular, the caloric efficiency is not a generally accepted method to validate the energy content of individual feedstuffs. In the future, more accurate and dynamic NE prediction equations aiming at specific ingredients should be established, and more practical validation approaches need to be developed.

  20. [Study on effect of pH on rectum permeability of active ingredients in Reduning suppositories in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Wei, Ying-chun; Meng, Jin; Xu, Dian-hong; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effect of different pH on rectum permeability of chlorogenic acid and geniposide. Four kinds of Reduning suppositories of different pH were separated and put into the rectum to study the suppositories in vitro and the content of chlorogenic acid and geniposide samples was determined by HPLC to calculate the permeation in 24 hours. With increase of pH within 2.5-7.4, the steady state flux of chlorogenic acid was increased, but the steady state flux of geniposidesamples was steady. Adjusted the pH can increase the rectum permeability of active ingredients in Reduning auppositories.

  1. Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Continuous hydrolysis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient intermediate, and subsequent liquid–liquid (L-L) separation of the resulting organic and aqueous phases, have been achieved using a simple PTFE tube reactor connected to a miniscale hydrophobic membrane separator. An alkoxide product......, obtained in continuous mode by a Grignard reaction in THF, reacted with acidic water to produce partially miscible organic and aqueous phases containing Mg salts. Despite the partial THF–water miscibility, the two phases could be separated at total flow rates up to 40 mL/min at different flow ratios, using...

  2. Validation of a method by gas chromatography for the determination of fatty acids that comprise the active ingredient D-004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Leyes, Eduardo A; Marrero Delange, David; Gonzalez Canavaciolo, Victor L; Sierra Perez, Roxana; Adames Fajardo, Yuliamny

    2009-01-01

    D-004 is a new active ingredient obtained from the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) fruits. This substance is mainly composed by a mixture of saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids, from 8 to 18 carbon atoms, and has shown to be effective in experimental model of prostate hyperplasia. A capillary gas chromatographic method for the determination of the fatty acids in D-004 was developed and validated. The acids were analyzed as methyl ester derivatives, which were obtained by reaction with 10 % acetyl chloride in methanol and separated in a BPX-5 wide-bore column using tridecanoic acid as internal standard. The specificity study showed no interferences regarding the determination of this mixture, once the samples were submitted to stress conditions. Determination of the total fatty acid content was linear (r > 0.999; CVs of the response factors and of the slopes lower than 5 and 2 %, respectively) and without bias in the studied concentration range, from 50 to 150 % of the nominal mass. In the accuracy study, over the range 80 to 120 % of the nominal fatty acid concentration, high recoveries (100.4 to 100.8 %) were reached. Good results were obtained in the repeatability and intermediate precision studies (CV < 2%), proving that the method is precise. These results support that this method is properly validated, being appropriate for the quality control and stability studies of this active ingredient

  3. Characterization of the size distribution and aggregation of virus-like nanoparticles used as active ingredients of the HeberNasvac therapeutic vaccine against chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Matilde; Rodriguez, Elias Nelson; Lobaina, Yadira; Musacchio, Alexis; Falcon, Viviana; Guillen, Gerardo; Aguilar, Julio C.

    2017-06-01

    The use of virus-like particles (VLPs) as antigens constitutes a well established strategy in preventive vaccination. These non-infective particles have a composition, size, and structure favoring their interaction and processing by the immune system. Recombinant viral nucleocapsids encapsulating bacterial nucleic acids result in potent Th1-driving immunogens. Several antigens have been coadministered with VLPs or conjugated to them to further increase their immunogenicity. In the present work we characterize the size distribution of two different recombinant VLPs obtained as components of HeberNasvac, a novel therapeutic vaccine recently registered to treat chronic hepatitis B. The vaccine ingredients, hepatitis B virus surface and nucleocapsid antigens (HBsAg and HBcAg, respectively) and the vaccine formulation, were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light obscuration technology. The results demonstrate that both antigens are nanoparticles with sizes ranging between 20-30 nm, in line with reports in the literature. In addition, DLS studies evidenced the capacity of both antigens to form homologous and heterologous aggregates, both as active ingredients as well as being part of the final product. The evaluation of subvisible particles in HeberNasvac formulation fulfills the requirements in terms of quantity and size established for parenteral pharmaceutical compositions. Invited talk at 8th Int. Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (IWAMSN2016) (Ha Long City, Vietnam, 8-12 November 2016)

  4. Determination of antioxidant activity in herbal ingredients for foods using new methods of chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalina Muñoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure has been used to separate and quantify the free radical-scavenging activity of individual compounds 18 samples of Thymus vulgaris and 12 samples of Rosmarinus officinalis (both used as natural food preservatives, based on the combination of HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and postchromatographic DPPH● radical derivatization. The compounds thymol and rosmarinic acid in T. vulgaris and R. officinalis, respectively, were identified by comparisons of their Rf values and UV spectra to standards analyzed under identical analytical conditions, while the quantitative data were calculated from their calibration curves. We found that not only that the biomass yield but also the metabolite content in herbs, depend on the ecotype (genetics and on the agro ecological conditions. The effect of the ambient on the metabolite content is extremely significant and also on their antioxidant activity (One-way ANOVA with Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison post test was performed using GraphPad Prism version 4.00 for Windows, GraphPad Software. This work pretends to demonstrate the great importance of using new technologies for the selection of the best materials used as natural food preservatives.

  5. Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Three Main Active Ingredients of Chinese Chenopodium Ambrosioides (Family: Chenopodiaceae Against Blattella Germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiang Zhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides flowering aerial parts and its three mainactive ingredients was evaluated against Blattella germanica male adults.Methods: Composition of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Topical application bioassay was used to evaluatecontact toxicity of essential oil and three main components. Fumigant toxicity of essential oil and its main components was measured using a sealed space method.Results: Twenty-two components were identified in the essential oil and the main components were (Z-ascaridole(29.7%, isoascaridole (13.0%, ρ-cymene (12.7% and piperitone (5.0%. The essential oil and (Z-ascaridole,isoascaridole and -cymene possessed fumigant toxicity against male German cockroaches with LC50 values of 4.13,0.55, 2.07 and 6.92 mg/L air, respectively. Topical application bioassay showed that all the three compounds weretoxic to male German cockroaches and (Z-ascaridole was the strongest with a LD50 value of 22.02 g/adult while the crude oil with a LD50 value of 67.46 g/adult.Conclusion: The essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides and its three main active ingredients may be explored as natural potential insecticides in the control of cockroaches.

  6. Rapid Determination of Trace Palladium in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients by Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Q. H.; Zhu, D. M.; Yang, D. Z.; Hu, Q. F.; Yang, Y. L.

    2018-01-01

    Clutaraldehyde cross-linked magnetic chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized and used as an adsorbent for the dispersive solid-phase extraction of palladium in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) prior to analysis by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, and TEM were used to characterize the adsorbent. Various parameters of experimental performance, such as adsorbent amount, pH, adsorption time, desorption solutions, coexisting ions, and adsorbent reusability, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was achieved in the 5.0-500 μg/L concentration range, with correlation coefficients of 0.9989. The limit of detection is 2.8 μg/L and the recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 91.7 to 97.6%. It was confirmed that the GMCNs nanocomposite was a promising adsorbing material for extraction and preconcentration of Pd in APIs.

  7. Substantiation of the active ingredients rational concentration of ointment for treatment of allergic dermatitis complicated by fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rukhmakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Due to the rapid growth of number of allergic skin diseases complicated by secondary fungal infection, creation of new drugs with an integrated anti-allergic and anti-fungal action for their local treatment is especially important. Methods and results. In the process of developing an ointment under conventional name “Allergolik” microbiological studies have been conducted to determine its rational composition. Concentrations of licorice root extract, terbinafine hydrochloride and lavender essential oil have been substantiated as parts of the studied medication. Study of acute toxicity of the developed dosage form has set that it belongs to the IV class of low-toxic substances due to the standard classification of K.K. Sidorova. Conclusion. This testifies the correctness of the choice of drug active ingredients and their concentrations.

  8. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious.

  9. Studies on free-radical scavenging activity and identification of active ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita collected from Sur, Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Aqeela Said Hamed AL Orimi; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine free radical scavenging activity and active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita). Methods: The dried powder leaves of M. piperita were extracted with polar organic solvent by Soxhlet extractor. The crude extract and its fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol crude extracts were prepared. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from M. piperita was carried out by DPPH method with minor modification, and the active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of M. piperita were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Qualitative analysis of different polarities crude extracts by GC-MS found different types of active organic compounds. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts were found to be in the order of chloroform extract> butanol extract> ethyl acetate extract> hexane extract>methanol extract. Majority identified compounds in the plant crude extracts by GC-MS were biologically active. Conclusions: Therefore, the isolation, purification, identification and characterization of bioactive compounds from various crude extracts of M. piperita might have ecological significance.

  10. Bactericidal active ingredient in cryopreserved plasma-treated water with the reduced-pH method for plasma disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yoichi; Tani, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Ohshima, Tomoko

    2016-09-01

    For the plasma disinfection of human body, plasma sterilization in liquid is crucial. We found that the plasma-treated water (PTW) has strong bactericidal activity under low pH condition. Physicochemical properties of PTW is discussed based on chemical kinetics. Lower temperature brings longer half-life and the bactericidal activity of PTW can be kept by cryopreservation. High performance PTW, corresponding to the disinfection power of 22 log reduction (B. subtilis spore), can be obtained by special plasma system equipped with cooling device. This is equivalent to 65% H2O2, 14% sodium hypochlorite and 0.33% peracetic acid, which are deadly poison for human. But, it is deactivated soon at higher temperature (4 sec. at body temperature), and toxicity to human body seems low. For dental application, PTW was effective on infected models of human extracted tooth. Although PTW has many chemical components, respective chemical components in PTW were isolated by ion chromatography. In addition to peaks of H2O2, NO2- and NO3-, a specific peak was detected. and only this fraction had bactericidal activity. Purified active ingredient of PTW is the precursor of HOO, and further details will be discussed in the presentation. MEXT (15H03583, 23340176, 25108505). NCCE (23-A-15).

  11. [Advances in research on regulatory effects of chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 expression and activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong; Xu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase1A1(UGT1A1) is a major phase Ⅱ metabolism enzyme, responsible for glucuronidation and elimination of drugs and endogenous compounds, playing a vital role in sustaining endogenous metabolism balance. Therefore, changes in UGT1A1 expression/functional can not only cause adverse clinical drug/herbs-drug interactions, but also lead to metabolic disorder of endogenous substances, causing high blood bilirubin, bilirubin encephalopathy and liver injury, as well as other side effects. To date, many studies have found that a variety of clinical medicines and medicinal ingredients can regulate UGT1A1 activity. This article would summarize the advances in research on drug metabolism and toxicology in domestic and foreign literature, and investigate the regulatory effects of different types of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) ingredients(such as flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids) on UGT1A1 expression and activity, including inhibitory effect of TCM chemical ingredients on UGT1A1 and effect of TCM chemical ingredients on UGT1A1. It is hoped that this review could provide depth understanding and certain reference for the interaction between chemical ingredients of TCM and UGT1A1, which is of great significance to guide the rational clinical use in future. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Ingredients for sustained excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Alikhan, S.; Steed, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Point Lepreau, a 680MWe CANDU reactor, has, since startup, been one of the world's best performing reactors. Many of the ingredients for this success can be found at other plants, but Pt Lepreau has found a ''chemistry'' that has sustained its performance at a very high level. Our belief is that this is the result of two major influences: Pt Lepreau is the only nuclear unit in a small utility, all its nuclear expertise exists at the station, and all necessary disciplines can be readily galvanized to solve problems and get work done. The structure of the organization is simple, with station management involvement in day to day activities. This fosters accountability and a natural efficiency that does not need slogans to achieve its purpose. Turning to the factors that have contributed to the station's success, the IAEA's technical exchange visit in July 1990 identified four items ''which are particularly noteworthy since they can be developed and used widely in the nuclear industry to enhance safety and availability. These are: quality assurance applications; the degree to which system engineers are employed; the dedication of skilled resources to and thoroughness of outage planning; and the in-house development of computers to assist directly in the day to day, medium and long term management of the generating station''. (Author)

  13. DESIGN OF FILL AND FINISH FACILITY FOR ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS (API)

    OpenAIRE

    NUUR LAILA KHAIRUDDIN; NORLIZA ABD. RAHMAN; NUR SYAFIQAH KAMARUDIN

    2016-01-01

    Fill and finish operations continue to be one of the most heavily outsourced activities in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing market today. There are a few aspects that need to be consider in outsource activities like logistic, storage condition, facility certification and audit as regulations and standards which the manufacturer should adhere. Risk would be greater and extra care should be taken when outsource from foreign fill and finish facility. Thus, the internal aseptic fill and fin...

  14. An accurate and precise representation of drug ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Josh; Bian, Jiang; Hogan, William R

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, we built the Drug Ontology (DrOn) to support comparative effectiveness research use cases. Here, we have updated our representation of ingredients to include both active ingredients (and their strengths) and excipients. Our update had three primary lines of work: 1) analysing and extracting excipients, 2) analysing and extracting strength information for active ingredients, and 3) representing the binding of active ingredients to cytochrome P450 isoenzymes as substrates and inhibitors of those enzymes. To properly differentiate between excipients and active ingredients, we conducted an ontological analysis of the roles that various ingredients, including excipients, have in drug products. We used the value specification model of the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations to represent strengths of active ingredients and then analyzed RxNorm to extract excipient and strength information and modeled them according to the results of our analysis. We also analyzed and defined dispositions of molecules used in aggregate as active ingredients to bind cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. Our analysis of excipients led to 17 new classes representing the various roles that excipients can bear. We then extracted excipients from RxNorm and added them to DrOn for branded drugs. We found excipients for 5,743 branded drugs, covering ~27% of the 21,191 branded drugs in DrOn. Our analysis of active ingredients resulted in another new class, active ingredient role. We also extracted strengths for all types of tablets, capsules, and caplets, resulting in strengths for 5,782 drug forms, covering ~41% of the 14,035 total drug forms and accounting for ~97 % of the 5,970 tablets, capsules, and caplets in DrOn. We represented binding-as-substrate and binding-as-inhibitor dispositions to two cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP2C19 and CYP2D6) and linked these dispositions to 65 compounds. It is now possible to query DrOn automatically for all drug products that contain active

  15. Determination of active ingredients in corn silk, leaf, and kernel by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemicaI detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Miao; Chu, Qing-Cui; Tian, Xiu-Hui; Ye, Jian-Nong

    2007-01-01

    Corn has been known for its accumulation of flavones and phenolic acids. However, many parts of corn, except kernel, have not drawn much attention. In this work, a method based on capillary zone electrophoresis with electrochemical detection has been used for the separation and determination of epicatechin, rutin, ascorbic acid (Vc), kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin in corn silk, leaf, and kernel. The distribution comparison of the ingredients among silk, leaf, and kernel is discussed. Several important factors--including running buffer acidity, separation voltage, and working electrode potential--were evaluated to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes could be well separated within 19 min in a 40-mmol/L borate buffer (pH 9.2). The response was linear over three orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) ranging from 4.97 x 10(-8) to 9.75 x 10(-8) g/mL. The method has been successfully applied for the analysis of corn silk, leaf, and kernel with satisfactory results.

  16. Biocompounds from rapeseed oil industry co-stream as active ingredients for skin care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Rommi, K; Fernandes, M M; Lantto, R; Tzanov, T

    2015-10-01

    Despite the great number of substances produced by the skincare industry, very few of them seem to truly have an effect on the skin. Therefore, given the social implications surrounding physical appearance, the search for new bioactive compounds to prevent or attenuate skin ageing and enhance self-image is a priority of current research. In this context, being rich in valuable compounds, such as proteins, phenolics, lipids and vitamins, this study is focused on the potential activity of rapeseed press cake hydrolysates to be used as raw materials for skincare applications. In this study, the protein-rich press residue from the rapeseed oil industry was converted enzymatically into short-chain biologically active peptides using four protease products with varying substrate specificity - Alcalase 2.4L FG, Protex 6L, Protamex and Corolase 7089. The antioxidant, anti-wrinkle and anti-inflammatory activities of the obtained hydrolysates were evaluated in vitro while their biocompatibility with human skin fibroblasts was tested. All hydrolysates were biocompatible with skin fibroblasts after 24 h of exposure, while the non-hydrolysed extract induced cell toxicity. Alcalase 2,4L FG and Protex 6L-obtained hydrolysates were the most promising extracts showing improved bioactivities suitable for skin anti-ageing formulations, namely antioxidant activity, inhibiting approximately 80% cellular reactive oxidative species, anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle properties, inhibiting around 36% of myeloperoxidase activity and over 83% of elastase activity. The enzymatic technology applied to the rapeseed oil industry costream results in the release of bioactive compounds suitable for skincare applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Acetyl aspartic acid, a novel active ingredient, demonstrates potential to improve signs of skin ageing: from consumer need to clinical proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The megatrend of population ageing is leading to a growing demand for "anti-ageing" treatments, especially to prevent or treat skin ageing. Facing an increasing offer, consumers are choosing more and more skin care products supported by a scientific rationale, active ingredients and clinical proof of efficacy. Considering consumer expectations, this research led to the discovery of acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A), a novel active ingredient to improve sagging skin and loss of skin firmness. This supplement is featuring seven manuscripts aiming at presenting the research and investigations from consumer insights, discovery of A-A-A, its in vitro activity confirmation, safety assessment, formulation and its dermal absorption to the clinical proof of efficacy, investigated through two pilots' double bind randomized and placebo controlled studies on photo-aged skin. This extensive research enabled us to discover A-A-A, as an active ingredient with potential to repair sign of skin ageing and supported by clinical proof of efficacy. This active ingredient will be soon launched in a commercial innovative skin care range, delivering desirable anti-wrinkle and skin lifting benefits. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Model evaluation for the prediction of solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs to guide solid–liquid separator design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuveneshan Moodley

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The assumptions and models for solubility modelling or prediction in systems using non-polar solvents, or water and complex triterpene and other active pharmaceutical ingredients as solutes aren't well studied. Furthermore, the assumptions concerning heat capacity effects (negligibility, experimental values or approximations are explored, using non-polar solvents (benzene, or water as reference solvents, for systems with solute melting points in the range of 306–528 K and molecular weights in the range of 90–442 g/mol. New empirical estimation methods for the ΔfusCpi of APIs are presented which correlate the solute molecular masses and van der Waals surface areas with ΔfusCpi. Separate empirical parameters were required for oxygenated and non-oxygenated solutes. Subsequently, the predictive capabilities of the various approaches to solubility modelling for complex pharmaceuticals, for which data is limited, are analysed. The solute selection is based on a principal component analysis, considering molecular weights, fusion temperatures, and solubilities in a non-polar solvent, alcohol, and water, where data was available. New NRTL-SAC parameters were determined for selected steroids, by regression. The original UNIFAC, modified UNIFAC (Dortmund, COSMO-RS (OL, and COSMO-SAC activity coefficient predictions are then conducted, based on the availability of group constants and sigma profiles. These are undertaken to assess the predictive capabilities of these models when each assumption concerning heat capacity is employed. The predictive qualities of the models are assessed, based on the mean square deviation and provide guidelines for model selection, and assumptions concerning phase equilibrium, when designing solid–liquid separators for the pharmaceutical industry on process simulation software. The most suitable assumption regarding ΔfusCpi was found to be system specific, with modified UNIFAC (Dortmund performing well in benzene as

  19. DESIGN OF FILL AND FINISH FACILITY FOR ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS (API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUUR LAILA KHAIRUDDIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fill and finish operations continue to be one of the most heavily outsourced activities in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing market today. There are a few aspects that need to be consider in outsource activities like logistic, storage condition, facility certification and audit as regulations and standards which the manufacturer should adhere. Risk would be greater and extra care should be taken when outsource from foreign fill and finish facility. Thus, the internal aseptic fill and finish facility with audit checklist will help to minimize the risk during logistic and storage and also minimize the cost for outsource fill and finish facility. The data collections are through survey and conceptual design with simulation as the execution part.

  20. Green Barley as an Ingredient in Pasta: Antioxidant Activity and Sensory Characteristics Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanišová Eva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study was to determine antioxidant activity, sensory properties as well as total polyphenol, flavonoid and chlorophyll content of raw and cooked pasta enriched by 1%, 3% and 5% addition of green barley powder. Results of antioxidant activity showed that increase of green barley addition increase antioxidant activity of pasta. The values in raw pasta obtained by DPPH ranged from 1.17 (control to 1.81 (5% addition mg TEAC/g DM, after cooking values ranged from 0.82 (control to 1.59 (5% addition mg TEAC/g DM. Similar tendency was signed by molybdenum reducing antioxidant power method. In enriched pasta was also found higher content of total polyphenol (0.19 in control raw sample and 1.81 mg GAE/g DM in pasta with 5 % of green barley addition; values of cooked pasta ranged from 0.10 in control sample to 0.73 mg GAE/g DM in pasta with 5 % of green barley addition as well as total flavonoid content (results of raw pasta were from 0.00 in control sample to 0.41 mg QE/g DM in pasta with 5% of green barley addition; values of cooked pasta were from 0.00 in control sample to 0.29 mg QE/g DM in variant with 5% green barley. Green barley also enriched pasta for chlorophyll with the best results in 5% addition. From prepared variants of enriched pasta the best overall acceptability was sign in 3% of green barley addition. Pastas enriched with plant-derived bioactive compounds such as green barley may confer health benefits to consumers.

  1. Attractive toxic sugar baits: Control of mosquitoes with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on non-target organisms in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the efficacy of ATSB in the laboratory and the field with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. Assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes a...

  2. Intrinsic Motivation and Engagement as "Active Ingredients" in Garden-Based Education: Examining Models and Measures Derived from Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ellen A.; Chi, Una

    2012-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, this study presents a model of intrinsic motivation and engagement as "active ingredients" in garden-based education. The model was used to create reliable and valid measures of key constructs, and to guide the empirical exploration of motivational processes in garden-based learning. Teacher- and…

  3. Evaluating the migration of ingredients from active packaging and development of dedicated methods: A study of two iron-based oxygen absorbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Cervantes, L.; Sánchez-Machado, D.I.; Pastorelli, S.; Rijk, R.; Paseiro-Losada, P.

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of two commercial oxygen-scavenging products with respect to migration of active ingredients into foodstuffs was investigated. Migrants were identified, and by using appropriate analytical methods, migration was determined in a variety of liquid, solid or gelled food simulants and

  4. Using a behaviour change techniques taxonomy to identify active ingredients within trials of implementation interventions for diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Ivers, Noah M; Newham, James J; Knittle, Keegan; Danko, Kristin J; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2015-04-23

    Methodological guidelines for intervention reporting emphasise describing intervention content in detail. Despite this, systematic reviews of quality improvement (QI) implementation interventions continue to be limited by a lack of clarity and detail regarding the intervention content being evaluated. We aimed to apply the recently developed Behaviour Change Techniques Taxonomy version 1 (BCTTv1) to trials of implementation interventions for managing diabetes to assess the capacity and utility of this taxonomy for characterising active ingredients. Three psychologists independently coded a random sample of 23 trials of healthcare system, provider- and/or patient-focused implementation interventions from a systematic review that included 142 such studies. Intervention content was coded using the BCTTv1, which describes 93 behaviour change techniques (BCTs) grouped within 16 categories. We supplemented the generic coding instructions within the BCTTv1 with decision rules and examples from this literature. Less than a quarter of possible BCTs within the BCTTv1 were identified. For implementation interventions targeting providers, the most commonly identified BCTs included the following: adding objects to the environment, prompts/cues, instruction on how to perform the behaviour, credible source, goal setting (outcome), feedback on outcome of behaviour, and social support (practical). For implementation interventions also targeting patients, the most commonly identified BCTs included the following: prompts/cues, instruction on how to perform the behaviour, information about health consequences, restructuring the social environment, adding objects to the environment, social support (practical), and goal setting (behaviour). The BCTTv1 mapped well onto implementation interventions directly targeting clinicians and patients and could also be used to examine the impact of system-level interventions on clinician and patient behaviour. The BCTTv1 can be used to characterise

  5. The synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs using continuous flow chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Baumann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of continuous flow processing as a key enabling technology has transformed the way we conduct chemistry and has expanded our synthetic capabilities. As a result many new preparative routes have been designed towards commercially relevant drug compounds achieving more efficient and reproducible manufacture. This review article aims to illustrate the holistic systems approach and diverse applications of flow chemistry to the preparation of pharmaceutically active molecules, demonstrating the value of this strategy towards every aspect ranging from synthesis, in-line analysis and purification to final formulation and tableting. Although this review will primarily concentrate on large scale continuous processing, additional selected syntheses using micro or meso-scaled flow reactors will be exemplified for key transformations and process control. It is hoped that the reader will gain an appreciation of the innovative technology and transformational nature that flow chemistry can leverage to an overall process.

  6. The synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using continuous flow chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Marcus; Baxendale, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of continuous flow processing as a key enabling technology has transformed the way we conduct chemistry and has expanded our synthetic capabilities. As a result many new preparative routes have been designed towards commercially relevant drug compounds achieving more efficient and reproducible manufacture. This review article aims to illustrate the holistic systems approach and diverse applications of flow chemistry to the preparation of pharmaceutically active molecules, demonstrating the value of this strategy towards every aspect ranging from synthesis, in-line analysis and purification to final formulation and tableting. Although this review will primarily concentrate on large scale continuous processing, additional selected syntheses using micro or meso-scaled flow reactors will be exemplified for key transformations and process control. It is hoped that the reader will gain an appreciation of the innovative technology and transformational nature that flow chemistry can leverage to an overall process.

  7. Stereoselective Catalytic Synthesis of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Homemade 3D-Printed Mesoreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Porta, Riccardo; Brenna, Davide; Puglisi, Alessandra; Benaglia, Maurizio

    2017-04-03

    3D-printed flow reactors were designed, fabricated from different materials (PLA, HIPS, nylon), and used for a catalytic stereoselective Henry reaction. The use of readily prepared and tunable 3D-printed reactors enabled the rapid screening of devices with different sizes, shapes, and channel dimensions, aimed at the identification of the best-performing reactor setup. The optimized process afforded the products in high yields, moderate diastereoselectivity, and up to 90 % ee. The method was applied to the continuous-flow synthesis of biologically active chiral 1,2-amino alcohols (norephedrine, metaraminol, and methoxamine) through a two-step sequence combining the nitroaldol reaction with a hydrogenation. To highlight potential industrial applications of this method, a multistep continuous synthesis of norephedrine has been realized. The product was isolated without any intermediate purifications or solvent switches. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characterizing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Binding to Human Serum Albumin by Spin-Labeling and EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenschild, Till; Reichenwallner, Jörg; Enkelmann, Volker; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2016-08-26

    Drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) has been characterized by a spin-labeling and continuous-wave (CW) EPR spectroscopic approach. Specifically, the contribution of functional groups (FGs) in a compound on its albumin-binding capabilities is quantitatively described. Molecules from different drug classes are labeled with EPR-active nitroxide radicals (spin-labeled pharmaceuticals (SLPs)) and in a screening approach CW-EPR spectroscopy is used to investigate HSA binding under physiological conditions and at varying ratios of SLP to protein. Spectral simulations of the CW-EPR spectra allow extraction of association constants (KA ) and the maximum number (n) of binding sites per protein. By comparison of data from 23 SLPs, the mechanisms of drug-protein association and the impact of chemical modifications at individual positions on drug uptake can be rationalized. Furthermore, new drug modifications with predictable protein binding tendency may be envisaged. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Spherical crystallization: A technique use to reform solubility and flow property of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arindam; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Srivastava, Birendra

    2017-01-01

    Tablets have been choice of manufacturers over the years due to their comparatively low cost of manufacturing, packaging, shipping, and ease of administration; also have better stability and can be considered virtually tamper proof. A major challenge in formulation development of the tablets extends from lower solubility of the active agent to the elaborated manufacturing procedures for obtaining a compressible granular material. Moreover, the validation and documentation increases, as the numbers of steps increases for an industrially acceptable granulation process. Spherical crystallization (SC) is a promising technique, which encompass the crystallization, agglomeration, and spheronization phenomenon in a single step. Initially, two methods, spherical agglomeration, and emulsion solvent diffusion, were suggested to get a desired result. Later on, the introduction of modified methods such as crystallo-co-agglomeration, ammonia diffusion system, and neutralization techniques overcame the limitations of the older techniques. Under controlled conditions such as solvent composition, mixing rate and temperature, spherical dense agglomerates cluster from particles. Application of the SC technique includes production of compacted spherical particles of drug having improved uniformity in shape and size of particles, good bulk density, better flow properties as well as better solubility so SC when used on commercial scale will bring down the production costs of pharmaceutical tablet and will increase revenue for the pharmaceutical industries in the competitive market. This review summarizes the technologies available for SC and also suggests the parameters for evaluation of a viable product.

  10. Dendrobium: Sources of Active Ingredients to Treat Age-Related Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakova, Veronika; Bonte, Frederic; Lobstein, Annelise

    2017-01-01

    Dendrobium represents one of the most important orchid genera, ornamentally and medicinally. Dendrobiums are sympodial epiphytic plants, which is a name they are worthy of, the name coming from Greek origin: "dendros", tree, and "bios", life. Dendrobium species have been used for a thousand years as first-rate herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). They are source of tonic, astringent, analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory substances, and have been traditionally used as medicinal herbs in the treatment of a variety of disorders, such as, nourishing the stomach, enhancing production of body fluids or nourishing Yin. The Chinese consider Dendrobium as one of the fifty fundamental herbs used to treat all kinds of ailments and use Dendrobium tonic for longevity. This review is focused on main research conducted during the last decade (2006-2016) on Dendrobium plants and their constituents, which have been subjected to investigations of their pharmacological effects involving anticancer, anti-diabetic, neuroprotective and immunomodulating activities, to report their undeniable potential for treating age-related pathologies. PMID:29344419

  11. Elemental characterization of marijuana (cannabis sativa) as a stride in the isolation of its active ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Y A; Jaoji, A A [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University P.M.B. 1014, Zaria (Nigeria); Olalekan, Y S [Department of Physics, University of Ilorin, (Nigeria)

    2010-05-28

    Seed, stem and leaves samples of Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) popularly called Indian Hemp available in northern Nigeria were analyzed for trace amounts of Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Na, Br, La, Yb, Cr, Fe, Zn, and Ba using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Sample sizes of roughly 300mg irradiated for five minutes (short irradiation) and six hours (long irradiation), with decay times of 7 minutes, 10,000 minutes and 26,000 minutes for short, medium and long-lived nuclides respectively. Counting times for ten minutes (short-lived nuclides), 1,800 minutes (medium-lived nuclides) and 36,000 minutes (long-lived nuclides) yielded detection limits between 0.05 - 0.09mug/g. For comparative study, refined tobacco produced by a tobacco company operating in northern Nigeria were characterized together with the marijuana-which is usually smoked raw with leaves stem and seed packed together. The results obtained shows that both the refined tobacco and the raw marijuana have high c oncentration of Ca, Mg, Al and Mn and low values of Na, Br and La. However, marijuana was found to have heavy elements in abundance compared to the refined tobacco, with Zn = 20.5 mug/g and Cr = 14.3mug/g recording the highest values among the heavy elements detected. This is a sharp difference between the two since the values of heavy elements obtained for the refined tobacco are even below detection limits. Quality Control and Quality Assurance was tested using certified reference material obtained from NIST (Tomato Leaves).

  12. Elemental characterization of marijuana (cannabis sativa) as a stride in the isolation of its active ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.A.; Jaoji, A.A.; Olalekan, Y.S.

    2010-01-01

    Seed, stem and leaves samples of Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) popularly called Indian Hemp available in northern Nigeria were analyzed for trace amounts of Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Na, Br, La, Yb, Cr, Fe, Zn, and Ba using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Sample sizes of roughly 300mg irradiated for five minutes (short irradiation) and six hours (long irradiation), with decay times of 7 minutes, 10,000 minutes and 26,000 minutes for short, medium and long-lived nuclides respectively. Counting times for ten minutes (short-lived nuclides), 1,800 minutes (medium-lived nuclides) and 36,000 minutes (long-lived nuclides) yielded detection limits between 0.05 - 0.09μg/g. For comparative study, refined tobacco produced by a tobacco company operating in northern Nigeria were characterized together with the marijuana-which is usually smoked raw with leaves stem and seed packed together. The results obtained shows that both the refined tobacco and the raw marijuana have high c oncentration of Ca, Mg, Al and Mn and low values of Na, Br and La. However, marijuana was found to have heavy elements in abundance compared to the refined tobacco, with Zn = 20.5 μg/g and Cr = 14.3μg/g recording the highest values among the heavy elements detected. This is a sharp difference between the two since the values of heavy elements obtained for the refined tobacco are even below detection limits. Quality Control and Quality Assurance was tested using certified reference material obtained from NIST (Tomato Leaves).

  13. Modeling of quantitative relationships between physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients and tensile strength of tablets using a boosted tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Oishi, Takuya; Shirotori, Kaede; Marumo, Yuki; Kosugi, Atsushi; Kumada, Shungo; Hirai, Daijiro; Takayama, Kozo; Onuki, Yoshinori

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of boosted tree (BT) to develop a correlation model between active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) characteristics and a tensile strength (TS) of tablets as critical quality attributes. First, we evaluated 81 kinds of API characteristics, such as particle size distribution, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner ratio, moisture content, elastic recovery, molecular weight, and partition coefficient. Next, we prepared tablets containing 50% API, 49% microcrystalline cellulose, and 1% magnesium stearate using direct compression at 6, 8, and 10 kN, and measured TS. Then, we applied BT to our dataset to develop a correlation model. Finally, the constructed BT model was validated using k-fold cross-validation. Results showed that the BT model achieved high-performance statistics, whereas multiple regression analysis resulted in poor estimations. Sensitivity analysis of the BT model revealed that diameter of powder particles at the 10th percentile of the cumulative percentage size distribution was the most crucial factor for TS. In addition, the influences of moisture content, partition coefficients, and modal diameter were appreciably meaningful factors. This study demonstrates that BT model could provide comprehensive understanding of the latent structure underlying APIs and TS of tablets.

  14. New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.

  15. Presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the continuum of surface and ground water used in drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahkola, Heidi; Tuominen, Sirkku; Karlsson, Sanja; Perkola, Noora; Huttula, Timo; Saraperä, Sami; Artimo, Aki; Korpiharju, Taina; Äystö, Lauri; Fjäder, Päivi; Assmuth, Timo; Rosendahl, Kirsi; Nysten, Taina

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals in surface water and groundwater cause concern especially when the water is used in drinking water production. Due to their continuous release or spill-over at waste water treatment plants, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are constantly present in aquatic environment and despite their low concentrations, APIs can still cause effects on the organisms. In the present study, Chemcatcher passive sampling was applied in surface water, surface water intake site, and groundwater observation wells to estimate whether the selected APIs are able to end up in drinking water supply through an artificial groundwater recharge system. The API concentrations measured in conventional wastewater, surface water, and groundwater grab samples were assessed with the results obtained with passive samplers. Out of the 25 APIs studied with passive sampling, four were observed in groundwater and 21 in surface water. This suggests that many anthropogenic APIs released to waste water proceed downstream and can be detectable in groundwater recharge. Chemcatcher passive samplers have previously been used in monitoring several harmful chemicals in surface and wastewaters, but the path of chemicals to groundwater has not been studied. This study provides novel information on the suitability of the Chemcatcher passive samplers for detecting APIs in groundwater wells.

