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Sample records for active containment systems

  1. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundie, P. [Envirotech (Scotland) Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]|[Environmental Resource Industries Disposal Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); McLeod, N. [Envirotreat Ltd., Kingswinford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  2. Possibility of air ingress into a BWR containment during a LOCA in case of activation of containment venting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure relief systems installed in BWRs protect the containment from overpressure in case of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This paper analyzes the possibility of air ingress, which can cause hydrogen burn, through the rupture disks of the filtered and non-filtered venting systems. Two scenarios were considered: a LOCA without SBO (Station Blackout) and a LOCA with SBO. The thermal-hydraulic code GOTHIC® was used with 3D models of the drywell and wetwell of a Nordic-type BWR. In the LOCA event, we found no activation of the rupture disks within the considered transient simulation. Moreover, the containment spray ensured a low pressure in the drywell and induced a continuous mixing of the wetwell pool. In the LOCA with SBO event, the development of thermal stratification in the wetwell pool accelerated the pressure increase in the drywell, which led to activation of the rupture disk of the filtered venting system. However, no air ingress through the vent was found during the depressurization of the containment, and hence no risk of hydrogen burn under the given assumptions. (author)

  3. The development and testing of a modular containment system under plutonium active conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Modular Containment System has been designed, constructed and tested under plutonium active conditions at AEE Winfrith. The unit consists of a portable self-contained pressurised suit area, complete with shower entry tunnel and ventilation plant which can be assembled to enclose active plant to enable active operations to be carried out safely by operators dressed in standard pressurised suits. A fundamental feature of the system is the use of strippable coatings which are used to treat the interior surfaces prior to active operations to prevent permanent contamination of the structure. Details of construction are given together with results of trials. Whilst this report describes work with plutonium, the system has clear applications wherever temporary containment of radioactive or toxic materials is needed. (U.K.)

  4. Nanostructured Systems Containing Rutin: In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Photostability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The improvement of the rutin photostability and its prolonged in vitro antioxidant activity were studied by means of its association with nanostructured aqueous dispersions. Rutin-loaded nanocapsules and rutin-loaded nanoemulsion showed mean particle size of 124.30 ± 2.06 and 124.17 ± 1.79, respectively, polydispersity index below 0.20, negative zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency close to 100%. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by the formation of free radical ·OH after the exposure of hydrogen peroxide to a UV irradiation system. Rutin-loaded nanostructures showed lower rutin decay rates [(6.1 ± 0.6 10−3 and (5.1 ± 0.4 10−3 for nanocapsules and nanoemulsion, respectively] compared to the ethanolic solution [(35.0 ± 3.7 10−3 min−1] and exposed solution [(40.1 ± 1.7 10−3 min−1] as well as compared to exposed nanostructured dispersions [(19.5 ± 0.5 10−3 and (26.6 ± 2.6 10−3, for nanocapsules and nanoemulsion, respectively]. The presence of the polymeric layer in nanocapsules was fundamental to obtain a prolonged antioxidant activity, even if the mathematical modeling of the in vitro release profiles showed high adsorption of rutin to the particle/droplet surface for both formulations. Rutin-loaded nanostructures represent alternatives to the development of innovative nanomedicines.

  5. Copper-containing polyvinyl alcohol composite systems: Preparation, characterization and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza Hajipour, Abdol; Mohammadsaleh, Fatemeh; Reza Sabzalian, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The present investigation reports, the complex formation of Cu(II) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the synthesis of PVA-stabilized Cu2O particles. This PVA-Cu2O composite has been prepared via chemical reduction method using PVA-Cu(II) complex as precursor. At first, Cu(II) ions were stabilized in PVA matrix via complex formation with OH groups; subsequently, this PVA-Cu(II) macromolecular complex as precursor reacted with ascorbic acid as reducing agent at pH=12 to prepare PVA-Cu2O composite. The products were characterized by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, Visible Spectroscopy and atomic absorption. In the following, the antibacterial properties of as-prepared composites were examined against Gram-positive (Bacillus thuringiensis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), and the results showed excellent antibacterial activity of these materials.

  6. Synthesis and in vivo diuretic activity of some new benzothiazole sulfonamides containing quinoxaline ring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Asif; Madhesia, Diwakar; Rashid, Mohd; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam

    2016-12-01

    A series of new 6-substituted-N-[3-{2-(substituted phenyl)-ethenyl} quinoxaline-2(1H)-ylidene]-1,3-benzothiazole-2-amine (4a-f) were designed and synthesized by condensing 2-amino-benzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid amide (1) with chalcones of quinoxaline-2-one (3a-f) in a hope to obtain promising and a new class of diuretic agents. Structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral data and elemental analysis. The pharmacological studies in experimental rats indicates that compound 4c possesses excellent in vivo diuretic activity of 1.13 and appears to be a better diuretic agent than the reference drugs, acetazolamide (1.0) and urea (0.88). Insight of the binding mode of the synthesized compounds (ligand) into the binding sites of carbonic anhydrase enzyme (PDF code: 4KUV) was provided by docking studies, performed with the help of Maestro 9.0 docking software. Further pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies are needed to confirm the safety of compound 4c which emerged as a lead diuretic compound.

  7. Los Alamos second-generation system for passive and active neutron assays of drum-size containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe in a comprehensive fashion the Los Alamos second-generation system for passive and active neutron assays of drum-size containers. The developmental history of this 7-year project is presented with emphasis on the pulsed active neutron technique (differential dieaway), which has achieved milligram levels of assay sensitivity for both plutonium and uranium wastes. We describe in detail the matrix effects for both passive and active neutron assays. We present in a thorough fashion our novel approach to achieving comprehensive corrections for these matrix effects using measurements made during the assays. We develop a matrix correction formalism based on separate neutron absorption and moderator indices determined from these measurements. These are presented as a series of analytic functions fitted to the data. Absolute calibrations and calibration standards are discussed, as is a practical means (pink drum measurements) of achieving routine calibration verification at all implementation sites. We present our overall assay algorithm, integrating absolute calibrations with matrix corrections. We also present a systematic error formalism that is based on the matrix response data. Finally, we outline a strategy for the verification of our entire assay formalism. This is based on measurements with a set of salted waste matrix drums combined with systematic assay intercomparisons of well-characterized transuranic wastes

  8. Antioxidant activity of new aramide nanoparticles containing redox-active N-phthaloyl valine moieties in the hepatic cytochrome P450 system in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hammed H A M; El-Banna, Sabah G; Elhusseiny, Amel F; Mansour, El-Sayed M E

    2012-07-10

    We report the synthesis of aramide nanoparticles containing a chiral N-phthaloyl valine moiety and their antioxidant activities on hepatic contents of cytochrome P₄₅₀, amidopyrene N-demethylase, aniline-4-hyroxylase and induced the hepatic content of cytochrome b5 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) cytochrome C-reductase. Polymers were obtained as well-separated spherical nanoparticles while highly aggregated particles via H-bonding organization of the aramide-containing pyridine led to a thin layer formation. The effects of the nanoparticles and CCl₄ on enzyme activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels of male rat liver were studied. Pretreatments of rats with the polyamides prior to the administration of CCl₄ decreased the hepatic content of the tested enzymes. Doses reduced the toxic effects exerted by (•CCl₃) upon the liver through inhibition of the cytochrome P₄₅₀ system. Inhibition of such metabolizing enzymes could reduce the carcinogenic effects of chemical carcinogens.

  9. Filtered-vented containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential benefits of filtered-vented containment systems as a means for mitigating the effects of severe accidents are analyzed. Studies so far have focused upon two operating reactor plants in the United States, a large-containment pressurized water reactor and a Mark I containment boiling water reactor. Design options that could be retrofitted to these plants are described including single-component once-through venting systems, multiple-component systems with vent and recirculation capabilities, and totally contained venting systems. A variety of venting strategies are also described which include simple low-volume containment pressure relief strategies and more complicated, high-volume venting strategies that require anticipatory actions. The latter type of strategy is intended for accidents that produce containment-threatening pressure spikes

  10. Surface active properties and biological activity of novel nonionic surfactants containing pyrimidines and related nitrogen heterocyclic ring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of annelated pyrimidine derivatives has been synthesized via different heterocyclization reactions of suitably functionalized 6-(4-octadecyloxyphenyl-4-oxo-2- thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile (4 with different electrophiles and nucleophiles. These heterocycles bear an active hydrogen atom (NH, OH or COOH which could be propoxylated using propylene oxide with different moles, 5, 10 and 15, to produce nonionic surfactant having a long alkyl chain with molecular weight suitable for becoming an amphiphilic molecule with correct hydrophilic-lypophilic balance which enhances solubility, biodegradability and hence lowers the toxicity to human beings and becomes environmentally friendly. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of these compounds were screened and it was found that some of these compounds have similar or higher activity compared with commercial antibiotic drugs (sulphadiazine, which make them suitable for diverse applications like the manufacturing of drugs, pesticides, emulsifiers, cosmetics, etc.Una serie de derivados pirimidínicos y relacionados han sido preparados vía diferentes reacciones de formación de heterociclos entre 6-(4-octadeciloxifenil-4-oxo-2-tioxo- 1,2,3,4-tetrahidropirimidina-5-carbonitrilo (4 y diferentes electrófilos y nucleófilos. Estos heterociclos tienen un átomo de hidrógeno activo (NH, OH, o COOH que fue propoxilado con diferentes moles de óxido de propileno (5, 10, o 15 para producir surfactantes no iónicos con una cadena alquílica larga y peso molecular apropiado para convertirse en una molécula anfifílica con un balance hidrofílico-lipofílico correcto que aumenta la solubilidad y la biodedradabilidad, decrece la toxicidad a los seres humanos, y se convierte en respetuoso con el medio ambiente. Además, las actividades antimicrobianas de estos compuestos fueron determinadas y se encontró que algunos de estos compuestos tuvieron una actividad similar o más alta que

  11. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO3- was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD5 TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7 ± 4.9% and 50.2 ± 6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD5). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW + glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW + TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28 ± 1 days and 31 ± 2 days with TWW + glucose and TWW + TRNWW, respectively

  12. Self-contained microfluidic systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Moss, Mitchell; Baratchi, Sara; Di Venere, Martina; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2016-08-16

    Microfluidic systems enable rapid diagnosis, screening and monitoring of diseases and health conditions using small amounts of biological samples and reagents. Despite these remarkable features, conventional microfluidic systems rely on bulky expensive external equipment, which hinders their utility as powerful analysis tools outside of research laboratories. 'Self-contained' microfluidic systems, which contain all necessary components to facilitate a complete assay, have been developed to address this limitation. In this review, we provide an in-depth overview of self-contained microfluidic systems. We categorise these systems based on their operating mechanisms into three major groups: passive, hand-powered and active. Several examples are provided to discuss the structure, capabilities and shortcomings of each group. In particular, we discuss the self-contained microfluidic systems enabled by active mechanisms, due to their unique capability for running multi-step and highly controllable diagnostic assays. Integration of self-contained microfluidic systems with the image acquisition and processing capabilities of smartphones, especially those equipped with accessory optical components, enables highly sensitive and quantitative assays, which are discussed. Finally, the future trends and possible solutions to expand the versatility of self-contained, stand-alone microfluidic platforms are outlined. PMID:27425637

  13. Cooling system for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To effectively cool a reactor container upon reactor shutdown with no intrusion of metal corrosion products in coolants into the main steam pipe in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: A clean up system comprising a pipeway, a recycling pump, a non-regenerative heat exchanger and a primary coolant purifier and a regenerative heat exchanger is provided branched from a residual heat removing system and the clean up system is connected by way of a valve to a feedwater pipeway, as well as connected by way of the pipeway to the main steam pipeway at the midway of two main steam separation valves outside of the reactor container. This enables to prevent metal corrosion products floating on the surface of reactor water from introducing into the main steam pipe when the pressure vessel is filled with water. Then, since the pressure vessel is filled with primary coolants, the pressure vessel can be cooled uniformly in a short time. (Ikeda, J.)

  14. Mechanistic and Synthetic Approaches for Activation of Water-and Oxygen-Species by Biomimetic Systems (Containing Manganese and Cobalt)

    OpenAIRE

    Lieb, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The current work deals with elementary reaction steps involved in the mechanisms that lead to the activation of water and oxygen species by biomimetic systems featuring redox-active manganese and cobalt centers, respectively. The first part of this work (Chapter 2 and Chapter 3) deals with the role of water exchange on metal centers that are relevant for water oxidation in nature. The first of two studies about this subject is addressing the role of manganese(III) in the oxygen evolving clust...

  15. Mobile neutron/gamma waste assay system for characterization of waste containing transuranics, uranium, and fission/activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new integrated neutron/gamma assay system has been built for measuring 55-gallon drums at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The system is unique because it allows simultaneous measurement of neutrons and gamma-rays. This technique also allows measurement of transuranics (TRU), uranium, and fission/activation products, screening for shielded Special Nuclear Material prior to disposal, and critically determinations prior to transportation. The new system is positioned on a platform with rollers and installed inside a trailer or large van to allow transportation of the system to the waste site instead of movement of the drums to the scanner. The ability to move the system to the waste drums is particularly useful for drum retrieval programs common to all DOE sites and minimizes transportation problems on the site. For longer campaigns, the system can be moved into a facility. The mobile system consists of two separate subsystems: a passive Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and a open-quotes clam-shellclose quotes passive neutron counter. The SGS with high purity germanium detector and 75Se transmission source simultaneously scan the height of the drum allowing identification of unshieled open-quotes hot spotsclose quotes in the drum or segments where the matrix is too dense for the transmission source to penetrate. Dense segments can flag shielding material that could be used to hide plutonium or uranium during the gamma analysis. The passive nuetron counter with JSR-12N Neutron Coincidence Analyzer measures the coincident neutrons from the spontaneous fission of even isotopes of plutonium. Because high-density shielding produces minimal absorption of neutrons, compared to gamma rays, the passive neutron portion of the system can detect shielded SNM. Measurements to evaluate the performance of the system are still underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  16. Photocatalytic and biocidal activities of novel coating systems of mesoporous and dense TiO2-anatase containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we describe the development of novel nanostructured coating systems with improved photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. These systems comprise a layer of SiO2 followed by a layer of mesoporous or dense TiO2-anatase, and doping with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The coatings were synthesized via a sol–gel technique by combining colloidal Ag NPs with TiO2 and SiO2 sols. The photocatalytic activity was studied through methyl orange decomposition under UV light. Results showed a great increase of photocatalytic activity by Ag NPs doping. The most active photocatalyst corresponded to the Ag–SiO2/TiO2 mesoporous system, associated with the porosity of the coatings and with the decrease of e–h recombination for the presence of Ag NPs. All the TiO2 coatings showed a strong bactericidal activity against planktonic forms of Gram-negative (enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) pathogens, as well as a strong germicidal effect against deadly spores of human gas gangrene- and anthrax-producing bacteria (Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus anthracis, respectively). The bactericidal and sporocidal activity was improved by doping the coatings with Ag NPs, even more when nanoparticles were in the outer layer of TiO2, because they are more accessible to the environment. The mechanisms responsible for the increase of photocatalytic and bactericidal behaviors related to Ag NP doping were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV–vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence and anodic stripping voltammetry. It was found that the separation of the electron–hole pair contributed to the enhancement of photocatalysis, whereas the effect of the local electric field reinforcement was probably present. A possible involvement of a decrease of band-gap energy and dispersion by silver nanoparticles is ruled out. bactericidal efficacy was increased by Ag+ ion release. Overall, the results included in this article show that the architecture of

  17. Dysprosium-containing layered double hydroxides nanoparticles intercalated with biologically active species as an approach for theranostic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Arratia-Quijada, Jenny

    2015-10-23

    A layered double hydroxide structure including dysprosium cations was prepared by co-precipitation. The nanoparticles showed a linear relationship with the reciprocal relaxation spin-lattice (T1) time of water protons which is reflected as contrast in aqueous suspensions analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging. The interlayer space of dysprosium containing LDH was successfully intercalated with folate, ibuprofen and gallate ions, which are key molecules for recognition of some cancer cells and treatment of diseases. The paramagnetic property of the dysprosium-containing LDH detected in this work beside the ability to transport drugs open up the opportunity to design theranostic materials in a single crystal phase with nanometric dimensions.

  18. Building a secondary containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  19. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  20. Activation of calcineurin by phosphotidylserine containing vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Politino, M.; King, M.M.

    1986-05-01

    Calcineurin (CaN) is a Ca/sup 2 +/- and calmodulin-regulated phosphatase. Recent findings suggested an association of CaN with biological membranes and prompted the present investigation into the interactions of the phosphatase with phospholipids in vitro. In the absence of calmodulin, sonicated preparations of phosphatidylserine (PS) provided a five-fold activation of the Ni- and Mn-supported activities of CaN towards (/sup 32/P) histone Hl; activation in the presence of calmodulin was much less pronounced. Half-maximal activation in the absence of calmodulin required approximately 0.1 mg/ml of PS. Activation of CaN was also observed with mixed vesicles of phosphatidylcholine (PC) containing 20% PS but not with PC alone, or with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Molecular sieve chromatography on Ultrogel AcA 34 provided further evidence that CaN associates with phospholipid vesicles composed of PS, or PC containing 20% PS, but not with vesicles of PC or PE. Complete association with medium sized vesicles of PS and PC/PS required Ca/sup 2 +/ ions; in the absence of the metal ion at least 60% of the enzyme failed to interact with the lipids while the remainder preferentially migrated with larger vesicles. These results suggest a role for Ca/sup 2 +/ in regulating CaN's interaction with phospholipids.

  1. 40 CFR 265.223 - Containment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containment system. 265.223 Section 265.223 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.223 Containment system. All earthen dikes must have a protective...

  2. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  3. Reliability analysis of containment isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the Reliability Analysis of Containment Isolation System Project. Work was performed in five basic areas: design review, operating experience review, related research review, generic analysis and plant specific analysis. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and Integrated Leak Rate Test (ILRT) reports provided the major sources of containment performance information used in this study. Data extracted from LERs were assembled into a computer data base. Qualitative and quantitative information developed for containment performance under normal operating conditions and design basis accidents indicate that there is room for improvement. A rough estimate of overall containment unavailability for relatively small leaks which violate plant technical specifications is 0.3. An estimate of containment unavailability due to large leakage events is in the range of 0.001 to 0.01. These estimates are dependent on several assumptions (particularly on event duration times) which are documented in the report

  4. Evaluation of the nucledyne passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports contains: (1) an evaluation by Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) of the NucleDyne passive Containment System (PCS) as that conceptual design is applied to a Westinghouse, two loop, Pressurized Water Reactor; (2) an evaluation by Westinghouse of two questions about the impact of the PCS on the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS), which were posed by G/C and best answered by an NSSS vendor; and (3) replies to both the Gilbert/Commonwealth report and the Westinghoue report by NucleDyne Engineering Corporation

  5. Expert system for controlling plant growth in a contained environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George A. (Inventor); Lanoue, Mark Allen (Inventor); Bethel, Matthew (Inventor); Ryan, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    In a system for optimizing crop growth, vegetation is cultivated in a contained environment, such as a greenhouse, an underground cavern or other enclosed space. Imaging equipment is positioned within or about the contained environment, to acquire spatially distributed crop growth information, and environmental sensors are provided to acquire data regarding multiple environmental conditions that can affect crop development. Illumination within the contained environment, and the addition of essential nutrients and chemicals are in turn controlled in response to data acquired by the imaging apparatus and environmental sensors, by an "expert system" which is trained to analyze and evaluate crop conditions. The expert system controls the spatial and temporal lighting pattern within the contained area, and the timing and allocation of nutrients and chemicals to achieve optimized crop development. A user can access the "expert system" remotely, to assess activity within the growth chamber, and can override the "expert system".

  6. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  7. Halon 1301 protection system for nuclear containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halon 1301 can provide protection against any combustion hazard that hydrogen gas might present in an LWR containment following a loss-of-coolant accident. A development program was conducted, comprising analytical study, laboratory experiments and large-scale testing, to define the requirements for a Halon 1301 system and to examine certain operational problems that were hypothesized. Some results of the study are presented in this paper

  8. DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. F. Loros

    2000-06-30

    The Disposal Container Handling System receives and prepares new disposal containers (DCs) and transfers them to the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) or Canister Transfer System (CTS) for loading. The system receives the loaded DCs from ATS or CTS and welds the lids. When the welds are accepted the DCs are termed waste packages (WPs). The system may stage the WP for later transfer or transfer the WP directly to the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. The system can also transfer DCs/WPs to/from the Waste Package Remediation System. The Disposal Container Handling System begins with new DC preparation, which includes installing collars, tilting the DC upright, and outfitting the container for the specific fuel it is to receive. DCs and their lids are staged in the receipt area for transfer to the needed location. When called for, a DC is put on a cart and sent through an airlock into a hot cell. From this point on, all processes are done remotely. The DC transfer operation moves the DC to the ATS or CTS for loading and then receives the DC for welding. The DC welding operation receives loaded DCs directly from the waste handling lines or from interim lag storage for welding of the lids. The welding operation includes mounting the DC on a turntable, removing lid seals, and installing and welding the inner and outer lids. After the weld process and non-destructive examination are successfully completed, the WP is either staged or transferred to a tilting station. At the tilting station, the WP is tilted horizontally onto a cart and the collars removed. The cart is taken through an air lock where the WP is lifted, surveyed, decontaminated if required, and then moved into the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. DCs that do not meet the welding non-destructive examination criteria are transferred to the Waste Package Remediation System for weld preparation or removal of the lids. The Disposal Container Handling System is contained within the Waste Handling Building System

  9. Photocatalytic and biocidal activities of novel coating systems of mesoporous and dense TiO{sub 2}-anatase containing silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldán, María V. [Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos, FCEIA-UNR, IFIR-CONICET, Pellegrini 250, Rosario S2000BTP (Argentina); Oña, Paula de [Laboratorio de Microbiología Molecular, FCByF-UNR-CONICET, Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Castro, Yolanda; Durán, Alicia [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Faccendini, Pablo; Lagier, Claudia [IQUIR-UNR-CONICET, Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Grau, Roberto, E-mail: robertograu@fulbrightmail.org [Laboratorio de Microbiología Molecular, FCByF-UNR-CONICET, Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Pellegri, Nora S., E-mail: pellegri@fceia.unr.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos, FCEIA-UNR, IFIR-CONICET, Pellegrini 250, Rosario S2000BTP (Argentina)

    2014-10-01

    Here we describe the development of novel nanostructured coating systems with improved photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. These systems comprise a layer of SiO{sub 2} followed by a layer of mesoporous or dense TiO{sub 2}-anatase, and doping with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The coatings were synthesized via a sol–gel technique by combining colloidal Ag NPs with TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} sols. The photocatalytic activity was studied through methyl orange decomposition under UV light. Results showed a great increase of photocatalytic activity by Ag NPs doping. The most active photocatalyst corresponded to the Ag–SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} mesoporous system, associated with the porosity of the coatings and with the decrease of e–h recombination for the presence of Ag NPs. All the TiO{sub 2} coatings showed a strong bactericidal activity against planktonic forms of Gram-negative (enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) pathogens, as well as a strong germicidal effect against deadly spores of human gas gangrene- and anthrax-producing bacteria (Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus anthracis, respectively). The bactericidal and sporocidal activity was improved by doping the coatings with Ag NPs, even more when nanoparticles were in the outer layer of TiO{sub 2}, because they are more accessible to the environment. The mechanisms responsible for the increase of photocatalytic and bactericidal behaviors related to Ag NP doping were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV–vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence and anodic stripping voltammetry. It was found that the separation of the electron–hole pair contributed to the enhancement of photocatalysis, whereas the effect of the local electric field reinforcement was probably present. A possible involvement of a decrease of band-gap energy and dispersion by silver nanoparticles is ruled out. bactericidal efficacy was increased by Ag{sup +} ion release. Overall, the results

  10. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-12-01

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel.

  11. Prestressed system for nuclear concrete containment domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criteria are examined for prestressing tendon arrangements for nuclear concrete containment domes to counteract the tensile forces induced during a loss-of-coolant accident. A general and systematic numerical approach solvable effectively by computer has been presented to analyze the prestressing effect which can be quite complex because of dome configuration and tendon geometries. The losses of prestressing force due to creep, shrinkage, elastic shortening of concrete, relaxation of prestressing steel, and wedge slip have been incorporated in the analysis. The author presents five different existing systems of tendon layout, critically examines them in the light of the criteria established for selecting a tendon arrangement, and describes their merits and demerits. The author suggests a modified version of one of the existing systems which will improve significantly the effective prestressing force in the hoop direction without increasing the number of tendon layers

  12. The ttpC Gene Is Contained in Two of Three TonB Systems in the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, but Only One Is Active in Iron Transport and Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Kustusch, Ryan J.; Kuehl, Carole J.; Crosa, Jorge H.

    2012-01-01

    The TonB system of proteins is required for the energy-dependent active transport of iron-bound substrates across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. We have identified three TonB systems within the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. The TonB1 system contains the TonB1, ExbD1, and ExbB1 proteins, whereas both the TtpC2-TonB2 and TtpC3-TonB3 systems contain an additional fourth protein, TtpC. Here we report that TtpC3, although highly related to TtpC2, is inactive in iron transport, w...

  13. Assessment of respiration activity and ecotoxicity of composts containing biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Michał; Gondek, Krzysztof; Baran, Agnieszka

    2013-03-01

    The research was conducted to determine if introducing biodegradable polymer materials to the composting process would affect selected biological properties of mature compost. Determination of biological properties of composts composed of testing their respiration activity and toxicity. Respiration activity was measured in material from the composting process by means of OxiTop Control measuring system. The ecotoxicity of composts was estimated by means of a set of biotests composed of three microbiotests using five test organisms. Introduction of polymer materials caused a decrease in respiration activity of mature compost. Similar dependencies as in the case of mass loss were registered. Compost to which a biodegradable polymer with the highest content of starch was added revealed the smallest difference in comparison with organic material composted without polymers. Lower content of starch in a polymer caused lower respiration activity of composts, whereas microorganism vaccine might have accelerated maturing of composts, thus contributing to the smallest respiration of compost. In composts containing biopolymers the following were observed: an increase in germination inhibition--2.5 times, roots growth inhibition--1.8 times, growth inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens--four times and luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri--1.6 times in comparison with the control (compost K1). Composts containing biopolymers were classified as toxicity class III, whereas the compost without polymer addition as class II.

  14. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  15. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified

  16. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  17. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  18. Mathematical structure of ocean container transport systems; Kaiyo container yuso system no suriteki kozo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chikushi, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mathematical structure of a vessel arrangement program was discussed in order to learn roles of container ships in ocean transport systems among China, NIES/ASEAN countries and Japan. Formulation is possible on a mathematical handling method for sailing route connection diagrams between ports, a transport network to indicate container movements, a service network to indicate sailing routes, and a network generalizing them. This paper describes an analysis made on the container transport system between Japan and China, taken as an example. Four ports were selected each from Japan and China, and the statistical database for fiscals 1996 and 1994 was utilized to set models for: (a) the liner network system with transshipment at the port of Shanghai and (b) the cruising route system going through the ports of Yokohama, Nagoya and Kobe. A hypothesis was set that a consortium (coordinated ship allocation) can be implemented ideally and completely. The transport network (a) is lower by 10% in total cost than the transport network (b), resulting in 1.6 times greater productivity. Actual service network is closer to the network (b), but the system can be utilized for discussing guidelines on vessel arrangement programs with which shipping companies pursue better management efficiency under a condition that the consortium can be formed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Achievements and Status of Research Activities in the Containment Area

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Leo; WILKENING HEINZ; Kljenak, Ivo; MAGALLON Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In the SARNET Containment topic three issues of severe accident phenomenology are treated which endanger the containment integrity in an early stage of the accident by pressure increase due to fast heat transfer: hydrogen combustion, explosive melt water reaction, and direct containment heating. Progress in activities dealing with the hydrogen issue was achieved by performing experiments addressing these subjects: - hydrogen combustion with defined concentration gradients, - hydro...

  20. Analysis and modeling of container terminal handling activities

    OpenAIRE

    Armando CARTENÌ; Luca, Stefano de

    2010-01-01

    Although the technical literature contains numerous efforts to simulate container terminal performance, little attention has been paid to setting up, calibrating and validating models for handling equipment activities. This paper presents results from the estimation of activity duration concerning three different types of handling equipment: mobile harbor cranes, gantry cranes and reach stackers. Two estimation approaches (sample means vs. random variables) were investigated with respect to d...

  1. Enhancer-activated plasmid transcription complexes contain constrained supercoiling.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, P J; Freytag, S O; Lutter, L C

    1991-01-01

    It has been proposed that transcriptionally active chromatin contains totally unconstrained supercoiling. The results of recent studies have raised the possibility that this topological state is the property of highly transcribed genes. Since the transcription rate of RNA polymerase II genes can be dramatically increased by the presence of an enhancer, we have determined if the transcription complex of an enhancer-activated plasmid contains totally unconstrained supercoils. Following transfec...

  2. Bioresponsive systems based on polygalacturonate containing hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Konstantin P; Rollett, Alexandra; Wehrschuetz-Sigl, Eva; Hasmann, Andrea; Zankel, Armin; Muehlebach, Andreas; Kaufmann, Franz; Guebitz, Georg M

    2011-04-01

    Polysaccharide acid (PSA) based devices (consisting of alginic acid and polygalacturonic acid) were investigated for the detection of contaminating microorganisms. PSA-CaCl(2) hydrogel systems were compared to systems involving covalent cross-linking of PSA with glycidylmethacrylate (PSA-GMA) which was confirmed with Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Incubation of PSA-CaCl(2) and PSA-GMA beads loaded with Alizarin as a model ingredient with trigger enzymes (polygalacturonases or pectate lyases) or bacteria lead to a smoothening of the surface and exposure of Alizarin according to Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) analysis. Enzyme triggered release of Alizarin was demonstrated for a commercial enzyme preparation from Aspergillus niger and with purified polygalacturonase and pectate lyase from S. rolfsii and B. pumilus, respectively. In contrast to the PSA-CaCl(2) beads, cross-linking (PSA-GMA beads) restricted the release of Alizarin in absence of enzymes. There was a linear relation between release of Alizarin (5-348 μM) and enzyme activity in a range of 0-300 U ml(-1) dosed. In addition to enzymes, both PSA-CaCl(2) and PSA-GMA beads were incubated with Bacillus subtilis and Yersinia entercolitica as model contaminating microorganism. After 72 h, a release between 10 μM and 57 μM Alizarin was detected. For protection of the hydrogels, an enzymatically modified PET membrane was covalently attached onto the surface. This lead to a slower release and improve long term storage stability based on less than 1% release of dye after 21 days. Additionally, this allowed simple detection by visual inspection of the device due to a colour change of the white membrane to orange upon enzyme triggered release of the dye. PMID:22112943

  3. Integrated robotic vehicle control system for outdoor container handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Jouko O.; Haverinen, Janne; Mattila, Pentti; Maekelae, Hannu; von Numers, Thomas; Stanek, Zbigniev; Roening, Juha

    1997-09-01

    We describe an integrated system developed for use onboard a moving work machine. The machine is targeted to such applications as e.g. automatic container handling at loading terminals. The main emphasis is on the various environment perception duties required by autonomous or semi-autonomous operation. These include obstacle detection, container position determination, localization needed for efficient navigation and measurement of docking and grasping locations of containers. Practical experience is reported on the use of several different types of technologies for the tasks. For close distance measurement, such as container row following, ultrasonic measurement was used, with associated control software. For obstacle and docking position detection, 3D active vision techniques were developed with structured lighting, utilizing also motion estimation techniques. Depth from defocus-based methods were developed for passive 3D vision. For localization, fusion of data from several sources was carried out. These included dead-reckoning data from odometry, an inertial unit, and several alternative external localization devices, i.e. real-time kinematic GPS, inductive and optical transponders. The system was integrated to run on a real-time operating system platform, using a high-level software specification tool that created the hierarchical control structure of the software.

  4. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Novel Sulfonylureas Containing Thiadiazol Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen novel sulfonylureas containing thiadiazole moiety were synthesized in a two-step reaction. Their structures were determined using IR, 1H NMR, HRFTMS, and elemental analysis. Herbicidal activities of these compounds were determined in the green house bio-assay. The results show that four compounds among them exhibit some activity toward four tested herbs.

  5. Synthesis and Antifeeding Activity of Acetylene-Containing Tonghaosu Analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Li; HU,Tai-Shan; XU,Han-Hong; YIN,Biao-Lin; XIAO,Chun; WU,Yu-Lin

    2004-01-01

    @@ During our continuous efforts towards the search for environmental benign insect antifeedant, we established a concise method for the synthesis of Tonghaosu, a naturally occurring antifeedant.[1] Herein, we report the synthesis and antifeeding activity of 22 new tonghaosu analogs, which contain varied B ring as well as one or two acetylene functionalities. Preliminary bioassay indicates that two acetylene groups containing tonghaosu analogs have better antifeedant activity against large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L.) than those with one acetylene group. More interestingly,Z-isomers are much more active than their corresponding E-isomers.

  6. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) contains over 100 data sets pertaining to permafrost and frozen ground topics. It also contains detailed...

  7. Model Based Control of Reefer Container Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær

    This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together...... with the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. The main contributions in this thesis are on the subjects of modeling, simulation and control of a reefer and experimental model validation. A modular nonlinear simulation model is developed using a control oriented approach, resulting in a model...... that matches the states that are important for control very well both statically and dynamically and different options for faster simulation of the model is investigated. Based on the model, a model predictive controller is developed and shown to reduce energy consumption by up to 21.9%....

  8. FCA containment and surveillance (C/S) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (JAERI) is internationally recognized as one of the most sensitive facility in the world from the viewpoint of international safeguards, because the facility possesses a large amount of metallic uranium and metallic plutonium, which are needed to perform various physical experiments. These material are subject to frequent verifications by the inspectorate, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the domestic authority (Science and Technology Agency of Japan, STA). Those verifications require inspectors to access to these materials for measurements and applications of seals. Human resources increase of irradiations and restrictions on the freedom of physical experiments, that are inevitably associated with these inspection activities, have been a serious problem that causes significant burdens for all relating parties. To decrease these burdens without any confliction with the inspection goals, an advanced comprehensive system of containment and surveillance has been developed. The FCA Containment and Surveillance (C/S) System consists of tow independent subsystems, i. e. Portal Monitor (P/M) and Penetration Monitor(PN/M). In this system the internal wall of the reactor building is used as a part of containment for the safeguards purpose, which enables the portal, that is installed at the internal wall of the reactor building, to be used as an area for monitoring of any removal of nuclear material. A metal detector of high sensitivity has been selected for the system since all nuclear materials possessed by the FCA has metallic forms. The internal wall has several penetrations for utility purposes, which should also be monitored for the purpose of detecting any removal of nuclear material from the reactor core area. A penetration monitor system has been developed for this purpose. This report describes functions of the system and their operation procedures. (author)

  9. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance

  10. XPS of nitrogen-containing functional groups on activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.J.J.; Bekkum, van H.

    1995-01-01

    XPS is used to study the binding energy of the Cls, Nls and Ols photoelectrons of surface groups on several nitrogen-containing activated carbons. Specific binding energies are assigned to amide (399.9 eV). lactam and imidc (399.7 eV). pyridine (398.7 eV), pyrrole (400.7 eV), alkylamine. secondary a

  11. Contained fission explosion breeder reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor system for producing useful thermal energy and valuable isotopes, such as plutonium-239, uranium-233, and/or tritium, in which a pair of sub-critical masses of fissile and fertile actinide slugs are propelled into an ellipsoidal pressure vessel. The propelled slugs intercept near the center of the chamber where the concurring slugs become a more than prompt configuration thereby producing a fission explosion. Re-useable accelerating mechanisms are provided external of the vessel for propelling the slugs at predetermined time intervals into the vessel. A working fluid of lean molten metal slurry is injected into the chamber prior to each explosion for the attenuation of the explosion's effects, for the protection of the chamber's walls, and for the absorbtion of thermal energy and debris from the explosion. The working fluid is injected into the chamber in a pattern so as not to interfere with the flight paths of the slugs and to maximize the concentration of working fluid near the chamber's center. The heated working fluid is drained from the vessel and is used to perform useful work. Most of the debris from the explosion is collected as precipitate and is used for the manufacture of new slugs

  12. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  13. Report on container technology for the ATLAS TDAQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Gadirov, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    My summer student project "Container technology for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system" focused on the research of container-based (operating system-level) virtualization for TDAQ software. Several tests were performed on Docker platform, all of them showed compatibility for TDAQ software.

  14. 75 FR 26268 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Permit To Transfer Containers to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Containers to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... concerning the: Permit to Transfer Containers to a Container Station. This request for comment is being made... Containers to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0049. Form Number: None. Abstract: This...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE AND BIODEGRADABLES CONTAINERS FOR AGRICULTURAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Poggio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of biodegradable containers for crops that could be transplanted directly and act as fertilizers is proposed. Bovine gelatin was chosen as the base material, which was processed in a mini-injector mixer with a concentrated urea solution acted as a plasticizer. Rheological and tensile tests were performed in order to evaluate the injection of gelatin based formulations and mechanical properties related to the proposed application. Taking into account that biodegradable materials have a low water resistance, the increment of container stability was proposed using a surface coating. In addition, the influence of moisture content, the soluble matter and swelling were studied and analyzed. It was observed that coated samples were significantly more stable than the control ones, which guarantees the feasibility of the selected system and its potential development of biodegradable containers.

  16. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  17. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  18. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  19. Nitrogen-Containing Apigenin Analogs: Preparation and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of nitrogen-containing apigenin analogs 4a–j was synthesized via Mannich reactions to develop anticancer, antibacterial, and antioxidant agents from plant-derived flavonoids. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and ESI-MS. The in vitro biological activities of the analogs were evaluated via assays of their antiproliferative, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities. The prepared apigenin analogs exhibited different antiproliferative activities against four human cancer cell lines, namely human cervical (HeLa, human hepatocellular liver (HepG2, human lung (A549, and human breast (MCF-7 cancer cells. Compound 4i showed the most favorable in vitro antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 40, 40, 223, and 166 μg/mL against HeLa, HepG2, A549, and MCF-7, respectively. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay also showed that 4i had the most potent antioxidant activity, with the smallest IC50 value (334.8 μg/mL. The antibacterial activities of the analogs were determined using a two-fold serial dilution technique against four pathogenic bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the prepared apigenin analogs exhibited more potent activities than the parent apigenin. Compounds 4h and 4j, in particular, exhibited the best inhibitory activities against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values of 3.91 and 1.95 μg/mL, respectively.

  20. Optimized antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of titanate nanofibers containing silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su YH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Yong Hua Su*, Zi Fei Yin*, Hai Liang Xin, Hui Qing Zhang, Jia Yu Sheng, Yan Long Yang, Juan Du, Chang Quan LingDepartment of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changhai Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equallyAbstract: Titanate nanofibers containing silver have been demonstrated through the experiments reported herein to have effective antifungal and antiproliferative activities in the presence of UV light. The titanate nanofibers containing silver can be fabricated by means of ion exchange followed by a topochemical process in an environment suitable for reductive reactions. Excellent antibacterial, antifungal, and antiproliferative activities could be demonstrated by both Ag2Ti5O11 · xH2O and Ag/titanate (UV light irradiation due to their unique structures and compositions, which have photocatalytic activities to generate reactive oxygen species and capabilities to continuously release the silver ions. Therefore these materials have the potential to produce a membrane for the treatment of superficial malignant tumor, esophageal cancer, or cervical carcinoma. They may also hold utility if incorporated into a coating on stents in moderate and advanced stage esophageal carcinoma or for endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage. These approaches may significantly reduce infections, inhibit tumor growth, and importantly, improve quality of life and prolong survival time for patients with tumors.Keywords: silver, titanate, photocatalytic, antiproliferative, antimicrobial

  1. Adaptive Fuzzy Containment Control for Uncertain Nonlinear Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the containment control problem for uncertain nonlinear multiagent systems under directed graphs. The followers are governed by nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics while the multiple leaders are neighbors of a subset of the followers. Fuzzy logic systems (FLSs are used to identify the unknown dynamics and a distributed state feedback containment control protocol is proposed. This result is extended to the output feedback case, where observers are designed to estimate the unmeasurable states. Then, an output feedback containment control scheme is presented. The developed state feedback and output feedback containment controllers guarantee that the states of all followers converge to the convex hull spanned by the dynamic leaders. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved that the containment control errors are uniformly ultimately bounded (UUB. An example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  2. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different

  3. Bovine Colostrum Contains Immunoglobulin G Antibodies against Intimin, EspA, and EspB and Inhibits Hemolytic Activity Mediated by the Type Three Secretion System of Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilte, Daniel A.; Larzábal, Mariano; Cataldi, Ángel A.; Mercado, Elsa C.

    2008-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the main cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome, an endemic disease in Argentina which had an incidence in 2005 of 13.9 cases per 100,000 children younger than 5 years old. Cattle appear to be a major reservoir of EHEC, and a serological response to EHEC antigens has been demonstrated in natural and experimental infections. In the current study, antibodies against proteins implicated in EHEC's ability to form attaching and effacing lesions, some of which are exported to the host cell via a type three secretion system (TTSS), were identified in bovine colostrum by Western blot analysis. Twenty-seven (77.0%) of the 35 samples examined contained immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the three proteins assayed in this study: EspA, EspB, and the carboxy-terminal 280 amino acids of γ-intimin, an intimin subtype associated mainly with O157:H7 and O145:H- serotypes. Every colostrum sample was able to inhibit, in a range between 45.9 and 96.7%, the TTSS-mediated hemolytic activity of attaching and effacing E. coli. The inhibitory effect was partially mediated by IgG and lactoferrin. In conclusion, we found that early colostrum from cows contains antibodies, lactoferrin, and other unidentified substances that impair TTSS function in attaching and effacing E. coli strains. Bovine colostrum might act by reducing EHEC colonization in newborn calves and could be used as a prophylactic measure to protect non-breast-fed children against EHEC infection in an area of endemicity. PMID:18562563

  4. STUDIES ON THE PREPARATION OF ZINC-CONTAINING ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several kinds of activated carbon fibers, using sisal fiber as precursors, were preparedwith steam activation or with ZnCl2 activation. Zinc or its compounds were dispersed in them. Theantibacterial activities of these activated carbon fibers were determined and compared. The researchresults showed that these sisal based activated carbon fibers supporting zinc have strongerantibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and S. aureus. The antibacterial activity is related tothe precursors, the pyrolysis temperature, and the zinc content. In addition, small quantity of silversupported on zinc-containing ACFs will greatly enhance the antibacterial activity of ACFs.

  5. Subscale Design of an NTP Engine Exhaust Containment System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A total containment NTP exhaust system has been conceptually engineered, however, since this a completely novel approach to address the numerous issues associated...

  6. Requirements for containment system components in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Standard specifies the requirements and establishes the rules for design, fabrication, and installation of pressure-retaining containment system components. In this Standard the term 'components' includes non registered items

  7. Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel disposal Container System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers/waste packages are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred underground through the access drifts using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides long term confinement of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) placed within the disposal containers, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval operations. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time and limits radionuclide release thereafter. The waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum credible handling and rockfall loads, limits the waste form temperature after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Each naval SNF disposal container will hold a single naval SNF canister. There will be approximately 300 naval SNF canisters, composed of long and short canisters. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls and lids. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify a disposal container and its contents. Different materials will be selected for the waste package inner and outer cylinders. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and the natural barrier will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different properties prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The inner cylinder and inner cylinder lids will be constructed of stainless steel while the outer cylinder and outer cylinder lids will be made of high-nickel alloy.

  8. Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems Containing Mesitylene

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, L. (Lenka); Sedláková, Z.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of density measurements for binary systems containing 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (mesitylene) with a variety of organic compounds at atmospheric pressure. Literature data of the binary systems were divided into nine basic groups by the type of contained organic compound with mesitylene. The excess molar volumes calculated from the experimental density values have been compared with literature data. Densities were measured by a few experimental methods, namely using a ...

  9. Die Design for Running System of Waste Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Osmel Pérez Acosta; Reinaldo Pérez Sierra; Tania Rodríguez Moliner; Miguel Pérez Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Product deterioration possessing waste containers and their involvement in the collection of solid waste in Cuban cities, the present research is developed in order to make the design of the dies necessary for obtaining system components running of the containers themselves. These systems allow shooting baskets countless repair and revitalization of manufacturing a basket 100 % Cuban. For the design of these dies are taken in account the availability of technology. In this paper, specifically...

  10. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident.

  11. Design Characteristics of the APR+ Containment Spray System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We, KEPCO E and C, are implementing APR+ design development phase II project, which is owned by the KHNP. The APR+ Containment Spray (CS) System is developed as a four (4) 100%-capacity train system which shares the pumps, heat exchangers, valves, and piping with the Shutdown Cooling (SC) System, meeting the N+2 design concept (capable of satisfying the safety function with a single failure and a concurrent component unavailability due to maintenance) and still maintaining the number and capacity of the system components similar to the APR1400 CS System and SC System combined. The design concept and system configuration of the APR+ CS System are presented

  12. Design Characteristics of the APR+ Containment Spray System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doh, Gyu Bong; Park, Jong Ha; Chang, Jae Wang [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    We, KEPCO E and C, are implementing APR+ design development phase II project, which is owned by the KHNP. The APR+ Containment Spray (CS) System is developed as a four (4) 100%-capacity train system which shares the pumps, heat exchangers, valves, and piping with the Shutdown Cooling (SC) System, meeting the N+2 design concept (capable of satisfying the safety function with a single failure and a concurrent component unavailability due to maintenance) and still maintaining the number and capacity of the system components similar to the APR1400 CS System and SC System combined. The design concept and system configuration of the APR+ CS System are presented

  13. Activity diagrams for calcium/hydrogen, sodium/hydrogen, and potassium/hydrogen, and H4SiO4 and their relation to reactions in systems containing radioactive waste forms, cement, and rock in the presence of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify reactions which can occur in systems containing nuclear waste forms, cement, and repository rock in the presence of water, activity diagrams were calculated from free energies for aluminosilicates and calcium silicates. Groundwater compositions from candidate repository sites in the Palo Duro Basin of Texas, the Delaware Basin of New Mexico, and the Nevada Test Site were plotted on these diagrams. Essentially all of these are shown to be in the calcium zeolite field as shown on the diagram for calcium in the absence of other cations. Chlorite is shown to be stable in this region at the Mg and pH level of the Ogallala if the chlorite is high in iron, and at the Mg and pH level of the Wolfcamp low- or high-Fe chlorites are stable. Potassium and sodium mineral relationships fall in two categories, dilute waters and saline waters. Boreholes at Yucca Flat and Mercury Valley at the Nevada Test Site, and shallow ground water from the Rolling Plains north and east of the Palo Duro Basin are in equilibrium with kaolinite. The brines from the Salado and Rustler formations are in equilibrium with kaolinite and possibly also with sodium-potassium zeolite and illite. Leachates of cement and water, and cement, waste, and water were plotted on the calcium silicate activity diagram. These solutions are in equilibrium with calcium silicate hydrate hydrolysis reactions, with grossular and possibly with Ca-zeolites. Among the calcium silicates, calcium-silicate-hydrate gel (C-S-H gel) and tobermorite are the most likely candidates, but the thermodynamic data are not adequate to distinguish all the possibilities. 37 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  14. 75 FR 43536 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Permit To Transfer Containers to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (75 FR 26268) on May 11, 2010, allowing for a 60... Containers to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Permit to Transfer Containers to...

  15. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertani, Andrea; Pizzeghello, Diego; Francioso, Ornella; Tinti, Anna; Nardi, Serenella

    2016-01-01

    The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT) and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  16. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ertani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  17. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in the emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) disposal container designs are needed to accommodate the expected range of spent fuel assemblies and provide long-term confinement of the commercial SNF. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls, outer cylinder lids (two on the top, one on the bottom), inner cylinder lids (one on the top, one on the bottom), and an internal metallic basket structure. Exterior labels will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the cladding, Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and natural barrier, will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different

  18. Coagulation properties of anelectrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride containing active chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chengzhi; LIU Huijuan; QU Jiuhui

    2006-01-01

    With high content of the Al13 species and the active chloride, an electrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride (E-PACl) presents integrated efficiency of coagulation and oxidation. The coagulation properties of E-PACl were systemically investigated through jar tests in the various water quality conditions. The active chlorine in E-PACl can significantly influence the coagulation behavior due to the active chlorine preoxidation, which can change the surface charge characteristic of organic matter (OM) in water. The active chlorine preoxidation could improve the E-PACl coagulation efficiency if the water possessed the characteristics of relatively low OM content (2 mg/L) and high hardness (278 mg CaCO3/L). In the water with medium content of OM (5 mg/L), dosage would be a crucial factor to decide whether the active chlorine in E-PACl aided coagulation process or not. Comparing with alkaline condition, active chlorine would show a more significant influence on the coagulation process in acidic region.

