WorldWideScience

Sample records for active containment systems

  1. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundie, P. [Envirotech (Scotland) Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]|[Environmental Resource Industries Disposal Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); McLeod, N. [Envirotreat Ltd., Kingswinford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of medicinal plants containing polyphenol compounds. Comparison of two extraction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratchanova, Maria; Denev, Petko; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Mihailov, Atanas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of extraction system on the extractability of polyphenol compounds and antioxidant activity of various medicinal plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total polyphenol content of 25 Bulgarian medicinal plants subjected to water or 80 % acetone extractions were investigated and compared. The type of extragent significantly influenced the efficiency of the polyphenol extraction and the antioxidant activity. In all cases ORAC results and total polyphenol content were higher for acetone extraction than for water extraction. The acetone extract of peppermint had the highest ORAC value - 2917 micromol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g dry weight (DW) and polyphenol content - 20216 mg/100 g DW. For water extraction thyme exhibited the highest ORAC antioxidant activity - 1434 micromol TE/g DW. There was a significant linear correlation between the concentration of total polyphenols and ORAC in the investigated medicinal plants. It can be concluded that the solvent used affects significantly the polyphenol content and the antioxidant activity of the extract and therefore it is recommended to use more than one extraction system for better assessment of the antioxidant activity of natural products. Several of the investigated herbs contain substantial amounts of free radical scavengers and can serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for medicinal and commercial uses.

  3. Container System Hardware, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Equipment Deployment and Storage System ( EDSS ) ................................ 27 Shipping Fram e, 4’ x 62/3’ x 8...Objective. NSNs 8115-01-194-4017 (old) 8115-01-354-0797 (new) Part I - Containers 25 Equipment Deployment and Storage System ( EDSS ) 26 Part I...Containers Equipment Deployment 0* ad Storage System ( EDSS ) POINTQ OCNTACT: Mr oUn 1le US Army Evor:RD&E-*Center,* SATBE-r-MR:Port Belvifr, VA 22o060-5606

  4. Nanostructured Systems Containing Rutin: In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Photostability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The improvement of the rutin photostability and its prolonged in vitro antioxidant activity were studied by means of its association with nanostructured aqueous dispersions. Rutin-loaded nanocapsules and rutin-loaded nanoemulsion showed mean particle size of 124.30 ± 2.06 and 124.17 ± 1.79, respectively, polydispersity index below 0.20, negative zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency close to 100%. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by the formation of free radical ·OH after the exposure of hydrogen peroxide to a UV irradiation system. Rutin-loaded nanostructures showed lower rutin decay rates [(6.1 ± 0.6 10−3 and (5.1 ± 0.4 10−3 for nanocapsules and nanoemulsion, respectively] compared to the ethanolic solution [(35.0 ± 3.7 10−3 min−1] and exposed solution [(40.1 ± 1.7 10−3 min−1] as well as compared to exposed nanostructured dispersions [(19.5 ± 0.5 10−3 and (26.6 ± 2.6 10−3, for nanocapsules and nanoemulsion, respectively]. The presence of the polymeric layer in nanocapsules was fundamental to obtain a prolonged antioxidant activity, even if the mathematical modeling of the in vitro release profiles showed high adsorption of rutin to the particle/droplet surface for both formulations. Rutin-loaded nanostructures represent alternatives to the development of innovative nanomedicines.

  5. Brucella abortus ure2 region contains an acid-activated urea transporter and a nickel transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Lobo Juan M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urease is a virulence factor that plays a role in the resistance of Brucella to low pH conditions, both in vivo and in vitro. Brucella contains two separate urease gene clusters, ure1 and ure2. Although only ure1 codes for an active urease, ure2 is also transcribed, but its contribution to Brucella biology is unknown. Results Re-examination of the ure2 locus showed that the operon includes five genes downstream of ureABCEFGDT that are orthologs to a nikKMLQO cluster encoding an ECF-type transport system for nickel. ureT and nikO mutants were constructed and analyzed for urease activity and acid resistance. A non-polar ureT mutant was unaffected in urease activity at neutral pH but showed a significantly decreased activity at acidic pH. It also showed a decreased survival rate to pH 2 at low concentration of urea when compared to the wild type. The nikO mutant had decreased urease activity and acid resistance at all urea concentrations tested, and this phenotype could be reverted by the addition of nickel to the growth medium. Conclusions Based on these results, we concluded that the operon ure2 codes for an acid-activated urea transporter and a nickel transporter necessary for the maximal activity of the urease whose structural subunits are encoded exclusively by the genes in the ure1 operon.

  6. Copper-containing polyvinyl alcohol composite systems: Preparation, characterization and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza Hajipour, Abdol; Mohammadsaleh, Fatemeh; Reza Sabzalian, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The present investigation reports, the complex formation of Cu(II) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the synthesis of PVA-stabilized Cu2O particles. This PVA-Cu2O composite has been prepared via chemical reduction method using PVA-Cu(II) complex as precursor. At first, Cu(II) ions were stabilized in PVA matrix via complex formation with OH groups; subsequently, this PVA-Cu(II) macromolecular complex as precursor reacted with ascorbic acid as reducing agent at pH=12 to prepare PVA-Cu2O composite. The products were characterized by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, Visible Spectroscopy and atomic absorption. In the following, the antibacterial properties of as-prepared composites were examined against Gram-positive (Bacillus thuringiensis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), and the results showed excellent antibacterial activity of these materials.

  7. Synthesis and in vivo diuretic activity of some new benzothiazole sulfonamides containing quinoxaline ring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Asif; Madhesia, Diwakar; Rashid, Mohd; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam

    2016-12-01

    A series of new 6-substituted-N-[3-{2-(substituted phenyl)-ethenyl} quinoxaline-2(1H)-ylidene]-1,3-benzothiazole-2-amine (4a-f) were designed and synthesized by condensing 2-amino-benzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid amide (1) with chalcones of quinoxaline-2-one (3a-f) in a hope to obtain promising and a new class of diuretic agents. Structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral data and elemental analysis. The pharmacological studies in experimental rats indicates that compound 4c possesses excellent in vivo diuretic activity of 1.13 and appears to be a better diuretic agent than the reference drugs, acetazolamide (1.0) and urea (0.88). Insight of the binding mode of the synthesized compounds (ligand) into the binding sites of carbonic anhydrase enzyme (PDF code: 4KUV) was provided by docking studies, performed with the help of Maestro 9.0 docking software. Further pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies are needed to confirm the safety of compound 4c which emerged as a lead diuretic compound.

  8. Antioxidant activity of new aramide nanoparticles containing redox-active N-phthaloyl valine moieties in the hepatic cytochrome P450 system in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hammed H A M; El-Banna, Sabah G; Elhusseiny, Amel F; Mansour, El-Sayed M E

    2012-07-10

    We report the synthesis of aramide nanoparticles containing a chiral N-phthaloyl valine moiety and their antioxidant activities on hepatic contents of cytochrome P₄₅₀, amidopyrene N-demethylase, aniline-4-hyroxylase and induced the hepatic content of cytochrome b5 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) cytochrome C-reductase. Polymers were obtained as well-separated spherical nanoparticles while highly aggregated particles via H-bonding organization of the aramide-containing pyridine led to a thin layer formation. The effects of the nanoparticles and CCl₄ on enzyme activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels of male rat liver were studied. Pretreatments of rats with the polyamides prior to the administration of CCl₄ decreased the hepatic content of the tested enzymes. Doses reduced the toxic effects exerted by (•CCl₃) upon the liver through inhibition of the cytochrome P₄₅₀ system. Inhibition of such metabolizing enzymes could reduce the carcinogenic effects of chemical carcinogens.

  9. Surface active properties and biological activity of novel nonionic surfactants containing pyrimidines and related nitrogen heterocyclic ring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of annelated pyrimidine derivatives has been synthesized via different heterocyclization reactions of suitably functionalized 6-(4-octadecyloxyphenyl-4-oxo-2- thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile (4 with different electrophiles and nucleophiles. These heterocycles bear an active hydrogen atom (NH, OH or COOH which could be propoxylated using propylene oxide with different moles, 5, 10 and 15, to produce nonionic surfactant having a long alkyl chain with molecular weight suitable for becoming an amphiphilic molecule with correct hydrophilic-lypophilic balance which enhances solubility, biodegradability and hence lowers the toxicity to human beings and becomes environmentally friendly. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of these compounds were screened and it was found that some of these compounds have similar or higher activity compared with commercial antibiotic drugs (sulphadiazine, which make them suitable for diverse applications like the manufacturing of drugs, pesticides, emulsifiers, cosmetics, etc.Una serie de derivados pirimidínicos y relacionados han sido preparados vía diferentes reacciones de formación de heterociclos entre 6-(4-octadeciloxifenil-4-oxo-2-tioxo- 1,2,3,4-tetrahidropirimidina-5-carbonitrilo (4 y diferentes electrófilos y nucleófilos. Estos heterociclos tienen un átomo de hidrógeno activo (NH, OH, o COOH que fue propoxilado con diferentes moles de óxido de propileno (5, 10, o 15 para producir surfactantes no iónicos con una cadena alquílica larga y peso molecular apropiado para convertirse en una molécula anfifílica con un balance hidrofílico-lipofílico correcto que aumenta la solubilidad y la biodedradabilidad, decrece la toxicidad a los seres humanos, y se convierte en respetuoso con el medio ambiente. Además, las actividades antimicrobianas de estos compuestos fueron determinadas y se encontró que algunos de estos compuestos tuvieron una actividad similar o más alta que

  10. Photocatalytic and biocidal activities of novel coating systems of mesoporous and dense TiO₂-anatase containing silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, María V; de Oña, Paula; Castro, Yolanda; Durán, Alicia; Faccendini, Pablo; Lagier, Claudia; Grau, Roberto; Pellegri, Nora S

    2014-10-01

    Here we describe the development of novel nanostructured coating systems with improved photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. These systems comprise a layer of SiO2 followed by a layer of mesoporous or dense TiO2-anatase, and doping with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The coatings were synthesized via a sol-gel technique by combining colloidal Ag NPs with TiO2 and SiO2 sols. The photocatalytic activity was studied through methyl orange decomposition under UV light. Results showed a great increase of photocatalytic activity by Ag NPs doping. The most active photocatalyst corresponded to the Ag-SiO2/TiO2 mesoporous system, associated with the porosity of the coatings and with the decrease of e-h recombination for the presence of Ag NPs. All the TiO2 coatings showed a strong bactericidal activity against planktonic forms of Gram-negative (enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) pathogens, as well as a strong germicidal effect against deadly spores of human gas gangrene- and anthrax-producing bacteria (Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus anthracis, respectively). The bactericidal and sporocidal activity was improved by doping the coatings with Ag NPs, even more when nanoparticles were in the outer layer of TiO2, because they are more accessible to the environment. The mechanisms responsible for the increase of photocatalytic and bactericidal behaviors related to Ag NP doping were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence and anodic stripping voltammetry. It was found that the separation of the electron-hole pair contributed to the enhancement of photocatalysis, whereas the effect of the local electric field reinforcement was probably present. A possible involvement of a decrease of band-gap energy and dispersion by silver nanoparticles is ruled out. bactericidal efficacy was increased by Ag(+) ion release. Overall, the results included in this article show that the architecture of the

  11. Engineered containment and control systems: nurturing nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, James H; MacDonell, Margaret M; Smith, Ellen D; Dunn, R Jeffrey; Waugh, W Jody

    2004-06-01

    The development of engineered containment and control systems for contaminated sites must consider the environmental setting of each site. The behaviors of both contaminated materials and engineered systems are affected by environmental conditions that will continue to evolve over time as a result of such natural processes as climate change, ecological succession, pedogenesis, and landform changes. Understanding these processes is crucial to designing, implementing, and maintaining effective systems for sustained health and environmental protection. Traditional engineered systems such as landfill liners and caps are designed to resist natural processes rather than working with them. These systems cannot be expected to provide long-term isolation without continued maintenance. In some cases, full-scale replacement and remediation may be required within 50 years, at an effort and cost much higher than for the original cleanup. Approaches are being developed to define smarter containment and control systems for stewardship sites, considering lessons learned from implementing prescriptive waste disposal regulations enacted since the 1970s. These approaches more effectively involve integrating natural and engineered systems; enhancing sensors and predictive tools for evaluating performance; and incorporating information on failure events, including precursors and consequences, into system design and maintenance. An important feature is using natural analogs to predict environmental conditions and system responses over the long term, to accommodate environmental change in the design process, and, as possible, to engineer containment systems that mimic favorable natural systems. The key emphasis is harmony with the environment, so systems will work with and rely on natural processes rather than resisting them. Implementing these new integrated systems will reduce current requirements for active management, which are resource-intensive and expensive.

  12. Dysprosium-containing layered double hydroxides nanoparticles intercalated with biologically active species as an approach for theranostic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Arratia-Quijada, Jenny

    2015-10-23

    A layered double hydroxide structure including dysprosium cations was prepared by co-precipitation. The nanoparticles showed a linear relationship with the reciprocal relaxation spin-lattice (T1) time of water protons which is reflected as contrast in aqueous suspensions analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging. The interlayer space of dysprosium containing LDH was successfully intercalated with folate, ibuprofen and gallate ions, which are key molecules for recognition of some cancer cells and treatment of diseases. The paramagnetic property of the dysprosium-containing LDH detected in this work beside the ability to transport drugs open up the opportunity to design theranostic materials in a single crystal phase with nanometric dimensions.

  13. Dysprosium-containing layered double hydroxides nanoparticles intercalated with biologically active species as an approach for theranostic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arratia-Quijada, Jenny [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Centro Universitario Tonalá, Universidad de Guadalajara, Av. Nuevo Periférico No. 555, C.P. 48525, Tonalá, Jalisco (Mexico); Sánchez Jiménez, Cecilia [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Boulevard Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Gurinov, Andrey [Research Resources Center for Magnetic Resonance, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskiy pr. 26, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); NMR Core Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Pérez Centeno, Armando; Ceja Andrade, Israel [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guadalajara, Boulevard Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Carbajal Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Boulevard Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LDH structure including dysprosium was prepared by co-precipitation. • LDH was capable to produce contrast in the T1 mode of MRI. • LDH were intercalated with folate, ibuprofen and gallate ions. - Abstract: A layered double hydroxide structure including dysprosium cations was prepared by co-precipitation. The nanoparticles showed a linear relationship with the reciprocal relaxation spin-lattice (T1) time of water protons which is reflected as contrast in aqueous suspensions analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging. The interlayer space of dysprosium containing LDH was successfully intercalated with folate, ibuprofen and gallate ions, which are key molecules for recognition of some cancer cells and treatment of diseases. The paramagnetic property of the dysprosium-containing LDH detected in this work beside the ability to transport drugs open up the opportunity to design theranostic materials in a single crystal phase with nanometric dimensions.

  14. Building a secondary containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  15. Populations related to Alkanindiges, a novel genus containing obligate alkane degraders, are implicated in biological foaming in activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adam N; Frigon, Dominic; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2007-08-01

    Activated sludge mixed liquor and biological foam samples were collected from five full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants in Illinois, all of which were exhibiting biological foaming at the time of sampling. Oligonucleotide probe hybridization consistently measured higher levels of Gammaproteobacteria rRNA in the foam as compared with the mixed liquor for all treatment plants analysed. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons led to the identification of populations which were abundant in each of the treatment plants. These populations were related to the Alkanindiges/Acinetobacter cluster within the Gammaproteobacteria. Further analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences indicated that they clustered in three phylogenetic groups outside the main Alkanindiges/Acinetobacter cluster, suggesting that these groups may represent new taxa. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that these populations were enriched in the foam compared with the underlying mixed liquor similar to the enrichment of the Gammaproteobacteria measured by oligonucleotide probe membrane hybridization. The observed enrichment in foam samples is suggestive of a role for these populations in foam formation or stabilization, and their presence in all treatment plants analysed in this study may be indicative of their widespread abundance in foaming plants.

  16. Remote container monitoring and surveillance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Aquila Technologies Group is developing a monitoring and surveillance system to monitor containers of nuclear materials. The system will both visually and physically monitor the containers. The system is based on the combination of Aquila`s Gemini All-Digital Surveillance System and on Aquila`s AssetLAN{trademark} asset tracking technology. This paper discusses the Gemini Digital Surveillance system as well as AssetLAN technology. The Gemini architecture with emphasis on anti-tamper security features is also described. The importance of all-digital surveillance versus other surveillance methods is also discussed. AssetLAN{trademark} technology is described, emphasizing the ability to continually track containers (as assets) by location utilizing touch memory technology. Touch memory technology provides unique container identification, as well as the ability to store and retrieve digital information on the container. This information may relate to container maintenance, inspection schedules, and other information. Finally, this paper describes the combination of the Gemini system with AssetLAN technology, yielding a self contained, container monitoring and area/container surveillance system. Secure container fixture design considerations are discussed. Basic surveillance review functions are also discussed.

  17. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  18. Container System Hardware (1992) Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    25 Equipment Deployment and Storage System ( EDSS ) .................................. 27 Shipping Frame, 4’ x 62/3’ x 8...old) 8115-01-354-0797 (new) Part I - Containers 25 Equipment Deployment and Storage System ( EDSS ) 26 Part I - Containers Equipment Deployment and...Storage System ( EDSS ) POINT OF CONTACT Mr. William Brower US Army Belvoir RD&E Center, SATBE-FMR Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5606 DSN 654-3613/Commercial (703

  19. Self-Contained Automated Vehicle Washing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    military personnel from harmful contaminants are the impetus for designing a closed loop vehicle washing system. Systems Specification Development This...I I I " I I EACH CONTAINMENT PAD HAS SELf -CONTAINED STORAGE TO MINIMIZ[ THE FOOTPRINT DURI NG TRANSPORT . I ~ ,’"j PIVOTING ELBOWS LOCK ...shipped to Dugway, UT in August 2013 and travel plans were confirmed only to encounter the government shutdown which would delay travel until 2014

  20. SIMULATIONS FOR ACTIVE INTERROGATION OF HEU IN CARGO CONTAINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEE, SANG Y. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BEDDINGFIELD, DAVID H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PARK, JAEYOUNG [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-22

    We describe the results of a Monte Carlo simulation 10 investigate the feasibility of using a pulsed deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron technique for active interrogation of special nuclear material in cargo containers. Time distributions of fission neutrons from highly enriched uranium induced by a pulsed D-T neutron source were calculated for cargo containers with different hydrogen contents. A simple detector system with polyethylene and cadmium was modeled to calculate the two-group neutron flux at the detector.

  1. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  2. Virtual containment system for composite flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Fuh-Wen

    2001-07-01

    There is much interest in advanced composite flywheel systems for use on satellites mainly because of the potential for considerable weight savings associated with combined energy and momentum management. The additional weight of a containment system needed to protect the satellite in the event of a flywheel failure, however, could negate the potential savings. Therefore, the development of a condition monitoring and virtual containment system is essential to ensure the wide acceptance of flywheel batteries for spacecraft applications. A virtual containment system is a near real-time condition monitoring system, plus additional logic to adjust the operating conditions (maximum rotational speed) accordingly when a flaw or fault is detected. Flaws of primary interest in this study are those unique to composite flywheels, such as delamination and debonding of interfaces. Such flaws change the balance state of a flywheel through small, but detectable, motion of the mass center and principal axes of inertia. A proposed monitoring technique determines the existence and the extent of such flaws by a method similar to the influence-coefficient rotor balancing method. Because of the speed-dependence of the imbalance caused by elastic flaws, a normalized imbalance change, which is a direct measure of the flaw size, was defined. To account for the possibility that flaw growth could actually improve the balance state of a rotor, a new concept of accumulated imbalance change was also introduced. Laboratory tests showed the proposed method was able to detect small simulated flaws that result in as little as 2--3 microns of mass center movement. Fracture mechanics concepts were used to evaluate the severity and growth rate of the detected flaw. An interesting discovery that coincided with some experimental observations reported in the literature was the energy release rate reduction with a large crack. This finding indicates a possible stress relief and crack arrest when a

  3. Expert system for controlling plant growth in a contained environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George A. (Inventor); Lanoue, Mark Allen (Inventor); Bethel, Matthew (Inventor); Ryan, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    In a system for optimizing crop growth, vegetation is cultivated in a contained environment, such as a greenhouse, an underground cavern or other enclosed space. Imaging equipment is positioned within or about the contained environment, to acquire spatially distributed crop growth information, and environmental sensors are provided to acquire data regarding multiple environmental conditions that can affect crop development. Illumination within the contained environment, and the addition of essential nutrients and chemicals are in turn controlled in response to data acquired by the imaging apparatus and environmental sensors, by an "expert system" which is trained to analyze and evaluate crop conditions. The expert system controls the spatial and temporal lighting pattern within the contained area, and the timing and allocation of nutrients and chemicals to achieve optimized crop development. A user can access the "expert system" remotely, to assess activity within the growth chamber, and can override the "expert system".

  4. GOTHIC Simulation of Passive Containment Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Huiun; Kim, Hangon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The performance of this system depends on the condensation of steam moving downward inside externally cooled vertical tubes. AES-2006: During a DBA, heat is removed by internally cooled vertical tubes, which are located in containment. We are currently developing the conceptual design of Innovative PWR, which is will be equipped with various passive safety features, including PCCS. We have plan to use internal heat exchanger (HX) type PCCS with concrete containment. In this case, the elevation of HXs is important to ensure the heat removal during accidents. In general, steam is lighter than air mixture in containment. So, steam may be collected at the upper side of containment. It means that higher elevation of HXs, larger heat removal efficiency of those. So, the aim of the present paper is to give preliminary study on variation of heat removal performance according to elevation of HXs. With reference to the design specification of the current reactors including APR+, we had determined conceptual design of PCCS. Using it, we developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 containment was adopted PCCS. This calculation model is described herein and representative results of calculation are presented. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for PCCS performance calculation and sensitivity test according to installation elevation of PCCXs. Calculation results confirm that PCCS is working properly. It is found that the difference due to the installation elevation of PCCXs is insignificant at this preliminary analysis, however, further studies should be performed to confirm final performance of PCCS according to the installation elevation. These insights are important for developing the PCCS of Innovative PWR.

  5. BEAM CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.L.; Casey, W.; Job, P.K.

    2010-05-23

    The shielding design for the NSLS-II will provide adequate protection for the full injected beam loss in two periods of the ring around the injection point, but the remainder of the ring is shielded for lower losses of {le} 10% full beam. This will require a system to insure that beam losses don't exceed these levels for a period of time that could cause excessive radiation levels outside the shield walls. This beam containment system will measure, provide a level of control and alarm indication of the beam power losses along the beam path from the source (e-gun, linac) thru the injection system and the storage ring. This system will consist of collimators that will provide limits to (and potentially to measure) the beam miss-steering and control the loss points of the charge and monitors that will measure the average beam current losses along the beam path and alarm when this beam power loss exceeds the level set by the shielding specifications. This will require some new ideas in beam loss detection capability and collimation. The initial planning and R&D program will be presented.

  6. Photocatalytic and biocidal activities of novel coating systems of mesoporous and dense TiO{sub 2}-anatase containing silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldán, María V. [Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos, FCEIA-UNR, IFIR-CONICET, Pellegrini 250, Rosario S2000BTP (Argentina); Oña, Paula de [Laboratorio de Microbiología Molecular, FCByF-UNR-CONICET, Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Castro, Yolanda; Durán, Alicia [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Faccendini, Pablo; Lagier, Claudia [IQUIR-UNR-CONICET, Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Grau, Roberto, E-mail: robertograu@fulbrightmail.org [Laboratorio de Microbiología Molecular, FCByF-UNR-CONICET, Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Pellegri, Nora S., E-mail: pellegri@fceia.unr.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos, FCEIA-UNR, IFIR-CONICET, Pellegrini 250, Rosario S2000BTP (Argentina)

    2014-10-01

    Here we describe the development of novel nanostructured coating systems with improved photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. These systems comprise a layer of SiO{sub 2} followed by a layer of mesoporous or dense TiO{sub 2}-anatase, and doping with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The coatings were synthesized via a sol–gel technique by combining colloidal Ag NPs with TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} sols. The photocatalytic activity was studied through methyl orange decomposition under UV light. Results showed a great increase of photocatalytic activity by Ag NPs doping. The most active photocatalyst corresponded to the Ag–SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} mesoporous system, associated with the porosity of the coatings and with the decrease of e–h recombination for the presence of Ag NPs. All the TiO{sub 2} coatings showed a strong bactericidal activity against planktonic forms of Gram-negative (enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) pathogens, as well as a strong germicidal effect against deadly spores of human gas gangrene- and anthrax-producing bacteria (Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus anthracis, respectively). The bactericidal and sporocidal activity was improved by doping the coatings with Ag NPs, even more when nanoparticles were in the outer layer of TiO{sub 2}, because they are more accessible to the environment. The mechanisms responsible for the increase of photocatalytic and bactericidal behaviors related to Ag NP doping were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV–vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence and anodic stripping voltammetry. It was found that the separation of the electron–hole pair contributed to the enhancement of photocatalysis, whereas the effect of the local electric field reinforcement was probably present. A possible involvement of a decrease of band-gap energy and dispersion by silver nanoparticles is ruled out. bactericidal efficacy was increased by Ag{sup +} ion release. Overall, the results

  7. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  8. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  9. Preparation of Paper Containing Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    development of charcoal paper. RESUME On a obtenu du papier contenant du charbon actif en dispersant du charbon r~duit en poudre et en versant des agents de...sa capaciti d’adsorption et de ritention du charbon . Ce papier pourrait servir d𔄀crans dans une salle de contr~le de contamination pour le balayage...contenant du charbon . "l-ii:: . ---:.-o * *** * *. .. t C Cd. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 S 2 INTRODUCTION . Activated

  10. LACHESIS -- An instrumentation system for obtaining containment and environmental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deupree, R.G.; Oblad, F.R.

    1995-09-01

    The instrumentation system developed to obtain containment and environmental data in the LYNER complex is presented. The primary purpose of this report is to familiarize potential operators of the system with the details of its use. The instrumentation system has three major hardware modules: (1) the sensor power source, amplifier, and signal conditioner module, (2) the digitizers, and (3) the computer controller. Each of these is described with emphasis on the steps required to make that component perform effectively. In addition the roles of activities of other people besides the Los Alamos shot engineer who are required to ensure the success of the system are outlined.

  11. Electrorheology of suspensions containing interfacially active constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Carl; Yang, Hengxi; Green, Peter F

    2013-09-25

    We recently showed that a suspension of micrometer-sized polystyrene (PS) particles in a PDMS liquid, mixed with small (1 wt %) amounts of a nanocage, sulfonated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (s-POSS), exhibited significant electrorheological (ER) behavior. This behavior was associated with the formation of a thin adsorbed layer of s-POSS onto the surfaces of PS and the subsequent formation of polarization-induced aggregates, or structures, responsible for the ER effect in an applied electric, E, field. Current theory suggests that the ER effect would largely be determined by the dielectric and conductive properties of the conductive layer of core/shell particles in ER suspensions. We show here that sulfonated-PS (s-PS)/PDMS suspensions exhibit further increases in the yield stress of over 200%, with the addition of s-POSS. The yield stress of this system, moreover, scales as τy [proportionality] E(2). The dielectric relaxation studies reveal the existence of a new relaxation peak in the s-POSS/s-PS/PDMS system that is absent in the s-POSS/PS/PDMS suspension. The relative sizes of these peaks are sensitive to the concentration of s-POSS and are associated with changes in the ER behavior. The properties of this class of ER fluids are not appropriately rationalized in terms of current theories.

  12. Assessment of respiration activity and ecotoxicity of composts containing biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Michał; Gondek, Krzysztof; Baran, Agnieszka

    2013-03-01

    The research was conducted to determine if introducing biodegradable polymer materials to the composting process would affect selected biological properties of mature compost. Determination of biological properties of composts composed of testing their respiration activity and toxicity. Respiration activity was measured in material from the composting process by means of OxiTop Control measuring system. The ecotoxicity of composts was estimated by means of a set of biotests composed of three microbiotests using five test organisms. Introduction of polymer materials caused a decrease in respiration activity of mature compost. Similar dependencies as in the case of mass loss were registered. Compost to which a biodegradable polymer with the highest content of starch was added revealed the smallest difference in comparison with organic material composted without polymers. Lower content of starch in a polymer caused lower respiration activity of composts, whereas microorganism vaccine might have accelerated maturing of composts, thus contributing to the smallest respiration of compost. In composts containing biopolymers the following were observed: an increase in germination inhibition--2.5 times, roots growth inhibition--1.8 times, growth inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens--four times and luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri--1.6 times in comparison with the control (compost K1). Composts containing biopolymers were classified as toxicity class III, whereas the compost without polymer addition as class II.

  13. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  14. PHARMACODYNAMICAL EVALUATION OF MATRIX TYPE TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC SYSTEMS CONTAINING CAPTOPRIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerımoğlu, Oya; Şahbaz, Sevınç; Şehırlı, Özer; Ozdemır, Zarıfe Nıgar; Çetınel, Şule; Dortunç, Betül; Şener, Göksel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate pharmacodynamical properties of transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) containing captopril together with synthetic and pH independent polymers, Eudragit RL 100 and RS 100. Optimum formulation was chosen according to the results of our previous study regarding in vitro dissolution and ex vivo diffusion rate studies through excised human skin by using Franz Diffusion Cell. Control group, hypertension group (HT) and TTS containing captopril hypertension group (HT-CAP) were assessed for the pharmacodynamic activity of the study. Pharmacodynamic activity of transdermal patches containing captopril was evaluated in rats by the measurement of systolic blood pressure for 24 h with the use of the tail cuff method. Blood pressure, heart rate, body and heart weight, heart and body weight ratio were determined. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Na+, K(+)-ATPase were measured in the serum of rats. Histopathological evaluation of the heart tissue was conducted in order to determine any tissue damage. Blood pressure values of the TTS containing captopril hypertension group were decreased significantly and became almost similar with the blood pressure values of the control group. These results indicated that matrix type transdermal patches prepared with Eudragit RL 100 and RS 100 polymers containing captopril can be considered as transdermal therapeutic systems for chronical treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. However, further in vivo pharmacokinetic studies should be performed in order to determine the blood level of the drug.

  15. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  16. Mathematical structure of ocean container transport systems; Kaiyo container yuso system no suriteki kozo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chikushi, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mathematical structure of a vessel arrangement program was discussed in order to learn roles of container ships in ocean transport systems among China, NIES/ASEAN countries and Japan. Formulation is possible on a mathematical handling method for sailing route connection diagrams between ports, a transport network to indicate container movements, a service network to indicate sailing routes, and a network generalizing them. This paper describes an analysis made on the container transport system between Japan and China, taken as an example. Four ports were selected each from Japan and China, and the statistical database for fiscals 1996 and 1994 was utilized to set models for: (a) the liner network system with transshipment at the port of Shanghai and (b) the cruising route system going through the ports of Yokohama, Nagoya and Kobe. A hypothesis was set that a consortium (coordinated ship allocation) can be implemented ideally and completely. The transport network (a) is lower by 10% in total cost than the transport network (b), resulting in 1.6 times greater productivity. Actual service network is closer to the network (b), but the system can be utilized for discussing guidelines on vessel arrangement programs with which shipping companies pursue better management efficiency under a condition that the consortium can be formed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Bioresponsive systems based on polygalacturonate containing hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Konstantin P; Rollett, Alexandra; Wehrschuetz-Sigl, Eva; Hasmann, Andrea; Zankel, Armin; Muehlebach, Andreas; Kaufmann, Franz; Guebitz, Georg M

    2011-04-07

    Polysaccharide acid (PSA) based devices (consisting of alginic acid and polygalacturonic acid) were investigated for the detection of contaminating microorganisms. PSA-CaCl(2) hydrogel systems were compared to systems involving covalent cross-linking of PSA with glycidylmethacrylate (PSA-GMA) which was confirmed with Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Incubation of PSA-CaCl(2) and PSA-GMA beads loaded with Alizarin as a model ingredient with trigger enzymes (polygalacturonases or pectate lyases) or bacteria lead to a smoothening of the surface and exposure of Alizarin according to Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) analysis. Enzyme triggered release of Alizarin was demonstrated for a commercial enzyme preparation from Aspergillus niger and with purified polygalacturonase and pectate lyase from S. rolfsii and B. pumilus, respectively. In contrast to the PSA-CaCl(2) beads, cross-linking (PSA-GMA beads) restricted the release of Alizarin in absence of enzymes. There was a linear relation between release of Alizarin (5-348 μM) and enzyme activity in a range of 0-300 U ml(-1) dosed. In addition to enzymes, both PSA-CaCl(2) and PSA-GMA beads were incubated with Bacillus subtilis and Yersinia entercolitica as model contaminating microorganism. After 72 h, a release between 10 μM and 57 μM Alizarin was detected. For protection of the hydrogels, an enzymatically modified PET membrane was covalently attached onto the surface. This lead to a slower release and improve long term storage stability based on less than 1% release of dye after 21 days. Additionally, this allowed simple detection by visual inspection of the device due to a colour change of the white membrane to orange upon enzyme triggered release of the dye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated robotic vehicle control system for outdoor container handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Jouko O.; Haverinen, Janne; Mattila, Pentti; Maekelae, Hannu; von Numers, Thomas; Stanek, Zbigniev; Roening, Juha

    1997-09-01

    We describe an integrated system developed for use onboard a moving work machine. The machine is targeted to such applications as e.g. automatic container handling at loading terminals. The main emphasis is on the various environment perception duties required by autonomous or semi-autonomous operation. These include obstacle detection, container position determination, localization needed for efficient navigation and measurement of docking and grasping locations of containers. Practical experience is reported on the use of several different types of technologies for the tasks. For close distance measurement, such as container row following, ultrasonic measurement was used, with associated control software. For obstacle and docking position detection, 3D active vision techniques were developed with structured lighting, utilizing also motion estimation techniques. Depth from defocus-based methods were developed for passive 3D vision. For localization, fusion of data from several sources was carried out. These included dead-reckoning data from odometry, an inertial unit, and several alternative external localization devices, i.e. real-time kinematic GPS, inductive and optical transponders. The system was integrated to run on a real-time operating system platform, using a high-level software specification tool that created the hierarchical control structure of the software.

  19. Model Based Control of Reefer Container Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær

    This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together with the Da......This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together...

  20. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Novel Sulfonylureas Containing Thiadiazol Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen novel sulfonylureas containing thiadiazole moiety were synthesized in a two-step reaction. Their structures were determined using IR, 1H NMR, HRFTMS, and elemental analysis. Herbicidal activities of these compounds were determined in the green house bio-assay. The results show that four compounds among them exhibit some activity toward four tested herbs.

  1. Synthesis and Antifeeding Activity of Acetylene-Containing Tonghaosu Analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Li; HU,Tai-Shan; XU,Han-Hong; YIN,Biao-Lin; XIAO,Chun; WU,Yu-Lin

    2004-01-01

    @@ During our continuous efforts towards the search for environmental benign insect antifeedant, we established a concise method for the synthesis of Tonghaosu, a naturally occurring antifeedant.[1] Herein, we report the synthesis and antifeeding activity of 22 new tonghaosu analogs, which contain varied B ring as well as one or two acetylene functionalities. Preliminary bioassay indicates that two acetylene groups containing tonghaosu analogs have better antifeedant activity against large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L.) than those with one acetylene group. More interestingly,Z-isomers are much more active than their corresponding E-isomers.

  2. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-03-30

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance.

  3. Self-contained cable systems offer advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, A.S.; Occhini, E.

    1977-05-01

    Low-pressure oil-filled (LPOF) cable systems, while seldom used in this country, have several advantages of interest to engineers. Less oil and insulating paper is required for low-pressure than for the more commonly used high-pressure systems because of the single core. The lower pessure offers safety features in the event of accidental oil loss. LPOF cables are used internationally because of their good thermal characteristics. Applications besides ac transmission lines include underground and submarine cables, such as those connecting islands with mainland facilities. Cooling can be accomplished either by circulating oil inside the central duct or circulating water through parallel nonmetallic pipes. Forced-cooling of the LPOF cables is less complicated, which allows them to have higher current ratings and makes them more adaptable to thermal transients. Conductor cooling, which increases capacity but prohibits overloads in LPOF cables, is the only system available to high voltage (HVDC) cables. Several experimental and demonstration cable systems are described. (DCK)

  4. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) contains over 100 data sets pertaining to permafrost and frozen ground topics. It also contains detailed...

  5. The ttpC gene is contained in two of three TonB systems in the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, but only one is active in iron transport and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustusch, Ryan J; Kuehl, Carole J; Crosa, Jorge H

    2012-06-01

    The TonB system of proteins is required for the energy-dependent active transport of iron-bound substrates across the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. We have identified three TonB systems within the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. The TonB1 system contains the TonB1, ExbD1, and ExbB1 proteins, whereas both the TtpC2-TonB2 and TtpC3-TonB3 systems contain an additional fourth protein, TtpC. Here we report that TtpC3, although highly related to TtpC2, is inactive in iron transport, whereas TtpC2 is essential for the function of the TtpC2-TonB2 system in V. vulnificus. This protein, together with TonB2, is absolutely required for both the uptake of endogenously produced iron-bound siderophores as well as siderophores produced from other organisms. Through complementation we show that V. vulnificus is capable of using different TtpC2 proteins from other Vibrio species to drive the uptake of multiple siderophores. We have also determined that aerobactin, a common bacterial siderophore involved in virulence of enteric bacteria, can only be brought into the cell using the TtpC2-TonB2 system, indicating an important evolutionary adaptation of TtpC2 and TonB2. Furthermore, in the absence of TonB1, TtpC2 is essential for a fully virulent phenotype as demonstrated using 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) experiments in mice.

  6. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  7. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Jesús; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-06-01

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80l to containers of 2400l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60l or 80l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and antifungal activity of boron-containing thiosemicarbazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Justin W; Kyle, Christian B; Vogels, Christopher M; Wheaton, Susan L; Baerlocher, Felix J; Decken, Andreas; Westcott, Stephen A

    2008-11-01

    Addition of thiosemicarbazide, 4-allylthiosemicarbazide, and 4-phenylthiosemicarbazide to (formylphenyl)boronic acids affords a series of thiosemicarbazones containing boronic acids. Addition of 2-formylphenylboronic acid to the thiosemicarbazides gave the corresponding cyclic 2,3,1-benzodiazaborines. All new compounds have been investigated for potential antifungal activity.

  9. XPS of nitrogen-containing functional groups on activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.J.J.; Bekkum, van H.