  16. Purity of antidotal oxime HI-6 DMS as an active pharmaceutical ingredient for auto-injectors and infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Reinhard; Koller, Marianne; Klaubert, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    As reactivators of inhibited acetylcholinesterase, oximes are essential antidotes in poisoning by organophosphorus compounds. Due to its superior efficacy in cases of soman, cyclosarin, and sarin poisoning, the oxime HI-6 represents a promising option for an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in the further development of antidote therapy for nerve agent poisoning. Developmental lots of HI-6 DMS (dimethanesulfonate) provided by different manufacturers were examined with respect to their content and purity with a view to their future use as an API. There are distinct differences in the HI-6 content from three manufacturers. With respect to purity, gradual differences arise with the known synthetic by-products as well as with unknown accompanying compounds. It became apparent that in the case of a modified synthesis using protective groups, the proportion of some synthesis by-products decreases considerably. With one exception, they are thus below the reporting threshold for API in accordance with pertinent regulatory guidelines. In HI-6, an unknown impurity always occurs, whose percentage necessitates identification due to regulations. This unknown impurity, which has not been described so far, could be identified as an isomer. These findings supply data required for the description of pharmaceutical quality in accordance with module 3 of a Common Technical Document (CTD). They thus contribute to the marketing authorization of this substance as an API for auto-injectors and infusions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Analysis of low active-pharmaceutical-ingredient signal drugs based on thin layer chromatography and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Qingxia; Liu, Yan; Lu, Feng

    2016-11-30

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) embedded in the excipients of the formula can usually be unravelled by normal Raman spectroscopy (NRS). However, more and more drugs with low API content and/or low Raman scattering coefficient were insensitive to NRS analysis, which was for the first time defined as Low API-Signal Drugs (LASIDs) in this paper. The NRS spectra of these LASIDs were similar to their dominant excipients' profiles, such as lactose, starch, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), etc., and were classified into three types as such. 21 out of 100 kinds of drugs were screened as LASIDs and characterized further by Raman microscopic mapping. Accordingly, we proposed a tailored solution to the qualitation and quantitation problem of these LASIDs, using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) detection on the thin layer chromatographic (TLC) plate both in situ and after-separation. Experimental conditions and parameters including TLC support matrix, SERS substrate, detection mode, similarity threshold, internal standard, etc., were optimized. All LASIDs were satisfactorily identified and the quantitation results agreed well with those of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For some structural analogues of LASIDs, although they presented highly similar SERS spectra and were tough to distinguish even with Raman microscopic mapping, they could be successfully discriminated from each other by coupling SERS (with portable Raman spectrometer) with TLC. These results demonstrated that the proposed solution could be employed to detect the LASIDs with high accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection of the quaternary ammonium compound mebezonium as an active ingredient in t61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Grellner, Wolfgang; Rochholz, Gertrud; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2011-03-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds pose an analytical challenge. Mebezonium, a muscle-relaxing agent contained in veterinary euthanasia solution T61, was analyzed in body fluids, organs, and injection sites of a veterinarian by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. Additionally, embutramide and tetracaine, which are two other active ingredients contained in T61, methadone, xylazine, and analgesics were detected by LC-MS-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection methods. For detection of mebezonium a solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with ionpairing reagent heptafluorobutyric acid was developed. Separation was achieved on Phenomenex Synergi Hydro RP C(18) column combined with ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile (pH 3.5). To enrich other drugs, liquid-liquid extraction procedures were used. Most of these drugs were separated on a Restek Allure PFP Propyl column using the mentioned mobile phase. Mebezonium and embutramide were detected in femoral vein serum in concentrations of 10.9 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of xylazine and methadone in serum was 2.0 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively. The LC-MS-MS method with SPE combined with an ion-pairing reagent allowed the quantitation of mebezonium. Methadone was detected in toxic concentrations and was, in combination with xylazine and T61, considered to be the cause of death.

  19. Application of the KeratinoSens™ assay for assessing the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical active ingredients and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settivari, Raja S; Gehen, Sean C; Amado, Ricardo Acosta; Visconti, Nicolo R; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of skin sensitization potential is an important component of the safety evaluation process for agrochemical products. Recently, non-animal approaches including the KeratinoSens™ assay have been developed for predicting skin sensitization potential. Assessing the utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for use with multi-component mixtures such as agrochemical formulations has not been previously evaluated and is a significant need. This study was undertaken to evaluate the KeratinoSens™ assay prediction potential for agrochemical formulations. The assay was conducted for 8 agrochemical active ingredients (AIs) including 3 sensitizers (acetochlor, meptyldinocap, triclopyr), 5 non-sensitizers (aminopyralid, clopyralid, florasulam, methoxyfenozide, oxyfluorfen) and 10 formulations for which in vivo sensitization data were available. The KeratinoSens™ correctly predicted the sensitization potential of all the AIs. For agrochemical formulations it was necessary to modify the standard assay procedure whereby the formulation was assumed to have a common molecular weight. The resultant approach correctly predicted the sensitization potential for 3 of 4 sensitizing formulations and all 6 non-sensitizing formulations when compared to in vivo data. Only the meptyldinocap-containing formulation was misclassified, as a result of high cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate the promising utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for evaluating the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical AIs and formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance indicators of work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, Manoela de Assis; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of performance is a current topic in the management of people in companies, used as a parameter of effectiveness of processes and operations of production. The methods and models of the indicators of current use in the production have concentrated in the assessment of people's performance as determinative resource of the organizational success in the search for the competitiveness. Associated with the classic indicators of performance assessment of the production proceeding, other indicators are used in the assessment of risks and hazards, however with methods focused in the tasks, without connection with the real work activity. The present article explores literature on the models of performance measurement in use in companies and a field research to understand how companies interpret and use indicators that relate health and work, to direct future studies on the subject. Regarding the literature review, one can see that health indicators can be basically divided into two major groups: the legal and managerial indicators. When conducting case studies, it can be realized that companies do not have precisely the concept of health indicator, or were unable to define which of the indicators could be considered indicators of health, considering that absenteeism was the indicator mentioned by the four companies.

  1. Decommissioning alternatives, process and work activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The following outlines the topics discussed under Decommissioning Alternatives, Process and Work Activities: (1) decommissioning alternatives, (2) work activities for prompt removal/dismantling, (3) work activities for entombment with delayed dismantling, and (4) work activities for mothballing with delayed dismantling

  2. Raw material variability of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and its relevance for processability in secondary continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, F; Vanhoorne, V; Pilcer, G; Chavez, P-F; Rome, S; Schubert, M A; Aerts, L; De Beer, T

    2018-06-01

    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) raw material variability is not always thoroughly considered during pharmaceutical process development, mainly due to low quantities of drug substance available. However, synthesis, crystallization routes and production sites evolve during product development and product life cycle leading to changes in physical material attributes which can potentially affect their processability. Recent literature highlights the need for a global approach to understand the link between material synthesis, material variability, process and product quality. The study described in this article aims at explaining the raw material variability of an API using extensive material characterization on a restricted number of representative batches using multivariate data analysis. It is part of a larger investigation trying to link the API drug substance manufacturing process, the resulting physical API raw material attributes and the drug product continuous manufacturing process. Eight API batches produced using different synthetic routes, crystallization, drying, delumping processes and processing equipment were characterized, extensively. Seventeen properties from seven characterization techniques were retained for further analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Three principal components (PCs) were sufficient to explain 92.9% of the API raw material variability. The first PC was related to crystal length, agglomerate size and fraction, flowability and electrostatic charging. The second PC was driven by the span of the particle size distribution and the agglomerates strength. The third PC was related to surface energy. Additionally, the PCA allowed to summarize the API batch-to-batch variability in only three PCs which can be used in future drug product development studies to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the API raw material variability upon the drug product process. The approach described in this article could be applied to any

  3. Influence of environmental factors on the contents of active ingredients and radical scavenging property of potentilla fruticosa in the main production areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Yin, D. X.; Wang, D. M.; Li, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from Potentilla fruticosa have been applied in traditional medicine and exhibited antioxidant property, but little has been known about the diversity of phytochemicals and properties on this species from different growing environment. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active ingredient contents and radical scavenging property of P. fruticosa from different production areas of China in order to discover a location could produce high-quality resources for pharmaceutical products. The contents of tannin, total flavonoids, and rutin were determined and varied within the range of 7.64 ± 0.43 ∼ 10.68 ± 0.67 percentage, 2.29 ± 0.34 ∼ 5.37 ± 0.36 percentage, and 0.19 ± 0.053 ∼ 0.79 ± 0.125 percentage, respectively. Radical scavenging property was quantified, with the IC /sub 50/ of 7.24 ± 0.423 to 17.23 ± 0.551 μ g mL-1. Principal component analysis, multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, and path analysis were conducted to further analysis the relationship between the variations of active ingredients and radical scavenging capacity and growth environment. The results showed dominant environmental factors for these variations were rapidly available nitrogen, rapidly available phosphorus, pH, July average temperature, and annual sunshine duration. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between pH, annual sunshine duration and active ingredients and radical scavenging property (p<0.05). Considering the high active ingredient contents and strong radical scavenging property, leaf extracts from P. fruticosa could become useful supplements for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant agent, and Huzhu Northern Mountain in Qinghai Province and E-mei Mountain in Sichuan Province were selected as favorable production locations. (author)

  4. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  5. Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; shabrmi, Fahad M Al; Aly, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment based on synthetic drugs is expensive and also causes genetic and metabolic alterations. However, safe and sound mode of treatment is needed to control the diseases development and progression. In this regards, medicinal plant and its constituents play an important role in diseases management via modulation of biological activities. Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber officinale, has shown therapeutic role in the health management since ancient time and considered as potential chemopreventive agent. Numerous studies based on clinical trials and animal model has shown that ginger and its constituents shows significant role in the prevention of diseases via modulation of genetic and metabolic activities. In this review, we focused on the therapeutics effects of ginger and its constituents in the diseases management, and its impact on genetic and metabolic activities. PMID:25057339

  6. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes--a process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera-Padrell, Albert E; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren; Gani, Rafiqul; Gernaey, Krist V

    2012-10-01

    A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermentation-based products. The method exploits the synergic combination of continuous flow technologies (e.g., microfluidic techniques) and process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools for faster process design and increased process understanding throughout the whole drug product and process development cycle. The design framework structures the many different and challenging design problems (e.g., solvent selection, reactor design, and design of separation and purification operations), driving the user from the initial drug discovery steps--where process knowledge is very limited--toward the detailed design and analysis. Examples from the literature of PSE methods and tools applied to pharmaceutical process design and novel pharmaceutical production technologies are provided along the text, assisting in the accumulation and interpretation of process knowledge. Different criteria are suggested for the selection of batch and continuous processes so that the whole design results in low capital and operational costs as well as low environmental footprint. The design framework has been applied to the retrofit of an existing batch-wise process used by H. Lundbeck A/S to produce an API: zuclopenthixol. Some of its batch operations were successfully converted into continuous mode, obtaining higher yields that allowed a significant simplification of the whole process. The material and environmental footprint of the process--evaluated through the process mass intensity index, that is, kg of material used per kg of product--was reduced to half of its initial value, with potential for further reduction. The case-study includes reaction steps typically used by the pharmaceutical

  7. Understanding the risks associated with the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS): high variability of active ingredients concentration, mislabelled preparations, multiple psychoactive substances in single products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-08-17

    New psychoactive substances (NPS), are now a large group of substances of abuse not yet completely controlled by international drug conventions, which may pose a public health threat. Anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, seizures, hyperthermia and cardiotoxicity are some of the common adverse effects associated with these compounds. In this paper, three case reports taken from the archive of processed cases of the authors' laboratory are presented and discussed to stress the risks of possible adverse consequences for NPS users: in particular, (i) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual consumed dose, due to variability of active ingredients concentration in consumed products, (ii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual active ingredients present in consumed products, as opposed to those claimed by the manufacturer, and (iii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual pharmacological and toxicological effects related to the simultaneous consumption of different psychoactive ingredients contained in single products, whose interactions are mostly unknown. Each of them individually provide a source of concern for possible serious health related consequences. However, they should be considered in conjunction with each others, with the worldwide availability of NPS through the web and also with the incessantly growing business derived from the manipulation and synthesis of new substances. The resulting scenario is that of a cultural challenge which demands a global approach from different fields of knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti‐ageing active ingredients from herbs and nutraceuticals used in traditional Chinese medicine: pharmacological mechanisms and implications for drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun‐Yan; Yang, Li; Wang, Da‐Wei

    2016-01-01

    Ageing, an unanswered question in the medical field, is a multifactorial process that results in a progressive functional decline in cells, tissues and organisms. Although it is impossible to prevent ageing, slowing down the rate of ageing is entirely possible to achieve. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is characterized by the nourishing of life and its role in anti‐ageing is getting more and more attention. This article summarizes the work done on the natural products from TCM that are reported to have anti‐ageing effects, in the past two decades. The effective anti‐ageing ingredients identified can be generally divided into flavonoids, saponins, polysaccharides, alkaloids and others. Astragaloside, Cistanche tubulosa acteoside, icariin, tetrahydrocurcumin, quercetin, butein, berberine, catechin, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, gastrodin, 6‐Gingerol, glaucarubinone, ginsenoside Rg1, luteolin, icarisid II, naringenin, resveratrol, theaflavin, carnosic acid, catalpol, chrysophanol, cycloastragenol, emodin, galangin, echinacoside, ferulic acid, huperzine, honokiol, isoliensinine, phycocyanin, proanthocyanidins, rosmarinic acid, oxymatrine, piceid, puerarin and salvianolic acid B are specified in this review. Simultaneously, chemical structures of the monomers with anti‐ageing activities are listed, and their source, model, efficacy and mechanism are also described. The TCMs with anti‐ageing function are classified according to their action pathways, including the telomere and telomerase, the sirtuins, the mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP‐activated kinase and insulin/insulin‐like growth factor‐1 signalling pathway, free radicals scavenging and the resistance to DNA damage. Finally, Chinese compound prescription and extracts related to anti‐ageing are introduced, which provides the basis and the direction for the further development of novel and potential drugs. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Principles of

  9. Anti-ageing active ingredients from herbs and nutraceuticals used in traditional Chinese medicine: pharmacological mechanisms and implications for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Yang, Li; Wang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Ageing, an unanswered question in the medical field, is a multifactorial process that results in a progressive functional decline in cells, tissues and organisms. Although it is impossible to prevent ageing, slowing down the rate of ageing is entirely possible to achieve. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is characterized by the nourishing of life and its role in anti-ageing is getting more and more attention. This article summarizes the work done on the natural products from TCM that are reported to have anti-ageing effects, in the past two decades. The effective anti-ageing ingredients identified can be generally divided into flavonoids, saponins, polysaccharides, alkaloids and others. Astragaloside, Cistanche tubulosa acteoside, icariin, tetrahydrocurcumin, quercetin, butein, berberine, catechin, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, gastrodin, 6-Gingerol, glaucarubinone, ginsenoside Rg1, luteolin, icarisid II, naringenin, resveratrol, theaflavin, carnosic acid, catalpol, chrysophanol, cycloastragenol, emodin, galangin, echinacoside, ferulic acid, huperzine, honokiol, isoliensinine, phycocyanin, proanthocyanidins, rosmarinic acid, oxymatrine, piceid, puerarin and salvianolic acid B are specified in this review. Simultaneously, chemical structures of the monomers with anti-ageing activities are listed, and their source, model, efficacy and mechanism are also described. The TCMs with anti-ageing function are classified according to their action pathways, including the telomere and telomerase, the sirtuins, the mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated kinase and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signalling pathway, free radicals scavenging and the resistance to DNA damage. Finally, Chinese compound prescription and extracts related to anti-ageing are introduced, which provides the basis and the direction for the further development of novel and potential drugs. This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of

  10. Polysaccharide-Containing Macromolecules in a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, Hochuekkito: Dual Active Ingredients for Modulation of Immune Functions on Intestinal Peyer's Patches and Epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kiyohara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41 is a well-known Kampo formula, and has been found to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in not only local mucosal immune system in upper respiratory tract, but also systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system. Although this immunopharmacological effect has been proposed to express by modulation of intestinal immune system including Peyer's patches and intestinal epithelial cells, active ingredients are not known. TJ-41 directly affected the production of bone marrow cell-proliferative growth factors from murine Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells in vitro. Among low molecular, intermediate size and macromolecular weight fractions prepared from TJ-41, only fraction containing macromolecular weight ingredients showed Peyer's patch-mediated bone marrow cell-proliferation enhancing activity. Anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration gave 17 subfractions comprising polysaccharides and lignins from the macromolecular weight fraction of TJ-41, and some of the subfractions showed significant enhancing activities having different degrees. Some of the subfractions also expressed stimulating activity on G-CSF-production from colonic epithelial cells, and statistically significant positive correlation was observed among enhancing activities of the subfractions against Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells and epithelial cells. Among the fractions from TJ-41 oral administration of macromolecular weight ingredient fraction to mice succeeded to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system, but all the separated fractions failed to enhance the in vivo antibody response in upper respiratory tract.

  11. Silver Sucrose Octasulfate (IASOS™) as a Valid Active Ingredient into a Novel Vaginal Gel against Human Vaginal Pathogens: In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianelli, Cinzia; Petrucci, Paola; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Calderini, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study assessed the antimicrobial properties of a novel octasilver salt of Sucrose Octasulfate (IASOS) as well as of an innovative vaginal gel containing IASOS (SilSOS Femme), against bacterial and yeast pathogens isolated from human clinical cases of symptomatic vaginal infections. In BHI and LAPT culture media, different ionic silver concentrations and different pHs were tested. IASOS exerted a strong antimicrobial activity towards all the pathogens tested in both culture media. The results demonstrated that salts and organic compounds present in the culture media influenced IASOS efficacy only to a moderate extent. Whereas comparable MBCs (Minimal Bactericidal Concentrations) were observed for G. vaginalis (10 mg/L Ag+), E. coli and E. aerogenes (25 mg/L Ag+) in both media, higher MBCs were found for S. aureus and S. agalactiae in LAPT cultures (50 mg/L Ag+ versus 25 mg/L Ag+). No minimal concentration totally inhibiting the growth of C. albicans was found. Nevertheless, in both media at the highest ionic silver concentrations (50–200 mg/L Ag+), a significant 34–52% drop in Candida growth was observed. pH differently affected the antimicrobial properties of IASOS against bacteria or yeasts; however, a stronger antimicrobial activity at pH higher than the physiological pH was generally observed. It can be therefore concluded that IASOS exerts a bactericidal action against all the tested bacteria and a clear fungistatic action against C. albicans. The antimicrobial activity of the whole vaginal gel SilSOS Femme further confirmed the antimicrobial activity of IASOS. Overall, our findings support IASOS as a valid active ingredient into a vaginal gel. PMID:24897299

  12. Silver sucrose octasulfate (IASOS™ as a valid active ingredient into a novel vaginal gel against human vaginal pathogens: in vitro antimicrobial activity assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Marianelli

    Full Text Available This in vitro study assessed the antimicrobial properties of a novel octasilver salt of Sucrose Octasulfate (IASOS as well as of an innovative vaginal gel containing IASOS (SilSOS Femme, against bacterial and yeast pathogens isolated from human clinical cases of symptomatic vaginal infections. In BHI and LAPT culture media, different ionic silver concentrations and different pHs were tested. IASOS exerted a strong antimicrobial activity towards all the pathogens tested in both culture media. The results demonstrated that salts and organic compounds present in the culture media influenced IASOS efficacy only to a moderate extent. Whereas comparable MBCs (Minimal Bactericidal Concentrations were observed for G. vaginalis (10 mg/L Ag+, E. coli and E. aerogenes (25 mg/L Ag+ in both media, higher MBCs were found for S. aureus and S. agalactiae in LAPT cultures (50 mg/L Ag+ versus 25 mg/L Ag+. No minimal concentration totally inhibiting the growth of C. albicans was found. Nevertheless, in both media at the highest ionic silver concentrations (50-200 mg/L Ag+, a significant 34-52% drop in Candida growth was observed. pH differently affected the antimicrobial properties of IASOS against bacteria or yeasts; however, a stronger antimicrobial activity at pH higher than the physiological pH was generally observed. It can be therefore concluded that IASOS exerts a bactericidal action against all the tested bacteria and a clear fungistatic action against C. albicans. The antimicrobial activity of the whole vaginal gel SilSOS Femme further confirmed the antimicrobial activity of IASOS. Overall, our findings support IASOS as a valid active ingredient into a vaginal gel.

  13. Innovative natural functional ingredients from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Merichel; Herrero, Miguel; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2009-08-26

    Nowadays, a wide variety of compounds such as polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or phytosterols obtained, for example, from wine, fish byproducts, or plants are employed to prepare new functional foods. However, unexplored natural sources of bioactive ingredients are gaining much attention since they can lead to the discovery of new compounds or bioactivities. Microalgae have been proposed as an interesting, almost unlimited, natural source in the search for novel natural functional ingredients, and several works have shown the possibility to find bioactive compounds in these organisms. Some advantages can be associated with the study of microalgae such as their huge diversity, the possibility of being used as natural reactors at controlled conditions, and their ability to produce active secondary metabolites to defend themselves from adverse or extreme conditions. In this contribution, an exhaustive revision is presented involving the research for innovative functional food ingredients from microalgae. The most interesting results in this promising field are discussed including new species composition and bioactivity and new processing and extraction methods. Moreover, the future research trends are critically commented.

  14. Genotoxic Potential of Two Herbicides and their Active Ingredients Assessed with Comet Assay on a Fish Cell Line, Epithelioma Papillosum Cyprini (EPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Rank, Jette; Jensen, Klara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the epithelioma papillosum cyprini (EPC) cell line handling procedure for the comet assay to investigate the genotoxic potential of widely used pesticides. The effects of various media and handling of the EPC cell line were examined. Results indicated......-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid) individually and in a ternary mixture were examined with the comet assay. Data showed that among the active ingredients only 2,4-D andMCPA induced DNA damage, while both herbicides were genotoxic at high concentrations....

  15. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  16. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  17. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  18. Active Ingredients of Epimedii Folium and Ligustri Lucidi Fructus Balanced GR/HSP90 to Improve the Sensitivity of Asthmatic Rats to Budesonide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufeng Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of active ingredients of Epimedii Folium (EF and Ligustri Lucidi Fructus (LLF combined with Budesonide (Bun in asthmatic rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups, including normal group, asthma model group, Bun group, group of active ingredients of EL and LLF (EL, and group of coadministration of Bun with EL (Bun&EL. The asthmatic model was prepared by ovalbumin sensitizing and challenging. Lymphocyte apoptosis, GR protein and binding, and the protein and mRNA of GRα, GRβ, and HSP90 were tested. The results showed that Bun&EL ① markedly increased lymphocyte apoptosis, GR and HSP90 protein, and GR binding in BALF and ② enhanced the expressions of GRα and HSP90 and the ratio of GRα to GRβ or to HSP90 both in protein and in mRNA levels in lung, ③ while decrease occurred in GRβ mRNA and the mRNA ratio of GRβ to HSP90 compared with asthma or Bun group. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between GRα and GRβ in protein level, or between GRα and HSP90 both in protein and in mRNA levels. EL may effectively enhance the sensitivity of asthmatic rats to Bun via balancing GR/HSP90. And these findings will be beneficial for the treatment of asthma in the future.

  19. Hydrolysate from a mixture of legume flours with antifungal activity as an ingredient for prolonging the shelf-life of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Verni, Michela; Bordignon, Stefano; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at identifying antifungal compounds from plant matrices to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, a water/salt-soluble extract (WSE) was produced from a legume enzyme hydrolysate, consisting of a mixture of pea, lentil, and faba bean flours, and assayed towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. Agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the optimal processing conditions for hydrolysis. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the inhibition was observed towards several fungi, including Aspergillus parasiticus CBS971.97, Penicillium carneum CBS 112297, Penicillium paneum CBS 101032, Penicillium polonicum 112490. A multi-step purification was carried out to identify the active compounds. The antifungal activity was attributed to native proteins (nsLTP, ubiquitin, lectin alpha-1 chain, wound-induced basic protein, defensin-1, defensin-2) and a mixture of peptides, which were released during hydrolysis. Nine peptides were purified and identified as sequences encrypted in legume vicilins, lectins and chitinases. WSE was used as ingredient for making bread under pilot plant conditions. Chemical, structural and sensory characterization of bread showed the lack of significant changes compared to control. The bread made with the legume hydrolysate had a longer shelf-life than that of the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytical method (HPLC, validation used for identification and assay of the pharmaceutical active ingredient, Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use and its finite product Tilodem 50, hydrosoluble powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neagu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In SC DELOS IMPEX ’96 SRL the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API for the finite product Tilodem 50 - hydrosoluble powder was acomkplished in the respect of last European Pharmacopoeia.The method for analysis used in this purpose was the compendial method „Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use” in EurPh. in vigour edition and represent a variant developed and validation „in house”.The parameters which was included in the methodology validation for chromatographic method are the followings: Selectivity, Linearity, Linearity range, Detection and Quantification limits, Precision, Repeatability (intra day, Inter-Day Reproductibility, Accuracy, Robustness, Solutions’ stability and System suitability. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, the active pharmaceutical ingredient is consistent, in terms of quality, if it contains Tylosin A - minimum 80% and the amount of Tylosin A, B, C, D, at minimum 95%. Identification and determination of each component separately (Tylosin A, B, C, D is possible by chromatographic separation-HPLC. Validation of analytical methods is presented below.

  2. Hovenia dulcis Thunb extract and its ingredient methyl vanillate activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway and increase bone mass in growing or ovariectomized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu-Hyeon Cha

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a potential target for development of anabolic agents to treat osteoporosis because of its role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, there is no clinically available anti-osteoporosis drug that targets this Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In this study, we screened a library of aqueous extracts of 350 plants and identified Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT extract as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator. HDT extract induced osteogenic differentiation of calvarial osteoblasts without cytotoxicity. In addition, HDT extract increased femoral bone mass without inducing significant weight changes in normal mice. In addition, thickness and area of femoral cortical bone were also significantly increased by the HDT extract. Methyl vanillate (MV, one of the ingredients in HDT, also activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro. MV rescued trabecular or cortical femoral bone loss in the ovariectomized mice without inducing any significant weight changes or abnormality in liver tissue when administrated orally. Thus, natural HDT extract and its ingredient MV are potential anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis.

  3. Understanding Usability Work as a Human Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie

    Three core themes are explored in eight papers: Usability work as a human activity, usability practice and methods, and persuasiveness of evaluation results and feedback. We explore how usability work is much more than methods and work procedures, and argue that maturing our understanding...

  4. Design of optimal solvent for extraction of bio–active ingredients from six varieties of Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caunii Angela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive research has been performed worldwide and important evidences were collected to show the immense potential of plants used in various traditional therapeutic systems. The aim of this work is to investigate the different extracting solvents in terms of the influence of their polarity on the extracting ability of bioactive molecules (phenolic compounds from the M. sativa flowers. Results The total phenolic content of samples was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu (FC procedure and their antioxidant activity was assayed through in vitro radical decomposing activity using the radical DPPH° assay (IUPAC name for DPPH is (phenyl–(2,4,6–trinitrophenyl iminoazanium. The results showed that water was better than methanol and acetic acid for extracting bioactive compounds, in particular for total phenolic compounds from the flowers of alfalfa. The average content of bioactive molecules in methanol extract was 263.5±1.02 mg GAE/100g of dry weight lyophilized extract. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. However, all extracts were free–radical inhibitors, but the water extract was more potent than the acetic and the methanol ones. The order of inhibitor effectiveness (expressed by IC50 proved to be: water extract (0.924mg/mL > acetic acid extract (0.154mg/mL > methanol (0.079mg/mL. The profiles of each extract (fingerprint were characterized by FT–MIR spectroscopy. Conclusions The present study compares the fingerprint of different extracts of the M. sativa flowers, collected from the wild flora of Romania. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. The dependence of the extract composition on the solvent polarity (acetic acid vs. methanol vs. water was revealed by UV–VIS spectrometry and Infrared fingerprint.

  5. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. [Sleep apnea, CPAP therapy and work activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Bruno; Carli, Sonia; Crevacore, Mirella; Godio, Massimo; Danioni, Alessandro; Sacco, Carlo; Braghiroli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea syndrome (OSAS) is largely prevalent among the general adult population, particularly among obese subjects. Diurnal somnolence is a characteristic feature of OSAS, one that can interfere on daily life of the patients and also on his/her work-related activities. Aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of OSAS, its symptoms and its therapy with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) may have on work-related activities. Fourty-eight subjects were studied, all > 18 years old and in a work-related age (women). There were 34 males and 14 females, 38 actively working, 3 unemployed, 7 not actively working. Before diagnosis the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was 12 +/- 4, after the use of CPAP it was 4 +/- 4 (pwork activity was confirmed in all patients, as all employed patients were still working. Our data seem to indicate that not only OSAS interferes with working performance, mainly due to OSAS-related diurnal somnolence, but also that appropriate CPAP therapy, reinforced with educational activities and followed after one year, is able to ameliorate OSAS-related symptoms, potential cause of inefficiency an occupational risk at work.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of five active ingredients of Eucommiae cortex in normal and ovariectomized mice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Hu, Fangdi; Wang, Changhong; Zhang, Zijia; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-09-01

    1. Pinoresinol di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG), geniposide (GE), geniposidic acid (GA), aucubin (AN) and chlorogenic acid (CA) are the representative active ingredients in Eucommiae cortex (EC), which may be estrogenic. 2. The ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the five ingredients showed good linearity, low limits of quantification and high extraction recoveries, as well as acceptable precision, accuracy and stability in mice plasma and tissue samples (liver, spleen, kidney and uterus). It was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of PDG, GE, GA, AN and CA between normal and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. 3. The results indicated that except CA, the plasma and tissue concentrations of PDG, GE, GA in OVX mice were all greater than those in normal mice. AN could only be detected in the plasma and liver homogenate of normal mice, which was poorly absorbed in OVX mice and low in other measured tissues. PDG, GE and GA seem to be better absorbed in OVX mice than in normal mice proved by the remarkable increased value of AUC0-∞ and Cmax. It is beneficial that PDG, GE, GA have better plasma absorption and tissue distribution in pathological state.

  8. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  9. Drug Pollution from Manufacturing and Antimicrobial Resistance: How Does the European Union Manage the Potential Environmental and Health Risks of Importing Pharmaceutical Active Ingredients From Third Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Gal, Elodie Jeanine Odette

    pollution and anti-micro-bacterial resistance within their own borders by buying and importing drugs manufactured in third countries, such as India and China. With a focus on drug pollution from manufacturing, the goal of this paper is to explore the European drug import safety regime. It intends to better...... and environmental failures. Over the past three decades, the scientific literature has been increasingly reporting case studies on environmental pollution from drug manufacturing, human excretions and improper disposal of unused or expired drug residues in different parts of the world. Active ingredients, which...... are responsible for the biological activity of drugs, have been identified as the main vector of pharmaceutical pollution. Associated with the environmental risk of pharmaceutical pollution in soils and waterways is the predicted risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) expected to increase and to dramatically...

  10. Characterizing Active Ingredients of eHealth Interventions Targeting Persons With Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Mihiretu M; Liedtke, Tatjana P; Möllers, Tobias; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-10-12

    The behavior change technique taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1; Michie and colleagues, 2013) is a comprehensive tool to characterize active ingredients of interventions and includes 93 labels that are hierarchically clustered into 16 hierarchical clusters. The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredients in electronic health (eHealth) interventions targeting patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and relevant outcomes. We conducted a scoping review using the BCTTv1. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), studies with or pre-post-test designs, and quasi-experimental studies examining efficacy and effectiveness of eHealth interventions for disease management or the promotion of relevant health behaviors were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility using predetermined eligibility criteria. Data were extracted following a data extraction sheet. The BCTTv1 was used to characterize active ingredients of the interventions reported in the included studies. Of the 1404 unique records screened, 32 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and reported results on the efficacy and or or effectiveness of interventions. Of the included 32 studies, 18 (56%) were Web-based interventions delivered via personal digital assistant (PDA), tablet, computer, and/or mobile phones; 7 (22%) were telehealth interventions delivered via landline; 6 (19%) made use of text messaging (short service message, SMS); and 1 employed videoconferencing (3%). Of the 16 hierarchical clusters of the BCTTv1, 11 were identified in interventions included in this review. Of the 93 individual behavior change techniques (BCTs), 31 were identified as active ingredients of the interventions. The most common BCTs identified were instruction on how to perform behavior, adding objects to the environment, information about health consequences, self-monitoring of the outcomes and/or and prefers to be

  11. Comparison of adsorption equilibrium and kinetic models for a case study of pharmaceutical active ingredient adsorption from fermentation broths: parameter determination, simulation, sensitivity analysis and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Likozar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models for a batch process were developed to predict concentration distributions for an active ingredient (vancomycin adsorption on a representative hydrophobic-molecule adsorbent, using differently diluted crude fermentation broth with cells as the feedstock. The kinetic parameters were estimated using the maximization of the coefficient of determination by a heuristic algorithm. The parameters were estimated for each fermentation broth concentration using four concentration distributions at initial vancomycin concentrations of 4.96, 1.17, 2.78, and 5.54 g l−¹. In sequence, the models and their parameters were validated for fermentation broth concentrations of 0, 20, 50, and 100% (v/v by calculating the coefficient of determination for each concentration distribution at the corresponding initial concentration. The applicability of the validated models for process optimization was investigated by using the models as process simulators to optimize the two process efficiencies.

  12. The Role of Music in Work Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Motta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of music in work activities by considering music an intersemiotic discursive practice. It uses an interdisciplinary approach composed of discourse analysis, ethonomusicology and ergology in order to be able to examine the topic including music and work factors, put together by discourse. Firstly, the boundaries of traditional work songs are expanded through two unconventional examples: one in an advertisement, and the other one in a product packaging. Then through that expanded framework, it explores examples of two Brazilian communities, one from Bahia and the other one from Maranhão (both in Brazilian Northeast that sing while they work in extractivist and agricultural activities. The conclusion points out that the relationship between music and work far surpasses the traditional framing of work songs. To better understand the role of music in the discourse of work activities, scholars need to take into account the renormalization which is brought into play and the discursive communities concerned by those complex discursive practices.

  13. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years

  14. Putting the "You" in "Thank You": Examining Other-Praising Behavior as the Active Relational Ingredient in Expressed Gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algoe, Sara B; Kurtz, Laura E; Hilaire, Nicole M

    2016-09-01

    Although positive emotions as a class can build interpersonal resources, recent evidence suggests a unique and direct role for gratitude. In the current research, we shine the spotlight on what happens between a grateful person and the benefactor to illuminate what can build a bridge between them. Specifically, we draw on work calling gratitude an "other-praising" emotion. In an original study and a conceptual replication that included two independent samples, couples had video-recorded conversations in which one member expressed gratitude to the other ( n = 370). Expresser's other-praising behavior was robustly positively associated with the benefactor's postinteraction perception of expresser responsiveness, personal good feelings in general, and felt loving in particular. Several practical and theoretical alternative explanations are ruled out. By clarifying the specific behavioral and subjective psychological mechanisms through which expressed gratitude promotes relationships, this work advances affective and relationship science, two domains that cut across disciplines within psychology.

  15. Long working hours and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrave, David; Charlwood, Andy; Wooden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    It is widely believed that persons employed in jobs demanding long working hours are at greater risk of physical inactivity than other workers, primarily because they have less leisure time available to undertake physical activity. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis using prospective data obtained from a nationally representative sample of employed persons. Longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (93,367 observations from 17,893 individuals) were used to estimate conditional fixed effects logistic regression models of the likelihood of moderate or vigorous physical exercise for at least 30 min, at least four times a week. No significant associations between long working hours and the incidence of healthy levels of physical activity were uncovered once other exogenous influences on activity levels were controlled for. The odds of men or women who usually work 60 or more hours per week exercising at healthy levels were 6% and 11% less, respectively, than those of comparable persons working a more standard 35-40 h/week; however, neither estimate was significantly different from 0 at 95% CI. The findings suggest that there is no trade-off between long working hours and physical activity in Australia. It is argued that these findings are broadly consistent with previous research studies from Anglo-Saxon countries (where long working hours are pervasive) that employed large nationally representative samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. 40 CFR 180.940 - Tolerance exemptions for active and inert ingredients for use in antimicrobial formulations (Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of active silver Sulfuric acid monododecyl ester, sodium salt (sodium lauryl sulfate) 151-21-3 When... (sodium lauryl sulfate) 151-21-3 When ready for use, the end-use concentration is not to exceed 350 ppm (c... acid monododecyl ester, sodium salt (sodium lauryl sulfate) 151-21-3 None 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H...