  19. Digital system detects binary code patterns containing errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, R. M.; Tharpe, H. M., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    System of square loop magnetic cores associated with code input registers to react to input code patterns by reference to a group of control cores in such a manner that errors are canceled and patterns containing errors are accepted for amplification and processing. This technique improves reception capabilities in PCM telemetry systems.

  20. Development of Wireless System for Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The containment system leakage rate should be estimated periodically with reliable test equipment. In light-water reactor nuclear power plants, ANSI/ANS- 56.8 is a basis for determining leakage rates. Two types of data acquisition system, centralized type and networked type, has been used. In centralized type, all sensors are connected directly from sensors in the containment to the measuring equipment outside the building. The other hand, the networked type has several branch chains which connect one group of the network-sensors together. To test leakage rate, more than 20 temperature sensors and 6 humidity sensors, which are different for each plant, should be installed on a specific level in the containment. A wireless technology gives the benefits such as reducing installation efforts, making pretest easy, so it is widely used more and more in the plant monitoring. As the containment system has many kinds of complex barriers to the radio frequency, the radio power and frequency band for better transmission rate as well as the interference by the radio frequency should be considered. The overview of the wireless sensor system for the containment leakage rate test is described here and the test results on Yonggwang unit 4 PWR plant is presented

  1. Corrosion of copper alloys in sulphide containing district heting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    Copper and some copper alloys are prone to corrosion in sulphide containing geothermal water analogous to corrosion observed in district heating systems containing sulphide due to sulphate reducing bacteria. In order to study the corrosion of copper alloys under practical conditions a test...... was carried out at four sites in the Reykjavik District Heating System. The geothermal water chemistry is different at each site. The corrosion rate and the amount and chemical composition of deposits on weight loss coupons of six different copper alloys are described after exposure of 12 and 18 months...

  2. Evaluation of the NucleDyne Passive Containment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, W. J.; Coleman, J. H.; Merrell, W. W.

    1981-04-01

    This reports contains: (1) an evaluation by Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) of the NucleDyne passive Containment System (PCS) as that conceptual design is applied to a Westinghouse, two loop, Pressurized Water Reactor; (2) an evaluation by Westinghouse of two questions about the impact of the PCS on the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS), which were posed by G/C and best answered by an NSSS vendor; and (3) replies to both the Gilbert/Commonwealth report and the Westinghoue report by NucleDyne Engineering Corporation.

  3. Die Design for Running System of Waste Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel Pérez Acosta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Product deterioration possessing waste containers and their involvement in the collection of solid waste in Cuban cities, the present research is developed in order to make the design of the dies necessary for obtaining system components running of the containers themselves. These systems allow shooting baskets countless repair and revitalization of manufacturing a basket 100 % Cuban. For the design of these dies are taken in account the availability of technology. In this paper, specifically, describes the production of the piece called saucer, emphasizing the design of the die cutting thereof. These are also given the materials used in each of the components.

  4. Comparison of kinetics of active tetracycline uptake and active tetracycline efflux in sensitive and plasmid RP4-containing Pseudomonas putida.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedstrom, R C; Crider, B P; Eagon, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane vesicles prepared from tetracycline-sensitive cells of Pseudomonas putida took up tetracycline by an active transport system with an apparent Km of 2.5 mM and a Vmax of 50 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. In contrast, resistance determinant RP4-containing P. putida had an active high-affinity efflux system for tetracycline with a Km of 2.0 to 3.54 microM and a Vmax of 0.15 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. Thus, the efflux system of tetracycline-resistant P. putida(RP4) had an average of 1,000-fold g...

  5. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-04-10

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) must ensure that the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) or safety-related containment spray system (CSS) remains capable of performing its design safety function throughout the life of the plant. This requires ensuring that long-term core cooling can be maintained following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Adequate safety operation can be impaired if the protective coatings which have been applied to the concrete and steel structures within the primary containment fail, producing transportable debris which could then accumulate on BWR ECCS suction strainers or PWR ECCS sump debris screens located within the containment. This document will present the data collected during the investigation of coating specimens from plants.

  6. Vibration Analysis of Digital Radiography System for Large Container Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄松岭; 李路明; 周立业; 向新程; 安继刚

    2003-01-01

    The cantilever vibration characteristics of a digital radiography system were analyzed to predict the effect of vibration on the performance of a mobile container inspection system. The static deformation,vibration mode and natural frequency of the cantilever of the digital radiography system were calculated with the ALGOR Finite Element System to verify the strength and rigidity of the cantilever. The maximum amplitude of the cantilever vibration occurs as it starts accelerating. The predictions show good agreement with test results, indicating that the finite element model of the cantilever structure accurately models the mechanical characteristics.

  7. Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles Containing Quercetin: Characterization and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio, Emilli; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-02-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid reported as anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antineurodegenerative and antitumoral. However, due to its low water solubility, its efficacy is restricted. Nanotechnology can be an importante tool to improve the quercetin properties and increase its bioavailability. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles containing quercetin were developed by desolvation technique, characterized the mean particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, physical state of drug in nanoparticles and drug release profile as well as their antioxidant activity was evaluated. The influence of glutaraldehyde percentage in nanoparticles properties was evaluated and did not influence the nanoparticles parameters. Nanoparticles presented a mean size around 130 nm and encapsulation efficiency around 85%. Results from X-ray diffractometry showed that the crystal of the drug was converted to an amorphous state in polymeric matrix. Quercetin release profile demonstrated a biphasic pattern and after 96 h approximately 18% of drug was released. Kinetic models demonstrated that the quercetin release followed a second-order model and the release was governed by Fickian diffusion. After 96 h, quercetin-loaded nanoparticles were more effective than free quercetin for scanvenger of radical ABTS + and hypochlorous acid. BSA nanoparticles represents potential carriers for improve quercetin properties.

  8. Mesoporous Metal-Containing Carbon Nitrides for Improved Photocatalytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphitic carbon nitrides (g-C3N4 have attracted increasing interest due to their unusual properties and promising applications in water splitting, heterogeneous catalysis, and organic contaminant degradation. In this study, a new method was developed for the synthesis of mesoporous Fe contained g-C3N4 (m-Fe-C3N4 photocatalyst by using SiO2 nanoparticles as hard template and dicyandiamide as precursor. The physicochemical properties of m-Fe-C3N4 were thoroughly investigated. The XRD and XPS results indicated that Fe was strongly coordinated with the g-C3N4 matrix and that the doping and mesoporous structure partially deteriorated its crystalline structure. The UV-visible absorption spectra revealed that m-Fe-C3N4 with a unique electronic structure displays an increased band gap in combination with a slightly reduced absorbance, implying that mesoporous structure modified the electronic properties of g-Fe-C3N4. The photocatalytic activity of m-Fe-C3N4 for photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB was much higher than that of g-Fe-C3N4, clearly demonstrating porous structure positive effect.

  9. Antifungal activity of topical microemulsion containing a thiophene derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani Pereira Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05 embedded in a microemulsion (ME. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05 showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270-540 µg.mL-1 and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 µg.mL-1. Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70-140 µg.mL-1, but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 µg.mL-1. The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans.

  10. Safety of systems for the retention of wastes containing radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information and minimal requirements demanded by CNEN for the emission of the Approval Certificate of the Safety Analysis Report related to system for the retention of wastes containing radionuclide, are established, aiming to assure low radioactivity levels to the environment. (E.G.)

  11. Fish farming in land-based closed-containment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    'An International Summit on Fish Farming in Land-Based Closed-Containment Systems' was hosted by the Conservation Fund's Freshwater Institute, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF), the Atlantic Salmon Federation (ASF), and Tides Canada (TC) at the National Conservation Training Center in She...

  12. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  13. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  14. Design criteria and concepts for vented containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident sequences from WASH-1400 were selected and analyzed with the MARCH/CORRAL code to provide an envelope of design conditions. The time-dependent pressures and temperatures in containment were calculated as were the concentrations of steam, noncondensible gases, and airborne fission products in the containment atmosphere. The phenomenon found to be most challenging to containment integrity was a pressure spike resulting from rapid steam generation and/or hydrogen burning. The peak pressures in some sequences exceed the likely failure pressure. Conceptual designs were developed for preserving containment integrity. These include containment pressure relief or depressurization with various venting rates. Anticipatory venting, venting to the atmosphere, venting to a separate building, and venting followed by recirculation back into containment are considered. The effects of these schemes on the important system parameters were identified. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative schemes and their implications for the design of filtration equipment are discussed. For each venting strategy several levels of filtering effectiveness were considered. The simplest option developed is a once-through gravel-filled suppression pool. More sophisticated options involved sand filters, molecular sieves, charcoal adsorbers and HEPA filters. Results of accident consequence calculations using the CRAC code indicate the relatively simple options can provide substantial reductions in consequences of certain accident sequences. 12 figures

  15. Diffusion of Container Packaging Method into the Nigerian Transport System

    OpenAIRE

    ADERAMO A.J.; ADEYANJU J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the diffusion of container method of packaging for the period 1968 – 2005 in Nigeria with a view to adopting the method in the Nigerian Transport System. This was done by collecting a comprehensive data set of import and export container traffic from seven selected ports in Nigeria. These are Apapa Bulkship terminal; AP Molers terminal, Ro-Ro terminal, Tin Can Island, Delta Port, Rivers Ports and Calabar Port. The collected data were used to determine the trend of import an...

  16. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines. VIII. Systems with quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Domanska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej [Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-08-15

    (Solid + liquid) equilibrium temperatures for mixtures containing quinoline and 1-dodecanol, 1-hexadecanol, or 1-octadecanol have been measured using a dynamic method. (Quinoline + benzene, +alkane, or +1-alkanol) systems were investigated using DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model yields a good representation of molar excess Gibbs free energies, G{sup E}, molar excess enthalpies, H{sup E}, and of the (solid + liquid) equilibria, SLE. Interactional and structural effects were analysed comparing H{sup E} and the molar excess internal energy at constant volume, U{sub V}{sup E}. It was encountered that structural effects are very important in systems involving alkanes or 1-alkanols. Interactions between amine molecules are stronger in mixtures with quinoline than in those containing pyridine, which was ascribed to the higher polarizability of quinoline.

  17. Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems Containing Mesitylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morávková, L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of density measurements for binary systems containing 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (mesitylene with a variety of organic compounds at atmospheric pressure. Literature data of the binary systems were divided into nine basic groups by the type of contained organic compound with mesitylene. The excess molar volumes calculated from the experimental density values have been compared with literature data. Densities were measured by a few experimental methods, namely using a pycnometer, a dilatometer or a commercial apparatus. The overview of the experimental data and shape of the excess molar volume curve versus mole fraction is presented in this paper. The excess molar volumes were correlated by Redlich–Kister equation. The standard deviations for fitting of excess molar volume versus mole fraction are compared. Found literature data cover a huge temperature range from (288.15 to 343.15 K.

  18. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, P.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria with a stochastic conditional lethal containment system have been constructed. The invertible switch promoter located upstream of the fimA gene from Escherichia coli was inserted as expression cassette in front of the Lethal gef gene deleted of its own natural promoter. The resulting...... fusion was placed on a plasmid and transformed to E. coli. The phenotype connected with the presence of such a plasmid was to reduce the population growth rate with increasing significance as the cell growth rate was reduced. In very fast growing cells, there was no measurable effect on growth rate. When...... a culture of E. coli harboring the plasmid comprising the containment system is left as stationary cells in suspension without nutrients, viability drops exponentially over a period of several days, in contrast to the control cells, which maintain viability nearly unaffected during the same period of time...

  19. Pressure suppression containment system for boiling water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Nesbitt, Loyd B.

    1997-01-01

    A system for suppressing the pressure inside the containment of a BWR following a postulated accident. A piping subsystem is provided which features a main process pipe that communicates the wetwell airspace to a connection point downstream of the guard charcoal bed in an offgas system and upstream of the main bank of delay charcoal beds which give extensive holdup to offgases. The main process pipe is fitted with both inboard and outboard containment isolation valves. Also incorporated in the main process pipe is a low-differential-pressure rupture disk which prevents any gas outflow in this piping whatsoever until or unless rupture occurs by virtue of pressure inside this main process pipe on the wetwell airspace side of the disk exceeding the design opening (rupture) pressure differential. The charcoal holds up the radioactive species in the noncondensable gas from the wetwell plenum by adsorption, allowing time for radioactive decay before the gas is vented to the environs.

  20. Clay mineral liner system for leachates containing organic contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Sreedharan, Vandana; Sivapullaiah, PV

    2011-01-01

    A conventional liner with a good performance against inorganic contaminants with a minimal hydraulic conductivity does not usually perform well for retention/removal of leachates containing organic contaminants. Organic modification of clay can render the naturally organophobic clay tobe organophilic. Incorporation of modified organo clay along with unmodified inorganic clay in liner systems can overcome the inherent incompatibility of conventional liners to organic contaminants and can incre...

  1. Organogel nanoemulsion containing Nisin and D-limonene and its antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya eBei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a novel delivery system containing D-limonene and nisin by food organogel-nanoemulsion and study its effect on the antimicrobial activity. Organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin or without nisin was prepared by a homogenization method. Factors that may affect the droplet size and stability of organogel-nanoemulsion such as pressure and surfactant to oil ratio were studied. The average droplet size decreased with pressure, and the organogel-nanoemulsion could achieve good stability at low surfactant to oil ratio. Positive effects and outstanding antimicrobial activities of organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin were confirmed by MICs comparison, growth curves of bacteria, scanning electron microscopy and determination of cell constituents’ release. Furthermore, the organogel-nanoemulsion applied as food preservative in milk also shown excellent antimicrobial performance. Overall, the research described in the current article show that organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin may be an effective antimicrobial system for the production and preservation of food.

  2. Study on containment safety systems for Korean fusion DEMO plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-seok; Kim, Hyoung-chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Young Tae [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Inc., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to review the strategy for radiation barriers in the fusion power plants and to produce simulation data for the conceptual design of safety features to maintain the integrity of such barriers as a part of R and D program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea. Even though the amount of radioactive source term in fusion power plants should be much less than that of fission power plants, internal as well as external events can result in damage to facilities such that public can be critically exposed by radiation. In the first part of this study, we reviewed and compared the multiple defenses to protect radioactive hazard in fission and fusion power plants. Containment was characterized as an indispensable physical barrier and the integrity of containment particularly enveloping a fuel cycle which is a major radioactive source term, tritium, should be secured. Since water is assumed as one of the coolant options in the Korean fusion DEMO plant, the thermo-hydraulic analysis was carried out using computer simulations to produce key parameters related with the integrity of containment in the second part. The performance of both of active and passive safety features to control the key parameters was compared to take recent fission technologies into account.

  3. Fungal mediator tail subunits contain classical transcriptional activation domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2015-04-01

    Classical activation domains within DNA-bound eukaryotic transcription factors make weak interactions with coactivator complexes, such as Mediator, to stimulate transcription. How these interactions stimulate transcription, however, is unknown. The activation of reporter genes by artificial fusion of Mediator subunits to DNA binding domains that bind to their promoters has been cited as evidence that the primary role of activators is simply to recruit Mediator. We have identified potent classical transcriptional activation domains in the C termini of several tail module subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis Mediator, while their N-terminal domains are necessary and sufficient for their incorporation into Mediator but do not possess the ability to activate transcription when fused to a DNA binding domain. This suggests that Mediator fusion proteins actually are functioning in a manner similar to that of a classical DNA-bound activator rather than just recruiting Mediator. Our finding that deletion of the activation domains of S. cerevisiae Med2 and Med3, as well as C. dubliniensis Tlo1 (a Med2 ortholog), impairs the induction of certain genes shows these domains function at native promoters. Activation domains within coactivators are likely an important feature of these complexes and one that may have been uniquely leveraged by a common fungal pathogen.

  4. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  5. Decision support system for containment and release management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhuis, B. [Twente Univ., Enschede (Netherlands). Computer Science Dept.

    1995-09-01

    The Containment and Release Management project was carried out within the Reinforced Concerted Action Programme for Accident Management Support and partly financed by the European Union. In this report a prototype of an accident management support system is presented. The support system integrates several concepts from accident management research, like safety objective trees, severe accident phenomena, calculation models and an emergency response data system. These concepts are provided by the prototype in such a way that the decision making process of accident management is supported. The prototype application is demonstrated by process data taken from a severe accident scenario for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that was simulated with the thermohydraulic computer program MAAP. The prototype was derived from a decision support framework based on a decision theory. For established and innovative concepts from accident management research it is pointed out in which way these concepts can support accident management and how these concepts can be integrated. This approach is generic in two ways; it applies to both pressurized and boiling water reactors and it applies to both in vessel management and containment and release management. The prototype application was developed in Multimedia Toolbox 3.0 and requires at least a 386 PC with 4 MB memory, 6 MB free disk space and MS Windows 3.1. (orig.).

  6. Presence of Wolbachia in insect eggs containing antimicrobially active anthraquinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankewitz, Florian; Zöllmer, Anja; Hilker, Monika; Gräser, Yvonne

    2007-11-01

    Wolbachia are obligatory, cytoplasmatically inherited alpha-proteobacteria, which are common endosymbionts in arthropods where they may cause reproductive abnormalities. Many insects are well known to protect themselves from deleterious microorganisms by antibiotic components. In this study, we addressed the question whether Wolbachia are able to infect insects containing antimicrobial anthraquinones and anthrones, and if so, whether these genotypes of Wolbachia comprise a monophyletic cluster within one of the known supergroups. Leaf beetles of the taxon Galerucini (Galerucinae) are known to contain 1,8-dihydroxylated anthraquinones and anthrones. Also, the scale insect Dactylopius contains an anthraquinone glycoside, carminic acid. Our analyses revealed that a representative of the Galerucini, Galeruca tanaceti and Dactylopius, are indeed infected by endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of the wsp and ftsZ genes of these bacteria revealed that strains in G. tanaceti cluster in supergroup A, whereas those present in Dactylopius are distinctive from each other and from those of G. tanaceti. They are clustering in supergroups A and B. Wolbachia strains present in close, but anthraquinone-free relatives of G. tanaceti were shown to belong also to supergroup A. From these results, we can conclude (1) a double infection in Dactylopius, (2) that the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as anthraquinones does not necessarily protect insects from infection by Wolbachia, and (3) that genotypes of Wolbachia-infecting anthraquinone-containing insects most likely do not comprise a unique genotype. These results show that Wolbachia bacteria might be adapted to cope even with conditions usually detrimental to other bacteria and that these adaptations are widespread among Wolbachia supergroups. PMID:17364245

  7. Passive Hydrogen Mitigation and Cooling System for Containment Systems during Prolonged Station Black Out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revankar, Shripad T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi plants has brought attention to beyond design basis accident scenario where station black out could lead to severe accident with hydrogen release from the core to the containment, hydrogen explosions and containment pressurization. Here a passive containment cooling combined with hydrogen mitigation system is suggested that will passively remove containment heat load as well as mitigate hydrogen from the containment atmospheres during prolonged station blackout. One of the engineered safety systems in the advanced light water reactor is a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) which is composed of either a shell and tube heat exchanger such as the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) or an external air cooling system under various accident conditions to remove the energy make use of atmosphere air as ultimate heat sink to reject the PCCS heat, which in turn transfer hear from the containment. Passive autocatalytic recombiners have been proposed in the past to mitigate hydrogen in the containment. In the proposed design a finned vertical tube type PCCS system submersed in pool water is considered. The supply of pool water may last for three days following which airflow is initiated that will cool the PCCS tubes for long term. The PCCS inlet flow path will have catalytic recombiner that is effective during first few days should there be any hydrogen generation and accumulation in the containment.

  8. Comparative study of phenol and cyanide containing wastewater in CSTR and SBR activated sludge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, C A; Samaras, P; Sakellaropoulos, G P

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this work were the examination of the performance of two bench scale activated sludge systems, a conventional Continuous Stirring Tank Reactor (CSTR) and a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR), for the treatment of wastewaters containing phenol and cyanides and the assessment of the toxicity reduction potential by bioassays. The operation of the reactors was monitored by physicochemical analyses, while detoxification potential of the systems was monitored by two bioassays, the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The reactors influent was highly toxic to both organisms, while activated sludge treatment resulted in the reduction of toxicity of the influent. An increased toxicity removal was observed in the SBR; however CSTR system presented a lower ability for toxicity reduction of influent. The performance of both systems was enhanced by the addition of powdered activated carbon in the aeration tank; activated carbon upgraded the performance of the systems due to the simultaneous biological removal of pollutants and to carbon adsorption process; almost negligible values of phenol and cyanides were measured in the effluents, while further toxicity reduction was observed in both systems.

  9. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  10. Plastids contain a second sec translocase system with essential functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalitzky, Courtney A; Martin, Jonathan R; Harwood, Jessica H; Beirne, John J; Adamczyk, Benjamin J; Heck, Gregory R; Cline, Kenneth; Fernandez, Donna E

    2011-01-01

    Proteins that are synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes but function within plastids must be imported and then targeted to one of six plastid locations. Although multiple systems that target proteins to the thylakoid membranes or thylakoid lumen have been identified, a system that can direct the integration of inner envelope membrane proteins from the stroma has not been previously described. Genetics and localization studies were used to show that plastids contain two different Sec systems with distinct functions. Loss-of-function mutations in components of the previously described thylakoid-localized Sec system, designated as SCY1 (At2g18710), SECA1 (At4g01800), and SECE1 (At4g14870) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), result in albino seedlings and sucrose-dependent heterotrophic growth. Loss-of-function mutations in components of the second Sec system, designated as SCY2 (At2g31530) and SECA2 (At1g21650) in Arabidopsis, result in arrest at the globular stage and embryo lethality. Promoter-swap experiments provided evidence that SCY1 and SCY2 are functionally nonredundant and perform different roles in the cell. Finally, chloroplast import and fractionation assays and immunogold localization of SCY2-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in root tissues indicated that SCY2 is part of an envelope-localized Sec system. Our data suggest that SCY2 and SECA2 function in Sec-mediated integration and translocation processes at the inner envelope membrane. PMID:21051552

  11. Somatostatin and Somatostatin-Containing Neurons in Shaping Neuronal Activity and Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery over four decades ago, somatostatin (SOM) receives growing scientific and clinical interest. Being localized in the nervous system in a subset of interneurons somatostatin acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and its role in the fine-tuning of neuronal activity and involvement in synaptic plasticity and memory formation are widely recognized in the recent literature. Combining transgenic animals with electrophysiological, anatomical and molecular methods allowed to characterize several subpopulations of somatostatin-containing interneurons possessing specific anatomical and physiological features engaged in controlling the output of cortical excitatory neurons. Special characteristic and connectivity of somatostatin-containing neurons set them up as significant players in shaping activity and plasticity of the nervous system. However, somatostatin is not just a marker of particular interneuronal subpopulation. Somatostatin itself acts pre- and postsynaptically, modulating excitability and neuronal responses. In the present review, we combine the knowledge regarding somatostatin and somatostatin-containing interneurons, trying to incorporate it into the current view concerning the role of the somatostatinergic system in cortical plasticity. PMID:27445703

  12. Evaluation of licensability of the proposed containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As currently proposed, the commercial version of the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) would not have a conventional containment building. Instead much greater reliance is placed on the fuel for retention of fission products during normal operating and postulated accident conditions. The MHTGR program participants have chosen an approach to fission product control that relies primarily upon high quality fuel particles to contain a very large fraction of the radionuclides under operating and accident conditions. Additional barriers to radionuclide release are provided by the carbonaceous fuel compacts graphite fuel elements, primary coolant systems, and the reactor building. The reactor vessel is a Class 1 steel vessel that operates at 64 bar (28 psia) pressure during normal operation. The reactor building is a reinforced concrete structure which is constructed below grade with substantial concrete hatch covers over the reactor and steam generator compartments. Using mechanistic source terms, rather than those traditionally imposed by 10CFR100, current calculated results indicate that off-site doses would meet the top-level requirements. Based on these results, the MHTGR participants have taken the position that, with postulated off-site doses so extremely low, a conventional containment would not significantly reduce the risk to the public but would add significantly to the capital cost of the plant and could be a detriment to the passive safety features of the MHTGR design

  13. Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-12-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) contain caffeine and are a new, popular category of beverage. It has been suggested that EDs enhance physical and cognitive performance; however, it is unclear whether the claimed benefits are attributable to components other than caffeine. A typical 235 mL ED provides between 40 and 250 mg of caffeine, equating to doses that improve cognitive and, at the higher levels, physical performance. EDs often contain taurine, guaraná, ginseng, glucuronolactone, B-vitamins, and other compounds. A literature search using PubMed, Psych Info, and Google Scholar identified 32 articles that examined the effects of ED ingredients alone and/or in combination with caffeine on physical or cognitive performance. A systematic evaluation of the evidence-based findings in these articles was then conducted. With the exception of some weak evidence for glucose and guaraná extract, there is an overwhelming lack of evidence to substantiate claims that components of EDs, other than caffeine, contribute to the enhancement of physical or cognitive performance. Additional well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies replicated across laboratories are needed in order to assess claims made for these products.

  14. [Research on the treatment of wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-Qiong; Huang, Cheng-Lan; Liu, Min; Chen, Ying

    2012-11-01

    The wastewater containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was characterized with poor biodegradability, and was difficult to remove. In order to find an economically reasonable and practical technology, the research on the removal efficiency of different concentration wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process was studied, and the result was compared with the traditional activated sludge process. The results showed that the ozonation-activated sludge process was not suitable for treating influent with COD below 500 mg x L(-1) and the wastewater PVA concentration was 10-30 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was between 500-800 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 15-60 mg x L(-1), the system had advantages on dealing with this kind of wastewater, and the average removal efficiency of COD and PVA were 92.8% and 57.4%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 4.1% and 15.2% respectively. In addition, the effluent concentrations of COD could keep between 30-60 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was 1 000-1 200 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 20-70 mg x L(-1), the average removal efficiencies of COD and PVA were 90.9% and 45.3%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 12.8% and 12.1% respectively, but the effluent should to be further treated. Compared with the traditional activated sludge process, ozonation-activated sludge process had high treatment efficiency, stable running effect, and effectively in dealing with industrial wastewater containing PVA. PMID:23323416

  15. Achievements of spray activities in nuclear reactor containments during the last decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Spray systems in nuclear reactors are described. • Spray models developed for these codes are discussed. • International benchmarking activities are presented. • An overview of the knowledge gained on these sprays during the last decade is given. - Abstract: During the course of a severe accident in a nuclear power plants, spray systems are used in the containment in order to prevent overpressure and to wash-out fission products. Spray will also have an impact on the gas mixing in case of the presence of hydrogen. This paper presents the current achievements of spray activities during the last decade. Spray systems in nuclear reactors are described and an overview of the knowledge gained on these sprays during the last decade is given. During this period, more and more studies devoted to CFD simulations (Computational Fluid Dynamics) of real containment severe accident conditions have been published. In order to give confidence to such calculations, code validation is mandatory. As a result, experiments have been performed in order to validate the spray models. A review of experimental programs, in CARAIDAS, CALIST, TOSQAN (IRSN) and MISTRA (CEA) facilities is presented here. Spray models developed for the codes involved in the above mentioned simulations of these experimental programs are also discussed, as well as international benchmarking activities performed during the last decade. CFD calculations at real scale with well validated phenomena on separate-effect tests are recommended in order to bring some insights for different configurations typical for safety concerns

  16. Preparation and evaluation of microemulsion systems containing salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Alia A; Nour, Samia A; Sakran, Wedad S; El-Mancy, Shereen Mohamed Sameh

    2009-01-01

    Microemulsions (MEs) are clear, thermodynamically stable systems. They were used to solubilize drugs and to improve topical drug availability. Salicylic acid (SA) is a keratolytic agent used in topical products with antimicrobial actions. The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate SA ME systems. Different concentrations of SA were incorporated in an ME base composed of isopropyl myristate, water, and Tween 80: propylene glycol in the ratio of 15:1. Three ME systems were prepared: S2%, S5%, and S10% which contain 2%, 5%, and 10% of SA, respectively. Evaluation by examination under cross-polarizing microscope, measuring of percent transmittance, pH measurement, determination of the specific gravity, assessment of rheological properties, and accelerated stability study were carried out. The data showed that the addition of SA markedly affected the physical properties of the base. All systems were not affected by accelerated stability tests. Stability study for 6 months under ambient conditions was carried out for S10%. No remarkable changes were recorded except a decrease in the viscosity value after 1 month. The results suggested that ME could be a suitable vehicle for topical application of different concentrations of SA. PMID:19757081

  17. Synthesis, insecticidal activity, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of anthranilic diamides analogs containing oxadiazole rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhao; Zhu, Hongjun; Chen, Kai; Liu, Rui; Khallaf, Abdalla; Zhang, Xiangning; Ni, Jueping

    2013-06-28

    A series of anthranilic diamides analogs (3–11, 16–24) containing 1,2,4- or 1,3,4-oxadiazole rings were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The structure of 3-bromo-N-(2-(3-(4-bromophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-4-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (18, CCDC-) was determined by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua were evaluated. The results showed that most of title compounds displayed good larvicidal activities against P. xylostella, especially compound 3-bromo-N-(4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(5-(methylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (6), which displayed 71.43% activity against P. xylostella at 0.4 μg mL(-1) and 33.33% against S. exigua at 1 μg mL(-1). The structure-activity relationship showed that compounds decorated with a 1,3,4-oxadiazole were more potent than compounds decorated with a 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and different substituents attached to the oxadiazole ring also affected the insecticidal activity. This work provides some hints for further structure modification and the enhancement of insecticidal activity.

  18. Synthesis, insecticidal activity, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of anthranilic diamides analogs containing oxadiazole rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhao; Zhu, Hongjun; Chen, Kai; Liu, Rui; Khallaf, Abdalla; Zhang, Xiangning; Ni, Jueping

    2013-06-28

    A series of anthranilic diamides analogs (3–11, 16–24) containing 1,2,4- or 1,3,4-oxadiazole rings were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The structure of 3-bromo-N-(2-(3-(4-bromophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-4-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (18, CCDC-) was determined by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua were evaluated. The results showed that most of title compounds displayed good larvicidal activities against P. xylostella, especially compound 3-bromo-N-(4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(5-(methylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (6), which displayed 71.43% activity against P. xylostella at 0.4 μg mL(-1) and 33.33% against S. exigua at 1 μg mL(-1). The structure-activity relationship showed that compounds decorated with a 1,3,4-oxadiazole were more potent than compounds decorated with a 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and different substituents attached to the oxadiazole ring also affected the insecticidal activity. This work provides some hints for further structure modification and the enhancement of insecticidal activity. PMID:23657615

  19. Bioorganically doped sol-gel materials containing amyloglucosidase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad-Oros Beatrice

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase (AMG from Aspergillus niger was encapsulated in various matrices derived from tetraethoxysilane, methyltriethoxysilane, phenyltriethoxysilane and vinyltriacetoxysilane by different methods of immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was prepared by entrapment in two steps, in one-step and entrapment/deposition, respectively. The activities of the immobilized AMG were assayed and compared with that of the native enzyme. The effects of the organosilaneprecursors and their molar ratios, the immobilization method, the inorganic support (white ceramic, red ceramic, purolite, alumina, TiO2, celite, zeolite and enzyme loading upon the immobilized enzyme activity were tested. The efficiency of the sol-gel biocomposites can be improved through combination of the fundamental immobilization techniques and selection of the precursors.

  20. Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xuejing; Bortolini, Christian; Chen, Menglin; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-02-14

    Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes. PMID:25573466

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Dental Cements Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are commonly used for cementing full cast crown restorations. Regrettably, although the dental cements fill the gap between the tooth and the crown, bacterial microleakage may occur, resulting in secondary caries. As microleakage cannot be completely prevented, GICs possessing antibacterial properties are in demand. In the present study the antibacterial activity of insoluble, cross-linked quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI nanoparticles incorporated at 1% w/w in two clinically available GICs were studied. The antibacterial activity was tested against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei using the direct contact test (DCT and the agar diffusion test (ADT. Using the direct contact test, antibacterial activity (<0.05 was found in both tested GICs with incorporated QPEI nanoparticles, the effect lasting for at least one month. However, the ADT showed no inhibition halo in the test bacteria, indicating that the antimicrobial nanoparticles do not diffuse into the agar. The results show that the incorporation of QPEI nanoparticles in glass ionomer cements has a long-lasting antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. Changing the antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cements by incorporating QPEI antibacterial nanoparticles may prolong the clinical performance of dental crowns.

  2. Lignin peroxidase oxidation of aromatic compounds in systems containing organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R; Westlake, D W; Fedorak, P M

    1994-02-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These included anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 9-methylanthracenes, acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene. Of the compounds studied, lignin peroxidase was able to oxidize those with ionization potentials of stability characteristics of lignin peroxidase were determined by using pyrene as the substrate in systems containing different amounts of organic solvent. Benzyl alkylation of lignin peroxidase improved its activity in a system containing water-miscible organic solvent but did not increase its resistance to inactivation at high solvent concentrations. PMID:16349176

  3. A quintuple star system containing two eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, S.; Lehmann, H.; Kalomeni, B.; Borkovits, T.; Latham, D.; Bieryla, A.; Ngo, H.; Mawet, D.; Howell, S.; Horch, E.; Jacobs, T. L.; LaCourse, D.; Sódor, Á.; Vanderburg, A.; Pavlovski, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present a quintuple star system that contains two eclipsing binaries. The unusual architecture includes two stellar images separated by 11 arcsec on the sky: EPIC 212651213 and EPIC 212651234. The more easterly image (212651213) actually hosts both eclipsing binaries which are resolved within that image at 0.09 arcsec, while the westerly image (212651234) appears to be single in adaptive optics (AO), speckle imaging, and radial velocity (RV) studies. The `A' binary is circular with a 5.1-d period, while the `B' binary is eccentric with a 13.1-d period. The γ velocities of the A and B binaries are different by ˜10 km s-1. That, coupled with their resolved projected separation of 0.09 arcsec, indicates that the orbital period and separation of the `C' binary (consisting of A orbiting B) are ≃65 yr and ≃25 au, respectively, under the simplifying assumption of a circular orbit. Motion within the C orbit should be discernible via future RV, AO, and speckle imaging studies within a couple of years. The C system (i.e. 212651213) has an RV and proper motion that differ from that of 212651234 by only ˜1.4 km s-1 and ˜3 mas yr-1. This set of similar space velocities in three dimensions strongly implies that these two objects are also physically bound, making this at least a quintuple star system.

  4. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  5. Supramolecular effects in dendritic systems containing photoactive groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANLUCA CAMILLO AZZELLINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article are described dendritic structures containing photoactive groups at the surface or in the core. The observed supramolecular effects can be attributed to the nature of the photoactive group and their location in the dendritic architecture. The peripheric azobenzene groups in these dendrimeric compounds can be regarded as single residues that retain the spectroscopic and photochemical properties of free azobenzene moiety. The E and Z forms of higher generation dendrimer, functionalized with azobenzene groups, show different host ability towards eosin dye, suggesting the possibility of using such dendrimer in photocontrolled host-guest systems. The photophysical properties of many dendritic-bipyridine ruthenium complexes have been investigated. Particularly in aerated medium more intense emission and a longer excited-state lifetime are observed as compared to the parent unsubstituted bipyridine ruthenium complexes. These differences can be attributed to a shielding effect towards dioxygen quenching originated by the dendritic branches.

  6. Containment Depressurization Capabilities of Filtered Venting System in 1000 MWe PWR with Large Dry Containment

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Won Lee; Tae-Hyub Hong; Yu-Jung Choi; Mi-Ro Seo; Hyeong-Taek Kim

    2014-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the Korean government and nuclear industries performed comprehensive safety inspections on all domestic nuclear power plants against beyond design bases events. As a result, a total of 50 recommendations were defined as safety improvement action items. One of them is installation of a containment filtered venting system (CFVS) or portable backup containment spray system. In this paper, the applicability of CFVS is examined for OPR1000,...

  7. Containment vessel, its auxiliary system and plant air conditioning system of advanced thermal reactor Fugen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional requirement for, the design and the construction of, and the functional test on the containment vessel, its auxiliary system, the plant air conditioning and ventilation system of the advanced thermal reactor, Fugen, are described in detail. The main specifications of the containment vessel are as follows: The type enclosed cylinder, the maximum operating pressure 1.35 kg/cm2g, the maximum operating temperature 100 deg C, the leak rate 0.4%/day, the inner diameter 36 m. The height 64 m, the volume 40,900 m3, and the material JIS G3118, SGV-49. The containment vessel is provided with an hatch of 5 m diameter for carrying equipments in two air locks, many high and low voltage cable penetrations, pipe penetrations, a transfer shoot and isolation values. The functions and the specifications of the containment vessel and its auxiliary equipments are explained. The relating auxiliary systems are composed of the containment vessel spray system, the pool facility for steam blow-down, the recirculation system for the air in the vessel, the annulus evacuation system and its pressure control devices, the pressure measuring instruments and pressure relief valves and the temperature measuring devices for the containment vessel, and the object, function, layout and installation of these systems are explained. Concerning the air conditioning system, each main building has the special subsystem, and they are introduced. The progress stage of construction works and the procedure and results of the functional test at the site are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  8. Development of self-assembling nanowires containing electronically active oligothiophenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Wen

    This dissertation discusses the development of conductive one-dimensional nanowires from self-assembling oligothiophene molecules. Self-assembly has been demonstrated to be a promising alternative approach towards high performance, solution processable, and low-cost organic electronics. One of the many challenges in this field is the control of supramolecular morphologies of ordered structures containing pi-conjugated moieties. This research demonstrated several successful strategies to achieve self assembly of conductive nanowires using synergistic interactions combining pi stacking and hydrogen bonding. The first approach used was to develop a hairpin-shaped sexithiophene molecule, which features two arms of the conjugated structure. The diamidocyclohexyl headgroup of this molecule successfully directs the self-assembly from hydrogen bonding among the amides, forming high-aspect-ratio one-dimensional nanowires with well-defined diameters of 3.0 +/- 0.3 nm. The molecular orientation in the nanostructures promotes formation of sexithiophene H and J aggregates that facilitate efficient charge transport. Organic field-effect transistors were fabricated to reveal improved intrinsic hole mobility from films of the nanostructures, 3.46 x 10-6 cm2V-1s-1, which is one order of magnitude higher than films cast from unassembled molecules. Bulk heterojunction solar cells were developed from this molecule and fullerenes utilizing solution-phase fabrication methods. Intimate mix of the molecule and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester creates structured interfaces for efficient exciton splitting. The charge carrier mobilities of each material are improved by self-assembly in solution and thermal-energy assisted phase separation.The photovoltaic devices achieved the highest open-circuit voltage of 0.62 V, short-circuit current of 1.79 mA/cm2, fill factor of 35%, and power conversion efficiency of 0.48%. Another strategy to one-dimensional nanowires studied here involved the

  9. A Quintuple Star System Containing Two Eclipsing Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Rappaport, S; Kalomeni, B; Borkovits, T; Latham, D; Bieryla, A; Ngo, H; Mawet, D; Howell, S; Horch, E; Jacobs, T L; LaCourse, D; Sodor, A; Vanderburg, A; Pavlovski, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a quintuple star system that contains two eclipsing binaries. The unusual architecture includes two stellar images separated by 11" on the sky: EPIC 212651213 and EPIC 212651234. The more easterly image (212651213) actually hosts both eclipsing binaries which are resolved within that image at 0.09", while the westerly image (212651234) appears to be single in adaptive optics (AO), speckle imaging, and radial velocity (RV) studies. The 'A' binary is circular with a 5.1-day period, while the 'B' binary is eccentric with a 13.1-day period. The gamma velocities of the A and B binaries are different by ~10 km/s. That, coupled with their resolved projected separation of 0.09", indicates that the orbital period and separation of the 'C' binary (consisting of A orbiting B) are ~65 years and ~25 AU, respectively, under the simplifying assumption of a circular orbit. Motion within the C orbit should be discernible via future RV, AO, and speckle imaging studies within a couple of years. The C system (i.e., 21...

  10. Results from modernization of the containment localization systems of the Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvements of the Accident Localization System (SLA) of units 3 and 4 systematically implemented by Kozloduy NPP shows an important direction for increasing the safety of NPP with WWER-440/V-230 containments. During the years Kozloduy NPP implemented a large scope of activities aimed in full resolution of all generic shortcomings identified in the original design of these containments. These activities allowed already in 2002 to justify that integrity of the containment is assured for all postulated events and the radiological consequences for all DBAs and BDBAs without core degradation are within the regulatory limits. The last phase of this modernization was oriented toward achieving the same goals in case of severe accidents by installation of systems for avoiding long term pressurization of the SG compartments and by installation of a system for keeping of negative pressure (slight vacuum) during the late phases of development of the accidents thus minimizing significantly the uncontrolled radioactive releases from the containment and assured controlled purified release of radioactivity to environment, and for elimination of conditions for H2 deflagration within the localization system. This paper summarizes the results of the whole modernization process with an emphasis of the implementation of the latest phase successfully completed by Kozloduy NPP in first quarter of 2005 which allowed the plant to demonstrate remarkable mitigation capability for a comprehensive set of very low probability severe accidents scenarios in line with the approach now being promoted for the modern design NPPs

  11. 77 FR 21577 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and... collection requirement concerning the Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. This...: Title: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. OMB Number: 1651-0124....

  12. 77 FR 69650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers... concerning the Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty Free. This request for comment is...: Title: Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty Free. OMB Number: 1651-0035. Form...

  13. Sample container for neutron activation analysis. Probenbehaelter fuer die Neutronen-Aktivierungsanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lersmacher, B.; Verheijke, M.L.; Jaspers, H.J.

    1983-06-23

    The sample container avoids contaminating the sample substance by diffusion of foreign matter from the wall of the sample container into the sample. It cannot be activated, so that the results of measurements are not falsified by a radioactive container wall. It consists of solid carbon.

  14. 78 FR 16531 - Certain Microelectromechanical Systems (“MEMS Devices”) and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Microelectromechanical Systems (``MEMS Devices'') and Products Containing Same; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Microelectromechanical Systems (``MEMS Devices'') and... microelectromechanical systems (``MEMS devices'') and products containing same. The complaint names as respondents...

  15. Solid—Liquid Equilibria of Several Binary and Ternary Systems Containing Meleic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAPeisheng; CHENMingming; 等

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibria(SLE) of three binary systems and seven ternary systems containing maleic anhydride(MA) are measured by visual method. The experimental data are compared with the calculated ones with modified universal quasichemical functional group activity coefficient(UNIFAC) method in which the interaction parameters between groups come from two sources,dortmund data bank (DDB), if there′s any,and correlations based on our former presented experimental SLE data of twenty binary systems.New groups of MA,ACCOO group,COO group,>C=O group and cy-CH2 group are defined and the SLE data of maleic anhydride in isopropyl acetate in literature are cited in order to assess the new interaction parameters,correlated with Wilson equation and the λh equation.The modified UNIFAC method with these new regressed interaction parameters is also used to predict other three binary systems containing maleic anhydride.

  16. The nonlinear finite element analysis program NUCAS (NUclear Containment Analysis System) for reinforced concrete containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Hong Pyo; Seo, Jeong Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The maim goal of this research is to develop a nonlinear finite element analysis program NUCAS to accurately predict global and local failure modes of containment building subjected to internal pressure. In this report, we describe the techniques we developed throught this research. An adequate model to the analysis of containment building such as microscopic material model is adopted and it applied into the development Reissner-Mindlin degenerated shell element. To avoid finite element deficiencies, the substitute strains based on the assumed strain method is used in the shell formulation. Arc-length control method is also adopted to fully trace the peak load-displacement path due to crack formation. In addition, a benchmark test suite is developed to investigate the performance of NUCAS and proposed as the future benchmark tests for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete. Finally, the input format of NUCAS and the examples of input/output file are described. 39 refs., 65 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  17. Design of database management system for 60Co container inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of the database management system has been designed according to the features of cobalt-60 container inspection system. And the software related to the function has been constructed. The database querying and searching are included in the software. The database operation program is constructed based on Microsoft SQL server and Visual C++ under Windows 2000. The software realizes database querying, image and graph displaying, statistic, report form and its printing, interface designing, etc. The software is powerful and flexible for operation and information querying. And it has been successfully used in the real database management system of cobalt-60 container inspection system. (authors)

  18. Dynamic testing of MFTF containment-vessel structural system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic (modal) testing was performed on the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) containment vessel. The seismic design of this vessel was heavily dependent upon the value of structural damping used in the analysis. Typically for welded steel vessels, a value of 2 to 3% of critical is used. However, due to the large mass of the vessel and magnet supported inside, we felt that the interaction between the structure and its foundation would be enhanced. This would result in a larger value of damping because vibrational energy in the structure would be transferred through the foundation into the surrounding soil. The dynamic test performed on this structure (with the magnet in place) confirmed this later theory and resulted in damping values of approximately 4 to 5% for the whole body modes. This report presents a brief description of dynamic testing emphasizing the specific test procedure used on the MFTF-A system. It also presents an interpretation of the damping mechanisms observed (material and geometric) based upon the spatial characteristics of the modal parameters

  19. Smart integrated containment leakage rate test system using wireless communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated Leakage Rate Test (ILRT) is the important test the confidentiality and integrity of the containment building, which is the last barrier when Design basis accidents (DBA) of Nuclear Power plant occur. Since the result of this test is the basis to guarantee the safety of nuclear power plants, the test process, test procedure, and the test equipment are required to have high reliability. The test devices previously used have been products of VOLUMERTRICS and GRAFTEL of USA. These devices have been inconvenient to calibrate and use. Thus improved devices needed to be developed to remove the inconveniences, to verify the safety of Korean nuclear power plants with Korea's own technology, and to secure core technology. A new leak test system was developed by domestic technology for that purpose and needed to be verified. In this paper, technical details of the newly developed easy to use and highly reliable measuring test device, which is in operation at the nuclear power plant sites, will be introduced. State of art technology was applied to the device to address the shortcomings of previous US made devices and the difficulties to use on site

  20. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Costa, Luciano da F

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for contention of activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, as in diseases such as epilepsy that affects the neuronal networks, and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided in modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory through which activity contention is reached by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, viz. random, Barabasi-Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this ...

  1. Improved Active Vibration Isolation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The control force, feedback gain, and actuator stroke of several active vibration isolation systems were analyzed based on a single-layer active vibration isolation system. The analysis shows that the feedback gain and actuator stroke cannot be selected independently and the active isolation system design must make a compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The performance of active isolation systems can be improved by the joint vibration reduction using an active vibration isolation system with an adaptive dynamic vibration absorber. The results show that the joint vibration reduction method can successfully avoid the compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The control force and the object vibration amplitude are also greatly reduced.

  2. Hydrodynamic calculation of a filter washing in liquids type used in containment venting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, the European nuclear power plants have chosen to install filters on the venting pipes of the containment, whose function is to help to mitigate the consequences of a severe accident, by controlled depressurization of the containment passively through a filtered venting of the containment system. These systems are designed to relieve the internal pressure of the containment by means of the deliberate opening of pressure relief devices, either a valve or rupture disc during a severe accident and be channeled to the filter unit. In this paper the hydraulic response of a filter system of gases washing by liquid is evaluated, due to this information is necessary to estimate the effect that has the pressure increase of the contention on the discharge capacity of the venting pipes. By simulation of computational of fluid dynamics with the programs: CAELINUX-2014 and OpenFOAM, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Multi Venturi System for gases washing from the containment, which could be included in the general model of the venting pipe, were obtained. Representative models of the Venturi tubes of each concentric area that forming the washing system were generated; and using parametric calculations the average mass flow rate established through each venturi, depending on its size and depth in which it is located inside the tank was estimated. Also, the pressure and mass flow rate required to activate each concentric area depending on the pressure and mass load from the containment were calculated, to estimate the maximum flow that is established through the filter. Finally, the velocity profiles and the characteristic pressure at which each area operates as well as the pressure drop of local and global discharge also were calculated. (Author)

  3. Containment Depressurization Capabilities of Filtered Venting System in 1000 MWe PWR with Large Dry Containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the Korean government and nuclear industries performed comprehensive safety inspections on all domestic nuclear power plants against beyond design bases events. As a result, a total of 50 recommendations were defined as safety improvement action items. One of them is installation of a containment filtered venting system (CFVS or portable backup containment spray system. In this paper, the applicability of CFVS is examined for OPR1000, a 1000 MWe PWR with large dry containment in Korea. Thermohydraulic analysis results show that a filtered discharge flow rate of 15 [kg/s] at 0.9 [MPa] is sufficient to depressurize the containment against representative containment overpressurization scenarios. Radiological release to the environment is reduced to 10-3 considering the decontamination factor. Also, this cyclic venting strategy reduces noble gas release by 50% for 7 days. The probability of maintaining the containment integrity in level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA initiating events is improved twofold, from 43% to 87%. So, the CFVS can further improve the containment integrity in severe accident conditions.