    1995-01-01

    XPS is used to study the binding energy of the Cls, Nls and Ols photoelectrons of surface groups on several nitrogen-containing activated carbons. Specific binding energies are assigned to amide (399.9 eV). lactam and imidc (399.7 eV). pyridine (398.7 eV), pyrrole (400.7 eV), alkylamine. secondary a

  10. Report on container technology for the ATLAS TDAQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Gadirov, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    My summer student project "Container technology for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system" focused on the research of container-based (operating system-level) virtualization for TDAQ software. Several tests were performed on Docker platform, all of them showed compatibility for TDAQ software.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, Andiara; Ferreira, Danielly Cunha Araújo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan. The effectiveness of toothpastes containing natural extracts (Parodontax®), 0.12% chlorhexidine (Cariax®), 0.3% triclosan (Sanogil®) or fluoride (Sorriso®, control) was evaluated against yeasts, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disk diffusion method. Water was used as a control. Disks impregnated with the toothpastes were placed in Petri dishes containing culture media inoculated with 23 indicative microorganisms by the pour plate method. After incubation, the inhibition growth halos were measured and statistical analyses (α=0.05) were performed. The results indicated that all formulations, except for conventional toothpaste (Sorriso®), showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The toothpaste containing natural extracts (Parodontax®) was the only product able to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The toothpastes containing chlorhexidine, triclosan or natural extracts presented antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts.

  12. 75 FR 26268 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Permit To Transfer Containers to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Containers to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... concerning the: Permit to Transfer Containers to a Container Station. This request for comment is being made... Containers to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0049. Form Number: None. Abstract: This...

  13. Photocatalytic activity of glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jie, E-mail: fu@ohara-inc.co.jp [R and D Department, Ohara Inc., Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5286 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals were prepared. ► The glass ceramics showed photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. ► Higher activity was observed in the MgTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}- and CaTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}-containing glass ceramics. -- Abstract: Glass ceramics were prepared by heat-treating MO–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) and R{sub 2}O–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–SiO{sub 2} (R = Li, Na and K) glasses, and their photocatalytic activity was investigated. The crystalline phases precipitated in the glasses were only Nasicon-type crystals, MTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} or RTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Decomposition experiments of both methylene blue (MB) and acetaldehyde showed that the glass ceramics exhibited effective photocatalytic activity. The activity did not depend on the radius of the M{sup 2+} or R{sup +} ion, and higher activity was observed in the MgTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} and CaTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} precipitated glass ceramics.

  14. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  15. Water purification by sulfide-containing activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeste, F D; Haas, R; Kaminski, L

    2000-03-01

    We investigated a new kind of activated carbon named gaiasafe-Formstoff as an agent for powerful heavy metal reduction. This activated carbon contains highly dispersed sulfide compounds. Our investigations with lead containing wastewaters showed an outstanding metal sulfide precipitation power of the new agent. The lead reduction rates are independent of wastewater parameters like lead concentration and complexing agent concentration. Contacted as powder or as a fixed bed with wastewater gaiasafe-Formstoff showed the best cleaning capacity in comparison to all other agents tested. Investigations with gaiasafe-Formstoff about its ability to reduce the contents of further heavy metals in wastewater are under way. The gaiasafe-Formstoff reaction products with wastewater represent an energy-rich and raw material-rich resource when fed to metallurgical processes.

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of propolis containing nanohydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenho, L; Barros, J; Ferreira, C; Santos, V R; Monteiro, F J; Ferraz, M P; Cortes, M E

    2015-03-18

    The high number of biomaterial associated infections demands new strategies to prevent this problem. In this study the suitability of nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA)-based surfaces containing two Brazilian extracts of propolis (green and red ones) to prevent bacterial growth and biofilm formation, as well as its non-cytotoxic nature, was investigated. Optical density, colony forming units and MTT reduction assay were used to assess the materials' antibacterial activity against planktonic and sessile growth of Staphylococcus aureus. NanoHA matrix was able to absorb both types of propolis and the obtained results revealed the antibacterial effectiveness of the novel materials expressed as the reduction of bacterial growth and biofilm formation ability. Additionally, cell culture tests showed the growth of fibroblasts with high metabolic activity and without membrane damage. Therefore, these nanoHA-based surfaces containing natural products deriving from bees may be a promising bioactive biomaterial to be further studied with the aim of application to orthopaedic or dental devices.

  17. Fielding The Automated Container Offering System: An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, B. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Rochette, D. (Army Artificial Intelligence Center, Washington, DC (USA)); Crandell, J. (Military Traffic Management Command, Falls Church, VA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Automated Container Offering System (TACOS) is a cargo booking assistant currently being fielded in the International Traffic Directorate of the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC). The expert system automates the selection process for type and size of SEAVAN containers, ports, carrier, and ship for containerized military cargo moving from the continental US to Europe. It is designed to perform all processing on simple cases and provide assistance to the human booker on complex cases. MTMC processes requests for {approximately}1000 containers per week on these routes. This paper is a case history which describes factors guiding development of TACOS to illustrate several themes which occur in other (military) logistics expert system projects.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE AND BIODEGRADABLES CONTAINERS FOR AGRICULTURAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Poggio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of biodegradable containers for crops that could be transplanted directly and act as fertilizers is proposed. Bovine gelatin was chosen as the base material, which was processed in a mini-injector mixer with a concentrated urea solution acted as a plasticizer. Rheological and tensile tests were performed in order to evaluate the injection of gelatin based formulations and mechanical properties related to the proposed application. Taking into account that biodegradable materials have a low water resistance, the increment of container stability was proposed using a surface coating. In addition, the influence of moisture content, the soluble matter and swelling were studied and analyzed. It was observed that coated samples were significantly more stable than the control ones, which guarantees the feasibility of the selected system and its potential development of biodegradable containers.

  19. Adaptive Fuzzy Containment Control for Uncertain Nonlinear Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the containment control problem for uncertain nonlinear multiagent systems under directed graphs. The followers are governed by nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics while the multiple leaders are neighbors of a subset of the followers. Fuzzy logic systems (FLSs are used to identify the unknown dynamics and a distributed state feedback containment control protocol is proposed. This result is extended to the output feedback case, where observers are designed to estimate the unmeasurable states. Then, an output feedback containment control scheme is presented. The developed state feedback and output feedback containment controllers guarantee that the states of all followers converge to the convex hull spanned by the dynamic leaders. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved that the containment control errors are uniformly ultimately bounded (UUB. An example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  20. Active optical zoom system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  1. Subscale Design of an NTP Engine Exhaust Containment System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A total containment NTP exhaust system has been conceptually engineered, however, since this a completely novel approach to address the numerous issues associated...

  2. Acylase-containing polyurethane coatings with anti-biofilm activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Navdeep; Plaks, Joseph G; Summers, Samantha R; Chado, Garrett R; Schurr, Michael J; Kaar, Joel L

    2016-12-01

    Due to the prevalence of biofilm-related infections, which are mediated by bacterial quorum sensing, there is a critical need for materials and coatings that resist biofilm formation. We have developed novel anti-biofilm coatings that disrupt quorum sensing in surface-associated bacteria via the immobilization of acylase in polyurethane films. Specifically, acylase from Aspergillus melleus was covalently immobilized in biomedical grade polyurethane coatings via multipoint covalent immobilization. Coatings containing acylase were enzymatically active and catalyzed the hydrolysis of the quorum sensing (QS) molecules N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-LHL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-LHL), and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-LHL). In biofilm inhibition assays, immobilization of acylase led to an approximately 60% reduction in biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 and PAO1. Inhibition of biofilm formation was consistent with a reduction in the secretion of pyocyanin, indicating the disruption of quorum sensing as the mechanism of the coating activity. Scanning electron microscopy further showed that acylase-containing coatings contained far fewer bacterial cells than control coatings that lacked acylase. Moreover, acylase-containing coatings retained 90% activity when stored dry at 37°C for 7 days and were more stable than the free enzyme in physiological conditions, including artificial urine. Ultimately, such coatings hold considerable promise for the clinical management of catheter-related infections as well as the prevention of infections in orthopedic applications (i.e., on hip and knee prostheses) and on contact lenses. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2535-2543. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Cheeseright, J. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  4. [Design, synthesis and activities of novel benzothiazole derivatives containing arylpiperazine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hu; Chang, Jin-Xia; Liu, Yi; Luo, Jie-Wei; Zhang, Jian-Wu

    2013-08-01

    Twenty-four novel benzothiazole derivatives containing arylpiperazine were designed and synthesized by bioisosterism principle. Anti-proliferative effect of these synthesized compounds against four cancer cell and two normal cell lines were evaluated in vitro by the standard MTT assay. Pharmacological test showed that most of the compounds exhibited potent antitumor activity. Some of the compounds (II2, II3, II6, II7) showed strong anti-proliferation activities against HepG2 and HeLa229 cell lines with the IC 50 values of 1.6-4.5 micromol x L(-1) and 2.5-5.3 micromol x L(-1), respectively, and compounds having cyan in p-substituted benzene ring (I4, I8, I12, II4, II8 and II12) were found to have better antitumor activities against AsPC-1 cell lines with the IC50 values of 5.2-11.3 micromol x L(-1). The structure-activity relationship of benzothiazole derivatives containing arylpiperazine was also discussed preliminarily.

  5. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident.

  6. Activated blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, C.J.; Qian, J.S. [CJS Technology Inc., Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    This study investigated the strength and equilibrium water extraction of blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash and activator CaCl{sub 2}. The addition of CaCl{sub 2} increased the strength of cement very significantly. Equilibrium water extraction indicated that the addition of CaCl{sub 2} decreased the pH of the pore solution, but accelerated the pozzolanic reactions between coal fly ash and lime, which became more obvious when the volume of fly ash in the cement was increased from 50-70%. Results from both strength and water extraction testing could conclude that CaCl{sub 2} is a good activator for the activation of pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash and for the improvement of early properties of fly ash cement and concrete.

  7. Antibacterial activity of dental composites containing zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin Sevinç, Berdan; Hanley, Luke

    2010-07-01

    The resin-based dental composites commonly used in restorations result in more plaque accumulation than other materials. Bacterial biofilm growth contributes to secondary caries and failure of resin-based dental composites. Methods to inhibit biofilm growth on dental composites have been sought for several decades. It is demonstrated here that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) blended at 10% (w/w) fraction into dental composites display antimicrobial activity and reduce growth of bacterial biofilms by roughly 80% for a single-species model dental biofilm. Antibacterial effectiveness of ZnO-NPs was assessed against Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27352 grown both planktonically and as biofilms on composites. Direct contact inhibition was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy while biofilm formation was quantified by viable counts. An 80% reduction in bacterial counts was observed with 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites compared with their unmodified counterpart, indicating a statistically significant suppression of biofilm growth. Although, 20% of the bacterial population survived and could form a biofilm layer again, 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites maintained at least some inhibitory activity even after the third generation of biofilm growth. Microscopy demonstrated continuous biofilm formation for unmodified composites after 1-day growth, but only sparsely distributed biofilms formed on 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO-NPs suspended in S. sobrinus planktonic culture was 50 microg mL(-1). ZnO-NP-containing composites (10%) qualitatively showed less biofilm after 1-day-anaerobic growth of a three-species initial colonizer biofilm after being compared with unmodified composites, but did not significantly reduce growth after 3 days. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 75 FR 43536 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Permit To Transfer Containers to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Containers to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Permit to Transfer Containers to a Container Station. This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously...

  9. DNA-Encoded Flagellin Activates Toll-Like Receptor 5 (TLR5, Nod-like Receptor Family CARD Domain-Containing Protein 4 (NRLC4, and Acts as an Epidermal, Systemic, and Mucosal-Adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E. Applequist

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eliciting effective immune responses using non-living/replicating DNA vaccines is a significant challenge. We have previously shown that ballistic dermal plasmid DNA-encoded flagellin (FliC promotes humoral as well as cellular immunity to co-delivered antigens. Here, we observe that a plasmid encoding secreted FliC (pFliC(-gly produces flagellin capable of activating two innate immune receptors known to detect flagellin; Toll-like Receptor 5 (TLR5 and Nod-like Receptor family CARD domain-containing protein 4 (NRLC4. To test the ability of pFliC(-gly to act as an adjuvant we immunized mice with plasmid encoding secreted FliC (pFliC(-gly and plasmid encoding a model antigen (ovalbumin by three different immunization routes representative of dermal, systemic, and mucosal tissues. By all three routes we observed increases in antigen-specific antibodies in serum as well as MHC Class I-dependent cellular immune responses when pFliC(-gly adjuvant was added. Additionally, we were able to induce mucosal antibody responses and Class II-dependent cellular immune responses after mucosal vaccination with pFliC(-gly. Humoral immune responses elicited by heterologus prime-boost immunization with a plasmid encoding HIV-1 from gp160 followed by protein boosting could be enhanced by use of pFliC(-gly. We also observed enhancement of cross-clade reactive IgA as well as a broadening of B cell epitope reactivity. These observations indicate that plasmid-encoded secreted flagellin can activate multiple innate immune responses and function as an adjuvant to non-living/replicating DNA immunizations. Moreover, the capacity to elicit mucosal immune responses, in addition to dermal and systemic properties, demonstrates the potential of flagellin to be used with vaccines designed to be delivered by various routes.

  10. Automatic spreader-container alignment system using infrared structured lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Yibo; Lv, Jimin; Zhang, Maojun

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a computer-vision system to assist reach stackers to automatically align the spreader with the target container. By analyzing infrared lines on the top of the container, the proposed system is able to calculate the relative position between the spreader and the container. The invisible structured lights are equipped in this system to enable all-weather operation, which can avoid environmental factors such as shadows and differences in climate. Additionally, the lateral inclination of the spreader is taken into consideration to offer a more accurate alignment than other competing systems. Estimation errors are reduced through approaches including power series and linear regression. The accuracy can be controlled within 2 cm or 2 deg, which meets the requirements of reach stackers' operation.

  11. Organogel-nanoemulsion containing nisin and D-limonene and its antimicrobial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Weiya eBei; Yan eZhou; Xuya eXing; Mohamed Red eZahi; Yuan eLi; Qipeng eYuan; Hao eLiang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a novel delivery system containing D-limonene and nisin by food organogel-nanoemulsion and study its effect on the antimicrobial activity. Organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin or without nisin was prepared by a homogenization method. Factors that may affect the droplet size and stability of organogel-nanoemulsion such as pressure and surfactant to oil ratio (SOR) were studied. The average droplet size decreased with pressure, and...

  12. STUDIES ON THE PREPARATION OF ZINC-CONTAINING ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several kinds of activated carbon fibers, using sisal fiber as precursors, were preparedwith steam activation or with ZnCl2 activation. Zinc or its compounds were dispersed in them. Theantibacterial activities of these activated carbon fibers were determined and compared. The researchresults showed that these sisal based activated carbon fibers supporting zinc have strongerantibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and S. aureus. The antibacterial activity is related tothe precursors, the pyrolysis temperature, and the zinc content. In addition, small quantity of silversupported on zinc-containing ACFs will greatly enhance the antibacterial activity of ACFs.

  13. Synthesis and biological activity of hydroxycinnamoyl containing antiviral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chochkova Maya G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven N-hydroxycinnamoyl amides were synthesized by EDC/HOBt coupling of the corresponding substituted cinnamic acids (p-coumaric-, ferulic-, sinapic- and caffeic acids with influenza antivirals (amantadine, rimantadine and oseltamivir. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging abilities and the inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase activity (using L-tyrosine as the substrate were investigated in vitro. Amongst the synthesized compounds, N-[(E-3-(3’,4’-dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoyl]oseltamivir (1 and N-[(E-3-(3’,4’-dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoyl]rimantadine (4, containing catechol moiety, exhibited the most potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Amide (1 displayed also tyrosinase inhibitory effect toward L-tyrosine as the substrate (~50%. Due to its biological activities revealed so far compound (1 can be considered as a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. The synthesized compounds were also investigated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against the replication of influenza virus A (H3N2.

  14. Corrosion of copper alloys in sulphide containing district heting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    Copper and some copper alloys are prone to corrosion in sulphide containing geothermal water analogous to corrosion observed in district heating systems containing sulphide due to sulphate reducing bacteria. In order to study the corrosion of copper alloys under practical conditions a test...... was carried out at four sites in the Reykjavik District Heating System. The geothermal water chemistry is different at each site. The corrosion rate and the amount and chemical composition of deposits on weight loss coupons of six different copper alloys are described after exposure of 12 and 18 months...

  15. Evaluation of the NucleDyne Passive Containment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, W. J.; Coleman, J. H.; Merrell, W. W.

    1981-04-01

    This reports contains: (1) an evaluation by Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) of the NucleDyne passive Containment System (PCS) as that conceptual design is applied to a Westinghouse, two loop, Pressurized Water Reactor; (2) an evaluation by Westinghouse of two questions about the impact of the PCS on the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS), which were posed by G/C and best answered by an NSSS vendor; and (3) replies to both the Gilbert/Commonwealth report and the Westinghoue report by NucleDyne Engineering Corporation.

  16. Die Design for Running System of Waste Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel Pérez Acosta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Product deterioration possessing waste containers and their involvement in the collection of solid waste in Cuban cities, the present research is developed in order to make the design of the dies necessary for obtaining system components running of the containers themselves. These systems allow shooting baskets countless repair and revitalization of manufacturing a basket 100 % Cuban. For the design of these dies are taken in account the availability of technology. In this paper, specifically, describes the production of the piece called saucer, emphasizing the design of the die cutting thereof. These are also given the materials used in each of the components.

  17. Coagulation properties of anelectrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride containing active chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chengzhi; LIU Huijuan; QU Jiuhui

    2006-01-01

    With high content of the Al13 species and the active chloride, an electrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride (E-PACl) presents integrated efficiency of coagulation and oxidation. The coagulation properties of E-PACl were systemically investigated through jar tests in the various water quality conditions. The active chlorine in E-PACl can significantly influence the coagulation behavior due to the active chlorine preoxidation, which can change the surface charge characteristic of organic matter (OM) in water. The active chlorine preoxidation could improve the E-PACl coagulation efficiency if the water possessed the characteristics of relatively low OM content (2 mg/L) and high hardness (278 mg CaCO3/L). In the water with medium content of OM (5 mg/L), dosage would be a crucial factor to decide whether the active chlorine in E-PACl aided coagulation process or not. Comparing with alkaline condition, active chlorine would show a more significant influence on the coagulation process in acidic region.

  18. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-04-10

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) must ensure that the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) or safety-related containment spray system (CSS) remains capable of performing its design safety function throughout the life of the plant. This requires ensuring that long-term core cooling can be maintained following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Adequate safety operation can be impaired if the protective coatings which have been applied to the concrete and steel structures within the primary containment fail, producing transportable debris which could then accumulate on BWR ECCS suction strainers or PWR ECCS sump debris screens located within the containment. This document will present the data collected during the investigation of coating specimens from plants.

  19. Vibration Analysis of Digital Radiography System for Large Container Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄松岭; 李路明; 周立业; 向新程; 安继刚

    2003-01-01

    The cantilever vibration characteristics of a digital radiography system were analyzed to predict the effect of vibration on the performance of a mobile container inspection system. The static deformation,vibration mode and natural frequency of the cantilever of the digital radiography system were calculated with the ALGOR Finite Element System to verify the strength and rigidity of the cantilever. The maximum amplitude of the cantilever vibration occurs as it starts accelerating. The predictions show good agreement with test results, indicating that the finite element model of the cantilever structure accurately models the mechanical characteristics.

  20. Improving the performance of sorter systems by scheduling inbound containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Fikse, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the inbound containers scheduling problem for automated sorter systems in two different industrial sectors: parcel & postal sorting and baggage handling. We build on existing literature, particularly on the dynamic load balancing algorithm designed for the parcel hub scheduling

  1. Structure-rheology relations in sodium caseinate containing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The general aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate structure-rheologyrelations for dairy related products, focusing on model systems containing sodium caseinate. The acid inducedgelationof sodium caseinate, of sodium caseinate

  2. Optimal design of passive containment cooling system for innovative PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiun Ha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the Generation of Thermal-Hydraulic Information for Containments (GOTHIC code, thermal-hydraulic phenomena that occur inside the containment have been investigated, along with the preliminary design of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS of an innovative pressurized water reactor (PWR. A GOTHIC containment model was constructed with reference to the design data of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400, and report related PCCS. The effects of the design parameters were evaluated for passive containment cooling tank (PCCT geometry, PCCS heat exchanger (PCCX location, and surface area. The analyzed results, obtained using the single PCCT, showed that repressurization and reheating phenomena had occurred. To resolve these problems, a coupled PCCT concept was suggested and was found to continually decrease the containment pressure and temperature without repressurization and reheating. If the installation level of the PCCX is higher than that of the PCCT, it may affect the PCCS performance. Additionally, it was confirmed that various means of increasing the external surface area of the PCCX, such as fins, could help improve the energy removal performance of the PCCS. To improve the PCCS design and investigate its performance, further studies are needed.

  3. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, P.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren

    1995-01-01

    fusion was placed on a plasmid and transformed to E. coli. The phenotype connected with the presence of such a plasmid was to reduce the population growth rate with increasing significance as the cell growth rate was reduced. In very fast growing cells, there was no measurable effect on growth rate. When...... a culture of E. coli harboring the plasmid comprising the containment system is left as stationary cells in suspension without nutrients, viability drops exponentially over a period of several days, in contrast to the control cells, which maintain viability nearly unaffected during the same period of time....... Similar results were obtained with a strain in which the killing cassette was inserted in the chromosome. In competition with noncontained cells during growth, the contained cells are always outcompeted. Stochastic killing obtained by the fim-gef fusion is at present relevant only as a containment...

  4. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of ZnO Containing Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Prado, Catuxa; Cabal, Belén; Sanz, Jesús; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José Serafín

    2015-01-01

    A new family of non-toxic biocides based on low melting point (1250°C) transparent glasses with high content of ZnO (15-40wt%) belonging to the miscibility region of the B2O3-SiO2-Na2O-ZnO system has been developed. These glasses have shown an excellent biocide activity (logarithmic reduction >3) against Gram- (E. coli), Gram+ (S. aureus) and yeast (C. krusei); they are chemically stable in different media (distilled water, sea-like water, LB and DMEN media) as well as biocompatible. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the Neutral Red Uptake using NIH-3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cells) and the cell viability was >80%. These new glasses can be considered in several and important applications in the field of inorganic non-toxic biocide agents such as medical implants, surgical equipment, protective apparels in hospitals, water purifications systems, food packaging, food storages or textiles.

  5. The alga Bryothamnion seaforthii contains carbohydrates with antinociceptive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.P. Vieira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bryothamnion seaforthii, a red alga common to the Northeastern coast of Brazil, was used to prepare the protein fraction F0/60 by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The chromatography of F0/60 on DEAE-Sephadel column resulted in two lectin fractions, PI and PII, which have antinociceptive properties in rodents. We determined the antinociceptive activity of the PII fraction and of a carbohydrate-containing fraction (CF in mice. The CF was prepared from the dried algae, after digestion with 100 mM sodium acetate, pH 6.0, containing 5 mM cysteine, EDTA and 0.4% papain, at 60ºC. A 10% cetylpyridinium chloride was added to the filtrate, and the precipitate was dissolved with 2 M NaCl:ethanol (100:15, v/v followed by the carbohydrate precipitation with ethanol. The final precipitate, in acetone, was dried at 25ºC. The PII fraction markedly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing after ip administration (control: 27.1 ± 2.20; PII 0.1 mg/kg: 5.5 ± 1.85; 1 mg/kg: 1.6 ± 0.72 writhes/20 min and after oral administration (control: 32.0 ± 3.32; PII 0.1 mg/kg: 13.1 ± 2.50; 1 mg/kg: 9.4 ± 3.96 writhes/20 min. PII was also effective against both phases of pain induced by 1% formalin (control, ip: 48.2 ± 2.40 and 27.7 ± 2.56 s; PII: 1 mg/kg, ip: 34.3 ± 5.13 and 5.6 ± 2.14 s; control, po: 44.5 ± 3.52 and 25.6 ± 2.39 s; PII 5 mg/kg, po: 26.5 ± 4.67 and 15.3 ± 3.54 s for the 1st and 2nd phases, respectively and in the hot-plate test. The CF (ip also displayed significant antinociceptive properties in all tests but at higher doses (1 and 5 mg/kg, ip and po. Thus, CF at the dose of 5 mg/kg significantly inhibited writhes (ip: 7.1 ± 2.47 and po: 14.5 ± 2.40 writhes/20 min as well as the 1st (po: 19.6 ± 1.74 s and 2nd (po: 7.1 ± 2.24 s phases of the formalin test compared to controls ip and po. The antinociceptive effects of both the PII and CF in the formalin and hot-plate tests were prevented at least partially by pretreatment with the

  6. System of Volcanic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HÉDERVARI

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made among the systems of B. G.
    Escher (3, of R. W. van Bemmelen (1 and that of the author (4. In this
    connection, on the basis of Esclier's classification, the terms of "constructiv
    e " and "destructive" eruptions are introduced into the author's system and
    at the same time Escher's concept on the possible relation between the depth
    of magma-chamber and the measure of the gas-pressure is discussed briefly.
    Three complementary remarks to the first paper (4 011 the subject of system
    of volcanic activity are added.

  7. Mesoporous Metal-Containing Carbon Nitrides for Improved Photocatalytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphitic carbon nitrides (g-C3N4 have attracted increasing interest due to their unusual properties and promising applications in water splitting, heterogeneous catalysis, and organic contaminant degradation. In this study, a new method was developed for the synthesis of mesoporous Fe contained g-C3N4 (m-Fe-C3N4 photocatalyst by using SiO2 nanoparticles as hard template and dicyandiamide as precursor. The physicochemical properties of m-Fe-C3N4 were thoroughly investigated. The XRD and XPS results indicated that Fe was strongly coordinated with the g-C3N4 matrix and that the doping and mesoporous structure partially deteriorated its crystalline structure. The UV-visible absorption spectra revealed that m-Fe-C3N4 with a unique electronic structure displays an increased band gap in combination with a slightly reduced absorbance, implying that mesoporous structure modified the electronic properties of g-Fe-C3N4. The photocatalytic activity of m-Fe-C3N4 for photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB was much higher than that of g-Fe-C3N4, clearly demonstrating porous structure positive effect.

  8. Antifungal activity of topical microemulsion containing a thiophene derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani Pereira Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05 embedded in a microemulsion (ME. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05 showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270-540 µg.mL-1 and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 µg.mL-1. Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70-140 µg.mL-1, but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 µg.mL-1. The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans.

  9. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines. VIII. Systems with quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Domanska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej [Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-08-15

    (Solid + liquid) equilibrium temperatures for mixtures containing quinoline and 1-dodecanol, 1-hexadecanol, or 1-octadecanol have been measured using a dynamic method. (Quinoline + benzene, +alkane, or +1-alkanol) systems were investigated using DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model yields a good representation of molar excess Gibbs free energies, G{sup E}, molar excess enthalpies, H{sup E}, and of the (solid + liquid) equilibria, SLE. Interactional and structural effects were analysed comparing H{sup E} and the molar excess internal energy at constant volume, U{sub V}{sup E}. It was encountered that structural effects are very important in systems involving alkanes or 1-alkanols. Interactions between amine molecules are stronger in mixtures with quinoline than in those containing pyridine, which was ascribed to the higher polarizability of quinoline.

  10. Pressure suppression containment system for boiling water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Nesbitt, Loyd B.

    1997-01-01

    A system for suppressing the pressure inside the containment of a BWR following a postulated accident. A piping subsystem is provided which features a main process pipe that communicates the wetwell airspace to a connection point downstream of the guard charcoal bed in an offgas system and upstream of the main bank of delay charcoal beds which give extensive holdup to offgases. The main process pipe is fitted with both inboard and outboard containment isolation valves. Also incorporated in the main process pipe is a low-differential-pressure rupture disk which prevents any gas outflow in this piping whatsoever until or unless rupture occurs by virtue of pressure inside this main process pipe on the wetwell airspace side of the disk exceeding the design opening (rupture) pressure differential. The charcoal holds up the radioactive species in the noncondensable gas from the wetwell plenum by adsorption, allowing time for radioactive decay before the gas is vented to the environs.

  11. Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems Containing Mesitylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morávková, L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of density measurements for binary systems containing 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (mesitylene with a variety of organic compounds at atmospheric pressure. Literature data of the binary systems were divided into nine basic groups by the type of contained organic compound with mesitylene. The excess molar volumes calculated from the experimental density values have been compared with literature data. Densities were measured by a few experimental methods, namely using a pycnometer, a dilatometer or a commercial apparatus. The overview of the experimental data and shape of the excess molar volume curve versus mole fraction is presented in this paper. The excess molar volumes were correlated by Redlich–Kister equation. The standard deviations for fitting of excess molar volume versus mole fraction are compared. Found literature data cover a huge temperature range from (288.15 to 343.15 K.

  12. Evaluation of the Arizona health care cost-containment system

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    This article evaluates Arizona's alternative to the acute portion of Medicaid, the Arizona Health Care Cost-Containment System (AHCCCS), during its first 18 months of operation from October 1982 through March 1984. It focuses on the program's implementation and describes and evaluates the program's innovative features. The features of the program outlined in the original AHCCCS legislation included: Competitive bidding, prepaid capitation of providers, capitation of the State by the Health Ca...

  13. Hydrogen risk in the Containment Filtered Venting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Young Su; Ha, Kwang Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Song-Won [NSE, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    It was observed that the thermal hydraulic conditions in the CFVS (Containment Filtered Venting System) vessel sharply changed markedly, especially the steam condensation in the early CFVS operation can affect the hydrogen behavior such as the combustion. This paper summarizes the calculated results on hydrogen concentration in the CFVS vessel, which was presented at The Ninth Korea-Japan Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS9) last year. The MELCOR computer code calculated the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the containment building of OPR 1000, and in the cylindrical CFVS vessel with 3 m in diameter and 6.5 m in height under an SBO. After the operation of the CFVS, the pressure and temperature in the containment building decreased, and those in the CFVS vessel jumped from the initial conditions of atmosphere pressure and room temperature. These big differences of thermal-hydraulic conditions can make the volumetric concentrations of steam and gas mixtures in the CFVS vessel to be changed in comparison with those in the containment building. The volumetric concentration of hydrogen increased from 6% in the containment to 14% in the CFVS vessel after the operation of the CFVS, while the concentration of steam decreased from 58% in the containment to 3% in the CFVS vessel. The increased volumetric concentration of hydrogen (14%) with the other concentrations of steam (3%) and air (60%) in the CFVS vessel exists within the region of the burn limit in the Shapiro diagram. This possibility of the hydrogen combustion can threaten the integrity of the CFVS.

  14. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  15. Decision support system for containment and release management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhuis, B. [Twente Univ., Enschede (Netherlands). Computer Science Dept.

    1995-09-01

    The Containment and Release Management project was carried out within the Reinforced Concerted Action Programme for Accident Management Support and partly financed by the European Union. In this report a prototype of an accident management support system is presented. The support system integrates several concepts from accident management research, like safety objective trees, severe accident phenomena, calculation models and an emergency response data system. These concepts are provided by the prototype in such a way that the decision making process of accident management is supported. The prototype application is demonstrated by process data taken from a severe accident scenario for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that was simulated with the thermohydraulic computer program MAAP. The prototype was derived from a decision support framework based on a decision theory. For established and innovative concepts from accident management research it is pointed out in which way these concepts can support accident management and how these concepts can be integrated. This approach is generic in two ways; it applies to both pressurized and boiling water reactors and it applies to both in vessel management and containment and release management. The prototype application was developed in Multimedia Toolbox 3.0 and requires at least a 386 PC with 4 MB memory, 6 MB free disk space and MS Windows 3.1. (orig.).

  16. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  17. Activated macrophages containing tumor marker in colon carcinoma: immunohistochemical proof of a concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, T J E; Japink, D; Leers, M P G; Sosef, M N; von Meyenfeldt, M F; Nap, M

    2012-04-01

    The presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-containing activated macrophages has been demonstrated in peripheral blood from patients with colorectal carcinoma. Macrophages migrate from the circulation into the tissue, phagocytose debris, and return to the bloodstream. Hence it seems likely that activated macrophages containing tumor debris, i.e., tumor marker, are present in the stroma of colorectal carcinoma. After phagocytosis, they could follow a hematogenic or lymphogenic route to the peripheral blood. The aim of this study is to assess the presence of tumor marker-containing activated macrophages in the stroma of colon carcinoma and in regional lymph nodes. From 10 cases of colon carcinoma, samples of tumor tissue and metastasis-free lymph nodes were cut in serial sections and stained for CD68 to identify macrophages and for CEA, cytokeratin, or M30 presence. Slides were digitalised and visually inspected using two monitors, comparing the CD68 stain to the tumor marker stain to evaluate the presence of tumor marker-positive macrophages. Macrophages containing tumor marker could be identified in tumor stroma and in metastasis-free regional lymph nodes. The distribution varied for the different markers, CEA-positive macrophages being most abundant. The presence of macrophages containing tumor marker in the tumor stroma and lymph nodes from patients with colon carcinoma could be confirmed in this series using serial immunohistochemistry. This finding supports the concept of activated macrophages, after phagocytosing cell debris, being transported or migrating through the lymphatic system. These results support the potential of tumor marker-containing macrophages to serve as a marker for diagnosis and follow-up of colon cancer patients.

  18. The Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity of Silver Containing Denture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-30

    Oct 30, 2015 ... time- or silver-dependent cytotoxicity of PMMA denture base material containing silver microparticles was ... Standardization (ISO), dental materials must be evaluated ... material (Meliodent, Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co.,. Hanau ..... of acetal resin, heat-polymerized resin, and auto-polymerized resin as ...

  19. Organogel-nanoemulsion containing nisin and D-limonene and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Weiya; Zhou, Yan; Xing, Xuya; Zahi, Mohamed Reda; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a novel delivery system containing D-limonene and nisin by food organogel-nanoemulsion and study its effect on the antimicrobial activity. Organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin or without nisin was prepared by a homogenization method. Factors that may affect the droplet size and stability of organogel-nanoemulsion such as pressure and surfactant to oil ratio (SOR) were studied. The average droplet size decreased with pressure, and the organogel-nanoemulsion could achieve good stability at low SOR. Positive effects and outstanding antimicrobial activities of organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin were confirmed by minimal inhibitory concentrations comparison, growth curves of bacteria, scanning electron microscopy and determination of cell constituents' release. Furthermore, the organogel-nanoemulsion applied as food preservative in milk also shown excellent antimicrobial performance. Overall, the research described in the current article show that organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin may be an effective antimicrobial system for the production and preservation of food.

  20. Organogel nanoemulsion containing Nisin and D-limonene and its antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya eBei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a novel delivery system containing D-limonene and nisin by food organogel-nanoemulsion and study its effect on the antimicrobial activity. Organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin or without nisin was prepared by a homogenization method. Factors that may affect the droplet size and stability of organogel-nanoemulsion such as pressure and surfactant to oil ratio were studied. The average droplet size decreased with pressure, and the organogel-nanoemulsion could achieve good stability at low surfactant to oil ratio. Positive effects and outstanding antimicrobial activities of organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin were confirmed by MICs comparison, growth curves of bacteria, scanning electron microscopy and determination of cell constituents’ release. Furthermore, the organogel-nanoemulsion applied as food preservative in milk also shown excellent antimicrobial performance. Overall, the research described in the current article show that organogel-nanoemulsion containing with D-limonene and nisin may be an effective antimicrobial system for the production and preservation of food.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of a quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate-containing acrylic resin: a randomised clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-ying; Tonggu, Lige; Niu, Li-na; Gong, Shi-qiang; Fan, Bing; Wang, Liguo; Zhao, Ji-hong; Huang, Cui; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS)-containing acrylic resin demonstrated contact-killing antimicrobial ability in vitro after three months of water storage. The objective of the present double-blind randomised clinical trial was to determine the in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of QAMS-containing orthodontic acrylic by using custom-made removable retainers that were worn intraorally by 32 human subjects to create 48-hour multi-species plaque biofilms, using a split-mouth study design. Two control QAMS-free acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on one side of an orthodontic retainer, and two experimental QAMS-containing acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on the other side of the same retainer. After 48 hours, the disks were retrieved and examined for microbial vitality using confocal laser scanning microscopy. No harm to the oral mucosa or systemic health occurred. In the absence of carry-across effect and allocation bias (disks inserted in the left or right side of retainer), significant difference was identified between the percentage kill in the biovolume of QAMS-free control disks (3.73 ± 2.11%) and QAMS-containing experimental disks (33.94 ± 23.88%) retrieved from the subjects (P ≤ 0.001). The results validated that the QAMS-containing acrylic exhibits favourable antimicrobial activity against plaque biofilms in vivo. The QAMS-containing acrylic may also be used for fabricating removable acrylic dentures. PMID:26903314

  2. Thermoelectricity in Self-Contained Heating and Boiler Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Mykhailovsky, V. Ya.; Strutynska, L. T.

    2010-09-01

    The use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) in heating systems enables autonomous supply of power to automatic safety devices, creation of optimized gas mixtures, and automation and precise temperature control of exhaust gas and heat carriers. It is particularly important to make heating systems independent of the district electric grid. Results of research and development efforts on a TEG for supplying power to electric devices of self-contained heating and boiler systems are presented. A TEG physical model is proposed, and results of computer simulation and optimization of its basic power and design parameters are given. Two TEG design variants (single and double sided) are considered. Their advantages and shortcomings are discussed. On the basis of theoretical calculations, a prototype TEG for a 10.5-kW boiler is built. At water heating system temperatures from 35°C to 80°C, the TEG electric power is 50 W to 65 W, which is used to supply a circulation pump for forced liquid heat carrier delivery (30 W to 40 W) and a fan for removal of fuel combustion products from the boiler’s smoke chamber (5 W to 7 W).

  3. Fungal mediator tail subunits contain classical transcriptional activation domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2015-04-01

    Classical activation domains within DNA-bound eukaryotic transcription factors make weak interactions with coactivator complexes, such as Mediator, to stimulate transcription. How these interactions stimulate transcription, however, is unknown. The activation of reporter genes by artificial fusion of Mediator subunits to DNA binding domains that bind to their promoters has been cited as evidence that the primary role of activators is simply to recruit Mediator. We have identified potent classical transcriptional activation domains in the C termini of several tail module subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis Mediator, while their N-terminal domains are necessary and sufficient for their incorporation into Mediator but do not possess the ability to activate transcription when fused to a DNA binding domain. This suggests that Mediator fusion proteins actually are functioning in a manner similar to that of a classical DNA-bound activator rather than just recruiting Mediator. Our finding that deletion of the activation domains of S. cerevisiae Med2 and Med3, as well as C. dubliniensis Tlo1 (a Med2 ortholog), impairs the induction of certain genes shows these domains function at native promoters. Activation domains within coactivators are likely an important feature of these complexes and one that may have been uniquely leveraged by a common fungal pathogen.