  17. High-expression β(1) adrenergic receptor/cell membrane chromatography method based on a target receptor to screen active ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Xue, Hui; Wang, Xin; Yang, Qian; Song, Yanhong; Li, Xiaoni

    2014-02-01

    β-Adrenergic receptors are important targets for drug discovery. We have developed a new β1 -adrenergic receptor cell membrane chromatography (β1 AR-CMC) with offline ultra-performance LC (UPLC) and MS method for screening active ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, Chinese hamster ovary-S cells with high β1 AR expression levels were established and used to prepare a cell membrane stationary phase in a β1 AR-CMC model. The retention fractions were separated and identified by the UPLC-MS system. The screening results found that isoimperatorin from Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii was the targeted component that could act on β1 AR in similar manner of metoprolol as a control drug. In addition, the biological effects of active component were also investigated in order to search for a new type of β1 AR antagonist. It will be a useful method for drug discovery as a leading compound resource. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Chemical characteristics of saponins from Paris fargesii var. brevipetala and cytotoxic activity of its main ingredient, paris saponin H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feiyan; Yin, Hongxiang; Chen, Chu; Liu, Xianbo; Xue, Dan; Chen, Tiezhu; He, Jun; Zhang, Hao

    2012-06-01

    More attention was paid to the anti-tumor activity of Rhizoma Paridis (RP) recently, of which the wild resource was decreased significantly. This study was aimed to elucidate the chemical characteristics of Paris fargesii var. brevipetala (PFB) that may be administrated as alternate resource of legal RP. A HPLC-ELSD method was established to characterize the steroid saponins in rhizomes of PFB and two legal Paris species [Paris polyphylla var. chinensis (PPC) and P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis (PPY)] in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP). Ten saponins (paris saponins I, II, V, VI, VII, H, gracillin and other three paris saponins) were involved as standards. The results indicated that PFB contained pennogenyl saponins as the main components with small amounts of diosgenin saponins. The total contents of the detected saponins in PFB ranged from 9.12mg/g to 85.33mg/g. Nine of the twelve PFB samples own a total content of paris saponins I, II, VI, and VII more than 6.0mg/g (meeting the standard of CP 2010 edition). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analysis (PLS-DA) both confirmed the fact that saponin profiles of PFB, PPC and PPY were different from each other. In addition, paris saponin H (Ps H), the predominant saponin of PFB (>50%), was tested in vitro to evaluate its cytotoxic activities on HepG2, A549, RPE and L929 cells with a positive control of Cisplatin. Ps H showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity on A549 cells with an IC(50) value of 1.53±0.08μg/mL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijing Yi

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea. The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4, α-farnesene synthase (AFS, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea. This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi.

  20. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Wei; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi. PMID:27152614

  1. Promoting Sustained Breastfeeding of Infants at Risk for Asthma: Explaining the "Active Ingredients" of an Effective Program Using Intervention Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesters, Ilse; Gijsbers, Barbara; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2018-01-01

    Infants whose parents and/or siblings have a history of asthma or allergy may profit from receiving exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. This is expected to diminish the chance of developing childhood asthma and/or atopic disease. Ongoing breastfeeding for 6 months seems challenging for many women. An educational program was developed using Intervention Mapping as a logic model to guide development and was found successful in improving breastfeeding rates at 6 months postpartum, improving knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding for 6 months, after exposure to the program compared to controls. Intervention elements included an evidence- and theory-based booklet addressed during pre- and postnatal home visits by trained assistants. This paper elucidates the inner workings of the program by systematically describing and illustrating the steps for intervention development.

  2. Neuroprotective effect of safranal, an active ingredient of Crocus sativus , in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Sadeghnia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Safranal is a monoterpene aldehyde found in saffron (Crocus sativus L. petals. It has been previously reported that safranal has a wide range of activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we examined the effect of safranal on brain injuries in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 30 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Safranal in the doses of 72.5 and 145 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally at 0, 3, and 6 h after reperfusion. Neurobehavioral deficit, infarct volume, hippocampal cell loss and markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, total sulfhydryl (SH content, and antioxidant capacity (using FRAP assay were also assessed. The focal cerebral ischemia induced a significant increase in the neurological score, infarct volume and neuronal cell loss in the ipsilateral hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields (p < 0.001 and also oxidative stress markers (p < 0.01. Following safranal administration, the total SH content and antioxidant capacity significantly increased, while marked decreases were observed in the neurological score, infarct volume and hippocampal cell loss, as well as TBARS level. This study concluded that safranal had protective effects on ischemic reperfusion injury in the rat model of stroke. Such effects of safranal may have been exerted mainly by suppressing the production of free radicals and increasing antioxidant activity.

  3. Intestinal antispasmodic effects of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum and chemical identification of the active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, Daniela; Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Piacente, Sonia; Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Borrelli, Francesca; Izzo, Angelo A

    2013-12-12

    In the Mediterranean Area, the flowers of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum are a traditional remedy for the treatment of intestinal complaints and are used as herbal tea for curing digestive, stomachic and intestinal diseases. In order to find scientific evidence for the traditional utilization of this plant, the effect of an ethanolic extract of Helichrysum italicum was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Then, through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures, active component(s) were identified. Contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with acetylcholine and barium chloride; motility in vivo was evaluated by measuring upper gastrointestinal transit, both in control mice and in mice with experimental intestinal inflammation induced by croton oil. Chromatographic separation techniques such as HPLC and silica gel columns have yielded the active principles of Helichrysum italicum. We found that the ethanolic extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers elicited antispasmodic actions in the isolated mouse ileum and inhibited transit preferentially in the inflamed gut. A bioassay guided fractionation of the extract yielded the known compounds 12-acetoxytremetone (1) and 2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (2). Present study supported the traditional use of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers for intestinal complaints and through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures from the crude extract we showed that 12-acetoxytremetone (1) and 2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (2) acted in a synergistic way to produce an intestinal antispasmodic effect. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of HRAM screening and LC-MS/MS confirmation of active pharmaceutical ingredient in "natural" herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascali, Jennifer P; Fais, Paolo; Vaiano, Fabio; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2018-05-01

    The growing market of herbal remedies worldwide could pose severe problems to consumers' health due to the possible presence of potentially harmful, undeclared synthetic substances or analogues of prescription drugs. The present work shows a simple but effective approach to unequivocally identify synthetic anorectic compounds in allegedly 'natural' herbal extracts, by exploiting liquid chromatography/time of flight (Q-TOF LC/MS) technology coupled to liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole (LC-MS/MS) confirmation and quantitation. The procedure was applied to five tea herbal extracts and pills sold as coadjutant for weigh loss. The method exploited liquid-liquid sample extraction (LLE) and separation in a C18 (2.1mm×150mm, 1.8μm) column. QTOF acquisitions were carried out both in scan mode and all ion MS/MS mode and results were obtained after search against ad hoc prepared library. Sibutramine, 4-hydroxyamphetamine, caffeine and theophylline were preliminary identified samples. Confirmation and quantitation of the preliminary identified compounds were obtained in LC-MS/MS after preparation of appropriated standards. Sibutramine, caffeine and theophylline were finally confirmed and quantitate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Selection of effective cocrystals former for dissolution rate improvement of active pharmaceutical ingredients based on lipoaffinity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysewski, Piotr; Przybyłek, Maciej

    2017-09-30

    New theoretical screening procedure was proposed for appropriate selection of potential cocrystal formers possessing the ability of enhancing dissolution rates of drugs. The procedure relies on the training set comprising 102 positive and 17 negative cases of cocrystals found in the literature. Despite the fact that the only available data were of qualitative character, performed statistical analysis using binary classification allowed to formulate quantitative criterions. Among considered 3679 molecular descriptors the relative value of lipoaffinity index, expressed as the difference between values calculated for active compound and excipient, has been found as the most appropriate measure suited for discrimination of positive and negative cases. Assuming 5% precision, the applied classification criterion led to inclusion of 70% positive cases in the final prediction. Since lipoaffinity index is a molecular descriptor computed using only 2D information about a chemical structure, its estimation is straightforward and computationally inexpensive. The inclusion of an additional criterion quantifying the cocrystallization probability leads to the following conjunction criterions H mix 3.61, allowing for identification of dissolution rate enhancers. The screening procedure was applied for finding the most promising coformers of such drugs as Iloperidone, Ritonavir, Carbamazepine and Enthenzamide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Disintegration rate and properties of active pharmaceutical ingredient particles as determined from the dissolution time profile of a pharmaceutical formulation: an inverse problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkovics-Kovats, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    Dissolution profile of a finished dosage form (FDF) contains hidden information regarding the disintegration of the form and the particle properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Here, an extraction of this information from the dissolution profile without limitation to sink conditions is provided. In the article, mathematical relationships between the continuously measured dissolution profile of an FDF containing uniform or heterogeneous particles and its disintegration rate are developed. Further, the determinability of the disintegration kinetics and particle properties released from an FDF using the derived recurrent procedure was analyzed. On the basis of the theoretical data sets, it was demonstrated that the introduced analysis of dissolution profiles correctly identifies the disintegration rate of FDF containing multiple particle types. Furthermore, for known disintegration rates, the intrinsic lifetime of particles (time needed for total particle dissolution in infinite volume) released from the FDF and their relative amount can be determined. The extractable information from FDF dissolution time profiles can be utilized in designing of the formulation process, resulting in improved understanding of FDF properties, contributing thus to the implementation of quality by design in the FDF development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. The application of structure-based assessment to support safety and chemistry diligence to manage genotoxic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients during drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobo, Krista L; Greene, Nigel; Cyr, Michelle O; Caron, Stéphane; Ku, Warren W

    2006-04-01

    Starting materials and intermediates used to synthesize pharmaceuticals are reactive in nature and may be present as impurities in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) used for preclinical safety studies and clinical trials. Furthermore, starting materials and intermediates may be known or suspected mutagens and/or carcinogens. Therefore, during drug development due diligence need be applied from two perspectives (1) to understand potential mutagenic and carcinogenic risks associated with compounds used for synthesis and (2) to understand the capability of synthetic processes to control genotoxic impurities in the API. Recently, a task force comprised of experts from pharmaceutical industry proposed guidance, with recommendations for classification, testing, qualification and assessing risk of genotoxic impurities. In our experience the proposed structure-based classification, has differentiated 75% of starting materials and intermediates as mutagenic and non-mutagenic with high concordance (92%) when compared with Ames results. Structure-based assessment has been used to identify genotoxic hazards, and prompted evaluation of fate of genotoxic impurities in API. These two assessments (safety and chemistry) culminate in identification of genotoxic impurities known or suspected to exceed acceptable levels in API, thereby triggering actions needed to assure appropriate control and measurement methods are in place. Hypothetical case studies are presented demonstrating this multi-disciplinary approach.

  8. Chemometrically assisted development and validation of LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of potential genotoxic impurities in meropenem active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigori, Katerina; Loukas, Yannis L; Malenović, Anđelija; Samara, Vicky; Kalaskani, Anastasia; Dimovasili, Efi; Kalovidouri, Magda; Dotsikas, Yannis

    2017-10-25

    A sensitive Liquid Chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of three potential genotoxic impurities (318BP, M9, S5) in meropenem Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). Due to the requirement for LOD values in ppb range, a high concentration of meropenem API (30mg/mL) had to be injected. Therefore, efficient determination of meropenem from its impurities became a critical aim of this study, in order to divert meropenem to waste, via a switching valve. ‎ After the selection of the important factors affecting analytes' elution, a Box-Behnken design was utilized to set the plan of experiments conducted with UV detector. As responses, the separation factor s between the last eluting impurity and meropenem, as well as meropenem retention factor k were used. Grid point search methodology was implemented aiming to obtain the optimal conditions that simultaneously comply to the conflicted criteria. Optimal mobile phase consisted of ACN, methanol and 0.09% HCOOH at a ratio 71/3.5/15.5v/v. All impurities and internal standard omeprazole were eluted before 7.5min and at 8.0min the eluents were directed to waste. The protocol was transferred to LC-MS/MS and validated according to ICH guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Test Blanket Working Group's recent activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) has continued its activities during the period of extension of the EDA with a revised charter on the co-ordination of the development work performed by the Parties and by the JCT leading to a co-ordinated test programme on ITER for a DEMO-relevant tritium breeding blanket. This follows earlier work carried out until July 1998, which formed part of the ITER Final Design Report (FDR), completed in 1998. Whilst the machine parameters for ITER-FEAT have been significantly revised compared to the FDR, testing of breeding blanket modules remains a main objective of the test programme and the development of a reactor-relevant breeding blanket to ensure tritium fuel self-sufficiency is recognized a key issue for fusion. Design work and R and D on breeding blanket concepts, including co-operation with the other Contacting Parties of the ITER-EDA for testing these concepts in ITER, are included in the work plans of the Parties

  10. Identification of work activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, J. van der; Timmermans, C.W.M.; Weers, A.W. van

    2002-01-01

    In the Netherlands a first survey of NORM activities with regard to occupations exposure was carried out in 1998/1999 and has been updated in 2001. The basic criteria for the identification of a NORM activity being of concern is that the effective dose for normal working conditions exceeds 0.1 mSv/y or that 1 mSv/y could be exceeded during unlikely conditions. Three categories of NORM activities are identified, A, B and C. For category A the likely effective dose for normal working conditions does not exceed 0.1 mSv/y or 1 mSv/y for unlikely conditions. For category B the dose would be between 0.1 and 1 mSv/y for likely conditions or 1-6 mSv/y for unlikely conditions, and for category C 1-6 mSv/y for likely conditions or 6-20 mSv/y for unlikely conditions. Work activities falling into category C are thermal phosphorus production (decontamination), oil and gas production (overhauling components), TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding and aircraft operation (scheduled flight above 8 km altitude). Specific attention was paid in the presentation to a special type of mineral slag wool containing elevated concentrations of U and Th, in the order of 5 - 10 and 10-15 Bq/g respectively. This material has been used in a large variety of installations as an insulating material. It was shown that it potentially gives rise to enhanced exposures during decommissioning

  11. Record of principal work activities/deliverables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    Over the five year period of performance, thirteen task assignments were issued by the DOE to ARINC Research. During the two year base period seven tasks were assigned. Two task assignments were issued for each of the three consecutive one year option periods. Associated with all task assignments were multiple subtasks, some of which required significant effort. These subtasks are appropriately cited in this report under their respective task assignments as principal work activities or deliverables. The technical and management support provided to the DOE under this contract focused on two general areas: (1) appraisal activities and (2) non-appraisal activities. Support to appraisals included planning, document review, developing lines-of-inquiry, interviewing, data collection, report writing, and follow-up. Such work was executed both on-site at the DOE facility under review and off-site. Non-appraisal support was varied and included such areas as document review, data base development, technical assessments. statistical analysis, policy analysis, reliability engineering, and workshop and conference planning and execution

  12. The active 'ingredient' in CANLUB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, P.K.; Franklin, K.; Guzonas, D.A.; Halliday, J.; Kaddatz, K.J.W.

    1995-01-01

    There is evidence that formation of Cs(Zr x I y C) compounds is the chemical step involved in preventing stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of fuel sheathing. One of the recent key findings is that SCC of unirradiated Zircaloy sheathing is observed only when CANLUB was 'overbaked'. This result appears to be consistent with results obtained by various analytical techniques that show that if one of the key components in CANLUB was decomposed then SCC would occur. Since there is a possible link between fuel oxidation and graphite coating, the synthesis of Zr 6 I 12 C compounds using a different type of coating (without graphite) was also investigated. These results will assist in improving CANLUB specifications which will result in improvements in manufacturers' process controls, so that CANLUB continues to be effective. An increased understanding of CANLUB chemistry is also needed to improve the coating for advanced CANDU fuels that will be irradiated to extended bumups. (author)

  13. Can We Identify the Active Ingredients of Behaviour Change Interventions for Coronary Heart Disease Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Ostuzzi, Giovanni; Khan, Nadia; Hotopf, Matthew H; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2016-01-01

    The main behaviour change intervention available for coronary heart disease (CHD) patients is cardiac rehabilitation. There is little recognition of what the active ingredients of behavioural interventions for CHD might be. Using a behaviour change technique (BCT) framework to code existing interventions may help to identify this. The objectives of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness of CHD behaviour change interventions and how this may be explained by BCT content and structure. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases was conducted over a twelve year period (2003-2015) to identify studies which reported on behaviour change interventions for CHD patients. The content of the behaviour change interventions was coded using the Coventry Aberdeen and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy. Meta-regression analyses examined the BCT content as a predictor of mortality. Twenty two papers met the criteria for this review, reporting data on 16,766 participants. The most commonly included BCTs were providing information, and goal setting. There was a small but significant effect of the interventions on smoking (risk ratio (RR) = 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97). The interventions did not reduce the risk of CHD events (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.68, 1.09), but significantly reduced the risk of mortality (RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.69, 0.97). Sensitivity analyses did not find that any of the BCT variables predicted mortality and the number of BCTs included in an intervention was not associated with mortality (β = -0.02, 95% CI -0.06-0.03). Behaviour change interventions for CHD patients appear to have a positive impact on a number of outcomes. Using an existing BCT taxonomy to code the interventions helped us to understand which were the most commonly used techniques, providing information and goal setting, but not the active components of these complex interventions.

  14. Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Active Ingredients and Its Metabolites Derived from Rikkunshito, a Ghrelin Enhancer, in Healthy Japanese Volunteers: A Cross-Over, Randomized Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kitagawa

    Full Text Available Rikkunshito, a traditional Japanese (Kampo medicine, has been used to treat upper gastrointestinal disorders such as functional dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux. This study investigated the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the ingredients of rikkunshito in healthy volunteers.First, an exploratory nonrandomized, open-label, one-period, noncrossover study using four healthy Japanese volunteers to detect 32 typical ingredients of rikkunshito in plasma and urine. As a result, 18 or 21 of 32 ingredients was detected in plasma or urine samples after oral administration of rikkunshito (7.5 g/day. Furthermore, a randomized, open-label, three-arm, three-period, crossover study using 21 subjects was conducted to determine the amounts of exposure and pharmacokinetic parameters of nine ingredients derived from rikkunshito (atractylodin, atractylodin carboxylic acid, pachymic acid, 3,3',4',5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone, naringenin, nobiletin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid after oral administration of rikkunshito at three different doses (2.5, 5.0, or 7.5 g/day during each period. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the nine ingredients in plasma were characterized. The geometric means (95% confidence interval for the Cmax of the ingredients at a dose of 7.5 g were 1570 (1210-2040, 14,300 (12,200-16,800, 91.0 (71.8-115, 105 (75.6-144, 1150 (802-1650, 35.9 (24.6-52.5, 800 (672-952, 42.8 (30.4-60.3, and 55,600 (39,600-78,100 pg/mL, respectively, and for the AUC0-last were 1760 (1290-2390, 12700 (11,100-14,600, 1210 (882-1650, 225 (157-322, 4630 (2930-7320, 35.7 (20.4-62.7, 4040 (3260-5010, 122 (88.2-168, and 832,000 (628,000-1,100,000 pg·h/mL respectively.We identified the ingredients of rikkunshito that are absorbed in humans. Furthermore, we determined the pharmacokinetics of nine ingredients derived from rikkunshito. This information will be useful for elucidating the pharmacological effects of rikkunshito

  15. In-vitro examination of the positive inotropic effect of caffeine and taurine, the two most frequent active ingredients of energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, R; Kornberger, A; Branski, N; Buschmann, K; Stumpf, N; Beiras-Fernandez, A; Vahl, C F

    2017-08-10

    Our study aimed to evaluate changes in the contractile behavior of human myocardium after exposure to caffeine and taurine, the main active ingredients of energy drinks (EDs), and to evaluate whether taurine exhibits any inotropic effect at all in the dosages commonly used in EDs. Myocardial tissue was removed from the right atrial appendages of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and prepared to obtain specimens measuring 4 mm in length. A total of 92 specimens were exposed to electrical impulses at a frequency of 75 bpm for at least 40 min to elicit their maximum contractile force before measuring the isometric contractile force (ICF) and duration of contraction (CD). Following this, each specimen was treated with either taurine (group 1, n = 29), or caffeine (group 2, n = 31) or both (group 3, n = 32). After exposure, ICF and CD measuring were repeated. Post-treatment values were compared with pre-treatments values and indicated as percentages. Exposure to taurine did not alter the contraction behavior of the specimens. Exposure to caffeine, in contrast, led to a significant increase in ICF (118 ± 03%, p caffeine and taurine also induced a statistically significant increase in ICF (124 ± 4%, p caffeine was similar to that achieved by a combination of both caffeine and taurine (p = 0.2). The relative ICF levels achieved by administration of caffeine and a combination of taurine and caffeine, respectively, were both significantly higher (p caffeine altered the contraction behavior of the specimen significantly in our in-vitro model, taurine did not exhibit a significant effect. Adding taurine to caffeine did not significantly enhance or reduce the effect of caffeine.

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of the Mechanism Underlying the Biotransportation of the Active Ingredients in Puerariae lobatae Radix and Chuanxiong rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin-Li; Zhang, Jing; Liao, Zheng-Gen; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Luo, Yun; Li, Zhe; Satterlee, Andrew

    2015-06-15

    The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative method to evaluate the biotransportation of a drug across the cell membrane. Through the application of the law of mass conservation, the drug transportation rate was calculated based on Fick's law of passive diffusion and the Michaelis-Menten equation. The overall membrane-transportation rate was the sum of the passive diffusion rate and the carrier-mediated diffusion rate, which were calculated as the transportation mass divided by the respective rate. The active ingredients of Puerariae lobatae Radix and Chuanxiong rhizoma, namely, puerarin and ferulic acid, respectively, were used as two model drugs. The transportation rates of puerarin and ferulic acid were obtained by fitting a model that includes both Fick's law of diffusion and the Michaelis-Menten equation. Compared with the overall transportation, the carrier-mediated transport and passive diffusion of 1.59 mmol/L puerarin were -35.07% and 64.93%, respectively, whereas the respective transportation modes of 0.1 mmol/L ferulic acid were -35.40% and 64.60%, respectively. Verapamil and MK-571 increased the overall transport rate and ratio, and MK-571 treatment changed the carrier-mediated transport from negative to positive. However, the transport rate and ratio of ferulic acid did not change significantly. The cell transportation mechanisms of puerarin and ferulic acid primarily involve simple passive diffusion and carrier-mediated transportation. Moreover, P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein efflux proteins, and other transportation proteins were found to be involved in the transportation of puerarin. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Study of Separation and Identification of the Active Ingredients in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Based on a Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography by Coupling Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography and Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Chen, Cen; Ye, Xiaolan; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Fuhai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, by coupling reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), a two-dimensional liquid chromatography system was developed for separation and identification of the active ingredients in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE). By applying the semi-preparative C18 column as the first dimension and the core-shell column as the second dimension, a total of 896 peaks of GJE were separated. Among the 896 peaks, 16 active ingredients including geniposide, gardenoside, gardoside, etc. were identified by mass spectrometry analysis. The results indicated that the proposed two-dimensional RPLC/HILIC system was an effective method for the analysis of GJE and might hold a high potential to become a useful tool for analysis of other complex mixtures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. INGREDIENT BRANDING - A GROWTH OPPORTUNITY?

    OpenAIRE

    Anca BUTNARIU

    2017-01-01

    Co-branding is an increasingly used strategy, consisting of marketing products representing two brands or more. Ingredient branding fits in the scope of co-branding, consisting of the inclusion of key attributes of one brand into another brand as ingredients. Ingredient branding is one of the many brand strategies used in marketing to provide differentiation criteria for the customers. In recent years, its importance and incidence have dramatically increased Extant research provides disparate...

  19. In-line UV spectroscopy for the quantification of low-dose active ingredients during the manufacturing of pharmaceutical semi-solid and liquid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostijn, N; Hellings, M; Van Der Veen, M; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2018-07-12

    UltraViolet (UV) spectroscopy was evaluated as an innovative Process Analytical Technology (PAT) - tool for the in-line and real-time quantitative determination of low-dosed active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in a semi-solid (gel) and a liquid (suspension) pharmaceutical formulation during their batch production process. The performance of this new PAT-tool (i.e., UV spectroscopy) was compared with an already more established PAT-method based on Raman spectroscopy. In-line UV measurements were carried out with an immersion probe while for the Raman measurements a non-contact PhAT probe was used. For both studied formulations, an in-line API quantification model was developed and validated per spectroscopic technique. The known API concentrations (Y) were correlated with the corresponding in-line collected preprocessed spectra (X) through a Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. Each developed quantification method was validated by calculating the accuracy profile on the basis of the validation experiments. Furthermore, the measurement uncertainty was determined based on the data generated for the determination of the accuracy profiles. From the accuracy profile of the UV- and Raman-based quantification method for the gel, it was concluded that at the target API concentration of 2% (w/w), 95 out of 100 future routine measurements given by the Raman method will not deviate more than 10% (relative error) from the true API concentration, whereas for the UV method the acceptance limits of 10% were exceeded. For the liquid formulation, the Raman method was not able to quantify the API in the low-dosed suspension (0.09% (w/w) API). In contrast, the in-line UV method was able to adequately quantify the API in the suspension. This study demonstrated that UV spectroscopy can be adopted as a novel in-line PAT-technique for low-dose quantification purposes in pharmaceutical processes. Important is that none of the two spectroscopic techniques was superior to the other

  20. Micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds induced in human lymphocytes by the fungicide signum and its active ingredients (boscalid and pyraclostrobin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çayır, Akin; Coskun, Munevver; Coskun, Mahmut

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the Signum fungicide and its active ingredients (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), nuclear bud (NBUDs) formations, and the cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) were evaluated in treated lymphocytes in Go (cells were treated and then kept in culture without stimulation for 24 h) and proliferation phases (cells were treated after 44 h culture in medium containing phytohemagglutinin). MN formation in lymphocytes treated in G0 statistically increased at doses of 2, 6, and 25 μg/mL signum; 0.5 and 2 μg/mL boscalid; and 0.5, 1.5, and 2 μg/mL pyraclostrobin; while NPB formation increased at a dose of 0.25 μg/mL pyraclostrobin. All concentrations of each fungicide did not statistically increase NBUD formation, while the cytotoxicity increased the dependent on concentration in lymphocytes treated in G0 . Doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 3 μg/mL signum; 0.5, 1, and 1.5 μg/mL boscalid; and 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin statistically increased the MN formation in proliferating lymphocytes. NPB formation increased in proliferating lymphocytes at doses of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/mL signum and at a dose of 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin. In addition, a dose of 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin increased NBUD frequencies. Cytotoxicity increased with increasing concentrations of each fungicide. It is concluded that signum, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin may be genotoxic and cytotoxic in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes in consideration of each of the two protocols. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 723-732, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  1. Ibuprofen-in-cyclodextrin-in-W/O/W emulsion - Improving the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency of a model active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattrem, Magnus N; Kristiansen, Kåre A; Aachmann, Finn L; Dille, Morten J; Draget, Kurt I

    2015-06-20

    A challenge in formulating water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions is the uncontrolled release of the encapsulated compound prior to application. Pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals usually have amphipathic nature, which may contribute to leakage of the active ingredient. In the present study, cyclodextrins (CyDs) were used to impart a change in the relative polarity and size of a model compound (ibuprofen) by the formation of inclusion complexes. Various inclusion complexes (2-hydroxypropyl (HP)-β-CyD-, α-CyD- and γ-CyD-ibuprofen) were prepared and presented within W/O/W emulsions, and the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency was investigated. HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen provided the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen in comparison to a W/O/W emulsion with unassociated ibuprofen confined within the inner water phase, with a four-fold increase in the encapsulation efficiency. An improved, although lower, encapsulation efficiency was obtained for the inclusion complex γ-CyD-ibuprofen in comparison to HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, whereas α-CyD-ibuprofen had a similar encapsulation efficiency to that of unassociated ibuprofen. The lower encapsulation efficiency of ibuprofen in combination with α-CyD and γ-CyD was attributed to a lower association constant for the γ-CyD-ibuprofen inclusion complex and the ability of α-CyD to form inclusion complexes with fatty acids. For the W/O/W emulsion prepared with HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen was obtained at hyper- and iso-osmotic conditions and by using an excess molar ratio of CyD to ibuprofen. In the last part of the study, it was suggested that the chemical modification of the HP-β-CyD molecule did not influence the encapsulation of ibuprofen, as a similar encapsulation efficiency was obtained for an inclusion complex prepared with mono-1-glucose-β-CyD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking deterrent. 310.544 Section 310.544 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking deterrent. (a) Any product that bears labeling claims that it “helps stop or reduce the cigarette urge,” “helps break the cigarette habit,” “helps stop...

  3. AER Working Group B activities in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.

    2001-01-01

    Review of AER Working Group B Meeting in Czech Republic - Plzen is given. Regular meeting of Core Design Group was organized by SKODA JS, Inc. and held at Plzen-Bolevec, Czech Republic, May 21+22, 2001, together with Working Group A (Authors)

  4. AER Working Group B activities in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Review of AER Working Group B Meeting in Modra - Harmonia, Slovakia is given. Regular meeting of Core Design Group was organized by VUJE, Inc. and held at Modra - pension Harmonia, Slovakia, April 20-22, 2010, together with Working Group A. Presented papers (see List of papers and List of participants) covered topics as follows. (Author)

  5. Toxicology and teratology of the active ingredients of professional therapy MuscleCare products during pregnancy and lactation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, Abdulaziz M S; Fox, Colleen; Koren, Gideon

    2015-03-05

    The rates of muscle aches, sprains, and inflammation are significantly increased during pregnancy. However, women are afraid to use systemic analgesics due to perceptions of fetal risks. Thus, topical products are important alternatives to consider for those women. Of interest, Professional Therapy MuscleCare (PTMC) has shown to be effective in alleviating the myofascial pain as reported in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded comparative clinical study of five topical analgesics. However, to date, there is no complete review or long-term safety studies on the safety of these products during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, the aim of this article was to review toxicological, developmental, and reproductive effects associated with the use of PTMC products. We performed a systematic review on safety of PTMC from all toxicological articles investigating the effects of PTMC's ingredients. This search was conducted through medical and toxicological databases including, Web of Science, EMBASE, Medline, and Micromedix. Both reported and theoretical adverse effects were extensively reviewed. Of the 1500 publications reviewed, 100 papers were retrieved and included in the review. Although some ingredients in PTMC products might cause adverse reproductive effects at high systemic doses, these doses are hundreds to thousands fold greater than those systemically available from topical use at the recommended maximum dose (i.e. 10 g/day). This study provides evidence that, when used as indicated, PTMC is apparently safe for pregnant women and their unborn babies as well as for breastfed infants.

  6. Method for manufacturing carrier containing e.g. proteins for human during oral drug delivery operation for food and drug administration application in pharmaceutical industry, involves providing active ingredient to core layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    NOVELTY - The method involves preparing a multi-layered film comprising a core layer and a barrier layer, where the core layer comprises active ingredient. The multi-layered film is subjected to a hot embossing step using an embossing stamp including protrusions that allows for generation...... delivery operation for a food and drug administration (FDA) application in a pharmaceutical industry. ADVANTAGE - The method enables allowing an individual micro-structure stuck in an embossing stamp to be demolded under the conditions such that demolding operation is done by treating elastically...

  7. Peace Works: Classroom Activities for Peacemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Tolerance, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Classroom activities for examining effects of war and contemplating world peace are derived from the story of Sadako, a Japanese girl who died as a result of atomic bomb radiation. Making paper cranes, as Sadako did, and participating in schoolwide programs are suggested for primary, middle, and upper grades. (SLD)

  8. Activities of covariance utilization working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been a interest in the calculational uncertainties induced by nuclear data uncertainties in the neutronics design of advanced nuclear system. The covariance nuclear data is absolutely essential for the uncertainty analysis. In the latest version of JENDL, JENDL-4.0, the covariance data for many nuclides, especially actinide nuclides, was substantialy enhanced. The growing interest in the uncertainty analysis and the covariance data has led to the organisation of the working group for covariance utilization under the JENDL committee. (author)

  9. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gainful activity. (e) Time spent in work. While the time the claimant spends in work is important, the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 220... of whether the claimant spends more time or less time at the job than workers who are not impaired...

  10. 20 CFR 416.973 - General information about work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... individual may show that you are able to do substantial gainful activity. (e) Time spent in work. While the time you spend in work is important, we will not decide whether or not you are doing substantial... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 416...

  11. Productivity improvement opportunities at Navy public works activities

    OpenAIRE

    Dieffenbach, Richard Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study identifies six principal opportunities for productivity improvement at Navy Public Works in-house maintenance activities: improving work assignment, increasing shop supervisor effectiveness, reducing long lunches and early quits (through understanding of work impediments as demotivational contributors), improving service order management, improving job quality and miscellaneous opportunities. Activity "productivity opportu...

  12. Working With Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the experiences of two researchers, Wolff-Michael ROTH and Luis RADFORD, using cultural-historical activity theory in mathematics education. The aim is to provide insights into the ways these researchers see and engage with activity theory, how they have come to adopt and expand it, and some of the challenges and concerns that they have had using it. These questions are not usually addressed within typical scientific papers. Yet, they are important for understanding both the dynamics of research and the practical use of cultural-historical activity theory. Since the format of research report papers is not necessarily well suited to convey personal experiences and thinking, the present article takes the form of a conversation, which provides an effective vehicle for exploring and articulating these matters. This provides a basis for understanding more deeply the underlying assumptions of this theory; its dynamics and how it is applied in research of mathematics practice, thinking, and learning; and insights into the manner in which experienced researchers grapple with the theoretical dimensions of their research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202232

  13. 45 CFR 261.30 - What are the work activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...? The work activities are: (a) Unsubsidized employment; (b) Subsidized private-sector employment; (c) Subsidized public-sector employment; (d) Work experience if sufficient private-sector employment is not...

  14. Work-related psychopathology: rates in different work activities and relationship between subjective perception of work distress and psychiatric disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolfe, Giovanni; Mancini, Paola; Mancusi, Riccardo; Zontini, Gemma; Nolfe, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The link between work distress and negative mental health outcome is an emergent topic in the scientific literature. The studies that evaluated the risk of work-related psychopathologies in the different job sectors have obtained so far controversial and inconclusive results. The identification, by means of standardized evaluation tools, of the work activities at higher risk of poor mental health is a relevant target for the occupational psychiatry and medicine. To evaluate the relationship between the psychosocial work conditions and work related psychiatric disturbances and to verify the relationship between the higher pathogenic effect of work and specific job activities. A six-month diagnostic trial was conducted on 234 patients (35.4% women and 64.6% men). Psychiatric diagnoses were according to DSM-IV criteria; anxious and depressive dimensions were studied by means of Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression; psychosocial work environments and bio-psycho-social features were measured by Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress. Groups with higher and lower work-related pathogenesis were compared and their distribution among specific job activities was evaluated. Mood disorders were strongly linked to negative work environment. Patients with severe bullying obtained higher scores on Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression than those with lower work-pathogenesis. The highest scores on Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress were related to mood disorders, to poorer bio-psycho-social functioning and to higher work etiology. No significant relationship between work activities and work-related psychopathologies was found. Workplace bullying is predictive of work-related psychiatric disturbances with more severe clinical features and bio-psycho-social consequences. No significant differences were found about the relationship between work-related psychopathologies and work activities.

  15. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  16. Conceptualizing Policy Work as Activity and Field of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kohoutek; Martin Nekola; Vilém Novotný

    2013-01-01

    The area of policy work and policy workers within government bureaucracies is encompassing a large field of activities and research. This article aims to provide a synthesised perspective on policy work in relating theoretical and empirical accounts of policy workers, identifying points of convergence and linking them to essential assumptions on research in policy work. We conceptualize policy work as activity within government bureaucracies from three interrelated perspectives: the professio...