  4. Nonenzymatic copying of RNA templates containing all four letters is catalyzed by activated oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prywes, Noam; Blain, J Craig; Del Frate, Francesca; Szostak, Jack W

    2016-01-01

    The nonenzymatic replication of RNA is a potential transitional stage between the prebiotic chemistry of nucleotide synthesis and the canonical RNA world in which RNA enzymes (ribozymes) catalyze replication of the RNA genomes of primordial cells. However, the plausibility of nonenzymatic RNA replication is undercut by the lack of a protocell-compatible chemical system capable of copying RNA templates containing all four nucleotides. We show that short 5′-activated oligonucleotides act as catalysts that accelerate primer extension, and allow for the one-pot copying of mixed sequence RNA templates. The fidelity of the primer extension products resulting from the sequential addition of activated monomers, when catalyzed by activated oligomers, is sufficient to sustain a genome long enough to encode active ribozymes. Finally, by immobilizing the primer and template on a bead and adding individual monomers in sequence, we synthesize a significant part of an active hammerhead ribozyme, forging a link between nonenzymatic polymerization and the RNA world. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17756.001 PMID:27351102

  5. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms responsible for containing activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, for example, in diseases such as epilepsy that affect the neuronal networks and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided into modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory, through which containment of activity is achieved by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, namely, random, Barabási-Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this finding was confirmed by showing that modularity is no longer needed if the dynamics based on the integrate-and-fire dynamics incorporated the decay factor. Taken together, these results provide a proof of principle that persistent, restrained network activation might occur in the absence of any particular topological structure. This may be the reason why neuronal activity does not spread out to the entire neuronal network, even when no special topological organization exists. .

  6. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms responsible for containing activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, for example, in diseases such as epilepsy that affect the neuronal networks and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided into modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory, through which containment of activity is achieved by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, namely, random, Barabási–Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this finding was confirmed by showing that modularity is no longer needed if the dynamics based on the integrate-and-fire dynamics incorporated the decay factor. Taken together, these results provide a proof of principle that persistent, restrained network activation might occur in the absence of any particular topological structure. This may be the reason why neuronal activity does not spread out to the entire neuronal network, even when no special topological organization exists. (paper)

  7. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Analogues of Chlorantraniliprole Containing Nitro Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qi; WANG Ming-zhong; XIONG Li-xia; LIU Zhi-li; LI Zheng-ming

    2011-01-01

    Twelve novel analogues of chlorantraniliprole containing nitro group were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS).Their evaluated insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm(Mythimna separata) indicate that the nitro-containing analogues showed favorable insecticidal activities,while the activity of compounds 5g at 0.25 mg/L was 40%,but still lower than chlorantraniliprole.

  8. Physiologic activities of the contact activation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, Alvin H

    2014-05-01

    The plasma contact activation (CAS) and kallikrein/kinin (KKS) systems consist of 4 proteins: factor XII, prekallikrein, high molecular weight kininogen, and the bradykinin B2 receptor. Murine genetic deletion of factor XII (F12(-/-)), prekallikrein (Klkb1(-/-)), high molecular weight kininogen (Kgn1(-/-)) and the bradykinin B2 receptor (Bdkrb2(-/-)) yield animals protected from thrombosis. With possible exception of F12(-/-) and Kgn1(-/-) mice, the mechanism(s) for thrombosis protection is not reduced contact activation. Bdkrb2(-/-) mice are best characterized and they are protected from thrombosis through over expression of components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) leading to elevated prostacyclin with vascular and platelet inhibition. Alternatively, prolylcarboxypeptidase, a PK activator and degrader of angiotensin II, when deficient in the mouse leads to a prothrombotic state. Its mechanism for increased thrombosis also is mediated in part by components of the RAS. These observations suggest that thrombosis in mice of the CAS and KKS are mediated in part through the RAS and independent of reduced contact activation. PMID:24759141

  9. A REVIEW OF OXYGEN-CONTAINING SURFACE GROUPS AND SURFACE MODIFICATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yongwen; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; XIA Qibin

    2004-01-01

    This review focused on the recent reports related to the function, characterization and modification of oxygen-containing surface groups of activated carbon (AC). The Oxygen-containing surface groups were briefly described, and the most frequently used techniques for characterization of the oxygen-containing surface groups on ACs were also briefly stated. A detailed discussion of the effects of the oxygen-containing surface groups on the adsorptive capacity of AC was given. The recent progresses in modification of the oxygen-containing surface groups of AC were also reviewed.

  10. Autonomous Composite Fan Containment Integrity Monitoring (AUTOCONFIRM) System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New engine fan blade containment structures are being manufactured with advanced composite structures such that they can withstand blade-out events. The use of...

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Tonghaosu Analogs Containing Phenoxy-phenyl Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li陈立; XU Han-Hong徐汉虹; YIN Biao-Lin尹标林; XIAO Chun肖春; HU Tai-Shan胡泰山; WU Yu-Lin吴毓林

    2004-01-01

    A new series of phenoxy-phenyl moieties containing tonghaosu analogs with varied B-ring 9 were synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Their insect antifeedant activity against Pieris brassicae and insecticidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus were investigated. Compound 9e exhibited excellent antifeeding activity.

  12. Synthesis and in vitro antitumor activity of new butenolide-containing dithiocarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Xu, Hai-Wei; Guo, Lin-Lin; Zheng, Jia-Xin; Xu, Bo; Guo, Xiao; Zheng, Chen-Xin; Liu, Hong-Min

    2011-05-15

    Three series of butenolide-containing dithiocarbamates were designed and synthesized. Their anti-tumor activity in vitro was evaluated. Among them compound I-14 exhibited broad spectrum anti-cancer activity against five human cancer cell lines with IC(50) dithiocarbamate side chains on the C-3 position of butenolide was crucial for anti-tumor activity. PMID:21486694

  13. The ascidian prophenoloxidase activating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cammarata

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenoloxidases/tyrosinases initiate melanin synthesis in almost all organisms, and are involved in different biological activities such as the colour change of human hair and the browning or blackening of fruit skin etc. In many invertebrates, defence reactions are linked to phenoloxidase activity and/or melanization. Contacts with foreign molecules are able to trigger the prophenoloxidase (proPO system that requires serine protease cleavage for activating the zymogen to phenoloxidase (PO. It is generally accepted that the proPO system is fully expressed in arthropods, and, recently, progress in the regulation of crustacean and insect proPO activation steps have been achieved. After cells were stimulated by components of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP, proPO activation takes place via zimogenic serine proteinase in turn activated by PAMPs followed by cascade, spatial and temporal control.The proPO activating system plays a defensive role in arthropods, molluscs, annelids, ascidians and the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri.In the present paper, we report on ascidian proPO system and related molecules, with particular focus on the biochemical, cellular and molecular aspects of the Ciona intestinalis, proPO system of circulating hemocytes from naïve ascidians as well as of body wall following LPS inflammatory challenge.

  14. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  15. Strategies for operation of containment related ESFs in managing activity release to the environment during accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Indian PHWR design, a double containment concept with passive vapour suppression pool (to limit peak pressure) system has been adopted. In addition to it, various Engineered Safety Features (ESFs) have been incorporated to limit the release of radioactivity to the environment. They are: Reactor building emergency coolers for cooling which results in fast reduction of overpressure; Primary Containment Filtration and Pump Back System (PCFPBS) for reduction in iodine concentration inside RB atmosphere during post LOCA period; and, Primary Containment Controlled Discharge System (PCCDS) for the rapid reduction of over-pressure tail. Due to operation of secondary containment purge system, which maintain negative pressure in the annulus, the ground level release is negligibly small. However, if non- availability of negative pressure in secondary containment space is assumed, then operation of PCFPBS and PCCDS system reduces the ground level release significantly. In this situation, depending upon time of operation of the PCFPBS, it can effectively reduce the iodine release, both in stack level and ground level by trapping it in charcoal filters. It is seen that delay time of PCFPBS operation in conjunction with prevailing weather condition can be manipulated to reduce the effect of stack level release of iodine. In this paper the containment related ESFs used in Indian PHWR is discussed in brief and the effectiveness of operator actions and management strategies in actuation of the ESFs in reducing the activity release to environment (during postulated accident conditions) will be brought out. (author)

  16. Conceptual design of passive containment cooling system with air holdup tanks in the concrete containment of improved APR+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byong Guk; NO, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.kr

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design of passive containment cooling system (PCCS) based on APR+ is proposed. • Decay heat removal rate is to be maximized by introducing air holdup tanks (AHT). • Only air is transported into the AHT decreasing air mass fraction near HXs inside containment and increasing heat transfer rates. • Large AHT volume gives significantly higher heat removal rate. • External HXs have merits over in-tube HXs for long term cooling. - Abstract: The accident of the Fukushima nuclear power plant emphasized passive systems against prolonged station blackout. This paper aims at conceptual design of passive containment cooling system (PCCS) based on APR+, an advanced PWR developed in Korea with passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). In the design, decay heat removal rate is to be maximized by introducing air holdup tanks (AHT). The AHT is an isolated space disposed above IRWST and is connected to the containment free space by vent lines through IRWST water and PAFS heat exchangers (HXs), where steam generated by decay heat is condensed. Since a lot of steam is condensed through in-tube HXs and IRWST water, air is mainly transported into the AHT decreasing air mass fraction near HXs inside containment and increasing heat transfer rates. Several design options (AHT volume, flow distribution in vent lines, HX types) are evaluated via scoping analysis. The scoping analysis had proved that AHT (>10% containment volume) decreased the required number of PCCS HXs to be installed less than a half, failure of valves caused marginal increase in HXs to be installed, and external HXs had merits over in-tube HXs for long term cooling.

  17. Thermodynamic behaviour of an externally cooled, internally heated containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of a core melt accident, outside spraying of the containment is one of the emergency cooling possibilities. For the experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer in laboratory scale, a model containment was built with a diameter of one meter. Additionally a cylinder may be inserted between sump and hemisphere, to enlarge the height of the model containment. The maximum heat power is 11 kW. Thermocouples are used to measure the temperatures at the inside of the containment wall, in the sump and in the containment atmosphere. It is possible to measure the velocity profile under the spherical upper plenum by laser-doppler-anemometrie. Parameter of the experiments were inside coating, height from sump to hemisphere, initial air pressure, cooling water mass flow and sump heating power. The production of inerts, a possible leakage of a controlled blow down gives a change in inerts. The choice of the amount of gas at the start of each experiment allows to consider above facts. The measurements of heat transfer by free convection (Nu/sub FK/) are for big amount of inerts quite good but for lower parts not sucessful.The mass transfer (Sh) has a good reproducibility. By low amount of inerts laminar flow occurs. The influence of the density ratio is much smaller than in the heat transfer correlation, but necessary to consider the turbulent character of the flow. The velocity measurements show a central upstreaming and a down movement along the walls of the pilot plant. A high degree of turbulence was detected. The heat and mass transfer correlations are the experimental base of the calculation of the total inner heat transfer coefficient in the containment simulation code CONTRO. (author)

  18. Alternative BWR plant shutdown system using fire protection system and containment vent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In certain severe accidents, caused by factors beyond the plant design bases, a loss of operability in the systems normally used to attain safe shutdown of the plant could occur. For such situations, Cofrentes NPP has carried out a series of studied and modifications that aim to attain safe shutdown using alternative systems which have their own power supply systems and are not dependent on external or emergency networks. These alternative systems include some existing plant systems (fire protection system, FPS) which have been validated to perform new operations, as well as other systems wich have been developed recently (containment venting system, CVS). Reactor cooling is restored through the injection of water using the FPS system (diesel pump), and the residual heat removal function is performed by discharging water through the relief valves into the suppression pool and from there into the external atmosphere by means of the CVS. (Author) 6 refs

  19. 77 FR 35993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... affected agencies. This information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and... Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Cargo Container...

  20. 78 FR 9720 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 69650) on November 20, 2012, allowing for... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Holders or Containers which enter...

  1. 77 FR 6815 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin... requirement concerning Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders. This request for...: Title: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders. OMB Number: 1651-0057....

  2. Extra amino group-containing gramicidin S analogs possessing outer membrane-permeabilizing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Masao; Tanaka, Ryoji; Yamamura, Hatsuo; Yasuda, Keiko; Narita, Shizuto; Umemoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Setsuko; Katsu, Takashi; ヤマムラ, ハツオ; 山村, 初雄

    2003-01-01

    Novel (2S,4R)- and (2S,4S)-4-aminoproline residue-containing analogs of the cyclic decapeptide antibiotic gramicidin S were synthesized, which exhibited marked permeabilizing activity on the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria.

  3. Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work demonstrated the effective containment of radioactive gases by the filter and inactivation of organisms as heat sensitive as HIV. The authors sought to broaden the application of this model to ensure inactivation of microorganisms that are more heat resistant than HIV. The efficacy of steam sterilization using water or solutions of iodophor, hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide was studied under constant temperature and time conditions. The systems were monitored with internal probes, physical, chemical, and biological indicators. Biological indicators documented inactivation when bags containing hydrogen peroxide (3%) were autoclaved for 60 min at 121C. Synergistic activity between hydrogen peroxide and autoclave conditions significantly reduced processing time

  4. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  5. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... of ISD, abandoning the idea of a monolithic approach to knowledge and presenting a pluralistic approach based on the idea that different inquiring systems can support micro-level ISD activities. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theoretical development of the framework...... based on ISD literature and on Churchman's (1971) inquiring systems. The second part presents the use of the framework in an ISD project. The case is used to show the applicability of the framework and to highlight the advantages of this approach. The main theoretical implication is that the framework...

  6. The active site of low-temperature methane hydroxylation in iron-containing zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Benjamin E. R.; Vanelderen, Pieter; Bols, Max L.; Hallaert, Simon D.; Böttger, Lars H.; Ungur, Liviu; Pierloot, Kristine; Schoonheydt, Robert A.; Sels, Bert F.; Solomon, Edward I.

    2016-08-01

    An efficient catalytic process for converting methane into methanol could have far-reaching economic implications. Iron-containing zeolites (microporous aluminosilicate minerals) are noteworthy in this regard, having an outstanding ability to hydroxylate methane rapidly at room temperature to form methanol. Reactivity occurs at an extra-lattice active site called α-Fe(II), which is activated by nitrous oxide to form the reactive intermediate α-O; however, despite nearly three decades of research, the nature of the active site and the factors determining its exceptional reactivity are unclear. The main difficulty is that the reactive species—α-Fe(II) and α-O—are challenging to probe spectroscopically: data from bulk techniques such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility are complicated by contributions from inactive ‘spectator’ iron. Here we show that a site-selective spectroscopic method regularly used in bioinorganic chemistry can overcome this problem. Magnetic circular dichroism reveals α-Fe(II) to be a mononuclear, high-spin, square planar Fe(II) site, while the reactive intermediate, α-O, is a mononuclear, high-spin Fe(IV)=O species, whose exceptional reactivity derives from a constrained coordination geometry enforced by the zeolite lattice. These findings illustrate the value of our approach to exploring active sites in heterogeneous systems. The results also suggest that using matrix constraints to activate metal sites for function—producing what is known in the context of metalloenzymes as an ‘entatic’ state—might be a useful way to tune the activity of heterogeneous catalysts.

  7. The active site of low-temperature methane hydroxylation in iron-containing zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Benjamin E R; Vanelderen, Pieter; Bols, Max L; Hallaert, Simon D; Böttger, Lars H; Ungur, Liviu; Pierloot, Kristine; Schoonheydt, Robert A; Sels, Bert F; Solomon, Edward I

    2016-08-18

    An efficient catalytic process for converting methane into methanol could have far-reaching economic implications. Iron-containing zeolites (microporous aluminosilicate minerals) are noteworthy in this regard, having an outstanding ability to hydroxylate methane rapidly at room temperature to form methanol. Reactivity occurs at an extra-lattice active site called α-Fe(ii), which is activated by nitrous oxide to form the reactive intermediate α-O; however, despite nearly three decades of research, the nature of the active site and the factors determining its exceptional reactivity are unclear. The main difficulty is that the reactive species-α-Fe(ii) and α-O-are challenging to probe spectroscopically: data from bulk techniques such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility are complicated by contributions from inactive 'spectator' iron. Here we show that a site-selective spectroscopic method regularly used in bioinorganic chemistry can overcome this problem. Magnetic circular dichroism reveals α-Fe(ii) to be a mononuclear, high-spin, square planar Fe(ii) site, while the reactive intermediate, α-O, is a mononuclear, high-spin Fe(iv)=O species, whose exceptional reactivity derives from a constrained coordination geometry enforced by the zeolite lattice. These findings illustrate the value of our approach to exploring active sites in heterogeneous systems. The results also suggest that using matrix constraints to activate metal sites for function-producing what is known in the context of metalloenzymes as an 'entatic' state-might be a useful way to tune the activity of heterogeneous catalysts. PMID:27535535

  8. Antiviral Activity of Metal-Containing Polymers—Organotin and Cisplatin-Like Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Barot

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymers containing platinum and to a lesser extent tin, have repeatedly demonstrated antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo against a variety of cell and tumor types. The mechanisms responsible for the antitumor activity include inducing a delay in cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchanges blocking tumor growth. As most DNA and some RNA viruses require, and even induce, infected cells to initiate DNA replication and subsequent cell division, compounds with antitumor activity will very likely also possess antiviral activity. This article examines the use of metal-containing polymers as a novel class of antivirals.

  9. Development of integrated containment and surveillance system for fast critical facility FCA. Portal and penetration monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Ogawa, Hironobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yokota, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    Manpower and radiation exposure problems, accompanied by frequent Non Destructive Assay (NDA) based inspections at the Fast Critical Facility FCA of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), are a burden for both the inspectorates and the facility operator. In the hope of alleviating these burdens, the development of containment and surveillance measures for the FCA was initiated in 1979. The integrated containment and surveillance system consists of a portal monitor and a penetration monitor. The reactor building provides an ideal containment measure because of its explosion-proof, airtight structure and limited number of penetrations. The function of the portal monitor is to detect undeclared removal of nuclear material from the reactor building through the doorway. The penetration monitor is designed for surveillance of diversion routes through containment boundaries, and of safeguards related activities for bypassing the portal monitor. The combination of monitoring by the penetration monitor of containment boundaries and all their penetrations except for the doorway, and monitoring by the portal monitor, provides complete coverage of realistic diversion routes. The development of the system was completed in 1988 and the field trial test was conducted for the period of twelve running months. The final report on the field trial was concluded on January 1990. The major conclusion of the report was that the system is effective, reliable and efficient. Following this successful conclusion, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) accepted the system for meeting its safeguards goals at the FCA on condition that an independent IAEA authentication equipment is provided. The development of the authentication equipment is accomplished as an separate Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) task. (author)

  10. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Benzoyl Hydrazines Containing Pyrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫涛; 于淑晶; 刘鹏飞; 刘卓; 王宝雷; 熊丽霞; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign compounds with high biological activity, low toxicity and low resistance, 8 novel benzoyl hydrazines containing pyrazole were designed and synthesized. All compounds were characterized by I H NMR spectra and HRMS. The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicated that most of title compounds exhibited certain insecticidal activities against M),thimna separata Walker at 200 mg L-1 but excellent fungicidal activities against six fungus at 50 mg L-1, which were better than the control.

  11. Sodium-ion supercapacitors based on nanoporous pyroproteins containing redox-active heteroatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Se Youn; Yoon, Hyeon Ji; Kim, Na Rae; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2016-10-01

    Nanostructured carbon-based materials fabricated via simple methods from renewable bio-resources have great potential in rechargeable energy storage systems. In this study, nanoporous pyroproteins containing a large amount of redox-active heteroatoms (H-NPs) were fabricated from silk fibroin by an in situ carbonization/activation method. The H-NPs have a large surface area of ∼3050 m2 g-1, which is mainly comprised of nanometer-scale pores. Also, these H-NPs have oxygen and nitrogen heteroatoms of 17.4 wt% and 2.9 wt%, respectively. Synergistic sodium ion storage behaviors originate from electrochemical double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, leading to very high electrochemical performances of H-NPs in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolyte systems. Sodium-ion supercapacitors (NISs) based on commercial graphite//H-NPs show a high specific power of ∼1900 W kg-1 at ∼77 Wh kg-1. Also, NISs based on commercial hard carbon//H-NPs exhibit a high specific energy of ∼217 Wh kg-1 at ∼42 W kg-1. In addition, outstanding cycling performances over 30,000 cycles are achieved for symmetric NISs.

  12. CZECHOSLOVAK ACTIVITY TO PREPARE EUROPEAN NORMS FOR CONTAINERS BEFORE THE SECOND WORLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lewandowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In many articles we can read that containers weren't in Europe before 1966, when ship SS Fariland came with 35 feet containers invented by Keith Tantlinger for Sea Land Company owned by Malcom McLean. The focus of this study is on the problem with development norms for European containers. Thus, the main definitions and briefly literature overview in the analysed research area are given. Later, the information about these constructions are developed. Article presents Czechoslovak activity to preparation of three European norms for containers, which were described before Second World War.

  13. Life cycle assessment of façade coating systems containing manufactured nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hischier, Roland, E-mail: roland.hischier@empa.ch; Nowack, Bernd [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland); Gottschalk, Fadri [ETSS (Switzerland); Hincapie, Ingrid [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland); Steinfeldt, Michael [University of Bremen FB 4/FG 10 Technological Design and Development (Germany); Som, Claudia [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    Nanotechnologies are expected to hold considerable potential for the development of new materials in the construction sector. Up to now the environmental benefits and risks of products containing manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) have been quantified only to a limited extent. This study aims to assess the potential environmental, health and safety impacts of coatings containing MNM using Life-cycle assessment: Do paints containing MNM result in a better environmental performance than paints not containing MNM? The study shows that the results depend on a number of factors: (i) The MNM have to substitute an (active) ingredient of the initial paint composition and not simply be an additional ingredient. (ii) The new composition has to extend the lifetime of the paint for such a time period that the consumption of paint along the life cycle of a building is reduced. (iii) Releases of MNM have to be reduced to the lowest level possible (in particular by dumping unused paint together with the packaging). Only when all these boundary conditions are fulfilled, which is the case only for one of the three paint systems examined, is an improved environmental performance of the MNM-containing paint possible for the paint compositions examined in this study.

  14. Life cycle assessment of façade coating systems containing manufactured nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnologies are expected to hold considerable potential for the development of new materials in the construction sector. Up to now the environmental benefits and risks of products containing manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) have been quantified only to a limited extent. This study aims to assess the potential environmental, health and safety impacts of coatings containing MNM using Life-cycle assessment: Do paints containing MNM result in a better environmental performance than paints not containing MNM? The study shows that the results depend on a number of factors: (i) The MNM have to substitute an (active) ingredient of the initial paint composition and not simply be an additional ingredient. (ii) The new composition has to extend the lifetime of the paint for such a time period that the consumption of paint along the life cycle of a building is reduced. (iii) Releases of MNM have to be reduced to the lowest level possible (in particular by dumping unused paint together with the packaging). Only when all these boundary conditions are fulfilled, which is the case only for one of the three paint systems examined, is an improved environmental performance of the MNM-containing paint possible for the paint compositions examined in this study

  15. Immune complexes that contain HIV antigens activate peripheral blood T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolevskaya, L B; Shmagel, K V; Saidakova, E V; Shmagel, N G; Chereshnev, V A

    2016-07-01

    Uninfected donor T cells were treated in vitro by model immune complexes that contained either HIV or hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens. Unlike HCV antigen-containing complexes, the immune complexes that contained HIV antigens have been shown to activate peripheral blood T cells of uninfected donors under in vitro conditions. Both the antiviral antibodies and HIV antigen were involved in the activation process. The unique properties of the immune complexes formed by HIV antigens and antiviral antibodies are believed to result from the virus-specific antibody properties and molecular conformation of the antigen-antibody complex. PMID:27595830

  16. Mechanical evaluation of matrix type transdermal therapeutic systems containing captopril

    OpenAIRE

    KERİMOĞLU, Oya; Şahbaz, Sevinç; ŞEHİRLİ, Ahmet Özer; Dortunç, Betül; Şener, Göksel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate themechanical properties of transdermal therapeuticsystems (TTS) containing captopril together withsynthetic and pH independent polymers, EudragitRL 100 and RS 100. The formulations werecharacterized in terms of their adhesiveness andbioadhesiveness by using texture analyser. Theseoptimum formulations were chosen according to theresults of our previous study regarding in vitrodissolution and ex vivo diffusion rate studies throughexcised human skin b...

  17. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  18. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  19. Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases

  20. Verifying Normative System Specification containing Collective Imperatives and Deadlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasparini, Luca; Norman, Timothy J.; Kollingbaum, Martin J.; Chen, Liang; Meyer, John-Jules Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Our focus is on the specification and verification of normative systems that include contrary-to-duty, collective and event-driven imperatives with deadlines. We propose an operational syntax and semantics for the specification of such systems. Using Maude and its model checker, we show how Linear T

  1. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles has been studied. Nano-Ag sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed silver nanoparticles (d50∼11 ± 9 nm) were used as the source of silver. This powder presents a high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) as well as antifungal (against I. orientalis) activity. The observed high activity against yeast has been explained by considering the inhibitory effect of the Ca2+ lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the yeast colonies.

  2. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    of propositions that links headquarters unbundling and relocation to complexity and rising coordination costs. Moreover, we argue that the coordination costs are often neglected in the headquarters reconfiguration process. In sum, we provide a novel perspective on modern MNC headquarters configurations, derive......Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set...... consequences for MNC research, and develop a model that aims at explaining the stability of such systems....

  3. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Larsen, Marcus M.

    of propositions that links headquarters unbundling and relocation to complexity and rising coordination costs. Moreover, we argue that the coordination costs are often neglected in the headquarters reconfiguration process. In sum, we provide a novel perspective on modern MNC headquarters configurations, derive......Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set...... consequences for MNC research, and develop a model that aims at explaining the stability of such systems....

  4. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  5. Coxsackievirus cloverleaf RNA containing a 5' triphosphate triggers an antiviral response via RIG-I activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qian; Langereis, Martijn A; Olagnier, David; Chiang, Cindy; van de Winkel, Roel; van Essen, Peter; Zoll, Jan; Hiscott, John; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2014-01-01

    Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes and by activating components of the adaptive immune system. Although pegylated IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis B and C virus infections for decades, they exert substantial side effects that limit their use. Current efforts are directed toward the use of PRR agonists as an alternative approach to elicit host antiviral responses in a manner similar to that achieved in a natural infection. RIG-I is a cytosolic PRR that recognizes 5' triphosphate (5'ppp)-containing RNA ligands. Due to its ubiquitous expression profile, induction of the RIG-I pathway provides a promising platform for the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study, we investigated whether structured RNA elements in the genome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a picornavirus that is recognized by MDA5 during infection, could activate RIG-I when supplied with 5'ppp. We show here that a 5'ppp-containing cloverleaf (CL) RNA structure is a potent RIG-I inducer that elicits an extensive antiviral response that includes induction of classical interferon-stimulated genes, as well as type III IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we show that prophylactic treatment with CVB3 CL provides protection against various viral infections including dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and enterovirus 71, demonstrating the antiviral efficacy of this RNA ligand. PMID:24759703

  6. Coxsackievirus cloverleaf RNA containing a 5' triphosphate triggers an antiviral response via RIG-I activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Feng

    Full Text Available Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes and by activating components of the adaptive immune system. Although pegylated IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis B and C virus infections for decades, they exert substantial side effects that limit their use. Current efforts are directed toward the use of PRR agonists as an alternative approach to elicit host antiviral responses in a manner similar to that achieved in a natural infection. RIG-I is a cytosolic PRR that recognizes 5' triphosphate (5'ppp-containing RNA ligands. Due to its ubiquitous expression profile, induction of the RIG-I pathway provides a promising platform for the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study, we investigated whether structured RNA elements in the genome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3, a picornavirus that is recognized by MDA5 during infection, could activate RIG-I when supplied with 5'ppp. We show here that a 5'ppp-containing cloverleaf (CL RNA structure is a potent RIG-I inducer that elicits an extensive antiviral response that includes induction of classical interferon-stimulated genes, as well as type III IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we show that prophylactic treatment with CVB3 CL provides protection against various viral infections including dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and enterovirus 71, demonstrating the antiviral efficacy of this RNA ligand.

  7. Validation of computer code TRAFIC used for estimation of charcoal heatup in containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Standard Indian PHWRs are provided with a Primary Containment Filtration and Pump-Back System (PCFPB) incorporating charcoal filters in the ventilation circuit to remove radioactive iodine that may be released from reactor core into the containment during LOCA+ECCS failure which is a Design Basis Accident for containment of radioactive release. This system is provided with two identical air circulation loops, each having 2 full capacity fans (1 operating and 1 standby) for a bank of four combined charcoal and High Efficiency Particulate Activity (HEPA) filters, in addition to other filters. While the filtration circuit is designed to operate under forced flow conditions, it is of interest to understand the performance of the charcoal filters, in the event of failure of the fans after operating for some time, i.e., when radio-iodine inventory is at its peak value. It is of interest to check whether the buoyancy driven natural circulation occurring in the filtration circuit is sufficient enough to keep the temperature in the charcoal under safe limits. A computer code TRAFIC (Transient Analysis of Filters in Containment) was developed using conservative one dimensional model to analyze the system. Suitable parametric studies were carried out to understand the problem and to identify the safety of existing system. TRAFIC Code has two important components. The first one estimates the heat generation in charcoal filter based on 'Source Term'; while the other one performs thermal-hydraulic computations. In an attempt validate the Code, experimental studies have been carried out. For this purpose, an experimental set up comprising of scaled down model of filtration circuit with heating coils embedded in charcoal for simulating the heating effect due to radio iodine has been constructed. The present work of validation consists of utilizing the results obtained from experiments conducted for different heat loads, elevations and adsorbent

  8. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Chiral α-Aminophosphonates Containing Fluorine Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Song; XUE Wei; ZHOU Xia; LU Ping; GAO Xing-Wen; DIAO Chun-Ling; SONG Bao-An; JIN Lin-Hong; XU Guang-Fang; ZHANG Guo-Ping; WANG Wei; HU De-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Chiral α-aminophosphonates were synthesized using (R) or (S)-1-phenylethylamine in the presence of BF3·Et2O under microwave irradiation in moderate to good yields. The new compounds were identified by 1H NMR, 19F NMR, IR and elemental analysis. Their antifungal activities were evaluated and some compounds were found to exhibit excellentantifungal activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antifungal activity of chiral α-aminophosphonates containing fluorine moiety.

  9. Antiviral Activity of Metal-Containing Polymers—Organotin and Cisplatin-Like Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Barot; Roner, Michael R.; Charles E. Carraher Jr.; Kimberly Shahi

    2011-01-01

    Polymers containing platinum and to a lesser extent tin, have repeatedly demonstrated antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo against a variety of cell and tumor types. The mechanisms responsible for the antitumor activity include inducing a delay in cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchanges blocking tumor growth. As most DNA and some RNA viruses require, and even induce, infected cells to initiate DNA replication and subsequent cell division, compounds with antitumor activity will ve...

  10. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%–8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions.

  11. Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) in an activated sludge unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Fikret; Eker, Serkan; Uygur, Ahmet

    2005-08-01

    Chlorophenol compounds present in many chemical industry wastewaters are resistant to biological degradation because of the toxic effects of such compounds on microorganisms. Synthetic wastewater containing different concentrations of 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) was subjected to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit. Effects of feed DCP concentration on COD, DCP, and toxicity removals and on sludge volume index were investigated at a constant sludge age of 10 days and hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 25 h. The Resazurin method based on dehydrogenase activity was used for assessment of toxicity for the feed and effluent wastewater. Percent COD, DCP, and toxicity removals decreased and the effluent COD, DCP, and toxicity levels increased with increasing feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) because of inhibitory effects of DCP. Biomass concentration in the aeration tank decreased and the sludge volume index (SVI) increased with feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) resulting in lower COD and DCP removal rates. The system should be operated at feed DCP concentrations of less than 150 mgl(-1) in order to obtain high COD, DCP, and toxicity removals.

  12. 78 FR 22293 - Certain Microelectromechanical Systems (“MEMS Devices”) and Products Containing Same; Institution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Microelectromechanical Systems (``MEMS Devices'') and Products Containing Same... United States after importation of certain microelectromechanical systems (``MEMS Devices'') and products... after importation of certain microelectromechanical systems (``MEMS Devices'') and products...

  13. Reliability and performance evaluation of systems containing embedded rule-based expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Robert M.; Adams, Milton B.; Harrison, James V. A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for evaluating the reliability of real-time systems containing embedded rule-based expert systems is proposed and investigated. It is a three stage technique that addresses the impact of knowledge-base uncertainties on the performance of expert systems. In the first stage, a Markov reliability model of the system is developed which identifies the key performance parameters of the expert system. In the second stage, the evaluation method is used to determine the values of the expert system's key performance parameters. The performance parameters can be evaluated directly by using a probabilistic model of uncertainties in the knowledge-base or by using sensitivity analyses. In the third and final state, the performance parameters of the expert system are combined with performance parameters for other system components and subsystems to evaluate the reliability and performance of the complete system. The evaluation method is demonstrated in the context of a simple expert system used to supervise the performances of an FDI algorithm associated with an aircraft longitudinal flight-control system.

  14. The achievement and assessment of safety in systems containing software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish confidence in the safe operation of a reactor protection system, there is a need to establish, as far as it is possible, that: (i) the algorithms used are correct; (ii) the system is a correct implementation of the algorithms; and (iii) the hardware is sufficiently reliable. This paper concentrates principally on the second of these, as it applies to the software aspect of the more accurate and complex trip functions to be performed by modern reactor protection systems. In order to engineer safety into software, there is a need to use a development strategy which will stand a high chance of achieving a correct implementation of the trip algorithms. This paper describes three broad methodologies by which it is possible to enhance the integrity of software: fault avoidance, fault tolerance and fault removal. Fault avoidance is concerned with making the software as fault free as possible by appropriate choice of specification, design and implementation methods. A fault tolerant strategy may be advisable in many safety critical applications, in order to guard against residual faults present in the software of the installed system. Fault detection and removal techniques are used to remove as many faults as possible of those introduced during software development. The paper also discusses safety and reliability assessment as it applies to software, outlining the various approaches available. Finally, there is an outline of a research project underway in the UKAEA which is intended to assess methods for developing and testing safety and protection systems involving software. (author)

  15. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  16. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is

  17. SOLAR POWERED WATER COLLECTION, CONTAINMENT, AND SELF REGULATING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, over 40 million pounds of Carbon Dioxide were released annually in an effort to water large planters. In addition, over 364 million gallons of water are used to maintain their health. By implementing a system within the planters that allows for onsite water storage wi...

  18. Influence of Composite Phosphate Inorganic Antibacterial Materials Containing Rare Earth on Activated Water Property of Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁金生; 梁广川; 祁洪飞; 吴子钊; 冀志江; 金宗哲

    2004-01-01

    Antibacterial ceramic was prepared by doping enamel slurry with composite phosphate inorganic antibacterial materials containing rare earth (inorganic antibacterial additives), and then the mechanisms for activating water and improving seed germinative property were tested by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the method of testing oxygen dissolved in activated water. Results show that the half peak width of 17O-NMR for tap water activated by the antibacterial ceramic drops from 115.36 to 99.15 Hz, and oxygen concentrations of activated water increase by 20%, germinate rate of horsebean and earthnut seeds increases by 12.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Therefore antibacterial ceramic doped enamel slurry with inorganic antibacterial additives containing rare earth can reduce the volume of clusters of water molecules, improve activation of tap water, and promote plant seeds germinate.

  19. 40 CFR 281.37 - Financial responsibility for UST systems containing petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for No-Less-Stringent § 281.37 Financial responsibility for UST systems containing petroleum. (a) In... UST systems containing petroleum, the state requirements for financial responsibility for petroleum... requirements. Financial responsibility requirements for petroleum UST systems must, at a minimum, be...

  20. 46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed...

  1. Development of active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) starch containing gold nanoparticles and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagno, Carlos H; Costa, Tania M H; de Menezes, Eliana W; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Hertz, Plinho F; Matte, Carla R; Tosati, Juliano V; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2015-04-15

    Active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, W.) starch were prepared by incorporating gold nanoparticles stabilised by an ionic silsesquioxane that contains the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride group. The biofilms were characterised and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusaureus. The presence of gold nanoparticles produces an improvement in the mechanical, optical and morphological properties, maintaining the thermal and barrier properties unchanged when compared to the standard biofilm. The active biofilms exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens with inhibition percentages of 99% against E. coli and 98% against S. aureus. These quinoa starch biofilms containing gold nanoparticles are very promising to be used as active food packaging for the maintenance of food safety and extension of the shelf life of packaged foods. PMID:25466086

  2. Hydrogen behaviour in the filtra filtered-vented containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen behaviour in gravel beds has been studied experimentally to obtain design data for vent filter systems with gravel condensers. Filtered atmospheric venting of Light Water Reactors is considered as a means of reducing the risk of extensive land contamination in connection with Class 9 accidents. The purpose of the FILTRA project is to provide the technical basis for an evaluation of the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost of some vent filter design concepts

  3. Study on Modeling of Container Terminal Logistics System Using Agent-Based Computing and Knowledge Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Li Bin; Li Wen-Feng; Zhang Yu

    2009-01-01

    Container terminal is the transfer hinge of land-sea intermodal transportation. Container terminal logistics system (CTLS) is the central handling platform of container logistics in logistics network as the computer system is the core processing node to information flow in internet. Quay side is its “central processing unit (CPU)” of handling platform and storage yard is its “main memory.” CTLS is a highly complex system which includes parallel, negotiation, and competition relations etc. in ...

  4. The Evaluation and Implementation of a Water Containment System to Support Aerospace Flywheel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trase, Larry M.

    2002-01-01

    High-energy flywheel systems for aerospace power storage and attitude control applications are being developed because of the potential for increasing the energy density and reducing operational costs. A significant challenge facing the development of the test hardware is containment of the rotating elements in the event of a failure during the development and qualification stages of testing. This containment is critical in order to ensure the safety of the test personnel and the facility. A containment system utilizing water as the containment media is presented. Water containment was found to be a low cost, flexible, and highly effective containment system. Ballistic test results and analytical results are discussed along with a description of a flywheel test facility that was designed and built utilizing the water containment system at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland, Ohio.

  5. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L; Pecharroman, C; Moya, J S [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Malpartida, F [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Esteban-Cubillo, A, E-mail: jsmoya@icmm.csic.es [Tolsa S A R and D Department, Camino de Vallecas-Mejorada del Campo Km 1.6, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-16

    A low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing copper nanoparticles with high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal activity has been obtained. Sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed copper nanoparticles (d{sub 50}{approx}30 {+-} 5 nm) were used as the source of the copper nanoparticles. The observed high activity of the obtained glass powder, particularly against yeast, has been explained by considering the inhibitory synergistic effect of the Ca{sup 2+} lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the colonies.

  6. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing copper nanoparticles with high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal activity has been obtained. Sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed copper nanoparticles (d50∼30 ± 5 nm) were used as the source of the copper nanoparticles. The observed high activity of the obtained glass powder, particularly against yeast, has been explained by considering the inhibitory synergistic effect of the Ca2+ lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the colonies.

  7. Active Image Authentication System (AIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Nikam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Today’s networking age provides greater importance to the authentication mechanism for security. Authentication is the process of identification of user or client respect to service parameters. These service parameters consist of unique combination of password associated with username or userid. Graphical based authentication mechanism had provided strong alternative for knowledge based, token based {&} biometric authentication mechanism. In this paper we are going to propose new graphical based authentication mechanism. This Active Image Authentication System (AIAS provides strong solution on guessing attack using random positioning of Active Points (AP with respect to time domain

  8. Eradication of spontaneous metastases and activation of alveolar macrophages by intravenous injection of liposomes containing muramyl dipeptide.

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, I. J.; Sone, S.; Fogler, W. E.; Barnes, Z L

    1981-01-01

    The multiple systemic administration of multilamellar liposomes composed of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine (molar ratio 3:7) that contained water-soluble muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activated alveolar macrophages to become tumoricidal and eradicated established spontaneous pulmonary and lymph node metastases. Spontaneously metastasizing melanoma cells were injected into the footpads of mice. After 4-5 weeks, the tumors were resected by a midfemoral amputation; 3 days later, twice-week...

  9. Role of unsaturated soil in a waste containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, P.C.; Tay, J.H. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)

    1996-12-31

    The role of the unsaturated properties of sand as a drainage layer in a composite liner system for landfills is investigated. The effect of the unsaturated properties of coarse-grained soil on contaminant migration was evaluated by means of a series of simulations using a one-dimensional model of a two- and a three-layer soil liner system for advection and diffusion, respectively. The results showed that under seepage conditions, the effect of an unsaturated sand layer on the advancement of the concentration front was quite insignificant. The arrival time of the C/C{sub o} = 0.5 concentration front increased from 651 days for the case with no sand layer to approximately 951 days for the case with a 1.0-m sand layer. A steady-state flow condition was ultimately established in the sand, and this fact suggests that the capillary action might not be effective. For diffusion, the arrival time of the concentration front increased nonlinearly with a decrease in the degree of saturation and linearly with increasing depths of the sand layer. At a residual degree of saturation, the arrival times of the C/C{sub o} = 0.01 and 0.5 concentration front at the base of the 1-m sand layer were 26.9 and 877.4 years as compared to 1.52 and 2.62 years by advection, respectively. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Analysis of the exoplanet containing system Kepler 91

    CERN Document Server

    Budding, Edwin; Rhodes, Michael D; Demircan, Osman; Erdem, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    We have applied the graphical user interfaced close binary system analysis program WinFitter to an intensive study of Kepler 91 using all the available photometry from the NASA Exoplanet Archive (NEA) at the Caltech website: http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu Our fitting function for the tidal distortion derives from the relevant Radau equation and includes terms up to the fifth power of the fractional radius. This results in a systematic improvement in the mass ratio estimation over that of Lillo Box et al (2014a) and our derived value for the mass ratio is in close agreement with that inferred from recent high-resolution spectroscopic data. It is clear that the data analysis in terms of simply an eclipsing binary system is compromised by the presence of significant other causes of light variation, in particular non-radial pulsations. We apply a low-frequency filtering procedure to separate out some of this additional light variation. Whilst the derived eccentricity appears then reduced, an eccentric e...

  11. Highly efficient and enzymatic regioselective undecylenoylation of gastrodin in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-containing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongling Yang

    Full Text Available Highly efficient and regioselective acylation of pharmacologically interesting gastrodin with vinyl undecylenic acid has been firstly performed through an enzymatic approach. The highest catalytic activity and regioselectivity towards the acylation of 7'-hydroxyl of gastrodin was obtained with Pseudomonas cepacia lipase. In addition, it was observed the lipase displayed higher activity in the eco-friendly solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-containing systems than in other organic solvents. In the co-solvent mixture of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (3/1, v/v, the reaction rate was 60.6 mM/h, substrate conversion exceeded 99%, and 7'-regioselectivity was 93%. It was also interesting that the lipase-catalyzed acylation couldn't be influenced by the benzylic alcohol in gastrodin. However, pseudomonas cepacia lipase displayed different regioselectivity towards gastrodin and arbutin.

  12. Study on the adsorption of Cr(Ⅵ) onto landfill liners containing granular activated carbon or bentonite activated by acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hai-jun; LUAN Mao-tian; ZHANG Jin-li; YU Yong-xian

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of landfill liners containing granular activated carbon (GAC), or bentonite activated by acid, for Cr(VI) was investigated by batch testing. The results show that both GAC and activated bentonite could be used as sorptive amendments for trapping Cr(VI) in landfill liners. The Cr(VI) sorption to GAC and activated bentonite is much greater than Cr(VI) sorption to natural clay. The adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) onto all the soils increases with increasing temperature; adsorption ca-pacity is also significantly influenced by soil-solid concentration. As the soil-solid concentration increases the adsorption capacity first decreases logarithmically, but then stabilizes when the soil-solid concentration exceeds a critical value (e.g. 400 g/L). Perme-ability tests were conducted in the laboratory. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductivity of landfill liners containing GAC or activated bentonite can meet the engineering requirement of 1 nm/s. One-dimensional transport simulations for Cr(VI) were performed to evaluate the effect of GAC and activated bentonite on landfill liners. The results of the simulations indicate that land-fill liners containing GAC, or activated bentonite, significantly retard the transport of Cr(VI) relative to a conventional clay liner.

  13. Thermodynamic Modeling of Natural Gas Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini K.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2013-01-01

    with a heavy phase were previously obtained using cubic plus association (CPA) coupled with a solid phase model in the case of hydrates, for the binary systems of water–methane and water–nitrogen and a few natural gas mixtures. In this work, CPA is being validated against new experimental data, both water......As the need for dew point specifications remains very urgent in the natural gas industry, the development of accurate thermodynamic models, which will match experimental data and will allow reliable extrapolations, is needed. Accurate predictions of the gas phase water content in equilibrium...... content and phase equilibrium data, and solid model parameters are being estimated for four natural gas main components (methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide). Different tests for the solid model parameters are reported, including vapor-hydrate-equilibria (VHE) and liquid-hydrate-equilibria (LHE...

  14. Viscosity mixing rules for binary systems containing one ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Mohammed; Altamash, Tausif; Salavera, Daniel; Coronas, Alberto; Rebelo, Luis P N; Canongia Lopes, Jose N

    2013-06-24

    In this work the applicability of four of the most commonly used viscosity mixing rules to [ionic liquid (IL)+molecular solvent (MS)] systems is assessed. More than one hundred (IL+MS) binary mixtures were selected from the literature to test the viscosity mixing rules proposed by 1) Hind (Hi), 2) Grunberg and Nissan (G-N), 3) Herric (He) and 4) Katti and Chaudhri (K-C). The analyses were performed by estimating the average (absolute or relative) deviations, AADs and ARDs, between the available experimental data and the predicted ideal mixture viscosity values obtained by means of each rule. The interaction terms corresponding to the adjustable parameters inherent to each rule were also calculated and their trends discussed. PMID:23650138

  15. Immobilization and direct electrochemistry of copper-containing enzymes on active carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dongmei; CAI Chenxin; XING Wei; LU Tianhong

    2004-01-01

    Two typical and important copper-containing enzymes, laccase (Lac) and tyrosinase (Tyr), have been immobilized on the surface of active carbon with simple adsorption method. The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that the active carbon could promote the direct electron transfer of both Lac and Tyr and a pair of well-defined and nearly symmetric redox peaks appeared on the cyclic voltammograms of Lac or Tyr with the formal potential, E0′, independent on the scan rate. The further experimental results showed that the immobilized copper-containing oxidase displayed an excellent electrocatalytic activity to the electrochemical reduction of O2. The immobilization method presented here has several advantages, such as simplicity, easy to operation and keeping good activity of enzyme etc., and could be further used to study the direct electrochemistry of other redox proteins and enzymes and fabricate the catalysts for biofuel cell.

  16. Antibacterial activity of BMS-180680, a new catechol-containing monobactam.

    OpenAIRE

    Fung-Tomc, J; Bush, K; Minassian, B; Kolek, B; Flamm, R; Gradelski, E; Bonner, D

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro activities of a new catechol-containing monobactam, BMS-180680 (SQ 84,100), were compared to those of aztreonam, ceftazidime, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. BMS-180680 was often the most active compound against many species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) of < or = 0.5 microg/ml for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter diversus, Enterobacter a...