  4. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  5. Somatostatin and Somatostatin-Containing Neurons in Shaping Neuronal Activity and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery over four decades ago, somatostatin (SOM) receives growing scientific and clinical interest. Being localized in the nervous system in a subset of interneurons somatostatin acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and its role in the fine-tuning of neuronal activity and involvement in synaptic plasticity and memory formation are widely recognized in the recent literature. Combining transgenic animals with electrophysiological, anatomical and molecular methods allowed to characterize several subpopulations of somatostatin-containing interneurons possessing specific anatomical and physiological features engaged in controlling the output of cortical excitatory neurons. Special characteristic and connectivity of somatostatin-containing neurons set them up as significant players in shaping activity and plasticity of the nervous system. However, somatostatin is not just a marker of particular interneuronal subpopulation. Somatostatin itself acts pre- and postsynaptically, modulating excitability and neuronal responses. In the present review, we combine the knowledge regarding somatostatin and somatostatin-containing interneurons, trying to incorporate it into the current view concerning the role of the somatostatinergic system in cortical plasticity.

  6. Comparative study of phenol and cyanide containing wastewater in CSTR and SBR activated sludge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, C A; Samaras, P; Sakellaropoulos, G P

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this work were the examination of the performance of two bench scale activated sludge systems, a conventional Continuous Stirring Tank Reactor (CSTR) and a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR), for the treatment of wastewaters containing phenol and cyanides and the assessment of the toxicity reduction potential by bioassays. The operation of the reactors was monitored by physicochemical analyses, while detoxification potential of the systems was monitored by two bioassays, the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The reactors influent was highly toxic to both organisms, while activated sludge treatment resulted in the reduction of toxicity of the influent. An increased toxicity removal was observed in the SBR; however CSTR system presented a lower ability for toxicity reduction of influent. The performance of both systems was enhanced by the addition of powdered activated carbon in the aeration tank; activated carbon upgraded the performance of the systems due to the simultaneous biological removal of pollutants and to carbon adsorption process; almost negligible values of phenol and cyanides were measured in the effluents, while further toxicity reduction was observed in both systems.

  7. A quintuple star system containing two eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, S.; Lehmann, H.; Kalomeni, B.; Borkovits, T.; Latham, D.; Bieryla, A.; Ngo, H.; Mawet, D.; Howell, S.; Horch, E.; Jacobs, T. L.; LaCourse, D.; Sódor, Á.; Vanderburg, A.; Pavlovski, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present a quintuple star system that contains two eclipsing binaries. The unusual architecture includes two stellar images separated by 11 arcsec on the sky: EPIC 212651213 and EPIC 212651234. The more easterly image (212651213) actually hosts both eclipsing binaries which are resolved within that image at 0.09 arcsec, while the westerly image (212651234) appears to be single in adaptive optics (AO), speckle imaging, and radial velocity (RV) studies. The `A' binary is circular with a 5.1-d period, while the `B' binary is eccentric with a 13.1-d period. The γ velocities of the A and B binaries are different by ˜10 km s-1. That, coupled with their resolved projected separation of 0.09 arcsec, indicates that the orbital period and separation of the `C' binary (consisting of A orbiting B) are ≃65 yr and ≃25 au, respectively, under the simplifying assumption of a circular orbit. Motion within the C orbit should be discernible via future RV, AO, and speckle imaging studies within a couple of years. The C system (i.e. 212651213) has an RV and proper motion that differ from that of 212651234 by only ˜1.4 km s-1 and ˜3 mas yr-1. This set of similar space velocities in three dimensions strongly implies that these two objects are also physically bound, making this at least a quintuple star system.

  8. Identification of systems containing nonlinear stiffnesses using backbone curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Julián M.; Cooper, Jonathan E.; Neild, Simon A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a method for the dynamic identification of structures containing discrete nonlinear stiffnesses. The approach requires the structure to be excited at a single resonant frequency, enabling measurements to be made in regimes of large displacements where nonlinearities are more likely to be significant. Measured resonant decay data is used to estimate the system backbone curves. Linear natural frequencies and nonlinear parameters are identified using these backbone curves assuming a form for the nonlinear behaviour. Numerical and experimental examples, inspired by an aerospace industry test case study, are considered to illustrate how the method can be applied. Results from these models demonstrate that the method can successfully deliver nonlinear models able to predict the response of the test structure nonlinear dynamics.

  9. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  10. Rheological properties of aqueous Pluronic-alginate systems containing liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, G; Crevatin, A; Farra, R; Guarnieri, G; Pascotto, A; Rehimers, B; Lapasin, R; Grassi, M

    2006-09-01

    Rheological and erosion studies regarding a liposome-containing polymeric blend that is propaedeutic to its use in paving techniques in tubular organs, such as blood vessels, are reported. Attention is focused on an aqueous polymeric blend composed of Pluronic (PF127) and alginate (Protanal LF 10/60) because both polymers, when dissolved in water at a sufficiently high concentration, are subjected to different structural mechanisms, which are driven by temperature increase and addition of bivalent cations, respectively, and both result in marked viscoelastic and plastic properties. After proving the compatibility between PF127 and alginate, we show that the structural transition temperature of the blend, T(ST), can be properly modulated. In particular, we found that T(ST) for an aqueous solution of pure Pluronic 20% w/w is about 21 degrees C and that even slight reductions in polymer concentration result in considerable T(ST) decrease. The addition of salts or alginate (provided as Na-alginate) provokes a substantial decrease of T(ST) and thus the alginate concentration in the blend should not exceed 1% w/w. In addition, liposomes slow down the structural transition but do not substantially affect the rheological properties of the system in the final state at higher temperatures, thus showing that they can be added to the polymeric blend without significant effects. Finally, erosion tests show that after contact with a source of bivalent cations, the polymeric blend containing PF127 and alginate shows an erosion resistance neatly improved with respect to the simple structured Pluronic system having the same polymer concentration. As a whole, all these results constitute the basis for future potential applications of the considered polymeric blend in tubular organs such as blood vessels.

  11. Mesoporous Metal-Containing Carbon Nitrides for Improved Photocatalytic Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Luo; Zhao-Jie Cui; Guo-Long Zang

    2013-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides (g-C3N4) have attracted increasing interest due to their unusual properties and promising applications in water splitting, heterogeneous catalysis, and organic contaminant degradation. In this study, a new method was developed for the synthesis of mesoporous Fe contained g-C3N4 (m-Fe-C3N4) photocatalyst by using SiO2 nanoparticles as hard template and dicyandiamide as precursor. The physicochemical properties of m-Fe-C3N4 were thoroughly investigated. The XRD and XP...

  12. Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-12-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) contain caffeine and are a new, popular category of beverage. It has been suggested that EDs enhance physical and cognitive performance; however, it is unclear whether the claimed benefits are attributable to components other than caffeine. A typical 235 mL ED provides between 40 and 250 mg of caffeine, equating to doses that improve cognitive and, at the higher levels, physical performance. EDs often contain taurine, guaraná, ginseng, glucuronolactone, B-vitamins, and other compounds. A literature search using PubMed, Psych Info, and Google Scholar identified 32 articles that examined the effects of ED ingredients alone and/or in combination with caffeine on physical or cognitive performance. A systematic evaluation of the evidence-based findings in these articles was then conducted. With the exception of some weak evidence for glucose and guaraná extract, there is an overwhelming lack of evidence to substantiate claims that components of EDs, other than caffeine, contribute to the enhancement of physical or cognitive performance. Additional well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies replicated across laboratories are needed in order to assess claims made for these products. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. [Research on the treatment of wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-Qiong; Huang, Cheng-Lan; Liu, Min; Chen, Ying

    2012-11-01

    The wastewater containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was characterized with poor biodegradability, and was difficult to remove. In order to find an economically reasonable and practical technology, the research on the removal efficiency of different concentration wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process was studied, and the result was compared with the traditional activated sludge process. The results showed that the ozonation-activated sludge process was not suitable for treating influent with COD below 500 mg x L(-1) and the wastewater PVA concentration was 10-30 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was between 500-800 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 15-60 mg x L(-1), the system had advantages on dealing with this kind of wastewater, and the average removal efficiency of COD and PVA were 92.8% and 57.4%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 4.1% and 15.2% respectively. In addition, the effluent concentrations of COD could keep between 30-60 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was 1 000-1 200 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 20-70 mg x L(-1), the average removal efficiencies of COD and PVA were 90.9% and 45.3%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 12.8% and 12.1% respectively, but the effluent should to be further treated. Compared with the traditional activated sludge process, ozonation-activated sludge process had high treatment efficiency, stable running effect, and effectively in dealing with industrial wastewater containing PVA.

  14. 含间歇性电源的电力系统动态有功优化调度的思路构建%Power System Containing Intermittent Power Supply Construction Dynamic Optimization Scheduling of Active Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车轮

    2014-01-01

    近年来,随着风电场和光伏电站的大量并网,对电力系统的运行造成了一定影响。在电力系统中,可将风电场和光伏电站等作为间歇性电源。为了实现间歇性电源在电力系统内部的合理消纳,有必要制订合理、可行的调度策略,这样不仅可以提高间歇性电源本身的调节能力,还能提高电力系统运行的安全性和经济性。基于此,就含间歇性电源的电力系统动态有功优化调度思路的构建展开研究。%In recent years, with wind farms and solar power plants and a large network of operation of power systems caused some impact. In the power system can be such as wind farms and solar power plants, as intermittent power supply. In order to achieve intermittent electricity supply at a reasonable consumptive internal system, it is necessary to establish a reasonable and feasible scheduling policy, so not only can improve the intermittent ability to regulate its own power supply, but also improve the operation of the power system security and economy. Based on this, the intermittent power supply systems with active optimization of dynamic scheduling idea to build a study.

  15. A Quintuple Star System Containing Two Eclipsing Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Rappaport, S; Kalomeni, B; Borkovits, T; Latham, D; Bieryla, A; Ngo, H; Mawet, D; Howell, S; Horch, E; Jacobs, T L; LaCourse, D; Sodor, A; Vanderburg, A; Pavlovski, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a quintuple star system that contains two eclipsing binaries. The unusual architecture includes two stellar images separated by 11" on the sky: EPIC 212651213 and EPIC 212651234. The more easterly image (212651213) actually hosts both eclipsing binaries which are resolved within that image at 0.09", while the westerly image (212651234) appears to be single in adaptive optics (AO), speckle imaging, and radial velocity (RV) studies. The 'A' binary is circular with a 5.1-day period, while the 'B' binary is eccentric with a 13.1-day period. The gamma velocities of the A and B binaries are different by ~10 km/s. That, coupled with their resolved projected separation of 0.09", indicates that the orbital period and separation of the 'C' binary (consisting of A orbiting B) are ~65 years and ~25 AU, respectively, under the simplifying assumption of a circular orbit. Motion within the C orbit should be discernible via future RV, AO, and speckle imaging studies within a couple of years. The C system (i.e., 21...

  16. Characterization and stability studies of emulsion systems containing pumice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Estanqueiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions are the most common form of skin care products. However, these systems may exhibit some instability. Therefore, when developing emulsions for topical application it is interesting to verify whether they have suitable physical and mechanical characteristics and further assess their stability. The aim of this work was to study the stability of emulsion systems, which varied in the proportion of the emulsifying agent cetearyl alcohol (and sodium lauryl sulfate (and sodium cetearyl sulfate (LSX, the nature of the oily phase (decyl oleate, cyclomethicone or dimethicone and the presence or absence of pumice (5% w/w. While maintaining the samples at room temperature, rheology studies, texture analysis and microscopic observation of formulations with and without pumice were performed. Samples were also submitted to an accelerated stability study by centrifugation and to a thermal stress test. Through the testing, it was found that the amount of emulsifying agent affects the consistency and textural properties such as firmness and adhesiveness. So, formulations containing LSX (5% w/w and decyl oleate or dimethicone as oily phase had a better consistency and remained stable with time, so exhibited the best features to be used for skin care products.

  17. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of some sulphur containing chromene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbetçi, Tuba; Birteksöz, Seher; Prado, Soizic; Michel, Sylvie; Tillequin, François

    2012-07-01

    A series of 3,3-dimethyl-3Hbenzothieno[3,2-f][1]-benzopyran analogues modified at the pyran 1,2-double bond were synthesized. The corresponding dihydro and (+/-)-cis-diol derivatives were converted into diacetate and cyclic carbonate upon acylation. The title compounds were characterized by spectroscopic analysis and screened for their antimicrobial activity in vitro.

  18. Metabolomic analysis of riboswitch containing E. coli recombinant expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamadali, Howbeer; Xu, Yun; Morra, Rosa; Trivedi, Drupad K; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Dixon, Neil; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-02-01

    In this study we have employed metabolomics approaches to understand the metabolic effects of producing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli cells. This metabolic burden analysis was performed against a number of recombinant expression systems and control strains and included: (i) standard transcriptional recombinant expression control system BL21(DE3) with the expression plasmid pET-eGFP, (ii) the recently developed dual transcriptional-translational recombinant expression control strain BL21(IL3), with pET-eGFP, (iii) BL21(DE3) with an empty expression plasmid pET, (iv) BL21(IL3) with an empty expression plasmid, and (v) BL21(DE3) without an expression plasmid; all strains were cultured under various induction conditions. The growth profiles of all strains together with the results gathered by the analysis of the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy data, identified IPTG-dependent induction as the dominant factor hampering cellular growth and metabolism, which was in general agreement with the findings of GC-MS analysis of cell extracts and media samples. In addition, the exposure of host cells to the synthetic inducer ligand, pyrimido[4,5-d] pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (PPDA), of the orthogonal riboswitch containing expression system (BL21(IL3)) did not display any detrimental effects, and its detected levels in all the samples were at similar levels, emphasising the inability of the cells to metabolise PPDA. The overall results obtained in this study suggested that although the BL21(DE3)-EGFP and BL21(IL3)-EGFP strains produced comparable levels of recombinant eGFP, the presence of the orthogonal riboswitch seemed to be moderating the metabolic burden of eGFP production in the cells enabling higher biomass yield, whilst providing a greater level of control over protein expression.

  19. Bioorganically doped sol-gel materials containing amyloglucosidase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad-Oros Beatrice

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase (AMG from Aspergillus niger was encapsulated in various matrices derived from tetraethoxysilane, methyltriethoxysilane, phenyltriethoxysilane and vinyltriacetoxysilane by different methods of immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was prepared by entrapment in two steps, in one-step and entrapment/deposition, respectively. The activities of the immobilized AMG were assayed and compared with that of the native enzyme. The effects of the organosilaneprecursors and their molar ratios, the immobilization method, the inorganic support (white ceramic, red ceramic, purolite, alumina, TiO2, celite, zeolite and enzyme loading upon the immobilized enzyme activity were tested. The efficiency of the sol-gel biocomposites can be improved through combination of the fundamental immobilization techniques and selection of the precursors.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of combination tablet containing incompatible active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Cui, Fude; Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Sunada, Hisakazu

    2003-07-01

    Combination preparation plays an important role in clinical treatment because of its better and wider curative synergism and weaker side effects. However, the existence of incompatibility between active ingredients or between active ingredients and excipients presents a serious obstacle in the preparation of such combination solid dosage forms. In this study, aspirin and ranitidine hydrochloride, between which there existed a chemical interaction, were selected as model drugs. Aspirin powders without any additives were granulated with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) water solution as a binder using a Wurster coating apparatus and the operation conditions were optimized by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) analysis. Under these conditions, the aspirin granules prepared showed good flowability and compressibility. On the other hand, ranitidine hydrochloride was coated with Aquacoat (ethyl cellulose aqueous dispersion) after preliminary granulation with the Wurster coating apparatus. The aspirin granules and coated ranitidine hydrochloride particles were compressed into tablets with suitable excipients. The combination tablets showed good dissolution, content uniformity and improved stability of active ingredients.

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Dental Cements Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are commonly used for cementing full cast crown restorations. Regrettably, although the dental cements fill the gap between the tooth and the crown, bacterial microleakage may occur, resulting in secondary caries. As microleakage cannot be completely prevented, GICs possessing antibacterial properties are in demand. In the present study the antibacterial activity of insoluble, cross-linked quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI nanoparticles incorporated at 1% w/w in two clinically available GICs were studied. The antibacterial activity was tested against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei using the direct contact test (DCT and the agar diffusion test (ADT. Using the direct contact test, antibacterial activity (<0.05 was found in both tested GICs with incorporated QPEI nanoparticles, the effect lasting for at least one month. However, the ADT showed no inhibition halo in the test bacteria, indicating that the antimicrobial nanoparticles do not diffuse into the agar. The results show that the incorporation of QPEI nanoparticles in glass ionomer cements has a long-lasting antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. Changing the antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cements by incorporating QPEI antibacterial nanoparticles may prolong the clinical performance of dental crowns.

  2. Synthesis, insecticidal activity, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of anthranilic diamides analogs containing oxadiazole rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhao; Zhu, Hongjun; Chen, Kai; Liu, Rui; Khallaf, Abdalla; Zhang, Xiangning; Ni, Jueping

    2013-06-28

    A series of anthranilic diamides analogs (3–11, 16–24) containing 1,2,4- or 1,3,4-oxadiazole rings were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The structure of 3-bromo-N-(2-(3-(4-bromophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-4-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (18, CCDC-) was determined by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua were evaluated. The results showed that most of title compounds displayed good larvicidal activities against P. xylostella, especially compound 3-bromo-N-(4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(5-(methylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (6), which displayed 71.43% activity against P. xylostella at 0.4 μg mL(-1) and 33.33% against S. exigua at 1 μg mL(-1). The structure-activity relationship showed that compounds decorated with a 1,3,4-oxadiazole were more potent than compounds decorated with a 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and different substituents attached to the oxadiazole ring also affected the insecticidal activity. This work provides some hints for further structure modification and the enhancement of insecticidal activity.

  3. Solid—Liquid Equilibria of Several Binary and Ternary Systems Containing Meleic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAPeisheng; CHENMingming; 等

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibria(SLE) of three binary systems and seven ternary systems containing maleic anhydride(MA) are measured by visual method. The experimental data are compared with the calculated ones with modified universal quasichemical functional group activity coefficient(UNIFAC) method in which the interaction parameters between groups come from two sources,dortmund data bank (DDB), if there′s any,and correlations based on our former presented experimental SLE data of twenty binary systems.New groups of MA,ACCOO group,COO group,>C=O group and cy-CH2 group are defined and the SLE data of maleic anhydride in isopropyl acetate in literature are cited in order to assess the new interaction parameters,correlated with Wilson equation and the λh equation.The modified UNIFAC method with these new regressed interaction parameters is also used to predict other three binary systems containing maleic anhydride.

  4. Recent advanced in bioactive systems containing pyrazole fused with a five membered heterocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Demetrio; Maggio, Benedetta; Raimondi, Maria Valeria; Cascioferro, Stella; Plescia, Fabiana; Cancemi, Gabriella; Daidone, Giuseppe

    2015-06-05

    In this review we report the recent advances in bioactive system containing pyrazole fused with a five membered heterocycle, covering the time span of the last decade. All of them are represented around the common structure of the pyrazole ring fused with another five membered heterocycle containing the nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen atoms in all their possible combinations. The classification we have used is based in terms of the therapeutic area providing, when possible, some general conclusions on the targets and mechanisms of action as well as the structure-activity relationships of the molecules.

  5. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Gel System Containing Ibuprofen Solid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2016-12-01

    In the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, ibuprofen (IBU) is widely used; however, it has been limited the clinical use by its systemic side effect, such as gastrointestinal lesions. Therefore, we prepared topical gel ointment used IBU solid nanoparticles (IBUnano-gel formulation). In addition, we demonstrated their anti-inflammatory effect by using arthritis model rat (adjuvant-induced arthritis rat, AA rat). The gel formulations were prepared using additives (Carbopol 934, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and methylcellulose) and bead mill-method. The IBU particle size in the IBUnano-gel formulation was 208 nm. The increase in inflammation of the hind feet of AA rats was attenuated by the treatment with the IBUnano-gel formulation, and preventive effect was higher than that of a gel formulation containing IBUmicroparticles (IBUmicro-gel formulation, mean particle size 85.4 μm); the accumulation and permeability through the skin of IBU from the IBUnano-gel formulation were significantly larger in comparison with the IBUmicro-gel formulation. Further, no gastrointestinal lesions were observed in AA rats following the repetitive administration of the 5% IBUnano-gel formulation (0.30 g) for 42 days (once a day). These results suggest that the dermal application of IBU-nanoparticles provide effective and efficient therapy that spares patients from unwanted side effects.

  6. Development of self-assembling nanowires containing electronically active oligothiophenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Wen

    This dissertation discusses the development of conductive one-dimensional nanowires from self-assembling oligothiophene molecules. Self-assembly has been demonstrated to be a promising alternative approach towards high performance, solution processable, and low-cost organic electronics. One of the many challenges in this field is the control of supramolecular morphologies of ordered structures containing pi-conjugated moieties. This research demonstrated several successful strategies to achieve self assembly of conductive nanowires using synergistic interactions combining pi stacking and hydrogen bonding. The first approach used was to develop a hairpin-shaped sexithiophene molecule, which features two arms of the conjugated structure. The diamidocyclohexyl headgroup of this molecule successfully directs the self-assembly from hydrogen bonding among the amides, forming high-aspect-ratio one-dimensional nanowires with well-defined diameters of 3.0 +/- 0.3 nm. The molecular orientation in the nanostructures promotes formation of sexithiophene H and J aggregates that facilitate efficient charge transport. Organic field-effect transistors were fabricated to reveal improved intrinsic hole mobility from films of the nanostructures, 3.46 x 10-6 cm2V-1s-1, which is one order of magnitude higher than films cast from unassembled molecules. Bulk heterojunction solar cells were developed from this molecule and fullerenes utilizing solution-phase fabrication methods. Intimate mix of the molecule and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester creates structured interfaces for efficient exciton splitting. The charge carrier mobilities of each material are improved by self-assembly in solution and thermal-energy assisted phase separation.The photovoltaic devices achieved the highest open-circuit voltage of 0.62 V, short-circuit current of 1.79 mA/cm2, fill factor of 35%, and power conversion efficiency of 0.48%. Another strategy to one-dimensional nanowires studied here involved the

  7. Neutron imaging systems utilizing lithium-containing semiconductor crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Burger, Arnold

    2017-04-25

    A neutron imaging system, including: a plurality of Li-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor crystals arranged in an array, wherein III represents a Group III element and VI represents a Group VI element; and electronics operable for detecting and a charge in each of the plurality of crystals in the presence of neutrons and for imaging the neutrons. Each of the crystals is formed by: melting the Group III element; adding the Li to the melted Group III element at a rate that allows the Li and Group III element to react, thereby providing a single phase Li-III compound; and adding the Group VI element to the single phase Li-III compound and heating. Optionally, each of the crystals is also formed by doping with a Group IV element activator.

  8. Containment Depressurization Capabilities of Filtered Venting System in 1000 MWe PWR with Large Dry Containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the Korean government and nuclear industries performed comprehensive safety inspections on all domestic nuclear power plants against beyond design bases events. As a result, a total of 50 recommendations were defined as safety improvement action items. One of them is installation of a containment filtered venting system (CFVS or portable backup containment spray system. In this paper, the applicability of CFVS is examined for OPR1000, a 1000 MWe PWR with large dry containment in Korea. Thermohydraulic analysis results show that a filtered discharge flow rate of 15 [kg/s] at 0.9 [MPa] is sufficient to depressurize the containment against representative containment overpressurization scenarios. Radiological release to the environment is reduced to 10-3 considering the decontamination factor. Also, this cyclic venting strategy reduces noble gas release by 50% for 7 days. The probability of maintaining the containment integrity in level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA initiating events is improved twofold, from 43% to 87%. So, the CFVS can further improve the containment integrity in severe accident conditions.

  9. 77 FR 21577 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and... collection requirement concerning the Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. This...: Title: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. OMB Number: 1651-0124....

  10. Sample container for neutron activation analysis. Probenbehaelter fuer die Neutronen-Aktivierungsanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lersmacher, B.; Verheijke, M.L.; Jaspers, H.J.

    1983-06-23

    The sample container avoids contaminating the sample substance by diffusion of foreign matter from the wall of the sample container into the sample. It cannot be activated, so that the results of measurements are not falsified by a radioactive container wall. It consists of solid carbon.

  11. 77 FR 3487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... information collection requirement concerning Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. This request for...: Title: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096. Form Number: None....

  12. Matrix embedded microspherules containing indomethacin as controlled drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, K M Lokamatha; Satyanath, B; Shantakumar, S M; Manjula, D; Mohammedi, Hafsa; Farhana, Ayesha

    2008-10-01

    This work is focused on the development of controlled drug delivery systems using different wax/fat embedded indomethacin (IM). Discrete wax/fat embedded microspherules containing indomethacin were prepared by using cetostearyl alcohol, paraffin wax and stearic acid by employing emulsification-phase separation method. These matrices have been used as barrier coatings due to their hydrophobic nature. Chemically inert and tasteless nature of wax/fats promotes their use as taste masking agents for bitter drugs. Various waxes and fats are available having different physicochemical properties to suit the needs of formulation. Methyl cellulose (MC) 1% w/v, sodium alginate (SA) 0.5% w/v and Tween-80 (TW) 1% w/v were used as emulgents. The resulting microspherules were discrete, large, spherical and also free flowing. It is revealed from the literature that natures of wax/fat emulgents were found to influence the rate of drug release. In the present work the drug content in all the batches of microspherules were found to be uniform. The rate of drug release corresponded best to first order kinetics, followed by Higuchi and zero-order equations. The release of the model drug from these wax/fat microspherules was prolonged over an extended period of time and the drug release mechanism followed anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion controlled as well as Super Case II transport. Among the three matrix materials used, paraffin wax retarded the drug release more than the other two. Surface characteristics of microspherules have been studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). A fair degree rank of correlation was found to exist between the size and release retardation in all the three-wax/fat emulgent combinations.

  13. Resource loading system and method for use in atmosphere-containment scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Jr., Daniel R.; Reyes, Roberto; Weidmeyer, Stanley

    2017-09-12

    The invention provides a system for preventing fluid exchange between the interior and exterior of containment enclosures such as process-, hazard-, and research-enclosure systems generally, gloveboxes, containment systems, isolation systems, confinement systems, cleanrooms, negative air systems, and positive air system areas while simultaneously providing material transfer into and out of the enclosures. The invention also provides a method for transporting material into or out of a containment structure.

  14. Autonomous Composite Fan Containment Integrity Monitoring (AUTOCONFIRM) System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New engine fan blade containment structures are being manufactured with advanced composite structures such that they can withstand blade-out events. The use of...

  15. 77 FR 13350 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing the...

  16. PREPARATION AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER CONTAINING SILVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENShuixia; LUOYing; 等

    2000-01-01

    Several kinds of activated carbon fiber(ACF),Granule Activated carbon(AC) containing silver ion or fine silver particle(Ag-ACF/AC) have been prepared by soaking ACF or AC in the salt solution of silver.Ag,AgCl and AgI compounds have been loaded onto the fibers:The stucture of the fibers was measured by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and power X-ray diffraction(XRD),THe Ag content in the fiber was obtained by an Atomic absorption spectroscopy(AAS),The Ag+ content in water after the antibacterial test was measured by an Inductively Coupled plasma(ICP) emission spectroscopy.Antibacterial test was carried out against Escherichia coli(E.coli) and Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus).The results show that Ag-ACF/AC have strong antibacterial activity against E.Coli and S.aureus.After dealt with ACF/AC loading Ag,AgCl,AgI,no E.coli and S.aureus alive in solution can be detected.The analysis of Agcontent in water after antibacterial test showed that the content of Ag meet the quality requirement of the National Potable Water Standrd,It is indicated that ACF/AC-Ag in this experiment would be a safe antibacterial agent.

  17. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Costa, Luciano da F

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for contention of activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, as in diseases such as epilepsy that affects the neuronal networks, and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided in modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory through which activity contention is reached by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, viz. random, Barabasi-Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this ...

  18. Acute toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lina Clara Gayoso e Almendra Ibiapina; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Satyal, Prabodh; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Rolim, Hercília Maria Lins; Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-01-12

    Nimodipine has been shown to have an inhibitory action on seizures and brain damage in rodents. However, the pharmaceutical applicability of this drug is limited by its low solubility in gastrointestinal fluids and high first-pass effect in the liver, which leads to low bioavailability. These difficulties can be overcome through the use of liposomes. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of liposomes containing nimodipine (NMD-Lipo) on pilocarpine-induced seizures. NMD-Lipo was prepared using the lipid-film hydration method. Central nervous system toxicity of NMD-Lipo was assessed by Hippocratic screening. Systemic toxicity was evaluated by analyses of biochemical and hematological parameters and by observing possible signs of toxicity. The possible anticonvulsant activity was tested by the pilocarpine model. The administration of the NMD-Lipo at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg caused no toxicity in animals. Furthermore, NMD-Lipo prevented the installation of 100% of the pilocarpine-induced seizures and prevented the death of 100% of the mice treated with pilocarpine. These data shown that NMD-Lipo has an anticonvulsant activity significantly superior to free NMD, suggesting that the liposomes promoted a drug controlled release by improving its bioavailability and consequently increasing its pharmacological activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  20. Lignin Peroxidase Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds in Systems Containing Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Westlake, Donald W. S.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    1994-01-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These included anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 9-methylanthracenes, acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene. Of the compounds studied, lignin peroxidase was able to oxidize those with ionization potentials of <8 eV (measured by electron impact). The reaction products contain hydroxyl and keto groups. In one case, carbon-carbon bond cleavage, yielding anthraquinone from 9-methylanthracene, was detected. Kinetic constants and stability characteristics of lignin peroxidase were determined by using pyrene as the substrate in systems containing different amounts of organic solvent. Benzyl alkylation of lignin peroxidase improved its activity in a system containing water-miscible organic solvent but did not increase its resistance to inactivation at high solvent concentrations. PMID:16349176

  1. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Analogues of Chlorantraniliprole Containing Nitro Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qi; WANG Ming-zhong; XIONG Li-xia; LIU Zhi-li; LI Zheng-ming

    2011-01-01

    Twelve novel analogues of chlorantraniliprole containing nitro group were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS).Their evaluated insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm(Mythimna separata) indicate that the nitro-containing analogues showed favorable insecticidal activities,while the activity of compounds 5g at 0.25 mg/L was 40%,but still lower than chlorantraniliprole.

  2. Modelling and Simulation Methodology for Dynamic Resources Assignment System in Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As the competition among international container terminals has become increasingly fierce, every port is striving to maintain the competitive edge and provide satisfactory services to port users. By virtue of information technology enhancement, many efforts to raise port competitiveness through an advanced operation system are actively being made, and judging from the viewpoint of investment effect, these efforts are more preferable than infrastructure expansion and additional equipment acquisition. Based on simulation, this study has tried to prove that RFID-based real-time location system (RTLS data collection and dynamic operation of transfer equipment brings a positive effect on the productivity improvement and resource utilization enhancement. Moreover, this study on the demand for the real-time data for container terminal operation have been made, and operation processes have been redesigned along with the collection of related data, and based on them, simulations have been conducted. As a result of them, much higher productivity improvement could be expected.

  3. Lipid containing nanodrug delivery system for the treatment of Tuberculosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemmer, Yolandy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available of the antibiotics in the cells, hence reducing the dose frequency and simultaneously improve patient compliance. The cell wall envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) contains unique high molecular weight lipids. Of these, the most abundant are mycolic acids...

  4. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... provides a new way to see the development of a system in terms of the knowledge created in the process. The main practical implication of the framework is that it improves the managers' ability to guide ISD activities as knowledge activities embedded in a knowledge process, a crucial element in development...... of ISD, abandoning the idea of a monolithic approach to knowledge and presenting a pluralistic approach based on the idea that different inquiring systems can support micro-level ISD activities. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theoretical development of the framework...

  5. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... provides a new way to see the development of a system in terms of the knowledge created in the process. The main practical implication of the framework is that it improves the managers' ability to guide ISD activities as knowledge activities embedded in a knowledge process, a crucial element in development...... of ISD, abandoning the idea of a monolithic approach to knowledge and presenting a pluralistic approach based on the idea that different inquiring systems can support micro-level ISD activities. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theoretical development of the framework...

  6. A REVIEW OF OXYGEN-CONTAINING SURFACE GROUPS AND SURFACE MODIFICATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yongwen; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; XIA Qibin

    2004-01-01

    This review focused on the recent reports related to the function, characterization and modification of oxygen-containing surface groups of activated carbon (AC). The Oxygen-containing surface groups were briefly described, and the most frequently used techniques for characterization of the oxygen-containing surface groups on ACs were also briefly stated. A detailed discussion of the effects of the oxygen-containing surface groups on the adsorptive capacity of AC was given. The recent progresses in modification of the oxygen-containing surface groups of AC were also reviewed.

  7. Improved Active Vibration Isolation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The control force, feedback gain, and actuator stroke of several active vibration isolation systems were analyzed based on a single-layer active vibration isolation system. The analysis shows that the feedback gain and actuator stroke cannot be selected independently and the active isolation system design must make a compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The performance of active isolation systems can be improved by the joint vibration reduction using an active vibration isolation system with an adaptive dynamic vibration absorber. The results show that the joint vibration reduction method can successfully avoid the compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The control force and the object vibration amplitude are also greatly reduced.

  8. Ureterocele containing a stone in a duplex system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Gharbi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of calcified stone in the ureterocele, a frequent event in adults, is very uncommon in a pediatric age. We present a case of a ureterocele containing a calcified stone in an 8-year-old girl. The diagnosis was made with radiological investigations (intravenous pyelogram, ultrasonography and, eventually, voiding cystourethrogram. Meatostomy and calculus extraction, or open surgery in more complicated cases, are the treatments of choice.

  9. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  10. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Tonghaosu Analogs Containing Phenoxy-phenyl Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li陈立; XU Han-Hong徐汉虹; YIN Biao-Lin尹标林; XIAO Chun肖春; HU Tai-Shan胡泰山; WU Yu-Lin吴毓林

    2004-01-01

    A new series of phenoxy-phenyl moieties containing tonghaosu analogs with varied B-ring 9 were synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Their insect antifeedant activity against Pieris brassicae and insecticidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus were investigated. Compound 9e exhibited excellent antifeeding activity.

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of quaternary ammonium salt-type agents containing cholesterol and terpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, Eva; Waisser, Karel; Kuneš, Jiří; Palát, Karel; Buchta, Vladimír; Stolaříková, Jiřina; Beckert, Rainer; Wsól, Vladimír

    2014-06-01

    New quaternary ammonium salt-type compounds with lipophilic cholesterol and terpene moieties were synthesized. The compounds showed promising antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities. Those compounds containing the cholesterol moiety showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecium. On the contrary, the antimycobacterial activity increased with the presence of the terpene unit in the molecule.

  12. OPERATIONAL ACCURACY IMPROVEMENT OF DIGITAL SERVO SYSTEM CONTAINING UNBALANCED LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stryzhniou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a structural flowchart of a typical digital servo system and its operational principle. A method for determination of the unbalanced load effect on the accuracy of the system operation is described in the paper. The paper proposes a method for compensation of the  unbalanced load influence on the system operation. The experimental verification of the unbalanced load effect on the operational accuracy of the servo system and compensation of these influences have been executed in the paper.

  13. Microemulsion systems containing bioactive natural oils: an overview on the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier-Junior, F H; Vauthier, C; Morais, A R V; Alencar, E N; Egito, E S T

    2017-05-01

    Natural oils are extremely complex mixtures containing compounds of different chemical nature. Some of them have physiological or therapeutic activities that may act either alone or in synergy. Therefore, they are used in the pharmaceutical, agronomic, food, sanitary and cosmetic industries. Today, the interest in bioactive natural oils is growing due to their immense potential to prevent and treat numerous human diseases. Formulation in microemulsions (MEs) containing natural oils appeared suitable to improve pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical properties of bioactive compound derivatives from these oils. Microemulsion systems are thermodynamically stable, transparent, and are isotropic dispersions consisting of oil and water stabilized by an interfacial film of surfactants, typically in combination with a cosurfactant. They can protect labile compounds from premature degradation, control release, increase solubility and hence enhance the bioavailability of poorly bioavailable compounds. The aim of this work was to review the various advantages of bioactive compounds presented in natural oil loaded ME systems to be used as delivery systems. First, the state of the art of the parameters involved in the ME formation, including the basic concepts of the physicochemical formulation of the ME systems, and the main aspects of production and the energy responsible for their formation were reported. The second section describes the use of ME systems and reviews the recent applications of natural oil-loaded in the ME systems as the bioactive compound in the formulation.

  14. 77 FR 35993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... affected agencies. This information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and... Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Cargo Container...

  15. 77 FR 6815 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin... requirement concerning Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders. This request for...: Title: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders. OMB Number: 1651-0057....

  16. Formylation of N-arylpyrazole containing active amino group using Vilsmeier-Haack reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Luo; Ping Zhong; Xiao Hong Zhang; Qiu Lian Lin; Ye Na Chen

    2008-01-01

    Two species of N-arylpyrazoles containing active amino group were synthesized.And formylations of N-arylpyazoles containing amino in different position of pyrazole rings using Vilsmeier-Haack reaction gave a series of useful pyrazole intermediates.The important features of this protocol were cheap materials,easy process,mild reaction conditions and good yield of products.

  17. Properties of hybrid resin composite systems containing prepolymerized filler particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackham, Jason T; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Lien, Wen

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the properties of newer hybrid resin composites with prepolymerized-filler particles to traditional hybrids and a microfill composite. The following properties were examined per composite: diametral tensile strength, flexural strength/modulus, Knoop microhardness and polymerization shrinkage. Physical properties were determined for each Jason T Blackham, DMD, USAF, General Dentistry, Tyndall composite group (n = 8), showing significant differences between groups per property (p hybrid composites (Z250, Esthet-X) had higher strength, composites containing pre-polymerized fillers (Gradia Direct Posterior, Premise) performed more moderately and the microfill composite (Durafill VS) had lower strength. Premise and Durafill VS had the lowest polymerization shrinkage.