  17. Selected working papers[Nuclear data activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    The following working papers are included in this report: WP 2002-2, Dictionary Restructuring; WP-2002-4, Page numbers for REFERENCE (CP-C/285); WP-2002-5, Correlation quantities; WP 2002-8, Proposed data heading EN-CM-TOT (memo CP-A/121); WP 2002-9, Proposed high energy quantities (memo CP-A/123); WP 2002-11, Use of nuclide codes in SF 7 (memo CP-C/302); WP 2002-12, Redundant coding, new data heading PART-OUT; WP 2002-16, Zeros in error field (CP-C/306); WP 2002-17, Multiple appearance of the first Reference in EXFOR; WP 2002-18 + Add., EXFOR master file comparisons; WP 2002-19, Measures of Security at the NDS Open Area for EXFOR; WP 2002-20, New and revised entries received at NDS; WP 2002-21, EXFOR transmissions (NNDC); WP 2002-22, CINDA statistics (NNDC); WP 2002-24, CINDA batch exchange information (NDS); WP 2002-25, Journal coverage for CINDA; WP 2002-26, EXFOR-relational as multi-platform database (V. Zerkin); WP 2002-27, Completeness of EXFOR compil. as indexed by CINDA; WP 2002-28, Future NRDC Cooperation on CINDA: see Appendix 9; WP 2002-31, Development of Web Editor for Charged-Particle Nuclear Reaction Data (N. Otuka, H. Noto, A. Ohnishi, K. Kato). The following other papers, or the memos of which they consist, are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section: WP 2002-1, Actions of previous meetings (2002, 2001) see INDC(NDS)-427, pp.20-26, and INDC(NDS)-418, pp.26-31; WP 2002-3, Units for particle and product yields: see memos CP-C/294, 286; WP 2002-6, 4-momentum transfer and mom.distr.data: see memos CP-C/295 and CP-D/330; WP 2002-7, Several 'straightforward' new quantities: see memos CP-/C-291, 298 and CP-A/118; WP 2002-10, Quantities proposed by JCPRG (see memos DP-D/337, CP-E/004, 003); WP 2002-13, Clarifications on Product Yields and Thick Target Yields (see memo CP-D/332); WP 2002-14, Clarifications on Polarization quantities (see memo CP-D/320); WP 2002-15, New Legendre polynomial modifier proposed (see CP-C/305); WP 2002-23, see memo 4C-4

  18. Development and validation of an ICP-MS method for the determination of elemental impurities in TP-6076 active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) according to USP 〈232〉/〈233〉.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahrour, Osama; Malone, John; Collins, Mark; Salmon, Vrushali; Greenan, Catherine; Bombardier, Amy; Ma, Zhongze; Dunwoody, Nick

    2017-10-25

    The new guidelines of the United States pharmacopeia (USP), European pharmacopeia (EP) and international conference on harmonization (ICH) regulating elemental impurities limits in pharmaceuticals signify the end of unspecific analysis of metals as outlined in USP 〈231〉. The new guidelines specify both daily doses and concentration/limits of elemental impurities in pharmaceutical final products, active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and excipients. In chapter USP 〈233〉 method implementation, validation and quality control during the analytical process are described. We herein report the use of a stabilising matrix that overcomes low spike recovery problem encountered with Os and allows the determination of all USP required elemental impurities (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, V, Cr, Ni, Mo, Cu, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Os and Ir) in a single analysis. The matrix was used in the validation of a method to determine elemental impurities in TP-6076 active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) by ICP-MS according to the procedures defined in USP〈233〉 and to GMP requirements. This validation will support the regulatory submission of TP-6076 which is a novel tetracycline analogue effective against the most urgent multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Evaluation of TP-6076 in IND-enabling toxicology studies has led to the initiation of a phase 1 clinical trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New low back pain in nurses: work activities, work stress and sedentary lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Vera Yin Bing

    2004-05-01

    Low back pain is common among nurses. Previous studies have shown that the risk of low back pain increases rapidly with greater amounts of physical work and psychological stress, but is inversely related to leisure activities. However, these previous studies were predominantly retrospective in design and not many took account of three factors simultaneously. This 12-month prospective study examined the relationships between work activities, work stress, sedentary lifestyle and new low back pain. A total of 144 nurses from six Hong Kong district hospitals completed a face-to-face baseline interview, which was followed-up by a telephone interview. The main study measures were demographic characteristics, work activities, work stress, physical leisure activities and the nature of new low back pain during the 12-month follow-up period. Level of work stress, quality of relationships at work, level of enjoyment experienced at work, and work satisfaction were self-reported. Fifty-six (38.9%) nurses reported experiencing new low back pain. Sedentary leisure time activity was not associated with new low back pain. Being comparatively new on a ward (adjusted relative risk 2.90), working in bending postures (adjusted relative risk 2.76) and poor work relationships with colleagues (adjusted relative risk 2.52) were independent predictors of new low back pain. The findings of this study suggest that low back pain is a common problem in the population of nurses in Hong Kong. Being comparatively new on a ward, bending frequently during work and having poor work relationships with colleagues are independent predictors of new low back pain. Training for high-risk work activities and ergonomic assessment of awkward work postures are essential. Moreover, relaxation and team-building workshops for nurses, especially those who are less experienced in the type of work on their current ward, are recommended.

  20. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  1. Determination of palladium, platinum and rhodium in used automobile catalysts and active pharmaceutical ingredients using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resano, Martín, E-mail: mresano@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Flórez, María del Rosario [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Queralt, Ignasi [Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera ICTJA-CSIC, Sole Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marguí, Eva [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi s/n, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    This work investigates the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in two samples of very different nature. While analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients is straightforward and it is feasible to minimize matrix effects, to the point that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standard solutions, the analysis of used automobile catalysts is more challenging requiring the addition of a chemical modifier (NH{sub 4}F·HF) to help in releasing the analytes, a more vigorous temperature program and the use of a solid standard (CRM ERM®-EB504) for calibration. However, in both cases it was possible to obtain accurate results and precision values typically better than 10% RSD in a fast and simple way, while only two determinations are needed for the three analytes, since Pt and Rh can be simultaneously monitored in both types of samples. Overall, the methods proposed seem suited for the determination of these analytes in such types of samples, offering a greener and faster alternative that circumvents the traditional problems associated with sample digestion, requiring a small amount of sample only (0.05 mg per replicate for catalysts, and a few milligrams for the pharmaceuticals) and providing sufficient sensitivity to easily comply with regulations. The LODs achieved were 6.5 μg g{sup −1} (Pd), 8.3 μg g{sup −1} (Pt) and 9.3 μg g{sup −1} (Rh) for catalysts, which decreased to 0.08 μg g{sup −1} (Pd), 0.15 μg g{sup −1} (Pt) and 0.10 μg g{sup −1} (Rh) for pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: • Solid sampling HR CS GFAAS permits the fast and direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh. • 2 determinations suffice for the 3 elements (2 of them can be measured simultaneously). • Samples as different as car catalysts and pharmaceuticals can be accurately analyzed. • Aqueous standards (pharmaceuticals) or a solid CRM (catalysts) is used for calibration.

  2. A new world of ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Flore, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Insects have been absent from European diets with only few regional exceptions, making them an uncommon ingredient in the kitchens of fine dining establishments. This chapter investigates whether a piece the puzzle of understanding the temporality or permanence of edible insects in modern Europea...

  3. Suppressing effect of saikosaponin A, an active ingredient of Bupleurum falcatum, on chocolate self-administration and reinstatement of chocolate seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrai, Irene; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Capra, Alessandro; Castelli, M Paola; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2017-01-18

    Recent lines of experimental evidence have indicated that saikosaponin A (SSA) - a bioactive ingredient of the medicinal plant, Bupleurum falcatum L. - suppressed alcohol, morphine, and cocaine self-administration in rats. The present paper was designed to assess whether the protective properties of SSA on addiction-related behaviors generalize to a hyperpalatable food such as a chocolate-flavored beverage (CFB). To this end, rats were initially trained to lever-respond for CFB [5% (w/v) Nesquik ® powder in water] under fixed ratio (FR) 10 (FR10) schedule of reinforcement. Once lever-responding reached stable levels, rats were treated acutely with two different dose ranges of SSA (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1mg/kg; 0, 1, 2.5, and 5mg/kg; i.p.) and exposed to the FR10 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement in four independent experiments. The effect of acutely administered SSA (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1mg/kg; i.p.) on cue-induced reinstatement of seeking behavior for CFB was also assessed. Under the FR and PR schedules of reinforcement, treatment with SSA diminished lever-responding for CFB, amount of self-administered CFB, and breakpoint for CFB. All variables were virtually completely suppressed after treatment with 5mg/kg SSA. Treatment with SSA also suppressed reinstatement of CFB-seeking behavior. No dose of SSA altered rat motor-performance, evaluated exposing all rats to an inverted screen test immediately after the self-administration session. These results demonstrate that acute treatment with SSA potently suppressed several addictive-like behaviors motivated by highly hedonic nourishment. These data extend to a highly rewarding natural stimulus the anti-addictive properties of SSA recently disclosed in rats self-administering alcohol, morphine, and cocaine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of added ingredients on water status and physico-chemical properties of tomato sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantom, Agoura; Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Vittadini, Elena

    2017-12-01

    Different ingredients (guar, xanthan, carboxy methyl cellulose, locust bean gums, potato fiber, milk, potato and soy proteins) were added to tomato sauce to investigate their effect on its physico-chemical properties. The products were characterized in terms of colour, rheological properties (Bostwick consistency, flow behavior and consistency coefficient), water status (water activity, moisture content) and molecular mobility by 1 H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Water activity was significantly decreased only by the addition of potato fiber. Xanthan, locust bean, guar and carboxy methyl cellulose significantly enhanced Bostwick consistency and consistency coefficient. Type of ingredient and concentration significantly affected 1 H NMR mobility indicators. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that only 1 H NMR mobility parameters were able to differentiate the effect of milk protein, xanthan and potato fiber on tomato sauce properties. The information collected in this work provides information to intelligently modulate tomato sauce attributes and tailor its properties for specific applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Prefrontal Persistent Activity in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Mitchell R.; Constantinidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is activated during working memory, as evidenced by fMRI results in human studies and neurophysiological recordings in animal models. Persistent activity during the delay period of working memory tasks, after the offset of stimuli that subjects are required to remember, has traditionally been thought of as the neural correlate of working memory. In the last few years several findings have cast doubt on the role of this activity. By some accounts, activity in other brain areas, such as the primary visual and posterior parietal cortex, is a better predictor of information maintained in visual working memory and working memory performance; dynamic patterns of activity may convey information without requiring persistent activity at all; and prefrontal neurons may be ill-suited to represent non-spatial information about the features and identity of remembered stimuli. Alternative interpretations about the role of the prefrontal cortex have thus been suggested, such as that it provides a top-down control of information represented in other brain areas, rather than maintaining a working memory trace itself. Here we review evidence for and against the role of prefrontal persistent activity, with a focus on visual neurophysiology. We show that persistent activity predicts behavioral parameters precisely in working memory tasks. We illustrate that prefrontal cortex represents features of stimuli other than their spatial location, and that this information is largely absent from early cortical areas during working memory. We examine memory models not dependent on persistent activity, and conclude that each of those models could mediate only a limited range of memory-dependent behaviors. We review activity decoded from brain areas other than the prefrontal cortex during working memory and demonstrate that these areas alone cannot mediate working memory maintenance, particularly in the presence of distractors. We finally discuss the discrepancy between

  6. Physical activity barriers and facilitators among working mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailey, Emily L; Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; McAuley, Edward

    2014-06-27

    The transition to parenthood is consistently associated with declines in physical activity. In particular, working parents are at risk for inactivity, but research exploring physical activity barriers and facilitators in this population has been scarce. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine perceptions of physical activity among working parents. Working mothers (n = 13) and fathers (n = 12) were recruited to participate in one of four focus group sessions and discuss physical activity barriers and facilitators. Data were analyzed using immersion/crystallization in NVivo 10. Major themes for barriers included family responsibilities, guilt, lack of support, scheduling constraints, and work. Major themes for facilitators included being active with children or during children's activities, being a role model for children, making time/prioritizing, benefits to health and family, and having support available. Several gender differences emerged within each theme, but overall both mothers and fathers reported their priorities had shifted to focus on family after becoming parents, and those who were fitting in physical activity had developed strategies that allowed them to balance their household and occupational responsibilities. The results of this study suggest working mothers and fathers report similar physical activity barriers and facilitators and would benefit from interventions that teach strategies for overcoming barriers and prioritizing physical activity amidst the demands of parenthood. Future interventions might consider targeting mothers and fathers in tandem to create an optimally supportive environment in the home.

  7. The validation of the analytical method (HPLC, use for identification and assay of the pharmaceutical active ingredient, colistine sulphate and the finished product Colidem 50 – hydrosoluble powder, in SC DELOS impex ‘96 SRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neagu,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In SC DELOS IMPEX ’96 SRL the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API for the finished product Colidem 50 - hydrosoluble powder is make according to European Pharmacopoeia, curent edition. The method for analysis use in this purpose is the compendial method „Colistine sulphate” in E.P. in current edition and represent a optimized variant, developed and validated „in house”.The parameters which was included in the methodology validation for chromatographic method are the follow: Selectivity/Specificity, Linearity, Range of Linearity, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification, Precision (Repeatability - intra day, inter-Day Reproducibility, Accuracy, Robustness, Stability Solutions and System Suitability.

  8. Professional activity. How is family physicians' work time changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C A; Ferrier, B; Cohen, M; Brown, J

    2001-07-01

    To examine hours worked professionally, work preferences, and changes in both of these and their correlates. Repeated surveys done in 1993 and 1999. Ontario family practices. Cohort of physicians certified in family medicine between 1989 and 1991 after family medicine residency who were surveyed in 1993 when they resided in Ontario. Self-reported hours spent weekly on professional activities, desired hours of professional work, and balance between work and other activities. Fifty-three percent (293) of 553 physicians responded to the 1999 survey; 91% had remained family physicians; 85% of these had participated in the 1993 survey. The difference between the hours that family physicians preferred to work professionally and their actual hours of work had increased since 1993. Childless physicians, women physicians with preschool children, and women physicians married to other physicians worked fewer hours professionally than other physicians in 1999. Female physicians and physicians without children worked closer to their preferred hours than other physicians. Reporting a preference to work fewer hours professionally in 1993 was linked with a reduction in professional activities by 1999. Greater attention should be paid in physician resource planning to the family life cycle of female physicians. Lifestyle changes could lead to a reduction in professional activity among these physicians.

  9. Work related perceived stress and muscle activity during standardized computer work among female computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....

  10. Individual differences in satisfaction with activity-based work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendervanger, Jan; Ernst, Anja F.; Albers, Casper; Mobach, Mark; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2018-01-01

    Satisfaction with activity-based work environments (ABW environments) often falls short of expectations, with striking differences among individual workers. A better understanding of these differences may provide clues for optimising satisfaction with ABW environments and associated organisational

  11. Work and Home Neighborhood Design and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Frank, Lawrence D; Ulmer, Jared; Conway, Terry L; Saelens, Brian E; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2018-01-01

    To investigate relations of perceived worksite neighborhood environments to total physical activity and active transportation, over and above home neighborhood built environments. Observational epidemiologic study. Baltimore, Maryland-Washington, DC, and Seattle-King County, Washington metropolitan areas. One thousand eighty-five adults (mean age = 45.0 [10.2]; 46% women) recruited from 32 neighborhoods stratified by high/low neighborhood income and walkability. The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Survey assessed perceptions of worksite and home neighborhood environments. Accelerometers assessed total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire assessed total active transportation and active transportation to and around work. Mixed-effects regression tested relations of home and worksite neighborhood environments to each physical activity outcome, adjusted for demographics. Home and worksite mixed land use and street connectivity had the most consistent positive associations with physical activity outcomes. Worksite traffic and pedestrian safety were also associated with multiple physical activity outcomes. The worksite neighborhood explained additional variance in physical activity outcomes than explained by the home neighborhood. Worksite and home neighborhood environments interacted in explaining active transportation to work, with the greatest impacts occurring when both neighborhoods were activity supportive. Both worksite and home neighborhood environments were independently related to total MVPA and active transportation. Community design policies should target improving the physical activity supportiveness of worksite neighborhood environments and integrating commercial and residential development.

  12. Employability and work-related learning activities in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies...

  13. Effect of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S.G. van den; Boshuizen, H.C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Blatter, B.M.; Ariëns, G.A.; Bongers, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population. METHODS: Data were used from a prospective cohort study in a working population with a follow up period of 3 years and were collected with yearly questionnaires or collected from company records.

  14. Participation in physical activity: An empirical study of working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As more women enter the work place and advance through the hierarchy in organisations, taking on new responsibilities and facing increased work demands, the need to balance their career, family and participation in physical activity arises. This has a direct bearing on their physical and mental well being, as well as their ...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may show that you are able to do substantial gainful activity. (e) Time spent in work. While the time... gainful regardless of whether you spend more time or less time at the job than workers who are not... opportunity to work despite your impairment because of family relationship, past association with your...

  16. Maternal work and children's diet, activity, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Mothers' work hours are likely to affect their time allocation towards activities related to children's diet, activity and well-being. For example, mothers who work more may be more reliant on processed foods, foods prepared away from home and school meal programs for their children's meals. A greater number of work hours may also lead to more unsupervised time for children that may, in turn, allow for an increase in unhealthy behaviors among their children such as snacking and sedentary activities such as TV watching. Using data on a national cohort of children, we examine the relationship between mothers' average weekly work hours during their children's school years on children's dietary and activity behaviors, BMI and obesity in 5th and 8th grade. Our results are consistent with findings from the literature that maternal work hours are positively associated with children's BMI and obesity especially among children with higher socioeconomic status. Unlike previous papers, our detailed data on children's behaviors allow us to speak directly to affected behaviors that may contribute to the increased BMI. We show that children whose mothers work more consume more unhealthy foods (e.g. soda, fast food) and less healthy foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, milk) and watch more television. Although they report being slightly more physically active, likely due to organized physical activities, the BMI and obesity results suggest that the deterioration in diet and increase in sedentary behaviors dominate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Active learning in physiology practical work | Allers | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A statistical analysis of the results indicates that when students are actively involved in the teaching-learning process, they enhance their ability to use cognitive skills such as interpretation, judgement and problem-solving skills. The results also underline the importance of an active approach towards practical work and ...

  18. Working women's perceptions of participation in physical activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation in physical activity helps one to address and reduce health risk behaviours thereby improving the quality of one's life. The current study explored the relationship between satisfaction with life and working women's perception of their participation in physical activity in the Gauteng Province, South Africa. Using a ...

  19. Cultural leisure activities, recovery and work engagement among hospital employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUISKU, Katinka; VIRTANEN, Marianna; DE BLOOM, Jessica; KINNUNEN, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between cultural leisure activities, recovery experiences and two outcomes among hospital workers. The differences in recovery experiences (detachment, relaxation, mastery and control) and outcomes (work engagement and subjective recovery state) among hospital personnel (N=769) were analysed by the type (receptive or creative) and frequency of cultural activities. The cross-sectional data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Employees who reported both receptive and creative cultural leisure activities on a weekly basis had the highest relaxation, mastery and control experiences during off-job time. In addition, those with weekly creative activities had beneficial mastery experiences. There were no differences in recovery outcomes after adjustment for age, except in work engagement. Cultural leisure activities, and creative activities in particular, play an important role in certain aspects of recovery. PMID:26829973

  20. [Occupational sedentary behaviors and physical activity at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Ferrières, Jean; Esquirol, Yolande

    Sedentary behaviors are a leading cause of preventable mortality in developed countries. We mainly have sedentary behaviors at work. Sedentary behaviors must be considered as an occupational risk, and therefore must be a major concern for managers and physicians/health researchers. Recreational physical activity only partly compensates for the negative effects of physical inactivity at work. Physical activity at work without excess (walking, standing) is beneficial. Initiatives to reduce physical inactivity and increase physical activity among employees are effective in terms of mental health, physical health, and productivity. Prevention of sedentary behaviors at work is a win-win partnership between employers and employees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural activity reveals perceptual grouping in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Laura R; Roberts, Daniel M; McDonald, Craig G; Peterson, Matthew S

    2017-03-01

    There is extensive evidence that the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a scalp recorded event-related brain potential, provides a reliable index of the number of objects held in visual working memory. Here we present evidence that the CDA not only indexes visual object working memory, but also the number of locations held in spatial working memory. In addition, we demonstrate that the CDA can be predictably modulated by the type of encoding strategy employed. When individual locations were held in working memory, the pattern of CDA modulation mimicked previous findings for visual object working memory. Specifically, CDA amplitude increased monotonically until working memory capacity was reached. However, when participants were instructed to group individual locations to form a constellation, the CDA was prolonged and reached an asymptote at two locations. This result provides neural evidence for the formation of a unitary representation of multiple spatial locations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of visually demanding near work on trapezius muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, C; Forsman, M; Richter, H O

    2013-10-01

    Poor visual ergonomics is associated with visual and neck/shoulder discomfort, but the relation between visual demands and neck/shoulder muscle activity is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate whether trapezius muscle activity was affected by: (i) eye-lens accommodation; (ii) incongruence between accommodation and convergence; and (iii) presence of neck/shoulder discomfort. Sixty-six participants (33 controls and 33 with neck pain) performed visually demanding near work under four different trial-lens conditions. Results showed that eye-lens accommodation per se did not affect trapezius muscle activity significantly. However, when incongruence between accommodation and convergence was present, a significant positive relationship between eye-lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity was found. There were no significant group-differences. It was concluded that incongruence between accommodation and convergence is an important factor in the relation between visually demanding near work and trapezius muscle activity. The relatively low demands on accommodation and convergence in the present study imply that visually demanding near work may contribute to increased muscle activity, and over time to the development of near work related neck/shoulder discomfort. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. HIM-herbal ingredients in-vivo metabolism database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Tang, Kailin; Liu, Qi; Sun, Yi; Huang, Qi; Zhu, Ruixin; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Duanfeng; Huang, Chenggang; Cao, Zhiwei

    2013-05-31

    Herbal medicine has long been viewed as a valuable asset for potential new drug discovery and herbal ingredients' metabolites, especially the in vivo metabolites were often found to gain better pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and even better safety profiles compared to their parent compounds. However, these herbal metabolite information is still scattered and waiting to be collected. HIM database manually collected so far the most comprehensive available in-vivo metabolism information for herbal active ingredients, as well as their corresponding bioactivity, organs and/or tissues distribution, toxicity, ADME and the clinical research profile. Currently HIM contains 361 ingredients and 1104 corresponding in-vivo metabolites from 673 reputable herbs. Tools of structural similarity, substructure search and Lipinski's Rule of Five are also provided. Various links were made to PubChem, PubMed, TCM-ID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Information database) and HIT (Herbal ingredients' targets databases). A curated database HIM is set up for the in vivo metabolites information of the active ingredients for Chinese herbs, together with their corresponding bioactivity, toxicity and ADME profile. HIM is freely accessible to academic researchers at http://www.bioinformatics.org.cn/.

  4. Active biofeedback changes the spatial distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal effects of advanced biofeedback by inducing active and passive pauses on the trapezius activity pattern using high-density surface electromyography (HD-EMG). Thirteen healthy male subjects performed computer work with superimposed...... benefit of superimposed muscle contraction in relation to the spatial organization of muscle activity during computer work....

  5. In-vitro efficacy of a botanical acaricide and its active ingredients against larvae of susceptible and acaricide-resistant strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a major constraint for the sustainable cattle industry in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The developments of resistance to most of the commonly used acaricides lead to an attempt to screen herbal products for their possible acaricidal activity to...

  6. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose behavior in dairy ingredients can be understood, controlled, and

  7. A theory of working memory without consciousness or sustained activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübutschek, Darinka; Marti, Sébastien; Ojeda, Andrés; King, Jean-Rémi; Mi, Yuanyuan; Tsodyks, Misha; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-01-01

    Working memory and conscious perception are thought to share similar brain mechanisms, yet recent reports of non-conscious working memory challenge this view. Combining visual masking with magnetoencephalography, we investigate the reality of non-conscious working memory and dissect its neural mechanisms. In a spatial delayed-response task, participants reported the location of a subjectively unseen target above chance-level after several seconds. Conscious perception and conscious working memory were characterized by similar signatures: a sustained desynchronization in the alpha/beta band over frontal cortex, and a decodable representation of target location in posterior sensors. During non-conscious working memory, such activity vanished. Our findings contradict models that identify working memory with sustained neural firing, but are compatible with recent proposals of ‘activity-silent’ working memory. We present a theoretical framework and simulations showing how slowly decaying synaptic changes allow cell assemblies to go dormant during the delay, yet be retrieved above chance-level after several seconds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23871.001 PMID:28718763

  8. Chemical profiling analysis of Maca using UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS coupled with UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS and the neuroprotective study on its active ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Peng; Brantner, Adelheid; Wang, Hongjie; Shu, Xinbin; Yang, Jian; Si, Nan; Han, Lingyu; Zhao, Haiyu; Bian, Baolin

    2017-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca), originated from Peru, has been cultivated widely in China as a popular health care food. However, the chemical and effective studies of Maca were less in-depth, which restricted its application seriously. To ensure the quality of Maca, a feasible and accurate strategy was established. One hundred and sixty compounds including 30 reference standards were identified in 6 fractions of methanol extract of Maca by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Among them, 15 representative active...

  9. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described

  10. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described.

  11. Chemical profiling analysis of Maca using UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS coupled with UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS and the neuroprotective study on its active ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Peng; Brantner, Adelheid; Wang, Hongjie; Shu, Xinbin; Yang, Jian; Si, Nan; Han, Lingyu; Zhao, Haiyu; Bian, Baolin

    2017-03-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca), originated from Peru, has been cultivated widely in China as a popular health care food. However, the chemical and effective studies of Maca were less in-depth, which restricted its application seriously. To ensure the quality of Maca, a feasible and accurate strategy was established. One hundred and sixty compounds including 30 reference standards were identified in 6 fractions of methanol extract of Maca by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Among them, 15 representative active compounds were simultaneously determined in 17 samples by UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS. The results suggested that Maca from Yunnan province was the potential substitute for the one from Peru. Meanwhile, the neuroprotective effects of Maca were investigated. Three fractions and two pure compounds showed strong activities in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced zebrafish model. Among them, 80% methanol elution fraction (Fr5) showed significant neuroprotective activity, followed by 100% part (Fr6). The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) was a possible mechanism of its neuroprotective effect.

  12. Assessment of participation in higher education team working activities

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Andrés, María Angeles; García-Casas, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Since among the competences which are most valued by engineering corporations are the ability to make decisions, the capacity for teamwork, one’s initiative and the capacity for solving problems together with an efficient communication, an experience based on active learning and team-working in which participants had to put them into practice was carried out. Before starting the experience with an active learning strategy, students had to decide on what they understood by participation i...

  13. Automated entry technologies for confined space work activities: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Lucia; Ferrari, Emilio; Mora, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries, and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks. The following study investigates the available technologies for hazardous confined space work activities, e.g., cleaning, inspecting, and maintenance tasks. The aim is to provide a systematic review of the automated solutions for high-risk activities in confined spaces, considering the non-man entry as the most effective confined space safety strategy. Second, this survey aims to provide suggestions for future research addressing the design of new technologies. The survey consists of about 60 papers concerning innovative technologies for confined space work activities. The document review shows that several solutions have been developed and automation can replace the workers for a limited number of hazardous tasks. Several activities still require the manual intervention due to the complex characteristics of confined spaces, e.g., to remove the remains of the automatic cleaning process from the bottom of a tank. The results show that available technologies require more flexibility to adapt to such occupational environments and further research is needed.

  14. Measuring physical activity and sedentary behaviour at work: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Retamal, Marcelo; Hinckson, Erica A

    2011-01-01

    To identify methods used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour at the workplace and review the validity and reliability of these measures. Databases were searched for relevant published articles including MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Keywords used were physical-activity, workplace, sedentary-behaviour, measurement and questionnaire. Studies included were original, written in English, published between 1990 and 2009, and focused on validated physical activity and sedentary behaviour measures at work. Eleven papers were identified in which three used criterion standards, three objective measures, and five subjective measures. The most common method of data collection was through self-report, surveys or questionnaires. Physical activity measured with motion sensors, ranged from 4,422 to 10,334 steps/day (pedometers) and sedentary time ranged from 1.8 to 6 hours/day (h/d) (accelerometers). Self-report measures provided information relevant to the perception of physical activity at work (∼ 0.5 h/d), sitting time (> 3 h/d) and calculated energy expenditure (< 800 kcal/d). Physical activity levels at work were low while sedentary behaviour was high. This was largely a function of occupation (white-collar vs. blue-collar). None of the studies assessed validity or reliability of measures used however, instruments as assessed by others showed moderate to strong validity and reliability values.

  15. Work activities and musculoskeletal complaints among preschool workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K A; Habes, D J; Tepper, A L

    1995-12-01

    The potential for musculoskeletal trauma among preschool workers has been largely unexplored in the United States. This case report describes an investigation conducted to identify and evaluate possible causes of back and lower extremity pain among 22 workers at a Montessori day care facility. Investigators met with and distributed a questionnaire to school employees, and made measurements of workstation and furniture dimensions. Investigators also recorded the normal work activities of school employees on videotape, and performed a work sampling study to estimate the percentage of time employees spend performing various tasks and in certain postures. Questionnaire results from 18 employees indicated that back pain/discomfort was a common musculoskeletal complaint, reported by 61% of respondents. Neck/shoulder pain, lower extremity pain and hand/wrist pain were reported by 33, 33 and 11% of respondents, respectively. Observation and analysis of work activities indicated that employees spend significant periods of time kneeling, sitting on the floor, squatting, or bending at the waist. Furthermore, staff members who work with smaller children (i.e. six weeks to 18 months of age) performed more lifts and assumed more awkward lower extremity postures than employees who work with older children (3-4 years of age). Analysis of two lifting tasks using the revised NIOSH lifting equation indicated that employees who handle small children may be at increased risk of lifting-related low back pain. Investigators concluded that day care employees at this facility are at increased risk of low back pain and lower extremity (i.e. knee) injury due to work activities that require awkward or heavy lifts, and static working postures. Recommendations for reducing or eliminating these risks by modifying the workplace and changing the organization and methods of work are presented.

  16. Effects of Some Topological Ingredients on the Evolutionary Ultimatum Game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Lili; Zhang Jianxiong; Tang Wansheng; Zhang Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at figuring out the crucial topological ingredients which affect the outcomes of the ultimatum game located on different networks, encompassing the regular network, the random network, the small-world network, and the scale-free network. With the aid of random interchanging algorithm, we investigate the relations between the outcomes of the ultimatum game and some topological ingredients, including the average range, the clustering coefficient and the heterogeneity, and so forth. It is found that for the regular, random and small-work networks, the average range and the clustering coefficient have evident impacts on the ultimatum game, while for the scale-free network, the original degree heterogeneity and the underlying rich-club characterizations are the mainly important topological ingredients that influence the outcomes of ultimatum game substantially.

  17. Activities in Retirement: Individual Experience of Silver Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Maxin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of demographic change is a longer average remaining lifetime after retirement. Many people, however, remain able and willing to continue work after reaching the statutory retirement age. Given the predicted shortage of skilled workers in the future, post-retirement activities have the potential to contribute to both organisations and society. This article elaborates the prerequisites for productivity in retirement age and the changed nature of retirement at present.It also quantifies the extent to which activities are continued at retirement age. Paid employment still occurs beyond the applicable retirement age, whereby with increasing age, self-employed persons and assistant family members make up the lion’s share of the statistics. An empirical study shows the concrete situation of active retirees and the prerequisites for post-retirement activities. At the explorative level, individual experiences of the transition into retirement, the reasons for and the framework of post-retirement activities, motivational factors in job design, and physical and intellectual demands before and after retirement are characterised. The qualitative data indicate that retirement entails changes towards more flexible structures in everyday life. Decisive reasons for taking up post-retirement activities are the desire to help, pass on knowledge or remain active; personal development and contact with others; and gaining appreciation and recognition. Flexible job design and freedom to make decisions constitute major elements in shaping post-retirement working activities. Offering autonomy, skill variety, and task significance is important for the design of post-retirement activities. The paper closes with identifying relevant research fields and the concrete need to take action at individual,  organisational, and societal levels. All in all, the transition from working life to retirement should be made flexible enough to do greater justice to the

  18. The Active Pupil: Pupil size in attention, working memory, and active vision

    OpenAIRE

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Slides for the following talk: Mathôt, S. (2015, June). The Active Pupil: Pupil Size in Attention, Working Memory, and Active Vision. Talk presented at the Laboratoire de Psychologie de la Perception, Paris, France.

  19. Transit-Related Walking to Work in Promoting Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    2015-04-01

    Transit-related walking to work is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and promoting health benefits. This study estimated the transit-related walking time for work trips on the journey to and from work and examined the predictors of transit users who walked to/from transit and the workplace and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day. This study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and identified 772 subjects who took transit to/from work, 355 subjects who walked to/from transit and the workplace, and 145 subjects who walked 30 minutes or more per day among the 40,659 workers. Weighted logistic regressions were used for the analysis. Of the people who walked to/from transit and the workplace, 40.9% walked 30 minutes or more per day. The weighted logistic regressions revealed that low-income groups and workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk to/from transit and the workplace. Workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk 30 minutes or more per day. Transit-related walking to work provides an opportunity to increase physical activity levels and to meet the physical activity recommendations.

  20. Why do games work? In search of the active substance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Peters, V.; Caluwé, de L.; Martens, D.

    2009-01-01

    During the ISAGA2007 conference in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, the foundation was laid for a book that tries to find answers to the questions "Why do games work? What is the active substance that makes them do what they do?" Now, one year later, over 20 authors from different fields, from different

  1. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  2. Background and future activities of PBNCC's nuclear training working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Hun Rieh; Kunmo Chung; Hamlin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the background and activities of the nuclear training working group of the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee. The working group has examined various mechanisms for regional cooperation including the development of aregional catalog of training programs and the conceptualization of sharing training facilities among nuclear operators in the region. The working group has focused its attention on the exchange of information on the on-going training programs, operator training facilities, available resources for training assistance and proposed cooperative schemes. These activities are expected to continue and will provide invaluable information for nuclear power programs in the Pacific Basin region. The group also reviewed problems and issues associated with developing regional cooperation. (author)

  3. Background and future activities of PBNCC's nuclear training working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieh, C.H.; Chung, K.; Hamlin, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the background and activities of the nuclear training working group of the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee. The working group has examined various mechanisms for regional cooperation including the development of a regional catalog of training programs and the conceptualization of sharing training facilities among nuclear operators in the region. The working group has focused its attention on the exchange of information on the on-going training programs, operator training facilities, available resources for training assistance and proposed cooperative schemes. These activities are expected to continue and will provide invaluable information for nuclear power programs in the Pacific Basin region. The group also reviewed problems and issues associated with developing regional cooperation

  4. Human temporal cortical single neuron activity during working memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George

    2016-06-01

    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  5. Human Temporal Cortical Single Neuron Activity During Working Memory Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George

    2016-01-01

    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  6. Return-to-work activities in a Chinese cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Loisel, Patrick; Feuerstein, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Several studies have been conducted in the West showing that return to work (RTW) coordination is a key element to facilitate RTW of injured workers and to prevent work disabilities. However, no study has been carried out to investigate the scope of RTW activities in China. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of key RTW stakeholders on necessary activities for RTW coordination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Guangdong province of China. A three-tiered approach including focus group discussions and panel reviews was used to collect RTW activities, analyze the content validity, and classify domains. Descriptive statistics and intra-class correlation (ICC) were used to describe the importance of RTW activities and the degree of agreement on the classification of different domains. A Kruskal-Wallis test with subsequent post-hoc analysis using multiple Mann-Whitney U tests was carried out to check for any differences in the domains of different RTW activities among RTW stakeholders. The domains of RTW activities in China were similar to those in the West and included workplace assessment and mediation, social problem solving, role and liability clarification, and medical advice. Good agreement (ICC: 0.729-0.844) on the classification of RTW activities into different domains was found. The domains of the RTW activities of healthcare providers differed from those of employers (P = 0.002) and injured workers (P = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between employers and injured workers. This study indicated that differences among stakeholders were observed in terms of areas of relative priority. There is a clear need for research and training in China to establish a nation-wide terminology for RTW coordination, facilitate cross-provincial studies and work toward a more integrated system addressing the diverse perspectives of stakeholders involved in the RTW process.