  17. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2007-09-11

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the re quest, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  18. Tribological Properties of Nano-dimensional Systems Containing Carbon Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Khomenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We review tribological properties of boundary films of hydrocarbons and water confined between atomically smooth and rough surfaces. Both theory and experiment show that ultrathin film of liquid with thickness less than six molecular diameters restricted in small volumes is solid-like. Such a state is characterized by the decrease of mobility of molecules related to the increase of relaxation times and decrease of the diffusion coefficient. Additionally, quasidiscrete layers of molecules appear and in-plane ordering of the layers occurs. Atomic-scale roughness of the walls destroys the order of the molecules. We also describe experimental studies of friction of graphite at the atomic level. The experiments suggest a principal possibility of superlubricity for the tungsten tip of friction force microscope sheared on the surface of graphite. A possible explanation of this phenomenon consists in the existence of the graphite nanoflake attached to the tip. However, reliable confirmation of this hypothesis is absent in the literature. We also review methods of the graphene preparation through exfoliation of a graphite sample and formation of defects in graphene as a result of its irradiation by different particles. We describe the experimental method of measurement of friction of metallic nanoparticles sliding on the surface of graphite. We consider basic advantages of this approach compared to the known methods and friction duality in these systems. The review indicates the necessity of further comprehensive theoretical study of friction of metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on atomically smooth surfaces.

  19. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR WORM DETECTION AND CONTAINMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.

  20. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and hemolysin activities and heat susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes after growth in media containing sodium chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1990-01-01

    The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and a thiol-activated hemolysin produced by four strains of Listeria monocytogenes propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride were examined. L. monocytogenes 7644 showed an increase in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and thiol-activated hemolysin activities when grown in a medium containing 2.5% (wt/vol) NaCl followed by a decrease in activities when propagated in media containing salt concentrations higher than 2...

  1. C-terminal moiety of Tudor contains its in vivo activity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Anne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early Drosophila embryos, the germ plasm is localized to the posterior pole region and is partitioned into the germline progenitors, known as pole cells. Germ plasm, or pole plasm, contains the polar granules which form during oogenesis and are required for germline development. Components of these granules are also present in the perinuclear region of the nurse cells, the nuage. One such component is Tudor (Tud which is a large protein containing multiple Tudor domains. It was previously reported that specific Tudor domains are required for germ cell formation and Tud localization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the function of Tud the distribution and functional activity of fragments of Tud were analyzed. These fragments were fused to GFP and the fusion proteins were synthesized during oogenesis. Non-overlapping fragments of Tud were found to be able to localize to both the nuage and pole plasm. By introducing these fragments into a tud mutant background and testing their ability to rescue the tud phenotype, I determined that the C-terminal moiety contains the functional activity of Tud. Dividing this fragment into two parts reduces its localization in pole plasm and abolishes its activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: I conclude that the C-terminal moiety of Tud contains all the information necessary for its localization in the nuage and pole plasm and its pole cell-forming activity. The present results challenge published data and may help refining the functional features of Tud.

  2. Studies on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole compounds Containing Thiophene Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; ZHANG Shu-sheng; HU Zhi-qiang; JIAO Kui

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen new triazole compounds containing thiophene groups were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by means of 1H NMR, IR, MS spectroscopies and elemental analyses. The preliminary biological tests show that the titled compounds exhibit some activities of fungicides and plant growth regulators.

  3. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  4. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of novel strobilurin analogues containing substituted N-phenylpyrimidin-2-amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Chao Li; Bao Shan Chai; Zhi Nian Li; Ji Chun Yang; Chang Ling Liu

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel strobilurin analogues containing substituted N-phenylpyrimidin-2-amines were synthesized. The structures of these new compounds were confirmed by ~1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis. Biological evaluation in the greenhouse showed several compounds have good fungicidal activities at 25 mg/L.

  5. Thermodynamics of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol Containing Systems Described by the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    -decane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and water) and different types of phase equilibria (vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and LLE) and thermodynamic properties (heat of mixing, activity coefficients). A less extensive investigation has also been performed on tetraethylene glycol (TeEG) containing systems...

  6. Interface requirements for coupling a containment code to a reactor system thermal hydraulic codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratta, A.J.

    1997-07-01

    To perform a complete analysis of a reactor transient, not only the primary system response but the containment response must also be accounted for. Such transients and accidents as a loss of coolant accident in both pressurized water and boiling water reactors and inadvertent operation of safety relief valves all challenge the containment and may influence flows because of containment feedback. More recently, the advanced reactor designs put forth by General Electric and Westinghouse in the US and by Framatome and Seimens in Europe rely on the containment to act as the ultimate heat sink. Techniques used by analysts and engineers to analyze the interaction of the containment and the primary system were usually iterative in nature. Codes such as RELAP or RETRAN were used to analyze the primary system response and CONTAIN or CONTEMPT the containment response. The analysis was performed by first running the system code and representing the containment as a fixed pressure boundary condition. The flows were usually from the primary system to the containment initially and generally under choked conditions. Once the mass flows and timing are determined from the system codes, these conditions were input into the containment code. The resulting pressures and temperatures were then calculated and the containment performance analyzed. The disadvantage of this approach becomes evident when one performs an analysis of a rapid depressurization or a long term accident sequence in which feedback from the containment can occur. For example, in a BWR main steam line break transient, the containment heats up and becomes a source of energy for the primary system. Recent advances in programming and computer technology are available to provide an alternative approach. The author and other researchers have developed linkage codes capable of transferring data between codes at each time step allowing discrete codes to be coupled together.

  7. Bactericidal activity of metal-mediated peroxide-ascorbate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Karnovsky, M L

    1974-11-01

    Model systems containing ascorbate, hydrogen peroxide, and divalent copper or cobalt have been shown to possess marked bactericidal activity. At equivalent concentrations, copper-containing systems were more bactericidal than the corresponding mixtures containing cobalt. Cobalt at concentrations below 10(-4) M did not appreciably augment microbicidal activity, whereas systems containing copper at concentrations as low as 5 x 10(-6) M were still capable of causing some bacterial death. Manganese was inactive. None of these systems was as potent as the well known myeloperoxidase-peroxide-halide system. The mechanisms of action of these systems are not as yet clear. The possibility that they function through the generation of superoxide (O(2) (-)), hydroxyl radical (OH.), or other free radicals was explored through the use of superoxide dismutase and several free radical scavengers. It seems likely at present that the two active metal-mediated systems function via separate mechanisms. The copper system acts with dehydroascorbate, whereas the cobalt system does not. Activity in the cobalt system appears to depend upon the generation of free radicals. PMID:16558093

  8. Identification, localization and morphology of APUD cells in gastroenteropancreatic system of stomach-containing teleosts

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Qian Sheng; Fang, Zhi Ping; Huang, Feng Jie

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To identify the type localization and morphology of APUD endocrine cells in the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system of stomach-containing teleosts, and study APUD endocrine system in the stomach, intestine and pancreas of fish species.

  9. STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN PORT CARGO FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN ASIAN CONTAINER PORT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    International audience This study discusses the structural changes in port cargo flow distribution in Asia and traffic inequality in Asian container port systems, by conducting an inequality decomposition analysis of the Gini index. Specifically, port systems considered here comprise 229 container ports, which were classified into fifteen port ranges according to their geographic locations and annual port container traffic data from 1980 to 2009. The results confirmed the trend of shrinkin...

  10. 77 FR 13350 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... complaint filed by Beacon Navigation GmbH of Zug, Switzerland (``Beacon''). 76 FR 72443 (Nov. 23, 2011). The... COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing the...

  11. Process and container system for transferring or transporting fuel elements from a nuclear power station to a store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of containers with three types of containers (an inside container, a transport container and a storage container) is used. One either sets the inside container open on the lid side into the transport container first in the water pond of the nuclear power station, and one then sets the fuel elements into the inside container, or one places the inside container, loaded with fuel elements away from the transport container, into the transport container. Both containers are then closed and are transported to the store as a unit. The storage container open on the lid side is prepared there, the floor of the transport container is opened and this, together with the inside container, is lifted above the storage container or set above the storage container. The inside container is then lowered onto the storage container, the transport container is removed and the lid of the storage container is closed. (orig./HP)

  12. Synthesis and extended activity of triazole-containing macrocyclic protease inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehere, A.D.; Pietsch, M.; Gütschow, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Peptide-derived protease inhibitors are an important class of compounds with the potential to treat a wide range of diseases. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a series of triazole- containing macrocyclic protease inhibitors pre-organized into a b-strand conformation and an evaluation...... of their activity against a panel of proteases. Acyclic azidoalkyne-based aldehydes are also evaluated for comparison. The macrocyclic peptidomimetics showed considerable activity towards calpain II, cathepsin L and S, and the 20S proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity. Some of the first examples of highly potent...

  13. Modular System to Enable Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to perform extravehicular activity (EVA), both human and robotic, has been identified as a key component to space missions to support such operations as assembly and maintenance of space systems (e.g. construction and maintenance of the International Space Station), and unscheduled activities to repair an element of the transportation and habitation systems that can only be accessed externally and via unpressurized areas. In order to make human transportation beyond lower Earth orbit (LEO) practical, efficiencies must be incorporated into the integrated transportation systems to reduce system mass and operational complexity. Affordability is also a key aspect to be considered in space system development; this could be achieved through commonality, modularity and component reuse. Another key aspect identified for the EVA system was the ability to produce flight worthy hardware quickly to support early missions and near Earth technology demonstrations. This paper details a conceptual architecture for a modular EVA system that would meet these stated needs for EVA capability that is affordable, and that could be produced relatively quickly. Operational concepts were developed to elaborate on the defined needs, and to define the key capabilities, operational and design constraints, and general timelines. The operational concept lead to a high level design concept for a module that interfaces with various space transportation elements and contains the hardware and systems required to support human and telerobotic EVA; the module would not be self-propelled and would rely on an interfacing element for consumable resources. The conceptual architecture was then compared to EVA Systems used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter, on the International Space Station to develop high level design concepts that incorporate opportunities for cost savings through hardware reuse, and quick production through the use of existing technologies and hardware designs. An upgrade option

  14. Authentication system for the JAERI Fast Critical Facility Advanced Containment and Surveillance System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a joint effort conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), an authentication system has been installed at the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) facility in Tokai-mura, Japan. The purpose of this authentication system is to provide the IAEA with an independent means of authenticating the operator-provided Advanced Containment and Survellance (AC/S) system already in place at the facility. Authentication Controllers were installed at the AC/S Portal Monkor and Penetration Monitor to collect data and to randomly test sensor functions between IAEA inspections. During each inspection the authentication data is collected with an Inspector's portable computer and printed for comparison to the data recorded by the AC/S system. Installation of the authentication equipment took place in November 1991 and a three-month field test began in December 1991. This paper will describe the authentication system, the operator interface, and the preliminary results of the field tests

  15. ALIBABA: a French Expert System for PWR Containment Analysis in case of Severe Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    cannot be realistically quantified without a complete knowledge of the state of the containment barrier. ALIBABA supports its assessment on containment isolation reports, on the availability of equipment related to the containment integrity function and on the activity readings either in the various rooms of auxiliary buildings or in the ventilation ducts. It enables an early detection and localization of any potential leak path. It also helps IPSN's experts survey the corrective arrangements set by the plant in order to take their efficiency into account in the evaluation of radioactive releases. The expert system helps the specialist but does not substitute his judgment. The expert remains fully responsible for his own assessment. ALIBABA has proved its efficiency to IPSN's experts for the early detection and identification of potential leak paths of the third containment barrier and its connected circuits, for 900 MWe French PWRs. The enlargement of the system to 1300 and 1400 MWe reactors is well under way and should be in operation by the end of this year. (author)

  16. Tyrosine kinase activity of a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptor containing the insulin receptor C-terminal domain. Comparison with the tyrosine kinase activities of the insulin and insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptors using a cell-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothe, I; Tartare, S; Kowalski-Chauvel, A; Kaliman, P; Van Obberghen, E; Ballotti, R

    1995-03-15

    In a previous study, we showed that a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor, with the beta subunit C-terminal part of the insulin receptor was more efficient in stimulating glycogen synthesis and p44mapk activity compared to the wild-type IFG-1 receptor [Tartare, S., Mothe, I., Kowalski-Chauvel, A., Breittmayer, J.-P., Ballotti, R. & Van Obberghen, E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 11449-11455]. These data indicate that the receptor C-terminal domain plays an important role in the transmission of biological effects. To understand the molecular basis of the differences in receptor specificity, we studied the characteristics of insulin, IGF-1 and chimeric receptor tyrosine kinase activities in a cell-free system. We found that, compared to wild-type insulin and IGF-1 receptors, the chimeric receptor showed a decrease in (a) autophosphorylation, (b) tyrosine kinase activity towards insulin receptor substrate-1 and the insulin receptor-(1142-1158)-peptide, and (c) the ability to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, for all the effects measured in a cell-free system, the chimeric receptor displayed an increased response to IGF-1 compared to the native IGF-1 receptor. Concerning the cation dependence of the tyrosine kinase activity, we showed that, at 10 mM Mg2+, the ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of poly(Glu80Tyr20) by both insulin receptor and chimeric receptor was increased by Mn2+. Conversely at 50 mM Mg2+, the chimeric receptor behaved like the IGF-1 receptor, since the presence of Mn2+ decreased the stimulatory effect of IGF-1 on their kinase activity. Furthermore, the Km of the chimeric receptor for ATP was increased compared to the wild-type receptors. These data demonstrate that the replacement of the C-terminal tail of the IGF-1 receptor by that of the insulin receptor has changed the receptor characteristics studied in a cell-free system. Our findings indicate that the C-terminal domain of the insulin receptor beta subunit plays a

  17. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Herbicidal Activities of 2-Cyanoacrylates Containing 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tingting; Miao Wenke; Wu Shanshan; Bing Guifang; Zhang Xin; Qin Zhenfang; Yu Haibo; Qin Xue; Fang Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Three series of novel 2-cyanoacrylates 7a-7f, 9a-9f, 10a-10f containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring moieties were synthesized as herbicidal inhibitors of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) electron transportation. Their structures were clearly verified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis (or HRMS analysis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioassay showed that a suitable group at the 3-position of acrylates was essential for high herbicidal activ-ity. In particular, compound 7e showed the best herbicidal activities and gave 100% inhibitory activity against rape and amaranth pigweed at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha. Introduction of substituent with higher polarity such as sulfinyl or sulfonyl to the 5-position of 1,3,4-thiadiazole decreased herbicidal activities.

  18. High Efficient Enrichment and Activated Dissolution of Refractory Low Grade Rh-containing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaofeng; DONG Haigang; TONG Weifeng; ZHAO Jiachun; ZENG Rui

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to the low-grade rhodium-containing waste materials,a new process was proposed to enrich and activate rhodium by smelting using iron oxide as a trapping agent and activator.A rhodium concentrate was obtained by the separation of base metals and precious metals.The concentrate was reacted with dilute aqua regia to obtain rhodium solution.The factors influencing the enrichment and activation effects were discussed in this paper.The results showed that the dissolution rate is greater than 99% under the optimum conditions.In this process,the activation of rhodium was finished in the enrichment process.The iron oxide is both a trapping agent and activator,which simplifies the process and reduce the cost.

  19. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Anthranilic Diamide Insecticide Containing Trifluoroethyl Ether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵毓; 李永强; 熊丽霞; 王红学; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    Two series of novel anthranilic diamide insecticide containing trifluoroethyl ether were designed and synthesized, and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The insecticidal activities of the new compounds were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that some of these title compounds exhibited excellent insecticidal activities. The insecticidal activities of compounds 19a, 19b, 19d, 19g, 19k and 19m against oriental armyworm at 2.5 mg·kg-1 were 100%. The larvicidal activities of 19a, 19b, 19c, 19d, 19e, 19g and 19n against diamond-back moth were 100% at 0.1 mg·kg-1. Surprisingly, most of them still exhibited perfect insecticidal activity against diamond-back moth when the concentration was reduced to 0.05 mg·kg-1, which was higher than the commercialized Chlorantraniliprole.

  20. Containment Domains: A Scalable, Efficient and Flexible Resilience Scheme for Exascale Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsuk Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and evaluates a scalable and efficient resilience scheme based on the concept of containment domains. Containment domains are a programming construct that enable applications to express resilience needs and to interact with the system to tune and specialize error detection, state preservation and restoration, and recovery schemes. Containment domains have weak transactional semantics and are nested to take advantage of the machine and application hierarchies and to enable hierarchical state preservation, restoration and recovery. We evaluate the scalability and efficiency of containment domains using generalized trace-driven simulation and analytical analysis and show that containment domains are superior to both checkpoint restart and redundant execution approaches.

  1. The systems containing clays and clay minerals from modified drug release: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luís Alberto de Sousa; Figueiras, Ana; Veiga, Francisco; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Nunes, Lívio César Cunha; da Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti; da Silva Leite, Cleide Maria

    2013-03-01

    Clays are materials commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, either as ingredients or as active ingredients. It was observed that when they are administered concurrently, they may interact with drugs reducing their absorption. Therefore, such interactions can be used to achieve technological and biopharmaceutical advantages, regarding the control of release. This review summarizes bibliographic (articles) and technological (patents) information on the use of systems containing clays and clay minerals in modified drug delivery. In this area, formulations such natural clay, commercial clay, synthetic clay, composites clay-polymers, nanocomposites clay-polymers, films and hidrogels composites clay-polymers are used to slow/extend or vectorize the release of drugs and consequently they increase their bioavailability. Finally, this review summarizes the fields of technology and biopharmaceutical applications, where clays are applied.

  2. Predicting the effects of microbial activity on the corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers may occur in a disposal vault located 500-1000 m underground in the granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The extent and diversity of microbial activity in the vault is expected to be limited initially because of the aggressive conditions produced by γ-radiation, elevated temperatures and desiccation of the clay-based buffer in which the containers will be embedded. Experimental results on the heat- and radiation-sensitivity of the natural microbiota in buffer material are presented. The data suggest that the low water activity in the buffer material will severely limit the growth of microbes near the container. The most likely form of MIC involves sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Electrochemical experiments using a clay-covered copper electrode have shown that sulphide ions produced by SRB could diffuse through buffer material and induce corrosion of the container. A method to predict the long-term corrosion behaviour is presented. (author)

  3. Searching for benchmark systems containing ultra-cool dwarfs and white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have used the 2MASS all-sky survey and WISE to look for ultracool dwarfs that are part of multiple systems containing main sequence stars. We cross-matched L dwarf candidates from the surveys with Hipparcos and Gliese stars, finding two new systems. We consider the binary fraction for L dwarfs and main sequence stars, and further assess possible unresolved multiplicity within the full companion sample. This analysis shows that some of the L dwarfs in this sample might actually be unresolved binaries themselves. We have also identified a sample of common proper motion systems in which a main sequence star has a white dwarf as wide companion. These systems can help explore key issues in star evolution theory, as the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs, or the chromospheric activity-age relationship for stars still in the main sequence. Spectroscopy for 50 white dwarf candidates, selected from the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive, was obtained. We have also observed 6 of the main sequence star companions, and have estimated their effective temperatures, rotational and microturbulent velocities and metallicities.

  4. Radiolytic synthesis and antimicrobial activity of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles have been prepared by impregnation of PVA hydrogels in AgNO3 solution and subsequent reduction of Ag+ ions induced by gamma radiation. UV-Visible spectra showed the absorption bands of the surface plasmon at 410 nm. The hydrogels of PVA/Ag have shown excellent activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and have potential for use as wound dressings. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Anthranilic Diamides Analogues Containing Benzo[b]thiophene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-feng; LIU Chen; LIU Peng-fei; YAN Tao; WANG Bao-lei; XIONG Li-xia; LI Zheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    A series of novel anthranilic diamides analogues containing benzo[b]thiophenyl ring was designed and synthesized.Their structures were characterized by melting points,1H nuclear magnetic resonance(1H NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS).The bioassay tests indicate that their insecticidal activities were weak to moderate.Antibacterial tests indicate that some of the compounds showed favourable activity in vitro against Physalospora piricola,Alternaria solani,Cercospora arachidicola,Gibberella sanbinetti and Phytophthora infestans at a dosage of 50 mg/L.

  6. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New Pyrethroid Acid Oxime-esters Containing Pyrazole Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun-an; HUANG Run-qiu; FENG Lei; SONG Jian; QIU De-wen

    2003-01-01

    A series of compounds containing oxime-ester linkage and pyrazole ring(in place of the ester linkage and the alcohol moiety in pyrethroid ester) was designed and synthesized. The structures of all the compounds prepared were confirmed by 1H NMR and MS spectroscopy as well as elemental analyses. The bioassay data of those compounds against tobacco mosaic virus(TMV), cucumber mosaic virus(CMV), potato virus X(PVX) and potato virus Y(PVY) were presented. Among them compound 6i was found to possess significant plant antiviral activities. But all the compounds showed low insecticidal and acaricidal activities.

  7. Antibacterial structure–activity relationship studies of several tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrin, Lucian G; Hopf, Henning; Jones, Peter G; Sarbu, Laura G; Babii, Cornelia; Mihai, Alina C

    2016-01-01

    Summary A structure–activity relationship study concerning the antibacterial properties of several halogen-substituted tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids has been performed. The compounds have been synthesized by cyclocondensation of the corresponding 3-dithiocarbamic flavanones under acidic conditions. The influence of different halogen substituents on the antibacterial properties has been tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Amongst the N,N-dialkylamino-substituted flavonoids, those having an N,N-diethylamino moiety exhibited good to excellent antimicrobial properties against both pathogens. Fluorine-substituted flavonoids were found to be less active than those bearing other halogen atoms. PMID:27340492

  8. Synthesis ,Structure and Biological Activities of Some Novel Anthranilic Acid Esters Containing N-Pyridyl-pyrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG,Weili; XU,Junying; XIONG,Lixia; LIU,Xinghai; LI,Zhengming

    2009-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign insecticides with high activity,low toxicity and low residue,a novel series of anthranilic acid esters containing N-pyridylpyrazole were designed and synthesized.All of the compounds were characterized and confirmed by IR,1H NMR,MS and elemental analysis.The single crystal structure of 14d was determined by X-ray diffraction.The bioassay tests showed that the synthesized compounds exhibited good insecti-tidal activities against Mythimna separata Walker and Culex pipiens pallens.

  9. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  10. Design, Syntheses and Biological Activities of Novel Anthranilic Diamide Insecticides Containing N-Pyridylpyrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu; LI Yong-qiang; XIONG Li-xia; XU Li-ping; PENG Li-na; LI Fang; LI Zheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign insecticides with high activity,low toxicity and low residue,a series of novel anthranilic diamide derivatives containing N-pyridylpyrazole was designed and synthesized.All the compounds were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis.The single crystal structure of compound 8j was determined by X-ray diffraction.The insecticidal activities of the new compounds were evaluated.The results show that some compounds exhibited moderate insecticidal activities against Lepidoptera pests.Among this series of compounds,compounds 80 and 8p showed 100% larvicidal activity against Mythimna separate Walker,Plutella xylostella Linnaeus and Laphygma exigua Hubner at a test concentration of 200 mg/kg,which is equal to the commercial chlorantraniliprole.

  11. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  12. An assessment of the modular HTGR [High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utility/user requirements for the MHTGR provide extremely stringent criteria for radionuclide release to the environment. In response to these top-level requirements, the MHTGR has evolved as a design emphasizing passive safety features. A crucial element of the MHTGR safety concept is the containment system which places primary emphasis on retention of fission products in the fuel. In addition to the particle-coating containment, the primary system pressure boundary and reactor building designs contribute to radionuclide retention. The philosophy of the MHTGR containment system is discussed in this paper and an assessment of its effectiveness is provided

  13. Challenges to the design of containment filtered venting systems at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents (SA) may result in pressure and temperature increase leading to containment failure and uncontrolled release of radioactive products to the environment. Containment over-pressurization can be prevented by the operation of a Containment Filter Venting System (CFVS) intended to actuate within the specific SA conditions. However, the particular design solution and especially the sizing of appropriate Containment Filter Venting System require precise information regarding the accident progression and parameters. Such information may be obtained only by detailed assessment of each phase of the severe accident considering the specific reactor technology. Therefore, a study was performed in order to evaluate the most challenging conditions and the most suitable solution for implementation of a system for filtered venting of the containment taking into account the uncertain nature of the accidents and the limitations of the mathematical simulations. The current paper presents the main results from the above mentioned study on the influence of the severe accident conditions, including the specific containment environment effects, to the design and sizing of Containment Filter Venting System. The study includes the selection of a bounding case and the initial conditions for simulation of a severe accident scenario which is expected to pose the most stringent requirements to the CFVS. Evaluation of the Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) parameters and analysis of system performance during the severe accident progression is furthermore performed. The main parameters of the accident scenario under evaluation are the timing of the vessel failure and the containment design limit pressure achievement, hydrogen production during the accident and its influence on the system operation. The accuracy of predictions of the severe accident parameters (containment pressure and temperature, fission product mass concentration at different stages of accident, modelling

  14. Activity System Theory Approach to Healthcare Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Guohua

    2004-01-01

    Healthcare information system is a very complex system and has to be approached from systematic perspectives. This paper presents an Activity System Theory (ATS) approach by integrating system thinking and social psychology. First part of the paper, the activity system theory is presented, especially a recursive model of human activity system is introduced. A project ‘Integrated Mobile Information System for Diabetic Healthcare (IMIS)’ is then used to demonstrate a practical application of th...

  15. Cyclization increases the antimicrobial activity and selectivity of arginine- and tryptophan-containing hexapeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dathe, Margitta; Nikolenko, Heike; Klose, Jana; Bienert, Michael

    2004-07-20

    Arginine- and tryptophan-rich motifs have been identified in antimicrobial peptides with various secondary structures. We synthesized a set of linear hexapeptides derived from the sequence AcRRWWRF-NH(2) by substitution of tryptophan (W) by tyrosine (Y) or naphthylalanine (Nal) and by replacement of arginine (R) by lysine (K) to investigate the role of cationic charge and aromatic residues in membrane activity and selectivity. A second set of corresponding head-to-tail cyclic analogues was prepared to analyze the role of conformational constraints. The biological activity of the linear peptides followed the order Nal- > W- > Y-containing compounds and slightly decreased upon R-K substitution. A pronounced activity-improving and bacterial selectivity-enhancing effect was found upon cyclization of the R- and W-bearing parent peptide, whereas the activity-modifying effect of cyclization of Y- and Nal-containing peptides was low. The analysis of the driving forces of peptide interaction with model membranes showed that the activities correlated with the partition coefficients and the depths of peptide insertion into neutral and negatively charged lipid bilayers. Spectroscopic studies, RP-HPLC, and titration calorimetry implied that the combination of cationic and aromatic amino acid composition and conformational rigidity afforded a membrane-active, amphipathic structure with a highly charged face opposed by a cluster of aromatic side chains. However, threshold values of low and high hydrophobicity seemed to exist beyond which the activity-enhancing effect of cyclization was negligible. The results suggest that cyclization of small peptides of an appropriate amino acid composition may serve as a promising strategy in the design of antimicrobial peptides.

  16. Study on transient hydrogen behavior and effect on passive containment cooling system of the advanced PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A certain amount of hydrogen will be generated due to zirconium-steam reaction or molten corium concrete interaction during severe accidents in the pressurized water reactor (PWR). The generated hydrogen releases into the containment, and the formed flammable mixture might cause deflagration or detonation to produce high thermal and pressure loads on the containment, which may threaten the integrity of the containment. The non-condensable hydrogen in containment may also reduce the steam condensation on the containment surface to affect the performance of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS). To study the transient hydrogen behavior in containment with the PCCS performance during the accidents is significant for the further study on the PCCS design and the hydrogen risk mitigation. In this paper, a new developed PCCS analysis code with self-reliance intellectual property rights, which had been validated by comparison on the transients in the containment during the design basis accidents with other developed PCCS analysis code, is brief introduced and used for the transient simulation in the containment under a postulated small break LOCA of cold-leg. The results show that the hydrogen will flow upwards with the coolant released from the break and spread in the containment by convection and diffusion, and it results in the increase of the pressure in the containment due to reducing the heat removal capacity of the PCCS. (author)

  17. Functional analysis of TPM domain containing Rv2345 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies its phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Avni; Eniyan, Kandasamy; Sinha, Swati; Lynn, Andrew Michael; Bajpai, Urmi

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causal agent of tuberculosis, the second largest infectious disease. With the rise of multi-drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, serious challenge lies ahead of us in treating the disease. The availability of complete genome sequence of Mtb has improved the scope for identifying new proteins that would not only further our understanding of biology of the organism but could also serve to discover new drug targets. In this study, Rv2345, a hypothetical membrane protein of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, which is reported to be a putative ortholog of ZipA cell division protein has been assigned function through functional annotation using bioinformatics tools followed by experimental validation. Sequence analysis showed Rv2345 to have a TPM domain at its N-terminal region and predicted it to have phosphatase activity. The TPM domain containing region of Rv2345 was cloned and expressed using pET28a vector in Escherichia coli and purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. The purified TPM domain was tested in vitro and our results confirmed it to have phosphatase activity. The enzyme activity was first checked and optimized with pNPP as substrate, followed by using ATP, which was also found to be used as substrate by the purified protein. Hence sequence analysis followed by in vitro studies characterizes TPM domain of Rv2345 to contain phosphatase activity.

  18. In-service surveillance of unbonded post-tensioning systems in prestressed concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The condition and functional capability of ungrouted post-tensioning systems in prestressed concrete containment structures built in the United States are assessed periodically. This is accomplished systematically through implementation of an in-service tendon surveillance program for each containment structure. The tendon surveillance program provides for scheduled examination of a representative sampling of tendons to assess prestress force level and physical condition of the tendon including end anchorage assemblies and sheathing filler. Present experience involving five containment structures indicates that the surveillance program provides sufficient data from each surveillance to adequately assess the performance, quality and condition of the post-tensioning system in a particular containment structure. A comparison of data from the different containment structures reveals no significant differences. Prestress force level was found to be in good agreement with predicted values (based on expected time dependent losses). All of the systems were found to be in good condition with no potentially deleterious or adverse conditions developing. The higher confidence in the system's functional capability provided independently by the surveillance of each containment structure is further supported by comparable performance of similar systems in other containment structures. (author)

  19. The ESARDA Working Group on Containment and Surveillance: Activities and achievements

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, Joao; FUNK Pierre; Richter, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    The working group on containment and surveillance (C/S) is one of the discipline-oriented working groups of ESARDA ¿ the European Safeguards Research and Development Association. Its mission is (a) to provide the safeguards community with expert advice on C/S instruments and methods and on their performance and (b) to act as a forum for the exchange of information on such instruments and methods, including unattended and remote monitoring systems. Currently, sixteen institutions contribute to...

  20. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  1. The development of a performance measurement system for the South African container shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn Hector

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is dependent on efficient supply chains and a variety of transport systems. South Africa participates in the world’s economy with an extensive container shipping industry, as well as a road/rail/air distribution system. One of the aims of this research study was to develop a measurement system, or model, that may assist in measuring the performance of a container shipping service, from the time a ship arrives in the harbour, through the process in the container depot until the container arrives at the final customer for imports, and the other way round for exports. The objective was to develop a performance index that would assist management in assessing and/or improving the current system. It is a global phenomenon that inefficiencies cannot be eliminated by a single organisation; it requires the cooperation of all the parties in a supply chain.

  2. Plant NAC-type transcription factor proteins contain a NARD domain for repression of transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu-Jun; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Zou, Hong-Feng; Wei, Wei; Kang, Xu-Sheng; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Zhang, Jin-Song; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2010-10-01

    Plant-specific transcription factor NAC proteins play essential roles in many biological processes such as development, senescence, morphogenesis, and stress signal transduction pathways. In the NAC family, some members function as transcription activators while others act as repressors. In the present study we found that though the full-length GmNAC20 from soybean did not have transcriptional activation activity, the carboxy-terminal activation domain of GmNAC20 had high transcriptional activation activity in the yeast assay system. Deletion experiments revealed an active repression domain with 35 amino acids, named NARD (NAC Repression Domain), in the d subdomain of NAC DNA-binding domain. NARD can reduce the transcriptional activation ability of diverse transcription factors when fused to either the amino-terminal or the carboxy-terminal of the transcription factors. NARD-like sequences are also present in other NAC family members and they are functional repression domain when fused to VP16 in plant protoplast assay system. Mutation analysis of conserved amino acid residues in NARD showed that the hydrophobic LVFY motif may partially contribute to the repression function. It is hypothesized that the interactions between the repression domain NARD and the carboxy-terminal activation domain may finally determine the ability of NAC family proteins to regulate downstream gene expressions.

  3. Barrier properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes containing carbon nanotubes or activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdo, Erin M; Khan, Iftheker A; Choudhury, Atif A; Saleh, Navid B; Arnold, William A

    2011-04-15

    Carbon nanotube addition has been shown to improve the mechanical properties of some polymers. Because of their unique adsorptive properties, carbon nanotubes may also improve the barrier performance of polymers used in contaminant containment. This study compares the barrier performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to that for PVA containing powdered activated carbon (PAC). Raw and surface-functionalized versions of each sorbent were tested for their abilities to adsorb 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and Cu(2+), representing the important hydrophobic organic and heavy metal contaminant classes, as they diffused across the PVA. In both cases, PAC (for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene) and functionalized PAC (for Cu(2+)) outperformed SWCNTs on a per mass basis by trapping more of the contaminants within the barrier membrane. Kinetics of sorption are important in evaluating barrier properties, and poor performance of SWCNT-containing membranes as 1,2,4-TCB barriers is attributed to kinetic limitations. PMID:21349636

  4. Activity is strength: More active systems are stronger glass formers

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Interplay between activity and passive transport processes in an active system may lead to complex spatio-temporal dynamics offering a rich and fascinating phenomenology compared to their passive counterparts. Understanding the properties of an active system in the dense limit is important both from biological as well as physical point of view. Here, we extend an immensely successful microscopic theory for the glassy dynamics of passive systems in their dense low-temperature limit, namely the Random First-Order Transition (RFOT) theory, for an active system generalizing and unifying the findings of recent simulations on such systems. The qualitative picture of glassy dynamics for a passive system survives when activity is introduced, however, a number interesting properties emerge. For example, activity changes the typical length scale and relaxation times, pushes the thermodynamic and dynamic glass transition points towards higher density or lower temperature and the fragility of the system changes as a func...

  5. The activation of thin film CdTe solar cells using alternative chlorine containing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniscalco, B., E-mail: B.Maniscalco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Kaminski, P.M.; Bass, K. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); West, G. [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    The re-crystallisation of thin film cadmium telluride (CdTe) using cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) is a vital process for obtaining high efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the precise micro-structural mechanisms involved are not well understood. In this study, we have used alternative chlorine-containing compounds to determine if these can also assist the re-crystallisation of the CdTe layer and to understand the separate roles of cadmium and chlorine during the activation. The compounds used were: tellurium tetrachloride (TeCl{sub 4}), cadmium acetate (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}). TeCl{sub 4} was used to assess the role of Cl and the formation of a Te-rich outer layer which may assist the formation of the back contact. (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}) and HCl were used to distinguish between the roles of cadmium and chlorine in the process. Finally, ZnCl{sub 2} was employed as an alternative to CdCl{sub 2}. We report on the efficacy of using these alternative Cl-containing compounds to remove the high density of planar defects present in untreated CdTe. - Highlights: • Cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) activation treatment • Alternative chlorine containing compounds • Microstructure analysis and electrical performances.

  6. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  7. Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Robert; Melchor, Jerry P.; Matys, Tomasz; Skrzypiec, Anna E.; Strickland, Sidney

    2005-01-01

    Chronic ethanol abuse causes up-regulation of NMDA receptors, which underlies seizures and brain damage upon ethanol withdrawal (EW). Here we show that tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA), a protease implicated in neuronal plasticity and seizures, is induced in the limbic system by chronic ethanol consumption, temporally coinciding with up-regulation of NMDA receptors. tPA interacts with NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and is required for up-regulation of the NR2B subunit in response to ethanol...

  8. Study on the Behaviors of a Conceptual Passive Containment Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The containment is an ultimate and important barrier to mitigate the consequences after the release of mass and energy during such scenarios as loss of coolant accident (LOCA or main steam line break (MSLB. In this investigation, a passive containment cooling system (PCCS concept is proposed for a large dry concrete containment. The system is composed of series of heat exchangers, long connecting pipes with relatively large diameter, valves, and a water tank, which is located at the top of the system and serves as the final heat sink. The performance of the system is numerically studied in detail under different conditions. In addition, the influences of condensation heat transfer conditions and containment environment temperature conditions are also studied on the behaviors of the system. The results reveal that four distinct operating stages could be experienced as follows: startup stage, single phase quasisteady stage, flashing speed-up transient stage, and flashing dominated quasisteady operating stage. Furthermore, the mechanisms of system behaviors are thus analyzed. Moreover, the feasibility of the system is also discussed to meet the design purpose for the containment integrity requirement. Considering the passive feature and the compactness of the system, the proposed PCCS is promising for the advanced integral type reactor.

  9. [Special effects of a complex probiotic containing cellulolytic bacteria Cellulomonas on actively growing rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, N A; Laktionov, K S; Kozlova, A A; Ratnikova, I A; Gavrilova, N N

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that the association of probiotic bacteria of the genuses Bacillus and Cellulomonas form biolayers on the surface of beet marc particles. The positive effect of a fodder additive that contained the biolayer on the basis of a phytomatrix on the growth and development of young rabbits was shown. Feeding of animals with a mixed fodder that contained 0.1% preparation resulted in stimulation of digestion of all components of the food. Among other components of the mixed fodder, cellulose was digested most effectively. An increase in the biomass of symbiotic bacteria and enzymatic activity in the blindgut chymus was also observed. The positive nitrogen balance demonstrated an increase in the nitrogen content in animals and a decrease of its losses with excretion. The mechanism of response of the rabbit's organism to introduction of the complex probiotic preparation into the digestive tract is discussed.

  10. A Cbx8-containing polycomb complex facilitates the transition to gene activation during ES cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Creppe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycomb proteins play an essential role in maintaining the repression of developmental genes in self-renewing embryonic stem cells. The exact mechanism allowing the derepression of polycomb target genes during cell differentiation remains unclear. Our project aimed to identify Cbx8 binding sites in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. Therefore, we used a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation of endogenous Cbx8 coupled to direct massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq. Our analysis identified 171 high confidence peaks. By crossing our data with previously published microarray analysis, we show that several differentiation genes transiently recruit Cbx8 during their early activation. Depletion of Cbx8 partially impairs the transcriptional activation of these genes. Both interaction analysis, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments support the idea that activating Cbx8 acts in the context of an intact PRC1 complex. Prolonged gene activation results in eviction of PRC1 despite persisting H3K27me3 and H2A ubiquitination. The composition of PRC1 is highly modular and changes when embryonic stem cells commit to differentiation. We further demonstrate that the exchange of Cbx7 for Cbx8 is required for the effective activation of differentiation genes. Taken together, our results establish a function for a Cbx8-containing complex in facilitating the transition from a Polycomb-repressed chromatin state to an active state. As this affects several key regulatory differentiation genes this mechanism is likely to contribute to the robust execution of differentiation programs.

  11. Removal of organic dyes using Cr-containing activated carbon prepared from leather waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz C A; Coura, Camila Van Zanten; Guimarães, Iara R; Gonçalves, Maraisa

    2011-09-15

    In this work, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and oxidation of organics in aqueous medium were studied in the presence of activated carbon prepared from wet blue leather waste. The wet blue leather waste, after controlled pyrolysis under CO(2) flow, was transformed into chromium-containing activated carbons. The carbon with Cr showed high microporous surface area (up to 889 m(2)g(-1)). Moreover, the obtained carbon was impregnated with nanoparticles of chromium oxide from the wet blue leather. The chromium oxide was nanodispersed on the activated carbon, and the particle size increased with the activation time. It is proposed that these chromium species on the carbon can activate H(2)O(2) to generate HO radicals, which can lead to two competitive reactions, i.e. the hydrogen peroxide decomposition or the oxidation of organics in water. In fact, in this work we observed that activated carbon obtained from leather waste presented high removal of methylene blue dye combining the adsorption and oxidation processes.

  12. Design, Synthesis, Acaricidal Activity, and Mechanism of Oxazoline Derivatives Containing an Oxime Ether Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Li, Chaojie; Zheng, Yanlong; Wei, Xingcun; Ma, Qiaoqiao; Wei, Peng; Liu, Yuxiu; Qin, Yaoguo; Yang, Na; Sun, Yufeng; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling; Wang, Qingmin

    2014-03-27

    Two series of novel 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazolines containing an oxime ether moiety were designed and synthesized via the key intermediate N-(2-chloro-1-(p-tolyl)ethyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide. The bioassay results showed that the target compounds with an oxime ether substituent at the para position of 4-phenyl exhibited excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus in the laboratory. Moreover, all of the target compounds had much higher activities than etoxazole, as the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of the target compounds I-a-I-l and II-a-II-n against T. cinnabarinus were all over 90% at 0.001 mg L(-1), but etoxazole gave only 30% and 40% respectively at the same concentration. The activity order of compounds with regard to acaricidal activity in vivo was almost consistent with their affinity activity with sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) of Blattella germanica in vitro, hence, it was supposed that the acaricidal mechanism of action of the target compounds was that they can bind with the site of SUR and therefore inhibit chitin synthesis. Moreover, the eminent effect of the compound II-l, [2-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde O-(4-(2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-4-yl)benzyl) oxime], against Panonychus citri and T. cinnabarinus in the field indicated that II-l exhibited a promising application prospect as a new candicate for controlling spider mites in the field. PMID:24673392

  13. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa VP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Valeria Pereira de Sousa,1 Joanne Crean,2 Vinícius Raphael de Almeida Borges,1 Carlos Rangel Rodrigues,1 Lidia Tajber,2 Fabio Boylan,2 Lucio Mendes Cabral1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS. BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Keywords: babassu oil, nanocomposite, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, nanoparticles, benign prostatic hyperplasia, treatment, nanotechnology

  14. The bactericidal activity of a teat dip containing chlorhexidine and cetrimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J S; Morant, S V; Bramley, A J

    1977-11-19

    Using an in vivo test on teat skin the disinfectant activity of a teat dip containing chlorhexidine and cetrimide was compared with two iodophor solutions, one containing the recommended concentration of 0.5 per cent available iodine and the other a 10-fold dilution of this (0.05 per cent iodine). The test organisms used were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and for both species the 0.5 per cent iodophor was significantly more bactericidal than either the diluted iodophor or the chlorhexidine/cetrimide teat dip (P less than 0.01). In the test against S aureus, chlorhexidine/cetrimide and the 0.05 per cent iodophor showed similar bactericidal activity, but the iodophor was significantly more bactericidal against E coli (P less than 0.01). It is argued that due to its low bactericidal activity this formulation of chlorhexidine/cetrimide is likely to be inferior to 0.5 per cent iodophor solution as a disinfectant teat dip. PMID:339477

  15. Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

    2014-02-01

    Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-β-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98 ± 7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

  16. Effect of water-aging on the antimicrobial activities of an ORMOSIL-containing orthodontic acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shi-Qiang; Epasinghe, D Jeevanie; Zhou, Bin; Niu, Li-Na; Kimmerling, Kirk A; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Mao, Jing; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS), an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) functionalized with polymerizable methacrylate groups and an antimicrobial agent with a long lipophilic alkyl chain quaternary ammonium group, was synthesized through a silane-based sol-gel route. By dissolving QAMS in methyl methacrylate monomer, this ORMOSIL molecule was incorporated into an auto-polymerizing, powder/liquid orthodontic acrylic resin system, yielding QAMS-containing poly(methyl methacrylate). The QAMS-containing acrylic resin showed a predominant contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) and Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) on the acrylic surface. The antimicrobial activities of QAMS-containing acrylic resin were maintained after a 3month water-aging period. Bromophenol blue assay showed minimal leaching of quaternary ammonium species when an appropriate amount of QAMS (<4wt.%) was incorporated into the acrylic resin. The results suggest that QAMS is predominantly co-polymerized with the poly(methyl methacrylate) network, and only a minuscule amount of free QAMS molecules is present within the polymer network after water-aging. Acrylic resin with persistent antimicrobial activities represents a promising method for preventing bacteria- and fungus-induced stomatitis, an infectious disease commonly associated with the wearing of removable orthodontic appliances. PMID:23485857

  17. The Treatment of Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste Containing Detergent by Biological Activated Sludge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing persil detergent from laundry operation of contaminated clothes by activated sludge process has been done, for alternative process replacing the existing treatment by evaporation. The detergent concentration in water solution from laundry operation is 14.96 g/l. After rinsing operation of clothes and mixing of laundry water solution with another liquid waste, the waste water solution contains about ≤ 1.496 g/l of detergent and 10-3 Ci/m3 of Cs-137 activity. The simulation waste having equivalent activity of Cs-137 10-3 Ci/m3, detergent content (X) 1.496, 0.748, 0.374, 0.187, 0.1496 and 0.094 g/l on BOD value respectively 186, 115, 71, 48, 19, and 16 ppm was processed by activated sludge in reactor of 18.6 l capacity on ambient temperature. It is used Super Growth Bacteria (SGB) 102 and SGB 104, nitrogen and phosphor nutrition, and aeration. The result show that bacteria of SGB 102 and SGB 104 were able to degrade the persil detergent for attaining standard quality of water release category B in which BOD values 6 ppm. It was need 30 hours for X ≤ 0.187 g/l, 50 hours for 0.187 < X ≤ 0.374 g/l, 75 hours for 0.374 < X ≤ 0.748, and 100 hours for 0.748 < X ≤ 1.496 g/l. On the initial period the bacteria of SGB 104 interact most quickly to degrade the detergent comparing SGB 102. Biochemical oxidation process decontaminate the solution on the decontamination factor of 350, Cs-137 be concentrate in sludge by complexing with the bacteria wall until the activity of solution be become very low. (author)

  18. Manually controlled neutron-activation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, R. A.; Carothers, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    A manually controlled neutron activation system, the Manual Reactor Activation System, was designed and built and has been operating at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. With this system, samples can be irradiated for up to 24 hours and pneumatically transferred to a shielded repository for decay until their activity is low enough for them to be handled at a radiobench. The Manual Reactor Activation System was built to provide neutron activation of solid waste forms for the Alternative Waste Forms Leach Testing Program. Neutron activation of the bulk sample prior to leaching permits sensitive multielement radiometric analyses of the leachates.

  19. Possible activation of auto-immune thyroiditis from continuous subcutaneous infusion of genapol-containing insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E

    2000-09-01

    A case of a type 1 diabetic woman with auto-immune thyroiditis is reported, in whom repeated exposure to insulin containing Genapol(R) (polyethylen-polypropylenglycol) over 3 years reproducibly parallels with an increase of serum TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) above the normal limit. Previously, adverse effects of Genapol(R) insulin have been related to its intraperitoneal application, and thought to be restricted to anti-insulin-immunity; activating effects on thyroid auto-immunity have been repeatedly disputed. We suggest that Genapol(R) insulin should be replaced by other insulin preparations with a better safety record.

  20. Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Amino Acid Ester Derivatives Containing 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid ester derivatives containing 5-fluorouracil were synthesized using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC•HCl and N-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt as a coupling agent. The structures of the products were assigned by NMR, MS, IR etc. The in vitro antitumor activity tests against leukaemia HL-60 and liver cancer BEL-7402 indicated that (R-ethyl 2-(2-(5-fluoro-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H-ylacetamido-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl propanoate showed more inhibitory effect against BEL-7402 than 5-FU.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of some new biquinoline derivatives containing a thiazole moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirav K. Shah; Nimesh M. Shah; Manish P. Patel; Ranjan G. Patel

    2012-01-01

    A series of new biquinoline derivatives containing a thiazole moiety were synthesized by a one-pot,base-catalyzed cyclocondensation reaction of 2-chloro-3-formyl quinoline,malononitrile and enaminone.All the synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis,FT-IR,1H NMR and 13C NMR data.All the synthesized compounds were screened against three bacterial pathogens,namely Bacillus cereus,B.substilis and Escherichia coli and for antifungal activity against three fungal pathogens,Aspergillus niger,Fusarium oxisporum and Rhizopus using the disc diffusion method.