  18. Hypoglycaemic activity of an HMG-containing flavonoid glucoside, chamaemeloside, from Chamaemelum nobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, G M; Wright, A D; Keller, W J; Judd, R L; Bates, S; Day, C

    1998-10-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMG) containing flavonoid glucoside chamaemeloside, has been determined to have in vivo hypoglycaemic activity comparable to that of free HMG. An improved isolation scheme for obtaining chamaemeloside from Chamaemelum nobile is presented.

  19. The active site of low-temperature methane hydroxylation in iron-containing zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Benjamin E. R.; Vanelderen, Pieter; Bols, Max L.; Hallaert, Simon D.; Böttger, Lars H.; Ungur, Liviu; Pierloot, Kristine; Schoonheydt, Robert A.; Sels, Bert F.; Solomon, Edward I.

    2016-08-01

    An efficient catalytic process for converting methane into methanol could have far-reaching economic implications. Iron-containing zeolites (microporous aluminosilicate minerals) are noteworthy in this regard, having an outstanding ability to hydroxylate methane rapidly at room temperature to form methanol. Reactivity occurs at an extra-lattice active site called α-Fe(II), which is activated by nitrous oxide to form the reactive intermediate α-O; however, despite nearly three decades of research, the nature of the active site and the factors determining its exceptional reactivity are unclear. The main difficulty is that the reactive species—α-Fe(II) and α-O—are challenging to probe spectroscopically: data from bulk techniques such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility are complicated by contributions from inactive ‘spectator’ iron. Here we show that a site-selective spectroscopic method regularly used in bioinorganic chemistry can overcome this problem. Magnetic circular dichroism reveals α-Fe(II) to be a mononuclear, high-spin, square planar Fe(II) site, while the reactive intermediate, α-O, is a mononuclear, high-spin Fe(IV)=O species, whose exceptional reactivity derives from a constrained coordination geometry enforced by the zeolite lattice. These findings illustrate the value of our approach to exploring active sites in heterogeneous systems. The results also suggest that using matrix constraints to activate metal sites for function—producing what is known in the context of metalloenzymes as an ‘entatic’ state—might be a useful way to tune the activity of heterogeneous catalysts.

  20. Characterization and stability studies of emulsion systems containing pumice

    OpenAIRE

    Marilene Estanqueiro; Jaime Conceição; Maria Helena Amaral; Delfim Santos; João Baptista Silva; José Manuel Sousa Lobo

    2014-01-01

    Emulsions are the most common form of skin care products. However, these systems may exhibit some instability. Therefore, when developing emulsions for topical application it is interesting to verify whether they have suitable physical and mechanical characteristics and further assess their stability. The aim of this work was to study the stability of emulsion systems, which varied in the proportion of the emulsifying agent cetearyl alcohol (and) sodium lauryl sulfate (and) sodium cetearyl su...

  1. CZECHOSLOVAK ACTIVITY TO PREPARE EUROPEAN NORMS FOR CONTAINERS BEFORE THE SECOND WORLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lewandowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In many articles we can read that containers weren't in Europe before 1966, when ship SS Fariland came with 35 feet containers invented by Keith Tantlinger for Sea Land Company owned by Malcom McLean. The focus of this study is on the problem with development norms for European containers. Thus, the main definitions and briefly literature overview in the analysed research area are given. Later, the information about these constructions are developed. Article presents Czechoslovak activity to preparation of three European norms for containers, which were described before Second World War.

  2. Sodium-ion supercapacitors based on nanoporous pyroproteins containing redox-active heteroatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Se Youn; Yoon, Hyeon Ji; Kim, Na Rae; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2016-10-01

    Nanostructured carbon-based materials fabricated via simple methods from renewable bio-resources have great potential in rechargeable energy storage systems. In this study, nanoporous pyroproteins containing a large amount of redox-active heteroatoms (H-NPs) were fabricated from silk fibroin by an in situ carbonization/activation method. The H-NPs have a large surface area of ∼3050 m2 g-1, which is mainly comprised of nanometer-scale pores. Also, these H-NPs have oxygen and nitrogen heteroatoms of 17.4 wt% and 2.9 wt%, respectively. Synergistic sodium ion storage behaviors originate from electrochemical double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, leading to very high electrochemical performances of H-NPs in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolyte systems. Sodium-ion supercapacitors (NISs) based on commercial graphite//H-NPs show a high specific power of ∼1900 W kg-1 at ∼77 Wh kg-1. Also, NISs based on commercial hard carbon//H-NPs exhibit a high specific energy of ∼217 Wh kg-1 at ∼42 W kg-1. In addition, outstanding cycling performances over 30,000 cycles are achieved for symmetric NISs.

  3. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Benzoyl Hydrazines Containing Pyrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫涛; 于淑晶; 刘鹏飞; 刘卓; 王宝雷; 熊丽霞; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign compounds with high biological activity, low toxicity and low resistance, 8 novel benzoyl hydrazines containing pyrazole were designed and synthesized. All compounds were characterized by I H NMR spectra and HRMS. The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicated that most of title compounds exhibited certain insecticidal activities against M),thimna separata Walker at 200 mg L-1 but excellent fungicidal activities against six fungus at 50 mg L-1, which were better than the control.

  4. Reliability and performance evaluation of systems containing embedded rule-based expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Robert M.; Adams, Milton B.; Harrison, James V. A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for evaluating the reliability of real-time systems containing embedded rule-based expert systems is proposed and investigated. It is a three stage technique that addresses the impact of knowledge-base uncertainties on the performance of expert systems. In the first stage, a Markov reliability model of the system is developed which identifies the key performance parameters of the expert system. In the second stage, the evaluation method is used to determine the values of the expert system's key performance parameters. The performance parameters can be evaluated directly by using a probabilistic model of uncertainties in the knowledge-base or by using sensitivity analyses. In the third and final state, the performance parameters of the expert system are combined with performance parameters for other system components and subsystems to evaluate the reliability and performance of the complete system. The evaluation method is demonstrated in the context of a simple expert system used to supervise the performances of an FDI algorithm associated with an aircraft longitudinal flight-control system.

  5. A novel selenium and copper-containing peptide with both superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xian-Feng; Ji, Yue-Tong; Gao, Gui; Zhu, Xue-Jun; Lv, Shao-Wu; Yan, Fei; Han, Si-Ping; Chen, Xing; Gao, Chang-Cheng; Liu, Junqiu; Luo, Gui-Min

    2010-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) play crucial roles in balancing the production and decomposition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living organisms. These enzymes act cooperatively and synergistically to scavenge ROS. In order to imitate the synergism of these enzymes, we designed and synthesized a novel 32-mer peptide (32P) on the basis of the previous 15-mer peptide with GPX activity and a 17-mer peptide with SOD activity. Upon the selenation and chelation of copper, the 32-mer peptide is converted to a new Se- and Cu-containing 32-mer peptide (Se-Cu-32P) and displays both SOD and GPX activities and its kinetics was studied. Moreover, the novel peptide was demonstrated to be able to better protect vero cells from the injury induced by xanthine oxidase (XOD)/xanthine/Fe2+ damage system than its parents. Thus, this bifunctional enzyme imitated the synergism of SOD and GPX and could be a better candidate of therapeutic medicine.

  6. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Larsen, Marcus M.

    Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set of ...

  7. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set of ...

  8. Formation and Evolution of Binary Systems Containing Collapsed Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Saul; West, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This research includes theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of five types of interacting binary systems. Our main focus has been on developing a number of comprehensive population synthesis codes to study the following types of binary systems: (i) cataclysmic variables (#3, #8, #12, #15), (ii) low- and intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (#13, #20, #21), (iii) high-mass X-ray binaries (#14, #17, #22), (iv) recycled binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters (#5, #10, #ll), and (v) planetary nebulae which form in interacting binaries (#6, #9). The numbers in parentheses refer to papers published or in preparation that are listed in this paper. These codes take a new unified approach to population synthesis studies. The first step involves a Monte Carlo selection of the primordial binaries, including the constituent masses, and orbital separations and eccentricities. Next, a variety of analytic methods are used to evolve the primary star to the point where either a dynamical episode of mass transfer to the secondary occurs (the common envelope phase), or the system evolves down an alternate path. If the residual core of the primary is greater than 2.5 solar mass, it will evolve to Fe core collapse and the production of a neutron star and a supernova explosion. In the case of systems involving neutron stars, a kick velocity is chosen randomly from an appropriate distribution and added to the orbital dynamics which determine the state of the binary system after the supernova explosion. In the third step, all binaries which commence stable mass transfer from the donor star (the original secondary in the binary system) to the compact object, are followed with a detailed binary evolution code. Finally, we include all the relevant dynamics of the binary system. For example, in the case of LMXBs, the binary system, with its recoil velocity from the supernova explosion, is followed in time through its path in the Galactic potential. For our globular cluster

  9. Development and application of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, work restraint system, stowage container and return line tether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Okelly, J. K.; Whitsett, C. W.; Petynia, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), a self-contained zero-gravity backpack designed for astronaut extravehicular activity, is discussed with reference to the system requirements and characteristics, and potential near-term and future uses. Attention is given to the MMU man-machine interfaces, propulsion capability, attitude control, crew restraint hardware, donning, doffing, activation, and deactivation. Specific applications discussed include: spacecraft inspection and servicing, assembly of large space systems, payload deployment/retrieval, and crew rescue.

  10. Antimicrobial activity and pH of a endodontic sealer containing MTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maliza, Amanda GA; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Arias, Marcela C

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity, calcium release, and pH of a new mineral trioxide aggregate endodontic sealer when compared to endodontic sealers containing calcium hydroxide and/or epoxy resin. Method: Specimens were fabricated from MTA Fillapex, Sealer 26, Sealapex, and AH...... Plus immediately, 24 or 48 hours prior to the tests. The antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans was evaluated by the direct contact and the agar diffusion methods. Calcium release was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The pH from solutions containing...... in solution with an alkaline pH. Conclusion: The new mineral trioxide aggregate endodontic sealer presented higher antimicrobial activity when compared to the sealers containing calcium hydroxide and/or epoxy resin. As for pH and calcium release, the sealers containing calcium hydroxide resulted in presented...

  11. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is

  12. 40 CFR 281.37 - Financial responsibility for UST systems containing petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for No-Less-Stringent § 281.37 Financial responsibility for UST systems containing petroleum. (a) In... UST systems containing petroleum, the state requirements for financial responsibility for petroleum... requirements. Financial responsibility requirements for petroleum UST systems must, at a minimum, be...

  13. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Brandon R., E-mail: groganbr@ornl.gov; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  14. Chiral dicarboxamide scaffolds containing a sulfiliminyl moiety as potential ryanodine receptor activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sha; Jia, Zhehui; Xiong, Lixia; Yan, Tao; Yang, Na; Wu, Guiping; Song, Haibin; Li, Zhengming

    2014-07-09

    To search for new environmentally benign insecticides with high activity, low toxicity, and low residue, novel chiral configurations introduced into dicarboxamide scaffolds containing N-cyano sulfiliminyl moieties were first studied. Four series of phthalamides with sulfur-containing side chains were designed, synthesized, and evaluated against oriental armyworm (Pseudaletia separata Walker) and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) for their insecticidal activities. All structures were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and HRMS (or elemental analysis), and their configurations were confirmed by optical polarimetry. The biological assessment indicated that some title compounds exhibited significant insecticidal activities. For oriental armyworm, these stereoisomers exerted different impacts on biological activity following the sequence (Sc, Ss) ≥ (Sc, Rs) ≫ (Rc, Ss) > (Rc, Rs), and carbon chirality influenced the activities more strongly than sulfur. Compounds Ia and IIa reached as high an activity as commercial flubendiamide, with LC50 values of 0.0504 and 0.0699 mg L(-1), respectively, lower than that of flubendiamide (0.1230 mg L(-1)). For diamondback moth, the sequence of activity was (Sc, Ss) > (Sc, Rs), and the sulfur chirality influenced the activities more greatly than carbon. Compound IIe exhibited even higher activity than flubendiamide, whereas Ie and Ic,d reached the activity of the latter. The results indicated that the improvement of insecticidal activity probably required a coordination of both carbon and sulfur chirality. Comparative molecular field analysis calculation indicated that stereoisomers with Sc configurations containing strong electron-withdrawing groups such as as CN are important in maintaining the high activity. The chiral scaffolds containing the N-cyano sulfiliminyl moiety are also essential for high larvicidal activity. Some title compounds could be considered as potential candidates for ryanodine receptor activators.

  15. Bionanocomposites containing magnetic graphite as potential systems for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lígia N M; Alcântara, Ana C S; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Herrmann, Paulo S P; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M; García-Hernández, Mar; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2014-12-30

    New magnetic bio-hybrid matrices for potential application in drug delivery are developed from the assembly of the biopolymer alginate and magnetic graphite nanoparticles. Ibuprofen (IBU) intercalated in a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was chosen as a model drug delivery system (DDS) to be incorporated as third component of the magnetic bionanocomposite DDS. For comparative purposes DDS based on the incorporation of pure IBU in the magnetic bio-hybrid matrices were also studied. All the resulting magnetic bionanocomposites were processed as beads and films and characterized by different techniques with the aim to elucidate the role of the magnetic graphite on the systems, as well as that of the inorganic brucite-like layers in the drug-loaded LDH. In this way, the influence of both inorganic components on the mechanical properties, the water uptake ability, and the kinetics of the drug release from these magnetic systems were determined. In addition, the possibility of modulating the levels of IBU release by stimulating the bionanocomposites with an external magnetic field was also evaluated in in vitro assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Analogues of Flubendiamide Containing a Hexafluoroisopropanol Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明熹; 赵雯雯; 金观毅; 黄青春; 曹松

    2012-01-01

    Ten novel analogues of flubendiamide containing a hexafluoroisopropanol moiety were designed and synthe- sized. Their insecticidal activities against armyworm (Pseudaletia separata Walker) were examined and compared with the commercial product flubendiamide. Compound 7b showed nearly the same insecticidal activity as fluben- diamide against armyworm.

  17. Non-toxic agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system containing gallic acid for antifungal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P-L; Gambari, R; Kok, S H-L; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Bian, Z-X; Lee, K K-H; Chui, C-H

    2015-02-01

    Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is a common species of Aspergillus molds. Cutaneous aspergillosis usually occurs in skin sites near intravenous injection and approximately 6% of cutaneous aspergillosis cases which do not involve burn or HIV-infected patients are caused by A. niger. Biomaterials and biopharmaceuticals produced from microparticle-based drug delivery systems have received much attention as microencapsulated drugs offer an improvement in therapeutic efficacy due to better human absorption. The frequently used crosslinker, glutaraldehyde, in gelatin-based microencapsulation systems is considered harmful to human beings. In order to tackle the potential risks, agarose has become an alternative polymer to be used with gelatin as wall matrix materials of microcapsules. In the present study, we report the eco-friendly use of an agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system to enhance the antifungal activity of gallic acid and reduce its potential cytotoxic effects towards human skin keratinocytes. We used optimal parameter combinations, such as an agarose/gelatin ratio of 1:1, a polymer/oil ratio of 1:60, a surfactant volume of 1% w/w and a stirring speed of 900 rpm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of microencapsulated gallic acid (62.5 µg/ml) was significantly improved when compared with that of the original drug (>750 µg/ml). The anti-A. niger activity of gallic acid -containing microcapsules was much stronger than that of the original drug. Following 48 h of treatment, skin cell survival was approximately 90% with agarose/gelatin microcapsules containing gallic acid, whereas cell viability was only 25-35% with free gallic acid. Our results demonstrate that agarose/gelatin-based microcapsules containing gallic acid may prove to be helpful in the treatment of A. niger-induced skin infections near intravenous injection sites.

  18. Reduction of (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste from (68)Ga PET chemistry in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy by solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Roy, Kamalika; Krenning, Eric P; Breeman, Wouter A P

    PET with (68)Ga from the TiO2- or SnO2- based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity ((68)Ge vs. (68)Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts of (68)Ge activity is produced by eluting the (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators and residues from PET chemistry. Since clearance level of (68)Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce (68)Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to waste. Most efficient method to reduce the (68)Ge activity is by sorption of TiO2 or Fe2O3 and subsequent centrifugation. The required 10 Bq per mL level of (68)Ge activity in waste was reached by Fe2O3 logarithmically, whereas with TiO2 asymptotically. The procedure with Fe2O3 eliminates ≥90% of the (68)Ge activity per treatment. Eventually, to simplify the processing a recirculation system was used to investigate (68)Ge activity sorption on TiO2, Fe2O3 or Zeolite. Zeolite was introduced for its high sorption at low pH, therefore (68)Ge activity containing waste could directly be used without further interventions. (68)Ge activity containing liquid waste at different HCl concentrations (0.05-1.0 M HCl), was recirculated at 1 mL/min. With Zeolite in the recirculation system, (68)Ge activity showed highest sorption.

  19. Application of Density Functional Theory to Systems Containing Metal Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of density functional theory (DFT) for problems involving metal atoms is considered. The DFT results are compared with experiment as well as results obtained using the coupled cluster approach. The comparisons include geometries, frequencies, and bond energies. The systems considered include MO2, M(OH)+n, MNO+, and MCO+2. The DFT works well for frequencies and geometries, even in case with symmetry breaking; however, some examples have been found where the symmetry breaking is quite severe and the DFT methods do not work well. The calculation of bond energies is more difficult and examples of successes as well as failures of DFT will be given.

  20. System and process for aluminization of metal-containing substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W

    2015-11-03

    A system and method are detailed for aluminizing surfaces of metallic substrates, parts, and components with a protective alumina layer in-situ. Aluminum (Al) foil sandwiched between the metallic components and a refractory material when heated in an oxidizing gas under a compression load at a selected temperature forms the protective alumina coating on the surface of the metallic components. The alumina coating minimizes evaporation of volatile metals from the metallic substrates, parts, and components in assembled devices during operation at high temperature that can degrade performance.

  1. Coxsackievirus cloverleaf RNA containing a 5' triphosphate triggers an antiviral response via RIG-I activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Feng

    Full Text Available Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes and by activating components of the adaptive immune system. Although pegylated IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis B and C virus infections for decades, they exert substantial side effects that limit their use. Current efforts are directed toward the use of PRR agonists as an alternative approach to elicit host antiviral responses in a manner similar to that achieved in a natural infection. RIG-I is a cytosolic PRR that recognizes 5' triphosphate (5'ppp-containing RNA ligands. Due to its ubiquitous expression profile, induction of the RIG-I pathway provides a promising platform for the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study, we investigated whether structured RNA elements in the genome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3, a picornavirus that is recognized by MDA5 during infection, could activate RIG-I when supplied with 5'ppp. We show here that a 5'ppp-containing cloverleaf (CL RNA structure is a potent RIG-I inducer that elicits an extensive antiviral response that includes induction of classical interferon-stimulated genes, as well as type III IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we show that prophylactic treatment with CVB3 CL provides protection against various viral infections including dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and enterovirus 71, demonstrating the antiviral efficacy of this RNA ligand.

  2. Role of unsaturated soil in a waste containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, P.C.; Tay, J.H. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)

    1996-12-31

    The role of the unsaturated properties of sand as a drainage layer in a composite liner system for landfills is investigated. The effect of the unsaturated properties of coarse-grained soil on contaminant migration was evaluated by means of a series of simulations using a one-dimensional model of a two- and a three-layer soil liner system for advection and diffusion, respectively. The results showed that under seepage conditions, the effect of an unsaturated sand layer on the advancement of the concentration front was quite insignificant. The arrival time of the C/C{sub o} = 0.5 concentration front increased from 651 days for the case with no sand layer to approximately 951 days for the case with a 1.0-m sand layer. A steady-state flow condition was ultimately established in the sand, and this fact suggests that the capillary action might not be effective. For diffusion, the arrival time of the concentration front increased nonlinearly with a decrease in the degree of saturation and linearly with increasing depths of the sand layer. At a residual degree of saturation, the arrival times of the C/C{sub o} = 0.01 and 0.5 concentration front at the base of the 1-m sand layer were 26.9 and 877.4 years as compared to 1.52 and 2.62 years by advection, respectively. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Analysis of the exoplanet containing system Kepler 91

    CERN Document Server

    Budding, Edwin; Rhodes, Michael D; Demircan, Osman; Erdem, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    We have applied the graphical user interfaced close binary system analysis program WinFitter to an intensive study of Kepler 91 using all the available photometry from the NASA Exoplanet Archive (NEA) at the Caltech website: http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu Our fitting function for the tidal distortion derives from the relevant Radau equation and includes terms up to the fifth power of the fractional radius. This results in a systematic improvement in the mass ratio estimation over that of Lillo Box et al (2014a) and our derived value for the mass ratio is in close agreement with that inferred from recent high-resolution spectroscopic data. It is clear that the data analysis in terms of simply an eclipsing binary system is compromised by the presence of significant other causes of light variation, in particular non-radial pulsations. We apply a low-frequency filtering procedure to separate out some of this additional light variation. Whilst the derived eccentricity appears then reduced, an eccentric e...

  4. Thermodynamic Modeling of Natural Gas Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini K.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2013-01-01

    with a heavy phase were previously obtained using cubic plus association (CPA) coupled with a solid phase model in the case of hydrates, for the binary systems of water–methane and water–nitrogen and a few natural gas mixtures. In this work, CPA is being validated against new experimental data, both water...... content and phase equilibrium data, and solid model parameters are being estimated for four natural gas main components (methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide). Different tests for the solid model parameters are reported, including vapor-hydrate-equilibria (VHE) and liquid-hydrate-equilibria (LHE......As the need for dew point specifications remains very urgent in the natural gas industry, the development of accurate thermodynamic models, which will match experimental data and will allow reliable extrapolations, is needed. Accurate predictions of the gas phase water content in equilibrium...

  5. Natural lipid nanoparticles containing nimesulide: synthesis, characterization and in vivo antiedematogenic and antinociceptive activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffin, Renata P; Lima, Amanda; Lorenzoni, Ricardo; Antonow, Michelli B; Turra, Cláudia; Alves, Marta P; Fagan, Solange B

    2012-04-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are drug delivery systems able to increase bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. They can be prepared with different lipid materials, especially natural lipids. Shea butter is a natural lipid obtained from the Butyrospermum parkii seed and rich in oleic and stearic acids. Nimesulide is a COX 2 selective anti-inflammatory that is poorly soluble in water. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize shea butter lipid nanoparticles using a new technique and evaluate the in vivo activity of these nanoparticles. Lipid nanoparticles were prepared by melting shea butter and mixing with an aqueous phase using a high shear mixer. The nanoparticles presented pH of 6.9 +/- 0.1, mean particle size of 90 nm and a narrow polydispersity (0.21). Zeta potential was around -20 mV and the encapsulation efficiency was 97.5%. Drug release was evaluated using dialysis bags and presented monoexponential profile with t50% of 4.80 h (free drug t50% was only 2.86 h). Antinociceptive activity was performed by the acetic acid model. Both nimesulide and nimesulide-loaded nanoparticles presented significant activity compared to the control. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by paw edema and was statistically different for the nanoparticles containing nimesulide compared to free nimesulide, blank nanoparticles and saline. In conclusion, the use of shea butter as encapsulating lipid was very successful and allowed nanoparticles to be prepared with a very simple technique. The nanoparticles presented significant pharmacological effects that were not seen for free drug administration.

  6. Leishmanicidal Activity of Films Containing Paromomycin and Gentamicin Sulfate both In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolouei, S; Hasheminia, Sj; Narimani, M; Khamesipour, A; Shatalebi, Ma; Hejazi, Sh

    2011-08-01

    Based on the efficacy of paromomycin ointment and recent ongoing clinical trials of combination of paromomycin and gentamicin, a new physical form of films of the paromomycin and gentamicin was prepared and anti-Leishmania activities of the prepared films were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Paromomycin 15% and gentamicin 0.5% was incorporated in a film using ethyl cellulose and HPMC (Hydroxyl Propyl Methyl Cellulose). In order to assess the drug release and anti-Leishmania activities of the preparation, a clone L. major parasite was established using a set of modified NNN medium without overlay liquid layer. Therapeutic effects of the films were evaluated using Balb/c mice model. The mice were inoculated with 2×10(6)L. major promastigotes (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and then when the lesions developed the mice were randomly divided in 3 groups, 10 mice per group, and treated with either perpetrated films or placebo for 28 days or left untreated. Growth inhibition of cloned promastigotes showed that the films have enough releasing capacity and in vivo system, the films containing paromomycin and gentamicin was able to reduce the lesion size and induced complete cure in 80% of the mice but relapse was seen in 60% of the cured mice and overall 50% cure rate was seen during 20 weeks period of the study. It seems that the prepared films might be further used in human clinical trials.

  7. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%–8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions.

  8. Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) in an activated sludge unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Fikret; Eker, Serkan; Uygur, Ahmet

    2005-08-01

    Chlorophenol compounds present in many chemical industry wastewaters are resistant to biological degradation because of the toxic effects of such compounds on microorganisms. Synthetic wastewater containing different concentrations of 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) was subjected to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit. Effects of feed DCP concentration on COD, DCP, and toxicity removals and on sludge volume index were investigated at a constant sludge age of 10 days and hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 25 h. The Resazurin method based on dehydrogenase activity was used for assessment of toxicity for the feed and effluent wastewater. Percent COD, DCP, and toxicity removals decreased and the effluent COD, DCP, and toxicity levels increased with increasing feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) because of inhibitory effects of DCP. Biomass concentration in the aeration tank decreased and the sludge volume index (SVI) increased with feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) resulting in lower COD and DCP removal rates. The system should be operated at feed DCP concentrations of less than 150 mgl(-1) in order to obtain high COD, DCP, and toxicity removals.

  9. Highly efficient and enzymatic regioselective undecylenoylation of gastrodin in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-containing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongling Yang

    Full Text Available Highly efficient and regioselective acylation of pharmacologically interesting gastrodin with vinyl undecylenic acid has been firstly performed through an enzymatic approach. The highest catalytic activity and regioselectivity towards the acylation of 7'-hydroxyl of gastrodin was obtained with Pseudomonas cepacia lipase. In addition, it was observed the lipase displayed higher activity in the eco-friendly solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-containing systems than in other organic solvents. In the co-solvent mixture of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (3/1, v/v, the reaction rate was 60.6 mM/h, substrate conversion exceeded 99%, and 7'-regioselectivity was 93%. It was also interesting that the lipase-catalyzed acylation couldn't be influenced by the benzylic alcohol in gastrodin. However, pseudomonas cepacia lipase displayed different regioselectivity towards gastrodin and arbutin.

  10. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2007-09-11

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the re quest, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  11. Ability of Ni-containing biomedical alloys to activate monocytes and endothelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataha, J C; Lockwood, P E; Marek, M; Ghazi, M

    1999-06-05

    Nickel-containing alloys commonly are used in medical and dental applications that place them into long-term contact with soft tissues. The release of Ni ions from these alloys is disturbing because of the toxic, immunologic, and carcinogenic effects that have been documented for some Ni compounds. In particular, Ni ions in solution recently have been shown to cause expression of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) from keratinocytes, monocytes, and endothelial cells. However, the ability of the solid alloys themselves to induce these inflammatory effects has not been demonstrated. An in vitro system was used to determine if Ni-containing biomedical alloys could cause secretion of either IL-1beta or TNF-alpha from monocytes or expression of ICAMs on endothelial cells. Pure nickel, titanium, and three biomedical alloys-18-8 stainless steel, NiTi, and Rexillium III-were evaluated. First, it was determined whether or not the alloys or pure metals could cause cytotoxicity to THP-1 human monocytes or human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) by measuring the succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity of the cells. Then, using identical conditions of exposure, the secretion of IL-1beta or TNF-alpha from monocytes or ICAM-1 expression on the HMVECs was determined. Only pure nickel suppressed (by 48% compared to Teflon controls) the SDH activity of the HMVECs or THP-1 monocytes. No alloy or metal caused the HMVECs to express ICAM-1, but the NiTi alloy caused a significant (ANOVA/Tukey) secretion of IL-1beta from the THP-1 monocytes. Secretion of TNF-alpha induced by NiTi was detectable but not statistically significant. The levels of IL-1beta secretion from monocytes were sufficient to induce ICAM-1 expression on HMVECs. The release of Ni from the NiTi was a logical suspect in causing the IL-1beta secretion by monocytes, but its role was not confirmed since other

  12. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis on Containment Filtered Venting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, the thermal hydraulic conditions (e. g. pressure and flow rate) at each component have been examined and the sensitivity analysis on CFVS design parameters (e. g. water inventory, volumetric flow rate). The purpose is to know the possible range of flow conditions at each component to determine the optimum size of filtration system. GOTHIC code has been used to simulate the thermal-hydraulic behavior inside of CFVS. The behavior of flows in the CFVS has been investigated. The vessel water level and the flow rates during the CFVS operation are examined. It was observed that the vessel water level would be changed significantly due to steam condensation/thermal expansion and steam evaporation. Therefore, the vessel size and the initial water inventory should be carefully determined to keep the minimum water level required for filtration components and not to flood the components in the upper side of the vessel. It has been also observed that the volumetric flow rate is maintained during the CFVS operation, which is beneficial for pool scrubbing units. However, regarding the significant variations at the orifice downstream, careful design would be necessary.

  13. Tribological Properties of Nano-dimensional Systems Containing Carbon Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Khomenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We review tribological properties of boundary films of hydrocarbons and water confined between atomically smooth and rough surfaces. Both theory and experiment show that ultrathin film of liquid with thickness less than six molecular diameters restricted in small volumes is solid-like. Such a state is characterized by the decrease of mobility of molecules related to the increase of relaxation times and decrease of the diffusion coefficient. Additionally, quasidiscrete layers of molecules appear and in-plane ordering of the layers occurs. Atomic-scale roughness of the walls destroys the order of the molecules. We also describe experimental studies of friction of graphite at the atomic level. The experiments suggest a principal possibility of superlubricity for the tungsten tip of friction force microscope sheared on the surface of graphite. A possible explanation of this phenomenon consists in the existence of the graphite nanoflake attached to the tip. However, reliable confirmation of this hypothesis is absent in the literature. We also review methods of the graphene preparation through exfoliation of a graphite sample and formation of defects in graphene as a result of its irradiation by different particles. We describe the experimental method of measurement of friction of metallic nanoparticles sliding on the surface of graphite. We consider basic advantages of this approach compared to the known methods and friction duality in these systems. The review indicates the necessity of further comprehensive theoretical study of friction of metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on atomically smooth surfaces.

  14. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR WORM DETECTION AND CONTAINMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.

  15. Interface requirements for coupling a containment code to a reactor system thermal hydraulic codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratta, A.J.

    1997-07-01

    To perform a complete analysis of a reactor transient, not only the primary system response but the containment response must also be accounted for. Such transients and accidents as a loss of coolant accident in both pressurized water and boiling water reactors and inadvertent operation of safety relief valves all challenge the containment and may influence flows because of containment feedback. More recently, the advanced reactor designs put forth by General Electric and Westinghouse in the US and by Framatome and Seimens in Europe rely on the containment to act as the ultimate heat sink. Techniques used by analysts and engineers to analyze the interaction of the containment and the primary system were usually iterative in nature. Codes such as RELAP or RETRAN were used to analyze the primary system response and CONTAIN or CONTEMPT the containment response. The analysis was performed by first running the system code and representing the containment as a fixed pressure boundary condition. The flows were usually from the primary system to the containment initially and generally under choked conditions. Once the mass flows and timing are determined from the system codes, these conditions were input into the containment code. The resulting pressures and temperatures were then calculated and the containment performance analyzed. The disadvantage of this approach becomes evident when one performs an analysis of a rapid depressurization or a long term accident sequence in which feedback from the containment can occur. For example, in a BWR main steam line break transient, the containment heats up and becomes a source of energy for the primary system. Recent advances in programming and computer technology are available to provide an alternative approach. The author and other researchers have developed linkage codes capable of transferring data between codes at each time step allowing discrete codes to be coupled together.

  16. Influence of Composite Phosphate Inorganic Antibacterial Materials Containing Rare Earth on Activated Water Property of Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁金生; 梁广川; 祁洪飞; 吴子钊; 冀志江; 金宗哲

    2004-01-01

    Antibacterial ceramic was prepared by doping enamel slurry with composite phosphate inorganic antibacterial materials containing rare earth (inorganic antibacterial additives), and then the mechanisms for activating water and improving seed germinative property were tested by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the method of testing oxygen dissolved in activated water. Results show that the half peak width of 17O-NMR for tap water activated by the antibacterial ceramic drops from 115.36 to 99.15 Hz, and oxygen concentrations of activated water increase by 20%, germinate rate of horsebean and earthnut seeds increases by 12.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Therefore antibacterial ceramic doped enamel slurry with inorganic antibacterial additives containing rare earth can reduce the volume of clusters of water molecules, improve activation of tap water, and promote plant seeds germinate.

  17. A method for biological testing of containment systems for viral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, N E; Lincoln, T A; Otten, J A; Porter, W E

    1976-07-01

    A technique utilizing coliphage as the test material has been developed and employed to evaluate the effectiveness of a containment system for zonal centrifugation of hepatits viruses. An Andersen Viable Particle Sampler which had been loaded with plates containing a base layer of agar nutrient with an overlay of E. coli- agar suspension was used to sample the test air. The containment system, which includes a HEPA filter, was challenged with an aerosolized suspension of coliphage.

  18. 77 FR 45376 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of infringement of... business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. International Trade...

  19. 77 FR 75188 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. International Trade Commission... certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason...

  20. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L; Pecharroman, C; Moya, J S [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Malpartida, F [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Esteban-Cubillo, A, E-mail: jsmoya@icmm.csic.es [Tolsa S A R and D Department, Camino de Vallecas-Mejorada del Campo Km 1.6, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-16

    A low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing copper nanoparticles with high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal activity has been obtained. Sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed copper nanoparticles (d{sub 50}{approx}30 {+-} 5 nm) were used as the source of the copper nanoparticles. The observed high activity of the obtained glass powder, particularly against yeast, has been explained by considering the inhibitory synergistic effect of the Ca{sup 2+} lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the colonies.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, electrochemical studies and antitumor activity of some new chalcone analogues containing ferrocenyl pyrazole moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratković, Zoran; Juranić, Zorica D; Stanojković, Tatjana; Manojlović, Dragan; Vukićević, Rastko D; Radulović, Niko; Joksović, Milan D

    2010-02-01

    A series of new alpha,beta-unsaturated conjugated ketones containing ferrocenyl pyrazole unit were synthesized and fully characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical characterization of subject compounds was performed by means of cyclic voltametry. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of all the synthesized compounds was studied against cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, melanoma Fem-x and myelogenous leukemia K562 cell lines by the MTT method. Derivative 1l containing 3-pyridyl moiety exhibited a better cytotoxic activity in the cell growth inhibition of K562 cell lines in comparison with cisplatin as a reference compound.

  2. 77 FR 48519 - Registration Applications for Pesticide Products Containing New Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to..., 235 South Kresson Street, Baltimore, MD 21224-2616. Active Ingredient: Bacillus thuringiensis...

  3. Development of active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) starch containing gold nanoparticles and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagno, Carlos H; Costa, Tania M H; de Menezes, Eliana W; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Hertz, Plinho F; Matte, Carla R; Tosati, Juliano V; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2015-04-15

    Active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, W.) starch were prepared by incorporating gold nanoparticles stabilised by an ionic silsesquioxane that contains the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride group. The biofilms were characterised and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusaureus. The presence of gold nanoparticles produces an improvement in the mechanical, optical and morphological properties, maintaining the thermal and barrier properties unchanged when compared to the standard biofilm. The active biofilms exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens with inhibition percentages of 99% against E. coli and 98% against S. aureus. These quinoa starch biofilms containing gold nanoparticles are very promising to be used as active food packaging for the maintenance of food safety and extension of the shelf life of packaged foods.

  4. Transport in active systems crowded by obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Schofield, Jeremy; Kapral, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    The reactive and diffusive dynamics of a single chemically powered Janus motor in a crowded medium of moving but passive obstacles is investigated using molecular simulation. It is found that the reaction rate of the catalytic motor reaction decreases in a crowded medium as the volume fraction of obstacles increases as a result of a reduction in the Smoluchowski diffusion-controlled reaction rate coefficient that contributes to the overall reaction rate. A continuum model is constructed and analyzed to interpret the dependence of the steady-state reaction rate observed in simulations on the volume fraction of obstacles in the system. The steady-state concentration fields of reactant and product are shown to be sensitive to the local structure of obstacles around the Janus motor. It is demonstrated that the active motor exhibits enhanced diffusive motion at long times with a diffusion constant that decreases as the volume fraction of crowding species increases. In addition, the dynamical properties of a passive tracer particle in a system containing many active Janus motors is studied to investigate how an active environment influences the transport of non-active species. The diffusivity of a passive tracer particle in an active medium is found to be enhanced in systems with forward-moving Janus motors due to the cooperative dynamics of these motors.

  5. Decision Support for Optimal Repositioning of Containers in a Feeder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Tuljak-Suban

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The transport of empty containers represents a seriousproblem in the fast growing sphere of maritime container transport.The most widespread type of container transport organizationin maritime transport is the hub and spoke mode, whichenables the transport of a great number of containers via largevessels between hub ports, from where feeder ships transport tosmaller ports that thus gravitate to the central hub port. The articlecontains a detailed analysis of the northern Adriatic portsand the feeder connections with the hub ports of the Mediterranean.A two-level VRPPD (Vehicle Routing Problem withPickup and Delivery problem is modelled on a graph, wherethe transport of full containers is privileged over the transport ofempty containers. This enables the simulation of the feeder systemin the n01them Adriatic, meaning that it shows the ship'soperator the movement programme with minimal transportcosts for the superfluous empty containers in the complex of theregular transports of full containers in the feeder system.

  6. Immobilization and direct electrochemistry of copper-containing enzymes on active carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dongmei; CAI Chenxin; XING Wei; LU Tianhong

    2004-01-01

    Two typical and important copper-containing enzymes, laccase (Lac) and tyrosinase (Tyr), have been immobilized on the surface of active carbon with simple adsorption method. The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that the active carbon could promote the direct electron transfer of both Lac and Tyr and a pair of well-defined and nearly symmetric redox peaks appeared on the cyclic voltammograms of Lac or Tyr with the formal potential, E0′, independent on the scan rate. The further experimental results showed that the immobilized copper-containing oxidase displayed an excellent electrocatalytic activity to the electrochemical reduction of O2. The immobilization method presented here has several advantages, such as simplicity, easy to operation and keeping good activity of enzyme etc., and could be further used to study the direct electrochemistry of other redox proteins and enzymes and fabricate the catalysts for biofuel cell.