  7. Multi-Response Extraction Optimization Based on Anti-Oxidative Activity and Quality Evaluation by Main Indicator Ingredients Coupled with Chemometric Analysis on Thymus quinquecostatus Celak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan-Li; Shen, Meng; Ren, Xue-Yang; He, Ting; Wang, Le; Fan, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiu-Huan; Li, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yi; Sui, Hong; She, Gai-Mei

    2018-04-19

    Thymus quinquecostatus Celak is a species of thyme in China and it used as condiment and herbal medicine for a long time. To set up the quality evaluation of T. quinquecostatus , the response surface methodology (RSM) based on its 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was introduced to optimize the extraction condition, and the main indicator components were found through an UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS n method. The ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction time on optimum conditions were 42.32%, 1:17.51, and 1.8 h, respectively. 35 components having 12 phenolic acids and 23 flavonoids were unambiguously or tentatively identified both positive and negative modes to employ for the comprehensive analysis in the optimum anti-oxidative part. A simple, reliable, and sensitive HPLC method was performed for the multi-component quantitative analysis of T. quinquecostatus using six characteristic and principal phenolic acids and flavonoids as reference compounds. Furthermore, the chemometrics methods (principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA)) appraised the growing areas and harvest time of this herb closely relative to the quality-controlled. This study provided full-scale qualitative and quantitative information for the quality evaluation of T. quinquecostatus , which would be a valuable reference for further study and development of this herb and related laid the foundation of further study on its pharmacological efficacy.

  8. Activities for education at work for Medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna León Acebo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: the growing demands of a health professional that combines study and work, school with life and teaching-learning in primary and secondary health care constitute a current social problem for the country.Objective: to design a set of activities for education at work for first year medical students, from the family doctor's office, to contribute to health promotion and disease prevention in the community, favoring the integral formation of future doctors.Methods: the program was designed in work areas for the integrated teaching of biomedical disciplines for contributing to health promotion and disease prevention in "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” polyclinic in Las Tunas. It carried out the historic and graphical analysis of the problem; students’,  professors’ and community members’ behaviors were observed; interviews and surveys were applied to explore knowledge and experiences of students and health professionals on the promotion of health education at work; workshops on critical opinion and collective elaboration were carried out and permitted to  socialize with other teachers and health professionals the proposed program for its redesign based on collective criticism.Results: the shortcomings caused by the fragmentation of subject contents and biomedical disciplines in education at work were characterized and the plan to help to eliminate the inadequacies that occur in education at work was designed by work areas and determined by the general guidelines for its implementation, without specific indications.Conclusions: the clinical method was applied its pedagogical dimension, allowing the coordination between the traditional methods of teaching-learning and for diagnosing, to contribute to eliminate the spontaneous character in the development of education in the workplace. The program of activities was designed by work areas.

  9. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities.

  10. Work activities and musculoskeletal discomforts amongst active older Albertans on alternative employment trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Jon B; Copeland, Jennifer L; Brown, Lesley A; Newman, Jeff T; Hudson, D Shane

    2014-01-01

    Bridge employment (scheduled paid work after retirement age) may promote successful aging and continued health, as work can be an important component of daily physical activity. Appropriate work demands for older adults are neither well-established nor well-applied, however, and excessive loading or increased perceptions of discomfort may negate the health benefits of work activity. This study examined work status and musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) amongst older Albertans. 1044 Albertans aged 55 years and older participating in an organized 'Games' received a research package. Enclosed in the package were an introductory letter, a return envelope, and modified versions of validated questionnaires examining leisure and work activities, activity frequency, and perceptions of musculoskeletal health. 228 respondents were classified into one of three employment trajectory groups: fully retired, fully employed, or bridge employed. Groups differed in age, and both employed groups more frequently reported MSDs in all body areas. Bridge employed reported increased 'occasional' frequency of musculoskeletal injury risk factors, while both groups reported similar overall ratings of work-related exertion. The increased MSDs reported by bridge employed adults may be the result of irregularity of work activity and soft tissue loading. Detailed examination of work demands and musculoskeletal injuries amongst bridge employed adults could help define safer levels for less regular work activity.

  11. The Multifactorial Analysis of Static and Repetitive Work. Study of the Work in Services Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Andrea Ramírez C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The office work and specifically the workwith computer are develop in long periods ofstatic work, which is associated with the developmentof muscle skeletal disorders. In consequence,the authors made a transverse studywith office workers (n=377 of a companydedicated to service activities (managementof information and attention to costumersin order to explore the relationship betweenthe work structure, the nature of the tasks and thepresence of muscle skeletal disorders, and toidentify a strategy to stimulate the posturaltransition.The information was collected in a questionpaper that went into variables related to the typeof task that the worker develops, the time that hededicates to office and computer activities, disabilities,medical precedents and current symptomatology.The main medical precedents founded inthe evaluated population was: arterial hypertension(HTA, 8%; lipidomics, 23%; diabetes, 3%,and hypoglycemia, 4%. In the evaluated populationwas found that 80% suffer pain, specificallyrelative to upper limbs: hands, 26%; elbows, 3%,and shoulders 4%. In cervical column, 32%; lumbarcolumn, 16%; and dorsal column, 6%. Finally,it was proved that 80% of the worker’s time isdedicated to static work, specifically to typinginformation.The results of this study are applied to thedevelopment of principles to design tasks andto develop a strategy to promote the posturetransitions at work.

  12. What to Know About Medicines With New Active Ingredients Approved in FY 2016 / 2016 in Japan and EU: A Brief Comparison of New Medicines Approved in Japan and the EU in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideyuki; Saint-Raymond, Agnès; Yasuda, Naoyuki

    2018-03-01

    The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) in Japan and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have a long-standing experience of reviews of new medicines, and they meet their target pre-market review periods. In FY 2016 / 2016, 112 and 83 new medicines were approved in Japan and EU, respectively. Out of these medicines, 41 and 27 medicines containing new active ingredients were approved with total pre-market review periods of 209 days and 428 days in Japan and EU, respectively. Approximately one-third of these medicines were reviewed by the Agencies in close timing, within 1 year between pre-market review applications in Japan and in EU. Taking into account the increasing number of global clinical trials and constant number of consultations or scientific advice related to global clinical trials in Japan, it is clear that the importance of the continuous, collaborative relationship between EMA and PMDA is more and more crucial, as it does facilitate close and timely exchange of information and opinions on products and technologies under development. There already are effective collaborative frameworks between PMDA and EMA in addition to daily communication, and our findings support the development and best use of regulatory tools such as consultation services and scientific advice/protocol assistance for the benefit of the pharmaceutical industry but mostly of patients.

  13. Contralateral Delay Activity Tracks Fluctuations in Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kirsten C S; Robison, Matthew K; Vogel, Edward K

    2018-01-08

    Neural measures of working memory storage, such as the contralateral delay activity (CDA), are powerful tools in working memory research. CDA amplitude is sensitive to working memory load, reaches an asymptote at known behavioral limits, and predicts individual differences in capacity. An open question, however, is whether neural measures of load also track trial-by-trial fluctuations in performance. Here, we used a whole-report working memory task to test the relationship between CDA amplitude and working memory performance. If working memory failures are due to decision-based errors and retrieval failures, CDA amplitude would not differentiate good and poor performance trials when load is held constant. If failures arise during storage, then CDA amplitude should track both working memory load and trial-by-trial performance. As expected, CDA amplitude tracked load (Experiment 1), reaching an asymptote at three items. In Experiment 2, we tracked fluctuations in trial-by-trial performance. CDA amplitude was larger (more negative) for high-performance trials compared with low-performance trials, suggesting that fluctuations in performance were related to the successful storage of items. During working memory failures, participants oriented their attention to the correct side of the screen (lateralized P1) and maintained covert attention to the correct side during the delay period (lateralized alpha power suppression). Despite the preservation of attentional orienting, we found impairments consistent with an executive attention theory of individual differences in working memory capacity; fluctuations in executive control (indexed by pretrial frontal theta power) may be to blame for storage failures.

  14. Active pauses induce more variable electromyographic pattern of the trapezius muscle activity during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    , with passive (relax) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 2 min at two different work paces (low/high). Bipolar SEMG from four parts of the trapezius muscle was recorded. The relative rest time was higher for the lower parts compared with the upper......The aim of this laboratory study was to evaluate effects of active and passive pauses and investigate the distribution of the trapezius surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity during computer mouse work. Twelve healthy male subjects performed four sessions of computer work for 10 min in one day...... of the trapezius (pwork with active pause compared with passive one (p

  15. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in the activation of working memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzer, M.; Kammer, T.; Bellemann, M.E.; Gueckel, F.; Georgi, M.; Gass, A.; Brix, G.

    1996-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in conjunction with a letter detection task for the study of working memory in 16 normal subjects. Because of movement artifacts, data from only 9 subjects were analysed. In the activation taks, subjects responded by pressing a button whenever any presented letter was the same as the second last in the sequence. In the control condition, the subjects had to respond to a fixed letter. Hence, the activation condition and the control condition differend only subjectively, i.e., regarding the task demand, whereas the stimuli and the type and frequency of response were identical. The activation condition produced significant activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's areas 10, 46, and 9). In contrast to experimental tasks previsouly used rather extensively to study the prefrontal cortex, the present paradigm is characterized by its simplicity, interpretability, and its ties to known neurophysiology of the frontal cortex. (orig.) [de

  16. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  17. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Treadmill workstations: the effects of walking while working on physical activity and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U; Levine, James

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.

  19. Standardization activities of the Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.

    1982-06-01

    In 1979 a working group on neutron radiography was formed at Euratom. The purpose of this group is the standardization of neutron radiographic methods in the field of nuclear fuel. Activities of this Neutron Radiography Working Group are revised. Classification of defects revealed by neutron radiography is illustrated in a special atlas. Beam purity and sensitivity indicators are tested together with a special calibration fuel pin. All the Euratom neutron radiography centers will perform comparative neutron radiography with those items. The measuring results obtained, using various measuring aparatus will form the basis to formulate conclusions about the best measuring methods and instruments to be used in that field. Besides the atlas of neutron radiographic findings in light water reactor fuel, the Euratom Neutron Radiogrphy Working Group has published a neutron radiography handbook in which the neutron radiography installations in the European Community are also described. (author)

  20. What determines ingredient awareness of consumers? A study on ten functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of consumer awareness of functional food ingredients for healthy food choices, the aim of this study is to explore consumers’ ingredient awareness and the determinants which influence the awareness about functional food ingredients. A sample of 200 German consumers was

  1. Work Activities and Compensation of Male and Female Cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Biga, Cathie; Poppas, Athena; Rodgers, George P; Walsh, Mary N; White, Patrick J; McKendry, Colleen; Sasson, Joseph; Schulte, Phillip J; Douglas, Pamela S

    2016-02-09

    Much remains unknown about experiences, including working activities and pay, of women in cardiology, which is a predominantly male specialty. The goal of this study was to describe the working activities and pay of female cardiologists compared with their male colleagues and to determine whether sex differences in compensation exist after accounting for differences in work activities and other characteristics. The personal, job, and practice characteristics of a national sample of practicing cardiologists were described according to sex. We applied the Peters-Belson technique and multivariate regression analysis to evaluate whether gender differences in compensation existed after accounting for differences in other measured characteristics. The study used 2013 data reported by practice administrators to MedAxiom, a subscription-based service provider to cardiology practices. Data regarding cardiologists from 161 U.S. practices were included, and the study sample included 2,679 subjects (229 women and 2,450 men). Women were more likely to be specialized in general/noninvasive cardiology (53.1% vs. 28.2%), and a lower proportion (11.4% vs. 39.3%) reported an interventional subspecialty compared with men. Job characteristics that differed according to sex included the proportion working full-time (79.9% vs. 90.9%; p worked (387 vs. 406 days; p = 0.001), and mean work relative value units generated (7,404 vs. 9,497; p women and men, respectively. Peters-Belson analysis revealed that based on measured job and productivity characteristics, the women in this sample would have been expected to have a mean salary that was $31,749 (95% confidence interval: $16,303 to $48,028) higher than that actually observed. Multivariate analysis confirmed the direction and magnitude of the independent association between sex and salary. Men and women practicing cardiology in this national sample had different job activities and salaries. Substantial sex-based salary differences existed

  2. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary

    Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to

  3. FOOD AS VECTOR FOR NUTRACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days people consumption habits are changing they are inclined to buy healthy food that fulfills the need of essential nutrients in the body. With increasing educational level, people are becoming ready to accept different types of food & beverages that have added nutritional ingredient. Hence with this change, nutraceutical ingredient is gaining importance. Nutraceutical are those that combine technological and health properties. Nutraceutical Ingredients are substances with clinically confirmed health benefits and have broad applications in foods, beverages, dietary supplements and nutritional preparations. There are huge numbers of ingredients which are still unexplored. They have still not gained popularity in food industry. In this review paper a brief introduction of nutraceutical ingredient, its market and detailed knowledge of- Ginseng, Pine Bark Extract, Seabuckthorn, Buckwheat is mentioned.

  4. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaneva, M.; Minkova, M.; Zajko, G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90 Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  5. R and D activities of the ESARDA NDA working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardini, S.; Bignan, G.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the R and D activities of the ESARDA Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA), as well as to discuss the role and possibilities of the group in the modern R and D scenario in safeguards and non-proliferation. The main tasks of the ESARDA NDA Working have been identified as being to: Define needs for procedural standards and reference materials; Design and manage the production and characterisation of reference materials; Assess and contribute to improving the performances of NDA techniques; Set up and maintain a list of NDA instruments and methods currently used for Safeguards purposes; and, through the above activities, assist Operators and Safeguards Authorities in their duty of Safeguards implementation. Members and observers appointed to the working group represent plant operators, the nuclear industry, R and D laboratories, NDA instrument developers and both safeguards control authorities. The participation of major European plant operators and of the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate and IAEA has always been assured and contributes to the good outcome of the WG activities. The ongoing R and D activities of the NDA Working Group are: Monte Carlo performance intercomparisons; 242 Pu accuracy assessment and improvement; NDA Sampling errors; General NDA performance evaluations. Some milestones have recently been reached: The 242 Pu uncertainty improvement project is coming to an end with the issuing of a new isotopic correlation; The NCC 'reals' evaluation and the Monte Carlo round robin is producing its first results; The Uranium Enrichment Round Robin Exercise has been completed; The waste drum standards are being characterised and constructed: they will be available by spring 1998. The round robin amongst laboratories will then start: summer 1998. Future activities comprise, beside the above issues, technical problems linked with the new challenges posed by new regimes of safeguards and non

  6. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

    2010-04-01

    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Recent activities of the ESARDA working group on NDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, R.J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The European Safeguards Research and Development Association, ESARDA, has one of the largest coordinated safeguards and development programs in the world. There are several working groups for specific R and D activities. One of these is the ''ESARDA Working Group on Techniques and Standards for non-Destructive Analysis''. The NDA working group has initiated the international project of the preparation of uranium oxide certified reference materials for the gamma spectrometric determination of the enrichment, which are made in a collaboration with the US NBS and the European Communities' Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, CBNM, at Geel. The possibility of a similar type of reference material for Pu isotopic abundance measurements is investigated at CBNM, and the pilot samples may become available for intercomparisons. Safeguards acceptability and users manual have been considered carefully. The working group has undertaken an intercomparison on the determination of plutonium isotopic ratios by gamma spectrometry, using NBS-SRM's-946, -947 and 948. A new exercise on 0,5 gram samples of seven different isotopic compositions samples will be executed under the name PIDIE (Plutonium Isotopic Determination Intercomparison Exercise)

  8. Treatment of human and livestock helminth infections in a mobile pastoralist setting at Lake Chad: Attitudes to health and analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients of locally available anthelminthic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, Helena; Cowan, Noemi; Ngandolo, Bongo N; Kessely, Hamit; Alfaroukh, Idriss O; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-11-01

    Mobile pastoralists face challenges in accessing quality health care and medication for managing human and animal diseases. We determined livestock disease priorities, health seeking behaviour of people bearing helminthiases and - placing particular emphasis on trematode infections - treatment strategies and outcome satisfaction among mobile pastoralists of four ethnic groups in the Lake Chad area using focus group discussions. People suffering from schistosomiasis were interviewed about symptoms, health seeking behaviour and their satisfaction with respect to the provided treatment. Anthelminthic drugs for human and veterinary use obtained from various health care structures were analysed for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and quantity, using high pressure liquid chromatography-UV and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Most people suffering from schistosomiasis sought treatment at health care centres. Yet, they also consulted informal providers without medical training. Regarding animal health, self-mediated therapy was common to manage suspected livestock fascioliasis. Self-reported treatment satisfaction for human schistosomiasis and trematodiasis treatment outcome in livestock were low. Mobile pastoralists perceived the purchased drugs to be of low quality. Among 33 products locally sold as anthelminthic drugs for human or veterinary use, 27 contained albendazole or mebendazole, varying between 91% and 159% of the labelled amount. Six products were sold loosely with incomplete information and their API could not be identified. No counterfeit anthelminthic drugs were detected. None of the samples contained praziquantel or triclabendazole, the drugs of choice against schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. The perceived unsatisfactory treatment outcomes in humans and animals infected with trematodes are most likely due to empiric diagnosis and the resulting use of inadequate therapy for human schistosomiasis and the

  9. Biological and environmental reference materials in neutron activation analysis work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas, M.

    1990-01-01

    The great usefulness of reference materials, especially ones of certified elemental composition, is discussed with particular attention devoted to their use in instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) work. Their use, including both certified and uncertified values, in calculations made by the INAA Advance Prediction Computer Program (APCP) is discussed. The main features of the APCP are described, and mention is made of the large number of reference materials run on the APCP (including the new personal computer version of the program), with NBS Oyster Tissue SRM-1566 used as the principal examle. (orig.)

  10. Activities of the PNC Nuclear Safety Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Working Group of the Pacific Nuclear Council promotes nuclear safety cooperation among its members. Status of safety research, emergency planning, development of lists of technical experts, severe accident prevention and mitigation have been the topics of discussion in the NSWG. This paper reviews and compares the severe accident prevention and mitigation program activities in some of the areas of the Pacific Basin region based on papers presented at a special session organized by the NSWG at an ANS Topical Meeting as well as papers from other sources

  11. Activating the past in the Ferguson protests : Memory work, digital activism and the politics of platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Pieter Hendrik; Heinrich, Ansgard; Broersma, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the Facebook page Justice for Mike Brown—set up during the 2014 Ferguson protests—in order to rethink the role of memory work within contemporary digital activism. We argue that, as a particular type of discursive practice, memory work on the page bridged personal and

  12. Analysis of Ingredient Lists to Quantitatively Characterize ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s ExpoCast program is developing high throughput (HT) approaches to generate the needed exposure estimates to compare against HT bioactivity data generated from the US inter-agency Tox21 and the US EPA ToxCast programs. Assessing such exposures for the thousands of chemicals in consumer products requires data on product composition. This is a challenge since quantitative product composition data are rarely available. We developed methods to predict the weight fractions of chemicals in consumer products from weight fraction-ordered chemical ingredient lists, and curated a library of such lists from online manufacturer and retailer sites. The probabilistic model predicts weight fraction as a function of the total number of reported ingredients, the rank of the ingredient in the list, the minimum weight fraction for which ingredients were reported, and the total weight fraction of unreported ingredients. Weight fractions predicted by the model compared very well to available quantitative weight fraction data obtained from Material Safety Data Sheets for products with 3-8 ingredients. Lists were located from the online sources for 5148 products containing 8422 unique ingredient names. A total of 1100 of these names could be located in EPA’s HT chemical database (DSSTox), and linked to 864 unique Chemical Abstract Service Registration Numbers (392 of which were in the Tox21 chemical library). Weight fractions were estimated for these 864 CASRN. Using a

  13. Towards needs-based work environments : Psychological needs affecting the use and appreciation of activity-based work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan Gerard Hoendervanger

    2015-01-01

    Activity-Based Working (ABW) is supported by work environments that combine hot-desking with a variety of workplaces, designed to support different types of activities. While the advantages of these work environments in terms of efficiency are undisputed, their effectiveness with respect to job

  14. Towards needs-based work environments: psychological needs affecting the use and appreciation of activity-based work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Activity-Based Working (ABW) is supported by work environments that combine hot-desking with a variety of workplaces, designed to support different types of activities. While the advantages of these work environments in terms of efficiency are undisputed, their effectiveness with respect to job

  15. Treadmill workstations: the effects of walking while working on physical activity and work performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Ben-Ner

    Full Text Available We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.

  16. Functional brain activation associated with working memory training and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cameron M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M

    2017-09-15

    While behavioural trials of working memory (WM) training have received much attention in recent years, a lesser explored parallel approach is functional neuroimaging. A small literature has suggested a complex time course for functional activation pattern changes following WM training (i.e. not simply increasing or decreasing due to training); however, no study to date has examined such neuroplastic effects in both the training task (dual n-back) and the fluid intelligence transfer task to which the training is purported to transfer (Raven's Matrices). This study investigated neural correlates of WM training in healthy young adults randomized to six weeks of WM training, or an active control condition (processing speed training) with a pre- and post-training fMRI design. Results indicated significant reductions in activation for the WM trained group in key WM-task related areas for trained WM tasks after training compared to the processing speed active control group. The same pattern of training related decreases in activation for the WM trained group was not observed for the transfer task, which is consistent with null results for all cognitive outcomes of the present trial. The observed pattern of results suggests that repetitive practice with a complex task does indeed lead to neuroplastic processes that very likely represent the reduced demand for attentional control while sub-components of the task become more routinized with practice. We suggest that future research investigate neural correlates of WM training in populations for which WM itself is impaired and/or behavioural trials of WM training have returned more promising results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Program-Expert Safety Assessments of Cosmetic Ingredients in an Open Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ivan J; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Heldreth, Bart; Fiume, Monice M; Gill, Lillian J

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) is a nonprofit program to assess the safety of ingredients in personal care products in an open, unbiased, and expert manner. Cosmetic Ingredient Review was established in 1976 by the Personal Care Products Council (PCPC), with the support of the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). Cosmetic Ingredient Review remains the only scientific program in the world committed to the systematic, independent review of cosmetic ingredient safety in a public forum. Cosmetic Ingredient Review operates in accordance with procedures modeled after the USFDA process for reviewing over-the-counter drugs. Nine voting panel members are distinguished, such as medical professionals, scientists, and professors. Three nonvoting liaisons are designated by the USFDA, CFA, and PCPC to represent government, consumer, and industry, respectively. The annual rate of completing safety assessments accelerated from about 100 to more than 400 ingredients by implementing grouping and read-across strategies and other approaches. As of March 2017, CIR had reviewed 4,740 individual cosmetic ingredients, including 4,611 determined to be safe as used or safe with qualifications, 12 determined to be unsafe, and 117 ingredients for which the information is insufficient to determine safety. Examples of especially challenging safety assessments and issues are presented here, including botanicals. Cosmetic Ingredient Review continues to strengthen its program with the ongoing cooperation of the USFDA, CFA, the cosmetics industry, and everyone else interested in contributing to the process.

  18. [Recent advances of synthetic biology for production of functional ingredients in Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin-Yao; Xue, Jian-Ping; Wang, Cai-Xia

    2016-11-01

    The functional ingredients in Chinese materia medica are the main active substance for traditional Chinese medicine and most of them are secondary metabolites derivatives. Until now,the main method to obtain those functional ingredients is through direct extraction from the Chinese materia medica. However, the income is very low because of the high extraction costs and the decreased medicinal plants. Synthetic biology technology, as a new and microbial approach, can be able to carry out large-scale production of functional ingredients and greatly ease the shortage of traditional Chinese medicine ingredients. This review mainly focused on the recent advances in synthetic biology for the functional ingredients production. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. COSPAR/PRBEM international working group activities report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdarie, S.; Blake, B.; Cao, J. B.; Friedel, R.; Miyoshi, Y.; Panasyuk, M.; Underwood, C.

    It is now clear to everybody that the current standard AE8 AP8 model for ionising particle specification in the radiation belts must be updated But such an objective is quite difficult to reach just as a reminder to develop AE8 AP8 model in the seventies was 10 persons full time for ten years It is clear that world-wide efforts must be combined because not any individual group has the human resource to perform these new models by themselves Under COSPAR umbrella an international group of expert well distributed around the world has been created to set up a common framework for everybody involved in this field Planned activities of the international group of experts are to - Define users needs - Provide guidelines for standard file format for ionising measurements - Set up guidelines to process in-situ data on a common basis - Decide in which form the new models will have to be - Centralise all progress done world-wide to advise the community - Try to organise world-wide activities as a project to ensure complementarities and more efficiencies between all efforts done Activities of this working group since its creation will be reported as well as future plans

  20. Integration of active pauses and pattern of muscular activity during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Nancy; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    Submaximal isometric muscle contractions have been reported to increase variability of muscle activation during computer work; however, other types of active contractions may be more beneficial. Our objective was to determine which type of active pause vs. rest is more efficient in changing muscle activity pattern during a computer task. Asymptomatic regular computer users performed a standardised 20-min computer task four times, integrating a different type of pause: sub-maximal isometric contraction, dynamic contraction, postural exercise and rest. Surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity was recorded bilaterally from five neck/shoulder muscles. Root-mean-square decreased with isometric pauses in the cervical paraspinals, upper trapezius and middle trapezius, whereas it increased with rest. Variability in the pattern of muscular activity was not affected by any type of pause. Overall, no detrimental effects on the level of SEMG during active pauses were found suggesting that they could be implemented without a cost on activation level or variability. Practitioner Summary: We aimed to determine which type of active pause vs. rest is best in changing muscle activity pattern during a computer task. Asymptomatic computer users performed a standardised computer task integrating different types of pauses. Muscle activation decreased with isometric pauses in neck/shoulder muscles, suggesting their implementation during computer work.

  1. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Potential Health and Beauty Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Chrapusta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is constantly exposed to damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR, which induces a number of acute and chronic disorders. To reduce the risk of UV-induced skin injury, people apply an additional external protection in the form of cosmetic products containing sunscreens. Nowadays, because of the use of some chemical filters raises a lot of controversies, research focuses on exploring novel, fully safe and highly efficient natural UV-absorbing compounds that could be used as active ingredients in sun care products. A promising alternative is the application of multifunctional mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, which can effectively compete with commercially available filters. Here, we outline a complete characterization of these compounds and discuss their enormous biotechnological potential with special emphasis on their use as sunscreens, activators of cells proliferation, anti-cancer agents, anti-photoaging molecules, stimulators of skin renewal, and functional ingredients of UV-protective biomaterials.

  2. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Potential Health and Beauty Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapusta, Ewelina; Kaminski, Ariel; Duchnik, Kornelia; Bober, Beata; Adamski, Michal; Bialczyk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Human skin is constantly exposed to damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which induces a number of acute and chronic disorders. To reduce the risk of UV-induced skin injury, people apply an additional external protection in the form of cosmetic products containing sunscreens. Nowadays, because of the use of some chemical filters raises a lot of controversies, research focuses on exploring novel, fully safe and highly efficient natural UV-absorbing compounds that could be used as active ingredients in sun care products. A promising alternative is the application of multifunctional mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), which can effectively compete with commercially available filters. Here, we outline a complete characterization of these compounds and discuss their enormous biotechnological potential with special emphasis on their use as sunscreens, activators of cells proliferation, anti-cancer agents, anti-photoaging molecules, stimulators of skin renewal, and functional ingredients of UV-protective biomaterials. PMID:29065484

  3. Potential Antitumor Effects of Pomegranates and Its Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Alsahli, Mohammed A; Almatroodi, Saleh A

    2017-01-01

    The treatment based on plant or plant derivatives is a promising strategy in the killing of cancers cells. Moreover, wide-ranging finding has established that medicinal plant and its ingredient modulate several cells signaling pathways or inhibiting the carcinogenesis process. In this vista, pomegranates fruits, seeds and peels illustrate cancer preventive role seems to be due to rich source of antioxidant and other valuable ingredients. Furthermore, anti-tumour activities of pomegranates have been evidences through the modulation of cell signaling pathways including transcription factor, apoptosis and angiogenesis. In this review article, anti-tumor activity of pomegranates and its components or its different type of extracts are described to understand the mechanism of action of pomegranates in cancer therapy.

  4. Activities of the EMRAS Tritium/C14 Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Balonov, M.; Venter, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new model evaluation program, Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS), was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in September 2003. EMRAS includes a working group (WG) on modeling tritium and C-14 transfer through the environment to biota and man. The main objective of this WG is to develop and test models of the uptake, formation and translocation of organically bound tritium (OBT) in food crops, animals and aquatic systems. To the extent possible, the WG is carrying out its work by comparing model predictions with experimental data to identify the modeling approaches and assumptions that lead to the best agreement between predictions and observations. Results for scenarios involving a chronically contaminated aquatic ecosystem and short-term exposure of soybeans are presently being analyzed. In addition, calculations for scenarios involving chronically contaminated terrestrial food chains and hypothetical short-term releases are currently underway, and a pinetree scenario is being developed. The preparation of datasets on tritium dynamics in large animals and fish is being encouraged, since these are the areas of greatest uncertainty in OBT modeling. These activities will be discussed in this paper

  5. Analysis of work ability and work-related physical activity of employees in a medium-sized business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Christiane; Ashton, Philip; Elis, Tobias; Biallas, Bianca; Froböse, Ingo

    2015-12-18

    Work-related physical activity (PA) and work ability are of growing importance in modern working society. There is evidence for age- and job-related differences regarding PA and work ability. This study analyses work ability and work-related PA of employees in a medium-sized business regarding age and occupation. The total sample consists of 148 employees (116 men-78.38% of the sample-and 32 women, accounting for 21.62%; mean age: 40.85 ± 10.07 years). 100 subjects (67.57%) are white-collar workers (WC), and 48 (32.43%) are blue-collar workers (BC). Work ability is measured using the work ability index, and physical activity is obtained via the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Work ability shows significant differences regarding occupation (p = 0.001) but not regarding age. Further, significant differences are found for work-related PA concerning occupation (p Work ability is rated as good, yet, a special focus should lie on the promotion during early and late working life. Also, there is still a lack of evidence on the level of work-related PA. Considering work-related PA could add to meeting current activity recommendations.

  6. Active Work Zone Safety Using Emerging Technologies 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Highway construction work zones are hazardous environments characterized by a dynamic and limited work space. A host of interactions between workers, passing commuter vehicles, and moving construction equipment occurs in highway work zones fostering ...

  7. Burning characteristics of chemically isolated biomass ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the burning characteristics of isolated fractions of a biomass species. So, woody shells of hazelnut were chemically treated to obtain the fractions of extractives-free bulk, lignin, and holocellulose. Physical characterization of these fractions were determined by SEM technique, and the burning runs were carried out from ambient to 900 o C applying thermal analysis techniques of TGA, DTG, DTA, and DSC. The non-isothermal model of Borchardt-Daniels was used to DSC data to find the kinetic parameters. Burning properties of each fraction were compared to those of the raw material to describe their effects on burning, and to interpret the synergistic interactions between the fractions in the raw material. It was found that each of the fractions has its own characteristic physical and thermal features. Some of the characteristic points on the thermograms of the fractions could be followed definitely on those of the raw material, while some of them seriously shifted to other temperatures or disappeared as a result of the co-existence of the ingredients. Also, it is concluded that the presence of hemicellulosics and celluloses makes the burning of lignin easier in the raw material compared to the isolated lignin. The activation energies can be arranged in the order of holocellulose < extractives-free biomass < raw material < lignin.

  8. ORGANIZATION OF INDEPENDENT STUDENT WORK BASED ON STUDENT BLOGGING ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gareyev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Today, the students’ personality traits and increasing their motivation to self-development are the most complex and urgent problems in foreign language training at higher technical university and in the system of higher education in general. According to the authors, the technology of student blogging is a means for addressing these issues, despite the lack of research on its methodology. In that regard, there is a need for further studies on information and communication technologies (ICT application by promoting independent student work. The aim of this paper is to present the developed model of organization of bachelors’ independent work through educational blogging; to fulfill educational potential and to prove the efficiency of ICTs application in education taking into consideration professional foreign language competence development of future specialists in tool making. Methodology and research methods. When designing the model, the basic considerations of the following methodological approaches were considered: competency-based, personal-oriented, activity-based, thesaurus, and qualimetric; the listed above approaches enable to realize the principles of individualization, professional orientation, integrity, self-organization and interactivity in the performed work. The method of group expert assessment, as the leading one in pedagogical qualimetry, was chosen as the main method in the research undertaken. The methods of modeling and pedagogical experiment were involved. Results and scientific novelty. The structure of professional foreign language competence (including communicative, cognitive and subject components of future toolmaking bachelors is identified. The development of the competence formation model among students is described in detail: having studied independently the subject topic, the students post the material. Pedagogical conditions and didactic guidelines for the model realization are formulated

  9. Abnormal prefrontal and parietal activity linked to deficient active binding in working memory in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grot, Stéphanie; Légaré, Virginie Petel; Lipp, Olivier; Soulières, Isabelle; Dolcos, Florin; Luck, David

    2017-10-01

    Working memory deficits have been widely reported in schizophrenia, and may result from inefficient binding processes. These processes, and their neural correlates, remain understudied in schizophrenia. Thus, we designed an FMRI study aimed at investigating the neural correlates of both passive and active binding in working memory in schizophrenia. Nineteen patients with schizophrenia and 23 matched controls were recruited to perform a working memory binding task, in which they were instructed to memorize three letters and three spatial locations. In the passive binding condition, letters and spatial locations were directly presented as bound. Conversely, in the active binding condition, words and spatial locations were presented as separated, and participants were instructed to intentionally create associations between them. Patients exhibited a similar performance to the controls for the passive binding condition, but a significantly lower performance for the active binding. FMRI analyses revealed that this active binding deficit was related to aberrant activity in the posterior parietal cortex and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. This study provides initial evidence of a specific deficit for actively binding information in schizophrenia, which is linked to dysfunctions in the neural networks underlying attention, manipulation of information, and encoding strategies. Together, our results suggest that all these dysfunctions may be targets for neuromodulation interventions known to improve cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The problem of creative activity in of social work research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilka L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Current Latvian research in the area of social work is not characteristic of a creative and innovative methodological approach. The methodological conservatism derived from general sociology is particularly affecting students in doctoral studies. This proposes a question: should, in the name of scientific novelty, we support research in which the PhD student aims to get rid of his personality behind the shield of authority, sometimes even general sociology textbook truths? Or should we encourage bold challenges to methodological schematism, in which the researcher takes a pose of truly creative research and avoids becoming a representative of scientific marginality lacking one’s personality? The subject of creative activity – the researcher in social work – can best express oneself in the level of philosophic wisdom, identifying only the main guidelines of his creative processes and allowing a large headspace for one’s creative quests. A scientist, also one interested in the problems of social work, can ascertain his/her uniqueness by relying on the concept that any researcher has embarked on an individual journey, circulating on different orbits around one central idea. If the distance between such central idea and the researcher’s activities is increasing, this signifies of either a creatively productive reevaluation of the researcher’s position, or the death of the research process in having lost the original idea. On the other hand, continuous approach towards the central idea either means that the researcher is consistent and determined in his creative research, or there is complete lack of scientific novelty in cases when borrowed foreign ideas are worshipped.

  11. Rhythmic Working Memory Activation in the Human Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Leszczyński

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM maintenance is assumed to rely on a single sustained process throughout the entire maintenance period. This assumption, although fundamental, has never been tested. We used intracranial electroencephalography (EEG recordings from the human hippocampus in two independent experiments to investigate the neural dynamics underlying WM maintenance. We observed periodic fluctuations between two different oscillatory regimes: Periods of “memory activation” were reflected by load-dependent alpha power reductions and lower levels of cross-frequency coupling (CFC. They occurred interleaved with periods characterized by load-independent high levels of alpha power and CFC. During memory activation periods, a relevant CFC parameter (load-dependent changes of the peak modulated frequency correlated with individual WM capacity. Fluctuations between these two periods predicted successful performance and were locked to the phase of endogenous delta oscillations. These results show that hippocampal maintenance is a dynamic rather than constant process and depends critically on a hierarchy of oscillations.