  2. Common commercial and consumer products contain activators of the aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhao

    Full Text Available Activation of the Ah receptor (AhR by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin, can produce a wide variety of toxic and biological effects. While recent studies have shown that the AhR can bind and be activated by structurally diverse chemicals, how widespread of these AhR agonists are in environmental, biological and synthetic materials remains to be determined. Using AhR-based assays, we demonstrate the presence of potent AhR agonists in a variety of common commercial and consumer items. Solvent extracts of paper, rubber and plastic products contain chemicals that can bind to and stimulate AhR DNA binding and/or AhR-dependent gene expression in hepatic cytosol, cultured cell lines, human epidermis and zebrafish embryos. In contrast to TCDD and other persistent dioxin-like HAHs, activation of AhR-dependent gene expression by these extracts was transient, suggesting that the agonists are metabolically labile. Solvent extracts of rubber products produce AhR-dependent developmental toxicity in zebrafish in vivo, and inhibition of expression of the metabolic enzyme CYP1A, significantly increased their toxic potency. Although the identity of the responsible AhR-active chemicals and their toxicological impact remain to be determined, our data demonstrate that AhR active chemicals are widely distributed in everyday products.

  3. Sustainable agricultural use of natural water sources containing elevated radium activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripler, Effi; Haquin, Gustavo; Koch, Jean; Yehuda, Zehava; Shani, Uri

    2014-06-01

    Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. We aimed to explore the environmental implications of using water containing Ra for irrigation. Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa and wheat), grown in weighing lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of (226)Ra activity concentration: Low Radium Water (LRW)soil irrigated with HRW for 15 years. Radium uptake by plants was found to be controlled by its activity in the irrigation water and in the soil solution, the physical properties of the soil and the potential evapotranspiration. The (226)Ra apeared to accumulate mainly in the leaves of crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) was minimal. The simulation of 15 years of crop irrigation by HYDERUS 1-D, showed a low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone and a limited downward mobility. It was therefore concluded that the crops investigated in this study can be irrigated with the natural occurring activity concentration of (226)Ra of 0.6-1.6 Bq L(-1). This should be accompanied by a continuous monitoring of radium in the edible parts of the crops. PMID:24345672

  4. Structure and electrochemical properties of activated polyacrylonitrile based carbon fibers containing carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannathan, Sudhakar; Chae, Han Gi; Jain, Rahul; Kumar, Satish [School of Polymer, Textile and Fiber Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Solution spun polyacrylonitrile (PAN), PAN/multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and PAN/single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fibers containing 5 wt.% carbon nanotubes were stabilized in air and activated using CO{sub 2} and KOH. The surface area as determined by nitrogen gas adsorption was an order of magnitude higher for KOH activated fibers as compared to the CO{sub 2} activated fibers. The specific capacitance of KOH activated PAN/SWCNT samples was as high as 250 F g{sup -1} in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Under the comparable KOH activation conditions, PAN and PAN/SWCNT fibers had comparable surface areas (BET surface area about 2200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) with pore size predominantly in the range of 1-5 nm, while surface area of PAN/MWCNT samples was significantly lower (BET surface area 970 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The highest capacitance and energy density was obtained for PAN/SWCNT samples, suggesting SWCNT advantage in charge storage. The capacitance behavior of these electrodes has also been tested in ionic liquids, and the energy density in ionic liquid is about twice the value obtained using KOH electrolyte. (author)

  5. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  6. Synthesis, fungicidal activity, and structure-activity relationship of spiro-compounds containing macrolactam (macrolactone) and thiadiazoline rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Jun; Liang, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yuan, Hui-Zhu; Qi, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fu-Heng; Wang, Dao-Quan

    2010-03-10

    Two series of novel spiro-compounds containing macrolactam or macrolactone and thiadiazoline rings, 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4,9-triaza-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4F) and 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4-diaza-9-oxa-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4G), were synthesized from 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactam and 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactone, respectively. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. The conformation of compounds 4F was determined via the crystal structure of a representative compound (4F(6)). The bioassay showed that compounds 4F have much better fungicidal activity against five fungi ( Botrytis cinerea Pers., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., Phomopsis asparagi Sacc., and Pyricularia oryzae Cav.) than compounds 4G. The fact above showed that the presence of a hydrogen-bonding donor for the fungicidal activity of macrocyclic compounds is very important. 4F(6) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae, which is much better than the commercial fungicide isoprothiolane, and 4F(13) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae and good fungicidal activity against P. asparagi. PMID:20041703

  7. Characterization of chitosan-nanoclay bionanocomposite active films containing milk thistle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigzadeh Ghelejlu, Sara; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Almasi, Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, bio-based and antioxidant active packaging is attracting significant attention as one of the preferred emerging technologies to prevent sensitive oxidation of foods. In this study, chitosan/nanoclay nanocomposite active films containing three different levels of sodium montmorillonite (MMT) (1, 3 and 5% w/w based on chitosan) and Silybum marianum L. extract (SME) (0.5, 1 and 1.5% v/v) were prepared. The obtained films were characterized in terms of structural, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties as well as antioxidant behavior. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the exfoliated dispersion form of MMT nanolayers. Scanning electron microscopy images showed an increase in films' surface roughness by the addition of MMT. The results indicated that water vapor permeability and solubility of films reduced significantly (ppackaging material. PMID:26853823

  8. The formation of titanium dioxide crystallite nanoparticles during activation of PAN nanofibers containing titanium isopropoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrpouya, Fahimeh; Tavanai, Hossein, E-mail: tavanai@cc.iut.ac.ir; Morshed, Mohammad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Textile Engineering, Center of Excellence in Applied Nanotechnology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghiaci, Mehran [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Activated carbon (AC) can act as an important carrier for TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle can be fabricated by the hydrolysis and condensation of titanium alkoxides like titanium isopropoxide. This study showed that the formation of titanium dioxide crystallite nanoparticle during activation of PAN nanofibers containing titanium isopropoxide leads to the formation of mainly anatase crystal TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle in AC nanofibers, with a good dispersion in both the longitude and cross section of nanofibers. The TiO{sub 2} crystallite size lies in the range of 7.3-11.3 nm. The dispersion of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the matrix of AC nanofibers is far superior to the direct mixing of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the original electrospinning solution.

  9. Metabolic Activation of Rhein: Insights into the Potential Toxicity Induced by Rhein-Containing Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Jiyue; Wang, Meiyu; Li, Yuan; Ruan, Jianqing; Zhang, Hongjian

    2016-07-20

    Rhein is a major component of the many medicinal herbs such as rhubarb. Despite wide use, intoxication cases associated with rhein-containing herbs are often reported. The present work aimed to investigate if rhein was subject to metabolic activation leading to toxicity. Upon incubations with different species of liver microsomes, three monoglucuronides were identified, corresponding to two hydroxyl glucuronides and one acyl glucuronide via the carboxyl group, respectively. Further study revealed that rhein acyl glucuronide was chemically reactive, and showed cytotoxicity toward hepatocarcinoma cells. In addition, significant species differences in glucuronidation of rhein were observed between laboratory animals and humans. Reaction phenotyping experiments demonstrated that rhein acyl glucuronide was catalyzed predominantly by uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, 1A9, and 2B7. Taken together, the present study confirmed that rhein could be metabolically activated via the formation of acyl glucuronide, especially in human. PMID:27362917

  10. Sonochemically-Produced Metal-Containing Polydopamine Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeroslavsky, Gil; Lavi, Ronit; Alishaev, Abraham; Rahimipour, Shai

    2016-05-24

    A facile one-pot sonochemical synthesis of Cu-, Ag-, and hybrid Cu/Ag-based polydopamine nanoparticles (Cu-, Ag-, and Cu/Ag-PDA-NPs) and the mechanisms by which they exert antibacterial and antibiofilm activities are reported. We showed that the nanoparticles are spherical with a core-shell structure. Whereas Cu is chelated to the shell of Cu-PDA-NPs in oxidation states of +1/+2, the core of Ag-PDA-NPs is filled with elemental Ag°. Sonochemical irradiation of dopamine in the presence of both Cu(2+) and Ag(+) generates hybrid Cu/Ag-PDA-NPs, whose shells are composed of Cu-chelated PDA with Ag° in the core. The redox potential of the metals was found to be the main determinant of the location and oxidation state of the metals. Leaching studies under physiological conditions reveal a relatively fast release of Cu ions from the shell, whereas Ag leaches very slowly from the core. The metal-containing PDA-NPs are highly microbicidal and exhibit potent antibiofilm activity. The combination of both metals in Cu/Ag-PDA-NPs is especially effective against bacteria and robust biofilms, owing to the dual bactericidal mechanisms of the metals. Most importantly, both Ag- and Cu/Ag-PDA-NPs proved to be significantly more antibacterial than commercial Ag-NPs while exhibiting lower toxicity toward NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Mechanistically, the metal-containing PDA-NPs generate stable PDA-semiquinone and reactive oxygen species under physiological conditions, which contribute at least partly to the antimicrobial activity. We also demonstrated that simple treatment of surfaces with Ag-PDA-NPs converts them to antibacterial, the activity of which was preserved even after prolonged storage under ambient conditions. PMID:27133213

  11. A self-contained, programmable microfluidic cell culture system with real-time microscopy access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Hemmingsen, Mette; Sabourin, David;

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing microfluidics is a promising way for increasing the throughput and automation of cell biology research. We present a complete self-contained system for automated cell culture and experiments with real-time optical read-out. The system offers a high degree of user-friendliness, stability...

  12. 77 FR 24738 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing... filed by Linex Technologies, Inc. of Palm Beach Gardens, Florida (``Linex''). 76 FR 33364 (June 8, 2011... States after importation of certain wireless communication devices and systems, components thereof,...

  13. Treatment and Kinetic of Synthetic Wastewater Containing β-Naphthol by Nano Titanium Oxide Coated on Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ijad panah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Many industrial effluent plants contain amounts of hard biodegradable compounds such as β-naphthol which can be removed by conventional treatment systems. The objective of this research is to treat wastewater containing naphthalene by nano titanium oxide coated on activated carbon. Materials and Methods: Photocatalytic experiments were carried out for different concentrations of β-naphthol using time and pH as dependent factors. Nano TiO2 coated on activated carbone in one liter batch reactor and the resultants compounds concentration were measured in a photocatalytic reactor  with UV-C of 12 Watt. Results: The experimental results indicated that UV/ nano TiO2 coated on activated carbone removed 92% of β-naphthol with concentrations of 100 mg/L within an overall elapsed time of three hours. β-naphthol total removal with concenteration of 25 mg/L was observed in two hours.Conclusions: UV/ nano TiO2 process is very fast and effective method for removal of β-naphthol and  pH 11 was indicated as the optimum pH.

  14. Optical switching in bistable active cavity containing nonlinear absorber on bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenov, Vladimir Y.; Taranenko, Victor B.; Vasnetsov, Mikhail V.

    1993-04-01

    The transverse nonlinear dynamics of switchings in an active system (laser with nonlinear saturable absorber on bacteriorhodopsin in a self-imaging cavity) is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The soliton-like light field structure formation and continuously cycled self-switching process are investigated.

  15. Spectroscopic properties and the catalytic activity of new organo-lead supramolecular coordination polymer containing quinoxaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Abdou, Safaa N.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D-supramolecular coordination polymer (SCP) 3∞[ Cu2(CN)3(Me3Pb)(qox)], 1, as the first example of the CuCN SCP containing the (Me3Pb) fragment, was explored to investigate its catalytic and photo-catalytic activities. The structure of 1 contains two chemically identical but crystallographically different [Cu2(CN)3ṡMe3Pbṡqox]2 units with four Cu(I) sites assuming distorted TP-3 geometry. Two non-linear chains of equal abundance are formed producing corrugated parallel chains which are connected laterally by quinoxaline creating 2D-layers which are arranged parallel in an (AB⋯AB⋯AB)n fashion forming 3D-network. IR, mass, electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are also investigated. The SCP 1 is diamagnetic and exhibits good catalytic and photo-catalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The reaction is first order with respect to MB dye. The irradiation of the reaction with UV-light enhanced the rate of MB mineralization. The efficiency of recycled the 1 and the mechanism of degradation of MB dye were investigated.

  16. Microparticles Containing Curcumin Solid Dispersion: Stability, Bioavailability and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C C C; Mendonça, L M; Bergamaschi, M M; Queiroz, R H C; Souza, G E P; Antunes, L M G; Freitas, L A P

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed at improving the solubility of curcumin by the preparation of spray-dried ternary solid dispersions containing Gelucire®50/13-Aerosil® and quantifying the resulting in vivo oral bioavailability and anti-inflammatory activity. The solid dispersion containing 40% of curcumin was characterised by calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility and dissolution rate of curcumin in aqueous HCl or phosphate buffer improved up to 3600- and 7.3-fold, respectively. Accelerated stability test demonstrated that the solid dispersion was stable for 9 months. The pharmacokinetic study showed a 5.5-fold increase in curcumin in rat blood plasma when compared to unprocessed curcumin. The solid dispersion also provided enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in rat paw oedema. Finally, the solid dispersion proposed here is a promising way to enhance curcumin bioavailability at an industrial pharmaceutical perspective, since its preparation applies the spray drying, which is an easy to scale up technique. The findings herein stimulate further in vivo evaluations and clinical tests as a cancer and Alzheimer chemoprevention agent.

  17. Synthesis and study on biological activity of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds – regulators of enzymes of nucleic acid biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeeva I. V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations on the development of new regulators of functional activity of nucleic acid biosynthesis enzymes based on polycyclic nitrogen-containing heterosystems are summarized. Computer design and molecular docking in the catalytic site of target enzyme (T7pol allowed to perform the directed optimization of basic structures. Several series of compounds were obtained and efficient inhibitors of herpes family (simple herpes virus type 2, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza A and hepatitis C viruses were identified, as well as compounds with potent antitumor, antibacterial and antifungal activity. It was established that the use of model test systems based on enzymes participating in nucleic acids synthesis is a promising approach to the primary screening of potential inhibitors in vitro.

  18. Amino substituted nitrogen heterocycle ureas as kinase insert domain containing receptor (KDR inhibitors: Performance of structure–activity relationship approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR study was performed on a set of amino-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic urea derivatives. Two novel approaches were applied: (1 the simplified molecular input-line entry systems (SMILES based optimal descriptors approach; and (2 the fragment-based simplex representation of molecular structure (SiRMS approach. Comparison with the classic scheme of building up the model and balance of correlation (BC for optimal descriptors approach shows that the BC scheme provides more robust predictions than the classic scheme for the considered pIC50 of the heterocyclic urea derivatives. Comparison of the SMILES-based optimal descriptors and SiRMS approaches has confirmed good performance of both techniques in prediction of kinase insert domain containing receptor (KDR inhibitory activity, expressed as a logarithm of inhibitory concentration (pIC50 of studied compounds.

  19. N-containing sugars from Morus alba and their glycosidase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, N; Oseki, K; Tomioka, E; Kizu, H; Matsui, K

    1994-06-17

    The reexamination of N-containing sugars from the roots of Morus alba by improved purification procedures led to the isolation of eighteen N-containing sugars, including seven that were isolated from the leaves of Morus bombycis. These N-containing sugars are 1-deoxynojirimycin (1), N-methyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (2), fagomine (3), 3-epi-fagomine (4), 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (5), 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol (6), calystegin B2 (1 alpha,2 beta,3 alpha,4 beta-tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane, 7), calystegin C1 (1 alpha,2 beta,3 alpha,4 beta,6 alpha-pentahydroxy-nor-tropane, 8), 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-arabinitol (9), and nine glycosides of 1. These glycosides consist of 2-O- and 6-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycins (10 and 11, respectively), 2-O-, 3-O- and 4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycins (12, 13, and 14, respectively), and 2-O-, 3-O-, 4-O- and 6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycins (15, 16, 17, and 18, respectively). Compound 4 is a new member of polyhydroxylated piperidine alkaloids, and the isolation of 6 is the first report of its natural occurrence. It has recently been found that the polyhydroxy-nor-tropane alkaloids possess potent glycosidase inhibitory activities. Calystegin A3 is the trihydroxy-nor-tropane, and calystegins B1 and B2 are the tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane. Calystegin C1, a new member of calystegins, is the first naturally occurring pentahydroxy-nor-tropane alkaloid. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were investigated against rat digestive glycosidases and various commercially available glycosidases.

  20. Simulation of the hydrogen-steam-jet spreading using the containment code system COCOSYS; Simulation der Ausbreitung eines Wasserstoff-Dampf-Strahls mit dem Containment Code System COCOSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloecker, Miriam; Burkhardt, Joerg; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reaktorsimulation und -sicherheit

    2009-07-01

    In case of a severe loss of coolant accident temperatures above 1000 C can initiate an exothermal oxidation reaction between steam and the fuel element cladding material that produces hydrogen. Since hydrogen in the form of a vertically directed free jet is ignitable at 4 vol% the local hydrogen distribution is of great importance for the accident management. The phenomenon was studied in the frame of the experimental HYJET project. A concrete model containment represents NPP Biblis-A (1:4), the calculations are performed using the containment code COCOSYS. The A FAN system is used for the modeling of momentum driven free jets including the entrainment following a free jet correlation. Optimization of the jet model is necessary for the realistic modeling of the physical jet behavior with respect to the build-up of atmospheric stratifications.

  1. Reliability analysis of the containment spray system of Angra-1 : the injection phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system studied is projected to perform two basic functions : to reduce the pressure and temperature in the containment after a LOCA (loss of coolant accident), to break the main steam line or the main feed line in the containment after a LOCA (loss of coolant accident), to break the main steam line or the main feed line in the containment and to remove the fission products, mainly the iodine of the containment atmosphere. The spray system was analyzed concerning the probability of non-acomplishment of both functions at the same time; therefore the failure of the components of the chemical aditions subsystem are included in the failure tree shown here. (E.G.)

  2. Water-containing hydrogen-bonding network in the active center of channelrhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shota; Kato, Hideaki E; Taniguchi, Reiya; Iwata, Tatsuya; Nureki, Osamu; Kandori, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    Channelrhodopsin (ChR) functions as a light-gated ion channel in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Passive transport of cations by ChR is fundamentally different from the active transport by light-driven ion pumps such as archaerhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, and halorhodopsin. These microbial rhodopsins are important tools for optogenetics, where ChR is used to activate neurons by light, while the ion pumps are used for neural silencing. Ion-transport functions by these rhodopsins strongly depend on the specific hydrogen-bonding networks containing water near the retinal chromophore. In this work, we measured protein-bound water molecules in a chimeric ChR protein of ChR1 (helices A to E) and ChR2 (helices F and G) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy at 77 K. We found that the active center of ChR possesses more water molecules (9 water vibrations) than those of other microbial (2-6 water vibrations) and animal (6-8 water vibrations) rhodopsins. We conclude that the protonated retinal Schiff base interacts with the counterion (Glu162) directly, without the intervening water molecule found in proton-pumping microbial rhodopsins. The present FTIR results and the recent X-ray structure of ChR reveal a unique hydrogen-bonding network around the active center of this light-gated ion channel. PMID:24512107

  3. Synthesis, algal inhibition activities and QSAR studies of novel gramine compounds containing ester functional groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YU Liangmin; JIANG Xiaohui; XIA Shuwei; ZHAO Haizhou

    2009-01-01

    2,5,6-Tribromo-l-methylgramine (TBG), isolated from bryozoan Zoobotryon pellucidum was shown to be very efficient in preventing recruitment of larval settlement. In order to improve the compatibility of TBG and its analogues with other ingredients in antifouling paints, structural modification of TBG was focused mainly on halogen substitution and N-substitution. Two halogen-substitute gramines and their derivatives which contain ester functional groups at N-position of gramines were synthesized. Algal inhibition activities of the synthesized compounds against algae Nitzschia closterium were evaluated and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50) range was 1.06-6.74 μg ml-1. Compounds that had a long chain ester group exhibited extremely high antifouling activity. Quantitive Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies with multiple linear regression analysis were applied to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptors and biological activity of the synthesized compounds. The results show that the toxicity (log (1/EC50)) is correlated well with the partition coefficient log P. Thus, these products have potential function as antifouling agents.

  4. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of poly-(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles containing violacein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since violacein—an antibiotic, antiviral, and antiparasitic compound—exhibits poor solubility in water, polymeric poly-(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles containing this compound improved its solubility and biological activity. The nanoparticles were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method and characterized in terms of average diameter, zeta potential, drug loading, polymer recovery, in vitro release kinetic, and in vitro antibacterial activity. Nanoparticles with diameters between 116 and 139 nm and negative-charged outer surfaces were obtained. Drug-loading efficiency and polymer recovery were 87 and 93%, respectively. In vitro release kinetics assays showed that violacein loaded in these nanoparticles has sustained release behavior until 5 days. Both free and nanoparticles-loaded violacein exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and ATCC 25923 strains and exhibiting around two to five times lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) than free violacein, respectively. The encapsulated violacein was efficient against methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. No significant activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica was found.

  5. Future testing of active safety systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, F.M.; Pelders, H.A.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Active safety systems are increasingly becoming available in trucks and passenger vehicles. Developments in the field of active safety are shifting from increasing driver comfort towards increasing occupant safety. Furthermore, this shift is seen within active safety systems: safety functions are ad

  6. Synthesis and herbicidal activity evaluation of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jian-yi; Xu, Xiao-yun; Tang, Zi-long; Gu, Yu-cheng; Shi, De-qing

    2016-02-15

    A series of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety 3a-3l were designed and synthesized by a Lewis acid (magnesium perchlorate) catalyzed the Kabachnik-Fields reaction. The bioassays {in vitro, in vivo [Glass House 1 (GH1) and Glass House 2 (GH2)]} showed that most of compounds 3 exhibited excellent and selective herbicidal activities; for example, in GH1 test, compounds 3b, 3d, 3f, 3h and 3j showed excellent and wide spectrum herbicidal activities at the dose of 1000 g/ha, and compounds 3b and 3j exhibited 100% inhibition activities against the four plants in both post- and pre-emergence treatments. Moreover, most of compounds 3 showed higher inhibition against Amaranthus retroflexus and Digitaria sanguinalis than Glyphosate did in pre-emergence treatment. In GH2 test, the four compounds (3b, 3d, 3h and 3j) exhibited 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus and Ipomoea hederacea in post-emergence treatment and displayed 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus in pre-emergence treatment at the rate of 250 g/ha, and compound 3b showed the best and broad spectrum herbicidal activities against the six test plants. However, the four compounds displayed weaker herbicidal activities against Lolium perenne and Echinochloa crus-galli than the other four plants at the rate of 250 g/ha in both pre- and post-emergence treatments. So, compounds 3 can be used as a lead compound for further structure optimization for developing potential selective herbicidal agent. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were also investigated. PMID:26786699

  7. Comparison of activity coefficient models for electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; ten Kate, Antoon; Mooijer, Miranda;

    2010-01-01

    Three activity coefficient models for electrolyte solutions were evaluated and compared. The activity coefficient models are: The electrolyte NRTL model (ElecNRTL) by Aspentech, the mixed solvent electrolyte model (MSE) by OLI Systems Inc., and the Extended UNIQUAC model from the Technical...... University of Denmark (DTU). Test systems containing a single salt (NaCl), multiple salts, and mixed solvent aqueous electrolyte solutions were chosen. The performance of the activity coefficient models were compared regarding the accuracy of solid-liquid and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations...

  8. Hsp90 protein interacts with phosphorothioate oligonucleotides containing hydrophobic 2'-modifications and enhances antisense activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Sun, Hong; Kinberger, Garth A; Prakash, Thazha P; Nichols, Joshua G; Crooke, Stanley T

    2016-05-01

    RNase H1-dependent antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are chemically modified to enhance pharmacological properties. Major modifications include phosphorothioate (PS) backbone and different 2'-modifications in 2-5 nucleotides at each end (wing) of an ASO. Chemical modifications can affect protein binding and understanding ASO-protein interactions is important for better drug design. Recently we identified many intracellular ASO-binding proteins and found that protein binding could affect ASO potency. Here, we analyzed the structure-activity-relationships of ASO-protein interactions and found 2'-modifications significantly affected protein binding, including La, P54nrb and NPM. PS-ASOs containing more hydrophobic 2'-modifications exhibit higher affinity for proteins in general, although certain proteins, e.g. Ku70/Ku80 and TCP1, are less affected by 2'-modifications. We found that Hsp90 protein binds PS-ASOs containing locked-nucleic-acid (LNA) or constrained-ethyl-bicyclic-nucleic-acid ((S)-cEt) modifications much more avidly than 2'-O-methoxyethyl (MOE). ASOs bind the mid-domain of Hsp90 protein. Hsp90 interacts with more hydrophobic 2' modifications, e.g. (S)-cEt or LNA, in the 5'-wing of the ASO. Reduction of Hsp90 protein decreased activity of PS-ASOs with 5'-LNA or 5'-cEt wings, but not with 5'-MOE wing. Together, our results indicate Hsp90 protein enhances the activity of PS/LNA or PS/(S)-cEt ASOs, and imply that altering protein binding of ASOs using different chemical modifications can improve therapeutic performance of PS-ASOs. PMID:26945041

  9. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliner, Manuel [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Roman-Leshkov, Yuriy [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Davis, Mark E. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2010-04-06

    The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containing a catalytic amount of Sn-Beta (1:50 Sn:glucose molar ratio) gives product yields of approximately 46% (wt/wt) glucose, 31% (wt/wt) fructose, and 9% (wt/wt) mannose after 30 min and 12 min of reaction at 383 K and 413 K, respectively. This reactivity is achieved also when a 45 wt% glucose solution is used. The properties of the large-pore zeolite greatly influence the reaction behavior because the reaction does not proceed with a medium-pore zeolite, and the isomerization activity is considerably lower when the metal centers are incorporated in ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The Sn-Beta catalyst can be used for multiple cycles, and the reaction stops when the solid is removed, clearly indicating that the catalysis is occurring heterogeneously. Most importantly, the Sn-Beta catalyst is able to perform the isomerization reaction in highly acidic, aqueous environments with equivalent activity and product distribution as in media without added acid. This enables Sn-Beta to couple isomerizations with other acid-catalyzed reactions, including hydrolysis/isomerization or isomerization/dehydration reaction sequences [starch to fructose and glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) demonstrated here].

  10. Novel (E)-β-Farnesene Analogues Containing 2-Nitroiminohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine: Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yaoguo; Zhang, Jingpeng; Song, Dunlun; Duan, Hongxia; Li, Wenhao; Yang, Xinling

    2016-01-01

    In order to discover novel eco-friendly compounds with good activity for aphid control, (E)-β-farnesene (EβF), the main component of the aphid alarm pheromone, was chosen as the lead compound. By introducing a 2-nitroimino-hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine moiety (abbreviated NHT) to replace the unstable conjugated double bond system of EβF, a series of novel EβF analogues containing the NHT moiety were synthesized via the reaction of substituted NHT rings with (E)-1-chloro-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene. All the compounds were characterized by ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, IR, and high resolution mass spectroscopy (HRMS). The bioassay results showed that all the analogues displayed different repellent and aphicidal activities against green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Particularly, the analogue 4r exhibited obvious repellent activity (repellent proportion: 78.43%) and similar aphicidal activity against M. persicae (mortality: 82.05%) as the commercial compound pymetrozine (80.07%). A preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was also performed, which offered valuable clues for the design of further new EβF analogues. PMID:27347912

  11. Chemotactic peptide analogues. Synthesis and chemotactic activity of N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe analogues containing (S)-phenylalaninol derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecchini, G P; Paradisi, M P; Torrini, I; Spisani, S

    1995-09-01

    The synthesis and the biological activity towards human neutrophils of some N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-OMe analogues containing (S)-phenylalaninol (Pheol) or its derivatives in place of the native phenylalanine are reported. While the analogue containing Pheol (4) was found to be devoid of significant biological activity, its esters 3 and 5, although inactive as chemoattractants, are able to strongly stimulate superoxide production and are active with a lower efficacy in the lysozyme release. PMID:7487425

  12. A substrate dependent biological containment systems for Pseudomonas putida based on the Escherichia coli gef gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Ramos, J. L.; Kaneva, Z.;

    1993-01-01

    operon (Pm) and the lacI gene, encoding the Lac repressor, plus xylS2, coding for a positive regulator of Pm. In liquid culture under optimal growth conditions and in sterile and nonsterile soil microcosms, P. putida KT2440 (pWWO) bearing the containment system behaves as designed. In the presence......A model substrate-dependent suicide system to biologically contain Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is reported. The system consists of two elements. One element carries a fusion between a synthetic lac promoter (PA1-04/03) and the gef gene, which encodes a killing function. This element is contained...... of a XylS effector, such as m-methylbenzoate, the LacI protein is synthesized, preventing the expression of the killing function. In the absence of effectors, expression of the PA1-04/03::gef cassette is no longer prevented and a high rate of cell killing is observed. Fluctuation test analyses revealed...

  13. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and

  14. A survey of imaging systems for materials and objects in containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier P.; Dioszegi, Istvan; Ziock, Klaus; Hausladen, Paul, and Blackston, Matthew

    2015-12-07

    Radiation imaging can be useful to evaluate the contents of containers; Passive imaging i.e., gamma sources, neutron sources, hydrogen near to a neutron source. Active imaging i.e., Transmission radiography shows high density material; Neutron coincidences indicate fissionable material; Time of Flight and die-away time are important. These technologies may be most useful in confirming ABSENCE of an item.

  15. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  16. Preparation and Application of Active Composite Antibacterial Material Containing Ag + and Zn2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A kind of active composite antibacterial material was prepared with CaHPO4 as the container,Ag + and Zn2+ were adsorbed through ion-exchange, then it was doped with small scale of rare earth and photocatalyst, and was finally calcined at a certain temperature. The properties and application of the composite material antibacterial were investigated. Some tests show that the as-prepared antibacterial powders modified by opaque agents such as SnO2 and ZrO2 , possess beautiful white and excellent climate resistance at normal temperatures and are promising candidate materials for antibacterial plastics and dope. The result of the application in glaze indicates that Ag + can still exist stably, with no color change for the glaze, even being sintered at 1 200 ℃.SEM, EDS, antibacterial activity analyses and contrast tests reveal that the as-prepared antibacterial powders and the antibacterial glaze both have excellent antibacterial activities, without color change, in the case of dark or brightness.

  17. Computational screening of iodine uptake in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks in a water-containing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Dong, Xiuqin; Chen, Yifei; Zhang, Minhua

    2016-08-17

    Iodine capture is of great environmental significance due to the high toxicity and volatility of I2. Here we conduct a systematic computational investigation of iodine adsorption in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) by adopting the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation and the density functional theory (DFT) method. The results confirm the vital structural factors for iodine adsorption at 298 K and moderate pressures including metal sites, organic linkers, symmetry, and topology types. The uptake will be enhanced by active metal sites, the simple imidazolate linker and single asymmetric linkers with polar functional groups. The symmetry effect is stronger than the surface properties. Meanwhile low steric hindrance is more beneficial than polar functional groups to iodine adsorption. The specific topology types like mer bringing large surface areas and large diameter cages result in high iodine capacities. Iodine molecules tend to locate in cages with large diameters and aggregates along the sides of cages. In contrast, water prefers small diameter cages. In hydrophilic materials, water has a negative impact on iodine uptake due to its similar adsorption sites to iodine. The selectivity of iodine over water increases with increasing water content due to the large diameter cages of ZIFs. This work proves that ZIFs can be identified as efficient and economical adsorbents with high diversity for iodine in a water-containing system. Furthermore, it provides comprehensive insights into key structural factors for iodine uptake and separation in silver-free porous solids. PMID:27499079

  18. A method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking into an el......The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking...

  19. Analysis of large scale tests for AP-600 passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One unique feature of the AP-600 is its passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is designed to maintain containment pressure below the design limit for 72 hours without action by the reactor operator. During a design-basis accident, i.e., either a loss-of-coolant or a main steam-line break accident, steam escapes and comes in contact with the much cooler containment vessel wall. Heat is transferred to the inside surface of the steel containment wall by convection and condensation of steam and through the containment steel wall by conduction. Heat is then transferred from the outside of the containment surface by heating and evaporation of a thin liquid film that is formed by applying water at the top of the containment vessel dome. Air in the annual space is heated by both convection and injection of steam from the evaporating liquid film. The heated air and vapor rise as a result of natural circulation and exit the shield building through the outlets above the containment shell. All of the analytical models that are developed for and used in the COMMIX-ID code for predicting performance of the PCCS will be described. These models cover governing conservation equations for multicomponents single phase flow, transport equations for the κ-ε two-equation turbulence model, auxiliary equations, liquid-film tracking model for both inside (condensate) and outside (evaporating liquid film) surfaces of the containment vessel wall, thermal coupling between flow domains inside and outside the containment vessel, and heat and mass transfer models. Various key parameters of the COMMIX-ID results and corresponding AP-600 PCCS experimental data are compared and the agreement is good. Significant findings from this study are summarized

  20. A G-quadruplex-containing RNA activates fluorescence in a GFP-like fluorophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hao; Suslov, Nikolai B.; Li, Nan-Sheng; Shelke, Sandip A.; Evans, Molly E.; Koldobskaya, Yelena; Rice, Phoebe A.; Piccirilli, Joseph A. [UC

    2014-08-21

    Spinach is an in vitro–selected RNA aptamer that binds a GFP-like ligand and activates its green fluorescence. Spinach is thus an RNA analog of GFP and has potentially widespread applications for in vivo labeling and imaging. We used antibody-assisted crystallography to determine the structures of Spinach both with and without bound fluorophore at 2.2-Å and 2.4-Å resolution, respectively. Spinach RNA has an elongated structure containing two helical domains separated by an internal bulge that folds into a G-quadruplex motif of unusual topology. The G-quadruplex motif and adjacent nucleotides comprise a partially preformed binding site for the fluorophore. The fluorophore binds in a planar conformation and makes extensive aromatic stacking and hydrogen bond interactions with the RNA. Our findings provide a foundation for structure-based engineering of new fluorophore-binding RNA aptamers.

  1. Formation of phosgene during welding activities in an atmosphere containing chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, M S; Groeneveld, F R

    2000-01-01

    The formation of phosgene During welding activities in an atmosphere containing chlorinated hydrocarbons was investigated. Four different chlorinated hydrocarbons were studied under laboratory conditions. Results are presented as time-averaged phosgene concentration in a total volume of 250 L of air being purged through a 52-L reaction vessel during 20 min. It was found that the formation of phosgene was in the order dichloromethane smoke particles and because of possible nonhomogeneous dispersion of phosgene around the workers. In the case of dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride the short-term maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of phosgene was not attained at the respective MAC values of the chlorinated hydrocarbons themselves. In the case of trichloroethylene and Freon-22, however, the short-term MAC-value of phosgene was attained even when the concentration was still much below the respective MAC-values.

  2. Antimicrobial activity and pH of a endodontic sealer containing MTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maliza, Amanda GA; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Arias, Marcela C;

    Plus immediately, 24 or 48 hours prior to the tests. The antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans was evaluated by the direct contact and the agar diffusion methods. Calcium release was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The pH from solutions containing...... could completely inhibit the growth of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans, but influenced microbial growth to different extent. Significantly higher calcium was released from Sealer 26, followed by Sealapex, MTA Fillapex, and AH Plus in a descending order. All investigated sealers resulted...... the sealers was measured using a pHmeter. Results: MTA Fillapex, AH Plus and Sealer 26 resulted in partial inhibition of E. faecalis, while Sealapex resulted in the highest bacterium growth. MTA Fillapex and AH Plus also inhibited to a greater extent the growth of C. albicans. None of the investigated sealers...

  3. PHOTOINDUCED ALIGNMENT OF OPTICALLY ACTIVE POLYMER CONTAINING A TEMPO RADICAL END GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Chen Dong; Yong Zhang; Ze-da Xu; Xing-he Fan; Xiao-fang Chen; Xin-hua Wan; Qi-feng Zhou

    2003-01-01

    A new azobenzene side-chain polymer (TEMPO-PAZ) containing TEMPO (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinooxy) radical end group was synthesized by free radical copolymerization. Photoinduced alignment was studied on the polymer films at room temperature with linearly polarized light of 514.5 nm. The experimental results showed that the magnetic response intensity of the TEMPO-PAZ could be easily controlled by choosing the appropriate polarized light irradiating times, presumably due to the nitroxide radical in the TEMPO-PAZ molecular structure. For the polymer investigated here, the photoinduced alignment technique was introduced to increase the magnetic response intensity of polymer under irradiation, aiming originally at searching for a new photo-active organic magnetic multifunctionai materials.On the other hand, experimental results also showed that the TEMPO-PAZ can be used as a material for optical image storage.

  4. A cell-free yellow lupin extract containing activities of pseudouridine 35 and 55 synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieńkowska, J; Wrzesiński, J; Szweykowska-Kulińska, Z

    1998-01-01

    Plant cytoplasmic tyrosine tRNA was pseudouridylated at three different positions: 35, 39 and 55. These pseudouridines were introduced by three different enzymes--pseudouridine synthases. Variants of the Arabidopsis thaliana pre-tRNA(Tyr) were constructed that allow to monitor specifically pseudouridylation at different nucleotide positions. Using such RNAs to assay pseudouridine synthesis we have prepared an extract from Lupinus luteus cv. Ventus seeds containing activities of at least psi35 and psi55 synthases. This is the first report describing the preparation of the lupin seed extract that specifically modifies plant pre-tRNA(Tyr) transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase. U35 is converted to psi35 only in an intron-dependent manner, while pseudouridylation of U55 is insensitive to the presence or absence of an intron.

  5. Active polymers containing Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 bacteriocins: effectiveness assessment in Wieners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Massani, M; Molina, V; Sanchez, M; Renaud, V; Eisenberg, P; Vignolo, G

    2014-05-16

    Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria have potential as natural food preservatives. In this study two active (synthetic and gluten) films were obtained by the incorporation of lactocin 705 and lactocin AL705, bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 with antimicrobial activity against spoilage lactic acid bacteria and Listeria. Antimicrobial film effectiveness was determined in Wieners inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum CRL691 and Listeria innocua 7 (10(4)CFU/g) stored at 5°C during 45days. Active and control (absence of bacteriocins) packages were prepared and bacterial counts in selective media were carried out. Visual inspection and pH measurement of Wieners were also performed. Typical growth of both inoculated microorganisms was observed in control packages which reached 10(6)-10(7)CFU/g at the end of storage period. In the active packages, L. innocua 7 was effectively inhibited (2.5 log cycles reduction at day 45), while L. plantarum CRL691 was only slightly inhibited (0.5 log cycles) up to the second week of storage, then counts around 10(6)-10(7)CFU/g were reached. Changes in pH values from 6.3 to 5.8 were produced and gas formation was observed in active and control packages. The low inhibitory effectiveness against lactic acid bacteria is in correlation with the low activity observed for lactocin 705 in the presence of fat; Wieners fat content (20-30%) may adversely affect antimicrobial activity. This study supports the feasibility of using polymers activated with L. curvatus CRL705 bacteriocins to control Listeria on the surface of Wieners and highlights the importance of evaluating antimicrobial packaging systems for each particular food application.

  6. Tailoring activated carbon by surface chemical modification with O, S, and N containing molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel RibeiroVieira Azzi Rios

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the surface of activated carbon was chemically modified in order to introduce O, S and N containing groups. The activated carbon surface was selectively oxidized with concentrated HNO3 under controlled conditions. Characterization by thermogravimetric analyses, infrared spectroscopy and NaOH titration suggested the formation of mainly -COOH and small amounts of -OH groups, with concentration of approximately 4.10(21 groups/g of carbon. These -COOH functionalized carbons showed high adsorption capacity for metal cations in aqueous solution in the following order: Pb+2>Cu+2>Ni+2 >Cd+2~Co+2>Ca+2 , suggesting a cation exchange mechanism via a surface complex [COO-M+2]. These -COOHsurf groups can be reacted with SOCl2 to produce a surface acylchloride group, -COCl. This surface -COCl group proved to be a very reactive and versatile intermediate for the grafting of different S and N containing molecules onto the carbon surface, such as 1,2-ethaneditiol (EDT-, HSCH2CH2SH 1,7-dimercapto-4-thioheptane (DMTH-HSCH2CH2CH2SCH2CH 2CH2SH or 1,2-ethylenediamine (EDA- NH2CH2CH2NH2 and triethyltetraamine, TEA (H2NCH2CH2NHCH2CH 2NHCH2CH2 NH2. The characterization of these materials was carried out by TG, IR and TPDMS (Temperature Programmed Decomposition Mass Spectrometry experiments suggesting the formation of thioesther and amide surface groups, i.e. -COSR and -CONHR, with yields of approximately 50 and 75% for the reaction with DME and EDA, respectively. Preliminary adsorption experiments showed that these materials can efficiently remove metals such as Pb+2, Cu+2 and Ni+2 from aqueous medium.

  7. Novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene designed for the removal of indoor formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel silicone-based polymer with active methylene was explored. • Surface tension of liquid paints could be lowered using the polymer. • The polymer was easy to migrate toward the air-coating interface. • Free HCHO could effectively be removed using the polymer. • A lights on HCHO reduction without complicated preparation procedure was shielded. - Abstract: Indoor air pollution is caused inevitably due to complicated home decoration, in which formaldehyde is one of the most typical pollutants. It will be a convenient, economical and effective strategy to remove indoor formaldehyde if imparting a feature of formaldehyde removal to decorative coatings. We have successfully explored a novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene used as a formaldehyde absorbent in coatings via a straightforward transesterification process using inexpensive and easily available chemicals. The polymer has been characterized by 13C NMR, FTIR, GC and GPC. Formaldehyde removal capacity of the coating films containing different contents of the polymer has been investigated. The results indicated that coatings incorporating 4 wt% of the polymer could make the coating films exhibit significant improvement on formaldehyde removal including purificatory performance (>85%) and durability of purificatory effect (>60%), compared to those consisting of absorbents without any silicon, and improve yellowing resistance performance, while other properties, such as gloss, adhesion, pencil hardness, flexibility and impact resistance, were kept almost unaffected. The chemical absorption process of the silicone-based polymer filled in interior decorative coatings is demonstrated as a promising technology to purify indoor formaldehyde and thus can reduce the harm to individuals

  8. Separate domains of the insulin receptor contain sites of autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have studied the structure and function of the solubilized insulin receptor before and after partial proteolytic digestion to define domains in the β-subunit that undergo autophosphorylation and contain the tyrosine kinase activity. Wheat germ agglutinin purified insulin receptor from Fao cells was digested briefly at 220C with low concentrations of trypsin, staphylococcal V8 protease, or elastase. Autophosphorylation of the β-subunit was carried out before and after digestion, and the [32P]phosphoproteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detected by autoradiography, and analyzed by tryptic peptide mapping by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 85-kDa fragment was not immunoprecipitated by an antibody directed against the C-terminal domain of the β-subunit (αPep-1), indicating that this region of the receptor was lost. The 85-kDa fragment contained about half of the [32P]phosphate originally found in the β-subunit, and tryptic peptide mapping showed that two major tryptic phosphopeptides (previously called pY2 and pY3) were removed. Three other tryptic phosphopeptides (pY1, pY1a, and pY4) were found in the 85- and 70-kDa fragments. To determined the structural requirements for kinase activity, the insulin receptor was subjected to tryptic digestion for 30 s-30 min, such that the receptor was composed exclusively of 85- and 70-kDa fragments of the β-subunit. The 85-kDa fragment exhibited autophosphorylation at pY1, pY1a, and pY4. Both the 85- and 70-kDa fragments phosphorylated tyrosine residues in a synthetic decapeptide that has the sequence of the C-terminal domain of the β-subunit of human insulin rare in the receptor

  9. Novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene designed for the removal of indoor formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Song, E-mail: niusong84@163.com; Yan, Hongxia, E-mail: hongxiayan@nwpu.edu.cn

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • A novel silicone-based polymer with active methylene was explored. • Surface tension of liquid paints could be lowered using the polymer. • The polymer was easy to migrate toward the air-coating interface. • Free HCHO could effectively be removed using the polymer. • A lights on HCHO reduction without complicated preparation procedure was shielded. - Abstract: Indoor air pollution is caused inevitably due to complicated home decoration, in which formaldehyde is one of the most typical pollutants. It will be a convenient, economical and effective strategy to remove indoor formaldehyde if imparting a feature of formaldehyde removal to decorative coatings. We have successfully explored a novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene used as a formaldehyde absorbent in coatings via a straightforward transesterification process using inexpensive and easily available chemicals. The polymer has been characterized by {sup 13}C NMR, FTIR, GC and GPC. Formaldehyde removal capacity of the coating films containing different contents of the polymer has been investigated. The results indicated that coatings incorporating 4 wt% of the polymer could make the coating films exhibit significant improvement on formaldehyde removal including purificatory performance (>85%) and durability of purificatory effect (>60%), compared to those consisting of absorbents without any silicon, and improve yellowing resistance performance, while other properties, such as gloss, adhesion, pencil hardness, flexibility and impact resistance, were kept almost unaffected. The chemical absorption process of the silicone-based polymer filled in interior decorative coatings is demonstrated as a promising technology to purify indoor formaldehyde and thus can reduce the harm to individuals.

  10. Radioprotective and cytoprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem enriched extract containing cordifolioside-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective and cytoprotective potential of cordifolioside-A, a primary active constituent of n-butanol fraction of Tinospora Cordifolia (NBTC against 4 Gy-γ radiation in mice and cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC stem ethanolic extract was confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC analysis. Radioprotective activity was evaluated at 80 and 120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p. dose of NBTC administered 15 days prior to whole body radiation exposure by observing survival rate, change in body weight, hematology, spleen colony forming unit (CFU, and micronucleus (MN expression. Cytoprotective activity of NBTC was evaluated at 5, 10, and 15 mg/ml concentrations on Allium cepa root meristem growth against cyclophosphamide. Results: HPTLC analysis of standard cordifolioside A, and NBTC confirmed the presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC with the retention factor value of 0.86. Administration of NBTC (120 mg/kg, i.p. produced significant protection against radiation in terms of increased survival rate, body weight retention, hematological parameters, spleen CFU assay (P < 0.01, and decreased MN expression (P < 0.01. Cytoprotectivity was observed maximally at 10 mg/ml NBTC concentration with significant increase in root growth (P < 0.01, non-toxic mitotic index (MI (65.9% and lesser chromosomal aberrations (15.4%. NBTC at 10 mg/ml concentration showed very few C-anaphase compared to aberrations like fragmentation, C-anaphase, multipolarity and sticky chromosome in cyclophosphamide alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that enriched NBTC containing cordifolioside-A has a potential in vivo radioprotective effect as well as in vitro cytoprotective activity.