  7. Airway surface liquid contains endogenous DNase activity which can be activated by exogenous magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenecker J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The removal of highly viscous mucus from the airways is an important task in the treatment of chronic lung disease like in cystic fibrosis. The inhalation of recombinant human DNase-I (rhDNase-I is used to facilitate the removal of tenacious airway secretions in different lung diseases and especially in CF. Little is known about endogenous DNase activity in the airway surface liquid. Therefore, we analysed bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL and exhaled breath condensate (EBC for the presence of endogenous DNase activity. Methods The degradation of plasmid DNA by BAL from patients who had diagnostic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage was analyzed. In a group of CF patients and healthy control volunteers the exhaled breath condensate was obtained and also analyzed for the ability to degrade plasmid DNA. In addition, the ability of magnesium to activate endogenous DNase activity in BAL and exhaled breath condensate was investigated. Results The analyzed BAL samples degraded plasmid DNA only after preincubation with magnesium. When analyzing the exhaled breath condensate the samples obtained from the healthy volunteers showed no DNase activity even after preincubation with magnesium, whereas in one of the two samples obtained from CF patients we found a DNase activity after preincubation with magnesium. Conclusion Increasing the magnesium concentration in the airway surface liquid by aerosolisation of magnesium solutions or oral magnesium supplements could improve the removal of highly viscous mucus in chronic lung disease by activating endogenous DNase activity.

  8. Synthesis and Fungicidal Activity of Pyrazolecarboxamide Containing α-Aminoacetanilide Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of pyrazolecarboxamides containing α-aminoacetanilide moiety (4 were synthesized. These compounds were characterized by IR, MS and 1H NMR. Their fugicidal activities against Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Monilinia fructicola and Alternaria brassicae were evaluated. The results show that compound 4l and 4p, which bear only one electron-donating group on the para-position of phenyl or benzyl group, possessed excellent inhibitory activities against the above four fungi.

  9. Containment Domains: A Scalable, Efficient and Flexible Resilience Scheme for Exascale Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsuk Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and evaluates a scalable and efficient resilience scheme based on the concept of containment domains. Containment domains are a programming construct that enable applications to express resilience needs and to interact with the system to tune and specialize error detection, state preservation and restoration, and recovery schemes. Containment domains have weak transactional semantics and are nested to take advantage of the machine and application hierarchies and to enable hierarchical state preservation, restoration and recovery. We evaluate the scalability and efficiency of containment domains using generalized trace-driven simulation and analytical analysis and show that containment domains are superior to both checkpoint restart and redundant execution approaches.

  10. Study on the adsorption of Cr(Ⅵ) onto landfill liners containing granular activated carbon or bentonite activated by acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hai-jun; LUAN Mao-tian; ZHANG Jin-li; YU Yong-xian

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of landfill liners containing granular activated carbon (GAC), or bentonite activated by acid, for Cr(VI) was investigated by batch testing. The results show that both GAC and activated bentonite could be used as sorptive amendments for trapping Cr(VI) in landfill liners. The Cr(VI) sorption to GAC and activated bentonite is much greater than Cr(VI) sorption to natural clay. The adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) onto all the soils increases with increasing temperature; adsorption ca-pacity is also significantly influenced by soil-solid concentration. As the soil-solid concentration increases the adsorption capacity first decreases logarithmically, but then stabilizes when the soil-solid concentration exceeds a critical value (e.g. 400 g/L). Perme-ability tests were conducted in the laboratory. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductivity of landfill liners containing GAC or activated bentonite can meet the engineering requirement of 1 nm/s. One-dimensional transport simulations for Cr(VI) were performed to evaluate the effect of GAC and activated bentonite on landfill liners. The results of the simulations indicate that land-fill liners containing GAC, or activated bentonite, significantly retard the transport of Cr(VI) relative to a conventional clay liner.

  11. Thermodynamics of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol Containing Systems Described by the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    A thorough investigation of triethylene glycol (TEG) containing systems has been performed. The introduction of a new six-site association scheme for the TEG molecule has shown to be advantageous. Glycols are often modeled using a four-site scheme (abbreviated as 4C) hence ignoring the internal......-decane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and water) and different types of phase equilibria (vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and LLE) and thermodynamic properties (heat of mixing, activity coefficients). A less extensive investigation has also been performed on tetraethylene glycol (TeEG) containing systems...

  12. Active Space Debris Removal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele GUERRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the space era, more than 5000 launches have been carried out, each carrying satellites for many disparate uses, such as Earth observation or communication. Thus, the space environment has become congested and the problem of space debris is now generating some concerns in the space community due to our long-lived belief that “space is big”. In the last few years, solutions to this problem have been proposed, one of those is Active Space Debris Removal: this method will reduce the increasing debris growth and permit future sustainable space activities. The main idea of the method proposed below is a drag augmentation system: use a system capable of putting an expanded foam on a debris which will increase the area-to-mass ratio to increase the natural atmospheric drag and solar pressure. The drag augmentation system proposed here requires a docking system; the debris will be pushed to its release height and then, after un-docking, an uncontrolled re-entry takes place ending with a burn up of the object and the foam in the atmosphere within a given time frame. The method requires an efficient way to change the orbit between two debris. The present paper analyses such a system in combination with an Electric Propulsion system, and emphasizes the choice of using two satellites to remove five effective rockets bodies debris within a year.

  13. Synthesis and antibacterial activity against ralstonia solanacearum for novel hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most important bacterial diseases on plants, is a devastating, soil-borne plant pathogen with a global distribution and an unusually wide host range. In order to discover new bioactive molecules and pesticides acting on tobacco bacterial wilt, we sought to combine the active structure of hydrazone and pyridine together to design and synthesize a series of novel hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety. Results A series of hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety were synthesized. Their structures were characterized by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. The preliminary biological activity tests showed that compound 3e and 3g exhibited more than 80% activity against Ralstonia solanacearum at 500 mg/L, especially compound 3g displayed relatively good activity to reach 57.0% at 200 mg/L. Conclusion A practical synthetic route to hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety by the reaction of intermediates 2 with different aldehydes in ethanol at room temperature using 2-chloronicotinic acid and 2-amino-5-chloro-3-methylbenzoic acid as start materials is presented. This study suggests that the hydrazone derivatives containing a substituted pyridine ring could inhibit the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum.

  14. C-terminal moiety of Tudor contains its in vivo activity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Anne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early Drosophila embryos, the germ plasm is localized to the posterior pole region and is partitioned into the germline progenitors, known as pole cells. Germ plasm, or pole plasm, contains the polar granules which form during oogenesis and are required for germline development. Components of these granules are also present in the perinuclear region of the nurse cells, the nuage. One such component is Tudor (Tud which is a large protein containing multiple Tudor domains. It was previously reported that specific Tudor domains are required for germ cell formation and Tud localization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the function of Tud the distribution and functional activity of fragments of Tud were analyzed. These fragments were fused to GFP and the fusion proteins were synthesized during oogenesis. Non-overlapping fragments of Tud were found to be able to localize to both the nuage and pole plasm. By introducing these fragments into a tud mutant background and testing their ability to rescue the tud phenotype, I determined that the C-terminal moiety contains the functional activity of Tud. Dividing this fragment into two parts reduces its localization in pole plasm and abolishes its activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: I conclude that the C-terminal moiety of Tud contains all the information necessary for its localization in the nuage and pole plasm and its pole cell-forming activity. The present results challenge published data and may help refining the functional features of Tud.

  15. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  16. Studies on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole compounds Containing Thiophene Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; ZHANG Shu-sheng; HU Zhi-qiang; JIAO Kui

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen new triazole compounds containing thiophene groups were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by means of 1H NMR, IR, MS spectroscopies and elemental analyses. The preliminary biological tests show that the titled compounds exhibit some activities of fungicides and plant growth regulators.

  17. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. Thermal, mechanical, and structural considerations leading to the design of the tray hardware are discussed. In general, changes in the retested component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials, multilayer optical interference filters, and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  18. Leishmanicidal Activity of Films Containing Paromomycin and Gentamicin Sulfate both In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Hejazi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on the efficacy of paromomycin ointment and recent ongoing clinical trials of combination of paromomycin and gentamicin, a new physical form of films of the paromomy­cin and gentamicin was prepared and anti-Leishmania activities of the prepared films were as­sessed in vitro and in vivo.Methods: Paromomycin 15% and gentamicin 0.5% was incorporated in a film using ethyl cellu­lose and HPMC (Hydroxyl Propyl Methyl Cellulose. In order to assess the drug release and anti-Leishmania activities of the preparation, a clone L. major parasite was established using a set of modified NNN medium without overlay liquid layer. Therapeutic effects of the films were evalu­ated using Balb/c mice model. The mice were inoculated with 2×106 L. major promastigotes (MRHO/IR/75/ER and then when the lesions developed the mice were randomly divided in 3 groups, 10 mice per group, and treated with either perpetrated films or placebo for 28 days or left untreated.Results: Growth inhibition of cloned promastigotes showed that the films have enough releasing capacity and in vivo system, the films containing paromomycin and gentamicin was able to re­duce the lesion size and induced complete cure in 80% of the mice but relapse was seen in 60% of the cured mice and overall 50% cure rate was seen during 20 weeks period of the study.Conclusion: It seems that the prepared films might be further used in human clinical trials.

  19. The systems containing clays and clay minerals from modified drug release: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luís Alberto de Sousa; Figueiras, Ana; Veiga, Francisco; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Nunes, Lívio César Cunha; da Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti; da Silva Leite, Cleide Maria

    2013-03-01

    Clays are materials commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, either as ingredients or as active ingredients. It was observed that when they are administered concurrently, they may interact with drugs reducing their absorption. Therefore, such interactions can be used to achieve technological and biopharmaceutical advantages, regarding the control of release. This review summarizes bibliographic (articles) and technological (patents) information on the use of systems containing clays and clay minerals in modified drug delivery. In this area, formulations such natural clay, commercial clay, synthetic clay, composites clay-polymers, nanocomposites clay-polymers, films and hidrogels composites clay-polymers are used to slow/extend or vectorize the release of drugs and consequently they increase their bioavailability. Finally, this review summarizes the fields of technology and biopharmaceutical applications, where clays are applied.

  20. Antitumor Active Protein-containing Glycans from the Body of Ganoderma tsugae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; LI Yue-fei; ZHENG Ke-yan; FEI Xiao-fang

    2012-01-01

    To explore the effects of traditional herbal medicine Ganoderma tsugae(G.tsugae) on immunomodulatory and antitumor activities,the crude polysaccharides ofG.tsugae were purified by filtration,diethylaminoethyl(DEAE)sepharose-fast flow chromatography and sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography.Two main fractions,protein-containing glycans CSSLP-I and CSSLP-2,were obtained via the gradient elution.The protein content,molecular weight,and monosaccharide composition of the two fractions were analyzed.Furthermore,the influence of the protein-containing glycans from G.tsugae on the activation of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line(THP-1 ) and their antitumor activities to the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell(HepG-2) in vitro were evaluated.The results indicate that CSSLP-I and CSSLP-2 could increase the pinocytic activity of THP-1 cells and induce THP-1 cells to produce the cytokines of TNFa and IL-2,significantly.CSSLP-1 and CSSLP-2 also played an inhibiting effect on the cancer cell(NepG-2).Moreover,the anti-proliferation activity of CSSLP-1 and CSSLP-2 increased with the participation of TNFa and 1L-2 or other antitumor factors induced from THP-1 cclls by G.tsugae protein-containing glycan fractions.

  1. Searching for benchmark systems containing ultra-cool dwarfs and white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have used the 2MASS all-sky survey and WISE to look for ultracool dwarfs that are part of multiple systems containing main sequence stars. We cross-matched L dwarf candidates from the surveys with Hipparcos and Gliese stars, finding two new systems. We consider the binary fraction for L dwarfs and main sequence stars, and further assess possible unresolved multiplicity within the full companion sample. This analysis shows that some of the L dwarfs in this sample might actually be unresolved binaries themselves. We have also identified a sample of common proper motion systems in which a main sequence star has a white dwarf as wide companion. These systems can help explore key issues in star evolution theory, as the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs, or the chromospheric activity-age relationship for stars still in the main sequence. Spectroscopy for 50 white dwarf candidates, selected from the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive, was obtained. We have also observed 6 of the main sequence star companions, and have estimated their effective temperatures, rotational and microturbulent velocities and metallicities.

  2. Novel hydrazone derivatives containing pyridine amide moiety: Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zai-Bo; Hu, De-Yu; Zeng, Song; Song, Bao-An

    2016-02-15

    A series of novel hydrazone derivatives containing pyridine amide moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their insecticidal activity. Bioassays indicated that some of the target compounds exhibited good insecticidal activities against Nilaparvata lugens (N. lugens), Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella), Mythimna separata (M. separata), Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera), Pyrausta nubilalis (P. nubilalis), and Culex pipiens pallens (C. pipiens pallens). In particular, compound 5j revealed excellent insecticidal activity against C. pipiens pallens, with the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and the 95% lethal concentration (LC95) values of 2.44 and 5.76 mg/L, respectively, which were similar to those of chlorpyrifos (3.26 and 6.98 mg/L, respectively), tebufenozide (1.22 and 2.49 mg/L, respectively), and RH-5849 (2.61 and 6.37 mg/L, respectively). These results indicated that hydrazone derivatives containing pyridine amide moiety could be developed as novel and promising insecticides.

  3. Synthesis and extended activity of triazole-containing macrocyclic protease inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehere, A.D.; Pietsch, M.; Gütschow, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Peptide-derived protease inhibitors are an important class of compounds with the potential to treat a wide range of diseases. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a series of triazole- containing macrocyclic protease inhibitors pre-organized into a b-strand conformation and an evaluation...... of their activity against a panel of proteases. Acyclic azidoalkyne-based aldehydes are also evaluated for comparison. The macrocyclic peptidomimetics showed considerable activity towards calpain II, cathepsin L and S, and the 20S proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity. Some of the first examples of highly potent...

  4. A substrate dependent biological containment systems for Pseudomonas putida based on the Escherichia coli gef gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Ramos, J. L.; Kaneva, Z.;

    1993-01-01

    A model substrate-dependent suicide system to biologically contain Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is reported. The system consists of two elements. One element carries a fusion between a synthetic lac promoter (PA1-04/03) and the gef gene, which encodes a killing function. This element is contained...... operon (Pm) and the lacI gene, encoding the Lac repressor, plus xylS2, coding for a positive regulator of Pm. In liquid culture under optimal growth conditions and in sterile and nonsterile soil microcosms, P. putida KT2440 (pWWO) bearing the containment system behaves as designed. In the presence...

  5. Active Stabilization of Aeromechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-05

    feedback, the resulting two-mode proportonal control law further extended the stable range of operation of the compresor . Stall flow coefficient was...active control of surge and stall in gas turbine engines. The use of small amplitude waves predicted by theory as stall precursors were tested with...stabilization system for rotating stall which was tested on both a single-stage and a three-stage axial compressor, increasing the stable operating range

  6. Microparticles Containing Curcumin Solid Dispersion: Stability, Bioavailability and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, C. C. C.; Mendonça, L. M.; Bergamaschi, M. M.; QUEIROZ, R. H. C.; Souza, G. E. P.; L. M. G. ANTUNES; Freitas, L. A. P. de

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at improving the solubility of curcumin by the preparation of spray-dried ternary solid dispersions containing Gelucire®50/13-Aerosil® and quantifying the resulting in vivo oral bioavailability and anti-inflammatory activity. The solid dispersion containing 40% of curcumin was characterised by calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility and dissolution rate of curcumin in aqueous HCl or phosphate buffer improved up to 3600- and 7.3-fold, res...

  7. Influence of strain rate on the twin and slip activity of a magnesium alloy containing neodymium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudamell, N.V. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Hidalgo-Manrique, P., E-mail: paloma.hidalgo@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Chakkedath, A.; Chen, Z.; Boehlert, C.J. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226 (United States); Gálvez, F. [ETS Ingenieros de Caminos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yi, S.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D. [Magnesium Innovation Centre, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Pérez-Prado, M.T. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-20

    The mechanical behavior of an extruded magnesium–manganese alloy containing 1 wt% of neodymium (MN11) has been investigated at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400 °C at both quasi-static and dynamic rates. Conventional ex-situ tests, carried out in compression along the extrusion axis (EA), have been combined with in-situ tests in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to elucidate the effect of a rare earth (RE) addition on the dominant deformation mechanisms. An unusually large activity of twinning was observed at room temperature in a wide range of quasi-static rates. Furthermore, the twinning activity has been found to increase at temperatures around 250 °C, where clear signs of dynamic strain aging (DSA) are also apparent. The enhanced twinning activity compared to conventional Mg alloys, not containing RE elements, is attributed to an increase in the critical resolved shear stress of basal slip (CRSS{sub basal}) due to the presence of intermetallic RE-containing particles and to the Nd atoms in solid solution. The surprising decrease of the twinning activity at dynamic rates (∼10{sup 3} s{sup −1}) may be explained by a decrease in the CRSS{sub basal} as the intermetallic RE-containg particles and the Nd solid solution strengthening become less effective with increasing strain rate.

  8. High Efficient Enrichment and Activated Dissolution of Refractory Low Grade Rh-containing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaofeng; DONG Haigang; TONG Weifeng; ZHAO Jiachun; ZENG Rui

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to the low-grade rhodium-containing waste materials,a new process was proposed to enrich and activate rhodium by smelting using iron oxide as a trapping agent and activator.A rhodium concentrate was obtained by the separation of base metals and precious metals.The concentrate was reacted with dilute aqua regia to obtain rhodium solution.The factors influencing the enrichment and activation effects were discussed in this paper.The results showed that the dissolution rate is greater than 99% under the optimum conditions.In this process,the activation of rhodium was finished in the enrichment process.The iron oxide is both a trapping agent and activator,which simplifies the process and reduce the cost.

  9. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Herbicidal Activities of 2-Cyanoacrylates Containing 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tingting; Miao Wenke; Wu Shanshan; Bing Guifang; Zhang Xin; Qin Zhenfang; Yu Haibo; Qin Xue; Fang Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Three series of novel 2-cyanoacrylates 7a-7f, 9a-9f, 10a-10f containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring moieties were synthesized as herbicidal inhibitors of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) electron transportation. Their structures were clearly verified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis (or HRMS analysis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioassay showed that a suitable group at the 3-position of acrylates was essential for high herbicidal activ-ity. In particular, compound 7e showed the best herbicidal activities and gave 100% inhibitory activity against rape and amaranth pigweed at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha. Introduction of substituent with higher polarity such as sulfinyl or sulfonyl to the 5-position of 1,3,4-thiadiazole decreased herbicidal activities.

  10. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Anthranilic Diamide Insecticide Containing Trifluoroethyl Ether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵毓; 李永强; 熊丽霞; 王红学; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    Two series of novel anthranilic diamide insecticide containing trifluoroethyl ether were designed and synthesized, and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The insecticidal activities of the new compounds were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that some of these title compounds exhibited excellent insecticidal activities. The insecticidal activities of compounds 19a, 19b, 19d, 19g, 19k and 19m against oriental armyworm at 2.5 mg·kg-1 were 100%. The larvicidal activities of 19a, 19b, 19c, 19d, 19e, 19g and 19n against diamond-back moth were 100% at 0.1 mg·kg-1. Surprisingly, most of them still exhibited perfect insecticidal activity against diamond-back moth when the concentration was reduced to 0.05 mg·kg-1, which was higher than the commercialized Chlorantraniliprole.

  11. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  12. The development of a performance measurement system for the South African container shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn Hector

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is dependent on efficient supply chains and a variety of transport systems. South Africa participates in the world’s economy with an extensive container shipping industry, as well as a road/rail/air distribution system. One of the aims of this research study was to develop a measurement system, or model, that may assist in measuring the performance of a container shipping service, from the time a ship arrives in the harbour, through the process in the container depot until the container arrives at the final customer for imports, and the other way round for exports. The objective was to develop a performance index that would assist management in assessing and/or improving the current system. It is a global phenomenon that inefficiencies cannot be eliminated by a single organisation; it requires the cooperation of all the parties in a supply chain.

  13. ARAS: an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing a safe environment for radiation workers but also to ensure accuracy of dispensed radioactivity and an efficient workflow. For this purpose, we have designed ARAS, an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes with particular focus on fluorine-18 (18F). Methods The key to the system is the combina...

  14. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  15. Antifungal activity of nanocapsule suspensions containing tea tree oil on the growth of Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F C; de Lima, J A; Ribeiro, R F; Alves, S H; Rolim, C M B; Beck, R C R; da Silva, Cristiane Bona

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the antifungal efficacy of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (tea tree oil) in an onychomycosis model. The antifungal activity of nanostructured formulations was evaluated against Trichophyton rubrum in two different in vitro models of dermatophyte nail infection. First, nail powder was infected with T. rubrum in a 96-well plate and then treated with the formulations. After 7 and 14 days, cell viability was verified. The plate counts for the samples were 2.37, 1.45 and 1.0 log CFU mL(-1) (emulsion, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil and nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, respectively). A second model employed nails fragments which were infected with the microorganism and treated with the formulations. The diameter of fungal colony was measured. The areas obtained were 2.88 ± 2.08 mm(2), 14.59 ± 2.01 mm(2), 40.98 ± 2.76 mm(2) and 38.72 ± 1.22 mm(2) for the nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil, emulsion and untreated nail, respectively. Nail infection models demonstrated the ability of the formulations to reduce T. rubrum growth, with the inclusion of oil in nanocapsules being most efficient.

  16. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  17. Study on the Behaviors of a Conceptual Passive Containment Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The containment is an ultimate and important barrier to mitigate the consequences after the release of mass and energy during such scenarios as loss of coolant accident (LOCA or main steam line break (MSLB. In this investigation, a passive containment cooling system (PCCS concept is proposed for a large dry concrete containment. The system is composed of series of heat exchangers, long connecting pipes with relatively large diameter, valves, and a water tank, which is located at the top of the system and serves as the final heat sink. The performance of the system is numerically studied in detail under different conditions. In addition, the influences of condensation heat transfer conditions and containment environment temperature conditions are also studied on the behaviors of the system. The results reveal that four distinct operating stages could be experienced as follows: startup stage, single phase quasisteady stage, flashing speed-up transient stage, and flashing dominated quasisteady operating stage. Furthermore, the mechanisms of system behaviors are thus analyzed. Moreover, the feasibility of the system is also discussed to meet the design purpose for the containment integrity requirement. Considering the passive feature and the compactness of the system, the proposed PCCS is promising for the advanced integral type reactor.

  18. sEMG during Whole-Body Vibration Contains Motion Artifacts and Reflex Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lienhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the excessive spikes observed in the surface electromyography (sEMG spectrum recorded during whole-body vibration (WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and/or reflex activity. The occurrence of motion artifacts was tested by electrical recordings of the patella. The involvement of reflex activity was investigated by analyzing the magnitude of the isolated spikes during changes in voluntary background muscle activity. Eighteen physically active volunteers performed static squats while the sEMG was measured of five lower limb muscles during vertical WBV using no load and an additional load of 33 kg. In order to record motion artifacts during WBV, a pair of electrodes was positioned on the patella with several layers of tape between skin and electrodes. Spectral analysis of the patella signal revealed recordings of motion artifacts as high peaks at the vibration frequency (fundamental and marginal peaks at the multiple harmonics were observed. For the sEMG recordings, the root mean square of the spikes increased with increasing additional loads (p < 0.05, and was significantly correlated to the sEMG signal without the spikes of the respective muscle (r range: 0.54 - 0.92, p < 0.05. This finding indicates that reflex activity might be contained in the isolated spikes, as identical behavior has been found for stretch reflex responses evoked during direct vibration. In conclusion, the spikes visible in the sEMG spectrum during WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and possibly reflex activity.

  19. Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; BI Wen-zhao; SHANG Yu-qing; ZHAI Zhi-wei; YI Xu

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen novel triazole compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups were synthesized from 2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)acetohydrazide and carbon disulfide by several step reactions. The target compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, MS, and X-ray crystallography. The results of preliminary biological tests show that all the compounds exhibit certain fungicidal activities.

  20. Purification, enzymatic properties, and active site environment of a novel manganese(III)-containing acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Y; Kawabe, H; Tanaka, H; Fujimoto, S; Ohara, A

    1981-10-25

    A new manganese-containing acid phosphatase has been isolated and crystallized from sweet potato tubers. The pure enzyme contains one atom of manganese per Mr = 110,000 polypeptide and shows phosphatase activity toward various phosphate substrates. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 5.8 and the enzyme activity was inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+, Hg2+, AsO43-, and MoO42-. This stable metalloenzyme is red-violet in color with an intense absorption band at 515 nm (epsilon - 2460). Our electronic, circular dichroism, and electron spin resonance findings strongly indicate that the Mn-valence state of the native enzyme is trivalent. When the Mn-enzyme is excited by the 5145 A line of Ar+ laser, prominent Raman lines at 1230, 1298, 1508, and 1620 cm-1 were detected. This Raman spectrum can probably be interpreted in terms of internal vibration of a coordinated tyrosine phenolate anion. The tryptophan-modified enzyme showed a positive Raman band at 370 cm-1, which is preferentially assigned to a Mn(III)-S streching mode. The modification of the Mn-enzyme by N-bromosuccinimide led to a large decrease in the fluorescence intensity of 335 nm which was dominated by its tryptophan residues within a considerable hydrophobic environment. The acid phosphatase activity was significantly decreased by the tryptophan modification. With respect to the active site donor sets, the Mn(III)-containing acid phosphatase is distinctly different from the Zn(II)-containing alkaline phosphatase. Of interest is also the appreciable similarity of some enzymatic and spectroscopic properties between the present enzyme and uteroferrin.

  1. Antibacterial structure–activity relationship studies of several tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrin, Lucian G; Hopf, Henning; Jones, Peter G; Sarbu, Laura G; Babii, Cornelia; Mihai, Alina C

    2016-01-01

    Summary A structure–activity relationship study concerning the antibacterial properties of several halogen-substituted tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids has been performed. The compounds have been synthesized by cyclocondensation of the corresponding 3-dithiocarbamic flavanones under acidic conditions. The influence of different halogen substituents on the antibacterial properties has been tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Amongst the N,N-dialkylamino-substituted flavonoids, those having an N,N-diethylamino moiety exhibited good to excellent antimicrobial properties against both pathogens. Fluorine-substituted flavonoids were found to be less active than those bearing other halogen atoms. PMID:27340492

  2. Synthesis ,Structure and Biological Activities of Some Novel Anthranilic Acid Esters Containing N-Pyridyl-pyrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG,Weili; XU,Junying; XIONG,Lixia; LIU,Xinghai; LI,Zhengming

    2009-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign insecticides with high activity,low toxicity and low residue,a novel series of anthranilic acid esters containing N-pyridylpyrazole were designed and synthesized.All of the compounds were characterized and confirmed by IR,1H NMR,MS and elemental analysis.The single crystal structure of 14d was determined by X-ray diffraction.The bioassay tests showed that the synthesized compounds exhibited good insecti-tidal activities against Mythimna separata Walker and Culex pipiens pallens.

  3. Antifungal activity of dental resins containing amphotericin B-conjugated nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Miguel M; Paulo, Cristiana S O; Vale, Ana C; Vaz, M Fátima; Ferreira, Lino S

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the antifungal activity, biocompatibility and mechanical properties of dental resins containing silica nanoparticles functionalized with amphotericin B (SNP-DexOxAmB) against five species of Candida. Dental resin composites (Spectrum, Dentsply DeTrey, GmbH, Germany) having 2% (w/w) of SNP-DexOxAmB (SNPs of 5 and 80nm, denoted as SNP5 and SNP80) were aged for 10, 20 and 30 days at 37°C, in phosphate buffer saline buffer pH 7.4 (PBS). At different time, the antifungal activity was evaluated by a direct contact assay against 1×10(4)cells of Candida. The biocompatibility of the resins was tested against human fibroblasts, endothelial cells and red blood cells. Dental resins containing SNP5-DexOxAmB have high (1×10(4)cells killed in 5h by ∼70mg of dental resin composite containing 2% (w/w) of SNP-DexOxAmB) and durable (for at least 1 month) antifungal activity against five strains of Candida. The incorporation of the nanoparticles (NPs) had no significant change in the mechanical properties of the resin, specifically the flexural strength and modulus. Our results further show that the antifungal activity is mainly mediated by direct contact and not by leaching of NPs from the resin. Resins incorporating SNP5-DexOxAmB have longer-term antifungal activity than SNP80-DexOxAmB. The antimicrobial activity of resins with SNP5-DexOxAmB persists after 4 cycles of re-use and it is superior to the activity obtained for dental resins containing silver NPs. In addition, dental resins incorporating SNP5-DexOxAmB are non-cytotoxic against human skin fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and non-hemolytic against human red blood cells. The incorporation of SNP5-DexOxAmB in dental resins resulted in a non-cytotoxic composite with high and durable antifungal activity. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Oxazolidinone Analogs Containing Substituted Thiazole/Fused-Bicyclic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen novel oxazolidinone analogs containing substituted thiazole/fused-bicyclic(imidazo[1,2-b] pyridazine/imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole) groups were designed and synthesized. A new method for the preparation of the key intermediate compound 11 was proposed. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and MS, and their in vitro antibacterial activities against staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Among them, compound 16a displays a promising antibacterial activity comparable to that of linezolid.

  5. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Anthranilic Diamides Analogues Containing Benzo[b]thiophene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-feng; LIU Chen; LIU Peng-fei; YAN Tao; WANG Bao-lei; XIONG Li-xia; LI Zheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    A series of novel anthranilic diamides analogues containing benzo[b]thiophenyl ring was designed and synthesized.Their structures were characterized by melting points,1H nuclear magnetic resonance(1H NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS).The bioassay tests indicate that their insecticidal activities were weak to moderate.Antibacterial tests indicate that some of the compounds showed favourable activity in vitro against Physalospora piricola,Alternaria solani,Cercospora arachidicola,Gibberella sanbinetti and Phytophthora infestans at a dosage of 50 mg/L.

  6. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New Pyrethroid Acid Oxime-esters Containing Pyrazole Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun-an; HUANG Run-qiu; FENG Lei; SONG Jian; QIU De-wen

    2003-01-01

    A series of compounds containing oxime-ester linkage and pyrazole ring(in place of the ester linkage and the alcohol moiety in pyrethroid ester) was designed and synthesized. The structures of all the compounds prepared were confirmed by 1H NMR and MS spectroscopy as well as elemental analyses. The bioassay data of those compounds against tobacco mosaic virus(TMV), cucumber mosaic virus(CMV), potato virus X(PVX) and potato virus Y(PVY) were presented. Among them compound 6i was found to possess significant plant antiviral activities. But all the compounds showed low insecticidal and acaricidal activities.

  7. Antibacterial structure–activity relationship studies of several tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian G. Bahrin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A structure–activity relationship study concerning the antibacterial properties of several halogen-substituted tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids has been performed. The compounds have been synthesized by cyclocondensation of the corresponding 3-dithiocarbamic flavanones under acidic conditions. The influence of different halogen substituents on the antibacterial properties has been tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Amongst the N,N-dialkylamino-substituted flavonoids, those having an N,N-diethylamino moiety exhibited good to excellent antimicrobial properties against both pathogens. Fluorine-substituted flavonoids were found to be less active than those bearing other halogen atoms.

  8. An analytical method for measuring α-amylase activity in starch-containing foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuo; Hirao, Takashi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2013-05-01

    The quality of starch-containing foods may be significantly impaired by contamination with very small amounts of α-amylase, which can enzymatically hydrolyze the starch and cause viscosity loss. Thus, for quality control, it is necessary to have an analytical method that can measure low amylase activity. We developed a sensitive analytical method for measuring the activity of α-amylase (from Bacillus subtilis) in starch-containing foods. The method consists of six steps: (1) crude extraction of α-amylase by centrifugation and filtration; (2) α-amylase purification by desalting and anion-exchange chromatography; (3) reaction of the purified amylase with boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-labeled substrate, which releases a fluorescent fragment upon digestion of the substrate, thus avoiding interference from starch derivatives in the sample; (4) stopping the reaction with acetonitrile; (5) reversed-phase solid-phase extraction of the fluorescent substrate to remove contaminating dye and impurities; and (6) separation and measurement of BODIPY fluorescence by HPLC. The proposed method could quantify α-amylase activities as low as 10 mU/mL, which is enough to reduce the viscosity of starch-containing foods.

  9. Viability and activity of bifidobacteria during refrigerated storage of yoghurt containing Mangifera pajang fibrous polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheraji, Sadeq Hasan; Ismail, Amin; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yusof, Rokiah Mohd

    2012-11-01

    The viability and activity of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4, B. longum BB 536 and yoghurt cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were studied in yoghurt containing 0.75% Mangefira pajang fibrous polysaccharides (MPFP) and inulin. Growth of probiotic organisms, their proteolytic activities, the production of short chain fatty acids (lactic, acetic and propionic) and the pH of the yoghurt samples were determined during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for 28 d. B. pseudocatenulatum G4 and B. longum BB 536 showed better growth and activity in the presence of MPFP and inulin, which significantly increased the production of short chain fatty acids as well as the proteolytic activity of these organisms. This is the first study reported on produce synbiotic yoghurt as a functional food for specified health uses contains bifidobacteria and M. pajang fibrous polysaccharides. M. pajang fibrous polysaccharides can be used as a prebiotic particularly in dairy products to increase the viability and activity of bifidobacteria which can be used as probiotic to exert health benefit to the human by yoghurt that is considered common use in society; thus, the benefits of synbiotic yoghurt are readily accessible to the member of society. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Activities of aluminum forms of zeolites and zeolite-containing aluminosilicates in phenol arylalkylation by styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashev, M.V.; Kolesnichenko, N.V.; Romanovskii, B.V.; Lokshin, B.V.

    1979-03-01

    The activities of aluminum forms of zeolites and zeolite-containing aluminosilicates in phenol arylalkylation by styrene were studied in a flow microreactor at 250/sup 0/C, 1 atm, 4:1 phenol-styrene, and 2.6 sec contact time. The aluminum-exchanged forms of a NaY zeolite and a zeolite-containing amorphous aluminosilicate (the Soviet commercial AShNTs-3 grade) were prepared by the K. M. Wang technique and some of the samples were pretreated by phenol at 250/sup 0/C and 2 atm for two hours. The AShNTs-3 and Al/AShNTs-3 catalysts showed maximum steady-state activities in terms of over-all styrene conversion (67.6 and 46.7Vertical Bar3<, respectively) and the combined yield of 2- and 4-(..cap alpha..-methylbenzyl)phenols (64.1 and 32.2Vertical Bar3<, respectively). The AlNaY zeolite rapidly and irreversibly deactivated, and pure amorphous aluminosilicate (AAS) showed relatively low activity. The pretreatment with phenol improved the activities of the aluiminum forms and increased the ortho-to-para isomer ratio of the alkylate from 2.74 to 4.33 for Al/AShNTs-3 and from 2.37 to 4.00 for AAS, probably because of the formation of active surface aluminum phenolate structures, but deteriorated the catalytic properties of AShNTs-3.

  11. NR2D-containing NMDA receptors mediate tissue plasminogen activator-promoted neuronal excitotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A; Montagne, A; Cassé, F; Launay, S; Maubert, E; Ali, C; Vivien, D

    2010-05-01

    Although the molecular bases of its actions remain debated, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a paradoxical brain protease, as it favours some learning/memory processes, but increases excitotoxic neuronal death. Here, we show that, in cultured cortical neurons, tPA selectively promotes NR2D-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent activation. We show that tPA-mediated signalling and neurotoxicity through the NMDAR are blocked by co-application of an NR2D antagonist (phenanthrene derivative (2S(*), 3R(*))-1-(phenanthrene-2-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, PPDA) or knockdown of neuronal NR2D expression. In sharp contrast with cortical neurons, hippocampal neurons do not exhibit NR2D both in vitro and in vivo and are consequently resistant to tPA-promoted NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity. Moreover, we have shown that activation of synaptic NMDAR prevents further tPA-dependent NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity and sensitivity to PPDA. This study shows that the earlier described pro-neurotoxic effect of tPA is mediated by NR2D-containing NMDAR-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, a deleterious effect prevented by synaptic pre-activation.

  12. Bioactive cotton fabrics containing chitosan and biologically active substances extracted from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, G; Nichifor, M; Mihai, D; Oproiu, L C

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies the obtaining of bioactive textiles using chitosan-coated fabrics, in which biologically active substances contained by Viola Tricolor (VT) - an extract of three Viola species (Violaceae) - were immobilized. Chitosan was applied on cotton fabric or on chemically modified cotton (having reactive -CHO or carboxymethyl groups), as tripolyphosphate (TPP) crosslinked fine particles, or by use of glutaraldehyde crosslinking agent. The amount of VT retained on the fabrics was found to depend on the procedure of chitosan application on the cotton. The obtained bioactive textiles are expected to have antioxidant activity due to the biologically active substances from VT; they can be used for obtaining clothes for people with allergies or other skin problems, assuring a controlled release of biomolecules. The study focuses on the in vitro release of VT retained on the fabrics, as well as on its antioxidant activity.

  13. Design, Syntheses and Biological Activities of Novel Anthranilic Diamide Insecticides Containing N-Pyridylpyrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu; LI Yong-qiang; XIONG Li-xia; XU Li-ping; PENG Li-na; LI Fang; LI Zheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign insecticides with high activity,low toxicity and low residue,a series of novel anthranilic diamide derivatives containing N-pyridylpyrazole was designed and synthesized.All the compounds were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis.The single crystal structure of compound 8j was determined by X-ray diffraction.The insecticidal activities of the new compounds were evaluated.The results show that some compounds exhibited moderate insecticidal activities against Lepidoptera pests.Among this series of compounds,compounds 80 and 8p showed 100% larvicidal activity against Mythimna separate Walker,Plutella xylostella Linnaeus and Laphygma exigua Hubner at a test concentration of 200 mg/kg,which is equal to the commercial chlorantraniliprole.

  14. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  15. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa VP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Valeria Pereira de Sousa,1 Joanne Crean,2 Vinícius Raphael de Almeida Borges,1 Carlos Rangel Rodrigues,1 Lidia Tajber,2 Fabio Boylan,2 Lucio Mendes Cabral1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS. BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Keywords: babassu oil, nanocomposite, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, nanoparticles, benign prostatic hyperplasia, treatment, nanotechnology

  16. On the tracking error of a self-contained solar tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baz, A.; Mobarak, A.; Morcos, S.; Sabry, A.