  12. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  13. Analysis of work ability and work-related physical activity of employees in a medium-sized business

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Christiane; Ashton, Philip; Elis, Tobias; Biallas, Bianca; Frob?se, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Background Work-related physical activity (PA) and work ability are of growing importance in modern working society. There is evidence for age- and job-related differences regarding PA and work ability. This study analyses work ability and work-related PA of employees in a medium-sized business regarding age and occupation. Methods The total sample consists of 148 employees (116 men?78.38?% of the sample?and 32 women, accounting for 21.62?%; mean age: 40.85???10.07?years). 100 subjects (67.57...

  14. Work Engagement, Performance, and Active Learning: The Role of Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…

  15. Trapezius muscle activity increases during near work activity regardless of accommodation/vergence demand level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H O; Zetterberg, C; Forsman, M

    2015-07-01

    To investigate if trapezius muscle activity increases over time during visually demanding near work. The vision task consisted of sustained focusing on a contrast-varying black and white Gabor grating. Sixty-six participants with a median age of 38 (range 19-47) fixated the grating from a distance of 65 cm (1.5 D) during four counterbalanced 7-min periods: binocularly through -3.5 D lenses, and monocularly through -3.5 D, 0 D and +3.5 D. Accommodation, heart rate variability and trapezius muscle activity were recorded in parallel. General estimating equation analyses showed that trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time in all four lens conditions. A concurrent effect of accommodation response on trapezius muscle activity was observed with the minus lenses irrespective of whether incongruence between accommodation and convergence was present or not. Trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time during the near work task. The increase in muscle activity over time may be caused by an increased need of mental effort and visual attention to maintain performance during the visual tasks to counteract mental fatigue.

  16. Synergism in work site adoption of employee assistance programs and health promotion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, T C; Roman, P M; Patrick, L

    1990-05-01

    As workplaces increasingly adopt proactive programs directed toward employee health issues, the interrelation between different programs becomes an important issue. Of interest here is the "synergy" in patterns of program adoption between employee assistance programs (EAPs) and health promotion activities (HPAs). We utilize the 1985 National Survey of Worksite Health Promotion Activities (N = 1358) for analyses of the dual presence of EAPs and HPAs, and in multivariate analyses we consider factors affecting such dual presence. The data suggest that synergy occurs, with EAP adoption appearing to influence HPA adoption to a greater extent than the reverse. In multivariate analyses, synergy is confirmed by the finding that, among a variety of relevant organizational characteristics, EAP presence and HPA presence are the best predictors of each other's presence. The analyses also indicate that there is minimal commonality in program ingredients across organizations reporting the presence of HPAs. Implications of the data for the future development of these two programming strategies are discussed.

  17. Botanicals and anti-inflammatories: natural ingredients for rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Jason; Waldorf, Heidi; Berson, Diane

    2011-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by cutaneous hypersensitivity. There are many therapeutic options available for the treatment of rosacea, but none are curative. Since the pathogenesis of rosacea remains elusive, it is not surprising that no single treatment is paramount and that many patients find therapies unsatisfactory or even exacerbating. Treatments are prescribed to work in concert with each other in order to ameliorate the common clinical manifestations, which include: papules and pustules, telangiectasias, erythema, gland hypertrophy, and ocular disease. The most validated topical therapies include metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Many other topical therapies, such as calcineurin inhibitors, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, retinoids, topical corticosteroids, and permethrin have demonstrated varying degrees of success. Due to the inconsistent results of the aforementioned therapies patients are increasingly turning to alternative products containing natural ingredients or botanicals to ease inflammation and remit disease. Additional research is needed to elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the management of rosacea, but some important considerations regarding the natural ingredients with clinical data will be discussed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intrinsic resting-state activity predicts working memory brain activation and behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qihong; Ross, Thomas J; Gu, Hong; Geng, Xiujuan; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Hong, L Elliot; Gao, Jia-Hong; Stein, Elliot A; Zang, Yu-Feng; Yang, Yihong

    2013-12-01

    Although resting-state brain activity has been demonstrated to correspond with task-evoked brain activation, the relationship between intrinsic and evoked brain activity has not been fully characterized. For example, it is unclear whether intrinsic activity can also predict task-evoked deactivation and whether the rest-task relationship is dependent on task load. In this study, we addressed these issues on 40 healthy control subjects using resting-state and task-driven [N-back working memory (WM) task] functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in the same session. Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index of intrinsic resting-state activity, we found that ALFF in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior/superior parietal lobules was positively correlated with WM task-evoked activation, while ALFF in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus was negatively correlated with WM task-evoked deactivation. Further, the relationship between the intrinsic resting-state activity and task-evoked activation in lateral/superior frontal gyri, inferior/superior parietal lobules, superior temporal gyrus, and midline regions was stronger at higher WM task loads. In addition, both resting-state activity and the task-evoked activation in the superior parietal lobule/precuneus were significantly correlated with the WM task behavioral performance, explaining similar portions of intersubject performance variance. Together, these findings suggest that intrinsic resting-state activity facilitates or is permissive of specific brain circuit engagement to perform a cognitive task, and that resting activity can predict subsequent task-evoked brain responses and behavioral performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-05-01

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasonic Recovery and Modification of Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkhu, Kamaljit; Manasseh, Richard; Mawson, Raymond; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    There are two general classes of effects that sound, and ultrasound in particular, can have on a fluid. First, very significant modifications to the nature of food and food ingredients can be due to the phenomena of bubble acoustics and cavitation. The applied sound oscillates bubbles in the fluid, creating intense forces at microscopic scales thus driving chemical changes. Second, the sound itself can cause the fluid to flow vigorously, both on a large scale and on a microscopic scale; furthermore, the sound can cause particles in the fluid to move relative to the fluid. These streaming phenomena can redistribute materials within food and food ingredients at both microscopic and macroscopic scales.

  1. Reconciling Work and Family in a Multi-Active Society

    OpenAIRE

    Fusulier, Bernard; Forum on the Future of Gender Equality in the EU. Workshop on "Beyond the work-life balance"

    2015-01-01

    The feminisation of the labour market and the persisting inequalities between men and women; precarisation at work; flexibilisation of work and working hours; the geographic movement of people; the diversification of family models, of parenthood and parenting systems; the aging population; the narrowing of intra-familial and community support networks; individualism and the quest for personal fulfilment; the value of children’s well-being; the reconfiguration of spatial and temporal borders b...

  2. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory.......Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  3. Work engagement, performance and active learning : the role of conscientiousness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Ten Brummelhuis, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the

  4. Successful aging at work : The active role of employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Since workforces are aging, governments, organizations, and researchers are increasingly interested in the topic of successful aging at work. In this article, I viewed successful aging at work from a sustainability perspective, and argued that a continuous person–job fit between the changing person

  5. Exposure assessment of kneeling work activities among floor layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L K; Rytter, S; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    high external knee forces ranging from 0.3 Newton (SD 0.2) times body weight when floor layers were kneeling back on the heels, to 3.5 Newton (SD 0.3) times body weight in the crawling work position. The study highlights the need for prevention by minimizing the amount of kneeling work positions among...

  6. Modeling users` work activities in a smart home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allameh, E.; Heidari Jozam, M.; Vries, de B.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Masoud, M.; Mozaffar, F.

    2014-01-01

    Almost everyone would agree that teleworking is increasingly growing; but beyond this broad statement, we know little about how people behave when they work at home and how they balance their work and life. User comfort and productivity cannot be addressed properly, without a deep understanding of

  7. Valorization of postharvest sweet cherry discard for the development of dehydrated fruit ingredients: compositional, physical, and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschinis, Lorena; Sette, Paula; Salvatori, Daniela; Schebor, Carolina

    2018-04-20

    Sweet cherries are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, which may contribute to a healthy diet. The objective of this work was to generate dehydrated ingredients from postharvest discard of sweet cherries. Four dried ingredients were obtained from fresh sweet cherry discard (Lapins var.) using an osmotic dehydration pretreatment and freeze drying or air drying. The ingredients showed an important phenolic contribution (2.8-6.6 g gallic acid kg -1 of product) and preserved the natural color of the fruit to a great extent. Freeze-dried ingredients were less hygroscopic than air-dried ones, and presented with a softer texture. All the ingredients were in a supercooled state at room temperature (T g range: -23.0 to -18.8 °C). Sugar infusion pretreatment caused a decrease in water sorption capacity and molecular mobility; it also reduced the initial rehydration rate. Relevant differences in nutritional and structural characteristics of the ingredients were observed depending on the processing method used. These ingredients could be incorporated into different processed foods, such as snacks, cereal mixtures, cereal bars, and bakery and confectionery products. Air-dried control ingredients presented better nutritional qualities and air-dried sweet cherries with sugar infusion pretreatment could be appropriate ingredients for applications where sweet flavor and slow rehydration rate are required. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Examining the relationship between psychosocial working conditions, physical work demands, and leisure time physical activity in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassaei, Sara; Smith, Peter M

    2011-10-01

    To examine the effects of psychosocial working conditions and physical work demands on leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Using path analysis, direct and indirect effects of self-reported working conditions on LTPA levels were assessed in a representative sample of 4167 workers from the 2000 to 2001 Canadian National Population Health Survey. Higher levels of skill discretion and decision latitude were associated with higher LTPA. Physical work demands had opposite effects among men versus women, and skill discretion had a stronger effect among women than among men. Job security had a stronger effect on older workers and those without children younger than 13 years. The results support the influence of the work environment on LTPA and suggest that certain work conditions should be targeted in future interventions seeking to impact participation in physical activity.

  9. MOHAWC. Models of human activities in work contexts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehmer, B.; Andersen, H.B.

    1993-06-01

    The overall objective of the MOHAWC Action is to formulate and extend a unifying framework for cognitive studies of human agents coping with complex work domains. Central issues are methods for analysis and representation of knowledge about complex domains, analysis of cognitive control, mental models and heuristics applied in complex work domains, distributed decision making and forms of cooperative work, the role of tacit knowledge in agents' performance in complex work domains, and cognitive simulation methods for testing models of cognitive performance. The nature of computer mediated work and how such work should be designed and organised to be optimally effective and satisfying is considered. The focus is mainly on various forms of process industry, such as nuclear power and steel production. Dynamic decision making, where the decision-maker has to make a series of interdependent decisions under conditions where the state of the system with which he or she is working changes, both as a consequence of the decision maker's actions and autonomously, and where the decisions must be made in real time is analysed. MOHAWC taxonomy has played a central role as a framework for identifying important research problems and for integrating results. The Risoe team has contributed a major analysis of and illustration of how the MOHAWC taxonomy can be used in the design of interfaces. (AB) (97 refs.)

  10. What are the "ingredients" for economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolla, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Is there a recipe for economic growth? Perhaps some Miracle-Gro for the economy? If only it were that easy. While the exact recipe is a mystery, economists have identified some of the key ingredients. This month’s newsletter discusses the role that economic institutions play in fostering long-term economic growth.

  11. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition to maintaining the quality of the food, they help control contamination that can cause foodborne illness, including life-threatening ... still be considered safe. Regulations known as Good Manufacturing ... limit the amount of food ingredients used in foods to the amount necessary ...

  12. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  13. 75 FR 4904 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... amend regulations protecting persons who work on, under, or between rolling equipment; and persons...-7257] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working...

  14. Computer work and self-reported variables on anthropometrics, computer usage, work ability, productivity, pain, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Vangsgaard, Steffen; Hviid Andersen, Johan; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Computer users often report musculoskeletal complaints and pain in the upper extremities and the neck-shoulder region. However, recent epidemiological studies do not report a relationship between the extent of computer use and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD).The aim of this study was to conduct an explorative analysis on short and long-term pain complaints and work-related variables in a cohort of Danish computer users. A structured web-based questionnaire including questions related to musculoskeletal pain, anthropometrics, work-related variables, work ability, productivity, health-related parameters, lifestyle variables as well as physical activity during leisure time was designed. Six hundred and ninety office workers completed the questionnaire responding to an announcement posted in a union magazine. The questionnaire outcomes, i.e., pain intensity, duration and locations as well as anthropometrics, work-related variables, work ability, productivity, and level of physical activity, were stratified by gender and correlations were obtained. Women reported higher pain intensity, longer pain duration as well as more locations with pain than men (P women scored poorer work ability and ability to fulfil the requirements on productivity than men (P work ability/productivity (P work ability reported by women workers relate to their higher risk of contracting WMSD. Overall, this investigation confirmed the complex interplay between anthropometrics, work ability, productivity, and pain perception among computer users.

  15. Nuclear activation analysis work at Analytical Chemistry Division: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.; Swain, K.K.; Remya Devi, P.S.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Ajith, Nicy; Ghosh, M.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Datta, J.; Dasgupta, S.

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear activation analysis using neutron and charged particles is used routinely for analysis and research at Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). Neutron activation analysis at ACD, BARC, Mumbai, India has been pursued since late fifties using Apsara, CIRUS, Dhruva and Critical facility Research reactors, 239 Pu-Be neutron source and neutron generator. Instrumental, Radiochemical, Chemical and Derivative neutron activation analysis approaches are adopted depending on the analyte and the matrix. Large sample neutron activation analysis as well as k 0 -based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis is also used. Charged particle activation analysis at ACD, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata started in late eighties and is being used for industrial applications and research. Proton, alpha, deuteron and heavy ion beams from 224 cm room temperature Variable Energy Cyclotron are used for determination of trace elements, measurement of excitation function, thin layer activation and preparation of endohedral fullerenes encapsulated with radioactive isotopes. Analytical Chemistry Division regularly participates in Inter and Intra laboratory comparison exercises conducted by various organizations including International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the results invariably include values obtained by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  16. Antiviral Effects of Saffron and its Major Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Sepehr; Zabihollahi, Rezvan; Shahbazi, Sepideh; Bolhassani, Azam

    2018-01-01

    The lack of an effective vaccine against viral infections, toxicity of the synthetic anti-viral drugs and the generation of resistant viral strains led to discover novel inhibitors. Recently, saffron and its compounds were used to treat different pathological conditions. In this study, we tested the anti-HSV-1 and anti-HIV-1 activities of Iranian saffron extract and its major ingredients including crocin and picrocrocin as well as cytotoxicity in vitro. The data showed that the aqueous saffron extract was not active against HIV-1 and HSV-1 virions at certain doses (i.e., a mild activity), but crocin and picrocrocin indicated significant anti-HSV-1 and also anti-HIV-1 activities. Crocin inhibited the HSV replication at before and after entry of virions into Vero cells. Indeed, crocin carotenoid suppressed HSV penetration in the target cells as well as disturbed virus replication after entry into the cells. Picrocrocin was also effective for inhibiting virus entry and also its replication. This monoterpen aldehyde showed higher anti-HSV effects after virus penetrating in the cells. Generally, these sugar-containing compounds extracted from saffron showed to be effective antiherpetic drug candidates. The recent study is the first report suggesting antiviral activities for saffron extract and its major ingredients. Crocin and picrocrocin could be a promising anti-HSV and anti-HIV agent for herbal therapy against viral infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Process evaluation of the data-driven quality improvement in primary care (DQIP) trial: active and less active ingredients of a multi-component complex intervention to reduce high-risk primary care prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aileen; Dreischulte, Tobias; Guthrie, Bruce

    2017-01-07

    Two to 4% of emergency hospital admissions are caused by preventable adverse drug events. The estimated costs of such avoidable admissions in England were £530 million in 2015. The data-driven quality improvement in primary care (DQIP) intervention was designed to prompt review of patients vulnerable from currently prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and anti-platelets and was found to be effective at reducing this prescribing. A process evaluation was conducted parallel to the trial, and this paper reports the analysis which aimed to explore response to the intervention delivered to clusters in relation to participants' perceptions about which intervention elements were active in changing their practice. Data generation was by in-depth interview with key staff exploring participant's perceptions of the intervention components. Analysis was iterative using the framework technique and drawing on normalisation process theory. All the primary components of the intervention were perceived as active, but at different stages of implementation: financial incentives primarily supported recruitment; education motivated the GPs to initiate implementation; the informatics tool facilitated sustained implementation. Participants perceived the primary components as interdependent. Intervention subcomponents also varied in whether and when they were active. For example, run charts providing feedback of change in prescribing over time were ignored in the informatics tool, but were motivating in some practices in the regular e-mailed newsletter. The high-risk NSAID and anti-platelet prescribing targeted was accepted as important by all interviewees, and this shared understanding was a key wider context underlying intervention effectiveness. This was a novel use of process evaluation data which examined whether and how the individual intervention components were effective from the perspective of the professionals delivering changed care to patients. These

  18. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  19. Prevention Research Matters-Communities Working to Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-15

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.  Created: 2/15/2018 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/15/2018.

  20. Essential Ingredients to Working with Campus Protests and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Recent months have provided many campus law enforcement and security administrators with an added challenge in providing for the safety and welfare of their campus communities. The "Occupy Wall Street" (OWS) movement, which began on September 17, 2011 in New York City, was numerous protests against economic inequality, record rates of…

  1. Promoting Active Aging in Russia : Working Longer and More Productively

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    A shrinking working-age population will be the Russian Federations biggest demographic challenge in coming decades. With workers increasingly scarce, sustainable future economic development depends on Russias ability to bring into the labor force currently under-utilized groups, such as young mothers and older people, and to maximize the productivity of every worker. This study assesses th...

  2. Mathematical Ideas In Some Cooperative Work Activities Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interface between Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS), cultural practices and mathematics is currently generating a great deal of interest among mathematics education researchers and practitioners alike. This article uses mathematical lenses to examine the cultural practice of dhava (cooperative work) among the ...

  3. Hearing loss at work? Hearing loss from leisure activities?

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The nurses of the Medical Service would like invite all persons working on the CERN site to take part in a: HEARING LOSS DETECTION WEEK From 28 August to 1st September 2006 At the Infirmary, Building 57 from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Hearing tests - advice - information - documentation - protective equipment

  4. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L

    1997-01-01

    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures.

  5. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.

  6. The Impact of Activity Based Working (ABW on Workplace Activity, Eating Behaviours, Productivity, and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Arundell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The redesign of the physical workplace according to activity-based working (ABW principles has potential to influence employee health and workplace outcomes. This natural experiment examined changes in accelerometer-derived workplace activity, self-reported eating behaviours, productivity, workplace satisfaction before (March to November 2014 and six to nine months after moving to an ABW workplace compared to a comparison workplace (n = 146 at baseline (56% ABW, aged 40.1 ± 8.5 years, 72% female. Interviews were also conducted with 21 ABW participants. Between- and within-group differences were examined and mixed model analysis examined intervention effects over time. Effect sizes were calculated on change scores (Cohen’s d. Although not statistically significant, ABW participants had meaningful improvements in workday sedentary time, light-, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, job satisfaction and relationship with co-workers (d = 0.379–0.577, and small declines in productivity (d = 0.278. There were significant, meaningful, and beneficial intervention effects on perceived organisational support for being active in the workplace, frequency of eating lunch with colleagues, and satisfaction with the physical environment in ABW compared to comparison participants (d = 0.501–0.839. Qualitative data suggested that ABW employees associated ABW with greater opportunities for movement and collaboration, but had mixed views on the impact on productivity. Future research with larger samples and over longer follow-up periods is warranted.

  7. The Impact of Activity Based Working (ABW) on Workplace Activity, Eating Behaviours, Productivity, and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arundell, Lauren; Sudholz, Bronwyn; Teychenne, Megan; Salmon, Jo; Hayward, Brooke; Healy, Genevieve N; Timperio, Anna

    2018-05-17

    The redesign of the physical workplace according to activity-based working (ABW) principles has potential to influence employee health and workplace outcomes. This natural experiment examined changes in accelerometer-derived workplace activity, self-reported eating behaviours, productivity, workplace satisfaction before (March to November 2014) and six to nine months after moving to an ABW workplace compared to a comparison workplace ( n = 146 at baseline (56% ABW, aged 40.1 ± 8.5 years, 72% female). Interviews were also conducted with 21 ABW participants. Between- and within-group differences were examined and mixed model analysis examined intervention effects over time. Effect sizes were calculated on change scores (Cohen's d ). Although not statistically significant, ABW participants had meaningful improvements in workday sedentary time, light-, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, job satisfaction and relationship with co-workers ( d = 0.379⁻0.577), and small declines in productivity ( d = 0.278). There were significant, meaningful, and beneficial intervention effects on perceived organisational support for being active in the workplace, frequency of eating lunch with colleagues, and satisfaction with the physical environment in ABW compared to comparison participants ( d = 0.501⁻0.839). Qualitative data suggested that ABW employees associated ABW with greater opportunities for movement and collaboration, but had mixed views on the impact on productivity. Future research with larger samples and over longer follow-up periods is warranted.

  8. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena

    The main aim of this article-based PhD thesis was to explore the recreational physical activity participation of female cleaners – an occupational group mainly consisting of minority ethnic women from non-western countries. As the PhD project was integrated in and financially supported...... by the Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, a part of the PhD project was to organize and evaluate a workplace physical activity programme that used team games as the main form of exercise. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 42 cleaners and their supervisors I gained insights...... and employed different theories, they drew a coherent picture: the interviewees’ everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark had a decisive influence on their opportunities to engage in recreational physical activity: most women struggled with the demands of a physically exhausting job and an extensive...

  9. Work and Non-Work Physical Activity Predict Real-Time Smoking Level and Urges in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Hedeker, Donald; Marquez, David X

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) and smoking are inversely related. However, evidence suggests that some types of PA, namely work-related PA, may show an opposite effect. Despite growing knowledge, there remains a paucity of studies examining the context of these behaviors in naturalistic settings or in young adults, a high-risk group for escalation. Participants were 188 young adults (mean age = 21.32; 53.2% female; 91% current smokers) who participated in an electronic diary week to assess daily smoking and urges and a PA recall to examine daily PA. PA was coded into non-work-related and work-related activity to examine differential effects. We considered both participants' weekly average PA and their daily deviations from their average. Mixed-effects regression models revealed that higher weekly average non-work PA was associated with lower smoking level and urges. Daily deviations in non-work PA did not predict urges; however, increased daily non-work PA relative to participants' weekly average was associated with lower smoking for females but higher levels for males. Regarding work PA, only higher weekly average work PA was associated with higher smoking level for both genders; work PA did not predict urges. Results extend previous literature by documenting differential associations between non-work and work PA and young adult smoking and suggest that young adults engaged in work PA should be considered a high-risk group for escalation. Findings provide theoretical and clinical implications for the use of PA in intervention and highlight the necessity of considering PA as a multidimensional construct when examining its links to health behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pre-stimulus BOLD-network activation modulates EEG spectral activity during working memory retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara eKottlow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM processes depend on our momentary mental state and therefore exhibit considerable fluctuations. Here, we investigate the interplay of task-preparatory and task-related brain activity as represented by pre-stimulus BOLD-fluctuations and spectral EEG from the retention periods of a visual WM task. Visual WM is used to maintain sensory information in the brain enabling the performance of cognitive operations and is associated with mental health.We tested 22 subjects simultaneously with EEG and fMRI while performing a visuo-verbal Sternberg task with two different loads, allowing for the temporal separation of preparation, encoding, retention and retrieval periods.Four temporally coherent networks - the default mode network (DMN, the dorsal attention, the right and the left WM network - were extracted from the continuous BOLD data by means of a group ICA. Subsequently, the modulatory effect of these networks’ pre-stimulus activation upon retention-related EEG activity in the theta, alpha and beta frequencies was analyzed. The obtained results are informative in the context of state-dependent information processing.We were able to replicate two well-known load-dependent effects: the frontal-midline theta increase during the task and the decrease of pre-stimulus DMN activity. As our main finding, these two measures seem to depend on each other as the significant negative correlations at frontal-midline channels suggested. Thus, suppressed pre-stimulus DMN levels facilitated later task related frontal midline theta increases. In general, based on previous findings that neuronal coupling in different frequency bands may underlie distinct functions in WM retention, our results suggest that processes reflected by spectral oscillations during retention seem not only to be online synchronized with activity in different attention-related networks but are also modulated by activity in these networks during preparation intervals.

  11. Activating the working behavior of citizens by motivation potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Nikolayevna Lobanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the possibility to change the working behavior of employees by actualizing their motivational potential. Methods the methods of survey questionnaires focus groups coaching and interview were used in the study. Results the studies have shown that the employeesrsquo motivational potential is revealed through a complex system of labor motivation taking into account the needs and interests of a particular employee and forming the motivational and stimulating environment. Scientific novelty the research includes the development of methods to analyze the employeesrsquo interests and dominant motives and building of the structural system of employeesrsquo motivation to effective action. Practical value developing a method to increase the employeesrsquo motivation for efficient work in the form of a systematic set of actions. The application of this method allows to increase the efficiency and productivity of workers to gain additional profit which is especially important in the context of the economic crisis and the lack of additional investment. nbsp

  12. Activity-based computing for medical work in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2009-01-01

    principles, the Java-based implementation of the ABC Framework, and an experimental evaluation together with a group of hospital clinicians. The article contributes to the growing research on support for human activities, mobility, collaboration, and context-aware computing. The ABC Framework presents...

  13. Activating Aesthetics: Working with Heidegger and Bourdieu for Engaged Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate art in public urban space via a process of activating aesthetics as a way of enhancing pedagogies of engagement. It does this firstly by addressing the question of aesthetics in Enlightenment and twentieth-century frames; then it seeks to understand how artworks may be approached ontologically and…

  14. A manual for promoting health activity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynne, R.; Clarkin, N.; Urlings, I.; Gründemann, R.W.M.; Jorda, C.; Moncada, S.; Lundberg, B.

    1996-01-01

    This methodology has been developed to help organisations increase their level of health activity in a planned and systematic way. There are many good reasons for undertaking health improvement actions in the workplace, not all of them related to the benefits of improved health. Research undertaken

  15. Working for Food Shifts Nocturnal Mouse Activity into the Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Roelof A.; Pilorz, Violetta; Boerema, Ate S.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Daan, Serge; Yamazaki, Shin

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal rodents show diurnal food anticipatory activity when food access is restricted to a few hours in daytime. Timed food access also results in reduced food intake, but the role of food intake in circadian organization per se has not been described. By simulating natural food shortage in mice

  16. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Kawatra; Rathai Rajagopalan

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant...

  17. Ingredients and change processes in occupational therapy for children: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Samantha; Swallow, Veronica; Kolehmainen, Niina

    2017-05-01

    There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for participation outcomes in children with coordination difficulties. Developing theory about the interventions, i.e. their ingredients and change processes, is the first step to advance the evidence base. To develop theory about the key ingredients of occupational therapy interventions for children with coordination difficulties and the processes through which change in participation might happen. Grounded theory methodology, as described by Kathy Charmaz, was used to develop the theory. Children and parents participated in semi-structured interviews to share their experiences of occupational therapy and processes of change. Data collection and analysis were completed concurrently using constant comparison methods. Five key ingredients of interventions were described: performing activities and tasks; achieving; carer support; helping and supporting the child; and labelling. Ingredients related to participation by changing children's mastery experience, increasing capability beliefs and sense of control. Parents' knowledge, skills, positive emotions, sense of empowerment and capability beliefs also related to children's participation. The results identify intervention ingredients and change pathways within occupational therapy to increase participation. It is unclear how explicitly and often therapists consider and make use of these ingredients and pathway.

  18. Risk assessment: A regulatory strategy for stimulating working environment activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the Danish approach to workplace assessment (WPA) following European requirements to establish legislation on occupational health and safety. Quantitative studies show that WPA can be interpreted as a success within the larger Danish firms. However, data from qualitative studies...... modify this picture by showing how attention has been focussed on physical working environment problems whilst wider psycho-social problems have been ignored. The paper claims there is no evidence from either the quantitative or the qualitative studies that workplace assessment - even though positively...

  19. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  20. Peer selection for school work and leasure activities

    OpenAIRE

    Bergant, Teja

    2014-01-01

    The diploma is focused on social acceptance of pupils in primary school. I was interested in two aspects: the teachers’ opinions on interpersonal relations and how pupils choose their classmates for school activities and for socialising in their free time. In theoretical part I focused on social acceptance, social interaction and interpersonal relations. I also included social development of children and adolescents. I described their everyday life and the groups, in which they feel most conn...

  1. Changes in working conditions for home healthcare workers and impacts on their work activity and on their emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Van De Weerdt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Home healthcare is steadily growing in many countries. Nevertheless, it is known that home healthcare workers are frequently exposed to a variety of potentially serious occupational hazards. Working conditions have changed to become more emotionally and physically demanding on workers. Emotional labor is increasingly high in this profession. Time pressure is increasingly common. This paper describes an ergonomic study analyzing the working conditions of nursing assistants and nurses, as well as the impacts of their work in terms of job satisfaction, emotions at work, relationships with the others, and occupational stress. The study shows that changing working conditions are making it increasingly difficult for home healthcare workers to do their work properly. We can confirm that such workers use strategies to try to cope. They use individual strategies to preserve the relational dimension of their work activity. These strategies are specifically centered around preserving the relationships with patients, and coping with the demands of the job. The study also shows that workers use strategies to express emotions and to conceal them from others. Finally, the paper presents the recommendations that were discussed with the manager and workers for improving working conditions and that led to practical proposals: e.g. implementing certain items of equipment better suited to difficult care, encouraging assistance between workers when operations so require through appropriate organizational measures, extending emotion-focused work discussion groups with management involvement.

  2. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... declaration of ingredients is thereby required to be used in conjunction with products of both the old and new formulations, the labeling shall declare the ingredients of both the old and new formulations separately in a... paragraph is inapplicable to any ingredient mentioned in advertising, or in labeling other than in the...

  3. Ingredient and labeling issues associated with allergenic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-01-01

    Foods contain a wide range of food ingredients that serve numerous technical functions. Per capita consumer exposure to most of these food ingredients is rather low with a few notable exceptions such as sugar and starch. Some food ingredients including edible oils, hydrolyzed proteins, lecithin, starch, lactose, flavors and gelatin may, at least in some products, be derived from sources commonly involved in IgE-mediated food allergies. These ingredients should be avoided by consumers with allergies to the source material if the ingredient contains detectable protein residues. Other food ingredients, including starch, malt, alcohol and vinegar, may be derived in some cases from wheat, rye or barley, the grains that are implicated in the causation of celiac disease. If these ingredients contain gluten residues, then they should be avoided by celiac sufferers. A few food ingredients are capable of eliciting allergic sensitization, although these ingredients would be classified as rarely allergenic. These ingredients include carmine, cochineal extract, annatto, tragacanth gum and papain. Food manufacturers should declare the presence of allergenic food ingredients in the ingredient listings on product labels so that allergic consumers can know to avoid these potentially hazardous products.

  4. Dose-response association between leisure time physical activity and work ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity is important for longevity and health, but knowledge about the optimal dose of physical activity for maintaining good work ability is unknown. This study investigates the association between intensity and duration of physical activity during leisure time......, lifestyle and chronic disease showed that the duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure was positively associated with work ability, in a dose-response fashion (p physical activity per week had on average 8 points higher work ability...... than those not performing such activities. The duration of low-intensity leisure-time physical activity was not associated with work ability (p = 0.5668). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure time is associated in a dose-response fashion with work ability...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people... Evaluation of work activity of blind people. (a) General. If you are blind (as explained in § 404.1581), we... gainful activity are the same for blind people as for others. See § 404.1574(b)(2) for the earnings...

  6. Jamming the Works: Art, Politics and Activism Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Dittmar; Joseph Entin

    2014-01-01

    As we enter the second decade of the 21st century, art that aims to actively challenge the social order continues to spark controversy and encounter resistance. In one recent instance, the University of California at San Diego threatened to revoke the tenure of Ricardo Dominguez, a professor of visual art, who developed what he calls “transborder immigrant tools”—recycled cell phones loaded with GPS software that point border-crossers to caches of fresh water in the desert. Dominquez has call...

  7. Jamming the Works: Art, Politics and Activism Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dittmar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As we enter the second decade of the 21st century, art that aims to actively challenge the social order continues to spark controversy and encounter resistance. In one recent instance, the University of California at San Diego threatened to revoke the tenure of Ricardo Dominguez, a professor of visual art, who developed what he calls “transborder immigrant tools”—recycled cell phones loaded with GPS software that point border-crossers to caches of fresh water in the desert. Dominquez has called the phones, which feature an audio application that plays inspirational poetry to migrants, a “mobile Statue of Liberty.”

  8. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    .... The Working Group continues to work on after arrival orders, and at the September 25-26, 2008, meeting... protecting persons who work on, under, or between rolling equipment and persons applying, removing or.... 63] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update AGENCY: Federal Railroad...

  9. Hydrogen activities in the European Union work-programme. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahbout, A.; Tartaglia, G.P.; Buenger, U.

    2000-07-01

    Looking at some of the national and international developments in hydrogen technology it becomes clear which important contributions the hydrogen technology oriented activities of the EU have helped to prepare and trigger: (a) Transport Energy Strategy (TES): This initiative of 7 major German automobile and mineral oilcompanies is aimed at an industrial consensus on one or two gasoline alternative fuels, which are to be presented to the German Ministry of Transport. An intermediate trend is that hydrogen may become the fuel of choice. (b) BMW: The Bayerischen Motorenwerke have already very early exposed themselves to the vehicle and component development of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, focussing on a strategy from CNG to LNG and LH{sub 2}. (c) Opel and GM: Opel has recently announced they have chosen hydrogen as the primary long term fuel for their fuel cell vehicles to be commercialized starting in 2004. (d) CFCP: The California Fuel Cell Partnership with partners from industry and politics has announced they are preparing the installation of hydrogen fuel stations aas well as 20-25 fuel cell buses and 30 passenger cars, mainly operated with hydrogen. (e) NEDO: The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan has announced they are going to build hydrogen pilot refueling stations 18 months ahead of the original schedule to reduce the first-to-market-time. (f) Norway: A study group of Norwegian industry and institutes has carried out a comprehensive study for the Research Ministry on further R and D areas which should be intensified in a national strategy to be prepared for an international hydrogen energy system [SINTEF, 00]. (g) German Greens: The German ecologist party ''Greens'' has announced last week a shift from an anti-car lobbying to fostering greener cars, focussing on renewable hydrogen as a clean fuel. (h) Linde: The largest European Technical Gas Company has announced recently they will strategically

  10. Physical activity and relaxation in the work setting to reduce the need for recovery: what works for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formanoy, M.A.; Dusseldorp, E.; Coffeng, J.K.; Mechelen, I. van; Boot, C.R.; Hendriksen, I.J.; Tak, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To recover from work stress, a worksite health program aimed at improving physical activity and relaxation may be valuable. However, not every program is effective for all participants, as would be expected within a "one size fits all" approach. The effectiveness of how the program is

  11. Choosing where to work at work - towards a theoretical model of benefits and risks of activity-based flexible offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Christina; Hertel, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Although there is a trend in today's organisations to implement activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs), only a few studies examine consequences of this new office type. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms why A-FOs might lead to different consequences as compared to cellular and open-plan offices are still unclear. This paper introduces a theoretical framework explaining benefits and risks of A-FOs based on theories from work and organisational psychology. After deriving working conditions specific for A-FOs (territoriality, autonomy, privacy, proximity and visibility), differences in working conditions between A-FOs and alternative office types are proposed. Further, we suggest how these differences in working conditions might affect work-related consequences such as well-being, satisfaction, motivation and performance on the individual, the team and the organisational level. Finally, we consider task-related (e.g. task variety), person-related (e.g. personality) and organisational (e.g. leadership) moderators. Based on this model, future research directions as well as practical implications are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs) are popular in today's organisations. This article presents a theoretical model explaining why and when working in an A-FO evokes benefits and risks for individuals, teams and organisations. According to the model, A-FOs are beneficial when management encourages employees to use the environment appropriately and supports teams.