  11. Fermented Ginseng Contains an Agonist of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors α and γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Kentaro; Shimojo, Yosuke; Ito, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Nakano, Fusako; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) is a nuclear receptor that is one of the transcription factors regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. Fermented ginseng (FG) is a ginseng fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei A221 containing minor ginsenosides and metabolites of fermentation. DNA microarray analysis of rat liver treated with FG indicated that FG affects on lipid metabolism are mediated by PPAR-α. To identify a PPAR-α agonist in FG, PPAR-α transcription reporter assay-guided fractionation was performed. The fraction obtained from the MeOH extract of FG, which showed potent transcription activity of PPAR-α, was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into 16 subfractions, and further separation and crystallization gave compound 1 together with four known constituents of ginseng, including 20(R)- and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1. The structure of compound 1 was identified as 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and by EI-MS analysis of the methyl ester of 1. Compound 1 demonstrated much higher transcription activity of PPAR-α than the other isolated compounds. In addition, compound 1 also showed 5.5-fold higher transcription activity of PPAR-γ than vehicle at the dose of 20 μg/mL. In the present study, we identified 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid as a dual PPAR-α/γ agonist in FG. Our study suggested that metabolites of fermentation, in addition to ginsenosides, contribute to the health benefits of FG. PMID:27627700

  12. Survival of Salmonella in Cookie and Cracker Sandwiches Containing Inoculated, Low-Water Activity Fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2015-10-01

    A study was done to determine the rate of inactivation of Salmonella in cookie and cracker snack sandwiches. Two cookie bases (chocolate and vanilla) and cheese crackers, along with high-sugar chocolate and peanut butter-based crème cookie fillings and peanut butter- and cheese-based cracker fillings, were obtained from commercial sources. Fillings and sandwiches containing fillings that had been dry- or wet-inoculated with Salmonella were stored at 25°C for 1, 6, 21, 35, 70, 112, and 182 days (6 months). At initial populations of 3.4 and 3.6 log CFU/g of cookie sandwiches containing chocolate crème and peanut butter crème fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 days; initially at 0.36 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 35 and 70 days. Initially at 2.9 and 3.4 log CFU/g of cracker sandwiches containing peanut butter- and cheese-based fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 and 112 days; initially at 0.53 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 6 and 35 days. Inactivation of Salmonella was more rapid in wet-inoculated peanut butter crème cookie filling than in dry-inoculated filling but was less affected by type of inoculum in peanut butter-based cracker filling. Chocolate cookie base (water activity [aw] 0.39) and chocolate crème filling (aw 0.30) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.38 within 15 days at 25°C; vanilla cookie base (aw 0.21) and peanut butter-based crème filling (aw 0.27) equilibrated to aw 0.24 between 50 and 80 days. Cheese cracker (aw 0.14) and peanut butter-based filling (aw 0.31) or cheese-based filling (aw 0.33) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.33 in 80 days. The ability of Salmonella to survive for at least 182 days in fillings of cookie and cracker sandwiches demonstrates a need to assure that filling ingredients do not contain the pathogen and that contamination does not occur during manufacture. PMID:26408131

  13. Survival of Salmonella in Cookie and Cracker Sandwiches Containing Inoculated, Low-Water Activity Fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2015-10-01

    A study was done to determine the rate of inactivation of Salmonella in cookie and cracker snack sandwiches. Two cookie bases (chocolate and vanilla) and cheese crackers, along with high-sugar chocolate and peanut butter-based crème cookie fillings and peanut butter- and cheese-based cracker fillings, were obtained from commercial sources. Fillings and sandwiches containing fillings that had been dry- or wet-inoculated with Salmonella were stored at 25°C for 1, 6, 21, 35, 70, 112, and 182 days (6 months). At initial populations of 3.4 and 3.6 log CFU/g of cookie sandwiches containing chocolate crème and peanut butter crème fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 days; initially at 0.36 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 35 and 70 days. Initially at 2.9 and 3.4 log CFU/g of cracker sandwiches containing peanut butter- and cheese-based fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 and 112 days; initially at 0.53 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 6 and 35 days. Inactivation of Salmonella was more rapid in wet-inoculated peanut butter crème cookie filling than in dry-inoculated filling but was less affected by type of inoculum in peanut butter-based cracker filling. Chocolate cookie base (water activity [aw] 0.39) and chocolate crème filling (aw 0.30) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.38 within 15 days at 25°C; vanilla cookie base (aw 0.21) and peanut butter-based crème filling (aw 0.27) equilibrated to aw 0.24 between 50 and 80 days. Cheese cracker (aw 0.14) and peanut butter-based filling (aw 0.31) or cheese-based filling (aw 0.33) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.33 in 80 days. The ability of Salmonella to survive for at least 182 days in fillings of cookie and cracker sandwiches demonstrates a need to assure that filling ingredients do not contain the pathogen and that contamination does not occur during manufacture.

  14. 21 CFR 201.322 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients; required alcohol warning. 201.322 Section 201.322 Food and Drugs... containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients; required alcohol warning. (a) People who... internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients may cause similar adverse effects. FDA concludes that...

  15. A Wireless Monitoring System for Cracks on the Surface of Reactor Containment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Xu, Yaming; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Structural health monitoring with wireless sensor networks has been increasingly popular in recent years because of the convenience. In this paper, a real-time monitoring system for cracks on the surface of reactor containment buildings is presented. Customized wireless sensor networks platforms are designed and implemented with sensors especially for crack monitoring, which include crackmeters and temperature detectors. Software protocols like route discovery, time synchronization and data transfer are developed to satisfy the requirements of the monitoring system and stay simple at the same time. Simulation tests have been made to evaluate the performance of the system before full scale deployment. The real-life deployment of the crack monitoring system is carried out on the surface of reactor containment building in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station during the in-service pressure test with 30 wireless sensor nodes. PMID:27314357

  16. Luminescence properties of Si-containing porous matrix–PbS nanoparticle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, S. A., E-mail: satarasov@mail.ru; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Lamkin, I. A.; Maksimov, A. I.; Maraeva, E. V.; Mikhailov, I. I.; Moshnikov, V. A. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” (Russian Federation); Musikhin, S. F. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Nalimova, S. S.; Permyakov, N. V.; Spivak, Yu. M.; Travkin, P. G. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The luminescence properties of systems that contain lead-sulfide nanoparticles deposited onto substrates fabricated from porous silicon, oxidized porous silicon, and porous (tin-oxide)–(silicon-oxide) layers are studied. It is shown that the structure and composition of the matrix induce a strong effect on the luminescence spectra of colloidal quantum dots, defining their emission wavelength.

  17. The Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System: A Prepayment Model for a National Health Service?

    OpenAIRE

    Orient, Jane M.

    1986-01-01

    The Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS), the Arizona Medicaid alternative, is an experiment in contracting “prepaid” indigent health care to the lowest bidding group. The consequences have been substantial cost overruns and serious unanswered questions about the quality and avilability of care.

  18. Gamma-rays from nebulae around binary systems containing energetic rotation powered pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek, W.; Sitarek, J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider nebulae which are created around binary systems containing rotation powered pulsars and companion stars with strong stellar winds. It is proposed that the stellar and pulsar winds have to mix at some distance from the binary system, defined by the orbital period of the companion stars and the velocity of the stellar wind. The mixed pulsar-stellar wind expands with a specific velocity determined by the pulsar power and the mass loss rate of the companion star. Relativistic particle...

  19. Stability Enhancement of a Power System Containing High-Penetration Intermittent Renewable Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Morel; Shin'ya Obara; Yuta Morizane

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the transient stability enhancement of a power system containing large amounts of solar and wind generation in Japan. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster there has been an increasing awareness on the importance of a distributed architecture, based mainly on renewable generation, for the Japanese power system. Also, the targets of CO2 emissions can now be approached without heavily depending on nuclear generation. Large amounts of renewable generation leads to...

  20. Study of the activity of DNA polymerases β and λ using 5-formyluridine containing DNA substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrik O. I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the TLS-activity of human DNA polymerases β and λ (pols β and λ using 5-formyluridine (5-foU containing DNA duplexes which are imitating the intermediates during replication of the leading DNA strand, and to study the influence of replication factors hRPA and hPCNA on this activity. Methods. The EMSA and the methods of enzyme’s kinetics were used. Results. The capability of pols β and λ to catalyze DNA synthesis across 5-foU was investigated and the kinetic characteristics of this process in the presence and in the absence of protein factors hRPA and hPCNA were evaluated. Conclusions. It was shown that: (i both proteins are able to catalyze TLS on used DNA substrates regardless of the reaction conditions, however, pol λ was more accurate enzyme; (ii hRPA can stimulate the efficacy of the nonmutagenic TLS catalyzed by pol at the nucleotide incorporation directly opposite of 5-foU, at the same time it doesn’t influence the incorporation efficacy if the damage displaced into the duplex; (iii hPCNA doesn’t influence the efficacy of TLS catalyzed by both enzymes.

  1. Development of an active biodegradable film containing tocopherol and avocado peel extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Fidelis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic starch (TPS films and poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT (60/40 m/m containing TOCO-70 (tocopherol/soybean oil 70/30 m/m and avocado peel extract (ExA were produced using blown film extrusion. The formulations of the 5 films (FC/F1/F2/F3 and F4 were established through mixture design with constraints maintaining constant PBAT and TPS proportion, and varying the antioxidant concentrations. Adding antioxidants reduced the water vapour permeability (Kw of the films, with formulation F2 presenting higher decrease in relationto FC, 77.8%. The presence of ExA improved the mechanical properties of the films. The production of the films was determined to be viable after they presented good processability in a pilotextruder, as well as mechanical properties appropriate to production and utilization in industry.The presence of ExA and TOCO 70 provided the films with antioxidant activity; their application as active packaging requires further studies.

  2. Synthesis of monoacylglycerol containing pinolenic acid via stepwise esterification using a cold active lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Young-Gil; Hong, Seung In; Kim, Yangha; Kim, Byung Hee; Kim, In-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    High purity monoacylglycerol (MAG) containing pinolenic acid was synthesized via stepwise esterification of glycerol and fatty acids from pine nut oil using a cold active lipase from Penicillium camembertii as a biocatalyst. Effects of temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, and vacuum on the synthesis of MAG by lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and fatty acid from pine nut oil were investigated. Diacylglycerol (DAG) as well as MAG increased significantly when temperature was increased from 20 to 40 °C. At a molar ratio of 1:1, MAG content decreased because of the significant increase in DAG content. Water has a profound influence on both MAG and DAG content through the entire course of reaction. The reaction rate increased significantly as enzyme loading increased up to 600 units. Vacuum was an effective method to reduce DAG content. The optimum temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, vacuum, and reaction time were 20 °C, 1:5 (fatty acid to glycerol), 2%, 600 units, 5 torr, and 24 h, respectively. MAG content further increased via lipase-catalyzed second step esterification at subzero temperature. P. camembertii lipase exhibited esterification activity up to -30 °C. PMID:22753389

  3. Calcium phosphate coating containing silver shows high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity and inhibits bacterial adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications of orthopedic implants. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, we developed a novel coating technology of calcium phosphate (CP) containing silver (Ag), designated Ag-CP coating, using a thermal spraying technique. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy and biological safety of this coating. In vitro antibacterial activity tests showed that the growths of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are completely suppressed on Ag-CP coating. In vitro bacterial adherence tests revealed that the number of adherent bacteria on the surface of this coating is significantly less (p 2 CFU MRSA is inoculated. On the other hand, V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were found to grow on the Ag-CP coating as well as on the CP coating in a cytotoxicity test. These results indicate that the Ag-CP coating on the surface of orthopedic implants exhibits antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial adhesion without cytotoxicity.

  4. Calcium phosphate coating containing silver shows high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity and inhibits bacterial adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Yoshiki, E-mail: andoy@jmmc.jp [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Miyamoto, Hiroshi [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Noda, Iwao; Sakurai, Nobuko [Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Akiyama, Tomonori [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Yonekura, Yutaka; Shimazaki, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Masaki; Mawatari, Masaaki; Hotokebuchi, Takao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications of orthopedic implants. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, we developed a novel coating technology of calcium phosphate (CP) containing silver (Ag), designated Ag-CP coating, using a thermal spraying technique. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy and biological safety of this coating. In vitro antibacterial activity tests showed that the growths of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are completely suppressed on Ag-CP coating. In vitro bacterial adherence tests revealed that the number of adherent bacteria on the surface of this coating is significantly less (p < 0.02) than that on the surface of the CP coating. Moreover, the Ag-CP coating completely inhibits MRSA adhesion [<10 colony-forming units (CFU)] when 10{sup 2} CFU MRSA is inoculated. On the other hand, V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were found to grow on the Ag-CP coating as well as on the CP coating in a cytotoxicity test. These results indicate that the Ag-CP coating on the surface of orthopedic implants exhibits antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial adhesion without cytotoxicity.

  5. Use of a Shielded High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry System to Segregate LLW from Contact Handleable ILW Containing Plutonium - 13046

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, Rosemary; Wilkins, Colin [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom); Chard, Patrick [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom); Jaederstroem, Henrik; LeBlanc, Paul; Mowry, Rick [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States); MacDonald, Sanders; Gunn, William [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) have a number of drums of solid waste that may contain Plutonium Contaminated Material. These are currently categorised as Contact Handleable Intermediate Level Waste (CHILW). A significant fraction of these drums potentially contain waste that is in the Low Level Waste (LLW) category. A Canberra Q2 shielded high resolution gamma spectrometry system is being used to quantify the total activity of drums that are potentially in the LLW category in order to segregate those that do contain LLW from CHILW drums and thus to minimise the total volume of waste in the higher category. Am-241 is being used as an indicator of the presence of plutonium in the waste from its strong 59.54 keV gamma-ray; a knowledge of the different waste streams from which the material originates allows a pessimistic waste 'fingerprint' to be used in order to determine an upper limit to the activities of the weak and non-gamma-emitting plutonium and associated radionuclides. This paper describes the main features of the high resolution gamma spectrometry system being used by DSRL to perform the segregation of CHILW and LLW and how it was configured and calibrated using the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). It also describes how potential LLW drums are selected for assay and how the system uses the existing waste stream fingerprint information to determine a reliable upper limit for the total activity present in each measured drum. Results from the initial on-site commissioning trials and the first measurements of waste drums using the new monitor are presented. (authors)

  6. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-05-31

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  7. CO-TREATABILITY OF A DOMESTIC AND AN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER CONTAINING DYESTUFF BY THE ACTIVATED - SLUDGE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    MURATHAN, Ayşe

    1999-01-01

    Co-treatment of an industrial wastewater containing dyestuff was studied with a domestic wastewater by the activated-sludge method was investigated. Treatment efficiency was obtained by determining. BOD, COD and total suspended solids values.

  8. Structural analysis and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hematite was precipitated by heat treatment of iron aluminosilicate glass. • The hematite phase shows visible light photocatalytic activity. • We could prepare an effective photocatalyst from ‘ubiquitous elements’. - Abstract: A relationship between structure and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate (15Na2O⋅15CaO⋅40Fe2O3⋅xAl2O3⋅(30−x)SiO2) glass (xNCFAS) was investigated by means of 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and UV–visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV–VIS). The 57Fe-Mössbauer spectrum of 11NCFAS glass measured after heat-treatment at 1000 °C for 100 min was composed of a paramagnetic doublet due to FeIII(Td) and two magnetic sextets due to regular hematite (α-Fe2O3) and hematite with larger internal magnetic field. X-ray diffraction patterns of heat-treated xNCFAS samples resulted in decrease of α-Fe2O3 and increase of Ca2Fe22O33 or CaFe2O4 with alumina content. A quick decrease in methylene blue (MB) concentration from 15.6 to 4.7 μmol L−1 was observed in the photocatalytic reaction test with 40 mg of heat-treated 11NCFAS glass under visible light-exposure. The largest first-order rate constant of MB decomposition (k) was estimated to be 9.26 × 10−3 min−1. Tauc’s plot yielded a band gap energy (Eg) of 1.88 eV for heat-treated 11NCFAS glass, which is smaller than previously reported Eg of 2.2 eV for α-Fe2O3. These results prove that addition of Al2O3 into iron-containing soda lime silicate glass is favorable for the preparation of improved visible light-photocatalyst with ‘ubiquitous’ elements

  9. Structural analysis and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kobzi, Balázs; Sinkó, Katalin; Homonnay, Zoltán [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Kuzmann, Ernő [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1512 (Hungary); Ristić, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko [Division of Materials Chemistry, RuđerBošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 11-6 Kayanomori, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan); Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Hematite was precipitated by heat treatment of iron aluminosilicate glass. • The hematite phase shows visible light photocatalytic activity. • We could prepare an effective photocatalyst from ‘ubiquitous elements’. - Abstract: A relationship between structure and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate (15Na{sub 2}O⋅15CaO⋅40Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅(30−x)SiO{sub 2}) glass (xNCFAS) was investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and UV–visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV–VIS). The {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectrum of 11NCFAS glass measured after heat-treatment at 1000 °C for 100 min was composed of a paramagnetic doublet due to Fe{sup III}(T{sub d}) and two magnetic sextets due to regular hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and hematite with larger internal magnetic field. X-ray diffraction patterns of heat-treated xNCFAS samples resulted in decrease of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increase of Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 22}O{sub 33} or CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with alumina content. A quick decrease in methylene blue (MB) concentration from 15.6 to 4.7 μmol L{sup −1} was observed in the photocatalytic reaction test with 40 mg of heat-treated 11NCFAS glass under visible light-exposure. The largest first-order rate constant of MB decomposition (k) was estimated to be 9.26 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}. Tauc’s plot yielded a band gap energy (E{sub g}) of 1.88 eV for heat-treated 11NCFAS glass, which is smaller than previously reported E{sub g} of 2.2 eV for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These results prove that addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into iron-containing soda lime silicate glass is favorable for the preparation of improved visible light-photocatalyst with ‘ubiquitous’ elements.

  10. Water oxidation chemistry of a synthetic dinuclear ruthenium complex containing redox-active quinone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Koji; Shen, Jian-Ren; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    2014-04-21

    We investigated theoretically the catalytic mechanism of electrochemical water oxidation in aqueous solution by a dinuclear ruthenium complex containing redox-active quinone ligands, [Ru2(X)(Y)(3,6-tBu2Q)2(btpyan)](m+) [X, Y = H2O, OH, O, O2; 3,6-tBu2Q = 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone; btpyan =1,8-bis(2,2':6',2″-terpyrid-4'-yl)anthracene] (m = 2, 3, 4) (1). The reaction involves a series of electron and proton transfers to achieve redox leveling, with intervening chemical transformations in a mesh scheme, and the entire molecular structure and motion of the catalyst 1 work together to drive the catalytic cycle for water oxidation. Two substrate water molecules can bind to 1 with simultaneous loss of one or two proton(s), which allows pH-dependent variability in the proportion of substrate-bound structures and following pathways for oxidative activation of the aqua/hydroxo ligands at low thermodynamic and kinetic costs. The resulting bis-oxo intermediates then undergo endothermic O-O radical coupling between two Ru(III)-O(•) units in an anti-coplanar conformation leading to bridged μ-peroxo or μ-superoxo intermediates. The μ-superoxo species can liberate oxygen with the necessity for the preceding binding of a water molecule, which is possible only after four-electron oxidation is completed. The magnitude of catalytic current would be limited by the inherent sluggishness of the hinge-like bending motion of the bridged μ-superoxo complex that opens up the compact, hydrophobic active site of the catalyst and thereby allows water entry under dynamic conditions. On the basis of a newly proposed mechanism, we rationalize the experimentally observed behavior of electrode kinetics with respect to potential and discuss what causes a high overpotential for water oxidation by 1.

  11. Study on Salt-Containing Extractive Distillation for the 2-Propanol/Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jiquan

    2008-01-01

    The salt-containing extractive distillation column and the salt-containing agent recovery column for the 2-propanol/water/ethanediol/KAc system were simulated by the NRTL model and the modified Rose Relaxation method. The simulation results showed that prediction of the salt effect in vapor-liquid equilib-rium and the correlation method (TDCM) of NRTL parameters were suitable for the said system. Four different distillation technology processes were investigated; the results showed that the salt-containing extractive distillation process was the best one. The simulating design of the extractive distillation column was performed under the conditions of different total stage number, feeding location, reflux ratio, amount of mixed agent and concentration of KAc. The results showed that such factors as 17 stages, a feeding location at the 9th stage, a reflux ratio of 1.2, and a mixed agent feeding rate of 1.141 kmol/h, might be the best suited operating conditions. The simulating design was also done for the column for recovering the salt-containing agent. The simulation method of the salt-containing extractive distillation is simple and effective in this work.

  12. Separation and removal of alpha activity from glass-ware wash solutions containing surfactants in mild acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the laboratory radioactive waste solutions, having Teepol, detergent powder and nitric acid, contained alpha activity in the range of 5000 to 22000 cpm/mL. A combination of two techniques i.e. first passing through an extraction chromatographic column containing a commercially available reagent, Cyanex-923 (trialkylphosphine oxide, TRPO) adsorbed on Chromosorb-102 or silica gel followed by passing the effluent through a macroporous cation exchanger, brought the activity level to near disposable to sink limits. (author)

  13. PTS regulation domain-containing transcriptional activator CelR and sigma factor σ(54) control cellobiose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaoqun; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Gu, Yang; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong; Yang, Chen

    2016-04-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulation domain (PRD)-containing enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) are an important class of σ(54) -interacting transcriptional activators. Although PRD-containing EBPs are present in many Firmicutes, most of their regulatory functions remain unclear. In this study, the transcriptional regulons of about 50 PRD-containing EBPs in diverse Firmicutes species are reconstructed by using a comparative genomic approach, which contain the genes associated with utilization of β-glucosides, fructose/levan, mannose/glucose, pentitols, and glucosamine/fructosamine. We then present experimental evidence that the cel operon involved in cellobiose utilization is directly regulated by CelR and σ(54) (SigL) in Clostridium acetobutylicum. The predicted three CelR-binding sites and σ(54) promoter elements upstream of the cel operon are verified by in vitro binding assays. We show that CelR has an ATPase activity, which is strongly stimulated by the presence of DNA containing the CelR-binding sites. Moreover, mutations in any one of the three CelR-binding sites significantly decreased the cel promoter activity probably due to the need for all three DNA sites for maximal ATPase activity of CelR. It is suggested that CelR is regulated by PTS-mediated phosphorylation at His-551 and His-829, which exerts a positive effect and an inhibitory effect, respectively, on the CelR activity. PMID:26691835

  14. Tumor-derived vaccines containing CD200 inhibit immune activation: implications for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhengming; Ampudia-Mesias, Elisabet; Shaver, Rob; Horbinski, Craig M; Moertel, Christopher L; Olin, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    There are over 400 ongoing clinical trials using tumor-derived vaccines. This approach is especially attractive for many types of brain tumors, including glioblastoma, yet so far the clinical response is highly variable. One contributor to poor response is CD200, which acts as a checkpoint blockade, inducing immune tolerance. We demonstrate that, in response to vaccination, glioma-derived CD200 suppresses the anti-tumor immune response. In contrast, a CD200 peptide inhibitor that activates antigen-presenting cells overcomes immune tolerance. The addition of the CD200 inhibitor significantly increased leukocyte infiltration into the vaccine site, cytokine and chemokine production, and cytolytic activity. Our data therefore suggest that CD200 suppresses the immune system's response to vaccines, and that blocking CD200 could improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27485078

  15. Impulsive Containment Control in Nonlinear Multiagent Systems with Time-Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The containment control problems of nonlinear multiagent systems with time-delay via impulsive algorithms under both fixed and switching topologies are studied. By using the Lyapunov methods, several conditions are derived to achieve the containment control. It is shown that the states of the followers can converge into the convex hull spanned by the states of the leaders if every leader has directed paths to all the followers and the impulsive period is short enough. Finally, some simulations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  16. An active tactile perception system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriu, E.; Greenspan, M.; Gelinas, F.; McMath, W. S.; Yeung, S. K.

    System development and application aspects are described for an experimental robotic system for the tactile perception of the global geometric profile of object surfaces which are larger than the dimensions of the tactile sensor. Local cutaneous information provided by a tactile sensor is integrated with the kinesthetic position parameters of a robot arm, resulting in a 3D geometric model of the tactile sensor pose on the explored object surface. Currently available tactile sensors provide poor information on the geometric profile of 3D object surfaces. In order to maximize the information available for 3D analysis, an instrumented passive compliant wrist was used to attach a pressure measuring tactile probe to the robot arm carrier. Data was collected by a noncompliant planar sensing array in direct contact with an object surface. Information recorded includes the following: positional and orientation data on the robot arm manipulator, passive compliance kinesthetic data as measured by the kinematics of the wrist, and cutaneous tactile data represented by the binary image of the sensors pose on the object. The dimensions of the sensor array were found to be a critical factor in system performance. Use of a large array results in fewer touch poses being required to explore an object's surface, on the other hand a large planar array will touch fewer and higher peaks thus missing surface detail. To improve performance, there is a need to design tactile sensors specifically for geometric profile measuring.

  17. Nonlinear photon transport in a semiconductor waveguide-cavity system containing a single quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, S

    2011-01-01

    The input/output characteristics of coherent photon transport through a semiconductor cavity system containing a single quantum dot is presented. The nonlinear quantum optics formalism uses a master equation approach and focuses on a waveguide-cavity system containing a semiconductor quantum dot; our general technique also applies to studying coherent reflection from a micropillar cavity. We investigate the effects of light propagation and show the need for quantized multiphoton effects for various dot-cavity systems, including weakly-coupled, intermediately-coupled, and strongly-coupled regimes. We demonstrate that for mean photon numbers much less than 0.1, the commonly adopted weak excitation (single quantum) approximation breaks down---even in the weak coupling regime. As a measure of the photon correlations, we compute the Fano factor and the error associated with making a semiclassical approximation. We also investigate the role of electron--acoustic-phonon scattering and show that phonon-mediated scatt...

  18. Enviro-geotechnical considerations in waste containment system design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, H.Y.; Daniels, J.L.; Inyang, H.I. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of waste control facilities hinges on careful evaluation of the overall planning, analysis and design of the entire system prior to construction. At present, most work is focused on the waste controlling system itself, with little attention given to the local environmental factors surrounding the facility sites. Containment materials including geomembranes, geotextiles and clay amended soils have received intense scrutiny. This paper, however, focuses on three relatively important issues relating to the characterization of the surrounding geomedia. Leakage through naturally occurring low-permeability soil layers, shrinkages swelling, cracking and effects of dynamic loads on system components are often responsible for a waste containment breach. In this paper, these mechanisms and their synergistic effects are explained in terms of the particle energy field theory. It is hoped that this additional information may assist the designer to be aware or take precaution to design safer future waste control facilities.

  19. Performance of Active Wave Absorption Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter

    A comparison of wave gauge based on velocity meter based active absorption systems is presented discussing advantages and disadvantages of the systems. In detail one system based on two surface elevations, one system based on a surface elevation and a horisontal velocity and one system based...... on a horisontal and vertical velocity are treated. All three systems are based on digital FIR-filters. For numerical comparison a performance function combining the frequency response of the set of filters for each system is derived enabling discussion on optimal filter design and system setup. Irregular wave...

  20. 77 FR 3487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... concerning Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096. Form Number: None. Abstract: Before the filing of...

  1. 76 FR 72715 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    .../ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border..., Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. This request for comment is being made pursuant to.../Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. OMB Number: 1651-0001....

  2. Content of Selected Minerals and Active Ingredients in Teas Containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Marzec, Zbigniew; Sembratowicz, Iwona; Samolińska, Wioletta; Kiczorowska, Bożena; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of selected elements: sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and active ingredients such as phenolic acids and tannins in teas containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos cultivated in various areas. The study material comprised six samples of Yerba Mate teas and of Rooibos teas, both tea bags and leaves, purchased in Puławy and online via Allegro. In total, 24 samples were tested. Yerba Mate was particularly abundant in Mn and Fe. The richest source of these elements was Yerba Mate Yer-Vita (2261.3 mg · kg(-1) d.m.) and (691.6 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). The highest content of zinc was determined in Yerba Mate Amanda with lime (106.0 mg · kg(-1) d.m.), while copper was most abundant in Yerba Mate Big-Active cocoa and vanilla (14.05 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos, the content of sodium was several times higher than in Yerba Mate. A clear difference was observed in the content of minerals in dry weight of the examined products, which could be a result of both the taxonomic distinctness and the origin of the raw material. Leaf teas turned out to be a better source of tannins; on the other hand, tea bags contained substantially more phenolic acids. The richest source of phenolic acids was Yer-Vita in bags (1.8 %), and the highest amount of tannins was recorded in the leaf tea Green Goucho caramel and dark chocolate (9.04 g · 100 g(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos products, the highest content of phenolic acids was recorded in tea bags (Savannah with honey and vanilla 0.96 %), and tannins in (Lord Nelson with strawberry and cream 7.99 g · 100 g (-1) d.m.). PMID:26686675

  3. Cell-free synthesis system suitable for disulfide-containing proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Takayoshi [NMR Pipeline Methodology Team, RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Cell-Free Technology Application Laboratory, RIKEN Innovation Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Watanabe, Satoru [NMR Pipeline Methodology Team, RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Kigawa, Takanori, E-mail: kigawa@riken.jp [NMR Pipeline Methodology Team, RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Cell-Free Technology Application Laboratory, RIKEN Innovation Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► Cell-free synthesis system suitable for disulfide-containing proteins is proposed. ► Disulfide bond formation was facilitated by the use of glutathione buffer. ► DsbC catalyzed the efficient shuffling of incorrectly formed disulfide bonds. ► Milligram quantities of functional {sup 15}N-labeled BPTI and lysozyme C were obtained. ► Synthesized proteins were both catalytically functional and properly folded. -- Abstract: Many important therapeutic targets are secreted proteins with multiple disulfide bonds, such as antibodies, cytokines, hormones, and proteases. The preparation of these proteins for structural and functional analyses using cell-based expression systems still suffers from several issues, such as inefficiency, low yield, and difficulty in stable-isotope labeling. The cell-free (or in vitro) protein synthesis system has become a useful protein production method. The openness of the cell-free system allows direct control of the reaction environment to promote protein folding, making it well suited for the synthesis of disulfide-containing proteins. In this study, we developed the Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell lysate-based cell-free synthesis system for disulfide-containing proteins, which can produce sufficient amounts of functional proteins for NMR analyses. Disulfide bond formation was facilitated by the use of glutathione buffer. In addition, disulfide isomerase, DsbC, catalyzed the efficient shuffling of incorrectly formed disulfide bonds during the protein synthesis reaction. We successfully synthesized milligram quantities of functional {sup 15}N-labeled higher eukaryotic proteins, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and human lysozyme C (LYZ). The NMR spectra and functional analyses indicated that the synthesized proteins are both catalytically functional and properly folded. Thus, the cell-free system is useful for the synthesis of disulfide-containing proteins for structural and functional analyses.

  4. Quantitative measurement of delivery and gene silencing activities of siRNA polyplexes containing pyridylthiourea-grafted polyethylenimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Sophie; Aman, Emmanuel; Erblang, Felix; Dietrich, Jonathan; Frisch, Benoit; Sirman, Julien; Kichler, Antoine; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Dontenwill, Monique; Schaffner, Florence; Zuber, Guy

    2014-05-28

    The activity of synthetic interfering nucleic acids (siRNAs) relies on the capacity of delivery systems to efficiently transport nucleic acids into the cytosol of target cells. The pyridylthiourea-grafted 25KDa polyethylenimine (πPEI) is an excellent carrier for siRNA delivery into cells and it was extensively investigated in this report. Quantification of the siRNA-mediated gene silencing efficiency indicated that the πPEI specific delivery activity at the cell level may be measured and appears relatively constant in various cell lines. Delivery experiments assaying inhibitors of various entry pathways or concanamycin A, an inhibitor of the H(+)/ATPase vacuolar pump showed that the πPEI/siRNA polyplexes did not require any specific entry mode but strongly relied on vacuolar acidification for functional siRNA delivery. Next, πPEI polyplexes containing a siRNA targeting the transcription factor HIF-1α, known to be involved in tumor progression, were locally injected into mice xenografted with a human glioblastoma. A 55% reduction of the level of the target mRNA was observed at doses comparable to those used in vitro when the πPEI delivery activity was calculated per cell. Altogether, our study underscores the usefulness of "simple"/rough cationic polymers for siRNA delivery despite their intrinsic limitations. The study underscores as well as that bottom-up strategies make sense. The in vitro experiments can precede in vivo administration and be of high value for selection of the carrier with enhanced specific delivery activity and parallel other research aiming at improving synthetic delivery systems for resilience in the blood and for enhanced tissue-targeting capacity. PMID:24631860

  5. Stability Enhancement of a Power System Containing High-Penetration Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the transient stability enhancement of a power system containing large amounts of solar and wind generation in Japan. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster there has been an increasing awareness on the importance of a distributed architecture, based mainly on renewable generation, for the Japanese power system. Also, the targets of CO2 emissions can now be approached without heavily depending on nuclear generation. Large amounts of renewable generation leads to a reduction in the total inertia of the system because renewable generators are connected to the grid by power converters, and transient stability becomes a significant issue. Simulation results show that sodium-sulfur batteries can keep the system in operation and stable after strong transient disturbances, especially for an isolated system. The results also show how the reduction of the inertia in the system can be mitigated by exploiting the kinetic energy of wind turbines.

  6. [Construction and Identification of the Bait Vector Containing Duck Circovirus Cap Gene for the Yeast Two-hybrid System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Zhang, Zhilong; Lu, Yanyan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Pengfei; Jia, Renyong

    2015-05-01

    To construct a bait expression vector containing the duck circovirus Cap gene for use in the yeast two-hybrid system, the whole cap codon-optimized gene was inserted into pGBKT7 vector and confirmed by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion, and sequence analysis. After transformation into a Y2HGold yeast strain, the expression of Cap protein was analyzed by Western blotting. Toxicity and self-activation of the bait protein were detected using different dropout minimal base. PCR reaction, restriction enzyme digestion, and sequencing analyses indicated that the duck circovirus Cap gene was correctly inserted into pG- BKT7. Western blotting showed that the whole Cap protein was expressed. The recombinant bait protein had no toxicity and self-activation. Therefore, the bait vector with the Cap gene was constructed successfully, providing a foundation for future screening for interacting proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system.

  7. Active ingredient-containing chitosan/polycaprolactone nonwoven mats: Characterizations and their functional assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Meng-Yi, E-mail: mybai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China); Adjunct appointment to the Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Tz-Chong, E-mail: tcchou@ms5.hinet.net [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jie-Chang; Yang, Hui-Ching [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a facile method developed to generate a chitosan/polycaprolactone (CS/PCL) nonwoven mat. All nonwoven mats are composed of microfibers with an average diameter of 2.51 {+-} 0.69 {mu}m. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that positively charged nitrogen was generated on the surface of the mats after undergoing CS coating. By using a non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter, we determined that the nonwoven mats exhibited a positive potential and the charge density of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat was in proportion to the thickness of the CS overlayer. Moreover, platelet aggregation and anti-bacterial ability were enhanced by the CS/PCL nonwoven mat as compared to that of PCL nonwoven mat alone. The enhancements of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat on platelet aggregation are further promoted by incorporating a 1 mM calcium ion in its CS overlayer. We also find that the addition of tea tree oil in the CS overlayer significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitrite formation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, our CS/PCL nonwoven mat possesses pharmacological effects including an increase of platelet aggregation, anti-bacterial, anti-adhesive, and anti-inflammatory activities. The performance of this CS/PCL nonwoven mat can be further promoted by incorporating active compounds to exert therapeutic effects in wound healing. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a facile method to generate active ingredient-containing CS/PCLNM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our CS/PCLNM possesses superior mechanical strength, compared to CS-blended PCL nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prove that our prepared CS/PCLNM possesses several pharmacological properties Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The functional performances of CS/PCLNM are enhanced by incorporation of active compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of 1 mM of calcium ions or 100 {mu}L of TTO into the CS overlayer of CS/PCLNM is the optimum dose.

  8. 'Becquerel screening' device to automatically measure activity level of contaminated soil in flexible containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated soil and incineration ash collected during offsite decontamination work following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. is being stored in flexible containers. These containers are managed taking their activity level into account in accordance with the Decontamination Guidelines issued by the Ministry of the Environment. Toshiba has developed the 'Becquerel Screening' device that can automatically measure the activity level of the contents of each flexible container simply by placing the container on a palette, without the need to take samples for analysis from the container. The Becquerel Screening device is expected to contribute not only to improved operational efficiency but also to reduced exposure of operators to radiation, because it eliminates the need for direct contact with contaminated soil and ash. (author)

  9. Distributed finite-time containment control for double-integrator multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Li, Shihua; Shi, Peng

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the distributed finite-time containment control problem for double-integrator multiagent systems with multiple leaders and external disturbances is discussed. In the presence of multiple dynamic leaders, by utilizing the homogeneous control technique, a distributed finite-time observer is developed for the followers to estimate the weighted average of the leaders' velocities at first. Then, based on the estimates and the generalized adding a power integrator approach, distributed finite-time containment control algorithms are designed to guarantee that the states of the followers converge to the dynamic convex hull spanned by those of the leaders in finite time. Moreover, as a special case of multiple dynamic leaders with zero velocities, the proposed containment control algorithms also work for the case of multiple stationary leaders without using the distributed observer. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms. PMID:25137682

  10. Effects of soy containing diet and isoflavones on cytochrome P450 enzyme expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J

    2016-08-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play an important role in metabolism and clearance of most clinically utilized drugs and other xenobiotics. They are important in metabolism of endogenous compounds including fatty acids, sterols, steroids and lipid-soluble vitamins. Dietary factors such as phytochemicals are capable of affecting CYP expression and activity, which may be important in diet-drug interactions and in the development of fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer. One important diet-CYP interaction is with diets containing plant proteins, particularly soy protein. Soy diets are traditionally consumed in Asian countries and are linked to lower incidence of several cancers and of cardiovascular disease in Asian populations. Soy is also an important protein source in vegetarian and vegan diets and the sole protein source in soy infant formulas. Recent studies suggest that consumption of soy can inhibit induction of CY1 enzymes by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which may contribute to cancer prevention. In addition, there are data to suggest that soy components promiscuously activate several nuclear receptors including PXR, PPAR and LXR resulting in increased expression of CYP3As, CYP4As and CYPs involved in metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids. Such soy-CYP interactions may alter drug pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy and are associated with improved lipid homeostasis and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The current review summarizes results from in vitro; in vivo and clinical studies of soy-CYP interactions and examines the evidence linking the effects of soy diets on CYP expression to isoflavone phytoestrogens, particularly, genistein and daidzein that are associated with soy protein. PMID:27440109

  11. Characterization of polyurethane systems which contain low levels of free TDI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, R.L.; Thomas, E.V.

    1995-04-01

    EN-7, EN-8, and EN-9 are polyurethane systems that are used in numerous applications in the Department of Energy complex. These systems contain high levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Currently, TDI is being treated as a suspect human carcinogen within the Department of Energy complex. This report documents the results of a material characterization study of three polyurethane systems that contain low levels of free (potentially airborne) TDI. The characterization has been accomplished by performing a set of statistically designed experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to explore the effects of formulation and cure schedule on various material properties. In general, the material properties (pot life, glass transition temperature, hardness, and tear strength) were relatively insensitive to variation in the cure schedule. On the other hand, variation in curative level had measurable effects on material properties for the polyurethane systems studied. Furthermore, the material properties of the three low-free-TDI polyurethane systems were found to be comparable or superior (for certain curative levels) to commonly-used polyurethane systems. Thus, these low-free-TDI systems appear to be viable candidates for applications where a polyurethane is needed.

  12. Theoretical study on electron transfer in biological systems (Ⅲ)——Intramolecular electron transfer in metal-containing spiro π-electron system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟宇峰; 蒋华良; 朱维良; 顾健德; 陈建忠; 陈凯先; 嵇汝运

    1999-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer of metal-containing spiro π-electron system was studied by AM1 method in the MOPAC-ET program developed by the present group. The results indicated that with the increasing of the outer electric field F, the activation energy of the reaction decreased. When F reaches a certain threshold value, the activation energy barrier becomes zero and the rate of reaction achieves the largest value. The results also indicated that electron transfer matrix elements VAB and reorganization energy λ were not obviously affected by outer electric field while the exothermicity ΔE was directly proportional to it.

  13. Implementation of Business Game Activity Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANABU Motonari

    2004-01-01

    Business game can be used not only as an educational tool for the development of decision making ability, but also can be used for supporting the knowledge creation activity in organizations. In this paper, some conceptual considerations to meanings of the business game in the knowledge creation activity by using the knowledge creation theory and other related theories are given,and business game activity concept which refers to game play and development is proposed. Then focusing on the business game activity as an instantiation of the knowledge creation activity, and a Web based gaming activity support system based on the former system called YBG that enables us to play and develop many business games through the standard web browser is proposed. This system also provides us a lot of opportunities to play and develop the business games over business game communities.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine and Tris-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Damborg, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA (Otodine) were determined by broth microdilution for 150 isolates representing the most common pathogens associated with canine otitis. The microorganisms were classified into three groups according to their levels of susceptibility. The most susceptible group included Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Malassezia pachydermatis, Streptococcus canis and Corynebacterium auriscanis, which were generally killed by 1 : 64 dilution of the antiseptic product (MBC = 23/0.8 microg/mL of chlorhexidine/Tris-EDTA). The most resistant organism was Proteus mirabilis, which survived up to 1 : 8 dilution of the product (MBC = 375/12 microg/mL). Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus displayed intermediate MBCs ranging between 188/6 and 47/1.5 microg/mL. Interestingly, S. pseudintermedius was more susceptible than S. aureus, and no significant difference was observed between meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible isolates within each species, indicating that antiseptic use is unlikely to co-select for meticillin resistance. Although the concentrations required for killing (MBCs) varied considerably with microorganism type, the combination of chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA was active against all the pathogens most commonly involved in canine otitis. PMID:20030799

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine and Tris-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Damborg, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA (Otodine) were determined by broth microdilution for 150 isolates representing the most common pathogens associated with canine otitis. The microorganisms were classified into three groups according to their levels of susceptibility. The most susceptible group included Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Malassezia pachydermatis, Streptococcus canis and Corynebacterium auriscanis, which were generally killed by 1 : 64 dilution of the antiseptic product (MBC = 23/0.8 microg/mL of chlorhexidine/Tris-EDTA). The most resistant organism was Proteus mirabilis, which survived up to 1 : 8 dilution of the product (MBC = 375/12 microg/mL). Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus displayed intermediate MBCs ranging between 188/6 and 47/1.5 microg/mL. Interestingly, S. pseudintermedius was more susceptible than S. aureus, and no significant difference was observed between meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible isolates within each species, indicating that antiseptic use is unlikely to co-select for meticillin resistance. Although the concentrations required for killing (MBCs) varied considerably with microorganism type, the combination of chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA was active against all the pathogens most commonly involved in canine otitis.

  16. Hydrothermal Characteristics of Blended Cement Pastes Containing Silica Sand Using Cement Kiln Dust as an Activator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The hydrothermal reactivity of silica sand was studied using cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator in addition to the Portlandcement fraction of El-Karnak cement (a blend of ordinary Portland cement and ground sand). Autoclaved El-Karnak cementpastes were studied at pressures of 0.507, 1.013 and 1.520 MPa of saturated steam with respect to their compressive strength,kinetics of hydrothermal reaction and the phase composition of the formed hydrates. The role of CKD in affecting thephysicochemical and mechanical properties of El-Karnak cement pastes was studied by autoclaving of several pastes containing5, 7.5, 10 and 20% CKD at a pressure of 1.013 MPa of saturated steam. CKD was added either as a raw CKD (unwashed) orafter washing with water (washed CKD). The results of these physicochemical studies obtained could be related as much aspossible to the role of CKD (raw or washed) in affecting the hydrothermal reactivity of silica sand in El-Karnak cement pastes.

  17. Attachment of noble metal nanoparticles to conducting polymers containing sulphur - preparation conditions for enhanced electrocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, V.C. [CQB, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); CIQ-UP, Linha 4, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Melato, A.I. [CQB, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Silva, A.F. [CIQ-UP, Linha 4, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Abrantes, L.M., E-mail: luisa.abrantes@fc.ul.p [CQB, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-04-01

    Taking advantage of the spontaneous deposition of noble metals on polymers containing sulphur, the inclusion of gold and platinum in poly(3-methylthiophene) and poly(3,4-ehylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOTh) layers, achieved by immersion of the polymer into the metal nanoparticles suspension, is reported in the present work. Platinum and gold nanoparticles (NPs), with diameters between 3 and 17 nm, have been prepared from colloidal methods (citrate or borohydride reduction in the presence of citrate capping agent) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electropolymerization was carried out under potentiostatic and potentiodynamic conditions, imparting distinct morphologies, as revealed by atomic force microscopy. After polymer films immersion in the colloidal solutions, evidence of the NPs confinement and distribution was provided by XRD analysis and scanning electron microscopy. For thin layers, the quantity of attached metal NPs could be estimated from quartz crystal microbalance data collected throughout the films immersion.The influence of the polymer type and morphology, NPs nature, size and incorporated amount on the electrocatalytic activity of the so-prepared modified electrodes towards the hydrazine oxidation, in phosphate buffer solution, has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The results clearly show the superior properties of potentiodynamically prepared PEDOTh films attaching very small (3 nm) freshly prepared Pt-NPs.

  18. Activity release from waste packages containing LL and IL waste forms under mechanical and thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For transport and handling of radioactive waste packages in an underground repository safety assessments are being performed to keep any unacceptable radiation hazards from the operational staff and the population in the site neighborhood. Therefore experiments were carried out to determine source terms for activity release from waste packages containing cemented waste forms in case of heavy mechanical and thermal impacts. Mechanical impact was applied by drop test with a maximum energy input of 3.105 Nm. A special cage construction around the target (reinforced concrete covered by a 80 mm steel plate) allows the collection of the airborne fines with a particle size of < 10 μm by using micro filters in a defined geometry. In addition, in two experiments the particle fraction with an aerodynamic diameter between 1 μm and 20 μm was determined using a cascade impactor. Additional laboratory experiments were performed to determine comparative values for different waste forms. In case of thermal impact, the temperature profiles in the waste forms were measured and the release of added indicators (Cs, Sr, Eu) was determined. Further laboratory experiments were performed with inactive samples to determine the temperature dependence of water release (Thermogravimetric-Analysis)

  19. Effect of shoes containing nanosilica particles on knee valgus in active females during landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bassiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The effect of silica nanoparticles (SNPs in sport shoes outsoles on the  parameters related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL Injury has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes outsole containing a composite of thermoplastic elastomer based on styrene-butadiene and silica nanoparticles (TPEN shoe on Knee Valgus Angle (KVA as a risk factor of ACL injuries during landing Materials and Methods: Fourteen active healthy women without knee injuries and disorders performed bilateral drop jump (DJ and single leg drop landing (SLL tasks in barefoot, wearing shoes fabricated with polyvinyl chloride outsole (PVC shoe and TPEN shoes conditions , randomly. The knee valgus angle values of right and left legs were calculated in the landing conditions. Two factors repeated measures ANOVA were used to investigate the effect of landing and footwear conditions on KVA of right and left legs.  Results: For both left and right limbs, the KVA was at maximum and minimum values during landing with barefoot and TPEN shoes, respectively. PVC shoe significantly reduced the knee valgus by 3.84% in left and 4.18% in right knee (P

  20. Osteoclast-derived microRNA-containing exosomes selectively inhibit osteoblast activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chenyang; Li, Yuheng; Wang, Liang; Nie, Guangjun; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Aiyuan; Zhang, Pengfei; Tian, Weiming; Li, Qi; Song, Jinping; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Xiaolong; Tian, Yanhua; Zhao, Dingsheng; Xu, Zi; Zhong, Guohui; Han, Bingxing; Ling, Shukuan; Chang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs have an important role in bone homeostasis. However, the detailed mechanism of microRNA-mediated intercellular communication between bone cells remains elusive. Here, we report that osteoclasts secrete microRNA-enriched exosomes, by which miR-214 is transferred into osteoblasts to inhibit their function. In a coculture system, inhibition of exosome formation and secretion prevented miR-214 transportation. Exosomes specifically recognized osteoblasts through the interaction between ephrinA2 and EphA2. In osteoclast-specific miR-214 transgenic mice, exosomes were secreted into the serum, and miR-214 and ephrinA2 levels were elevated. Therefore, these exosomes have an inhibitory role in osteoblast activity. miR-214 and ephrinA2 levels in serum exosomes from osteoporotic patients and mice were upregulated substantially. These exosomes may significantly inhibit osteoblast activity. Inhibition of exosome secretion via Rab27a small interfering RNA prevented ovariectomized-induced osteoblast dysfunction in vivo. Taken together, these findings suggest that exosome-mediated transfer of microRNA plays an important role in the regulation of osteoblast activity. Circulating miR-214 in exosomes not only represents a biomarker for bone loss but could selectively regulate osteoblast function. PMID:27462462

  1. Synthesis, structural characterization and anti-carcinogenic activity of new cyclotriphosphazenes containing dioxybiphenyl and chalcone groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgülü, Ahmet Orhan; Koran, Kenan; Özen, Furkan; Tekin, Suat; Sandal, Süleyman

    2015-05-01

    2,2-Dichloro-4,4,6,6-bis[spiro(2‧,2″-dioxy-1‧,1″-biphenylyl]cyclotriphosphazene (2) was synthesized from hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and 2,2‧-dihydroxybiphenyl. The mixed substituent chalcone/dioxybiphenyl cyclophosphazenes (2a-h) were obtained from the reactions of (2) with hydroxy chalcone compounds in K2CO3/acetone system. The chalcone-cyclophosphazene compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C, 31P NMR techniques. In vitro anti-carcinogenic activities of all compounds were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Anti-carcinogenic activity of the compounds (2a-h) against androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and independent (PC-3) human prostate cancer cell lines were investigated. Our results indicate that the chalcone-phosphazene compounds (2a-h) have anti-carcinogenic activity on PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines (p < 0.05). The effective dose of the compounds was determined as 100 μM.