    1984-11-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the tracking errors of a self-contained solar tracking system that is totally powered by solar energy. The effect of the different design parameters of the system on its tracking error is studied in detail, in an attempt to define the important factors that influence the system's performance. The obtained results present valuable design guides for this class of tracking system.

  17. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  18. Cyclization increases the antimicrobial activity and selectivity of arginine- and tryptophan-containing hexapeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dathe, Margitta; Nikolenko, Heike; Klose, Jana; Bienert, Michael

    2004-07-20

    Arginine- and tryptophan-rich motifs have been identified in antimicrobial peptides with various secondary structures. We synthesized a set of linear hexapeptides derived from the sequence AcRRWWRF-NH(2) by substitution of tryptophan (W) by tyrosine (Y) or naphthylalanine (Nal) and by replacement of arginine (R) by lysine (K) to investigate the role of cationic charge and aromatic residues in membrane activity and selectivity. A second set of corresponding head-to-tail cyclic analogues was prepared to analyze the role of conformational constraints. The biological activity of the linear peptides followed the order Nal- > W- > Y-containing compounds and slightly decreased upon R-K substitution. A pronounced activity-improving and bacterial selectivity-enhancing effect was found upon cyclization of the R- and W-bearing parent peptide, whereas the activity-modifying effect of cyclization of Y- and Nal-containing peptides was low. The analysis of the driving forces of peptide interaction with model membranes showed that the activities correlated with the partition coefficients and the depths of peptide insertion into neutral and negatively charged lipid bilayers. Spectroscopic studies, RP-HPLC, and titration calorimetry implied that the combination of cationic and aromatic amino acid composition and conformational rigidity afforded a membrane-active, amphipathic structure with a highly charged face opposed by a cluster of aromatic side chains. However, threshold values of low and high hydrophobicity seemed to exist beyond which the activity-enhancing effect of cyclization was negligible. The results suggest that cyclization of small peptides of an appropriate amino acid composition may serve as a promising strategy in the design of antimicrobial peptides.

  19. Aconitine-containing agent enhances antitumor activity of dichloroacetate against Ehrlich carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyaskovskaya, O N; Boychuk, I V; Fedorchuk, A G; Kolesnik, D L; Dasyukevich, O I; Solyanik, G I

    2015-09-01

    Significant variability of anticancer efficacy of dichloroacetate (DCA) stimulated an active search for the agents capable to enhance it antitumor action. Therefore, the aim of this work is the study of capability of aconitine-containing antiangiogenic agent BC1 to enhance anticancer activity of DCA against Ehrlich carcinoma. DCA (total dose was 1.3 g/kg of b.w.) and BC1 (total dose was 0.9 mg/kg of b.w.) were administered per os starting from the 2(nd) and 3(rd) days, respectively (8 admini-strations for each agent). Antitumor efficacy of agents was estimated. Lactate level, LDH activity and the state of mitochondrial electron transport chain in tumor cells as well as phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) were studied. Combined administration of DCA and ВС1 resulted in 89.8% tumor growth inhibition (p < 0.001), what is by 22.5% (p < 0.05) higher that that of DCA alone. This combined treatment was accompanied with a decrease of lactate level in tumor tissue by 30% (p < 0.05) and significant elevation of LDH activity by 70% (p < 0.01). Increased level of NO-Fe-S clusters and 2-fold reduction of Fe-S cluster content were revealed in tumor tissue of mice after DCA and BC1 administration. It was shown that combined therapy did not effect TAM quantity and their phagocytic activity but stimulated ROS production by TAMs by 78% (p < 0.05) compared to this index in control animals. Antiangiogenic agent ВС1 in combination with DCA considerably enhances antitumor activity of DCA via significant decrease of Fe-S-containing protein level resulted from substantial elevation of nitrosylation of these proteins.

  20. Caspase-11 activation requires lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles by IFN-induced GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Etienne; Dick, Mathias S; Dreier, Roland F; Schürmann, Nura; Kenzelmann Broz, Daniela; Warming, Søren; Roose-Girma, Merone; Bumann, Dirk; Kayagaki, Nobuhiko; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Broz, Petr

    2014-05-15

    Lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria is sensed in the host cell cytoplasm by a non-canonical inflammasome pathway that ultimately results in caspase-11 activation and cell death. In mouse macrophages, activation of this pathway requires the production of type-I interferons, indicating that interferon-induced genes have a critical role in initiating this pathway. Here we report that a cluster of small interferon-inducible GTPases, the so-called guanylate-binding proteins, is required for the full activity of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome during infections with vacuolar Gram-negative bacteria. We show that guanylate-binding proteins are recruited to intracellular bacterial pathogens and are necessary to induce the lysis of the pathogen-containing vacuole. Lysis of the vacuole releases bacteria into the cytosol, thus allowing the detection of their lipopolysaccharide by a yet unknown lipopolysaccharide sensor. Moreover, recognition of the lysed vacuole by the danger sensor galectin-8 initiates the uptake of bacteria into autophagosomes, which results in a reduction of caspase-11 activation. These results indicate that host-mediated lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles is an essential immune function and is necessary for efficient recognition of pathogens by inflammasome complexes in the cytosol.

  1. Functional analysis of TPM domain containing Rv2345 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies its phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Avni; Eniyan, Kandasamy; Sinha, Swati; Lynn, Andrew Michael; Bajpai, Urmi

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causal agent of tuberculosis, the second largest infectious disease. With the rise of multi-drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, serious challenge lies ahead of us in treating the disease. The availability of complete genome sequence of Mtb has improved the scope for identifying new proteins that would not only further our understanding of biology of the organism but could also serve to discover new drug targets. In this study, Rv2345, a hypothetical membrane protein of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, which is reported to be a putative ortholog of ZipA cell division protein has been assigned function through functional annotation using bioinformatics tools followed by experimental validation. Sequence analysis showed Rv2345 to have a TPM domain at its N-terminal region and predicted it to have phosphatase activity. The TPM domain containing region of Rv2345 was cloned and expressed using pET28a vector in Escherichia coli and purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. The purified TPM domain was tested in vitro and our results confirmed it to have phosphatase activity. The enzyme activity was first checked and optimized with pNPP as substrate, followed by using ATP, which was also found to be used as substrate by the purified protein. Hence sequence analysis followed by in vitro studies characterizes TPM domain of Rv2345 to contain phosphatase activity.

  2. Synthesis, insecticidal, and acaricidal activities of novel 2-aryl-pyrrole derivatives containing ester groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yongqiang; Ou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Pengxiang; Huang, Zhiqiang; Bi, Fuchun; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Qingmin

    2008-11-12

    A series of novel 2-aryl-pyrrole derivatives containing ester groups were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm, mosquito, diamondback moth, green rice leafhopper, and bean aphids and acaricidal activities against spider mite of these new compounds were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that some of these title compounds exhibited excellent insecticidal and acaricidal activities. The insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm of compounds IVa, IVd, IVe, IVf, IVg, IVi, IVk, and IVp were equal to commercialized Chlorfenapyr, and the insecticidal activities of most of compounds IVb, IVc, IVd, IVf, IVg, IVj, IVk, IVl, IVs, IVt, IVu, IVw, IVx, IVz, and Chlorfenapyr against mosquito at 0.10 mg kg (-1) were 100%, and the acaricidal activities of compounds IVd, IVe, IVf, IVg, IVh, IVi, and IVk were equal or superior to Chlorfenapyr. Especially, the results indicated that the acaricidal activity of [4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-cyano-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrrol-1-yl]methyl 3-methylbutanoate ( IVg) against spider mite was 2.65-fold as high as that of Chlorfenapyr from the value of LC 50.

  3. [Synthesis of novel beta-aminoalcohols containing nabumetone moiety with potential antidiabetic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Yan, Ju-fang; Tang, Xue-mei; Liu, Hong-ping; Fan, Li; Zhou, Guang-ming; Yang, Da-cheng

    2011-04-01

    Twenty five new beta-aminoalcohols containing nabumetone moiety were prepared via the reduction of potassium borohydride with a convenient and efficient procedure, starting from beta-aminoketones that have been synthesized by our group. Their chemical structures were determined by IR, MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HR-MS and antidiabetic activities were screened in vitro. Preliminary results revealed that the antidiabetic activity of most beta-aminoalcohols were better than that of the corresponding beta-aminoketones. Although most compounds showed weak antidiabetic activity, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of compounds 5hd(1) and 5id(2) reached 74.37% and 90.15%, respectively, which were superior to the positive control. The relative peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor response element (PPRE) activity of five compounds were more than 60%, among them compound 5ca possessed the highest activity (112.59%). As lead molecules of antidiabetic agents, compounds 5hd(1), 5id(2) and 5ca deserve further study.

  4. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-08-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design.

  5. Comparison between different types of glass and aluminum as containers for irradiation samples by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A; El-Dine, N W; El-Shershaby, A; Abdel-Haleem, A S

    2000-01-01

    Three different types of glass and four different kinds of aluminum sheet have been analyzed using neutron activation analysis. The irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1) and a hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for the analysis. Among the 34 identified elements, the isotopes 60Co, 65Zn, 110mAg, 123mTe, 134Cs, 152Eu and 182Ta are of special significance because of their long half-lives, providing a background interference for analyzed samples. A comparison between the different types of containers was made to select the preferred one for sample irradiation.

  6. [Functional activity of metal contained enzymes with antioxidant activity in blood of patients with stomach cancer and during the use of anticancer autovaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    P'iatchanina, T V; Rozumiĭ, D O; Mel'nykov, O R; Momot, V Ia; Chornyĭ, V O; Sydoryk, Ie P

    2007-01-01

    The authors presented in the article results of assessment of metal contained enzymes with antioxidant activity, ceruloplasmin (CP) in plasma blood, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in red blood cells of patients with I-IV stage stomach cancer during surgical treatment and application of anticancer autovaccine (AAV) to prevent relapses and methastases. It was revealed compared with the donors that at stages of the treatment, before operation and after resuscitation, the level of activity of CP was higher in 1,3 times and in 3 times was higher the level of SOD. The change of catalase activity was within the limits of physiological values. Discrepancy in levels of activity of enzymes- synergists in relation to the elimination of radical forms testifies about the disbalance in functioning of the antioxidant system protection and is one of the signs of the manifestation of oxidant stress. The presence of wide ranges of changes in activity of metal contained enzymes before surgical operation and after resuscitation may depict the presence of significant tension in the functioning of antioxidant system in patients and may demand to carry out an analysis of each parameter. Normalization or stabilization of the level of activity of metal contained enzymes at the stage of surgical treatment or during the use of AAV reflects an availability of adaptation and compensatory mechanisms and it may be considered as a favorable prognostic factor of the treatment. The use of AAV in a complex treatment of patients with not local stomach canser lead to 3 years survival by 22% in comparison with surgical treatment of the patients.

  7. The activation of thin film CdTe solar cells using alternative chlorine containing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniscalco, B., E-mail: B.Maniscalco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Kaminski, P.M.; Bass, K. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); West, G. [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    The re-crystallisation of thin film cadmium telluride (CdTe) using cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) is a vital process for obtaining high efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the precise micro-structural mechanisms involved are not well understood. In this study, we have used alternative chlorine-containing compounds to determine if these can also assist the re-crystallisation of the CdTe layer and to understand the separate roles of cadmium and chlorine during the activation. The compounds used were: tellurium tetrachloride (TeCl{sub 4}), cadmium acetate (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}). TeCl{sub 4} was used to assess the role of Cl and the formation of a Te-rich outer layer which may assist the formation of the back contact. (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}) and HCl were used to distinguish between the roles of cadmium and chlorine in the process. Finally, ZnCl{sub 2} was employed as an alternative to CdCl{sub 2}. We report on the efficacy of using these alternative Cl-containing compounds to remove the high density of planar defects present in untreated CdTe. - Highlights: • Cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) activation treatment • Alternative chlorine containing compounds • Microstructure analysis and electrical performances.

  8. 77 FR 39509 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components... business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. International Trade...

  9. 77 FR 75659 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... investigation are or will be available for inspection during official business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in... the United States after importation of certain video analytics software systems, components...

  10. A self-contained, programmable microfluidic cell culture system with real-time microscopy access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Hemmingsen, Mette; Sabourin, David

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing microfluidics is a promising way for increasing the throughput and automation of cell biology research. We present a complete self-contained system for automated cell culture and experiments with real-time optical read-out. The system offers a high degree of user-friendliness, stability...

  11. Secondary Containment System component failure data analysis from 1984 to 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sanchez, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-08-01

    This report gives the failure rates for the major tritium containing glovebox systems that comprise the Secondary Containment System at the Tritium systems Test Assembly, which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The component failure reports, the numbers of components, and operating times or demands are all given in this report, and sample calculations of the binomial demand failure rates and poisson hourly failure rates are given in the appendices. The failure rates for these components form a solid data point based on actual operating experience, where there is very little published information. The eight years of nearly continuous Secondary Containment System operations should result in steady state failure rate values. These data should be useful for future fusion reactor design work and safety assessment tasks.

  12. Modeling anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of N-oxide containing heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiani, Mariana; Cerecetto, Hugo; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Gasteiger, Johann

    2008-01-01

    In the present study a systematic approach was used to model the anti-T. cruzi activity of a series of N-oxide containing heterocycles belonging to four chemical families with a wide structural diversity. The proposed mode of action implies the reduction of the N-oxide moiety; however, the biochemical mechanism underlying the anti-T. cruzi activity is still unkown. For structural representation two types of descriptors were analyzed: quantum chemical (AM1) global descriptors and properties coded by radial distribution function (RDF). Both types of descriptors point to the relevance of electronic properties. The local-RDF (LRDF) identified an electrophilic center at 4.1-4.9 A from the oxygen atom of the N-oxide moiety, although other properties are required to explain the biological activity. While the mode of action of N-oxide containing heterocycles is still unknown, the results obtained here strengthen the importance of the electrophilic character of the molecule and the possible participation of the heterocycle in a reduction process. The ability of these descriptors to distinguish among activity classes was assessed using Kohonen neural networks, and the best clustering descriptors were later used for model building. Different learning algorithms were used for model development, and stratified 10-fold cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of each classifier. The best results were obtained using k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and decision tree (J48) methods combined with global descriptors. Since tree-based methods are easily translated into classification rules, the J48 model is a useful tool in the de novo construction of new N-oxide containing heterocycle lead structures.

  13. Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Robert; Melchor, Jerry P; Matys, Tomasz; Skrzypiec, Anna E; Strickland, Sidney

    2005-01-11

    Chronic ethanol abuse causes up-regulation of NMDA receptors, which underlies seizures and brain damage upon ethanol withdrawal (EW). Here we show that tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA), a protease implicated in neuronal plasticity and seizures, is induced in the limbic system by chronic ethanol consumption, temporally coinciding with up-regulation of NMDA receptors. tPA interacts with NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and is required for up-regulation of the NR2B subunit in response to ethanol. As a consequence, tPA-deficient mice have reduced NR2B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, and seizures after EW. tPA-mediated facilitation of EW seizures is abolished by NR2B-specific NMDA antagonist ifenprodil. These results indicate that tPA mediates the development of physical dependence on ethanol by regulating NR2B-containing NMDA receptors.

  14. Production strategies for active heme-containing peroxidases from E. coli inclusion bodies - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenreich, Britta; Willim, Melissa; Wurm, David Johannes; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Heme-containing peroxidases are frequently used in medical applications. However, these enzymes are still extracted from their native source, which leads to inadequate yields and a mixture of isoenzymes differing in glycosylation which limits subsequent enzyme applications. Thus, recombinant production of these enzymes in Escherichia coli is a reasonable alternative. Even though production yields are high, the product is frequently found as protein aggregates called inclusion bodies (IBs). These IBs have to be solubilized and laboriously refolded to obtain active enzyme. Unfortunately, refolding yields are still very low making the recombinant production of these enzymes in E. coli not competitive. Motivated by the high importance of that enzyme class, this review aims at providing a comprehensive summary of state-of-the-art strategies to obtain active peroxidases from IBs. Additionally, various refolding techniques, which have not yet been used for this enzyme class, are discussed to show alternative and potentially more efficient ways to obtain active peroxidases from E. coli.

  15. Plant NAC-type transcription factor proteins contain a NARD domain for repression of transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu-Jun; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Zou, Hong-Feng; Wei, Wei; Kang, Xu-Sheng; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Zhang, Jin-Song; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2010-10-01

    Plant-specific transcription factor NAC proteins play essential roles in many biological processes such as development, senescence, morphogenesis, and stress signal transduction pathways. In the NAC family, some members function as transcription activators while others act as repressors. In the present study we found that though the full-length GmNAC20 from soybean did not have transcriptional activation activity, the carboxy-terminal activation domain of GmNAC20 had high transcriptional activation activity in the yeast assay system. Deletion experiments revealed an active repression domain with 35 amino acids, named NARD (NAC Repression Domain), in the d subdomain of NAC DNA-binding domain. NARD can reduce the transcriptional activation ability of diverse transcription factors when fused to either the amino-terminal or the carboxy-terminal of the transcription factors. NARD-like sequences are also present in other NAC family members and they are functional repression domain when fused to VP16 in plant protoplast assay system. Mutation analysis of conserved amino acid residues in NARD showed that the hydrophobic LVFY motif may partially contribute to the repression function. It is hypothesized that the interactions between the repression domain NARD and the carboxy-terminal activation domain may finally determine the ability of NAC family proteins to regulate downstream gene expressions.

  16. Environmental standards for primary and secondary containment systems and transfer stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, D.M.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Standards for Primary and Secondary Containment Systems and Transfer Stations will supersede all previous requirements for design of dikes, storage tanks, and transfer stations in order to maintain consistency throughout the Y-12 Plant. This document is organized into six distinct sections, each with a specific purpose. Section I outlines the objectives of the document along with its applications and limitations; this section should be of interest to all readers for essential background information. Section II lists all definitions and is consistent with definitions outlined by environmental regulations. Section III discusses primary containment standards. Section IV outlines secondary containment standards; this section contains the actual standards for the diking of storage tanks and storage containers. Section V discusses transfer station standards. Section VI of this document outlines how exemptions may be granted for specific cases.

  17. Wireless sensing system for non-invasive monitoring of attributes of contents in a container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wireless sensing system monitors the level, temperature, magnetic permeability and electrical dielectric constant of a non-gaseous material in a container. An open-circuit electrical conductor is shaped to form a two-dimensional geometric pattern that can store and transfer electrical and magnetic energy. The conductor resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response. The conductor is mounted in an environmentally-sealed housing. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the time-varying magnetic field to power the conductor, and wirelessly detects the harmonic response that is an indication of at least one of level of the material in the container, temperature of the material in the container, magnetic permeability of the material in the container, and dielectric constant of the material in the container.

  18. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of a conventional orthodontic composite containing silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodagar, Ahmad; Akhavan, Azam; Hashemi, Ehsan; Arab, Sepideh; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Sodagar, Kosar; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important complications of fixed orthodontic treatment is the formation of white spots which are initial carious lesions. Addition of antimicrobial agents into orthodontic adhesives might be a wise solution for prevention of white spot formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a conventional orthodontic adhesive containing three different concentrations of silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. One hundred and sixty-two Transbond XT composite discs containing 0, 1, 5, and 10 % silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were prepared and sterilized. Antibacterial properties of these composite groups against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus sanguinis were investigated using three different antimicrobial tests. Disk agar diffusion test was performed to assess the diffusion of antibacterial agent on brain heart infusion agar plate by measuring bacterial growth inhibition zones. Biofilm inhibition test showed the antibacterial capacity of composite discs against resistant bacterial biofilms. Antimicrobial activity of eluted components from composite discs was investigated by comparing the viable counts of bacteria after 3, 15, and 30 days. Composite discs containing 5 and 10 % silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were capable of producing growth inhibition zones for all bacterial types. Results of biofilm inhibition test showed that all of the study groups reduced viable bacterial count in comparison to the control group. Antimicrobial activity of eluted components from composite discs was immensely diverse based on the bacterial type and the concentration of nanoparticles. Transbond XT composite discs containing 5 and 10 % silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles produce bacterial growth inhibition zones and show antibacterial properties against biofilms.

  19. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of a conventional orthodontic composite containing silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sodagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most important complications of fixed orthodontic treatment is the formation of white spots which are initial carious lesions. Addition of antimicrobial agents into orthodontic adhesives might be a wise solution for prevention of white spot formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a conventional orthodontic adhesive containing three different concentrations of silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Methods One hundred and sixty-two Transbond XT composite discs containing 0, 1, 5, and 10 % silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were prepared and sterilized. Antibacterial properties of these composite groups against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus sanguinis were investigated using three different antimicrobial tests. Disk agar diffusion test was performed to assess the diffusion of antibacterial agent on brain heart infusion agar plate by measuring bacterial growth inhibition zones. Biofilm inhibition test showed the antibacterial capacity of composite discs against resistant bacterial biofilms. Antimicrobial activity of eluted components from composite discs was investigated by comparing the viable counts of bacteria after 3, 15, and 30 days. Results Composite discs containing 5 and 10 % silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were capable of producing growth inhibition zones for all bacterial types. Results of biofilm inhibition test showed that all of the study groups reduced viable bacterial count in comparison to the control group. Antimicrobial activity of eluted components from composite discs was immensely diverse based on the bacterial type and the concentration of nanoparticles. Conclusions Transbond XT composite discs containing 5 and 10 % silver/hydroxyapatite nanoparticles produce bacterial growth inhibition zones and show antibacterial properties against biofilms.

  20. The effects of age on nuclear power plant containment cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofaro, R.; Subudhi, M.; Travis, R.; DiBiasio, A.; Azarm, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Davis, J. [Science Applications International Corp., New York, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the performance and availability of containment cooling systems in US commercial nuclear power plants. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The effects of age were characterized for the containment cooling system by reviewing and analyzing failure data from national databases, as well as plant-specific data. The predominant failure causes and aging mechanisms were identified, along with the components that failed most frequently. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also examined. A containment cooling system unavailability analysis was performed to examine the potential effects of aging by increasing failure rates for selected components. A commonly found containment spray system design and a commonly found fan cooler system design were modeled. Parametric failure rates for those components in each system that could be subject to aging were accounted for in the model to simulate the time-dependent effects of aging degradation, assuming no provisions are made to properly manage it. System unavailability as a function of increasing component failure rates was then calculated.

  1. Removal of organic dyes using Cr-containing activated carbon prepared from leather waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz C A; Coura, Camila Van Zanten; Guimarães, Iara R; Gonçalves, Maraisa

    2011-09-15

    In this work, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and oxidation of organics in aqueous medium were studied in the presence of activated carbon prepared from wet blue leather waste. The wet blue leather waste, after controlled pyrolysis under CO(2) flow, was transformed into chromium-containing activated carbons. The carbon with Cr showed high microporous surface area (up to 889 m(2)g(-1)). Moreover, the obtained carbon was impregnated with nanoparticles of chromium oxide from the wet blue leather. The chromium oxide was nanodispersed on the activated carbon, and the particle size increased with the activation time. It is proposed that these chromium species on the carbon can activate H(2)O(2) to generate HO radicals, which can lead to two competitive reactions, i.e. the hydrogen peroxide decomposition or the oxidation of organics in water. In fact, in this work we observed that activated carbon obtained from leather waste presented high removal of methylene blue dye combining the adsorption and oxidation processes.

  2. A Cbx8-containing polycomb complex facilitates the transition to gene activation during ES cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Creppe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycomb proteins play an essential role in maintaining the repression of developmental genes in self-renewing embryonic stem cells. The exact mechanism allowing the derepression of polycomb target genes during cell differentiation remains unclear. Our project aimed to identify Cbx8 binding sites in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. Therefore, we used a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation of endogenous Cbx8 coupled to direct massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq. Our analysis identified 171 high confidence peaks. By crossing our data with previously published microarray analysis, we show that several differentiation genes transiently recruit Cbx8 during their early activation. Depletion of Cbx8 partially impairs the transcriptional activation of these genes. Both interaction analysis, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments support the idea that activating Cbx8 acts in the context of an intact PRC1 complex. Prolonged gene activation results in eviction of PRC1 despite persisting H3K27me3 and H2A ubiquitination. The composition of PRC1 is highly modular and changes when embryonic stem cells commit to differentiation. We further demonstrate that the exchange of Cbx7 for Cbx8 is required for the effective activation of differentiation genes. Taken together, our results establish a function for a Cbx8-containing complex in facilitating the transition from a Polycomb-repressed chromatin state to an active state. As this affects several key regulatory differentiation genes this mechanism is likely to contribute to the robust execution of differentiation programs.

  3. Factor analysis in optimization of formulation of high content uniformity tablets containing low dose active substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Ivana; Muselík, Jan; Franc, Aleš; Goněc, Roman; Mika, Filip; Vetchý, David

    2017-09-11

    Warfarin is intensively discussed drug with narrow therapeutic range. There have been cases of bleeding attributed to varying content or altered quality of the active substance. Factor analysis is useful for finding suitable technological parameters leading to high content uniformity of tablets containing low amount of active substance. The composition of tabletting blend and technological procedure were set with respect to factor analysis of previously published results. The correctness of set parameters was checked by manufacturing and evaluation of tablets containing 1-10mg of warfarin sodium. The robustness of suggested technology was checked by using "worst case scenario" and statistical evaluation of European Pharmacopoeia (EP) content uniformity limits with respect to Bergum division and process capability index (Cpk). To evaluate the quality of active substance and tablets, dissolution method was developed (water; EP apparatus II; 25rpm), allowing for statistical comparison of dissolution profiles. Obtained results prove the suitability of factor analysis to optimize the composition with respect to batches manufactured previously and thus the use of metaanalysis under industrial conditions is feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antitumor activity of PEGylated nanoliposomes containing crocin in mice bearing C26 colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastgoo, Marziyeh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Alavizadeh, Hoda; Abbasi, Azam; Ayati, Zahra; Jaafari, Mahmoud R

    2013-04-01

    Crocin is a pharmacologically active component of Crocus sativus. It is an unusual water-soluble carotenoid responsible for the red color of saffron. In various studies, the anticancer effect of saffron and its constituents has been established. Polyethylene glycolated nanoliposomes with a size range up to 200 nm are suitable for encapsulation of cytotoxic drugs and can target tumors passively through the enhanced permeation and retention effect. The aim of this study was to develop a nanoliposomal formulation containing crocin with a higher therapeutic index for the treatment of cancer. Four formulations of polyethylene glycolated nanoliposomes containing 25 mg/ml crocin were prepared with hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and methoxy-polyethylene glycol (MW 2000)-distearoylphosphatidylcholine at different molar ratios by a solvent evaporation method plus extrusion. Then the liposomes were characterized for their size, zeta potential, crocin encapsulation, release properties, and in vitro cytotoxicity against C26 colon carcinoma cells. Based on in vitro results, the best formulation was selected for an in vivo study, and its antitumor activity was evaluated in BALB/c mice bearing C26 colon carcinoma. The IC50 of crocin itself against C26 colon carcinoma was 0.73 mM. The characterization of the best formulation was as follow: Z-average size: 127.6 ± 1.5 nm; polydispersity index: 0.087 ± 0.018; zeta potential: - 21.7 mV ± 6.7; % encapsulation: 84.62 ± 0.59; % release after 168 hours in RPMI 1640 containing 30 % FBS: 16.26 ± 0.01 %. Liposomal crocin at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased tumor size and increased survival rate compared with PBS and crocin in buffer (100 mg/kg) groups. The results of this study indicated that liposomal encapsulation of crocin could increase its antitumorigenic activity. Thus, to obtain an optimal dose for use in humans, the formulation merits further investigation.

  5. [Activity of the inositol-containing phospholipid dimer analogues against human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, E O; Shastina, N S; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Nosik, D N; Shvets, V I

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of finding effective inhibitors of virus adsorption the series of inositol-containing phospholipid dimer analogues were previously synthesized. In the present work, the antiretroviral activity of these compounds against HIV-1 was demonstrated on the model of cells infected with the virus. The highest effect was found in the case of dimer poliol 5, EC50 (50%-effective concentration) was 3.9 microg/ml. The development of new polyanionic compounds, which can interfere with early steps of the virus life cycle, is a promising addition to the antiretroviral therapy based on the virus enzyme inhibitors.

  6. Possible activation of auto-immune thyroiditis from continuous subcutaneous infusion of genapol-containing insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E

    2000-09-01

    A case of a type 1 diabetic woman with auto-immune thyroiditis is reported, in whom repeated exposure to insulin containing Genapol(R) (polyethylen-polypropylenglycol) over 3 years reproducibly parallels with an increase of serum TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) above the normal limit. Previously, adverse effects of Genapol(R) insulin have been related to its intraperitoneal application, and thought to be restricted to anti-insulin-immunity; activating effects on thyroid auto-immunity have been repeatedly disputed. We suggest that Genapol(R) insulin should be replaced by other insulin preparations with a better safety record.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of some new biquinoline derivatives containing a thiazole moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirav K. Shah; Nimesh M. Shah; Manish P. Patel; Ranjan G. Patel

    2012-01-01

    A series of new biquinoline derivatives containing a thiazole moiety were synthesized by a one-pot,base-catalyzed cyclocondensation reaction of 2-chloro-3-formyl quinoline,malononitrile and enaminone.All the synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis,FT-IR,1H NMR and 13C NMR data.All the synthesized compounds were screened against three bacterial pathogens,namely Bacillus cereus,B.substilis and Escherichia coli and for antifungal activity against three fungal pathogens,Aspergillus niger,Fusarium oxisporum and Rhizopus using the disc diffusion method.

  8. Common commercial and consumer products contain activators of the aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhao

    Full Text Available Activation of the Ah receptor (AhR by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin, can produce a wide variety of toxic and biological effects. While recent studies have shown that the AhR can bind and be activated by structurally diverse chemicals, how widespread of these AhR agonists are in environmental, biological and synthetic materials remains to be determined. Using AhR-based assays, we demonstrate the presence of potent AhR agonists in a variety of common commercial and consumer items. Solvent extracts of paper, rubber and plastic products contain chemicals that can bind to and stimulate AhR DNA binding and/or AhR-dependent gene expression in hepatic cytosol, cultured cell lines, human epidermis and zebrafish embryos. In contrast to TCDD and other persistent dioxin-like HAHs, activation of AhR-dependent gene expression by these extracts was transient, suggesting that the agonists are metabolically labile. Solvent extracts of rubber products produce AhR-dependent developmental toxicity in zebrafish in vivo, and inhibition of expression of the metabolic enzyme CYP1A, significantly increased their toxic potency. Although the identity of the responsible AhR-active chemicals and their toxicological impact remain to be determined, our data demonstrate that AhR active chemicals are widely distributed in everyday products.

  9. Synthesis of Azole-containing Piperazine Derivatives and Evaluation of their Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin Ling; Fang, Bo; Zhou, Cheng He [Southwest University, Chongqing (China)

    2010-12-15

    A series of azole-containing piperazine derivatives have been designed and synthesized. The obtained compounds were investigated in vitro for their antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. The preliminary results showed that most compounds exhibited moderate to significant antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro. 1-(4-((4-chlorophenyl) (phenyl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanone and 1-(4-((4-Chlorophenyl)(phenyl)methyl)piperazin-1- yl)-2-(2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanone gave remarkable and broad-spectrum antimicrobial efficacy against all tested strains with MIC values ranging from 3.1 to 25 μg/mL, and exhibited comparable activities to the standard drugs chloramphenicol and fluconazole in clinic. Moreover, 2-((4-((4-chlorophenyl)(phenyl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)- 1H-benzo[d]imidazole was found to be the most effective in vitro against the PC-3 cell line, reaching growth inhibition values (36.4, 60.1 and 76.5%) for each tested concentration: 25 μM, 50 μM and 100 μM in dose-dependent manner. The results also showed that the azole ring had noticeable effect on their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, and imidazole and benzimidazole moiety were much more favourable to biological activity than 1,2,4-triazole.

  10. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients... Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.528 Drug products containing active ingredients offered...

  11. The effects of a food product containing lactic acid on the activity of acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre-Michael Beer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients reported that a food product containing lactic acid improved their memory and thought processes. The ingredients of the tested food product are compound substances and smooth muscle fibre, the appropriate medium in which to analyse their effects. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used to treat memory loss and failing thought performance. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the lactic acid food product with the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Methods: In this in vitro study the effects of the food product containing lactic acid on smooth muscle fibres of guinea pig stomach were investigated. Results: The results show that the lactic acid food product contains substances that can inhibit the activity of both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. This inhibitory effect was compared to the inhibitory effects of galantamine (Nivalin®, pyridostigmine bromide (Kalymin® and donepezil hydrochloride (Donepezil®, which are clinically used for the pharmacological treatment of dementia. We observed a 5% to 20% less potency factor difference with the lactic acid food product compared to that of the pharmaceutical drugs. Conclusions: This proves that the lactic acid food product can also have an impact on memory and thought performance and that these results should promote clinical trials to test efficacy. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(3.000: 207-212

  12. A method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking into an el......The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking...

  13. Activity is strength: More active systems are stronger glass formers

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Interplay between activity and passive transport processes in an active system may lead to complex spatio-temporal dynamics offering a rich and fascinating phenomenology compared to their passive counterparts. Understanding the properties of an active system in the dense limit is important both from biological as well as physical point of view. Here, we extend an immensely successful microscopic theory for the glassy dynamics of passive systems in their dense low-temperature limit, namely the Random First-Order Transition (RFOT) theory, for an active system generalizing and unifying the findings of recent simulations on such systems. The qualitative picture of glassy dynamics for a passive system survives when activity is introduced, however, a number interesting properties emerge. For example, activity changes the typical length scale and relaxation times, pushes the thermodynamic and dynamic glass transition points towards higher density or lower temperature and the fragility of the system changes as a func...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of electrospun poly(butylenes succinate) fiber mats containing PVP-capped silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ligang; Wang, Pingli; Zhao, Zhiguo; Ji, Junhui

    2013-12-01

    In this study, biodegradable poly(butylenes succinate) (PBS) fiber mats containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by the electrospinning process. Small AgNPs (fiber mats and the distribution of the AgNPs were well characterized by TEM and SEM. The release of Ag from the PBS fiber mats was quantitively determined by ICP. The PBS fiber mats with 0.29 % AgNPs content showed strong antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli with the efficacy as high as 99 %. The effective bactericidal activity on E. coli was demonstrated for a short contacting time with the PBS-AgNPs fiber mats. In addition, the long-term release performance of Ag from the fiber mats can keep inhibiting the bacterial growth in the mats over a long period of time.

  15. The formation of titanium dioxide crystallite nanoparticles during activation of PAN nanofibers containing titanium isopropoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrpouya, Fahimeh; Tavanai, Hossein, E-mail: tavanai@cc.iut.ac.ir; Morshed, Mohammad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Textile Engineering, Center of Excellence in Applied Nanotechnology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghiaci, Mehran [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Activated carbon (AC) can act as an important carrier for TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle can be fabricated by the hydrolysis and condensation of titanium alkoxides like titanium isopropoxide. This study showed that the formation of titanium dioxide crystallite nanoparticle during activation of PAN nanofibers containing titanium isopropoxide leads to the formation of mainly anatase crystal TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle in AC nanofibers, with a good dispersion in both the longitude and cross section of nanofibers. The TiO{sub 2} crystallite size lies in the range of 7.3-11.3 nm. The dispersion of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the matrix of AC nanofibers is far superior to the direct mixing of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the original electrospinning solution.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activities of Schiff base polychelates containing polyurethane links in the main chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Sumaiya; Nishat, Nahid

    The concept of combining metallo-polymers with urethanes offers a versatile approach for the synthesis of new polymeric materials. Polyurethane containing transition metals was synthesized by the reaction of Schiff base metal complex with toluene 2,4 diisocyanate. The proposed structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FT-IR. The geometry is determined by UV-Visible spectra and magnetic moment measurements, which reveals that the Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have octahedral geometry while square planer geometry is reported for Cu(II) and tetrahedral for Zn(II) complex. The antimicrobial activities are determined using the agar well diffusion method with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis (bacteria), Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus (yeast). All the polymeric metal complexes show comparatively good biocidal activity, which is further enhanced after polymerization.

  17. A survey of imaging systems for materials and objects in containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier P.; Dioszegi, Istvan; Ziock, Klaus; Hausladen, Paul, and Blackston, Matthew

    2015-12-07

    Radiation imaging can be useful to evaluate the contents of containers; Passive imaging i.e., gamma sources, neutron sources, hydrogen near to a neutron source. Active imaging i.e., Transmission radiography shows high density material; Neutron coincidences indicate fissionable material; Time of Flight and die-away time are important. These technologies may be most useful in confirming ABSENCE of an item.

  18. Distributed Containment Control for Multiple Unknown Second-Order Nonlinear Systems With Application to Networked Lagrangian Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Ren, Wei; Li, Bing; Ma, Guangfu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the distributed containment control problem for multiagent systems with unknown nonlinear dynamics. More specifically, we focus on multiple second-order nonlinear systems and networked Lagrangian systems. We first study the distributed containment control problem for multiple second-order nonlinear systems with multiple dynamic leaders in the presence of unknown nonlinearities and external disturbances under a general directed graph that characterizes the interaction among the leaders and the followers. A distributed adaptive control algorithm with an adaptive gain design based on the approximation capability of neural networks is proposed. We present a necessary and sufficient condition on the directed graph such that the containment error can be reduced as small as desired. As a byproduct, the leaderless consensus problem is solved with asymptotical convergence. Because relative velocity measurements between neighbors are generally more difficult to obtain than relative position measurements, we then propose a distributed containment control algorithm without using neighbors' velocity information. A two-step Lyapunov-based method is used to study the convergence of the closed-loop system. Next, we apply the ideas to deal with the containment control problem for networked unknown Lagrangian systems under a general directed graph. All the proposed algorithms are distributed and can be implemented using only local measurements in the absence of communication. Finally, simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  19. Garlic revisited: antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallock-Richards, Daynea; Doherty, Catherine J; Doherty, Lynsey; Clarke, David J; Place, Marc; Govan, John R W; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS). Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS) was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx) from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics.

  20. Garlic revisited: antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daynea Wallock-Richards

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc, the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS. Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v. The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics.