  12. The effects of shift work on free-living physical activity and sedentary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2015-07-01

    Although occupation may influence physical activity and shift work schedule may influence cardiovascular disease risk factors, our understanding of the effects of shift work schedule on overall physical activity behavior and sedentary behavior is limited. Data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Shift work schedule was defined as regular daytime shift, evening, night, rotating or another schedule. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed via accelerometry. 1536 adult participants (≥20years) indicated they currently work and provided data on all study variables. After adjustments, and compared to adults working a regular daytime shift, those working an evening (RR=0.41, p=0.001) and night (RR=0.30, p=0.001) shift, respectively, engaged in 59% and 70% less sustained (bouts) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but no differences occurred for overall moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. After adjustments, and compared to those working a regular daytime shift, those working a rotating shift engaged in more light-intensity physical activity (overall: β=26.3min/day; p=0.03; bouts: β=37.5, p=0.01) and less sedentary behavior (β=-28.5min/day, p=0.01). Shift work schedule differentially influences physical activity and sedentary behavior. Physical activity and sedentary intervention strategies may need to be tailored based on shift work schedule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The association between long work hours and leisure-time physical activity and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Miranda A; Gazmararian, Julie

    2018-06-01

    Obesity affects approximately one-third of all U.S. adults, presenting a large economic and public health burden. Long work hours may be contributing to the rising obesity problem by reducing time for physical activity, particularly for individuals working in sedentary occupations. This study sought to investigate the association between long work hours, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and obesity across levels of occupational activity in order to identify potentially vulnerable groups. Cross sectional analysis was performed in 2017 using data from the 2015 Georgia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and prevalence ratios were estimated across work hour and occupational activity groups. Ability to meet guidelines for LTPA did not differ significantly across work hour categories overall. Those working in low activity occupations were more likely to meet aerobic guidelines for LTPA compared to those in intermediate and high activity occupations (χ 2 : 19.3; P -value: work hours on obesity risk and meeting aerobic guidelines are significantly different across OA categories, indicating OA to be an effect modifier of the relationship between long work hours and obesity (χ 2 : 13.33; P -value: working long hours were found to be at the greatest risk for obesity. Further research is required to better understand the mechanisms impacting the relationship between long work hours, domains of physical activity, and obesity risk as well as to identify effective intervention and prevention programs for employees in intermediate activity occupations.

  14. Effects of eccentric exercise on trapezius electromyography during computer work with active and passive pauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    ) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 40s over 2 days, before, immediately and 24h after eccentric exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from four parts of the trapezius during computer work. FINDINGS: EMG amplitude during computer work decreased......BACKGROUND: The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate the effects of eccentric exercises on the trapezius muscle spatial electromyographic (EMG) activity during computer work with active and passive pauses. METHODS: Twelve healthy male subjects performed computer work with passive (relax...... immediately after exercise (Pwork with active pauses compared with passive ones (P

  15. In chemico skin sensitization risk assessment of botanical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Sadrieh, Nakissa; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2018-03-24

    Skin sensitization risk assessment of botanical ingredients is necessary for consumers' protection and occupational hazard identification. There are currently very few available alternative methods that can assist in the evaluation of complex mixtures. Chemical methods can provide essential information in a timely manner and thus help to reduce the need for in vivo testing, and they can complement and facilitate targeted in vitro assays. In the present work, the applicability of the high-throughput screening with dansyl cysteamine (DCYA) method for the systematic evaluation of skin sensitization of complex botanicals was explored. Botanical ingredients of four unrelated plant species were obtained and tested with the high-throughput fluorescence method at three concentrations. To illustrate the minimal matrix effects of the tested extracts on the developed method, the least DCYA-reactive extract (Rosa canina) was spiked with known sensitizers at different concentrations. The data obtained from the four plant extracts and the spiking experiments with known sensitizers, suggest that the high-throughput screening-DCYA method can be successfully applied for estimating the skin sensitization potential of complex botanical matrices. This is the first report of an attempt to develop a versatile in chemico method for the rapid detection of reactive skin sensitizers in complex botanical extracts, which could complement the battery of existing validated, non-animal methods. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Jong, J

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle 'no, unless'. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.

  17. Development of a Consumer Product Ingredient Database for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, yet little structured information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which ingredients are present. To address this data gap, we created a database of chemicals in consumer products using product Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) publicly provided by a large retailer. The resulting database represents 1797 unique chemicals mapped to 8921 consumer products and a hierarchy of 353 consumer product “use categories” within a total of 15 top-level categories. We examine the utility of this database and discuss ways in which it will support (i) exposure screening and prioritization, (ii) generic or framework formulations for several indoor/consumer product exposure modeling initiatives, (iii) candidate chemical selection for monitoring near field exposure from proximal sources, and (iv) as activity tracers or ubiquitous exposure sources using “chemical space” map analyses. Chemicals present at high concentrations and across multiple consumer products and use categories that hold high exposure potential are identified. Our database is publicly available to serve regulators, retailers, manufacturers, and the public for predictive screening of chemicals in new and existing consumer products on the basis of exposure and risk. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts resear

  18. Macroalgae-Derived Ingredients for Cosmetic Industry—An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa B. Pimentel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of its natural functions. With the new societal paradigms regarding youth and beauty have emerged new concerns about appearance, encouraging millions of consumers to use cosmetic/personal care products as part of their daily routine. Hence, cosmetics have become a global and highly competitive market in a constant state of evolution. This industry is highly committed to finding natural sources of functional/bioactive-rich compounds, preferably from sustainable and cheap raw materials, to deliver innovative products and solutions that meet consumers’ expectations. Macroalgae are an excellent example of a natural resource that can fit these requirements. The incorporation of macroalgae-derived ingredients in cosmetics has been growing, as more and more scientific evidence reports their skin health-promoting effects. This review provides an overview on the possible applications of macroalgae as active ingredients for the cosmetic field, highlighting the main compounds responsible for their bioactivity on skin.

  19. The association between long work hours and leisure-time physical activity and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda A. Cook

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity affects approximately one-third of all U.S. adults, presenting a large economic and public health burden. Long work hours may be contributing to the rising obesity problem by reducing time for physical activity, particularly for individuals working in sedentary occupations. This study sought to investigate the association between long work hours, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, and obesity across levels of occupational activity in order to identify potentially vulnerable groups. Cross sectional analysis was performed in 2017 using data from the 2015 Georgia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and prevalence ratios were estimated across work hour and occupational activity groups. Ability to meet guidelines for LTPA did not differ significantly across work hour categories overall. Those working in low activity occupations were more likely to meet aerobic guidelines for LTPA compared to those in intermediate and high activity occupations (χ2: 19.3; P-value: <0.01. Results of interaction assessment demonstrate that the effects of work hours on obesity risk and meeting aerobic guidelines are significantly different across OA categories, indicating OA to be an effect modifier of the relationship between long work hours and obesity (χ2: 13.33; P-value: <0.001; χ2: 4.42; P-value: <0.05. Employees in intermediate activity occupations working long hours were found to be at the greatest risk for obesity. Further research is required to better understand the mechanisms impacting the relationship between long work hours, domains of physical activity, and obesity risk as well as to identify effective intervention and prevention programs for employees in intermediate activity occupations. Keywords: Physical activity, Obesity, Occupation, Long work hours

  20. Structured Observation of School Administrator Work Activities: Methodological Limitations and Recommendations for Research, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Nancy J.; Russell, James S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper critically reviews studies of administrator work activities which follow the work of Henry Mintzberg (1973), concentrating on these shortcomings of the method: (1) procedural difficulties in coding; (2) design limitations of classifying activities; (3) inadequate testing of Mintzberg's hypotheses; and (4) failure to explore antecedents…

  1. The content of nurse unit managers' work: a descriptive study using daily activity diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Herdís; Blöndal, Katrín; Jónsdóttir, Heiður Hrund; Bragadóttir, Helga

    2017-09-07

    NUMs' job description in Icelandic hospitals has been revised and now also includes managerial and financial responsibilities. To describe the actual work activities of nurse unit managers (NUMs) in surgical and internal medicine services as self-documented and reflected in their job description. Prospective exploratory study. The study's setting was the largest hospital in Iceland. Data were collected over 7 days from NUMs working on surgical and medical units with an activity diary listing five domains and 41 activities: 'management and planning' (seven activities), 'staff responsibility (seven activities), 'direct clinical work' (five activities), 'service' (12 activities) and 'other' (nine activities). The managers' spent most of their time within the 'other' domain (32% of their time), then the next significant amount of time on 'management and planning' and 'clinical nursing' (19%), and the least amount of time on 'service' (14%). All reported working on two or more activities simultaneously. NUMs made erroneous estimations approximately half of the time about the domain they spent most of their time in and their satisfaction with their work each day varied greatly. The work of NUMs is highly diverse, including undefined miscellaneous tasks and clinical work beyond their job description. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it…

  3. Daily recovery from work: the role of activities, effort and pleasure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooff, M.L.M.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the cycle of work and recovery is crucial for protecting employee health and well-being and preserving working capabilities. However, the daily process of effort and recovery is not well understood. This study investigated how the time spent on activities in the work and off-job

  4. Construing Systems of Management among Primary Headteachers: Moving Forward from Work Activity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Norah; Connolly, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A study used a Personal Construct Theory/Repertory Grid approach to examine the work of 12 Welsh primary headteachers. Analysis of thematic work-activity grids suggests principals have a more coherent view of their work (as centered on children and education) than Henry Mintzberg's observational studies portrayed. (Contains 36 references.) (MLH)

  5. Associations of work-family conflicts with food habits and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Eva; Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero

    2007-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between family-work conflicts with food habits and physical activity, and whether the relationship is dependent on family structure and work-related factors. Cross-sectional postal surveys were carried out in 2001 and 2002 among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, aged 40-60 years (n = 5346, response rate 66%; for women 70% and for men 60%). Dependent variables in logistic regression analyses were nationally recommended food habits and physical activity. Independent variables were work-family conflicts and family-work conflicts. Covariates included age, marital status, number of children, occupational class, working hours, time travelling to work, and physical and mental work load. Women reporting strong work-family conflicts were more likely to follow recommended food habits (odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals 1.49 (1.19-1.86)), but this relationship weakened when adjusting for work-related factors (OR 1.20 (0.93-1.55)). Women and men with strong family-work conflicts were less likely to report recommended food habits after adjusting for family structure and work-related factors (women OR 0.75 (0.61-0.92), men OR 0.57 (0.34-0.96)). Women and men with strong work-family conflicts were less likely to follow the recommended amount of physical activity (women OR 0.76 (0.60-0.96), men OR 0.54 (0.34-0.87)). Additionally, women with strong family-work conflicts were less likely to follow the recommended amount of physical activity (OR 0.77 (0.63-0.94)). Adjusting for family and work-related factors did not affect these associations. Conflicts between paid work and family life are likely to constitute barriers for a physically active lifestyle and possibly also for healthy food habits. Improving the balance between work and family may provide a route for promoting health-related behaviours.

  6. Does Contralateral Delay Activity Reflect Working Memory Storage or the Current Focus of Spatial Attention within Visual Working Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-12-01

    During the retention of visual information in working memory, event-related brain potentials show a sustained negativity over posterior visual regions contralateral to the side where memorized stimuli were presented. This contralateral delay activity (CDA) is generally believed to be a neural marker of working memory storage. In two experiments, we contrasted this storage account of the CDA with the alternative hypothesis that the CDA reflects the current focus of spatial attention on a subset of memorized items set up during the most recent encoding episode. We employed a sequential loading procedure where participants memorized four task-relevant items that were presented in two successive memory displays (M1 and M2). In both experiments, CDA components were initially elicited contralateral to task-relevant items in M1. Critically, the CDA switched polarity when M2 displays appeared on the opposite side. In line with the attentional activation account, these reversed CDA components exclusively reflected the number of items that were encoded from M2 displays, irrespective of how many M1 items were already held in working memory. On trials where M1 and M2 displays were presented on the same side and on trials where M2 displays appeared nonlaterally, CDA components elicited in the interval after M2 remained sensitive to a residual trace of M1 items, indicating that some activation of previously stored items was maintained across encoding episodes. These results challenge the hypothesis that CDA amplitudes directly reflect the total number of stored objects and suggest that the CDA is primarily sensitive to the activation of a subset of working memory representations within the current focus of spatial attention.

  7. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Holtermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. METHODS: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. CONCLUSION: Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  8. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Søgaard, Karen; Suadicani, Poul; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  9. Brain and effort: brain activation and effort-related working memory in healthy participants and patients with working memory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eEngstrom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the interest in the neuroimaging of working memory, little is still known about the neurobiology of complex working memory in tasks that require simultaneous manipulation and storage of information. In addition to the central executive network, we assumed that the recently described salience network (involving the anterior insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex might be of particular importance to working memory tasks that require complex, effortful processing. Method: Healthy participants (n=26 and participants suffering from working memory problems related to the Kleine-Levin syndrome (a specific form of periodic idiopathic hypersomnia; n=18 participated in the study. Participants were further divided into a high and low capacity group, according to performance on a working memory task (listening span. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study, participants were administered the reading span complex working memory task tapping cognitive effort. Principal findings: The fMRI-derived blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal was modulated by 1 effort in both the central executive and the salience network and 2 capacity in the salience network in that high performers evidenced a weaker BOLD signal than low performers. In the salience network there was a dichotomy between the left and the right hemisphere; the right hemisphere elicited a steeper increase of the BOLD signal as a function of increasing effort. There was also a stronger functional connectivity within the central executive network because of increased task difficulty. Conclusion: The ability to allocate cognitive effort in complex working memory is contingent upon focused resources in the executive and in particular the salience network. Individual capacity during the complex working memory task is related to activity in the salience (but not the executive network so that high-capacity participants evidence a lower signal and possibly hence a larger

  10. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in poultry feed ingredients: Isolation, identification and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasundaram Udhayavel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has been undertaken to study the occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in the poultry feed ingredients and find out its in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern to various antimicrobial drugs. Two hundred and ninety-eight poultry feed ingredient samples received at Poultry Disease Diagnosis and Surveillance Laboratory, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu in South India were screened for the presence of C. perfringens. The organisms were isolated in Perfringens agar under anaerobic condition and subjected to standard biochemical tests for confirmation. In vitro antibiogram assay has been carried out to determine the sensitivity pattern of the isolates to various antimicrobial drugs. One hundred and one isolates of C. perfringens were obtained from a total of 298 poultry feed ingredient samples. Overall positivity of 33.89% could be made from the poultry feed ingredients. Highest level of C. perfringens contamination was detected in fish meal followed by bone meal, meat and bone meal and dry fish. Antibiogram assay indicated that the organisms are highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%, chlortetracycline (96.67%, gatifloxacin (93.33%, ciprofloxacin (86.67%, ofloxacin (86.67% and lincomycin (86.67%. All the isolates were resistant to penicillin-G. Feed ingredients rich in animal proteins are the major source of C. perfringens contamination.

  11. Simulated shift work in rats perturbs multiscale regulation of locomotor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Yugay, Tatiana; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Shea, Steven A.; Buijs, Ruud M.; Hu, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Motor activity possesses a multiscale regulation that is characterized by fractal activity fluctuations with similar structure across a wide range of timescales spanning minutes to hours. Fractal activity patterns are disturbed in animals after ablating the master circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and in humans with SCN dysfunction as occurs with aging and in dementia, suggesting the crucial role of the circadian system in the multiscale activity regulation. We hypothesized that the normal synchronization between behavioural cycles and the SCN-generated circadian rhythms is required for multiscale activity regulation. To test the hypothesis, we studied activity fluctuations of rats in a simulated shift work protocol that was designed to force animals to be active during the habitual resting phase of the circadian/daily cycle. We found that these animals had gradually decreased mean activity level and reduced 24-h activity rhythm amplitude, indicating disturbed circadian and behavioural cycles. Moreover, these animals had disrupted fractal activity patterns as characterized by more random activity fluctuations at multiple timescales from 4 to 12 h. Intriguingly, these activity disturbances exacerbated when the shift work schedule lasted longer and persisted even in the normal days (without forced activity) following the shift work. The disrupted circadian and fractal patterns resemble those of SCN-lesioned animals and of human patients with dementia, suggesting a detrimental impact of shift work on multiscale activity regulation. PMID:24829282

  12. Experimental pain leads to reorganisation of trapezius electromyography during computer work with active and passive pauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate acute effects of experimental muscle pain on spatial electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle during computer work with active and passive pauses. Twelve healthy male subjects performed four sessions of computer work for 2 min...... in one day, with passive (relax) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 40 s without and with presence of experimental pain. Surface EMG signals were recorded from four parts of the trapezius. The centroid of exposure variation analysis along the time axis...... was lower during computer work with active pauses when compared with passive one in all muscle parts (P

  13. An integrative review: work environment factors associated with physical activity among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Ping; McCullagh, Marjorie C; Kao, Tsui-Sui; Larson, Janet L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the research evidence for the role of the work environment-workplace physical activity policies and resources and job strain factors-in explaining physical activity in white-collar workers. White-collar workers are at risk for developing a sedentary lifestyle, which contributes to all-cause mortality. Understanding how work environment can influence worker physical activity is important for the development of effective interventions. We reviewed 15 research articles that describe the relationship between work environment factors and physical activity in predominantly white-collar workers. Relatively consistent evidence was found for the effects of supportive workplace policies and resources. Weak evidence was found for the effects of job strain. Both work environment factors have the potential to influence physical activity but require further exploration to fully understand their contribution to physical activity in white-collar workers. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  14. Physical activity among working age residents of Wroclaw in the light of their educational attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Puciato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This article attempts to define the relationship between physical activity and educational attainment of working-age adults from Wroclaw. [Subjects and Methods] The study surveyed 2,174 participants aged 18?64 years, 984 men and 1,190 women. To evaluate their physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. [Results] Most of the participants performed low-intensity levels of physical activity. Men were characterized by generally higher physical activity...

  15. Uptake of [14C]triadimenol via grain and root after seed treatment of winter barley with a flowable seed dressing: Influence of soil moisture and sowing date on the distribution of radioactivity and active ingredient content in plant and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    1988-12-01

    Winter barley seed of the 'Vogelsander Gold' variety was shown in a total of 7 lysimeters after seed treatment with [benzene ring-U- 14 C]triadimenol in the formulation as [ 14 C]Baytan 075 FS and [ 14 C]Baytan 25 DS at an early (September) and a late date (October). After both dates of sowing, the FS-treated winter barley developed under 3 different soil moisture conditions. The radioactivity and active ingredient contents in plants and soil were recorded until tillering as a function of low, high and natural precipitation after sowing. Details on the uptake of radioactivity via grain and roots were quantitatively and qualitatively studied in two further lysimeters, a pot experiment as well as experiments in the growth chamber. The results are presented and discussed in detail. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  17. co-Laevo - Supporting Cooperating Teams by Working 'within' Shared Activity Time Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeuris, Steven; Tell, Paolo; Bardram, Jakob

    . Each task (or activity) is associated with a personal dedicated workspace within which related resources, like files and windows, are embedded. As users access activity workspaces, the past, current, and planned state of the activity can be updated to reflect ongoing work. In contrast to stand...

  18. Disentangling longitudinal relations between physical activity, work-related fatigue, and task demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.D. de; Claessens, B.J.C.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Kompier, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined ‘normal’, ‘reversed’, and ‘reciprocal’ relationships between (1) physical activity and work-related fatigue; and (2) physical activity and task demands. Furthermore, the effects of across-time change in meaningful physical activity groups on levels of

  19. Is cultural activity at work related to mental health in employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, Töres; Osika, Walter; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Bojner Horwitz, Eva; Westerlund, Hugo

    2013-04-01

    To examine relationships between work-based cultural activities and mental employee health in working Swedes. A positive relationship between frequent cultural activity at work and good employee health was expected. Random sample of working Swedish men and women in three waves, 2006, 2008 and 2010, on average 60 % participation rate. A postal questionnaire with questions about cultural activities organised for employees and about emotional exhaustion (Maslach) and depressive symptoms (short form of SCL). Employee assessments of "non-listening manager" and work environment ("psychological demands" and "decision latitude") as well as socioeconomic variables were covariates. Cross-sectional analyses for each study year as well as prospective analyses for 2006-2008 and 2008-2010 were performed. Lower frequency of cultural activities at work during the period of high unemployment. The effects of relationships with emotional exhaustion were more significant than those with depressive symptoms. The associations were attenuated when adjustments were made for manager function (does your manager listen?) and demand/control. Associations were more pronounced during the period with low unemployment and high cultural activity at work (2008). In a prospective analysis, cultural activity at work in 2008 had an independent statistically significant "protective" effect on emotional exhaustion in 2010. No corresponding such association was found between 2006 and 2008. Cultural activities at work vary according to business cycle and have a statistical association with mental employee health, particularly with emotional exhaustion. There are particularly pronounced statistical protective effects of frequent cultural activity at work on likelihood of emotional exhaustion among employees.

  20. Ingredients derived from the slaughter of bovines in dog food

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Karina De Carli; Haese, Douglas; Kill, João Luís; Pires, Achicine Furno; Fernandes, Danieli Rankel; Colnago, Geraldo Luiz; Lucas, Wendius Henrique; Gama, Gabriela Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food) in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry ...

  1. Office workers' objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity during and outside working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemes, Stacy A; O'Connell, Sophie E; Edwardson, Charlotte L

    2014-03-01

    To examine objectively determined sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA) during and outside working hours in full-time office workers. A total of 170 participants wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for 7 days. Time spent sedentary (working hours and nonworking hours) and nonworkdays. Participants accumulated significantly higher levels of sedentary behavior (68% vs 60%) and lower levels of light-intensity activity (28% vs 36%) on workdays in comparison with nonworkdays. Up to 71% of working hours were spent sedentary. Individuals who were most sedentary at work were also more sedentary outside work. Those who are most sedentary at work do not compensate by increasing their PA or reducing their sedentary time outside work. Occupational interventions should address workplace and leisure-time sedentary behavior.

  2. The influence of biofeedback training on trapezius activity and rest during occupational computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Søgaard, K; Christensen, H

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of biofeedback training on trapezius activity and rest (gaps) during occupational computer work. A randomized controlled trial with 164 computer workers was performed. Two groups working with computer mouse more than 50% (n = 64) and less than 25% (n....... By improving trapezius inactivity during computer work, biofeedback training may have the potential to prevent trapezius myalgia in computer workers....... muscles during normal computer work was recorded. Changes in discomfort/pain were not recorded. The biofeedback training reduced activity (P

  3. Small-Scale Shock Testing of Propellants and Ingredients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawley, S

    2004-01-01

    .... The use of small-scale gap testing to evaluate the shock sensitivity of individual propellant ingredients and propellant formulations is a valuable method for experimentally establishing shock...

  4. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Oppert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire, CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire. Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively. Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  5. How Work Positions Affect the Research Activity and Information Behaviour of Laboratory Scientists in the Research Lifecycle: Applying Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nahyun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of research and information activities of laboratory scientists in different work positions throughout a research lifecycle. Activity theory was applied as the conceptual and analytical framework. Method: Taking a qualitative research approach, in-depth interviews and field…

  6. Effects of dynamic workstation Oxidesk on acceptance, physical activity, mental fitness and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenesteijn, L; Commissaris, D A C M; Van den Berg-Zwetsloot, M; Hiemstra-Van Mastrigt, S

    2016-07-19

    Working in an office environment is characterised by physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. This behaviour contributes to several health risks in the long run. Dynamic workstations which allow people to combine desk activities with physical activity, may contribute to prevention of these health risks. A dynamic workstation, called Oxidesk, was evaluated to determine the possible contribution to healthy behaviour and the impact on perceived work performance. A field test was conducted with 22 office workers, employed at a health insurance company in the Netherlands. The Oxidesk was well accepted, positively perceived for fitness and the participants maintained their work performance. Physical activity was lower than the activity level required in the Dutch guidelines for sufficient physical activity. Although there was a slight increase in physical activity, the Oxidesk may be helpful in the reducing health risks involved and seems applicable for introduction to office environments.

  7. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  8. A physically active occupation does not result in compensatory inactivity during out-of-work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigbe, William W; Lean, Michael E J; Granat, Malcolm H

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in non-occupational physical activity behaviour in workers who engage in high and low occupational physical activity. Cross-sectional survey of 112 otherwise comparable volunteers in active (56 walking postal delivery workers) or inactive (56 administrative postal workers) occupations in Glasgow (Scotland) in 2007. Twenty four-hour physical activity (steps and time standing, walking and sedentary) patterns were measured using activPAL™ for seven days. Comparisons were made during 8-hour work-shifts, during non-work hours on work-days and during the 2 non-work days. Age and body mass index of delivery and office staff, respectively, were (means (SD)) 38 (9) years versus 40 (7) years and 26.3 (3) kg m(-2) versus 27.4 (4) kg m(-2). Delivery staff spent substantially longer time than office staff upright (6.0 (1.1) h versus 3.9 (1.5) h) and walking (3.1 (0.7) h versus 1.6 (0.7) h) and amassed more steps (16,035 (4264) versus 6709 (2808)) during 8-hour work-shifts and over 24h on work days. During non-work hours of work-days and during non-work days, there were no significant differences in physical activity between the groups. The results were unchanged when the 15 women were excluded. Having a more active occupation is not associated with more inactivity during non-work hours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dose received during work in the active zone of the BIBLIS power plant, instalment A, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallmeyer, D.; Ambros, R.; Schroeder, H.J.; Kausch, S.

    1978-01-01

    In the Biblis station, instalment A, of the Rheinisch-Wesfaelisches-Elektrizitaetswerk, a study was conducted in 1977 to determine the doses received as a function of work carried out. The aim was to establish in a general study the dose which appears in each case during work on systems (or components of systems) in the active zone. An attempt was made as far as possible to relate the doses to specific occupations. This correlation is governed in two ways by conditions inherent in the organisation of the Biblis station a) maintenance and repair work are carried out under work contracts; the dose can be related to this work by the order number of the contract in question. b) Some activities, apart from maintenance and repair may be carried out without a contract. The dose which then appears is related to the type of activity concerned

  10. Levels of occupational stress and stressful activities for nurses working in emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ferreira da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify stress levels, areas and their activities identified as stressful by nurses working in the emergence in Manaus, AM, Brazil. It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional design, with 36 emergency nurses from December 2010 to January 2011. The Bianchi Stress Scale with 57 questions was used. The nurses were at risk for high levels of stress. The most stressful areas were the operation of the unit, conditions of work and personnel administration, and the most stressful activity was the request for equipment review and repair. The difference by Friedman test between the areas was significant (p <0.05, Dunn post-test significant (p <0.05 when compared by peers. The accumulation of management activities with the assistance activities can generate higher levels of stress, it is necessary to invest in improving the work environment and management support to minimize the stress experienced at work.

  11. Structured Observation of School Administrator Work Activities: Methodological Limitations and Recommendations for Research, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Nancy J.; Russell, James S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper critically reviews administrator work activity studies which follow the research of Henry Mintzberg. It discusses directions for future research using qualitative and quantitative methods and discourages research that relies solely on Mintzberg's structure. (Author/JAZ)

  12. A Source Activation Account of Individual Differences in Working Memory Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reder, Lynne

    1999-01-01

    ...' patterns of performance. We propose a computational model that accounts for differences in working memory capacity in terms of a quantity called source activation, which is used to maintain goal relevant information in an available state...

  13. Overview of European Community (Activity 3) work on materials properties of fast reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.

    The Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee set up in 1974 the Working Group Codes and Standards, and organized its work into four main activities: Manufacturing standards, Structural analysis, Materials and Classification of components. The main purpose of materials activity is to compare and contrast existing national specifications and associated properties relevant to structural materials in fast reactors. Funds are available on a yearly basis for tasks to be carried out through Study Contracts. At present about four Study Contract Reports are prepared each year

  14. Encapsulation of natural ingredient for skin protection via nanoemulsion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Usta, Aybala; Alzahrani, Naif; Patil, Vinay; Vanderwall, Adeesha

    2017-04-01

    Many of the sunscreens are used during the hot summer time to protect the skin surface. However, some of ingredients in the sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, retinyl palmitate and synthetic fragrances including parabens, phthalates and synthetic musk may disrupt the cells on the skin and create harmful effects to human body. Natural oils may be considered for substitution of harmful ingredients in sunscreens. Many natural oils (e.g., macadamia oil, sesame oil, almond oil and olive oil) have UV protective property and on top of that they have natural essences. Among the natural oils, olive oil has a long history of being used as a home remedy for skincare. Olive oil is used or substituted for cleanser, moisturizer, antibacterial agent and massage reliever for muscle fatigue. It is known that sun protection factor (SPF) of olive oil is around eight. There has been relatively little scientific work performed on the effect of olive oil on the skin as sunscreen. With nanoencapsulation technique, UV light protection of the olive oil can be extended which will provide better coverage for the skin throughout the day. In the present study, natural olive oil was incorporated with DI water and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate - SDS) and sonicated using probe sonicators. Sonication time, and concentrations of olive oil, DI water and surfactant were investigated in detail. The produced nanoemulsions were characterized using dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is believed that the nanoencupsulation of olive oil could provide better skin protection by slow releasing and deeper penetration of the nanoemulsion on skin surface. Undergraduate engineering students were involved in the project and observed all the process during the laboratory studies, as well as data collection, analysis and presentation. This experience based learning will likely enhance the students' skills and interest in the scientific and engineering studies.

  15. The catalyst layer and its dimensionality - A look into its ingredients and how to characterize their effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada

    2016-03-01

    Development of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells throughout the years is established through its component optimization. This is especially true of its catalyst layer, where structuring of the layer has led to many breakthroughs. The catalyst layer acts as the heart of the cell, where it controls the half-cell reactions and their products. The complex nature of various transport phenomena simultaneously taking place in the layer requires the layer to be heterogeneous in structure. Hence, a delicate balance of the layer's ingredients, coupled with the understanding of the ingredients' interaction, is required. State-of-the-art catalyst layers are composed of a catalyst, its support, a solvent and a binder. Changes in the morphology, structure or material of any of these components ultimately affects the layer's activity and durability. In this review paper, we provide an overview of the various works tailored to understand how each component in the catalyst's ink affects the stability and life-time of the layer.

  16. Clarifying and discussing successful aging at work and the active role of employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I clarify and further discuss 4 issues raised by Zacher in critically analyzing my perspective on successful aging at work and the active role of employees. First, I argue that the sustainability concept is a valuable and useful concept to better understand successful aging at work,

  17. Activating Hope in the Midst of Crisis: Emotions, Transformative Learning, and "The Work That Reconnects"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    Joanna Macy's "Work that Reconnects" (WTR) is a transformative learning process that endeavors to help participants acknowledge, experience, and understand the emotions that may either empower or inhibit action to address the ecological crisis. The WTR seeks to work through grief, fear, and despair to animate a sense of active,…

  18. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  19. The impact of patellar tendinopathy on sports and work performance in active athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Astrid J; Koolhaas, Wendy; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ron L.; Nieuwenhuis, Kari; Van Der Worp, Henk; Brouwer, Sandra; Van Den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Greater insight into sports and work performance of athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT) will help establish the severity of this common overuse injury. Primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PT on sports and work performance. Seventy seven active athletes with PT (50 males;

  20. Machine Shop I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section C--Hand and Bench Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains two learning activity packets (LAPs) for the "hand and bench work" instructional area of a Machine Shop I course. The two LAPs cover the following topics: hand and bench work and pedestal grinder. Each LAP contains a cover sheet that describes its purpose, an introduction, and the tasks included in the LAP;…

  1. Physical activity and relaxation during and after work are independently associated with the need for recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, J.K.; Sluijs, E.M. van; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Boot, C.R.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to better understand the associations between during-work and after-work-hours physical activity and relaxation and need for recovery (NFR), so a study of these variables in office workers at a financial service provider was undertaken. Methods: Self-reported baseline

  2. Physical Activity and Relaxation During and After Work are Independently Associated With the Need for Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, J.K.; van Sluijs, E.M.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Boot, C.R.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to better understand the associations between during-work and after-work-hours physical activity and relaxation and need for recovery (NFR), so a study of these variables in office workers at a financial service provider was undertaken. Methods: Self-reported baseline

  3. Pathways of Paid Work, Care Provision, and Volunteering in Later Careers: Activity Substitution or Extension?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Mariska; Vickerstaff, Sarah; Lain, David; Clark, Charlotte; Baumberg Geiger, Ben

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that what happens to older people in one domain (like paid work) is likely to be related to what happens in another domain (like family caring or voluntary work). There is, however, limited research on the interplay between multiple activity domains in later careers. Research

  4. Return to work and workplace activity limitations following total hip or knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, A; Davis, A M; Palaganas, M P; Beaton, D E; Badley, E M; Gignac, M A

    2013-10-01

    Total hip (THR) and knee (TKR) replacements increasingly are performed on younger people making return to work a salient outcome. This research evaluates characteristics of individuals with early and later return to work following THR and TKR. Additionally, at work limitations pre-surgery and upon returning to work, and factors associated with work limitations were evaluated. 190 THR and 170 TKR of a total 931 cohort participants were eligible (i.e., working or on short-term disability pre-surgery). They completed questionnaires pre-surgery and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-surgery that included demographics, type of occupation, and the Workplace Activity Limitations Scale (WALS). 166 (87%) and 144 (85%) returned to work by 12 months following THR and TKR, respectively. Early (1 month) return to work was associated with, male gender, university education, working in business, finance or administration, and low physical demand work. People with THR returned to work earlier than those with TKR. For both groups, less pain and every day functional limitations were associated with less workplace activity limitations at the time return to work. The majority of individuals working prior to surgery return to work following hip or knee replacement for osteoarthritis (OA) and experience fewer limitations at work than pre-surgery. The changing workforce dynamics and trends toward surgery at younger ages mean that these are important outcomes for clinicians to assess. Additionally, this is important information for employers in understanding continued participation in employment for people with OA. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trends in leisure time and work-related physical activity in the Spanish working population, 1987-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2012-01-01

    To analyze time trends in the prevalence of leisure time (LTPA) and work-related (WRPA) physical activity between 1987 and 2006 in the Spanish working population. We analyzed data taken from the Spanish National Health Surveys for 1987 (n = 29,647), 1993 (n = 20,707), 1995-1997 (n = 12,800), 2001 (n = 21,058), 2003 (n = 21,650), and 2006 (n = 29,478). The main variables were LTPA and WRPA in working adults aged 18-64 years old. We analyzed sociodemographic characteristics, self-perceived health status, lifestyle habits and associated comorbidities using multivariate logistic regression models. The prevalences of LTPA and WRPA were lower in women than in men (p women; OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.02-1.31 for men) and WRPA (OR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.38-2.19 for women; OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.44-1.91 for men) significantly increased from 1987 to 2006. In both genders, the variables associated with a higher likelihood of practicing LTPA were greater age, higher educational level and being an ex- or non-smoker, while negative predictors included being married, worse self-perceived health, and obesity. Factors that increased the probability of reporting WRPA were being married, worse self-rated health status, and sleeping > 8h per day. The only factor that reduced the probability of reporting WRPA was being an ex- or non-smoker. We found an increase in LTPA and WRPA in the last 20 years in the Spanish working population. Several factors were associated with a higher or lower likelihood of practicing LTPA or WRPA in this population. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Structured adsorbents for isolation of functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Illera, M.

    2014-01-01

    Separation and purification of functional ingredients from raw or waste streams are often done via processes that include a chromatographic step using a packed bed of resin particles that have affinity for the ingredients to be separated. A column packed with these particles presents numerous

  7. Potential of Insect-Derived Ingredients for Food Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Fogliano, V.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are a sustainable and efficient protein and lipid source, compared with conventional livestock. Moreover, insect proteins and lipids are highly nutritional. Therefore, insect proteins and lipids can find its place as food ingredients. The use of insect proteins and lipids as food ingredients

  8. Dissociation of Active Working Memory and Passive Recognition in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Active cognitive control of working memory is central in most human memory models, but behavioral evidence for such control in nonhuman primates is absent and neurophysiological evidence, while suggestive, is indirect. We present behavioral evidence that monkey memory for familiar images is under active cognitive control. Concurrent cognitive…

  9. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…

  10. Left temporal alpha band activity increases during working memory retention of pitches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, H.; Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Jensen, O.

    2010-01-01

    The functional role and regional specificity of similar to 10 Hz alpha band activity remains of debate. Alpha band activity is strongly modulated in visual working memory tasks and it has been proposed to subserve resource allocation by disengaging task-irrelevant regions. It remains unknown if

  11. 45 CFR 287.120 - What work activities may be provided under the NEW Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employment services, job retention services, unsubsidized employment, subsidized public or private sector..., alternative education, post secondary education, job readiness activity, job search, job skills training, training and employment activities, job development and placement, on-the-job training (OJT), employer work...