  2. Automobile active suspension system with fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 黄中华; 陈毅章

    2004-01-01

    A quarter-automobile active suspension model was proposed. High speed on/off solenoid valves were used as control valves and fuzzy control was chosen as control method . Based on force analyses of system parts, a mathematical model of the active suspension system was established and simplified by linearization method. Simulation study was conducted with Matlab and three scale coefficients of fuzzy controller (ke, kec, ku) were acquired. And an experimental device was designed and produced. The results indicate that the active suspension system can achieve better vibration isolation performance than passive suspension system, the displacement amplitude of automobile body can be reduced to 55%. Fuzzy control is an effective control method for active suspension system.

  3. The market-incentive recycling system for waste packaging containers in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new market-incentive (MI) system to recycle waste-packaging containers in Taiwan. Since most used packaging containers have no or insufficient market value, the government imposes a combined product charge and subsidy policy to provide enough economic incentive for recycling various kinds of packaging containers, such as iron, aluminum, paper, glass and plastic. Empirical results show that the new MI approach has stimulated and established the recycling market for waste-packaging containers. The new recycling system has provided 18,356 employment opportunities and generated NT$ 6.97 billion in real-production value and NT$ 3.18 billion in real GDP during the 1998 survey year. Cost-effectiveness analysis constitutes the theoretical foundation of the new scheme, whereas data used to compute empirical product charge are from two sources: marketing surveys of internal conventional costs of solid-waste collection, disposal and recycling in Taiwan, and benefit transfer of external environmental costs in the United States. The new recycling policy designed by the authors provides a reasonable solution for solid-waste management in a country with limited land resources such as Taiwan

  4. Design Status of the Capillary Brine Residual in Containment Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the AES Life Support System (LSS) Project is to achieve 98% water loop closure for long duration human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. To meet this objective, the AES LSS Project is developing technologies to recover water from wastewater brine; highly concentrated waste products generated from a primary water recovery system. The state of the art system used aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to recover up to 85% water from unine wastewater, leaving a significant amounts of water in the waste brine, the recovery of which is a critical technology gap that must be filled in order to enable long duration human exploration. Recovering water from the urine wastewater brine is complicated by the concentration of solids as water is removed from the brine, and the concentration of the corrosive, toxic chemicals used to stabilize the urine which fouls and degrades water processing hardware, and poses a hazard to operators and crew. Brine Residual in Containment (BRIC) is focused on solids management through a process of "in-place" drying - the drying of brines within the container used for final disposal. Application of in-place drying has the potential to improve the safety and reliability of the system by reducing the exposure to crew and hardware to the problematic brine residual. Through a collaboration between the NASA Johnson Space Center and Portland Status University, a novel water recovery system was developed that utilizes containment geometry to support passive capillary flow and static phase separation allowing free surface evaporation to take place in a microgravity environment. A notional design for an ISS demonstration system was developed. This paper describes the concept for the system level design.

  5. Enhanced photodynamic leishmanicidal activity of hydrophobic zinc phthalocyanine within archaeolipids containing liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez AP

    2014-07-01

    leishmanicidal activity of photodynamic liposomal ZnPc was improved by TPA-containing liposomes.Keywords: macrophages, Leishmania amastigotes, Zn intracellular delivery, irradiation

  6. Containment control of multi-agent systems with unbounded communication delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Lam, James

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the containment control problem for multi-agent systems under heterogeneous unbounded communication delays with emphasis on the convergence rate analysis. Different from most works on multi-agent systems, we resort to a viewpoint from the area of positive delay systems. We first cast the containment control problem into the stability analysis of an associated error system. In order to capture the convergence rate, we introduce a nondecreasing positive function whose reciprocal represents the decay rate of the associated error system. Under the assumption that each follower has access to at least one leader and some mild hypotheses on the communication delays, an explicit condition is given to characterise the decay rate of the associated error system in terms of linear programming. In addition, we provide several special cases when the communication delays are restricted by linear, sublinear and logarithmic growth rates, respectively. Finally, through numerical examples, it is shown that the convergence rate is dominated by the delays being the highest order infinitely large quantity.

  7. COCOSYS: Status of development and validation of the German containment code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the simulation of severe accident propagation in containments of nuclear power plants it is necessary to assess the efficiency of a severe accident measures under conditions as realistic as possible. Therefore the German containment code system COCOSYS is under development and validation at GRS. The main objective is to provide a code system on the basis of mostly mechanistic models for the comprehensive simulation of all relevant processes and plant states during severe accidents in the containment of light water reactors covering the design basis accidents, too. COCOSYS is being used for the identification of possible deficits in plant safety, qualification of the safety reserves of the entire system, assessment of damage-limiting or mitigating accident management measures, support of integral codes in PSA level 2 studies and safety evaluation of new plants. COCOSYS is composed for three main modules, which are separate executable files. The communication is realized via PVM (parallel virtual machine). The thermal hydraulic main module (THY) contains several specific models relevant for the simulation of severe accidents. Beside the usual capabilities to calculate the gas distribution and thermal behavior inside the containment, there are special models for the simulation of Hydrogen deflagration, pressure suppression systems etc. Further detailed models exist for the simulation of safety systems, like catalytic recombiners (PAR's), safety relief valves (used in WWR-440/V-230 type plants), ice condenser model, pump and spray system models for the complete simulation of cooling systems. The aerosol and fission product part (AFP) describes the aerosol behavior of nonsoluble and as well as hygroscopic aerosols, iodine chemistry and fission transport. Further the decay process of nuclides is considered using ORIGIN like routines. The corium concrete interaction (CCI) main module is based on an improved version of WECHSL extended by the ChemApp module for the

  8. An Approach to Laboratory Cost Containment Using a Data Base Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, E.; Boeckmann, A.; Sheiner, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous articles have emphasized the need to develop effective cost containment strategies for laboratory utilization. This paper discusses the construction and use of a prototype data base system to detect and verify the existence of conditionally useless tests, or CUTs. For the purposes of this paper, a conditionally useless test is defined to be a test which, under certain conditions, does not provide sufficient new or relevant information to offset its associated cost.

  9. An integrated approach for modeling and solving the scheduling problem of container handling systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lu; XI Li-feng; CAI Jian-guo; BOSTEL Nathalie; DEJAX Pierre

    2006-01-01

    An integrated model is presented to schedule the container handling system. The objective is to improve the cooperation between different types of equipments, and to increase the productivity of the terminal. The problem is formulated as a Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling problem with precedence constraint, setup times and blocking (HFSS-B). A tabu search algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. The quality and efficiency of the proposed algorithm is analyzed from the computational point of view.

  10. Lignin Peroxidase Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds in Systems Containing Organic Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Westlake, Donald W. S.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    1994-01-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hy...

  11. CZECHOSLOVAK ACTIVITY TO PREPARE EUROPEAN NORMS FOR CONTAINERS BEFORE THE SECOND WORLD WAR

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Lewandowski

    2014-01-01

    In many articles we can read that containers weren't in Europe before 1966, when ship SS Fariland came with 35 feet containers invented by Keith Tantlinger for Sea Land Company owned by Malcom McLean. The focus of this study is on the problem with development norms for European containers. Thus, the main definitions and briefly literature overview in the analysed research area are given. Later, the information about these constructions are developed. Article presents Czechoslovak ...

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of a Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing Bortezomib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eon-Pyo; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Hwang, Kyu-Mok; Park, Chun-Woong; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Dong-Wook; Weon, Kwon-Yeon; Jeong, Seo Young; Park, Eun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to develop a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) containing bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor. The solubility of the drug was evaluated in 15 pharmaceutical excipients. Combinations of oils, surfactants and cosurfactants were screened by drawing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. The system exhibiting the largest region of microemulsion was considered optimal. Bortezomib SMEDDS spontaneously formed a microemulsion when diluted with an aqueous medium with a median droplet size of approximately 20-30 nm. In vitro release studies showed that the SMEDDS had higher initial release rates for the drug when compared with the raw drug material alone. Measurement of the viscosity, size, and ion conductivity indicated that a phase inversion from water in an oil system to oil in a water system occurred when the weight ratio of the water exceeded 30% of the entire microemulsion system. In a pharmacokinetics study using rats, the bortezomib microemulsion failed to improve the bioavailability of the drug. The reason was assumed to be degradation of the drug in the microemulsion in the gastrointestinal tract. However, bortezomib in Labrasol(®) solution (an aqueous solution containing 0.025% Labrasol(®)) showed significantly increased area under the curve from 0-24 h (AUC0-24 h) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values compared to the drug suspension. The findings of this study imply that oral delivery of a bortezomib and colloidal system containing Labrasol(®) could be an effective strategy for the delivery of bortezomib. PMID:27477648

  13. Electrical impedance tomography system based on active electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can image the distribution of ventilated lung tissue, and is thus a promising technology to help monitor patient breathing to help selection of mechanical ventilation parameters. Two key difficulties in EIT instrumentation make such monitoring difficult: (1) EIT data quality depends on good electrode contact and is sensitive to changes in contact quality, and (2) EIT electrodes are difficult and time consuming to place on patients. This paper presents the design and initial tests of an active electrode-based system to address these difficulties. Our active electrode EIT system incorporates an active electrode belt, a central voltage-driven current source, central analog to digital converters and digital to analog converters, a central FPGA-based demodulator and controller. The electrode belt is designed incorporating 32 active electrodes, each of which contains the electronic amplifiers, switches and associated logic. Tests show stable device performance with a convenient ease of use and good imaging ability in volunteer tests. (paper)

  14. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene system as containment control in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, P.; Jensen, G. B.; Gerdes, K.;

    2000-01-01

    The potential of a bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene system for use in containment control in eukaryotes was explored. The Escherichia coli relE and relB genes were expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Expression of the relE gene was highly toxic to yeast cells. However, expression...... of the relB gene counteracted the effect of relE to some extent, suggesting that toxin-antitoxin interaction also occurs in S. cerevisiae, Thus, bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene systems also have potential applications in the control of cell proliferation in eukaryotic cells, especially in those industrial...

  15. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    of recovering some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas. This heat is converted into electrical energy used on-board instead of using auxiliary engines. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems, are recirculating a part of the exhaust gas through the engine combustion chamber to reduce emissions. WHRS combined......Concerned to push ships to have a lower impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization are implementing stricter regulation of NOx and SOx emissions, called Tier III, within emission control areas (ECAs). Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) on container ships consist...

  16. PREPARATION OF PLANT TRANSFORMATION VECTOR CONTAINING “SELF-EXCISION” CRE/LOXP SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Moravčíková; Jana Libantová; Ildikó Matušíková; Martin Jopčík; Zuzana Polóniová

    2012-01-01

    This work is focused on preparation of the plant transformation vector pZP6 containing “self-excision” Cre/loxP system. The T-DNA of binary vector consists of the cre recombinase gene driven by the Arabidopsis DLL promoter and the nptII expression unit flanked by two loxP sites in direct orientation. The gus reporter gene controlled by the double CaMV 35S promoter was placed out of the loxP embedded DNA. To confirm functionality of the Cre/loxP system, the pZP6 was analyzed for correct remova...

  17. Kinetics of Methane Hydrate Formation in Pure Water and Inhibitor Containing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIUJunhong; GUOTianmin

    2002-01-01

    Kinetic data of methane hydrate formation in the presence of pure water,brines with single salt and mixed salts,and aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol(EG) and salt+EG were measured.A new kinetic model of hydrate formation for the methane+water systems was developed based on a four-step formation mechanism and reaction kinetic approach.The proposed kinetic model predicts the kinetic behavior of methane hydrate formation in pure water with good accuracy.The feasibility of extending the kenetic model of salt(s) and EG containing systems was explored.

  18. Hydrodynamic calculation of a filter sand bed type used in the containment venting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The filtered venting of the containment has been adopted in European countries to mitigate the consequences of excess pressure containment during a severe accident. When venting has taken place, the fission products are released directly into the environment, unless a filter on the same path is placed, so that various types of filters are used to trap the fission products. The venting filters of the containment currently installed use different filtration technologies that involve more than one medium. Those using water as the first stage of filtration are called wet systems and are equipped with additional steps to remove water drops and fine aerosols emissions. And even they may also be equipped with an element containing certain absorption means for the filtration of gaseous iodine species. Other designs based on filtration of deep bed as the primary retention step; called dry filters, use filtration media of metal fiber, ceramic or sand to trap aerosols. This paper evaluates the hydraulic characteristics of the filter sand bed type designed by EDF as a candidate to be installed in the containment of BWR Mark II (type of primary containment of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde). The evaluation of filter sand bed type was performed using the software package of open source OpenFOAM. Models of each zone of the filtered device were generated and through a series of parametric calculations of computational fluid mechanics relevant hydrodynamic characteristics of the device were obtained, such as pressure drops against mass flow rate and pressure fields and speed at different operating conditions. On the other hand, the model validation of the sand bed filter when comparing the results of experimental tests on a sand column of PITEAS program (1985-1986) against OpenFOAM simulation was realized. The results are very close to those obtained experimentally. (Author)

  19. Discovery of New Imidazole Derivatives Containing the 2,4-Dienone Motif with Broad-Spectrum Antifungal and Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chunli Liu; Ce Shi; Fei Mao; Yong Xu; Jinyan Liu; Bing Wei; Jin Zhu; Mingjie Xiang; Jian Li

    2014-01-01

    A compound containing an imidazole moiety and a 2,4-dienone motif with significant activity toward several fungi was discovered in a screen for new antifungal compounds. Then, a total of 26 derivatives of this compound were designed, synthesized and evaluated through in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity assays. Several compounds exhibited improved antifungal activities compared to the lead compound. Of the derivatives, compounds 31 and 42 exhibited strong, broad-spectrum inhibitory effect...

  20. Implementation of a Dual Containment/Surveillance System utilizing scene-change detection and radio frequency technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FITZGERALD, ERIC; KOENIG, RICHARD

    2005-06-27

    This paper will examine the implementation of scene-change detection and radio frequency technology within a Dual Containment/Surveillance (C/S) System. Additionally, this paper will examine the human performance factors in the operation of these systems. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company utilizes the Continuous Item Monitoring and Surveillance System (CIMS) in the performance of Dual C/S to monitor special nuclear materials within International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards and Domestic Safeguards. CIMS is comprised of the Material Monitoring System (MMS) (R), a multi-media electronic surveillance system developed by Sandia National Laboratory which incorporates the use of active seals commonly called Radio Frequency Tamper Indicating Devices (RFTIDs), NT Vision (R) as developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, a Microsoft Windows NT (R) based operating system providing for domestic scene-change detection and the Digital Multi-Camera Optical Surveillance System (DMOS) (R) which provides scene-change detection for IAEA. Although this paper will focus on the implementation of Dual C/S utilizing the Continuous Item Monitoring and Surveillance System, the necessity for a thorough review of Safeguards and Security requirements with organizations and personnel having minimal to no prior MPC&A training will also be covered. Successful Dual C/S implementation plans must consider not only system design and failure modes, but must also be accompanied with the appropriate ''mind shift'' within operations and technical personnel. This is required to ensure completion of both physical and electronic activities, and system design changes are performed conscientiously and with full awareness of MPC&A requirements.

  1. Corrosion-Activated Micro-Containers for Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, J. W.; Zhang, X.; Johnsey, M. N.; Pearman, B. P.; Jolley, S. T.; Calle, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry. The NASA Kennedy Space Centers Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion

  2. Antimicrobial activity of hybrid hydrogels based on poly(vinylpyrrolidone containing silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Jovana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work new hybrid hydrogels were prepared by radical copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, itaconic acid, poly(vinylpyrrolidone and silver particles. FTIR spectroscopy has confirmed binding of silver particels in hydrogels. Swelling studies performed in in vitro conditions showed dependence on PVP content and temperature. It can be seen that the antimicrobial activity of the Ag/P(HEMA/IAPVP hybrid hydrogels depends on the PVP moiety and with the increase of PVP content the microbial contamination is more efficiently reduced. The best sensitivity was obtained for the polymers tested for antimicrobial activity against the yeast C. albicans, one of the most commonly encountered human pathogens, causing a wide variety of infections ranging from mucosal infections in generally healthy persons to life-threatening systemic infections in individuals with impaired immunity. A slightly less susceptible to antimicrobial effect of hydrogels was obtained for the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus, where the reduction of cells was about 70 % after two hours of exposure, for the sample with the highest PVP content. The least susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of hydrogels examined was the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, where the percent of cell reduction was below 20 %. Bearing in mind the influence of the time of exposure of microbes to the Ag/P(HEMA/IA/PVP hybrid hydrogels, it was observed that the reduction of the number of cells depends on time, microbial culture and type of hybrid hydrogel sample. Due to their swelling and antimicrobial properties, silver/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/itaconic acid/poly(vinylpyrrolidone hybrid hydrogles show potential to use in the field of biomedicine, especially for treatment of skin and burns in dermocosmetics.

  3. 77 FR 6135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 72715) on November 25, 2011.../ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. This is a...

  4. 77 FR 21579 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 3487) on January 24, 2012, allowing for a 60-day comment... a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transfer of Cargo to a Container...

  5. Probabilistic safety analysis of the containment spray system of Angra-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of the unavailability of the containment spray system of Angra-1, is done. The referred system has two different modes of operation (injection and recirculation) which were separately studied using the fault tree methodology. Besides equipment and human error failures, the contributions of test, maintenance and common-mode failures have also been considered. The quantitative evaluation was carried out by the computer code SAMPLE, which considers the uncertainties in the failures data and gives a distribution for the top event unavailability. The input data were obtained from the well-known Rasmussen Report. An importance analysis of the basic events of the trees was performed and a study of the viability of some suggestions for system design modification was also conducted. A comparison between the results obtained in this work and the corresponding ones in the Rasmussen Report has shown the fact that the unavailability of both systems are of the same order of magnitude. (Author)

  6. Classification of systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment of nuclear power plant with water-cooled power reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled, N.; D. V. Shevelev; A. S. Balashevsky

    2014-01-01

    A classification on systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment has been developed in the paper.  The classification permits to make a detailed analysis of various concepts pertaining to systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment of new generation. The paper considers main classification features of the given systems.

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS FOR PASSIVE AFTERHEAT REMOVAL FROM REACTOR CONTAINMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WITH WATER-COOLED POWER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A classification on systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment has been developed in the paper.  The classification permits to make a detailed analysis of various concepts pertaining to systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment of new generation. The paper considers main classification features of the given systems.

  8. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  9. SYSTEMIC BLOOD ACTIVATION DURING AND AFTER AUTOTRANSFUSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHONBERGER, JPAM; VANOEVEREN, W; BREDEE, JJ; EVERTS, PAM; DEHAAN, J; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of shed blood activation in two autotransfusion systems and the effect of circulating blood activation upon autotransfusion, we performed a prospective study in 18 patients undergoing internal mammary artery bypass operation and a control group of 10 patients. The autotransfus

  10. Containment by-pass and isolation failure detection with the expert system ALIBABA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of an accident arising in an EDF (Electricite de France) pressurized water reactor, the IPSN Emergency Technical Centre (CTC) would be entrusted to provide the safety authorities with technical assistance. As pad of this responsibility it would analyse and forecast the barriers status (fuel clad, reactor coolant system, containment building), and the related safety functions (subcriticality, water inventory, primary pressure and temperature control, confinement). Its assignments would also require it to evaluate the kinetics and magnitude of a possible fission products release, in progress or to come, so as to advise necessary counter measures in order to ensure the surrounding population's protection, should the occasion arise. A realistic assessment of the release requires a good knowledge of the containment quality. It is therefore important to detect potential isolation faults (isolation failure or by-pass of the third barrier) as soon as possible. Once these leaks are identified, the plant operator will set required corrective arrangements rapidly. The CTC would follow up his actions closely. If none of them happen to be effective, containment leakage would be taken into account when estimating releases. Work of the emergency team lies indeed in two main points: early localization of isolation failure or containment by-pass; following up of the plant operator actions meant to remedy the problem. In order to meet these two requirements IPSN has developed an expert system named ALIBABA. Part one presents its advantages, whereas part two describes the expert system. Part three deals with the software environment and part four offers an example of the help provided by ALIBABA

  11. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, R.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Surdu, A. V.; Oprea, A. E.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the active sites of nickel- and copper-containing metalloproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, G.O.

    1993-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for obtaining structural and chemical information about the active sites of metalloproteins and metalloenzymes. Information may be obtained from both the edge region and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or post-edge region of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of a metal center in a compound. The edge contains information about the valence electronic structure of the atom that absorbs the X-rays. It is possible in some systems to infer the redox state of the metal atom in question, as well as the geometry and nature of ligands connected to it, from the features in the edge in a straightforward manner. The EXAFS modulations, being produced by the backscattering of the ejected photoelectron from the atoms surrounding the metal atom, provide, when analyzed, information about the number and type of neighbouring atoms, and the distances at which they occur. In this thesis, analysis of both the edge and EXAFS regions has been used to gain information about the active sites of various metalloproteins. The metalloproteins studied were plastocyanin (Pc), laccase and nickel carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (Ni CODH). Studies of Cu(I)-imidazole compounds, related to the protein hemocyanin, are also reported here.

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the active sites of nickel- and copper-containing metalloproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for obtaining structural and chemical information about the active sites of metalloproteins and metalloenzymes. Information may be obtained from both the edge region and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or post-edge region of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of a metal center in a compound. The edge contains information about the valence electronic structure of the atom that absorbs the X-rays. It is possible in some systems to infer the redox state of the metal atom in question, as well as the geometry and nature of ligands connected to it, from the features in the edge in a straightforward manner. The EXAFS modulations, being produced by the backscattering of the ejected photoelectron from the atoms surrounding the metal atom, provide, when analyzed, information about the number and type of neighbouring atoms, and the distances at which they occur. In this thesis, analysis of both the edge and EXAFS regions has been used to gain information about the active sites of various metalloproteins. The metalloproteins studied were plastocyanin (Pc), laccase and nickel carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (Ni CODH). Studies of Cu(I)-imidazole compounds, related to the protein hemocyanin, are also reported here

  14. Design and synthesis of benzoxazole containing indole analogs as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ/δ dual agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Hyo Jin; Cheon, Ye-Jin; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeon, Raok

    2011-05-15

    A series of benzoxazole or benzothiazole containing indole analogs, 6-alkoxyindole-2-carboxylic acids and 5-alkoxy-3-indolylacetic acids, were synthesized as novel candidates of PPARγ/δ dual agonists and their ligand activities for PPAR subtypes (α, γ, and δ) were investigated. In transient transactivation assay, several compounds activated PPARγ and δ with little activity of PPARα. Putative binding mode of the compounds 1a and 2a in the active site of PPARγ was similar with that of rosiglitazone and the molecular modeling provides molecular insight to the observed activity.

  15. Pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic effects in containment system of Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard Indian PHWR design incorporates a pressure suppression type of containment system with a suppression pool. This containment design requires evaluation of structural loads arising from dynamic effects of steam air mixture, being rapidly forced into the suppression pool during postulated LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) events. The major effects to be considered include loads arising from i) acceleration and ejection of water column from vent downcomers during the initial vent clearing stage following by ii) pool swell as influx of air into the pool lifts up and accelerate the slug of water above it, and subsequently, iii) 'chugging loads' arising from unsteady condensation of steam in the pool. The analysis for vent clearing acceleration and pool swell is based on thermal hydraulic calculation using basic principles. With regard to chugging phenomena, based on published information on experimental studies, it has been possible to conclude that Indian PHWR containments would not be susceptible to such loads owing to the presence of large fraction of air in the steam-air mixture. Analytical studies on chugging have also been initiated specifically for containment of 500 MWe reactors. Several inputs of steam flow rate history by a factor ranging from 0.01 to 1.0) were considered to evaluate chugging loads. For flow rate too small (factor = 0.01) or too large (factor = 1.0) chugging did not occur. (author). 6 refs., 11 figs

  16. Introduction to Test Facility for Iodine Retention in Filtered Containment Venting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jaehoon; An, Sang Mo; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In many countries the implementation of FCVS's is under discussion to mitigate fission product release not only in the short-term but also in the long-term view. To verify the performance of FCVS, the large-scaled tests have been performed such as advanced containment experiments (ACE), the iodine and aerosol retention rate test facility (JAVA), etc. The elemental and organic iodides are the main gaseous iodine species in the containment atmosphere. For the iodine retention, experimental programs have confirmed the existence of gaseous organic iodine in some cases in higher concentrations than for gaseous molecular iodine (I{sub 2}). The Reaction of Methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}I) with surfaces and the removal by containment filters and scrubbers is less efficient in comparison to molecular iodine. In the recent years, an experimental and analytical work has been conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) to develop a process leading to a fast, comprehensive and reliable retention of volatile iodine species in aqueous solutions. New FCVS test facility to verify the performance of FCVS is designed and under construction. The iodine retention tests are planned with elemental iodine or with organic iodide loaded carrier gas consisting of pure non-condensable gas, pure steam and of typical mixtures of non-condensable gas/steam. This paper introduces the iodine generation and measurement system for the iodine retention test of FCVS. In severe accidents elemental and organic iodides are the main gaseous iodine species in the containment atmosphere. Release of the gaseous species in sufficient quantities from containment to environment generates a risk for public health. The filtered containment venting systems (FCVS) can considerably reduce the leakage of radioactive materials to the environment. New integral test facility is prepared to verify a performance of the FCVS. The test facility consists of a test vessel, thermal-hydraulic, and aerosol/iodine generation and

  17. A flag-based algorithm and associated neutron interrogation system for the detection of explosives in sea–land cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent efforts in the simulation of sea–land cargo containers in active neutron interrogation scenarios resulted in the identification of several flags indicating the presence of conventional explosives. These flags, defined by specific mathematical manipulations of the neutron and photon spectra, have been combined into a detection algorithm for screening cargo containers at international borders and seaports. The detection algorithm's steps include classifying the cargo type, identifying containers filled with explosives, triggering in the presence of concealed explosives, and minimizing the number of false positives due to cargo heterogeneity. The algorithm has been implemented in a system that includes both neutron and photon detectors. This system will take about 10 min to scan a container and cost approximately $1M to construct. Dose calculations resulted in estimates of less than 0.5 mSv for a person hidden in the container, and an operator annual dose of less than 0.9 mSv. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo model of explosives screening in cargo containers using fast neutrons. • Monte Carlo model also explores neutron detector response. • Development of an explosives detection algorithm using active neutron interrogation. • Implementation of the algorithm, including equipment, infrastructure, cost and dose. • System will cost ~1M USD and an entire container may be scanned in ~10 min

  18. Gamma band activity in the reticular activating system (RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Urbano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular activating system (RAS exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf, and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band activity. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this activity. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band activity demonstrates the global nature of sleep-wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem-thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep-wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band activity in the RAS follows recent reports of such activity in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band activity manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable activation state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by preconscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the

  19. Reliability and cost evaluation of small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Rajesh

    Renewable energy application in electric power systems is growing rapidly worldwide due to enhanced public concerns for adverse environmental impacts and escalation in energy costs associated with the use of conventional energy sources. Photovoltaics and wind energy sources are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and cost is required to analyze the actual benefits of utilizing these energy sources. The reliability aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources have largely been ignored in the past due the relatively insignificant contribution of these sources in major power systems, and consequently due to the lack of appropriate techniques. Renewable energy sources have the potential to play a significant role in the electrical energy requirements of small isolated power systems which are primarily supplied by costly diesel fuel. A relatively high renewable energy penetration can significantly reduce the system fuel costs but can also have considerable impact on the system reliability. Small isolated systems routinely plan their generating facilities using deterministic adequacy methods that cannot incorporate the highly erratic behavior of renewable energy sources. The utilization of a single probabilistic risk index has not been generally accepted in small isolated system evaluation despite its utilization in most large power utilities. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy. This thesis presents an evaluation model for small isolated systems containing renewable energy sources by integrating simulation models that generate appropriate atmospheric data, evaluate chronological renewable power outputs and combine total available energy and load to provide useful system indices. A software tool SIPSREL+ has been developed which generates

  20. Fragility analysis for the pressure capacity of ESBWR primary containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESBWR, developed by General Electric is the next generation of Boiling Water Reactors. An extensive analytical effort is performed to establish the pressure fragility for the ESBWR primary containment system, including the steel lined Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) walls, the drywell head, and a typical equipment hatch having a pressure-unseating closure configuration. The results indicate that the ESBWR primary containment system design is well equipped to handle the hypothetical accident conditions in the design basis. We can also note the following observations: -) failure of the reinforced concrete wall has the highest median pressure but also the most uncertainty; -) the median pressure causing failure of the RCCV wall at the top slab under the elevated temperature condition is about 10% less than that at ambient temperature; -) the ultimate capacity of the torus-spherical portion of the drywell head is due to plastic rupture of the material in the dome rather than buckling under compressive stress in the knuckle; -) the pressure capacity for liner tearing at the RCCV wall to top slab joint increases with temperature; and -) the capacity of the equipment hatch is severely reduced at the extreme temperature condition. (A.C.)

  1. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  2. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, M K; Velisavljevic, N

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source. PMID:26628148

  3. SPES3 Facility RELAP5 Sensitivity Analyses on the Containment System for Design Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Achilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An Italian MSE R&D programme on Nuclear Fission is funding, through ENEA, the design and testing of SPES3 facility at SIET, for IRIS reactor simulation. IRIS is a modular, medium size, advanced, integral PWR, developed by an international consortium of utilities, industries, research centres and universities. SPES3 simulates the primary, secondary and containment systems of IRIS, with 1:100 volume scale, full elevation and prototypical thermal-hydraulic conditions. The RELAP5 code was extensively used in support to the design of the facility to identify criticalities and weak points in the reactor simulation. FER, at Zagreb University, performed the IRIS reactor analyses with the RELAP5 and GOTHIC coupled codes. The comparison between IRIS and SPES3 simulation results led to a simulation-design feedback process with step-by-step modifications of the facility design, up to the final configuration. For this, a series of sensitivity cases was run to investigate specific aspects affecting the trend of the main parameters of the plant, as the containment pressure and EHRS removed power, to limit fuel clad temperature excursions during accidental transients. This paper summarizes the sensitivity analyses on the containment system that allowed to review the SPES3 facility design and confirm its capability to appropriately simulate the IRIS plant.

  4. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, M. K., E-mail: mjacobsen@lanl.gov; Velisavljevic, N. [Shock and Detonation Physics Group (M-9), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  5. Integrated scheduling of a container handling system with simultaneous loading and discharging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Lu, Zhiqiang; Han, Xiaole; Zhang, Yuejun; Wang, Li

    2016-03-01

    The integrated scheduling of container handling systems aims to optimize the coordination and overall utilization of all handling equipment, so as to minimize the makespan of a given set of container tasks. A modified disjunctive graph is proposed and a mixed 0-1 programming model is formulated. A heuristic algorithm is presented, in which the original problem is divided into two subproblems. In the first subproblem, contiguous bay crane operations are applied to obtain a good quay crane schedule. In the second subproblem, proper internal truck and yard crane schedules are generated to match the given quay crane schedule. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm based on the heuristic algorithm is developed to search for better solutions. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently find high-quality solutions. They also indicate the effectiveness of simultaneous loading and discharging operations compared with separate ones.

  6. Robust H∞ containment control for uncertain multi-agent systems with inherent nonlinear dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Jia, Yingmin

    2016-04-01

    This article considers the distributed containment control problem of nonlinear multi-agent systems subject to parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. An appropriate controlled output function is defined to quantitatively analyse the effect of external disturbances on the containment control problem. By employing robust H∞ control approach, sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) are derived to ensure that all followers asymptotically converge to the convex hull spanned by the leaders with the prescribed H∞ performance under fixed topology. Moreover, the unknown feedback matrix of the proposed protocol is determined by solving only two LMIs with the same dimensions as a single agent. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  7. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  8. Development of a multiparticulate system containing enteric-release mini-tablets of omeprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Jose Tondo Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to develop a multiparticulate system containing mini-tablets of omeprazole formulated with an enteric polymer with pH-dependent solubility. Pre-formulation studies showed good flow and compaction capacity, leading to the production ofhigh quality mini-tablets. The mini-tablets were coated in a fluidized bed with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose /Eudragit(r L30D55 and packed into hard gelatin capsules. The dissolution profile showed gastro-resistance and zero-order kinetics. The dissolution profile for the formulation containing lactose as the diluent and coated with 12% (tablet weight gain of polymer was similar to that ofthe reference drug.

  9. Analysis of Wetting Characteristics on Microstructured Hydrophobic Surfaces for the Passive Containment Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the heat transfer surface in the passive containment cooling system, the anticorrosion coating (AC of steel containment vessel (CV must meet the requirements on heat transfer performance. One of the wall surface ACs with simple structure, high mechanical strength, and well hydrophobic characteristics, which is conductive to form dropwise condensation, is significant for the heat removal of the CV. In this paper, the grooved structures on silicon wafers by lithographic methods are systematically prepared to investigate the effects of microstructures on the hydrophobic property of the surfaces. The results show that the hydrophobicity is dramatically improved in comparison with the conventional Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter model. In addition, the experimental results are successfully explained by the interface state effect. As a consequence, it is indicated that favorable hydrophobicity can be obtained even if the surface is with lower roughness and without any chemical modifications, which provides feasible solutions for improving the heat transfer performance of CV.

  10. Modeling of Spray System Operation under Hydrogen and Steam Emissions in NPP Containment during Severe Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Seleznev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes one of the variants of mathematical models of a fluid dynamics process inside the containment, which occurs in the conditions of operation of spray systems in severe accidents at nuclear power plant. The source of emergency emissions in this case is the leak of the coolant or rupture at full cross-section of the main circulating pipeline in a reactor building. Leak or rupture characteristics define the localization and the temporal law of functioning of a source of emergency emission (or accrued operating of warmed up hydrogen and steam in the containment. Operation of this source at the course of analyzed accident models should be described by the assignment of the relevant Dirichlet boundary conditions. Functioning of the passive autocatalytic recombiners of hydrogen is described in the form of the complex Newton boundary conditions.

  11. Development and evaluation of a hydrophilic matrix as a buccoadhesive system containing diclofenac sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiz Cristina Wypych

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the development and evaluation of a hydrolphilic matrix as a buccoadhesive system containing diclofenac sodium. Eleven formulations were prepared containing the following bioadhesive polymers: hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, polycarbophil, guar gum and xanthan gum individually and in combination. All the formulations were evaluated for the swelling index, adhesive index, and the time of adhesive and drug release profile (%. The results showed that the formulations that presented the most swelling index were the F3 (PAA/GX and F6 (GG/GX. The smaller index swelling was for F1 (PAA/CM and F10 (HPCMC/CM. The F4 (PAA/HPMC formulation presented the best adhesive index and F10 (HPMC/CM the worst. F1 (PAA/CM was the best matrix hydrophilic adhesive for controlled release. The hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, guar and xanthan gum when used individually presented low adhesiveness.

  12. A Knowledge-based System for Berth Allocation in a Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junliang He

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both of berth allocation and quay crane assignment are one of the most complex parts in container terminal operations, which significantly affect the operational efficiency, energy consumption and operational cost of the entire container terminal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient strategy for integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment (BACP from the perspective of knowledge, which aims at energy-saving and improving operational efficiency. In this paper, knowledge acquisition for BACP is initially conducted. And then, knowledge sorting process for BACP, including taxonomic tree generation and organization of acquired knowledge, is performed. After that, rules for BACP are extracted using the IF and THEN clause. Furthermore, a knowledge reasoning mechanism is designed. Finally, numerical experiments are used to illustrate the proposed knowledge-based system and verify the effectiveness and reliability.

  13. Electric Current Systems in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, B. J.; Mickey, D. L.

    2000-05-01

    The first study to show the persistence of local field-aligned current systems in active regions was reported by Pevtsov, Canfield, and Metcalf (Astrophys. J., 425, L117, 1994). Their work was limited to a sample of complex, flare-productive regions because of the sensitivity limit of the data from the Haleakala Stokes Polarimeter. I report here on a new survey of active regions with the Imaging Vector Magnetograph (IVM) at Mees Solar Observatory. The IVM data permit a look at current systems in simpler, more typical active regions, because of better sensitivity, temporal sampling, spatial resolution and field-of-view. Small scale current systems are commonly seen. Transport of current systems by advective processes is commonly seen over times of hours. This work was supported by NASA grant NAG5-4941 and by a subcontract with LMSAL in support of NASA contract NAS8-40801 for YOHKOH SXT.

  14. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative ECS that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal.

  15. Performance improvement clarification for refrigeration system using active system monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of determining whether a refrigeration plant has the possibility of delivering a better performance of the operation. The controllers are wellknown but detailed knowledge about the underlying dynamics of the refrigeration plant is not available. Thus, the question...... is if it is possible to achieve a better performance by changing the controller parameter. An approach to active system monitoring, based on active fault diagnosis techniques, is employed in order to evaluate changes in the system performance under operation....

  16. Installing a HDPE vertical containment and collection system in one pass utilizing a deep trencher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocchino, W.M. [Groundwater Control Inc., Jacksonville, FL (United States); Burson, B. [Groundwater Control, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A unique method has been developed to install high density polyethylene (HDPE) vertical containment panels and a horizontal collection system for the containment and collection of contaminated groundwater. Unlike other means of creating this type of system, this barrier wall and collection system is installed in one step and in one narrow trench, utilizing a one-pass deep trencher. Originally HDPE vertical barriers were installed using conventional slurry trenching techniques. Use of this method raised questions of trench stability and disposal costs for the trench spoils. In addition, if a collection system was desired, a separate trench or vertical wells were required. In response to these concerns, a trenchless vibratory installation method was developed. Although this method addressed the concerns of trench stability and disposal costs, it raised a whole new set of concerns dealing with drivable soil conditions, buried debris and obstructions. Again, if a collection system was desired, a separate trench or vertical wells had to be installed. The latest development, the one-pass, deep trencher, has eliminated or significantly reduced the previously discussed construction concerns. The trencher methods reduce the amount of spoils generated because a trench width of 61 cm (24 inches) is constantly maintained by the machine. Additionally, soil classification and density are not as critical as with a vibratory installation. This is due to the trencher`s ability to trench in all but the hardest of materials (blow counts exceeding 35 blows/ft). Finally, the cost to add a collection system adjacent to the cutoff wall is substantially reduced and is limited only to the cost of the additional hydraulic fill and 4 inches HDPE collection piping. The trench itself is already constructed with the installation of the wall.

  17. Design and implementation of a visual monitoring system to ensure safety in the water surrounding a container vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-xing; WANG Ze-sheng; CHEN Jin-biao; BUPing

    2008-01-01

    Container vessels navigate among the world's ports, frequently passing through narrow and congested waters. Due to the many layers of containers on a container vessel's decks, it is difficult for the crew to be aware of all fishing vessels and other obstacles in a container vessel's radar observation blind zone. This greatly increases the risk of collisions and other accidents. Given such great challenges to safe navigation and safety management with container vessels, their security risks are severe. An effective visual monitoring system can improve the safety of the water area surrounding container vessel by eliminating a vessel's observation blind zone, providing an effective safety measure for vessels navigating fishing zones and other troublesome areas. The system has other functions, such as accident recording, ship security, and monitoring of loading and unloading operations, thus ensuring the ship operates safely. Six months' trial operation showed that the system facilitates safe navigation of container vessels.

  18. Effects of the Drug(BSZGC)--containing Serum on Proliferation of Rat's Osteoclasts and TRACP Activity in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jingli; Zhao Yonghua; Wu Weikang

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To observe effects of the drug-containing serum of Bu Shen Zhuang Gu Capsule(BSZGC 补肾壮骨胶囊 Capsule for Tonilying the Kidney to Strengthen the Bones)on proliferation of the rat's osteoclasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP)activity in vitro SO as to delve into the mechanisms of its preventive and therapeutic actions on osteoporosis.Methods:Forty female Sprague.Dawley rats aged three months were randomly divided into high dosage BSZGC group,medium dosage BSZGC group,low dosage BSZGC group,and the control group.BSZGC was orally administered into the rats of high,medium,and low dosage groups at difierent dosages for 12 days.and isometric normal saline was orally administered to the rats of the Control group.The drug-containing serum and control serum were prepared.Osteoclasts isolated mechanically from the femur and tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats aged one week were cultured wim medium added with different drug-containing sera and control serum.The growth of osteoclasts was observed under an inverted phase-contrast microscope,and optic density(OD)value of osteoclasts was determined by MTT colorimetric assay.TRACP activity was measured by the diazol method.Results:OD value of osteoclasts in the high dosage drug-containing serum group,medium dosage drug-containing serum group,and low dosage drug-containing serum group was significantly lower than that in the control serum group(P<0.05)with a dose-effect correlation.TRACP activity in high dosage drug-containing serum group,medium dosage drug-containing serum group,low dosage drug-containing serum group was significantly lower than that of the control serum group(P<0.01),and no significant differences in TRACP activity were not found among the difierent dosages drug-containing serum groups.Conclusions:BSZGC can inhibit the proliferation of the osteoclasts and reduce TRACP activity,which may be one of the mechanisms of its preventive and therapeutic actions on osteoporosis.

  19. Batch system for study of Cr(VI) Bio sorption by dried waste activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated sludge from wastewater treatment systems contains both bacteria and protozoa. The cell wall of bacteria essentially consists of various compounds, such as carboxyl, acidic polysaccharides,lipids, amino acids and other components. (Author)

  20. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters

  1. Gamma-rays from nebulae around binary systems containing energetic rotation powered pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, W

    2013-01-01

    We consider nebulae which are created around binary systems containing rotation powered pulsars and companion stars with strong stellar winds. It is proposed that the stellar and pulsar winds have to mix at some distance from the binary system, defined by the orbital period of the companion stars and the velocity of the stellar wind. The mixed pulsar-stellar wind expands with a specific velocity determined by the pulsar power and the mass loss rate of the companion star. Relativistic particles, either from the inner pulsar magnetosphere and/or accelerated at the shocks between stellar and pulsar winds, are expected to be captured and isotropized in the reference frame of the mixed wind. Therefore, they can efficiently comptonize stellar radiation producing GeV-TeV $\\gamma$-rays in the inverse Compton process. We calculate the $\\gamma$-ray spectra expected in such scenario for the two example binary systems: J1816+4510 which is the redback type millisecond binary and LS 5039 which is supposed to contain energe...

  2. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-21

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters.

  3. Design, Characterization, and Optimization of Controlled Drug Delivery System Containing Antibiotic Drug/s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Apurv; Dodiya, Hitesh; Shelate, Pragna; Shastri, Divyesh; Dave, Divyang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was design, characterization, and optimization of controlled drug delivery system containing antibiotic drug/s. Osmotic drug delivery system was chosen as controlled drug delivery system. The porous osmotic pump tablets were designed using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken factorial design to find out the best formulation. For screening of three categories of polymers, six independent variables were chosen for Plackett-Burman design. Osmotic agent sodium chloride and microcrystalline cellulose, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate and sucrose, and coating agent ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. Optimization of osmotic tablets was done by Box-Behnken design by selecting three independent variables. Osmotic agent sodium chloride, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate, and coating agent cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. The result of Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken design and ANOVA studies revealed that osmotic agent and pore former had significant effect on the drug release up to 12 hr. The observed independent variables were found to be very close to predicted values of most satisfactory formulation which demonstrates the feasibility of the optimization procedure in successful development of porous osmotic pump tablets containing antibiotic drug/s by using sodium chloride, sodium lauryl sulphate, and cellulose acetate as key excipients. PMID:27610247

  4. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM CONTAINING INDOMETHACIN USING NATURAL POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamat Akshay Ramesh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present work was to formulate and evaluate an oral pulsatile drug delivery system using natural superdisintegrants and natural polymers to achieve time release of Indomethacin, based on chronopharmaceutical approach for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Pulsatile delivery system is capable of delivering drug when and where it required most. By administering the system at bedtime, but releasing drug as a burst after the lag time (during peak morning hours thereby delivering the drug when and where it is required the most with decreased side effects, dose size and prolonged action. The press-coated pulsatile release tablet contains Indomethacin in the inner rapid release core tablet formulated by direct compression method using plantago ovata mucilage and modified agar as superdisintegrants and the external coat formulated using natural polymers such as dammar gum, chitosan, xanthan gum and gaur gum by both direct and wet granulation method. The prepared press-coated pulsatile tablets were evaluated for various pre-compressional and post-compressional parameters. In-vitro release profiles of pulsatile device during 10 h studies were found to have very good sustaining efficacy. Formulation code A1, A8, B2 and B7 were selected as the best formulations with formulation B2 containing xanthan gum and dammar gum in the ratio 2:1 having maximum lag time of 7 h 15 min.

  5. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing waste ash with a stir-melter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter trademark System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats waste stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO2 +Al2O3 / ΣAlkali / B2O3 System. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt % of ash, the ash was modified to contain ∼5 wt % CeO2 to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt % water to 40 wt % solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1050 degrees C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables' settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates out of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run

  6. Copper—Induced Changes in the Urea Uptake and Urease Activity in the Cyanobacteria Anabaena doliolum and Anacystis Nidulans:Interaction With Sulphur Containing Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.SINGH; B.B.SINGH; 等

    1995-01-01

    Copper-induced changes in the urea uptake and urease activity have been investigated in the cyanobacteria Anabaena doliolum and Anacystis nidulans.Copper,at and above 5μmol/L concentration,inhibited urea uptake and urease activity systems in both the cyanobacteria in a concentration dependent manner,However,the urea uptake and urease activity systems in A.nidulans apeared slightly more tolerant to copper than that of A.doliolum.The inhibitory effect of copeer on urea uptake and urease activity was mitigated by sulphur containing amino acids(cystine and cysteine),however,methionine could not do so,indicating the involvement of sulfhydryl(-SH) groups in the assimilation of urea in cyanobacteria.

  7. The problem of activity in systemic scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Guseva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of systemic scleroderma (SSD activity enters into the view of standardized patient examination and it is important for choosing a therapeutic complex, for determining the dose of drugs, and for monitoring therapy. Great difficulties in the determination of activity in SSD are caused by the pathogenetic and morphogenetic features of the disease. It should be emphasized that there are no clearly defined exacerbation and remission periods. It is difficult to differentiate the potentially reversible inflammatory changes determining the activity of SSD from the irreversible fibrous changes characterizing the severity of the disease. The laboratory parameters of inflammatory activity are also of little informative value. The complicated problem of activity in SSD is to be further investigated both to improve and modify existing indices and to search for a common specific marker and/or key pathogenetically and clinically relevant markers of disease activity.

  8. Synthesis, Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing Thioamide Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘法谦; 秦永其; 许良忠; 陆路德; 杨绪杰; 汪信

    2005-01-01

    Two compounds 2-benzoyl-N-phenyl-2-( 1,2,4-triazol- 1-yl)thioacetamide (1) and 2-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-N-phenyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)thioacetamide (2) were synthesized from substituted acetophenone, triazole and phenyl isothiocyanate by several step reactions. The structure of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/c, a =0.8806(2) nm, b= 1.2097(2) nm, c= 1.4809(3) nm, β=105.88°, Z=4, V=1.5173(6) nm3, Dc= 1.411 Mg/m3, μ=0.22 mm-1, F(000)=672, final R1=0.040 and Rw=0.103. There is obvious potentially weak C—H…N intermolecular interaction in the crystal, which stabilizes the structure. The results of biological test show that the two compounds have antifungal and plant growth regulating activities.

  9. ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT MORTARS CONTAINING RECYCLED CLAY-BASED CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Puertas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of clay-based waste as an aggregate for concrete production is an amply studied procedure. Nonetheless, research on the use of this recycled aggregate to prepare alkaline cement mortars and concretes has yet to be forthcoming. The present study aimed to determine: the behaviour of this waste as a pozzolan in OPC systems, the mechanical strength in OPC, alkali-activated slag (AAS and fly ash (AAFA mortars and the effect of partial replacement of the slag and ash themselves with ground fractions of the waste. The pozzolanic behaviour of clay-based waste was confirmed. Replacing up to 20 % of siliceous aggregate with waste aggregate in OPC mortars induced a decline in 7 day strength (around 23 wt. %. The behaviour of waste aggregate in AAMs mortars, in turn, was observed to depend on the nature of the aluminosilicate and the replacement ratio used. When 20 % of siliceous aggregate was replaced by waste aggregate in AAS mortars, the 7 day strength values remained the same (40 MPa. In AAFA mortars, waste was found to effectively replace both the fly ash and the aggregate. The highest strength for AAFA mortars was observed when they were prepared with both a 50 % replacement ratio for the ash and a 20 % ratio for the aggregate.