  1. Insecticidal Activity of a Destruxin-Containing Extract of Metarhizium brunneum Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Tovar, M D; Garrido-Jurado, I; Lafont, F; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2015-04-01

    Tephritid fruit flies are major pests that limit fruit production around the world; they cause important damages, increasing directly and indirectly annual costs, and their management is predominately based on the use of chemical insecticides. This research investigated the insecticidal activity of the crude extract obtained of Metarhizium brunneum Petch EAMb 09/01-Su strain and its capacity to secrete secondary metabolites including destruxins (dtx). Dtx A and A2 had insecticidal activity against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) when administered per os. The crude extract of seven Metarhizium and one Beauveria isolates were evaluated per os against medfly adults. The crude extracts of the isolate EAMb 09/01-Su resulted in mortality ranging between 95 and 100% at 48 h. The high-pressure liquid chromatography profile showed two active peaks (F5B and F6 subfractions) related with dtx A2 and dtx A, which caused 70 and 100% mortality on C. capitata at 48 h postfeeding, respectively. The LC50 was 104.92 ppm of dtx A, contained in the F6 subfraction, and the LT50 was 4.16 h at a concentration of 400 ppm of dtx A contained in the F6 subfraction. Moreover, the average survival time of adults exposed to this subfraction was 12.6 h with only 1 h of exposure. The insecticide metabolites of the F6 subfraction of the EAMb 09/01-Su isolate retained >90% of its insecticidal activity after exposure to 60°C for 2 h and 120°C for 20 min. These results highlight the potential of this strain as a source of new insecticidal compounds of natural origin for fruit fly control.

  2. Treatment and Kinetic of Synthetic Wastewater Containing β-Naphthol by Nano Titanium Oxide Coated on Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ijad panah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Many industrial effluent plants contain amounts of hard biodegradable compounds such as β-naphthol which can be removed by conventional treatment systems. The objective of this research is to treat wastewater containing naphthalene by nano titanium oxide coated on activated carbon. Materials and Methods: Photocatalytic experiments were carried out for different concentrations of β-naphthol using time and pH as dependent factors. Nano TiO2 coated on activated carbone in one liter batch reactor and the resultants compounds concentration were measured in a photocatalytic reactor  with UV-C of 12 Watt. Results: The experimental results indicated that UV/ nano TiO2 coated on activated carbone removed 92% of β-naphthol with concentrations of 100 mg/L within an overall elapsed time of three hours. β-naphthol total removal with concenteration of 25 mg/L was observed in two hours.Conclusions: UV/ nano TiO2 process is very fast and effective method for removal of β-naphthol and  pH 11 was indicated as the optimum pH.

  3. Microparticles Containing Curcumin Solid Dispersion: Stability, Bioavailability and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C C C; Mendonça, L M; Bergamaschi, M M; Queiroz, R H C; Souza, G E P; Antunes, L M G; Freitas, L A P

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed at improving the solubility of curcumin by the preparation of spray-dried ternary solid dispersions containing Gelucire®50/13-Aerosil® and quantifying the resulting in vivo oral bioavailability and anti-inflammatory activity. The solid dispersion containing 40% of curcumin was characterised by calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility and dissolution rate of curcumin in aqueous HCl or phosphate buffer improved up to 3600- and 7.3-fold, respectively. Accelerated stability test demonstrated that the solid dispersion was stable for 9 months. The pharmacokinetic study showed a 5.5-fold increase in curcumin in rat blood plasma when compared to unprocessed curcumin. The solid dispersion also provided enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in rat paw oedema. Finally, the solid dispersion proposed here is a promising way to enhance curcumin bioavailability at an industrial pharmaceutical perspective, since its preparation applies the spray drying, which is an easy to scale up technique. The findings herein stimulate further in vivo evaluations and clinical tests as a cancer and Alzheimer chemoprevention agent.

  4. Spectroscopic properties and the catalytic activity of new organo-lead supramolecular coordination polymer containing quinoxaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Abdou, Safaa N.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D-supramolecular coordination polymer (SCP) 3∞[ Cu2(CN)3(Me3Pb)(qox)], 1, as the first example of the CuCN SCP containing the (Me3Pb) fragment, was explored to investigate its catalytic and photo-catalytic activities. The structure of 1 contains two chemically identical but crystallographically different [Cu2(CN)3ṡMe3Pbṡqox]2 units with four Cu(I) sites assuming distorted TP-3 geometry. Two non-linear chains of equal abundance are formed producing corrugated parallel chains which are connected laterally by quinoxaline creating 2D-layers which are arranged parallel in an (AB⋯AB⋯AB)n fashion forming 3D-network. IR, mass, electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are also investigated. The SCP 1 is diamagnetic and exhibits good catalytic and photo-catalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The reaction is first order with respect to MB dye. The irradiation of the reaction with UV-light enhanced the rate of MB mineralization. The efficiency of recycled the 1 and the mechanism of degradation of MB dye were investigated.

  5. Impurities contained in antifungal drug ketoconazole are potent activators of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grycová, Aneta; Dořičáková, Aneta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2015-12-03

    Antifungal drug ketoconazole is a mixture of (+)/(-) cis-enantiomers, which also contains several impurities. Ketoconazole was identified as an activator of aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR by three independent research teams. In the current paper we demonstrate that impurities contained in ketoconazole preparations are strong activators of human AhR and inducers of CYP1A1. Impurity IMP-C had similar potency (EC50), but 10-15 times higher efficacy (magnitude of induction) towards AhR, comparing to (+)-ketoconazole, as revealed by gene reporter assay in AZ-AHR stably transfected cells. Impurities IMP-B and IMP-C, and in lesser extent IMP-E, induced a formation of AhR-DNA complex, as demonstrated by electromobility shift assay EMSA. Impurities IMP-C and IMP-E dose-dependently induced CYP1A1 mRNA after 24 h, and their effects were comparable to those by (+)-ketoconazole. The level of CYP1A1 protein in HepG2 cells was strongly increased by IMP-C after 48h. In conclusion, our data further elucidated molecular effects of ketoconazole towards AhR signaling pathway, with possible implications in ketoconazole role in skin chemoprevention and/or damage, involving AhR.

  6. N-containing sugars from Morus alba and their glycosidase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, N; Oseki, K; Tomioka, E; Kizu, H; Matsui, K

    1994-06-17

    The reexamination of N-containing sugars from the roots of Morus alba by improved purification procedures led to the isolation of eighteen N-containing sugars, including seven that were isolated from the leaves of Morus bombycis. These N-containing sugars are 1-deoxynojirimycin (1), N-methyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (2), fagomine (3), 3-epi-fagomine (4), 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (5), 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol (6), calystegin B2 (1 alpha,2 beta,3 alpha,4 beta-tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane, 7), calystegin C1 (1 alpha,2 beta,3 alpha,4 beta,6 alpha-pentahydroxy-nor-tropane, 8), 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-arabinitol (9), and nine glycosides of 1. These glycosides consist of 2-O- and 6-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycins (10 and 11, respectively), 2-O-, 3-O- and 4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycins (12, 13, and 14, respectively), and 2-O-, 3-O-, 4-O- and 6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycins (15, 16, 17, and 18, respectively). Compound 4 is a new member of polyhydroxylated piperidine alkaloids, and the isolation of 6 is the first report of its natural occurrence. It has recently been found that the polyhydroxy-nor-tropane alkaloids possess potent glycosidase inhibitory activities. Calystegin A3 is the trihydroxy-nor-tropane, and calystegins B1 and B2 are the tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane. Calystegin C1, a new member of calystegins, is the first naturally occurring pentahydroxy-nor-tropane alkaloid. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were investigated against rat digestive glycosidases and various commercially available glycosidases.

  7. Synthesis and study on biological activity of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds – regulators of enzymes of nucleic acid biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeeva I. V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations on the development of new regulators of functional activity of nucleic acid biosynthesis enzymes based on polycyclic nitrogen-containing heterosystems are summarized. Computer design and molecular docking in the catalytic site of target enzyme (T7pol allowed to perform the directed optimization of basic structures. Several series of compounds were obtained and efficient inhibitors of herpes family (simple herpes virus type 2, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza A and hepatitis C viruses were identified, as well as compounds with potent antitumor, antibacterial and antifungal activity. It was established that the use of model test systems based on enzymes participating in nucleic acids synthesis is a promising approach to the primary screening of potential inhibitors in vitro.

  8. Amino substituted nitrogen heterocycle ureas as kinase insert domain containing receptor (KDR inhibitors: Performance of structure–activity relationship approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR study was performed on a set of amino-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic urea derivatives. Two novel approaches were applied: (1 the simplified molecular input-line entry systems (SMILES based optimal descriptors approach; and (2 the fragment-based simplex representation of molecular structure (SiRMS approach. Comparison with the classic scheme of building up the model and balance of correlation (BC for optimal descriptors approach shows that the BC scheme provides more robust predictions than the classic scheme for the considered pIC50 of the heterocyclic urea derivatives. Comparison of the SMILES-based optimal descriptors and SiRMS approaches has confirmed good performance of both techniques in prediction of kinase insert domain containing receptor (KDR inhibitory activity, expressed as a logarithm of inhibitory concentration (pIC50 of studied compounds.

  9. Comparison of activity coefficient models for atmospheric aerosols containing mixtures of electrolytes, organics, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chinghang; Clegg, Simon L.; Seinfeld, John H.

    Atmospheric aerosols generally comprise a mixture of electrolytes, organic compounds, and water. Determining the gas-particle distribution of volatile compounds, including water, requires equilibrium or mass transfer calculations, at the heart of which are models for the activity coefficients of the particle-phase components. We evaluate here the performance of four recent activity coefficient models developed for electrolyte/organic/water mixtures typical of atmospheric aerosols. Two of the models, the CSB model [Clegg, S.L., Seinfeld, J.H., Brimblecombe, P., 2001. Thermodynamic modelling of aqueous aerosols containing electrolytes and dissolved organic compounds. Journal of Aerosol Science 32, 713-738] and the aerosol diameter dependent equilibrium model (ADDEM) [Topping, D.O., McFiggans, G.B., Coe, H., 2005. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: part 2—including organic compounds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 1223-1242] treat ion-water and organic-water interactions but do not include ion-organic interactions; these can be referred to as "decoupled" models. The other two models, reparameterized Ming and Russell model 2005 [Raatikainen, T., Laaksonen, A., 2005. Application of several activity coefficient models to water-organic-electrolyte aerosols of atmospheric interest. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 2475-2495] and X-UNIFAC.3 [Erdakos, G.B., Change, E.I., Pandow, J.F., Seinfeld, J.H., 2006. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 3: Organic compounds, water, and ionic constituents by consideration of short-, mid-, and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.3. Atmospheric Environment 40, 6437-6452], include ion-organic interactions; these are referred to as "coupled" models. We address the question—Does the inclusion of a treatment of ion-organic interactions substantially improve the performance of the coupled models over

  10. Containers and systems for the measurement of radioactive gases and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Watrous, Matthew G; Oertel, Christopher P; McGrath, Christopher A

    2017-06-20

    Containers for a fluid sample containing a radionuclide for measurement of radiation from the radionuclide include an outer shell having one or more ports between an interior and an exterior of the outer shell, and an inner shell secured to the outer shell. The inner shell includes a detector receptacle sized for at least partial insertion into the outer shell. The inner shell and outer shell together at least partially define a fluid sample space. The outer shell and inner shell are configured for maintaining an operating pressure within the fluid sample space of at least about 1000 psi. Systems for measuring radioactivity in a fluid include such a container and a radiation detector received at least partially within the detector receptacle. Methods of measuring radioactivity in a fluid sample include maintaining a pressure of a fluid sample within a Marinelli-type container at least at about 1000 psi.

  11. Effect for Recovery of the Containment Spray System to the Release of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the perspective of the amount of Cs-137, the mass of Cs-137 correspondent with the 100TBq is calculated as 32g. However, during the severe accident, if the containment has been failed, it is generally expected that the mass of Cs-137 released to the environment is more than 1kg for most accident sequences So, the review and improvement of the PSA model in order to reduce containment failure frequency should be needed. Actually, the current PSA model is known to be constructed by the conservative assumptions, especially in the view point of Level 2 PSA model. Therefore, it is necessary to find this conservatism and to improve the Model using the reasonable assumptions. All of the domestic operating nuclear power plants are required to prepare the Accident Management Plan within 3 years and this Accident Management Plan should have to meet the New Safety Goal including the requirement that the sum of the accident frequency that the release of the radioactive nuclide Cs-137 to the environment exceeds the 100TBq should be less than 1.0E-6/RY. The containment spray system is the only facility that mitigates the containment over-pressurization in the operating nuclear power plants, such as Westinghouse type or OPR1000 type. In this study, the effects of the containment spray system recovery on the amount of Cesium released to the environment were analyzed. If the recovery of the containment spray system can be applied to the PSA model, it is expected that the containment failure frequency and also the amount of cesium released to the environment can be greatly reduced.

  12. Novel, UV-curable coatings containing a tethered biocide: Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Chisholm, Bret J; Stafslien, Shane; He, Jie; Patel, Sandeep

    2010-11-01

    Cationic, UV -curable coatings containing the tethered biocide, triclosan, were produced and their antimicrobial activity toward Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli determined. Two polysiloxanes functionalized with both cycloaliphatic epoxy and triclosan were synthesized using hydrosilylation. The functionalized polysiloxanes, with varied concentration of pendant triclosan, were used to produce UV-curable coatings with reasonably good coating properties. Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy showed that the tethered triclosan moieties self-concentrate on the coating surface. Using biological assays, it was determined that the coatings possessed nearly 100% antimicrobial activity toward the Gram-positive bacterium, S. epidermidis, without leaching toxic components. For the Gram-negative bacterium, E. coli, 60-80% reduction in biofilm retention was observed for all the coatings. Interestingly, the coatings were lesser effective in reducing E. coli cell viability suggesting that the tethered triclosan were able to substantially reduce the production of the biofilm extracellular matrix with minimal adverse affect on the bacterial cells attached to the coating surfaces. The high specificity of the coatings toward S. epidermidis indicates that a novel mode of contact-active antimicrobial activity was achieved through the disruption of processes unique to the Gram-positive cell wall. These novel UV-curable coatings have potential applications in inhibiting implantable biomedical device associated infections.

  13. Synthesis, algal inhibition activities and QSAR studies of novel gramine compounds containing ester functional groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YU Liangmin; JIANG Xiaohui; XIA Shuwei; ZHAO Haizhou

    2009-01-01

    2,5,6-Tribromo-l-methylgramine (TBG), isolated from bryozoan Zoobotryon pellucidum was shown to be very efficient in preventing recruitment of larval settlement. In order to improve the compatibility of TBG and its analogues with other ingredients in antifouling paints, structural modification of TBG was focused mainly on halogen substitution and N-substitution. Two halogen-substitute gramines and their derivatives which contain ester functional groups at N-position of gramines were synthesized. Algal inhibition activities of the synthesized compounds against algae Nitzschia closterium were evaluated and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50) range was 1.06-6.74 μg ml-1. Compounds that had a long chain ester group exhibited extremely high antifouling activity. Quantitive Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies with multiple linear regression analysis were applied to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptors and biological activity of the synthesized compounds. The results show that the toxicity (log (1/EC50)) is correlated well with the partition coefficient log P. Thus, these products have potential function as antifouling agents.

  14. Functional properties and antifungal activity of films based on gliadins containing cinnamaldehyde and natamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Mari Pau; Fajardo, Paula; Gartner, Hunter; Gomez-Estaca, Joaquin; Gavara, Rafael; Almenar, Eva; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2014-03-03

    Gliadin films cross-linked with cinnamaldehyde (1.5, 3, and 5%) and incorporated with natamycin (0.5%) were prepared by casting, and their antifungal activity, water resistance, and barrier properties were characterized. Incorporation of natamycin gave rise to films with greater water uptake, weight loss and diameter gain, and higher water vapor and oxygen permeabilities. These results may be associated to a looser packing of the protein chains as a consequence of the presence of natamycin. The different cross-linking degree of the matrices influenced the natamycin migration to the agar test media, increasing from 13.3 to 23.7 (μg/g of film) as the percentage of cinnamaldehyde was reduced from 5% to 1.5%. Antifungal activity of films was assayed against common food spoilage fungi (Penicillium species, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum acutatum). The greatest effectiveness was obtained for films containing natamycin and treated with 5% of cinnamaldehyde. The level of cinnamaldehyde reached in the head-space of the test assay showed a diminishing trend as a function of time, which was in agreement with fungal growth and cinnamaldehyde metabolization. Developed active films were used in the packaging of cheese slices showing promising results for their application in active packaging against food spoilage.

  15. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Some Small Fruits Containing Anthocyanins Using Electrochemical and Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Căta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the antioxidant capacity of some fruits extracts containing anthocyanins (strawberry, raspberry, elderberry, mulberry, blackberry, bilberry, black and red currant using an electrochemical technique and three classical chemical methods based on reaction between antioxidants and a chromogen compound. evaluation of antioxidant activities of extracts was performed by using FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant capacity, ABTS (2,2’-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate] and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were correlated with their content of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. Good correlations were obtained especially between antioxidant activities and total phenolics content. Cyclic voltammetry was used for the evaluation of overall reducing capacity of the extracts using a glassy carbon electrode. Reducing capacity of selected fruits extracts was assessed based on the half-peak potential (E1/2 of the first oxidation peak. The oxidation potentials characterized by E1/2 value were not correlated with the antioxidant activities evaluated by the classical methods. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  16. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative effluent containment system (ECS) that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal.

  17. A Wireless Monitoring System for Cracks on the Surface of Reactor Containment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Xu, Yaming; Zhang, Tao

    2016-06-14

    Structural health monitoring with wireless sensor networks has been increasingly popular in recent years because of the convenience. In this paper, a real-time monitoring system for cracks on the surface of reactor containment buildings is presented. Customized wireless sensor networks platforms are designed and implemented with sensors especially for crack monitoring, which include crackmeters and temperature detectors. Software protocols like route discovery, time synchronization and data transfer are developed to satisfy the requirements of the monitoring system and stay simple at the same time. Simulation tests have been made to evaluate the performance of the system before full scale deployment. The real-life deployment of the crack monitoring system is carried out on the surface of reactor containment building in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station during the in-service pressure test with 30 wireless sensor nodes.

  18. Hsp90 protein interacts with phosphorothioate oligonucleotides containing hydrophobic 2'-modifications and enhances antisense activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Sun, Hong; Kinberger, Garth A; Prakash, Thazha P; Nichols, Joshua G; Crooke, Stanley T

    2016-05-05

    RNase H1-dependent antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are chemically modified to enhance pharmacological properties. Major modifications include phosphorothioate (PS) backbone and different 2'-modifications in 2-5 nucleotides at each end (wing) of an ASO. Chemical modifications can affect protein binding and understanding ASO-protein interactions is important for better drug design. Recently we identified many intracellular ASO-binding proteins and found that protein binding could affect ASO potency. Here, we analyzed the structure-activity-relationships of ASO-protein interactions and found 2'-modifications significantly affected protein binding, including La, P54nrb and NPM. PS-ASOs containing more hydrophobic 2'-modifications exhibit higher affinity for proteins in general, although certain proteins, e.g. Ku70/Ku80 and TCP1, are less affected by 2'-modifications. We found that Hsp90 protein binds PS-ASOs containing locked-nucleic-acid (LNA) or constrained-ethyl-bicyclic-nucleic-acid ((S)-cEt) modifications much more avidly than 2'-O-methoxyethyl (MOE). ASOs bind the mid-domain of Hsp90 protein. Hsp90 interacts with more hydrophobic 2' modifications, e.g. (S)-cEt or LNA, in the 5'-wing of the ASO. Reduction of Hsp90 protein decreased activity of PS-ASOs with 5'-LNA or 5'-cEt wings, but not with 5'-MOE wing. Together, our results indicate Hsp90 protein enhances the activity of PS/LNA or PS/(S)-cEt ASOs, and imply that altering protein binding of ASOs using different chemical modifications can improve therapeutic performance of PS-ASOs. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliner, Manuel [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Roman-Leshkov, Yuriy [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Davis, Mark E. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2010-04-06

    The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containing a catalytic amount of Sn-Beta (1:50 Sn:glucose molar ratio) gives product yields of approximately 46% (wt/wt) glucose, 31% (wt/wt) fructose, and 9% (wt/wt) mannose after 30 min and 12 min of reaction at 383 K and 413 K, respectively. This reactivity is achieved also when a 45 wt% glucose solution is used. The properties of the large-pore zeolite greatly influence the reaction behavior because the reaction does not proceed with a medium-pore zeolite, and the isomerization activity is considerably lower when the metal centers are incorporated in ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The Sn-Beta catalyst can be used for multiple cycles, and the reaction stops when the solid is removed, clearly indicating that the catalysis is occurring heterogeneously. Most importantly, the Sn-Beta catalyst is able to perform the isomerization reaction in highly acidic, aqueous environments with equivalent activity and product distribution as in media without added acid. This enables Sn-Beta to couple isomerizations with other acid-catalyzed reactions, including hydrolysis/isomerization or isomerization/dehydration reaction sequences [starch to fructose and glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) demonstrated here].

  20. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus oil against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatrin, Priscilla Maciel; Verdi, Camila Marina; Ebling de Souza, Márcia; Nunes de Godoi, Samantha; Klein, Bruna; Gundel, Andre; Wagner, Roger; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Vianna Santos, Roberto Christ

    2017-09-29

    Candida species are the main responsible microorganisms for causing fungal infections worldwide, and Candida albicans is most frequently associated with infectious processes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium commonly found in immunocompromised patients. The infection persistence caused by these microorganisms is often related to antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. In this context, the objective of the present study was to prepare and characterize nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus oil and to verify its antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities against P. aeruginosa and Candida spp. The nanoemulsions had a size of approximately 76 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.22, a zeta potential of - 9,42 mV and a pH of approximately 5.0. The E. globulus oil was characterized by gas chromatography, being possible to observe its main components, such as 1-8-Cineol (75.8%), p- Cymene (7.5%), α-Pinene (7.4%) and Limonene (6.4%). The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsion was determined from the macrodilution tests and the cell viability curve, where the minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.7 mg/mL for C. albicans and 1.4 mg/mL for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were obtained. However, the nanoemulsions did not present antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, since it contains only 5% of the oil, being ineffective for this microorganism. The nanoencapsulated oil action against the formed biofilm was evaluated by atomic force microscopy and calcofluor staining, and the nanoemulsion was more efficient for two of the three Candida species when compared to free oil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. New organic nitrate-containing benzyloxy isonipecotanilide derivatives with vasodilatory and anti-platelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Candia, Modesto; Marini, Elisabetta; Zaetta, Giorgia; Cellamare, Saverio; Di Stilo, Antonella; Altomare, Cosimo D

    2015-05-25

    A number of new nitric oxide (NO)-precursors were synthesized by grafting nitrate-containing moieties on the structures of the benzyloxy isonipecotanilide derivatives 1 and 2 already reported as moderately potent antiplatelet agents. Various nitrooxy (ONO2)-alkyl side chains were covalently linked to the piperidine nitrogen of the parent compounds through carbamate and amide linkage, and the synthesis of a benzyl nitrate analog (15) of compound 1 was also achieved. The in vitro vasodilatory activities, as well as platelet anti-aggregatory effects, of the newly synthesized organic nitrates were assessed. The (ONO2)methyl carbamate-based derivative 5a and the benzyl nitrate analog 15, which on the other hand retain activity as inhibitors of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, exhibited strong NO-mediated vasodilatory effects on pre-contracted rat aorta strips, with EC50 values in the low nanomolar range (13 and 29 nM, respectively). Experiments carried out with the selectively inhibited soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which is the key enzyme of the NO-mediated pathway leading to vascular smooth muscle relaxation, confirmed the involvement of NO in the observed vasodilation. The nitrate derivatives proved to be stable in acidic aqueous solution and at pH 7.4. In human serum, unlike 5a, which showed not to undergo enzyme-catalyzed decomposition, the other tested (ONO2)-alkyl carbamate-based compounds (5b and 5e) and benzyl nitrate 15 underwent a faster degradation. However, their decomposition rates in serum were quite slow (t½>2.6 h), which suggests that nitrate moiety is poorly metabolized in blood plasma and that much of the in vitro anti-platelet activity has to be attributed to the intact (ONO2)-containing molecules.

  2. 78 FR 28896 - Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... COMMISSION Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Revision 2 to Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.57, ``Design Limits and Loading... clarity. This guide describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for design limits...

  3. Molecular Iodine-Mediated Cyclization of Tethered Heteroatom-Containing Alkenyl or Alkynyl Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malose Jack Mphahlele

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular iodine has established itself as a readily available and easy-to-handle electrophilic and oxidizing reagent used in various organic transformations. In this review attention is focused on the use of molecular iodine in promoting cyclization (iodocyclization and cyclodehydroiodination of tethered heteroatom-containing alkenyl or alkynyl systems.

  4. Luminescence properties of Si-containing porous matrix–PbS nanoparticle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, S. A., E-mail: satarasov@mail.ru; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Lamkin, I. A.; Maksimov, A. I.; Maraeva, E. V.; Mikhailov, I. I.; Moshnikov, V. A. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” (Russian Federation); Musikhin, S. F. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Nalimova, S. S.; Permyakov, N. V.; Spivak, Yu. M.; Travkin, P. G. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The luminescence properties of systems that contain lead-sulfide nanoparticles deposited onto substrates fabricated from porous silicon, oxidized porous silicon, and porous (tin-oxide)–(silicon-oxide) layers are studied. It is shown that the structure and composition of the matrix induce a strong effect on the luminescence spectra of colloidal quantum dots, defining their emission wavelength.

  5. Evaluation of Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System, 1984-85

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    In this article, we describe the evaluation of the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS), Arizona's alternative to the acute care portion of Medicaid. We provide an assessment of implementation of the program's innovative features during its second 18 months of operation, from April 1984 through September 1985. Included in the evaluation are assessments of the administration of the program, provider relations, eligibility, enrollment and marketing, information systems, quality ...

  6. Formulation of microspheres containing Crataegus monogyna Jacq. extract with free radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucconi, Giulia; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Martino, Emanuela; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Perteghella, Sara; Rossi, Daniela; Faragò, Silvio; Vigo, Daniele; Faustini, Massimo; Collina, Simona; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-02-01

    Extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) show an interesting free radical scavenging (FRS) effect, related to their flavonoids content. Unfortunately, their oral administration is affected by their low bioavailability. The aim of this work is to obtain a multiparticulate drug delivery system for hawthorn extracts for oral administration. The extracts from flowering tops (FL) or fruits (FR) of hawthorn were obtained with maceration, using ethanol as an extraction solvent, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. FL extract showed the highest FRS activity (EC50 3.72 ± 1.21 µg/ml), so it was selected to prepare microparticulate systems by a spray-drying technique, which were characterized by granulometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal fluorescence microscopy and hyperoside content. Antioxidant activity was evaluated before and after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation. Results indicate that the microparticulate systems maintained the antioxidant activity of hawthorn also after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation, exhibiting properties suitable for oral administration.

  7. Nonlinear control for systems containing input uncertainty via a Lyapunov-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackunis, William

    Controllers are often designed based on the assumption that a control actuation can be directly applied to the system. This assumption may not be valid, however, for systems containing parametric input uncertainty or unmodeled actuator dynamics. In this dissertation, a tracking control methodology is proposed for aircaft and aerospace systems for which the corresponding dynamic models contain uncertainty in the control actuation. The dissertation will focus on five problems of interest: (1) adaptive CMG-actuated satellite attitude control in the presence of inertia uncertainty and uncertain CMG gimbal friction; (2) adaptive neural network (NN)-based satellite attitude control for CMG-actuated small-sats in the presence of uncertain satellite inertia, nonlinear disturbance torques, uncertain CMG gimbal friction, and nonlinear electromechanical CMG actuator disturbances; (3) dynamic inversion (DI) control for aircraft systems containing parametric input uncertainty and additive, nonlinearly parameterizable (non-LP) disturbances; (4) adaptive dynamic inversion (ADI) control for aircraft systems as described in (3); and (5) adaptive output feedback control for aircraft systems as described in (3) and (4).

  8. Novel (E-β-Farnesene Analogues Containing 2-Nitroiminohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine: Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoguo Qin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover novel eco-friendly compounds with good activity for aphid control, (E-β-farnesene (EβF, the main component of the aphid alarm pheromone, was chosen as the lead compound. By introducing a 2-nitroimino-hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine moiety (abbreviated NHT to replace the unstable conjugated double bond system of EβF, a series of novel EβF analogues containing the NHT moiety were synthesized via the reaction of substituted NHT rings with (E-1-chloro-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene. All the compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, and high resolution mass spectroscopy (HRMS. The bioassay results showed that all the analogues displayed different repellent and aphicidal activities against green peach aphid (Myzus persicae. Particularly, the analogue 4r exhibited obvious repellent activity (repellent proportion: 78.43% and similar aphicidal activity against M. persicae (mortality: 82.05% as the commercial compound pymetrozine (80.07%. A preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR study was also performed, which offered valuable clues for the design of further new EβF analogues.

  9. Enzymatic production of monoacylglycerols containing polyunsaturated fatty acids through an efficient glycerolysis system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tiankui; Rebsdorf, Morten; Engelrud, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an efficient glycerolysis system for the enzymatic production of monoacylglycerols (MAGs) containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Glycerolysis has been widely applied in industry for the chemical production of food MAGs under high temperature. The enzymatic...... glycerolysis system at 40-70 °C is unfortunately a multiphase system, which leads to the lower reaction efficiency. A tert-butyl alcohol system was developed after careful evaluation and more than 20-fold of the reaction efficiency from this system was obtained compared to the solvent-free system. Novozym 435...... was employed as a catalyst in the glycerolysis from the screening. In the batch reaction system with tert-butyl alcohol, temperature higher than 40 °C was favored. The glycerol/oil ratio was best in the study with 4.5 while the solvent weight ratio from 1 to 3 had little effect. In general, 60- 70% yield can...

  10. Study on Salt-Containing Extractive Distillation for the 2-Propanol/Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jiquan

    2008-01-01

    The salt-containing extractive distillation column and the salt-containing agent recovery column for the 2-propanol/water/ethanediol/KAc system were simulated by the NRTL model and the modified Rose Relaxation method. The simulation results showed that prediction of the salt effect in vapor-liquid equilib-rium and the correlation method (TDCM) of NRTL parameters were suitable for the said system. Four different distillation technology processes were investigated; the results showed that the salt-containing extractive distillation process was the best one. The simulating design of the extractive distillation column was performed under the conditions of different total stage number, feeding location, reflux ratio, amount of mixed agent and concentration of KAc. The results showed that such factors as 17 stages, a feeding location at the 9th stage, a reflux ratio of 1.2, and a mixed agent feeding rate of 1.141 kmol/h, might be the best suited operating conditions. The simulating design was also done for the column for recovering the salt-containing agent. The simulation method of the salt-containing extractive distillation is simple and effective in this work.

  11. Sustainable agricultural use of natural water sources containing elevated radium activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripler, Effi; Haquin, Gustavo; Koch, Jean; Yehuda, Zehava; Shani, Uri

    2014-06-01

    Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. We aimed to explore the environmental implications of using water containing Ra for irrigation. Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa and wheat), grown in weighing lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of (226)Ra activity concentration: Low Radium Water (LRW)<0.04 Bq L(-1); High Radium Water (HRW) at 1.8 Bq L(-1) and (3) Radium Enriched Water (REW) at 50 times the concentration in HRW. The HYDRUS 1-D software package was used to simulate the long-term (226)Ra distribution in a soil irrigated with HRW for 15 years. Radium uptake by plants was found to be controlled by its activity in the irrigation water and in the soil solution, the physical properties of the soil and the potential evapotranspiration. The (226)Ra apeared to accumulate mainly in the leaves of crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) was minimal. The simulation of 15 years of crop irrigation by HYDERUS 1-D, showed a low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone and a limited downward mobility. It was therefore concluded that the crops investigated in this study can be irrigated with the natural occurring activity concentration of (226)Ra of 0.6-1.6 Bq L(-1). This should be accompanied by a continuous monitoring of radium in the edible parts of the crops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Power control and management of the grid containing largescale wind power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aula, Fadhil Toufick

    The ever increasing demand for electricity has driven many countries toward the installation of new generation facilities. However, concerns such as environmental pollution and global warming issues, clean energy sources, high costs associated with installation of new conventional power plants, and fossil fuels depletion have created many interests in finding alternatives to conventional fossil fuels for generating electricity. Wind energy is one of the most rapidly growing renewable power sources and wind power generations have been increasingly demanded as an alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. However, wind power fluctuates due to variation of wind speed. Therefore, large-scale integration of wind energy conversion systems is a threat to the stability and reliability of utility grids containing these systems. They disturb the balance between power generation and consumption, affect the quality of the electricity, and complicate load sharing and load distribution managing and planning. Overall, wind power systems do not help in providing any services such as operating and regulating reserves to the power grid. In order to resolve these issues, research has been conducted in utilizing weather forecasting data to improve the performance of the wind power system, reduce the influence of the fluctuations, and plan power management of the grid containing large-scale wind power systems which consist of doubly-fed induction generator based energy conversion system. The aims of this research, my dissertation, are to provide new methods for: smoothing the output power of the wind power systems and reducing the influence of their fluctuations, power managing and planning of a grid containing these systems and other conventional power plants, and providing a new structure of implementing of latest microprocessor technology for controlling and managing the operation of the wind power system. In this research, in order to reduce and smooth the fluctuations, two

  13. Regulation of migratory activity of human keratinocytes by topography of multiscale collagen-containing nanofibrous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoling; Xu, Meng; Liu, Jie; Qi, Yanmei; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Hongjun

    2014-02-01

    Nanofibrous matrices hold great promise in skin wound repair partially due to their capability of recapturing the essential attributes of native extracellular matrix (ECM). With regard to limited studies on the effect of nanofibrous matrices on keratinocytes, the present study was aimed to understand how the topographical feature of nanofibrous matrices regulates keratinocyte motility by culturing keratinocytes on polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen nanofibrous matrices (rough surface with fiber diameters of 331 ± 112 nm) or the matrices coated with a thin layer of collagen gel to form a secondary ultrafine fibrous network (smooth surface with ultrafine fiber diameters of 55 ± 26 nm). It was found that the PCL/collagen nanofibrous matrices alone did not stimulate cell migration, while collagen gel coating could significantly increase cell motility. Further studies demonstrated that the ultrafine fibrous network of collagen gel coating significantly activated integrin β1, Rac1 and Cdc42, facilitated the deposition of laminin-332 (formerly called laminin-5), and promoted the expression of active matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (i.e., MMP-2 and 9). Neutralization of integrin β1 activity abrogated the gel coating-induced keratinocyte migration. These findings provide important evidence on the role of topographical features of nanofibrous matrices in regulating the phenotypic alteration of keratinocytes and suggest the possible utility of collagen-containing nanofibrous matrices for skin regeneration especially in re-epithelialization.

  14. Preparation and Application of Active Composite Antibacterial Material Containing Ag + and Zn2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A kind of active composite antibacterial material was prepared with CaHPO4 as the container,Ag + and Zn2+ were adsorbed through ion-exchange, then it was doped with small scale of rare earth and photocatalyst, and was finally calcined at a certain temperature. The properties and application of the composite material antibacterial were investigated. Some tests show that the as-prepared antibacterial powders modified by opaque agents such as SnO2 and ZrO2 , possess beautiful white and excellent climate resistance at normal temperatures and are promising candidate materials for antibacterial plastics and dope. The result of the application in glaze indicates that Ag + can still exist stably, with no color change for the glaze, even being sintered at 1 200 ℃.SEM, EDS, antibacterial activity analyses and contrast tests reveal that the as-prepared antibacterial powders and the antibacterial glaze both have excellent antibacterial activities, without color change, in the case of dark or brightness.

  15. Marine Benthic Diatoms Contain Compounds Able to Induce Leukemia Cell Death and Modulate Blood Platelet Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestegard, Siv Kristin; Oftedal, Linn; Coyne, Rosie Theresa; Nygaard, Gyrid; Skjærven, Kaja Helvik; Knutsen, Gjert; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Herfindal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the high abundance and species diversity of diatoms, only a few bioactive compounds from them have been described. The present study reveals a high number of mammalian cell death inducing substances in biofilm-associated diatoms sampled from the intertidal zone. Extracts from the genera Melosira, Amphora, Phaeodactylum and Nitzschia were all found to induce leukemia cell death, with either classical apoptotic or autophagic features. Several extracts also contained inhibitors of thrombin-induced blood platelet activation. Some of this activity was caused by a high content of adenosine in the diatoms, ranging from 0.07 to 0.31 μg/mg dry weight. However, most of the bioactivity was adenosine deaminase-resistant. An adenosine deaminase-resistant active fraction from one of the extracts was partially purified and shown to induce apoptosis with a distinct phenotype. The results show that benthic diatoms typically found in the intertidal zone may represent a richer source of interesting bioactive compounds than hitherto recognized. PMID:20098602

  16. Marine Benthic Diatoms Contain Compounds Able to Induce Leukemia Cell Death and Modulate Blood Platelet Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Herfindal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the high abundance and species diversity of diatoms, only a few bioactive compounds from them have been described. The present study reveals a high number of mammalian cell death inducing substances in biofilm-associated diatoms sampled from the intertidal zone. Extracts from the genera Melosira, Amphora, Phaeodactylum and Nitzschia were all found to induce leukemia cell death, with either classical apoptotic or autophagic features. Several extracts also contained inhibitors of thrombin-induced blood platelet activation. Some of this activity was caused by a high content of adenosine in the diatoms, ranging from 0.07 to 0.31 μg/mg dry weight. However, most of the bioactivity was adenosine deaminase-resistant. An adenosine deaminase-resistant active fraction from one of the extracts was partially purified and shown to induce apoptosis with a distinct phenotype. The results show that benthic diatoms typically found in the intertidal zone may represent a richer source of interesting bioactive compounds than hitherto recognized.

  17. Novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene designed for the removal of indoor formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Song; Yan, Hongxia

    2015-04-28

    Indoor air pollution is caused inevitably due to complicated home decoration, in which formaldehyde is one of the most typical pollutants. It will be a convenient, economical and effective strategy to remove indoor formaldehyde if imparting a feature of formaldehyde removal to decorative coatings. We have successfully explored a novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene used as a formaldehyde absorbent in coatings via a straightforward transesterification process using inexpensive and easily available chemicals. The polymer has been characterized by (13)C NMR, FTIR, GC and GPC. Formaldehyde removal capacity of the coating films containing different contents of the polymer has been investigated. The results indicated that coatings incorporating 4wt% of the polymer could make the coating films exhibit significant improvement on formaldehyde removal including purificatory performance (>85%) and durability of purificatory effect (>60%), compared to those consisting of absorbents without any silicon, and improve yellowing resistance performance, while other properties, such as gloss, adhesion, pencil hardness, flexibility and impact resistance, were kept almost unaffected. The chemical absorption process of the silicone-based polymer filled in interior decorative coatings is demonstrated as a promising technology to purify indoor formaldehyde and thus can reduce the harm to individuals.