  12. Effects of dynamic workstation Oxidesk on acceptance, physical activity, mental fitness and work performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, L.; Commissaris, D.A.C.M.; Berg-Zwetsloot, M. van den; Hiemstra-Van Mastrigt, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working in an office environment is characterised by physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. This behaviour contributes to several health risks in the long run. Dynamic workstations which allow people to combine desk activities with physical activity, may contribute to prevention of

  13. Emotion at Work: A Contribution to Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation cultural-historical activity theory, which drew its inspiration from Leont'ev's work, constituted an advance over Vygotsky's first-generation theory by explicitly articulating the dialectical relation between individual and collective. As part of an effort to develop third-generation-historical activity theory, I propose in this…

  14. Physical activity and relaxation in the work setting to reduce the need for recovery: what works for whom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet A. G. Formanoy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To recover from work stress, a worksite health program aimed at improving physical activity and relaxation may be valuable. However, not every program is effective for all participants, as would be expected within a “one size fits all” approach. The effectiveness of how the program is delivered may differ across individuals. The aim of this study was to identify subgroups for whom one intervention may be better suited than another by using a new method called QUalitative INteraction Trees (QUINT. Methods Data were used from the “Be Active & Relax” study, in which 329 office workers participated. Two delivery modes of a worksite health program were given, a social environmental intervention (group motivational interviewing delivered by team leaders and a physical environmental intervention (environmental modifications. The main outcome was change in Need for Recovery (NFR from baseline to 12 month follow-up. The QUINT method was used to identify subgroups that benefitted more from either type of delivery mode, by incorporating moderator variables concerning sociodemographic, health, home, and work-related characteristics of the participants. Results The mean improvement in NFR of younger office workers in the social environmental intervention group was significantly higher than younger office workers who did not receive the social environmental intervention (10.52; 95 % CI: 4.12, 16.92. Furthermore, the mean improvement in NFR of older office workers in the social environmental intervention group was significantly lower than older office workers who did not receive the social environmental intervention ( −10.65; 95 % CI: −19.35, −1.96. The results for the physical environmental intervention indicated that the mean improvement in NFR of office workers (regardless of age who worked fewer hours overtime was significantly higher when they had received the physical environmental intervention than when they had not

  15. Overview of the activities of the OECD/NEA/NSC working party on nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, A.; Blomquist, R.; Bradyraap, M.; Briggs, B.; Cousinou, P.; Nomura, Y.; Weber, W.

    2003-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) started dealing with criticality-safety related subjects back in the seventies. In the mid-nineties, several activities related to criticality-safety were grouped together into the Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety. This working party has since been operating and reporting to the Nuclear Science Committee. Six expert groups co-ordinate various activities ranging from experimental evaluations to code and data inter-comparisons for the study of static and transient criticality behaviours. The paper describes current activities performed in this framework and the achievements of the various expert groups. (author)

  16. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects

  17. Correlations in background activity control persistent state stability and allow execution of working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eDipoppa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is tightly capacity limited, it requires selective information gating, active information maintenance, and rapid active updating. Hence performing a WM task needs rapid and controlled transitions between neural persistent activity and the resting state. We propose that changes in spike-time correlations in neural activity provides a mechanism for the required working memory operations. As a proof of principle, we implement sustained activity and working memory in a recurrently-coupled spiking network with neurons receiving excitatory random background activity where background correlations are induced by a common noise source. We first characterize how the level of background correlations controls the stability of the persistent state. With sufficiently high correlations, the sustained state becomes practically unstable, so it cannot be initiated by a transient stimulus. We exploit this in a working memory model implementing the delay match to sample task by modulating flexibly in time the correlation level at different phases of the task. The modulation sets the network in different working regimes: more prompt to gate in a signal or clear the memory. The findings presented in this manuscript can form the basis for a new paradigm about how correlations are flexibly controlled by the cortical circuits to execute WM operations.

  18. Spray-drying microencapsulation of synergistic antioxidant mushroom extracts and their use as functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Ruphuy, Gabriela; Lopes, José Carlos; Dias, Madalena Maria; Barros, Lillian; Barreiro, Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-12-01

    In this work, hydroalcoholic extracts of two mushrooms species, Suillus luteus (L.: Fries) (Sl) and Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bull.) (Ca), were studied for their synergistic antioxidant effect and their viability as functional food ingredients tested by incorporation into a food matrix (cottage cheese). In a first step, the individual extracts and a combination of both, showing synergistic effects (Sl:Ca, 1:1), were microencapsulated by spray-drying using maltodextrin as the encapsulating material. The incorporation of free extracts resulted in products with a higher initial antioxidant activity (t0) but declining after 7 days (t7), which was associated with their degradation. However, the cottage cheese enriched with the microencapsulated extracts, that have revealed a lower activity at the initial time, showed an increase at t7. This improvement can be explained by an effective protection provided by the microspheres together with a sustained release. Analyses performed on the studied cottage cheese samples showed the maintenance of the nutritional properties and no colour modifications were noticed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between physical activity and work ability - A cross-sectional study of teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Małgorzata; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Powerska-Didkowska, Aneta

    2018-01-01

    To assess relationship between physical activity (PA) and perceived work ability amongst teachers from the Upper Silesia, Poland. The study involved 171 teachers (129 women, 42 men) of primary and secondary schools of the Upper Silesia, Poland. Physical education teachers were excluded from the study. The level of PA was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short version, and perceived work ability was estimated using Work Ability Index (WAI). Male teachers had significantly higher levels of vigorous-intensity PA, moderateintensity PA, and total weekly PA than female teachers. The recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) met 46% of studied women and 74% of men. Work ability did not differ between male and female teachers. Work ability was related to age, body mass index (BMI), and PA (vigorous-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, total weekly PA). The female teachers with excellent or good WAI had significantly higher levels of vigorous-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA and total weekly PA than female teachers with moderate or poor WAI. The teachers involving in high or moderate intensity PA could improve their work ability. Further studies should focus on relation between physical activity and work ability among teachers of various age and seniority, from both, urban and rural schools. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):1-9. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. RESULTS: Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively. The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p < 0.05. Moderately-active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05 as well as higher total cholesterol concentrations (232.1 and 145 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.01. Irrespective of their physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical

  1. The impact of patellar tendinopathy on sports and work performance in active athletes

    OpenAIRE

    De Vries, Astrid J; Koolhaas, Wendy; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ron L.; Nieuwenhuis, Kari; Van Der Worp, Henk; Brouwer, Sandra; Van Den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Greater insight into sports and work performance of athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT) will help establish the severity of this common overuse injury. Primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PT on sports and work performance. Seventy seven active athletes with PT (50 males; age 28.1 +/- 8.2years; Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment Patella 56.4 +/- 12.3) participated in this survey. Sports performance, work ability and work productivity were assessed using the Osl...

  2. Learning activities in a political context - development of the working environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledskov, Annette

    2002-01-01

    are identified – ‘the politically actors’ and ‘the translator’. When facilitating learning activities in the management of work environment it is necessary to be aware of this political nature of the actions .In understanding learning in the management of work environment it is beneficial to look at the concept......This paper addresses a learning approach as a method for developing new strategies for managing work environment. On the basis of interviews in two companies an analysis of how actors involved in the management of work environment act concerning their task and role is conducted. Two roles...

  3. Brain activity related to working memory for temporal order and object information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brooke M; Libby, Laura A; Inhoff, Marika C; Ranganath, Charan

    2017-06-08

    Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail. To address these questions, participants were scanned while completing 3 working memory task conditions (Group, Position and Item) that were matched in terms of difficulty and the number of items to be actively maintained. Group and Position trials probed temporal working memory processes, requiring the maintenance of hierarchically organized coarse and fine temporal information, respectively. To isolate activation related to temporal working memory, Group and Position trials were contrasted against Item trials, which required detailed working memory maintenance of visual objects. Results revealed that working memory encoding and maintenance of temporal information relative to visual information was associated with increased activation in dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and perirhinal cortex (PRC). In contrast, maintenance of visual details relative to temporal information was characterized by greater activation of parahippocampal cortex (PHC), medial and anterior PFC, and retrosplenial cortex. In the hippocampus, a dissociation along the longitudinal axis was observed such that the anterior hippocampus was more active for working memory encoding and maintenance of visual detail information relative to temporal information, whereas the posterior hippocampus displayed the opposite effect. Posterior parietal cortex was the only region to show sensitivity to temporal

  4. Effects of Preretirement Work Complexity and Postretirement Leisure Activity on Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the influence of postretirement leisure activity on longitudinal associations between work complexity in main lifetime occupation and trajectories of cognitive change before and after retirement. Methods: Information on complexity of work with data, people, and things, leisure activity participation in older adulthood, and four cognitive factors (verbal, spatial, memory, and speed) was available from 421 individuals in the longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Participants were followed for an average of 14.2 years (SD = 7.1 years) and up to 23 years across eight cognitive assessments. Most of the sample (88.6%) completed at least three cognitive assessments. Results: Results of growth curve analyses indicated that higher complexity of work with people significantly attenuated cognitive aging in verbal skills, memory, and speed of processing controlling for age, sex, and education. When leisure activity was added, greater cognitive and physical leisure activity was associated with reduced cognitive aging in verbal skills, speed of processing, and memory (for cognitive activity only). Discussion: Engagement in cognitive or physical leisure activities in older adulthood may compensate for cognitive disadvantage potentially imposed by working in occupations that offer fewer cognitive challenges. These results may provide a platform to encourage leisure activity participation in those retiring from less complex occupations. PMID:25975289

  5. Physical activity and sedentary time: male perceptions in a university work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Emma S; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Guagliano, Justin M

    2014-03-01

    Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in males can be challenging, and interventions tailored specifically for males are limited. Understanding male perceptions of physical activity and sedentary behavior is important to inform development of relevant interventions, especially for males working in an office setting. As part of a larger intervention study to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time, male university employees aged 35 to 64 years were invited to partake in focus groups to discuss benefits, motivators, and barriers related to physical activity and sedentary time. Five semistructured focus group sessions, ranging from 50 to 70 minutes in duration, were conducted on two campuses at an Australian university. A total of 15 participants (9 academic/faculty staff and 6 professional staff), with a mean (± SD) age of 46.1 (±8.0) years took part in the study. Health and family were commonly discussed motivators for physical activity, whereas time constraints and work commitments were major barriers to physical activity participation. Sedentary time was a perceived "by-product" of participants' university employment, as a substantial proportion of their days were spent sitting, primarily at a computer. Participants believed that physical activity should be recognized as a legitimate activity at work, embedded within the university culture and endorsed using a top-down approach. It is important to encourage breaks in sedentary time and recognize physical activity as a legitimate health-promoting activity that is supported and encouraged during working hours. These findings can be used as a platform from which to develop targeted strategies to promote physical activity in male university employees.

  6. Anticipatory activity in rat medial prefrontal cortex during a working memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenwen Bai; Tiaotiao Liu; Hu Yi; Shuangyan Li; Xin Tian

    2012-01-01

    Objective Working memory is a key cognitive function in which the prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role.This study aimed to show the firing patterns of a neuronal population in the prefrontal cortex of the rat in a working memory task and to explore how a neuronal ensemble encodes a working memory event.Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a Y-maze until they reached an 80% correct rate in a working memory task.Then a 16-channel microelectrode array was implanted in the prefrontal cortex.After recovery,neuronal population activity was recorded during the task,using the Cerebus data-acquisition system.Spatio-temporal trains of action potentials were obtained from the original neuronal population signals.Results During the Y-maze working memory task,some neurons showed significantly increased firing rates and evident neuronal ensemble activity.Moreover,the anticipatory activity was associated with the delayed alternate choice of the upcoming movement.In correct trials,the averaged pre-event firing rate (10.86 ± 1.82 spikes/bin) was higher than the post-event rate (8.17 ± 1.15 spikes/bin) (P <0.05).However,in incorrect trials,the rates did not differ.Conclusion The results indicate that the anticipatory activity of a neuronal ensemble in the prefrontal cortex may play a role in encoding working memory events.

  7. Human area MT+ shows load-dependent activation during working memory maintenance with continuously morphing stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashan, Daniela; Fehr, Thorsten; Kreiter, Andreas K; Herrmann, Manfred

    2014-07-11

    Initially, human area MT+ was considered a visual area solely processing motion information but further research has shown that it is also involved in various different cognitive operations, such as working memory tasks requiring motion-related information to be maintained or cognitive tasks with implied or expected motion.In the present fMRI study in humans, we focused on MT+ modulation during working memory maintenance using a dynamic shape-tracking working memory task with no motion-related working memory content. Working memory load was systematically varied using complex and simple stimulus material and parametrically increasing retention periods. Activation patterns for the difference between retention of complex and simple memorized stimuli were examined in order to preclude that the reported effects are caused by differences in retrieval. Conjunction analysis over all delay durations for the maintenance of complex versus simple stimuli demonstrated a wide-spread activation pattern. Percent signal change (PSC) in area MT+ revealed a pattern with higher values for the maintenance of complex shapes compared to the retention of a simple circle and with higher values for increasing delay durations. The present data extend previous knowledge by demonstrating that visual area MT+ presents a brain activity pattern usually found in brain regions that are actively involved in working memory maintenance.

  8. Part-Time Work and Physical Activity in American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Domelen, Dane R

    2015-08-01

    To compare physical activity (PA) in American high school students who work part-time with those who do not work. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006 (n = 791). Work status was self-reported and PA was measured using accelerometers. In males, adjusted for age, race, and poverty-income ratio, workers averaged greater counts per minute, less sedentary time, and greater moderate-to-vigorous PA compared with nonworkers. In females, workers and nonworkers had similar counts per minute, whereas nonworkers had somewhat greater moderate-to-vigorous PA. There was a work-by-school status interaction on sedentary time (P = 0.021), whereby work was associated with less sedentary time among students not on break from school. In American high school students, work is associated with greater PA in males and a different composition of PA in females.

  9. Long and atypical working hours and the impact on intimate family life social activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans H. K.

    An increasing number of families has to meet the challenges of working in a 24-7 society and at the same time striving to take part in everyday family life. Research is not conclusive with respect to what degree atypical working hours has an impact on, for example, work-family balance, instable...... participate in together with their children (e.g. enjoying breakfasts together). On the other hand other research shows that factors like both parents having atypical working hours and small children in the home suggests a negative impact on family life. In addition, not much research has scrutinized...... through our longitudinal survey study of everyday family and work-life. So in short, this paper will present and discuss an analysis of the relationship between work life and intimate family life social activities as they evolve over time and across households....

  10. Impact of overactive bladder symptoms on work activity: The ACTIVHA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapariz, M; Mora, A M; Roset, M

    2018-04-01

    To analyse the impact of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms on the work activity of patients in Spain. An observational, multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted with 149 urologists and 131 gynaecologists of Spain and included patients diagnosed with OAB, according to clinical judgment, who were of working age (18-65 years). We collected sociodemographic, clinical and work activity data. The patients filled out the Bladder Control Self-Assessment Questionnaire (B-SAQ) and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire-General Health (WPAI-GH). The effect of each symptom on the daily and occupational activity was assessed. The results were stratified according to sex and the presence of emergency and urinary incontinence (UI) according to the B-SAQ. We assessed 768 patients (89% women), with a mean (SD) age of 52.5 (9.3) years and 2.6 (2.6) years of OAB progression. The most common symptoms according to the patients were urgent urination (89.8%), nocturia (75.7%), urge incontinence (68.5%) and frequent urination (68.2%). Ninety-six percent of the patients adopted adaptive measures for their OAB. According to the B-SAQ, 543 patients (71%) presented urgent urination; of these, 294 (54%) showed UI. The symptom that most affected work activity was frequent urination (59.8%). According to the WPAI-GH, the patients reported an impact of 32% during the workday (41% in patients with urgent urination and UI) and a loss of work time of 6.5% (9.9% in patients with urgent urination and UI). The symptoms of OAB negatively affect work activity, especially in patients who have urgent urination and UI. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Near Work Activity on Visual Acuity among Junior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisha Pratiwi Indrawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncorrected refractive error is experienced by at least 45 million productive-aged adults (aged 16–45 years old and 13 million children (aged 5–15 years old, and being the main cause of visual impairment in children worldwide and third cause of blindness in any age in Indonesia. Near work activity is estimated as one of environmental risk factor causing this refractive error, leading into decreased visual acuity. This study was conducted to analyse the impact of near work activity on visual acuity among junior high school students in Jatinangor Methods: This study was conducted in junior high school in Jatinangor, using cross sectional method. Total of 147 subjects were screened for visual impairment using Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB tumbling E chart and assesed for near work activity using questionnaire-guided interview method after informed consent had been obtained. Data were analysed using unpaired-T test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Total diopter hours of near work activity among the group with visual acuity ≥6/18 and group with visual acuity <6/18 showed no significant difference (p=0.329, with latter group had less time-spent in near work activity. Similarly, each activity such as reading, watching TV, and using computer also showed no significant difference , except for playing games where the group with better visual acuity had shown significantly longer time spent than another group (p=0.018. Conclusions: Near work activity does not have impact on visual acuity among junior high school students, except for playing games

  12. Adapting to a Challenging Fieldwork: Understanding the Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Raphael-Greenfield

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two occupational therapy students were assigned to an inpatient psychiatric unit for their first Level 1 fieldwork. With limited on-site supervision provided, they looked to each other for peer support and collaboration in assisting one patient with severe depression who was considered the “sickest patient on the unit.” The students were able to work together and make a positive intervention with this patient despite their novice status. Understanding what each of them brought personally to this experience as well as the nature of their working relationship and their use of concepts taught in the classroom has important implications for occupational therapy education. One of the profession’s goals in acute psychiatric settings is to engage clients in meaningful occupations to facilitate rehabilitation and the recovery process. The two students skillfully employed the concepts of emotional intelligence, cultural competence, and therapeutic use of self and demonstrated their comfort with technology and spirituality to facilitate his occupational reengagement. By examining this case report through the lens of the literature on emotional intelligence, cultural competence, and therapeutic use of self, the ingredients of their clinical reasoning becomes more transparent and available to other occupational therapy educational programs.

  13. Radical heterosexuality: Straight teacher activism in schools : Does ally-led activism work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Potvin

    2016-06-01

    Here, I explore the efficacy of straight teacher allies, the importance of understanding straight privilege, and the significance of radical heterosexuality for straight people doing LGBTQ activism. Relying on queer theory and decolonizing/Indigenous queer theory, I argue that it is necessary for straight teachers to acknowledge their straight privilege in order to challenge homophobia's companions: heterosexism and heteronormativity. In addressing the latter two covert forms of oppression in schools, teachers and students could shift into deeper, more effective resistance measures.

  14. Applying activity theory to computer-supported collaborative learning and work-based activities in corporate settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Margaryan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Business needs in many corporations call for learning outcomes that involve problem solutions, and creating and sharing new knowledge within worksplace situation that may involve collaboration among members of a team. We argue that work-based activities (WBA) and computer-supported collaborative

  15. Nutrition and healthy ageing: the key ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mathers, John C; Franco, Oscar H

    2014-05-01

    Healthy longevity is a tangible possibility for many individuals and populations, with nutritional and other lifestyle factors playing a key role in modulating the likelihood of healthy ageing. Nevertheless, studies of effects of nutrients or single foods on ageing often show inconsistent results and ignore the overall framework of dietary habits. Therefore, the use of dietary patterns (e.g. a Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the specific dietary recommendations (e.g. dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Polymeal and the American Healthy Eating Index) are becoming more widespread in promoting lifelong health. A posteriori defined dietary patterns are described frequently in relation to age-related diseases but their generalisability is often a challenge since these are developed specifically for the population under study. Conversely, the dietary guidelines are often developed based on prevention of disease or nutrient deficiency, but often less attention is paid to how well these dietary guidelines promote health outcomes. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the state of the art of dietary patterns and dietary recommendations in relation to life expectancy and the risk of age-related disorders (with emphasis on cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive outcomes). According to both a posteriori and a priori dietary patterns, some key 'ingredients' can be identified that are associated consistently with longevity and better cardiometabolic and cognitive health. These include high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish, (whole) grains and legumes/pulses and potatoes, whereas dietary patterns rich in red meat and sugar-rich foods have been associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes.

  16. Effects of Transference Work in the Context of Therapeutic Alliance and Quality of Object Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglend, Per; Hersoug, Anne Grete; Bogwald, Kjell-Petter; Amlo, Svein; Marble, Alice; Sorbye, Oystein; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Ulberg, Randi; Gabbard, Glen O.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Transference interpretation is considered as a core active ingredient in dynamic psychotherapy. In common clinical theory, it is maintained that more mature relationships, as well as a strong therapeutic alliance, may be prerequisites for successful transference work. In this study, the interaction between quality of object relations,…

  17. The effects of work surface hardness on mechanical stress, muscle activity, and wrist postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Aulck, Lovenoor; Trippany, David; Johnson, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Contact pressure is a risk factor which can contribute to musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a work surface with a soft, pliable front edge could reduce contact pressure, muscle activity, and subjective musculoskeletal comfort, and improve wrist posture relative to a conventional, hard work surface. In a repeated-measures blinded experiment with eighteen subjects (8 females and 10 males), contact pressure, wrist posture, typing productivity, perceived fatigue, wrist and shoulder muscle activity, and subjective comfort were compared between the two different work surfaces during keyboard use, mouse use and mixed mouse and keyboard use. The results showed that across the three modes of computer work, the contact pressure was lower on the soft-edge work surface compared to the conventional work surface (p's work surfaces. Given the significant reduction in contact pressure and corresponding lower ratings in perceived fatigue, the soft-edge work surface subjectively and objectively improved measures of contact stress which may reduce physical exposures associated with the onset and development of musculoskeletal disorders.

  18. Decision Support System Requirements Definition for Human Extravehicular Activity Based on Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; McGuire, Kerry M; Feigh, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    The design and adoption of decision support systems within complex work domains is a challenge for cognitive systems engineering (CSE) practitioners, particularly at the onset of project development. This article presents an example of applying CSE techniques to derive design requirements compatible with traditional systems engineering to guide decision support system development. Specifically, it demonstrates the requirements derivation process based on cognitive work analysis for a subset of human spaceflight operations known as extravehicular activity . The results are presented in two phases. First, a work domain analysis revealed a comprehensive set of work functions and constraints that exist in the extravehicular activity work domain. Second, a control task analysis was performed on a subset of the work functions identified by the work domain analysis to articulate the translation of subject matter states of knowledge to high-level decision support system requirements. This work emphasizes an incremental requirements specification process as a critical component of CSE analyses to better situate CSE perspectives within the early phases of traditional systems engineering design.

  19. Prefrontal Hemodynamics of Physical Activity and Environmental Complexity During Cognitive Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Ryan; Mehta, Ranjana; Ayaz, Hasan; Scheldrup, Melissa; Parasuraman, Raja

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess performance and cognitive states during cognitive work in the presence of physical work and in natural settings. Authors of previous studies have examined the interaction between cognitive and physical work, finding performance decrements in working memory. Neuroimaging has revealed increases and decreases in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin during the interaction of cognitive and physical work. The effect of environment on cognitive-physical dual tasking has not been previously considered. Thirteen participants were monitored with wireless functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as they performed an auditory 1-back task while sitting, walking indoors, and walking outdoors. Relative to sitting and walking indoors, auditory working memory performance declined when participants were walking outdoors. Sitting during the auditory 1-back task increased oxygenated hemoglobin and decreased deoxygenated hemoglobin in bilateral prefrontal cortex. Walking reduced the total hemoglobin available to bilateral prefrontal cortex. An increase in environmental complexity reduced oxygenated hemoglobin and increased deoxygenated hemoglobin in bilateral prefrontal cortex. Wireless fNIRS is capable of monitoring cognitive states in naturalistic environments. Selective attention and physical work compete with executive processing. During executive processing loading of selective attention and physical work results in deactivation of bilateral prefrontal cortex and degraded working memory performance, indicating that physical work and concomitant selective attention may supersede executive processing in the distribution of mental resources. This research informs decision-making procedures in work where working memory, physical activity, and attention interact. Where working memory is paramount, precautions should be taken to eliminate competition from physical work and selective attention.

  20. Work group I: Measures of the food and physical activity environment: instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    A work group was convened to identify the core challenges, content gaps, and corresponding possible solutions for improving food- and physical activity-environment instrumentation. Identified challenges included instrument proliferation, the scaling or grain of instruments and appropriate aggregation to the neighborhood or community level, and unknown sensitivity to change of most instruments. Solutions for addressing these challenges included establishing an interactive and real-time instrument repository, developing and enforcing high standards for instrument reporting, increasing community-researcher collaborations, and implementing surveillance of food and physical activity environment. Solid instrumentation will accelerate a better understanding of food- and physical activity-environment effects on eating and physical activity behaviors.

  1. Informal work and formal plans: articulating the active role of patients in cancer trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Juul Dalsted

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Formal pathways models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories.  Methods and theory: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included.  Results: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories.  Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed.  Discussion: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work. The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients´ active participation. When looking at integrated care from the perspective of patients, the development of a more holistic and personalized approach is needed. Introduction: Formal pathway models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories. Methods and theory: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. Results: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their

  2. Structural maturation and brain activity predict future working memory capacity during childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Henrik; Almeida, Rita; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-01-29

    Human working memory capacity develops during childhood and is a strong predictor of future academic performance, in particular, achievements in mathematics and reading. Predicting working memory development is important for the early identification of children at risk for poor cognitive and academic development. Here we show that structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data explain variance in children's working memory capacity 2 years later, which was unique variance in addition to that predicted using cognitive tests. While current working memory capacity correlated with frontoparietal cortical activity, the future capacity could be inferred from structure and activity in basal ganglia and thalamus. This gives a novel insight into the neural mechanisms of childhood development and supports the idea that neuroimaging can have a unique role in predicting children's cognitive development.

  3. The Evolving Politics of Race and Social Work Activism: A Call across Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapal, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Social work has engaged with and led the revolutionary social movements of the past century. Yet today, as activism by and for racial others unfolds across the United States and Canada, our discipline remains largely silent. This article considers new ways for social workers to conceptualize social work activism, challenge the existing erasures within the profession, and construct innovative strategies to locate social work within the critical social movements of our time. Recognizing the continuity of histories of colonialism, slavery, and genocide, the author argues that social workers must engage with racialized communities' resistance through their legacy of exclusion and displacement. The author demonstrates the significance of an evolving politics of race and social justice for social work practice. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  4. Physical activities at work and risk of musculoskeletal pain and its consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Korshøj, Mette; Lagersted-Olsen, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Among blue-collar workers, high physical work demands are generally considered to be the main cause of musculoskeletal pain and work disability. However, current available research on this topic has been criticised for using self-reported data, cross-sectional design, insufficient adjustment...... for potential confounders, and inadequate follow-up on the recurrent and fluctuating pattern of musculoskeletal pain. Recent technological advances have provided possibilities for objective diurnal field measurements of physical activities and frequent follow-up on musculoskeletal pain.The main aim...... of this paper is to describe the background, design, methods, limitations and perspectives of the Danish Physical Activity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) investigating the association between objectively measured physical activities capturing work and leisure time and frequent measurements...

  5. Effects of a worksite physical activity intervention for hospital nurses who are working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon J; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; Murphy, Justyne N; Thompson, Warren G; Weymiller, Audrey J; Lohse, Christine; Levine, James A

    2011-09-01

    Hospital nurses who are working mothers are challenged to maintain their personal health and model healthy behaviors for their children. This study aimed to develop and test an innovative 10-week worksite physical activity intervention integrated into the work flow of hospital-based nurses who were mothers. Three volunteer adult medical-surgical nursing units participated as intervention units. Fifty-eight nurses (30 intervention and 28 control) provided baseline and post-intervention repeated measurements of physical activity (steps) and body composition. Intervention participants provided post-intervention focus group feedback. For both groups, daily steps averaged more than 12,400 at baseline and post-intervention. No significant effects were found for physical activity; significant effects were found for fat mass, fat index, and percent fat (p working mothers. Future research is warranted with a larger sample, longer intervention, and additional measures. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. The importance of work or productive activity in life care planning and case management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christine; Riddick-Grisham, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The importance of work or productive activity for the well-being, community integration, and quality of life of people living with disabilities is addressed, with implications for life care planning and case management. BACKGROUND: The role of work or productive activity in our society, and consequences of deprivation if rehabilitation services do not address vocational effects of disabilities, is explored. A continuum of productivity options is introduced; types of vocational rehabilitation assessment processes and interventions are described. PURPOSE: The role of vocational rehabilitation services in life care planning and case management is discussed, focusing on quality of life for people living with disabilities. CONCLUSION: Rehabilitation and health care professionals should understand the importance of work or other productive activity, and support the development of appropriate plans to address those needs among people who have disabilities. PMID:26409330

  7. The importance of work or productive activity in life care planning and case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christine; Riddick-Grisham, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The importance of work or productive activity for the well-being, community integration, and quality of life of people living with disabilities is addressed, with implications for life care planning and case management. The role of work or productive activity in our society, and consequences of deprivation if rehabilitation services do not address vocational effects of disabilities, is explored. A continuum of productivity options is introduced; types of vocational rehabilitation assessment processes and interventions are described. The role of vocational rehabilitation services in life care planning and case management is discussed, focusing on quality of life for people living with disabilities. Rehabilitation and health care professionals should understand the importance of work or other productive activity, and support the development of appropriate plans to address those needs among people who have disabilities.

  8. Activities of the IAEA International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the IAEA international working group on life management of nuclear power plants are outlined with emphasis on objectives, scope of activities, methods of work, organizational matters, financing

  9. How hard do mineworkers work? An assessment of workplace stress associated with routine mining activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available . 2 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Physiological strain The Physiological Strain Index (PSI) is a useful tool to determine the impact of environmental tem- peratures and physical work on individuals. The PSI is based on core body temperature and heart rate... of heat built up during muscle contraction, while heart rate re- flects demands placed on the circulatory system in How hard do mineworkers work? An assessment of workplace stress as- sociated with routine mining activities P.C. Schutte CSIR...

  10. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Yang, Heidi Y; Deshpande, Bhushan R; Katz, Jeffrey N; Collins, Jamie E

    2017-01-01

    Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work. We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0-74 min/week), medium (75-149 min/week) and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week). We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism. The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11), 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74) of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38) due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.5) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7-7.2) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism. Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism.

  11. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Losina

    Full Text Available Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work.We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0-74 min/week, medium (75-149 min/week and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week. We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism.The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11, 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74 of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38 due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.5 fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7-7.2 fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism.Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism.

  12. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heidi Y.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Collins, Jamie E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work. Methods We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0–74 min/week), medium (75–149 min/week) and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week). We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism. Results The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11), 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74) of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38) due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3–4.5) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7–7.2) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism. Discussion Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism. PMID:28472084

  13. Active travel to work and cardiovascular risk factors in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Anthony A; Mindell, Jennifer S; Webb, Elizabeth A; Millett, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Increasing active travel (walking, cycling, public transport) is increasingly seen as integral to strategies to raise physical activity levels. This study examined (1) sociodemographic correlates of active travel to work and (2) associations between active travel and cardiovascular risk factors in the United Kingdom (UK). Data come from Understanding Society, a nationally representative survey of UK residents in 2009/2011, analyzed in 2012. Multinomial logistic regression assessed associations between sociodemographic factors and mode of transport to work. Linear and logistic regression was used to examine associations between mode of travel and overweight/obesity, and having hypertension or diabetes. A total of 69% of participants traveled to work using private transport, with public transport, walking, and cycling used by 16%, 12%, and 3%, respectively. Use of any active travel was more likely in participants living in London. Black participants were more likely to walk (AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.08, 1.84) or take public transport (AOR=2.34, 95% CI=1.88, 2.90) to work than whites. Using public transport, walking, or cycling to work was associated with a lower likelihood of being overweight (AOR=0.80, 95% CI=0.54, 0.88 for walking). Walking or cycling was associated with a lower likelihood of having diabetes, and walking was associated with a lower likelihood of having hypertension than private transport (AOR=0.83, 95% CI=0.71, 0.97). There are wide variations in the mode of travel to work across regions and sociodemographic groups in the UK. The protective association between active travel and cardiovascular risk demonstrated in this nationally representative study adds to growing evidence that concerted policy focus in this area may benefit population health. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gaming is related to enhanced working memory performance and task-related cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Carlson, S; Vuontela, V; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2017-01-15

    Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals. We studied the relationship between self-reported daily gaming activity, working memory (n-back) task performance and related brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that the extent of daily gaming activity was related to enhancements in both performance accuracy and speed during the most demanding (2-back) level of the working memory task. This improved working memory performance was accompanied by enhanced recruitment of a fronto-parietal cortical network, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during the less demanding (1-back) level of the task, gaming was associated with decreased activity in the same cortical regions. Our results suggest that a greater degree of daily gaming experience is associated with better working memory functioning and task difficulty-dependent modulation in fronto-parietal brain activity already in adolescence and even when non-expert gamers are studied. The direction of causality within this association cannot be inferred with certainty due to the correlational nature of the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE WORK CONDITIONS OF ACTIVITIES OF URBAN TREE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fiedler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available this work analyzed the work environment in the trees pruning activities in the urban arborization, comparison with the values of the legislation and the practical application of results to provide a better comfort, security, health, welfare to workers, and also a better efficiency and quality of the work. The weather conditions, the noise levels, the light conditions and vibration were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The weather conditions in the work environment were according the permissible values in the legislation (NR15 for index of humid bulb and globe thermometer (IBUTG of 25°C for the activities of pruning, with exception of the schedule to twelve hours (26,2°C, the hours of working should be of 30 minutes of work and 30 minutes of rest. The noise levels found in the activities of cut were 105,7 dB (A and bucking were 103.9 dB (A, above the level permited by legislation (NR15. The minimum light conditions values were acceptable for legislation (NBR 5413/92, but the global indices were too high being able to cause problems to the worker health. The vibration conditions were acceptable.

  16. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  17. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon

    2014-01-01

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist

  18. Summary of the activities of the ISAM Confidence Building Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinar, G.M.; Batandjieva, B.

    2002-01-01

    During the early stages of the ISAM project confidence building was a relatively new topic in the radioactive waste disposal literature, but it was beginning to receive some attention. Although almost all safety assessment activities are intended to provide a level of confidence in the results of the assessment, considering the activities from the viewpoint of how they contributed to the decision making of various 'audiences' was relatively new. The ISAM project included the Confidence Building Working Group (CBWG) to examine the topic of Confidence Building and this paper provides a summary of the working group findings. (author)

  19. Professional-applied pedagogical teaching of junior school future teachers to working activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhevnikova L.K.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A purpose of work is determination of maintenance and most meaningful features of activity of teachers of initial classes in the after hours forms of work with students on a section «physical culture». The program is presented professionally-applied preparations and directions of forming professional readiness of students to their future professional activity. 323 students of pedagogical faculty and 253 students - future teachers of initial classes took part in the questionnaire questioning. The most essential sides of preparation of students are selected: motivation, awareness of the future profession as a process of decision of pedagogical tasks, independent participating in the real process of teaching.

  20. Screening and identification of metabolites of two kinds of main active ingredients and hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in rat after lavage Farfarae Flos extract by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoye; Liao, Man; Diao, Xinpeng; Sun, Yupeng; Zhang, Lantong

    2018-02-01

    Farfarae Flos, the dried flower buds of Tussilago farfara L., is usually used to treat coughs, bronchitic and asthmatic conditions as an important traditional Chinese medicine. Tussilagone and methl butyric acid tussilagin ester are seen as representatives of two kinds of active substances. In addition, the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, mainly senkirkine and senecionine, present in the herb can be hepatoxic. In this study, a rapid and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was successfully applied to identify the metabolites of tussilagone, methl butyric acid tussilagin ester, senkirkine and senecionine. A total of 35, 37, 18 and nine metabolites of tussilagone, methl butyric acid tussilagin ester, senkirkine and senecionine in rats were tentatively identified. Hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction and demethylation were the major metabolic reactions for tussilagone and methl butyric acid tussilagin ester. The main biotransformation routes of senkirkine and senecionine were identified as demethylation, N-methylation, oxidation and reduction. This study is the first reported analysis and characterization of the metabolites and the proposed metabolic pathways might provide further understanding of the metabolic fate of the chemical constituents after oral administration of Farfarae Flos extract in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.