  10. Active system monitoring applied on wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Parbo, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    A concept for active system monitoring (ASM) applied on wind turbines is presented in this paper. The concept is based on an injection of a small periodic auxiliary signal in the system. An investigation of the signature from the auxiliary input in residual (error) signals can then be applied for...... for an online monitoring of central parameters/elements of the system. Statistical tests are applied on the residual signals for obtaining a correct monitoring.......A concept for active system monitoring (ASM) applied on wind turbines is presented in this paper. The concept is based on an injection of a small periodic auxiliary signal in the system. An investigation of the signature from the auxiliary input in residual (error) signals can then be applied...

  11. Iron-containing phases in fly ashes from different combustion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szumiata Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigations of iron-containing phases existing in fly ashes were performed using transmission Mössbauer spectrometry. The examined samples of fly ashes were collected from different coal combustion systems, that is, stoker-fired boiler in municipal heating plant and pulverized coal boiler in power plant. Several phases are identified in the samples: iron oxides, paramagnetic aluminosilicate glass with Fe3+ ions and Al2O4-type spinel with Fe2+ ions. It was pointed out that proportions of contents of phases strongly depend not only on the combustion temperature but also on the way of ash collection.

  12. Extraction of Phenylalanine Phase Systems Containing Enantiomers by Aqueous Two Combinatorial Chiral Selector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓青; 刘莉; 焦飞鹏; 王珍

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a better enantioselectivity of phenylalanine enantiomers and establish the optimal chiral ex- traction conditions, the distribution behavior was investigated in aqueous two-phase systems which were composed of polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate containing combinatorial chiral selector: β-cyclodextrin and HP-β-cyclodextrin. The influence of the molar concentration ratio of combinatorial chiral selectors, the total molar concentration of combinatorial chiral selectors, pH value, buffer type and its concentration were thoroughly studied, respectively. The results show that the enantioselectivity reaches 1.53 under the optimal chiral extraction conditions This extraction is a potential economical and effective way for chiral resolution.

  13. Analysis of railcar-shipping container system response to impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An existing mathematical model for simulating railcar-container system response to coupling impacts was revised to simulate configurations that were tested in full-scale experiments. The structural model is represented with the lumped-parameter technique. The resulting equations are linear except for those for the coupler forces experienced during the impact. Results from the mathematical model are compared with load and acceleration data obtained during the full-scale tests. The model predicts actual response accurately enough to make it useful as a design and safety analysis tool

  14. An effect of containment filtered venting system on scale of contamination under severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ju young; Lee, Jai-ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Some countries are expected to expand the scope of the Emergency Planning Zone(EPZ) by the influence of Fukushima accident. However, if the equipment, which is able to mitigate the severe accident consequences, is installed, unnecessary costs for an expansion of emergency planning zone will be reduced. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAC) has suggested to mitigate severe accidents by installing The Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS). The probabilistic assessment code MACCS2 was used to calculate the effective radiation dose with and without FCVS to determine the effective reduction by the installation of a FCVS.

  15. Analysis of railcar-shipping container system response to impact conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, R.J.; Butler, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    An existing mathematical model for simulating railcar-container system response to coupling impacts was revised to simulate configurations that were tested in full-scale experiments. The structural model is represented with the lumped-parameter technique. The resulting equations are linear except for those for the coupler forces experienced during the impact. Results from the mathematical model are compared with load and acceleration data obtained during the full-scale tests. The model predicts actual response accurately enough to make it useful as a design and safety analysis tool.

  16. Liquid-Liquid Extraction-Chromogenic Systems Containing Iron(III), 4-Nitrocatechol and Tetrazolium Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Galya K. Toncheva; Teodora S. Stefanova; Gavazov, Kiril B.

    2015-01-01

    Complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction were studied in systems containing iron(III), 4-nitrocatechol (4NC),tetrazolium salt (TZS), water and organic solvent. Three different TZS were used: 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), 3-(2-naphtyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (Tetrazolium violet, TV) and 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (INT).The cations of the first two TZSs (TZ+: MTT+ and TV+) form intensively color...

  17. Thermal-hydraulic evaluation of passive containment cooling system of improved APR+ during LOCAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byong Guk; NO, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.kr

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Larger air holdup tanks are confirmed to be needed for PCCS through MARS simulation. • Condensation model in MARS gives lower heat transfer than Dehbi's correlation. • Heat transfer resistance of steam–air mixture is dominant for PCCS tubes. • Heat sink structures remove dominant amount of decay heat initially. • Flow instability is eased at higher tube inlet form loss, return level, and angle. - Abstract: Various reactor concepts and technologies have been devised and evaluated to ensure the integrity of the core and the containment under a prolonged station blackout. After the successful validation of the passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) of Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+), Korea is considering an improved APR+ with a passive containment cooling system (PCCS). In a previous paper, we suggested a PCCS design based on APR+ and performed a scoping analysis. We performed a MARS simulation for the thermal hydraulic evaluation of the system behavior, including natural circulation through the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT) water pool and inside PCCS tubes as well as steam–air mixture condensation inside the containment. Through a simulation using the MARS system code, we investigated the effect of air holdup tanks (AHTs) on reduction of the air fraction in the containment, the effects of several steam–air mixture condensation models, the role of heat structures, and the flow instability inside the PCCS tubes. We found that the presence of AHT reduced the number of required PCCS tubes by more than half and the heat resistance of the steam–air mixture side is dominant in terms of governing the overall performance of PCCS. The embedded MARS condensation model and Uchida's correlation gave lower heat transfer coefficients than Dehbi's correlation, and heat structures removed more decay heat than PCCS tubes. Finally, intense flow instability inside the PCCS tubes was observed and was mitigated by placing

  18. Valency state changes in lanthanide-contained systems under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in valency state induced by pressure in samarium sulphide SmS remind one of alchemy, as the mat black initial substance shines golden after the electron transition. The alchemist's dream is of course not realized, however the compound does exhibit an unusually interesting behaviour in the new state. The valency state of samarium as newly appeared fluctuated very rapidly between two electron configurations. Manipulation of the valency state by pressure or chemical substitution can basically change the physical properties of systems containing lanthanides. The phenomena are described and discussed in the following survey. (orig.)

  19. Reliability analysis of air recirculation and-refrigeration systems of Angra-1 reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliability analysis of the air refrigeration and recirculation containment systems (ARRCS) of Angra-1 nuclear power plants, were done. The fault tree analysis was used. The failure primary data were taken out of Wash-1400 and IEEE. These data were processed by these following computer codes : Prep-Kitt, Sample, Trebil, Cressex and Streusl for the two stages of ARRCS operation. The design bases accident studied was a LOCA (loss of coolant). The component that more contribution give to the non-availability of ARRCS is the motor of the ARRCS. (E.G.)

  20. Plastids Contain a Second Sec Translocase System with Essential Functions1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalitzky, Courtney A.; Martin, Jonathan R.; Harwood, Jessica H.; Beirne, John J.; Adamczyk, Benjamin J.; Heck, Gregory R.; Cline, Kenneth; Fernandez, Donna E.

    2011-01-01

    Proteins that are synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes but function within plastids must be imported and then targeted to one of six plastid locations. Although multiple systems that target proteins to the thylakoid membranes or thylakoid lumen have been identified, a system that can direct the integration of inner envelope membrane proteins from the stroma has not been previously described. Genetics and localization studies were used to show that plastids contain two different Sec systems with distinct functions. Loss-of-function mutations in components of the previously described thylakoid-localized Sec system, designated as SCY1 (At2g18710), SECA1 (At4g01800), and SECE1 (At4g14870) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), result in albino seedlings and sucrose-dependent heterotrophic growth. Loss-of-function mutations in components of the second Sec system, designated as SCY2 (At2g31530) and SECA2 (At1g21650) in Arabidopsis, result in arrest at the globular stage and embryo lethality. Promoter-swap experiments provided evidence that SCY1 and SCY2 are functionally nonredundant and perform different roles in the cell. Finally, chloroplast import and fractionation assays and immunogold localization of SCY2-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in root tissues indicated that SCY2 is part of an envelope-localized Sec system. Our data suggest that SCY2 and SECA2 function in Sec-mediated integration and translocation processes at the inner envelope membrane. PMID:21051552

  1. A robust activity marking system for exploring active neuronal ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Cooper, Yonatan A; Baratta, Michael V; Weng, Feng-Ju; Zhang, Yuxiang; Ramamoorthi, Kartik; Fropf, Robin; LaVerriere, Emily; Xue, Jian; Young, Andrew; Schneider, Colleen; Gøtzsche, Casper René; Hemberg, Martin; Yin, Jerry CP; Maier, Steven F; Lin, Yingxi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the brain captures transient experience and converts it into long lasting changes in neural circuits requires the identification and investigation of the specific ensembles of neurons that are responsible for the encoding of each experience. We have developed a Robust Activity Marking (RAM) system that allows for the identification and interrogation of ensembles of neurons. The RAM system provides unprecedented high sensitivity and selectivity through the use of an optimized synthetic activity-regulated promoter that is strongly induced by neuronal activity and a modified Tet-Off system that achieves improved temporal control. Due to its compact design, RAM can be packaged into a single adeno-associated virus (AAV), providing great versatility and ease of use, including application to mice, rats, flies, and potentially many other species. Cre-dependent RAM, CRAM, allows for the study of active ensembles of a specific cell type and anatomical connectivity, further expanding the RAM system’s versatility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13918.001 PMID:27661450

  2. Thermal hydraulic issues of containment filtered venting system for a long operating time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Young Su; Ha, Kwang Soon; Park, Rae Joon; Park, Jong Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Song Won [Nuclear Safety Evaluation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study investigated the thermal hydraulic issues in the Containment Filtered Venting System (CFVS) for a long operating time using the MELCOR computer code. The modeling of the CFVS, including the models for pool scrubbing and the filter, was added to the input file for the OPR-1000, and a Station Blackout (SBO) was chosen as an accident scenario. Although depressurization in the containment building as a primary objective of the CFVS was successful, the decontamination feature by scrubbing and filtering in the CFVS for a long operating time could fail by the continuous evaporation of the scrubbing solution. After the operation of the CFVS, the atmosphere temperature in the CFVS became slightly above the water saturation temperature owing to the release of an amount of steam with high temperature from the containment building to the scrubbing solution. Reduced pipe diameters at the inlet and outlet of the CFVS vessel mitigated the evaporation of scrubbing water by controlling the amount of high-temperature steam and the water saturation temperature.

  3. Neutron dosimetry in containment of a pressurized water reactor utilizing the Panasonic UD-802 dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panasonic UD-802 dosimeter was evaluated as a potential neutron dosimeter for use in containment of a PWR. The Panasonic UD-802 dosimeter, although designed as a beta and gamma dosimeter, is also sensitive to neutrons. UD-802 dosimeters were mounted on polyethylene phantoms and irradiated to known doses at selected locations in containment. The known neutron dose equivalents were determined based on remmeter dose rate measurements and stay times. The thermoluminescent response of the dosimeters and the known neutron dose equivalents were used to obtain a calibration factor at each location. The average calibration factor was 3.7 (unit of dosimeter response per mrem) and all calibration factors were within +-30% of this mean value. The dosimeter distance from the phantom was found to have minimal effect on the response but the system was directionally dependent, necessitating a correction in the calibration factor. The minimum significant dosimeter response was determined independent of any calibration factor. The minimum significant response of the UD-802 to neutrons is a function of the corresponding gamma exposure rate. It is concluded that the Panasonic UD-802 dosimeter can be used for neutron dosimetry in PWR containment

  4. Correlating nanoscale structural changes to macromolecular gel formation in Laponite containing Pluronic F127 photogeling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juggernauth, K. Anne; Love, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Polymer nanocomposites has been a growing scientific field over the last 20 years. Recently, there has been increasing interest on nanocomposite systems with active responses to external stimuli such as heat, magnetic fields and light. The focus of this work is on a reversible thermoresponsive system, Pluronic F127 with added inorganic disk-shaped nanoparticles of Laponite. We further modify this system with the addition of a photoacid generator to enable photogelation. However, the nanoscale particle-particle and polymer-particle interactions within this Laponite/ block copolymer system are not well understood. We report on the photogelation kinetics of this system and further probe the interactions and rearrangement kinetics with heat and light exposure using in-situ synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering.

  5. Activity and biophysical inhibition resistance of a novel synthetic lung surfactant containing Super-Mini-B DATK peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Notter, Robert H.; Wang, Zhengdong; Walther, Frans J

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives. This study examines the surface activity, resistance to biophysical inhibition, and pulmonary efficacy of a synthetic lung surfactant containing glycerophospholipids combined with Super Mini-B (S-MB) DATK, a novel and stable molecular mimic of lung surfactant protein (SP)-B. The objective of the work is to test whether S-MB DATK synthetic surfactant has favorable biophysical and physiological activity for future use in treating surfactant deficiency or dysfunction in lu...

  6. Reverse transcriptase activity in chicken embryo fibroblast culture supernatants is associated with particles containing endogenous avian retrovirus EAV-0 RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Weissmahr, R N; Schüpbach, J; Böni, J

    1997-01-01

    We have recently shown that live attenuated virus vaccines produced on chicken-derived cells contain low levels of particle-associated reverse transcriptase (RT). In both virus and corresponding control harvests produced on chicken embryo fibroblasts, these activities were present at significantly higher concentrations than in the vaccines. In order to identify the putative retrovirus sequence responsible for this activity, a novel method for the selective PCR amplification of particle-associ...

  7. Effects of glutamine-containing total parenteral nutrition on phagocytic activity and anabolic hormone response in rats undergoing gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Hsien Lee; Wan-Chun Chiu; Soul-Chin Chen; Chih-Hsiung Wu; Sung-Ling Yeh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of glutamine (Gln)-containing parenteral nutrition on phagocytic activity and to elucidate the possible roles of Gin in the secretion of anabolic hormones and nitrogen balance in rats undergoing a gastrectomy.METHODS: Rats with an internal jugular catheter were divided into 2 experimental groups and received total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The TPN solutions were isonitrogenous and identical in nutrient compositions except for differences in amino acid content. One group received conventional TPN (control), and in the other group, 25%of the total amino acid nitrogen was replaced with Gln.After receiving TPN for 3 d, one-third of the rats in each experimental group were sacrificed as the baseline group.The remaining rats underwent a partial gastrectomy and were killed 1 and 3 d, respectively, after surgery. Plasma,peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF), and urine samples were collected for further analysis.RESULTS: The Gin group had fewer nitrogen losses 1 and 2 d after surgery (d1, 16.6±242.5 vs -233.4±205.9 mg/d,d2, 31.8±238.8 vs-253.4±184.6 mg/d, P<0.05). There were no differences in plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels between the 2 groups before or after surgery. The phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages was higher in the Gin group than in the control group 1 d after surgery (4 1185±931 vs 323±201,P<0.05). There were no differences in the phagocytic activities of blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils between the 2 groups at the baseline or on the postoperative days.No significant differences in interleukin-1β or interleukin-6concentrations in PLF were observed between the 2 groups.However, tumor necrosis factor-α level in PLF was significantly lower in the Gin group than in the control group on postoperative d 3.CONCLUSION: TPN supplemented with Gin can improve the nitrogen balance, and enhance macrophage phagocytic activity at the site of injury. However, Gin supplementation has no effect

  8. Study on cooperative active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to develop a dispersed cooperative intellectualized system technique and a sensing system required for construction of a robot group inspectable in patrol and maintainable in selfish in a plant with large scale and complex variety. In particular, in order to establish a system with flexibility response to environment and soundness durable to abnormal accident, a cooperative active sensing technique and real-time active vision sensing technique were started. On the base of last two years results, in 1996 fiscal year, important and expansion of each element technique was conducted to start a study on movement of focussing point which was an important function of the active vision sensing. (G.K.)

  9. Treatment of metal-containing wastewater by adsorption of metal-chelate complexes onto activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shay, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    To eliminate difficulties associated with interference of chelating or complexing agents on precipitation of heavy metals from wastewaters, the feasibility of a process which utilized chelating agents in the removal of the heavy metals was investigated. Heavy metal ions were removed from simulated metal plating wastewater by sorption of a heavy metal chelate complex onto activated carbon. In this process, a chelate which might be present in a wastewater could be used in removal of a heavy metal, rather than interfere with its removal. System development of a continuous flow process consisted of bench scale column tests to answer questions about key adsorption column operating parameters. The metals investigated were Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). Hydrogen ion concentration had the largest effect on removal of heavy metalchelate complexes, but contact time and heavy metal:chelate ratio were important. The normal contact time for activated carbon columns of 30 to 60 minutes was found adequate to achieve heavy metal-chelate removals of at least 90% for citrate or EDTA complexes. For citrate complexes better removals were achieved at heavy metal:chelate ratios greater than 1:1. For EDTA, there was no advantage to ratios greater than 1:1. Increasing pH, at least to pH 9.0, increased the heavy metal chelate removal; however, for EDTA, removals greater than 90% could be achieved at a pH as low as 3.0. The maximum amount of Cu(II)-citrate complex that could be removed was 2.8 mg per gram of carbon, the maximum amount for Zn(II)citrate complex was 1.2 mg per gram of carbon, and for Ni(II)-citrate, the maximum was 1.3 mg per gram of carbon. For the EDTA complexes, the maximum removal was 2.1 mg of Cu(II)-EDTA complex per gram of carbon, 6.9 mg of Zn(II)-EDTA complex per gram of carbon, and 3.2 mg of Ni(II)-EDTA complex per gram of carbon.

  10. Active Displacement Control of Active Magnetic Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kertész Milan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide energy production nowadays is over 3400 GW while storage systems have a capacity of only 90 GW [1]. There is a good solution for additional storage capacity in flywheel energy storage systems (FES. The main advantage of FES is its relatively high efficiency especially with using the active magnetic bearing system. Therefore there exist good reasons for appropriate simulations and for creating a suitable magneto-structural control system. The magnetic bearing, including actuation, is simulated in the ANSYS parametric design language (APDL. APDL is used to create the loops of transient simulations where boundary conditions (BC are updated based upon a “gap sensor” which controls the nodal position values of the centroid of the shaft and the current density inputs onto the copper windings.

  11. Testing of the structure of macromolecular polymer films containing solid active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölcskei, É.; Süvegh, K.; Marek, T.; Regdon, G.; Pintye-Hódi, K.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of free films of Eudragit ® L 30D-55 containing different concentrations (0%, 1% or 5%) of diclofenac sodium by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The data revealed that the size of the free-volume holes and the lifetimes of ortho-positronium atoms decreased with increase of the API concentration. Films containing 5% of the API exhibited a different behavior during storage (17 °C, 65% relative humidity (RH)) in consequence of the uptake of water from the air.

  12. Biological activities of fucose-containing polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayasu, Seiichirou; Soegima, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2009-04-23

    A fucose-containing, sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan was isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Composition analysis demonstrated that ascophyllan mainly contains uronic acid, xylose, fucose, and sulfate half ester in approximately equimolecular proportions, which are evidently distinct from those of alginate and fucoidan. Ascophyllan inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and DNA-fragmentation and typical apoptotic nuclear morphological changes were observed in the ascophyllan-treated cells. Furthermore, ascophyllan induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. PMID:19352011

  13. Activation of Carbonyl-Containing Molecules with Solid Lewis Acids in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Román-Leshkov, Yuriy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Chemical Engineering; Davis, Mark E. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Chemical Engineering

    2011-09-28

    Current interest in reacting carbonyl-containing molecules in aqueous media is primarily due to the growing emphasis on conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Recently, solid Lewis acids have been shown to perform catalytic reactions with carbonyl-containing molecules such as sugars in aqueous media. Here, catalysis mediated by Lewis acids is briefly discussed, Lewis acid solids that perform catalysis in aqueous media are then described, and the review is concluded with a few comments on the outlook for the future.

  14. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo;

    2009-01-01

    As ventilation filters accumulate particles removed from the airstream, they become emitters of sensory pollutants that degrade indoor air quality. Previously we demonstrated that an F7 bag-type filter that incorporates activated carbon (a "combination filter") reduces this adverse effect compared...... to an equivalent filter without carbon. The aim of the present study was to examine how the amount of activated carbon (AC) used in combination filters affects their ability to remove both sensory offending pollutants and ozone. A panel evaluated the air downstream of four different filters after each had...... filter and three modifications of a bag-type fiberglass combination filter: the "Heavy" corresponded to a commercially available filter containing 400 g of carbon per square meter of filter area, the "Medium" contained half as much carbon (200 g/m(2)), and the "Light" contained a quarter as much carbon...

  15. Synthesis and bioactivity of secondary metabolites from marine sponges containing dibrominated indolic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Adriano; Locatelli, Marcello; Stefanucci, Azzurra; Pinnen, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Marine sponges. (e.g., Hyrtios sp., Dragmacidin sp., Aglophenia pleuma, Aplidium cyaneum, Aplidium meridianum.) produce bioactive secondary metabolites involved in their defence mechanisms. Recently it was demonstrated that several of those compounds show a large variety of biological activities against different human diseases with possible applications in medicinal chemistry and in pharmaceutical fields, especially related to the new drug development process. Researchers have focused their attention principally on secondary metabolites with anti-cancer and cytotoxic activities. A common target for these molecules is the cytoskeleton, which has a central role in cellular proliferation, motility, and profusion involved in the metastatic process associate with tumors. In particular, many substances containing brominated indolic rings such as 5,6-dibromotryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptophan (dibromoabrine), 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5,6-dibromo-L-hypaphorine isolated from different marine sources, have shown anti-cancer activity, as well as antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Considering the structural correlation between endogenous monoamine serotonin with marine indolic alkaloids 5,6-dibromoabrine and 5,6-dibromotryptamine, a potential use of some dibrominated indolic metabolites in the treatment of depression-related pathologies has also been hypothesized. Due to the potential applications in the treatment of various diseases and the increasing demand of these compounds for biological assays and the difficult of their isolation from marine sources, we report in this review a series of recent syntheses of marine dibrominated indole-containing products. PMID:22614862

  16. Synthesis and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Sponges Containing Dibrominated Indolic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Stefanucci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges. (e.g., Hyrtios sp., Dragmacidin sp., Aglophenia pleuma, Aplidium cyaneum, Aplidium meridianum. produce bioactive secondary metabolites involved in their defence mechanisms. Recently it was demonstrated that several of those compounds show a large variety of biological activities against different human diseases with possible applications in medicinal chemistry and in pharmaceutical fields, especially related to the new drug development process. Researchers have focused their attention principally on secondary metabolites with anti-cancer and cytotoxic activities. A common target for these molecules is the cytoskeleton, which has a central role in cellular proliferation, motility, and profusion involved in the metastatic process associate with tumors. In particular, many substances containing brominated indolic rings such as 5,6-dibromotryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptophan (dibromoabrine, 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5,6-dibromo-L-hypaphorine isolated from different marine sources, have shown anti-cancer activity, as well as antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Considering the structural correlation between endogenous monoamine serotonin with marine indolic alkaloids 5,6-dibromoabrine and 5,6-dibromotryptamine, a potential use of some dibrominated indolic metabolites in the treatment of depression-related pathologies has also been hypothesized. Due to the potential applications in the treatment of various diseases and the increasing demand of these compounds for biological assays and the difficult of their isolation from marine sources, we report in this review a series of recent syntheses of marine dibrominated indole-containing products.

  17. ECOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Лень, В. С.; Коливешко, А. М.

    2016-01-01

    The place of accounting of ecological activity in the accounting system is considered in the article. It is proved that accounting of ecological activity is a subsystem of accounting and is carried out within financial and management accounting. It is also proved that the concept of “environmental accounting” is a concept of higher level in comparison with the concept of “accounting of ecological activity”. Environmental accounting refers to the process of recognition, assessment and transfer...

  18. DEMONSTRATiON OF A SUBSURFACE CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR INSTALLATION AT DOE WASTE SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Crocker; Verna M. Carpenter

    2003-05-21

    Between 1952 and 1970, DOE buried mixed waste in pits and trenches that now have special cleanup needs. The disposal practices used decades ago left these landfills and other trenches, pits, and disposal sites filled with three million cubic meters of buried waste. This waste is becoming harmful to human safety and health. Today's cleanup and waste removal is time-consuming and expensive with some sites scheduled to complete cleanup by 2006 or later. An interim solution to the DOE buried waste problem is to encapsulate and hydraulically isolate the waste with a geomembrane barrier and monitor the performance of the barrier over its 50-yr lifetime. The installed containment barriers would isolate the buried waste and protect groundwater from pollutants until final remediations are completed. The DOE has awarded a contract to RAHCO International, Inc.; of Spokane, Washington; to design, develop, and test a novel subsurface barrier installation system, referred to as a Subsurface Containment System (SCS). The installed containment barrier consists of commercially available geomembrane materials that isolates the underground waste, similar to the way a swimming pools hold water, without disrupting hazardous material that was buried decades ago. The barrier protects soil and groundwater from contamination and effectively meets environmental cleanup standards while reducing risks, schedules, and costs. Constructing the subsurface containment barrier uses a combination of conventional and specialized equipment and a unique continuous construction process. This innovative equipment and construction method can construct a 1000-ft-long X 34-ft-wide X 30-ft-deep barrier at construction rates to 12 Wday (8 hr/day operation). Life cycle costs including RCRA cover and long-term monitoring range from approximately $380 to $590/cu yd of waste contained or $100 to $160/sq ft of placed barrier based upon the subsurface geology surrounding the waste. Project objectives for Phase

  19. Soluble porous coordination polymers by mechanochemistry: from metal-containing films/membranes to active catalysts for aerobic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Haiying; Veith, Gabriel M; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-14

    Soluble porous coordination polymers from mechanochemical synthesis are presented through a coordination polymerization between highly contorted, rigid tetraphenol and a broad variety of transition metal ions. These polymers can be easily cast as metal-containing films or freestanding membranes. Importantly, as-made coordination polymers are highly active and stable in the aerobic oxidation of allylic C-H bonds. PMID:25389070

  20. Improved Oral Bioavailability Using a Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing a Multicomponent Mixture Extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolin; Liu, Xuan; Di, Liuqing; Zu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The active ingredients of salvia (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza) include both lipophilic (e.g., tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I) and hydrophilic (e.g., danshensu and salvianolic acid B) constituents. The low oral bioavailability of these constituents may limit their efficacy. A solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS) was developed to load the various active constituents of salvia into a single drug delivery system and improve their oral bioavailability. A prototype SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction, and characterized by self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Furthermore, the S-SMEDDS was prepared by dispersing liquid SMEDDS containing liposoluble extract into a solution containing aqueous extract and hydrophilic polymer, and then freeze-drying. In vitro release of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone and danshensu from the S-SMEDDS was examined, showing approximately 60%-80% of each active component was released from the S-SMEDDS in vitro within 20 min. In vivo bioavailability of these four constituents indicated that the S-SMEDDS showed superior in vivo oral absorption to a drug suspension after oral administration in rats. It can be concluded that the novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of both lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents of salvia. Thus, the S-SMEDDS can be regarded as a promising new method by which to deliver salvia extract, and potentially other multicomponent drugs, by the oral route. PMID:27070565

  1. Improved Oral Bioavailability Using a Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing a Multicomponent Mixture Extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Bi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The active ingredients of salvia (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza include both lipophilic (e.g., tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I and hydrophilic (e.g., danshensu and salvianolic acid B constituents. The low oral bioavailability of these constituents may limit their efficacy. A solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS was developed to load the various active constituents of salvia into a single drug delivery system and improve their oral bioavailability. A prototype SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction, and characterized by self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Furthermore, the S-SMEDDS was prepared by dispersing liquid SMEDDS containing liposoluble extract into a solution containing aqueous extract and hydrophilic polymer, and then freeze-drying. In vitro release of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone and danshensu from the S-SMEDDS was examined, showing approximately 60%–80% of each active component was released from the S-SMEDDS in vitro within 20 min. In vivo bioavailability of these four constituents indicated that the S-SMEDDS showed superior in vivo oral absorption to a drug suspension after oral administration in rats. It can be concluded that the novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of both lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents of salvia. Thus, the S-SMEDDS can be regarded as a promising new method by which to deliver salvia extract, and potentially other multicomponent drugs, by the oral route.

  2. Modeling Water Containing Systems with the Simplified PC-SAFT and CPA Equations of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have been presented for modeling of water containing systems with the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) equation of state (EOS), and more than 20 water parameter sets have been published with emphasis on different applications. In this work, eight...... pressure and saturated liquid density of water. For the aforementioned aqueous systems, the PC-SAFT correlations using the newly developed parameters are compared with the corresponding correlations of the cubic plus association EOS. The two models show comparable results for phase equilibria, and both...... of them fail to describe second-order derivative properties of water, i.e., residual isochoric heat capacity and speed of sound. The ability of the models to predict the monomer (free site) fractions of saturated pure water is investigated and discussed from various aspects. The results suggest that more...

  3. Independent seismic evaluation of the Diablo Canyon Unit 1 containment annulus structure and selected piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An independent review and development of the vertical floor spectra for the Unit 1 containment annulus structure of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant was carried out using a detailed three-dimensional model. The developed floor spectra were then utilized for confirmatory evaluations of two selected piping systems. The latter were evaluated by the envelope response spectrum method, and by the independent support motion response spectrum method. ASME class 2 evaluations of the two systems were also performed. Finally, a confirmatory evaluation was carried out for the model utilized by URS/Blume for the development of the vertical floor response spectra. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of the report summarize the work scope and the results of the study. Details pertaining to the specific areas of the work are given in sections 2 to 8

  4. System for performing site characterization for test ranges containing unexploded ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Edward; Crane, Carl D., III

    1996-05-01

    Wright Laboratory has been tasked by the Naval Explosive Ordnance Technical Division to develop robotic platforms to perform characterization of areas set aside for ordnance testing. These areas require the identification and removal of the unexploded ordnance before they can be utilized for safe, productive use. The characterization task is performed by autonomously sweeping a designated area with the autonomous tow vehicle (ATV). The ATV tows the multiple sensor platform containing a magnetometer array and a ground penetrating radar. The ATV provides the time and position stamp for sensor data. Analysts then review the post survey sensor data to determine ordnance position. The ATV makes use of several advanced technologies. A hybrid navigation and guidance system using an external Kalman filter delivers vehicle position based on information from a real time centimeter level differential global positioning system and a strapped down laser gyro inertial navigation system. A vision-based obstacle avoidance system helps to account for unknown obstacles during survey. Sophisticated path planning algorithms, and an intelligent software architecture for planning and behavior provide a measure of autonomy. A data collection system controls the functions of the various sensors used for the characterization process and manipulates the data stream to conform to an open ASCII data format and stores it to rugged removable hard disks for later analysis.

  5. Study on Active Drive System for Colonoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with active drive system for colonoscope. The system is mainly composed of soft mobile mechanism for earthworm locomotion and turning mechanism based on shape memory effect. The soft mobile mechanism contacts colon wall with airin inflatable balloons, so the robot has better soft and non invasive properties. The turning mechanism can be actively bent by shape memory alloy components. It ensures the colonoscope to adapt to the tortuous shape of colon. Some experiment results are given in the paper.

  6. Pseudo energy wells in active systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sheshka, Raman; Truskinovsky, Lev

    2015-01-01

    Active stabilization in systems with zero or negative stiffness is an essential element of a wide variety of biological processes. We study a prototypical example of this phenomenon at a micro-scale and show how active rigidity, interpreted as a formation of a pseudo-well in the effective energy landscape, can be generated in an overdamped ratchet-type stochastic system. We link the transition from negative to positive rigidity with correlations in the noise and show that subtle differences in out-of-equilibrium driving may compromise the emergence of a pseudo-well.

  7. Selective enrichment of hepatoeytes from mouse embryonic stem cells with a culture system containing cholestatic serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun MIN; Er-wei SONG; Ji-sheng CHEN; Chang-zhen SHANG; Ya-jin CHEN; Lei ZHANG; Lu LIU; Xiao-geng DENG; Mei YANG; Dong-ping CHEN; Jun CAO

    2007-01-01

    Aim: There is increasing evidence indicating that embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of differentiating into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. However, it is neces- sary to improve the differentiation efficiency so as to promote the clinical application. Here, we report an efficient culture system to support hepatocyte differentiation from ES cells by utilizing cholestatic serum. Methods: One week after the induction of El4 mouse ES cells into hepatocytes with sodium butyrate, cholestatic serum was added into the culture system at various concentrations and hepatocyte-like cells were induced to proliferate. The morphological and phenotypic markers of hepatocytes were characterized using light microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR, respectively. The function of glycogen stor- age of the differentiated cells was detected by Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction, and the ratio of hepatic differentiation was determined by counting the albumin and PAS-positive cells. Results: In the presence of conditional selective medium containing cholestatic serum, numerous epithelial cells resembling hepatocytes were observed. The RT-PCR analysis showed that undifferentiated ES cells did not express any hepatic-specific markers; however, in the presence of sodium butyrate and conditional selective medium containing cholestatic serum, hepatic differentiation markers were detected. Immunofluorescence staining showed that those ES-derived hepatocytes were α-fetoprotein, albumin, and cytokeratin 18 positive, with the ability of storing glycogen. Further determination of the hepatic differentiation ratio showed that the application of cholestatic serum efficiently enriched ES-derived hepatocyte-like cells by inducing lineage differentiation and enhancing lineage proliferation. Conclusion: The conditional selective medium containing cholestatic serum is optimal to selectively enrich hepatocyte-like cells from mixed differentiated ES cells, which may provide a novel method to

  8. The effect of multigenerational diet containing genetically modified triticale on immune system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżowska, M; Wincenciak, M; Winnicka, A; Baranowski, A; Jaszczak, K; Zimny, J; Niemiałtowski, M

    2010-01-01

    The safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) food and feed is performed to identify the possible effects upon animal and human health, also the long-term, multigenerational influence upon functioning of different organs and systems, such as the immune system. In this study C57BL/6J mice were fed for five consecutive generations with pellets containing 20% of conventional triticale grain (control) vs. pellets containing 20% of the transgenic triticale grain resistant to BASTA herbicide (experimental). The F5 experimental animals showed enlarged inguinal and axillary lymph nodes, but not spleens, and increased WBC counts in blood (but within the norm for Mus musculus). Immunophenotyped cell suspensions derived from spleens, inguinal and axillaris lymph nodes and PBMCs from blood showed the significant decrease in the percentage of T cells in spleen and lymph nodes and the B cells in lymph nodes and blood of the F5 experimental mice in comparison to the control F5 mice. Immunoblotting analysis of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL- 6, IFN-gamma levels in serum showed significantly increased IL-2 levels and decreased IL-6 levels in the F5-experimental mice sera. No significant changes in the levels of IgE in sera in both mice groups were observed. The obtained results indicate that multigenerational use of feeds for rodents containing the GM-triticale leads to expansion of the B cell compartment in the secondary lymphoid organs, but it is not caused by malignant processes or the allergic response. PMID:21033555

  9. Toxicity Study of a Self-nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing N-methyl pyrrolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, A G; Kumar, A; Gide, P S

    2015-08-01

    Recently within the lipid based formulation category, Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) has received considerable attention in the enhancement of bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Self-emulsifying formulation should have good solvent properties to allow appropriate solubility of the drug in the formulation. Drug incorporated in the formulation should also be readily dissolved as clear and monophasic liquid at ambient temperature when introduced to aqueous phase. N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) is one of the main pharmaceutical cosolvents and is a solubilizing excipient used in parenteral and oral medications. Marketed Leuprolide acetate (Sanofi-aventis, Quebec, Canada) is formulated as a solution composed of 55-66% NMP and 34-45% poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide). Self-emulsifying oral formulation of fenofibrate containing NMP as solubilizer has been patented. Based on these reports we successfully developed SNEDDS formulation using NMP as cosolvent and found ~ 4 fold improvement in apparent permeability coefficient of model drug. To ensure the safety of the developed SNEDDS formulation, in the present study we further investigated its toxicity studies in mice and evaluated for various parameter. From the results it can be concluded that oral administration of SNEDDS formulation containing NMP did not exhibit significant toxicity in mice and further detail toxicity study is required so as to ensure the safety of this system in oral drug delivery. PMID:25823509

  10. ART MOD2, Fission Product Migration in Primary System and Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: ART Mod2 aims at a comprehensive analysis for the FP behaviour in primary system and in containment during severe accidents and therefore the code considers the removal of radionuclides of up to 60 materials including chemical compounds by natural deposition and by the engineered safety features (ESF) such as spray systems. As for the natural deposition of radionuclides, the code can consider the phenomena such as gravitational settling, thermophoresis, diffusio-phoresis, Brownian diffusion, diffusion under laminar or turbulent flows, resuspension, condensation, chemisorption and revaporization. The code also models the aerosol growth by agglomeration of aerosols and condensation/ evaporation of volatile material at the aerosol surface. Recently, the models for iodine chemistry in containment sump water was incorporated. 2 - Methods: Equations relating to mass and energy conservation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The code does not consider the chemical reactions among FP elements. The present version also does not model aerosol growth by hygroscopicity

  11. The EURITRACK project: development of a tagged neutron inspection system for cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perot, Bertrand; Perret, Gregory; Mariani, Alain; Ma, Jean-Luc; Szabo, Jean-Louis; Mercier, Emmanuel; Sannie, Guillaume; Viesti, Giuseppe; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Pesente, Silvia; Lunardon, Marcello; Formisano, Paola; Moretto, Sandra; Fabris, Daniela; Zenoni, Aldo; Bonomi, Germano; Donzella, Antonietta; Fontana, Andrea; Boghen, Gaia; Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Darovin; Moszynski, Marek; Batsch, Tadeusz; Gierlik, Michal; Wolski, Dariusz; Klamra, Wlodzimierz; Isaksson, Patrick; Le Tourneur, Philippe; Lhuissier, Miguel; Colonna, Annamaria; Tintori, Carlo; Peerani, Paolo; Sequeira, Vitor; Salvato, Martino

    2006-05-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit project is part of the 6th European Union Framework Program, and aims at developing a neutron inspection system for detecting threat materials (explosives, drugs, etc.) in cargo containers. Neutron interaction in the container produces specific gamma-rays used to determine the chemical composition of the inspected material. An associated particle sealed tube neutron generator is developed to allow precise location of the interaction point by direction and time-of-flight measurements of the neutrons tagged by alpha-particles. The EURITRACK project consists in developing: a transportable deuterium-tritium neutron generator including a position sensitive alpha detector (8×8 matrix of YAP:Ce crystals coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier), fast neutron and gamma-ray detectors, front-end electronics to perform coincidence and spectroscopic measurements, and an integrated software which manages neutron generator and detectors positioning, data acquisition and analysis. Hardware components have been developed and tested by the consortium partners. Current status of this work and provisional performances of the system assessed by Monte Carlo calculations are presented.

  12. Chemical protection of pheromones containing an internal conjugated diene system from isomerization and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideses, R; Shani, A

    1988-08-01

    Conjugated diene systems are common in natural products, including pheromones. The systems are sensitive to heat, light, and oxygen, among other things. They can be protected by antioxidants and UV absorbers, which slow downcis-trans isomerization and oxidation. Three sex pheromones (one as an analog) containingZ,E, E,Z, andE,E units were studied: (Z,E)-9,11-C14OAc, (E,Z)-7,9-C12OAc, and (E,E)-10,12-C16OAc. The UV absorber 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and the antioxidants BHT and BHA were found to be effective in solution. The protective effect of the UV absorber against photoisomerization on paper carriers was not as good as that in solution. Preliminary studies on the utilization of formulations containing these compounds and (Z,E)-9,11-C14OAc in the mass trapping of Egyptian cotton leafworm male in cotton fields showed the new combinations to be as good as a previously used formulation with UOP 688, a compound which is unpleasant to handle.

  13. New mutation detection system of repackaged λ gt11 DNA containing LacZ gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; CAO Jia; WU Tao; YANG Lu-jun; SUN Hua-ming; YANG Ming-jie; QIAN Ping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish a reformative detection system which has sound ability of providing information on molecular mutagenesis spectrum and the specificity of detection system of repackaged λ phage.Methods: LacZ gene, as mutational target gene and reporter gene, was applied into the detection system.The λ gt11 DNA treated with ENU (1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea) and 9-AA (9-aminoacridine) was repackaged in vitro. The packaged λ phage was then grown in E. coli Y1090 on a selective plate containing X-gel and IPTG. The survival and mutation frequencies were determined by counting the clear-plaque and blue-plaque,and the molecular mutation mechanism was studied by extracting and sequencing the LacZ gene of mutants.Results: The survival of repackaged λ phages treated with 9-AA and ENU apparently decreased in consistent dose-dependence. The mutation frequency of clear-plaque mutants showed a linear dose-related increase. The predominant mutations induced by 9-AA were ±1 frameshift mutation, and 9-AA induced -1 frameshift was much more effective than induced + 1 frameshift. 9-AA also induced substitutions with transversions more common. ENU-induced mutations were chiefly occurred at G: C sites. Substitutions induced by ENU were mainly G: C→A: T, G: C→C: G and A: T→T: A transversion. Conclusion: Mutation detection system of λgt11 DNA containing LacZ gene is proven better than that of λDNA without LacZ gene. The combination of survival, mutant frequency and sequence spectrum can not only increase the sensitivity and specificity of the new method, but also provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of mutation for ultimate extrapolation to risk assessment.

  14. Effects of a lactoperoxidase system-containing toothpaste on levels of hypothiocyanite and bacteria in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenander-Lumikari, M; Tenovuo, J; Mikola, H

    1993-01-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO)/H2O2/SCN(-)-system-generated hypothiocyanite ions (OSCN-) and hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) are inhibitory against a number of oral bacteria, including mutans streptococci. A commercially available toothpaste (Biotene) comprises the complete LPO system. Generation of HOSCN/OSCN- by Biotene was studied in vitro both in sterilized and nonsterilized saliva of 10 healthy subjects. The HOSCN/OSCN- yield ranged from 100 to 300 microM with Biotene, while the salivary levels of HOSCN/OSCN- before the addition of Biotene were 30.1 +/- 25.1 microM. Two in vivo trials were carried out. In the first study, resting saliva was collected from 12 individuals before, immediately after, and 2, 5, 10 and 20 min after brushing with Biotene to evaluate the in vivo generation and decomposition of HOSCN/OSCN-. In the second study, 26 healthy individuals attended a 1-month crossover trial with Biotene and a control toothpaste, Vademecum (no LPO system), both containing F- and xylitol. The salivary counts of total streptococci, mutans streptococci (MS), lactobacilli and the total flora (TF), as well as the peroxidase, thiocyanate ion and HOSCN/OSCN- levels were determined before and after 2 and 4 weeks daily use of the toothpastes. Twice-a-day use of Biotene for 1 month resulted in an elevation of 'resting levels' of HOSCN/OSCN-. No such effect was found with the control toothpaste. No significant changes were found in the salivary levels of total streptococci, MS, lactobacilli or TF after 1-month use of either toothpaste. The results show the capability of the LPO-system-containing toothpaste to elevate the salivary levels of HOSCN/OSCN-, although no bactericidal effect was observed.

  15. IQ Motif-Containing GTPase-Activating Protein 2 (IQGAP2 Is a Novel Regulator of Colonic Inflammation in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M Ghaleb

    Full Text Available IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 2 (IQGAP2 is a multidomain scaffolding protein that plays a role in cytoskeleton regulation by juxtaposing Rho GTPase and Ca2+/calmodulin signals. While IQGAP2 suppresses tumorigenesis in liver, its role in pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract remains unexplored. Here we report that IQGAP2 is required for the inflammatory response in colon. Mice lacking Iqgap2 gene (Iqgap2-/- mice were resistant to chemically-induced colitis. Unlike wild-type controls, Iqgap2-/- mice treated with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in water for 13 days displayed no injury to colonic epithelium. Mechanistically, resistance to colitis was associated with suppression of colonic NF-κB signaling and IL-6 synthesis, along with diminished neutrophil and macrophage production and recruitment in Iqgap2-/- mice. Finally, alterations in IQGAP2 expression were found in colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Our findings indicate that IQGAP2 promotes inflammatory response at two distinct levels; locally, in colonic epithelium through TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, and systemically, via control of maturation and recruitment of myeloid immune cells. This work identifies a novel mechanism of colonic inflammation mediated by signal transducing scaffolding protein IQGAP2. IQGAP2 domain-specific blocking agents may represent a conceptually novel strategy for therapy of IBD and other inflammation-associated disorders, including cancer.

  16. Harmonic Reduction System Using Active Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi B.Endait

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the harmonics analysis and compensation which occurred in the electrical system. We use the electrical signal analysis based on FFT technique in order to calculate harmonics that occurred in the electrical system. The harmonics are compensated by using active harmonic filters. This system consists of a computer which works as controller, processor, analysis, monitor and database unit together with a microcontroller which has A/D converter is used for sampling the electrical signals via a parallel port of the computer. The active harmonic filters (IGBT Module are controlled by PWM (Pulse Width Modulation signal from the microcontroller. The PWM data (Switching angle is programmed by computer. The data such as voltages, currents, the total harmonic distortion etc., can be saved as database for analysis. The harmonics compensation increase high efficiency of the electrical system and decrease the damage and incorrect operation that may happen with electrical devices.

  17. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of New 4-Heteroarylamino Coumarin Derivatives Containing Nitrogen and Sulfur as Heteroatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana R. Dekić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis, spectral analysis and bioactivity of new coumarin derivatives are described in this paper. Eight new coumarin derivatives were synthesized in moderate to good yields by condensation of 4-chloro-3-nitrocoumarin and the corresponding heteroarylamine. The synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activity, in a standard disk diffusion assay, against thirteen strains of bacteria and three fungal strains. They have shown a wide range of activity - from one completely inactive compound to medium active ones.

  18. Nondestructive assays of 55-gallon drums containing uranium and transuranic waste using passive-active shufflers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A passive-active neutron shuffler for 55-gal. drums of waste has been characterized using more than 1500 active and 500 passive assays on drums with 28 different matrices. Flux-monitor corrections have been improved, the assay accuracy with localized fissile materials in a drum has been characterized, and improvements have been suggested. Minimum detectable masses for 235U with active assays and 240Pueff with passive assays are presented for the various amounts of moderators and absorbers studied

  19. Characterization of mutant histidine-containing proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waygood, E.B.; Reiche, B.; Hengstenberg, W.; Lee, J.S.

    1987-06-01

    Histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) is common to all of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS) in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, except the fructose-specific PTS. Strains which lack HPr activity (ptsH) have been characterized in the past, and it has proved difficult to delineate between tight and leaky mutants. In this study four different parameters of ptsH strains were measured: in vitro sugar phosphorylation activity of the mutant HPr; detection of /sup 32/P-labeled P-HPr; ability of monoclonal antibodies to bind mutant HPr; and sensitivity of ptsH strains to fosfomycin. Tight ptsH strains could be defined; they were fosfomycin resistant and produced no HPr protein or completely inactive mutant HPr. All leaky ptsH strains were fosfomycin sensitive, Usually produced normal amounts of mutant HPr protein, and had low but measurable activity, and HPr was detectable as a phosphoprotein. This indicates that the regulatory functions of the PTS require a very low level of HPr activity (about 1%). The antibodies used to detect mutant HPr in crude extracts were two monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibodies Jel42 and Jel44. Both antibodies, which have different pIs, inhibited PTS sugar phosphorylation assays, but the antibody-JPr complex could still be phosphorylated by enzyme I. Preliminary evidence suggests that the antibodies bind to two different epitopes which are in part located in a ..beta..-sheet structure.

  20. Characterization and activity of an immobilized antimicrobial peptide containing bactericidal PEG-hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleophas, Rik T C; Sjollema, Jelmer; Busscher, Henk J; Kruijtzer, John A W; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2014-09-01

    A single step immobilization-polymerization strategy of a highly active antimicrobial peptide into a soft hydrogel network on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) surface using thiol-ene chemistry is described. The bactericidal hydrogel was molecularly characterized via Coomassie and Lowry assay protein staining agents as well as by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The bactericidal activity was established against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, two bacterial strains commonly associated with biomaterial infections. To gain further insight into the biological stability, the hydrogels were incubated with human serum prior to activity testing without loss of activity. These studies revealed a promising bactericidal hydrogel with good stability under physiological conditions.