  18. Polymeric microspheres for radionuclide synovectomy containing neutron-activated holmium-166.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumper, R J; Mills, B J; Ryo, U Y; Jay, M

    1992-03-01

    Poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) microspheres containing neutron-activated 166Ho were investigated as potential agents for radionuclide synovectomy. Stable 165Ho, complexed to acetylacetone (AcAc), was incorporated into PLA spheres by the solvent evaporation technique. Spheres prepared with the optimal mean particle size of 7.2 microns (range 2-13 microns) containing 25.4% 165Ho-AcAc (9.1% 165Ho) were irradiated in a high neutron flux to produce 31.1-36.0 mCi 166Ho. In vitro human plasma studies showed that the irradiated spheres retained 99.0 +/- 0.01% of the 166Ho at 314 hr. In-vivo retention studies were conducted by administering irradiated PLA spheres with 257-591 microCi 166Ho into the joint space of normal rabbits (n = 6). Biodistribution analysis and gamma camera analysis showed 166Ho retention in the joint space after 120 hr of 97.7% +/- 0.8% and 98.2% +/- 2.4%, respectively, with no uptake by the lymph nodes. The ease with which the PLA spheres can be made in the optimal size range for later irradiation and their ability to retain the 166Ho make them attractive agents for radionuclide synovectomy.

  19. Testing of Nanoparticle Release from a Composite Containing Nanomaterial Using a Chamber System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Ho; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Yu, Il Je

    2016-11-22

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology as one of the most important technologies in the 21(st) century, interest in the safety of consumer products containing nanomaterials is also increasing. Evaluating the nanomaterial release from products containing nanomaterials is a crucial step in assessing the safety of these products, and has resulted in several international efforts to develop consistent and reliable technologies for standardizing the evaluation of nanomaterial release. In this study, the release of nanomaterials from products containing nanomaterials is evaluated using a chamber system that includes a condensation particle counter, optical particle counter, and sampling ports to collect filter samples for electron microscopy analysis. The proposed chamber system is tested using an abrasor and disc-type nanocomposite material specimens to determine whether the nanomaterial release is repeatable and consistent within an acceptable range. The test results indicate that the total number of particles in each test is within 20% from the average after several trials. The release trends are similar and they show very good repeatability. Therefore, the proposed chamber system can be effectively used for nanomaterial release testing of products containing nanomaterials.

  20. Formulation and characterization of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems containing monoacyl phosphatidylcholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy; Xi, Xi; Rades, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the use of monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPC) in self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). A D-optimal design was used to generate two sets of formulations containing long-chain (LC) or medium-chain (MC) glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogol-8 glycerides (Labrasol......Pas (35% LPC) at 25°C, however, this did not considerably prolong the formulation dispersion time. In conclusion, MC SNEDDS containing LPC are promising formulations when desiring to reduce the amount of synthetic surfactants and possibly modify the digestion rate....

  1. LOCA air-injection loads in BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukita, Y.; Shiba, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki); Namatame, K. (Institute of Nuclear Safety, Tokyo (Japan))

    1984-02-01

    Large-scale blowdown tests were conducted to investigate the thermal-hydrodynamic response of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark II pressure suppression containment system to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. This paper presents the test results on the early blowdown transients, where air in the drywell is injected into the pressure suppression pool and induces various hydrodynamic loads onto the containment pressure boundary and internal structures. The test data are compared to predictions by analytical models used for the licensing evaluation of the hydrodynamic loads to assess these models.

  2. Impulsive Containment Control in Nonlinear Multiagent Systems with Time-Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The containment control problems of nonlinear multiagent systems with time-delay via impulsive algorithms under both fixed and switching topologies are studied. By using the Lyapunov methods, several conditions are derived to achieve the containment control. It is shown that the states of the followers can converge into the convex hull spanned by the states of the leaders if every leader has directed paths to all the followers and the impulsive period is short enough. Finally, some simulations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and pH of a endodontic sealer containing MTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maliza, Amanda GA; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Arias, Marcela C

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity, calcium release, and pH of a new mineral trioxide aggregate endodontic sealer when compared to endodontic sealers containing calcium hydroxide and/or epoxy resin. Method: Specimens were fabricated from MTA Fillapex, Sealer 26, Sealapex, and AH...... the sealers was measured using a pHmeter. Results: MTA Fillapex, AH Plus and Sealer 26 resulted in partial inhibition of E. faecalis, while Sealapex resulted in the highest bacterium growth. MTA Fillapex and AH Plus also inhibited to a greater extent the growth of C. albicans. None of the investigated sealers...... could completely inhibit the growth of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans, but influenced microbial growth to different extent. Significantly higher calcium was released from Sealer 26, followed by Sealapex, MTA Fillapex, and AH Plus in a descending order. All investigated sealers resulted...

  4. A cell-free yellow lupin extract containing activities of pseudouridine 35 and 55 synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieńkowska, J; Wrzesiński, J; Szweykowska-Kulińska, Z

    1998-01-01

    Plant cytoplasmic tyrosine tRNA was pseudouridylated at three different positions: 35, 39 and 55. These pseudouridines were introduced by three different enzymes--pseudouridine synthases. Variants of the Arabidopsis thaliana pre-tRNA(Tyr) were constructed that allow to monitor specifically pseudouridylation at different nucleotide positions. Using such RNAs to assay pseudouridine synthesis we have prepared an extract from Lupinus luteus cv. Ventus seeds containing activities of at least psi35 and psi55 synthases. This is the first report describing the preparation of the lupin seed extract that specifically modifies plant pre-tRNA(Tyr) transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase. U35 is converted to psi35 only in an intron-dependent manner, while pseudouridylation of U55 is insensitive to the presence or absence of an intron.

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of N-substituted-tetrahydro-γ-carbolines containing peptide residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Nadezhda V; Sokolov, Vladimir B; Vinogradova, Daria V; Shevtsova, Elena F; Dubova, Ludmila G

    2014-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of novel peptide conjugates of N-substituted-tetrahydro-γ-carbolines has been performed using the sequence of the Ugi multicomponent reaction and Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. The effect of obtained γ-carboline–peptide conjugates on the rat liver mitochondria was evaluated. It was found that all compounds in the concentration of 30 µM did onot induce depolarization of mitochondria but possessed some inhibitory effect on the mitochondria permeability transition. The original N-substituted-tetrahydro-γ-carbolines containing an terminal alkyne group demonstrated a high prooxidant activity, whereas their conjugates with peptide fragments slightly inhibited both autooxidation and the t-BHP-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:24454569

  6. PHOTOINDUCED ALIGNMENT OF OPTICALLY ACTIVE POLYMER CONTAINING A TEMPO RADICAL END GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Chen Dong; Yong Zhang; Ze-da Xu; Xing-he Fan; Xiao-fang Chen; Xin-hua Wan; Qi-feng Zhou

    2003-01-01

    A new azobenzene side-chain polymer (TEMPO-PAZ) containing TEMPO (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinooxy) radical end group was synthesized by free radical copolymerization. Photoinduced alignment was studied on the polymer films at room temperature with linearly polarized light of 514.5 nm. The experimental results showed that the magnetic response intensity of the TEMPO-PAZ could be easily controlled by choosing the appropriate polarized light irradiating times, presumably due to the nitroxide radical in the TEMPO-PAZ molecular structure. For the polymer investigated here, the photoinduced alignment technique was introduced to increase the magnetic response intensity of polymer under irradiation, aiming originally at searching for a new photo-active organic magnetic multifunctionai materials.On the other hand, experimental results also showed that the TEMPO-PAZ can be used as a material for optical image storage.

  7. Investigation of the phase behaviour of systems containing lecithin and 2-acyl lysolecithin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, M; Gallarate, M; Pattarino, F; Carlotti, M E

    1999-11-10

    A series of modified phospholipids (m-PC) possessing different acyl chains in position 2, from butanoyl to hexadecanoyl, were prepared by partial synthesis from soybean lysolecithin. They were used with soybean lecithin to construct phase diagrams containing ethanol as cosolvent, water and medium chain triglycerides (MCT) or isopropyl myristate (IPM) as oils. The weight ratios lecithin:m-PC and surfactants:ethanol were kept constant at 1:1. The results indicate that the m-PCs have a strong effect on the microemulsion (L) and liquid crystalline (LC) domains in the water-rich/oil-poor part of the phase diagrams, although all diagrams correspond to a single lecithin:m-PC ratio. On decreasing the acyl chain length, and thus increasing the hydrophilicity of the surfactant, there was a corresponding increase in the L area, which moved towards the aqueous corner of the phase diagrams. The LC phase was detected only in the presence of the hexadecanoyl derivative for the systems containing MCT, and it was not detected only in the presence of the butanoyl derivative for the systems containing IPM. The use of a second hydrophilic surfactant to adjust the packing properties of the lecithin-alcohol systems, and/or to increase the fluidity of the surfactant film, increased the region of existence of the isotropic systems. This may be of importance in the formulation of drug delivery systems, especially those which are diluted by biological fluids upon administration.

  8. Enviro-geotechnical considerations in waste containment system design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, H.Y.; Daniels, J.L.; Inyang, H.I. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of waste control facilities hinges on careful evaluation of the overall planning, analysis and design of the entire system prior to construction. At present, most work is focused on the waste controlling system itself, with little attention given to the local environmental factors surrounding the facility sites. Containment materials including geomembranes, geotextiles and clay amended soils have received intense scrutiny. This paper, however, focuses on three relatively important issues relating to the characterization of the surrounding geomedia. Leakage through naturally occurring low-permeability soil layers, shrinkages swelling, cracking and effects of dynamic loads on system components are often responsible for a waste containment breach. In this paper, these mechanisms and their synergistic effects are explained in terms of the particle energy field theory. It is hoped that this additional information may assist the designer to be aware or take precaution to design safer future waste control facilities.

  9. Matrix type transdermal therapeutic system containing captopril: formulation optimization, in vitro and ex vivo characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimoğlu, Oya; Keskin, Ebru; Dortunç, Betül; Anah, Sela

    2013-01-01

    Transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) containing captopril were developed by using synthetic and pH independent polymers, Eudragit RL 100 and RS 100. The formulations were characterized in terms of their appearance, thickness, captopril content, in vitro release rate and diffusion profiles. In vitro release studies demonstrated controlled release for each formulation developed. In viro and ex vivo diffusion rate studies were performed through various synthetic membranes with different thickness, pore size and type (hydrophilic and hydrophobic) and through human skin by using Franz diffusion cells. Type of membrane and composition of the formulation affected the diffusion profiles of captopril from the transdermal therapeutic systems. Transdermal therapeutic systems containing captopril were successfully prepared and especially two of the formulations (F15 and F16) are considered to be suitable to administer captopril via skin.

  10. Disruption management for truck appointment system at a container terminal: A Green initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, N.; Chen, Gang; Jin, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption often occurs in both land-side and sea-side operations at a container terminal, causing substantial interference of scheduled operations and poor green performance. The land-side disruption is rarely researched, and this paper addresses the ordinary level of such disruption where...... typically some truck arrivals deviate from their schedule in the appointment system. The aim is to find a response strategy that can maintain high resilience ability of the system in neutralizing the impact of disruptions. First, we consider different levels of late or early arrivals, as well as non......-appointed arrivals at a container terminal that is running an appointment system. Second, we propose some response strategies to cope with different levels of disruptions, and evaluate their resilience ability with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): total waiting time of on-time trucks and total idling emissions...

  11. A container dispatching system for river ports based on distributed intelligent agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Zeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the expansion of business scope of river ports, it demands higher loading and unloading efficiency. Automation, informatization and intelligentization become the only way to development of river ports. This paper establishes an informatization framework for river ports at first. The key process in river port is container dispatching. Therefore, this paper designs a container dispatching system based on business intelligence. It can be divided into four levels, data source layer, data warehouse layer, data service layer and application layer. The main modules are discussed in detail. At last, through performance comparison and analysis before and after the system implementation in Whampoa, the system is proved to have a lot of real benefits.

  12. The origin and activities of IgA1-containing immune complexes in IgA nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora eKnoppova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available IgA nephropathy is the most common primary glomerulonephritis, frequently leading to end-stage renal disease, as there is no disease-specific therapy. IgA nephropathy is diagnosed from pathological assessment of a renal biopsy specimen based on predominant or co-dominant IgA-containing immunodeposits, usually with complement C3 co-deposits and with variable presence of IgG and/or IgM. The IgA in these renal deposits is galactose-deficient IgA1, with less than a full complement of galactose residues on the O-glycans in the hinge region of the heavy chains. Research from the past decade led to the definition of IgA nephropathy as an autoimmune disease with a multi-hit pathogenetic process with contributing genetic and environmental components. In this process, circulating galactose-deficient IgA1 (autoantigen is bound by anti-glycan IgG or IgA (autoantibodies to form immune complexes. Some of these circulating complexes deposit in glomeruli, and thereby activate mesangial cells and induce renal injury through cellular proliferation and overproduction of extracellular matrix components and cytokines/chemokines. Glycosylation pathways associated with production of the autoantigen and the unique characteristics of the corresponding autoantibodies in patients with IgA nephropathy have been uncovered. Complement likely plays a significant role in the formation and the nephritogenic activities of these complexes. Complement activation is mediated through the alternative and lectin pathways and probably occurs systemically on IgA1-containing circulating immune complexes as well as locally in glomeruli. Incidence of IgA nephropathy varies greatly by geographical location; the disease is rare in central Africa but accounts for up to 40% of native-kidney biopsies in eastern Asia. Some of this variation may be explained by genetically determined influences on the pathogenesis of the disease. Genome-wide association studies to date have identified 18 risk

  13. Future testing of active safety systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, F.M.; Pelders, H.A.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Active safety systems are increasingly becoming available in trucks and passenger vehicles. Developments in the field of active safety are shifting from increasing driver comfort towards increasing occupant safety. Furthermore, this shift is seen within active safety systems: safety functions are ad

  14. Novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene designed for the removal of indoor formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Song, E-mail: niusong84@163.com; Yan, Hongxia, E-mail: hongxiayan@nwpu.edu.cn

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • A novel silicone-based polymer with active methylene was explored. • Surface tension of liquid paints could be lowered using the polymer. • The polymer was easy to migrate toward the air-coating interface. • Free HCHO could effectively be removed using the polymer. • A lights on HCHO reduction without complicated preparation procedure was shielded. - Abstract: Indoor air pollution is caused inevitably due to complicated home decoration, in which formaldehyde is one of the most typical pollutants. It will be a convenient, economical and effective strategy to remove indoor formaldehyde if imparting a feature of formaldehyde removal to decorative coatings. We have successfully explored a novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene used as a formaldehyde absorbent in coatings via a straightforward transesterification process using inexpensive and easily available chemicals. The polymer has been characterized by {sup 13}C NMR, FTIR, GC and GPC. Formaldehyde removal capacity of the coating films containing different contents of the polymer has been investigated. The results indicated that coatings incorporating 4 wt% of the polymer could make the coating films exhibit significant improvement on formaldehyde removal including purificatory performance (>85%) and durability of purificatory effect (>60%), compared to those consisting of absorbents without any silicon, and improve yellowing resistance performance, while other properties, such as gloss, adhesion, pencil hardness, flexibility and impact resistance, were kept almost unaffected. The chemical absorption process of the silicone-based polymer filled in interior decorative coatings is demonstrated as a promising technology to purify indoor formaldehyde and thus can reduce the harm to individuals.

  15. Tailoring activated carbon by surface chemical modification with O, S, and N containing molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel RibeiroVieira Azzi Rios

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the surface of activated carbon was chemically modified in order to introduce O, S and N containing groups. The activated carbon surface was selectively oxidized with concentrated HNO3 under controlled conditions. Characterization by thermogravimetric analyses, infrared spectroscopy and NaOH titration suggested the formation of mainly -COOH and small amounts of -OH groups, with concentration of approximately 4.10(21 groups/g of carbon. These -COOH functionalized carbons showed high adsorption capacity for metal cations in aqueous solution in the following order: Pb+2>Cu+2>Ni+2 >Cd+2~Co+2>Ca+2 , suggesting a cation exchange mechanism via a surface complex [COO-M+2]. These -COOHsurf groups can be reacted with SOCl2 to produce a surface acylchloride group, -COCl. This surface -COCl group proved to be a very reactive and versatile intermediate for the grafting of different S and N containing molecules onto the carbon surface, such as 1,2-ethaneditiol (EDT-, HSCH2CH2SH 1,7-dimercapto-4-thioheptane (DMTH-HSCH2CH2CH2SCH2CH 2CH2SH or 1,2-ethylenediamine (EDA- NH2CH2CH2NH2 and triethyltetraamine, TEA (H2NCH2CH2NHCH2CH 2NHCH2CH2 NH2. The characterization of these materials was carried out by TG, IR and TPDMS (Temperature Programmed Decomposition Mass Spectrometry experiments suggesting the formation of thioesther and amide surface groups, i.e. -COSR and -CONHR, with yields of approximately 50 and 75% for the reaction with DME and EDA, respectively. Preliminary adsorption experiments showed that these materials can efficiently remove metals such as Pb+2, Cu+2 and Ni+2 from aqueous medium.

  16. Immobilized-cell-augmented activated sludge process for treating wastewater containing hazardous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittawattanarat, Rungrod; Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Khan, Eakalak

    2007-05-01

    A novel bioaugmentation scheme called immobilized-cell-augmented activated sludge (ICAAS) was developed. Offline enricher reactors were used to maintain immobilized acclimated cells applied to augment completely mixed activated sludge (CMAS) treating a pentachlorophenol (PCP) pulse loading. Cellulose triacetate (CA) and powder activated carbon (PAC) combined with CA (PAC + CA) were the two media types used for entrapping the PCP-degrading culture. With ICAAS at 5% by volume augmentation, PCP removal of 73.1 and 75.1% via biodegradation, volatilization, and adsorption onto suspended cells, entrapped cells, and media was achieved for the systems with CA and PAC + CA media, respectively, while PCP removal in a control CMAS, which had a comparable level of combined PCP adsorption onto suspended cells and volatilization as the ICAAS, was 48.7%. Results further showed that the immobilized cells retained their PCP-degrading ability when they were fed with the inducer (PCP) once every 20 days.

  17. Specific features pertinent to modeling of hydraulic systems containing control members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverskoy, Yu. S.; Marshalov, E. D.

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical principles applied for modeling of hydraulic systems fitted with control members that allow a hydraulic line's specific features (topology) to be taken into account are considered. Such modeling opens the possibility to predict the actual flow (throttling) characteristics at early design stages and timely introduce the appropriate corrections in pipeline topology. The modeling problem is solved with the use of generalized thermodynamic analysis methods. The mathematical models of hydraulic systems containing control members are brought to the level of real-time simulation models, which can be used for setting up computation experiments for achieving better performance of automatic closed-loop control systems.

  18. Attempt at a Systemic Design of a Protocell: Connecting information, Metabolism and Container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Anders N.; Maurer, Sarah; Cape, Jonathan

    many of the basic characteristics of a living system, but usually lack the gene mediated regulation functions that natural cells possess. To address this issue, we are attempting a systemic approach (Rasmussen, 2004) in implementing a simple, chemical system that contains three major types of molecules....... Biophys. Acta, 1788, 567- 574. Rasmussen S, Chen L, Deamer D, Krakauer, DC, Packard, NH, Stadler, PF and Bedau, MA (2004) Science, 303, 963-965. Szostak, JW, Bartel, DP and Luisi, PL (2001) Nature, 409, 387-390....

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients contain significantly less igm against mono-methylated lysine than healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Guo

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications on proteins are important in biological processes but may create neo-epitopes that induce autoimmune responses. In this study, we measured the serum IgG and IgM response to a set of non-modified or acetyl- and methyl-modified peptides corresponding to residues 1-19 of the histone 3 N-terminal tail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients and healthy subjects. Our results indicated that the SLE patients and healthy subjects produced antibodies (Abs to the peptides, but the two groups had different Ab isotype and epitope preferences. Abs to the non-modified form, H31-19, were of the IgG isotype and produced by SLE patients. They could not recognize the scrambled H31-19, which contained the same amino acid composition but a different sequence as H31-19. In comparison, healthy subjects in general did not produce IgG against H31-19. However, about 70% of the healthy subjects produced IgM Abs against mono-methylated K9 of H31-19 (H31-19K9me. Our further studies revealed that ε-amine mono-methylated lysine could completely inhibit the IgM binding to H31-19K9me, but lysine had no inhibitory effect. In addition, the IgM Abs could bind peptides containing a mono-methylated lysine residue but with totally different sequences. Thus, mono-methylated lysine was the sole epitope for the IgM. Interestingly, SLE patients had much lower levels of this type of IgM. There was no obvious correlation between the IgM levels and disease activity and the decreased IgM was unlikely caused by medical treatments.We also found that the IgM Abs were not polyreactive to dsDNA, ssDNA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS or insulin and they did not exist in umbilical cord serum, implying that they were not natural Abs. The IgM Abs against mono-methylated lysine are present in healthy subjects but are significantly lower in SLE patients, suggesting a distinct origin of production and special physiological functions.

  20. Active polymers containing Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 bacteriocins: effectiveness assessment in Wieners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Massani, M; Molina, V; Sanchez, M; Renaud, V; Eisenberg, P; Vignolo, G

    2014-05-16

    Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria have potential as natural food preservatives. In this study two active (synthetic and gluten) films were obtained by the incorporation of lactocin 705 and lactocin AL705, bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 with antimicrobial activity against spoilage lactic acid bacteria and Listeria. Antimicrobial film effectiveness was determined in Wieners inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum CRL691 and Listeria innocua 7 (10(4)CFU/g) stored at 5°C during 45days. Active and control (absence of bacteriocins) packages were prepared and bacterial counts in selective media were carried out. Visual inspection and pH measurement of Wieners were also performed. Typical growth of both inoculated microorganisms was observed in control packages which reached 10(6)-10(7)CFU/g at the end of storage period. In the active packages, L. innocua 7 was effectively inhibited (2.5 log cycles reduction at day 45), while L. plantarum CRL691 was only slightly inhibited (0.5 log cycles) up to the second week of storage, then counts around 10(6)-10(7)CFU/g were reached. Changes in pH values from 6.3 to 5.8 were produced and gas formation was observed in active and control packages. The low inhibitory effectiveness against lactic acid bacteria is in correlation with the low activity observed for lactocin 705 in the presence of fat; Wieners fat content (20-30%) may adversely affect antimicrobial activity. This study supports the feasibility of using polymers activated with L. curvatus CRL705 bacteriocins to control Listeria on the surface of Wieners and highlights the importance of evaluating antimicrobial packaging systems for each particular food application.

  1. Stability Enhancement of a Power System Containing High-Penetration Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the transient stability enhancement of a power system containing large amounts of solar and wind generation in Japan. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster there has been an increasing awareness on the importance of a distributed architecture, based mainly on renewable generation, for the Japanese power system. Also, the targets of CO2 emissions can now be approached without heavily depending on nuclear generation. Large amounts of renewable generation leads to a reduction in the total inertia of the system because renewable generators are connected to the grid by power converters, and transient stability becomes a significant issue. Simulation results show that sodium-sulfur batteries can keep the system in operation and stable after strong transient disturbances, especially for an isolated system. The results also show how the reduction of the inertia in the system can be mitigated by exploiting the kinetic energy of wind turbines.

  2. Survival of Salmonella in Cookie and Cracker Sandwiches Containing Inoculated, Low-Water Activity Fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2015-10-01

    A study was done to determine the rate of inactivation of Salmonella in cookie and cracker snack sandwiches. Two cookie bases (chocolate and vanilla) and cheese crackers, along with high-sugar chocolate and peanut butter-based crème cookie fillings and peanut butter- and cheese-based cracker fillings, were obtained from commercial sources. Fillings and sandwiches containing fillings that had been dry- or wet-inoculated with Salmonella were stored at 25°C for 1, 6, 21, 35, 70, 112, and 182 days (6 months). At initial populations of 3.4 and 3.6 log CFU/g of cookie sandwiches containing chocolate crème and peanut butter crème fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 days; initially at 0.36 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 35 and 70 days. Initially at 2.9 and 3.4 log CFU/g of cracker sandwiches containing peanut butter- and cheese-based fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 and 112 days; initially at 0.53 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 6 and 35 days. Inactivation of Salmonella was more rapid in wet-inoculated peanut butter crème cookie filling than in dry-inoculated filling but was less affected by type of inoculum in peanut butter-based cracker filling. Chocolate cookie base (water activity [aw] 0.39) and chocolate crème filling (aw 0.30) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.38 within 15 days at 25°C; vanilla cookie base (aw 0.21) and peanut butter-based crème filling (aw 0.27) equilibrated to aw 0.24 between 50 and 80 days. Cheese cracker (aw 0.14) and peanut butter-based filling (aw 0.31) or cheese-based filling (aw 0.33) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.33 in 80 days. The ability of Salmonella to survive for at least 182 days in fillings of cookie and cracker sandwiches demonstrates a need to assure that filling ingredients do not contain the pathogen and that contamination does not occur during manufacture.

  3. Analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract and its saponin-containing fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia Osama; Kassem, Iman; Melek, Farouk Rasmy

    2016-01-01

    Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Leguminosae) pods are used in folk medicine for pain relief as anodyne and narcotic. The objective of this study is to evaluate analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract (MEGT) and its saponin-containing fraction (SFGT). Peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice at doses of 140, 280, and 560 mg/kg and formalin test in rats at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses. Central analgesic activity was evaluated using the hotplate method in rats (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). In the writhing test, six mice groups treated with MEGT and SFGT found ED50 values 268.2 and 161.2 mg/kg, respectively, displayed a significant decrease in writhing count compared with the group treated with standard drug indomethacin (14 mg/kg). SFGT (280 and 560 mg/kg) showed 64.94 and 70.78% protection, respectively, which are more than double % protection caused by indomethacin (31.82%). In the formalin test, MEGT and SFGT (ED50 values 287.6 and 283.4 mg/kg for phase I as well as 295.1 and 290.4 mg/kg for phase II, respectively) at 400 mg/kg showed significant % inhibition in both phase I (18.86 and 52.57%) and phase II (39.36 and 44.29%) with reference to 10 mg/kg indomethacin (56.0 and 32.29%). MEGT and SFGT caused significant delay in responses in hotplate model (ED50 values 155.4 and 200.6 mg/kg, respectively) compared with that of 10 mg/kg indomethacin at 30, 60, and 120 min. Central and peripheral analgesic activities induced by Gleditsia triacanthos fruits might account for its uses in folk medicine.

  4. Radioprotective and cytoprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem enriched extract containing cordifolioside-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective and cytoprotective potential of cordifolioside-A, a primary active constituent of n-butanol fraction of Tinospora Cordifolia (NBTC against 4 Gy-γ radiation in mice and cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC stem ethanolic extract was confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC analysis. Radioprotective activity was evaluated at 80 and 120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p. dose of NBTC administered 15 days prior to whole body radiation exposure by observing survival rate, change in body weight, hematology, spleen colony forming unit (CFU, and micronucleus (MN expression. Cytoprotective activity of NBTC was evaluated at 5, 10, and 15 mg/ml concentrations on Allium cepa root meristem growth against cyclophosphamide. Results: HPTLC analysis of standard cordifolioside A, and NBTC confirmed the presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC with the retention factor value of 0.86. Administration of NBTC (120 mg/kg, i.p. produced significant protection against radiation in terms of increased survival rate, body weight retention, hematological parameters, spleen CFU assay (P < 0.01, and decreased MN expression (P < 0.01. Cytoprotectivity was observed maximally at 10 mg/ml NBTC concentration with significant increase in root growth (P < 0.01, non-toxic mitotic index (MI (65.9% and lesser chromosomal aberrations (15.4%. NBTC at 10 mg/ml concentration showed very few C-anaphase compared to aberrations like fragmentation, C-anaphase, multipolarity and sticky chromosome in cyclophosphamide alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that enriched NBTC containing cordifolioside-A has a potential in vivo radioprotective effect as well as in vitro cytoprotective activity.

  5. Comparison of containment systems for large sodium-cooled breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeman, S.E.; Armstrong, G.R.

    1978-04-01

    Three types of containment configurations for large breeder reactors (1000 MWe/2500 MWt) were compared to determine characteristic responses of each type to selected hypothetical accident conditions. The three types of system configurations were the single, double and containment-confinement designs. Two types of postulated hypothetical accidents were applied as a basis for evaluation--the energetic core disassambly accident and the whole core melt-through accident. More than 20 separate cases were analyzed in which design and accident assumptions were varied. Based on this study the containment-confinement configuration is shown to be the most promising for limiting off-site radiation doses for large sodium-cooled breeder reactors given the specific assumptions on the initial accident conditions.

  6. Distributed finite-time containment control for double-integrator multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Li, Shihua; Shi, Peng

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the distributed finite-time containment control problem for double-integrator multiagent systems with multiple leaders and external disturbances is discussed. In the presence of multiple dynamic leaders, by utilizing the homogeneous control technique, a distributed finite-time observer is developed for the followers to estimate the weighted average of the leaders' velocities at first. Then, based on the estimates and the generalized adding a power integrator approach, distributed finite-time containment control algorithms are designed to guarantee that the states of the followers converge to the dynamic convex hull spanned by those of the leaders in finite time. Moreover, as a special case of multiple dynamic leaders with zero velocities, the proposed containment control algorithms also work for the case of multiple stationary leaders without using the distributed observer. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  7. Characterization of polyurethane systems which contain low levels of free TDI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, R.L.; Thomas, E.V.

    1995-04-01

    EN-7, EN-8, and EN-9 are polyurethane systems that are used in numerous applications in the Department of Energy complex. These systems contain high levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Currently, TDI is being treated as a suspect human carcinogen within the Department of Energy complex. This report documents the results of a material characterization study of three polyurethane systems that contain low levels of free (potentially airborne) TDI. The characterization has been accomplished by performing a set of statistically designed experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to explore the effects of formulation and cure schedule on various material properties. In general, the material properties (pot life, glass transition temperature, hardness, and tear strength) were relatively insensitive to variation in the cure schedule. On the other hand, variation in curative level had measurable effects on material properties for the polyurethane systems studied. Furthermore, the material properties of the three low-free-TDI polyurethane systems were found to be comparable or superior (for certain curative levels) to commonly-used polyurethane systems. Thus, these low-free-TDI systems appear to be viable candidates for applications where a polyurethane is needed.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of alginate nanoparticles containing pertussis toxin as a particulate delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Goudarzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, research on different kinds of nanoparticles (NPs has been increased to prepare various medical applications, for instance in vaccine and gene delivery and as new generation of adjuvant candidates. The aim of the present study was to prepare sodium alginate nanoparticles (Alg-NPs containing pertussis toxin (PTX as an candidate acellular vaccine. Formulation of antigen loaded Alg-NPs were assessed for immunological activities and their role as potential immunological adjuvant. Alg-Nps were prepared using mild ionic gelation method. Optimal formulation was obtained by concentration of 0.2%w/v sodium alginate, 0.1%w/v CaCl2 solution and magnetically homogenization condition of 45 min and rate of 2000 rpm. Obtained Alg-NPs showed average size of 88 nm and zeta potential of -32mV in blank and 72 nm and -29 mV in PTX entrapped nanoparticles, respectively. A Loading efficiency of more than 90% was determined for PTX. The antigen loaded nanoparticles showed 75.3% of release within 144 h in in vitro release studies. The immunological evaluation in female Balb/c mice groups revealed that the Alg-NPs formulation induced significantly higher serum antibody titers (p < 0.01 as compared with commercial acellular pertussis vaccine and conventional alum-adjuvanted antigen administered by subcutaneous route. The results showed the potential of Alg-NPS to be a simplex and efficient delivery system. This study also indicated the potential of Alg-NPs as new generation of immunostimulant adjuvant to boost the antigenecity of the antigens in a cellular pertussis vaccines.

  9. Rapid response calculation of LNG cargo containment system under sloshing load using wavelet transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yooil

    2013-06-01

    Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.

  10. Rapid response calculation of LNG cargo containment system under sloshing load using wavelet transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooil Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.

  11. Design, synthesis, anticancer, antimicrobial activities and molecular docking studies of theophylline containing acetylenes and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazoles with variant nucleoside derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddarraju, Radhakrishnam Raju; Murugulla, Adharvana Chari; Kotla, Ravindar; Chandra Babu Tirumalasetty, Muni; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Donthabakthuni, Shobha; Maroju, Ravichandar; Baburao, K; Parasa, Lakshmana Swamy

    2016-11-10

    A new series of theophylline containing acetylene derivatives (6a-6b and 7-13) and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazoles with variant nucleoside derivatives (20-32) have been designed and synthesized. These compounds were screened for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. Further the computational docking and 2D QSAR were performed using MOE software to identify novel scaffolds. The results showed that compound 29 and 30 exhibit significant cytotoxic effect on all four cancer cells such as lung (A549), colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7) and melanoma (A375) with IC50 values of 2.56, 2.19, 1.89, 4.89 μM and 3.57, 2.90, 2.10, 5.81 μM respectively. Whereas quite different results were observed for these compounds in antimicrobial studies. Compounds 11, 21 and 26 have exhibited significant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The docking studies demonstrate that compound 27, 28, 29 and 30 have good dock score and binding affinities with various therapeutic targets in cancer cell proliferation. In addition these compounds have shown acceptable correlation with bioassay results in the regression plots generated in 2D QSAR models. This is the first report to demonstrate the theophylline containing acetylene derivatives and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazole nucleoside hybrids as potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents with comprehensive in silico analysis.

  12. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  13. Containment Control for Second-Order Multiagent Systems Communicating Over Heterogeneous Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiahu; Zheng, Wei Xing; Gao, Huijun; Ma, Qichao; Fu, Weiming

    2017-09-01

    The containment control is studied for the second-order multiagent systems over a heterogeneous network where the position and velocity interactions are different. We consider three cases that multiple leaders are stationary, moving at the same constant speed, and moving at the same time-varying speed, and develop different containment control algorithms for each case. In particular, for the former two cases, we first propose the containment algorithms based on the well-established ones for the homogeneous network, for which the position interaction topology is required to be undirected. Then, we extend the results to the general setting with the directed position and velocity interaction topologies by developing a novel algorithm. For the last case with time-varying velocities, we introduce two algorithms to address the containment control problem under, respectively, the directed and undirected interaction topologies. For most cases, sufficient conditions with regard to the interaction topologies are derived for guaranteeing the containment behavior and, thus, are easy to verify. Finally, six simulation examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the theoretical findings.

  14. Synthesis of monoacylglycerol containing pinolenic acid via stepwise esterification using a cold active lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Young-Gil; Hong, Seung In; Kim, Yangha; Kim, Byung Hee; Kim, In-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    High purity monoacylglycerol (MAG) containing pinolenic acid was synthesized via stepwise esterification of glycerol and fatty acids from pine nut oil using a cold active lipase from Penicillium camembertii as a biocatalyst. Effects of temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, and vacuum on the synthesis of MAG by lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and fatty acid from pine nut oil were investigated. Diacylglycerol (DAG) as well as MAG increased significantly when temperature was increased from 20 to 40 °C. At a molar ratio of 1:1, MAG content decreased because of the significant increase in DAG content. Water has a profound influence on both MAG and DAG content through the entire course of reaction. The reaction rate increased significantly as enzyme loading increased up to 600 units. Vacuum was an effective method to reduce DAG content. The optimum temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, vacuum, and reaction time were 20 °C, 1:5 (fatty acid to glycerol), 2%, 600 units, 5 torr, and 24 h, respectively. MAG content further increased via lipase-catalyzed second step esterification at subzero temperature. P. camembertii lipase exhibited esterification activity up to -30 °C.

  15. Characteristics of Portland blast-furnace slag cement containing cement kiln dust and active silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdel Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation dealt with the effect of active silica, silica fume (SF or rice husk ash (RHA, on the mechanical and physico-chemical characteristics of the hardened blended cement pastes made of Portland blast-furnace slag cement (PSC containing cement kiln dust (CKD cured under normal conditions. Two blends made of PSC and CKD, improved by SF and two blends made of PSC and CKD improved by RHA were investigated. Hardened blended cement pastes were prepared from each cement blend by using water/cement ratio (W/C of 0.30 by weight and hydrated for various curing ages of 1, 3, 7, 28 and 90 days at the normal curing conditions under tap water at room temperature. Each cement paste was tested for its physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics; these characteristics include: compressive strength and kinetics of hydration. The phase composition of the formed hydration products was identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential thermal analysis (DTA. It was found that the partial substitution of PSC by 10% and 15% of CKD is associated with an increase in the rate of hydration and a subsequent improvement of compressive strength of hardened PSC–CKD pastes. In addition, the replacement of PSC, in PSC–CKD blends, by 5% active silica was accompanied by further improvement of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the hardened PSC–CKD pastes.

  16. Biologically active recombinant human progastrin(6-80) contains a tightly bound calcium ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, G S; Hollande, F; Yang, Z; Karelina, Y; Paterson, A; Strang, R; Fourmy, D; Neumann, G; Shulkes, A

    2001-03-16

    Evidence is accumulating that gastrin precursors may act as growth factors for the colonic mucosa in vivo. The aims of this study were to prepare recombinant human progastrin(6-80) and to investigate its structure and biological activities in vitro. Human progastrin(6-80) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. After thrombin cleavage progastrin(6-80) was purified by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography and characterized by radioimmunoassay, amino acid sequencing, and mass spectrometry. Assays for metal ions by atomic emission spectroscopy revealed the presence of a single tightly bound calcium ion. Progastrin(6-80) at concentrations in the pm to nm range stimulated proliferation of the conditionally transformed mouse colon cell line YAMC. The observations that progastrin(6-80) did not bind to either the cholecystokinin (CCK)-A or the gastrin/CCK-B receptor expressed in COS cells and that antagonists selective for either receptor did not reverse the proliferative effects of progastrin(6-80) suggested that progastrin(6-80) stimulated proliferation independently of either the CCK-A or the gastrin/CCK-B receptor. We conclude that recombinant human progastrin(6-80) is biologically active and contains a single calcium ion. With the exception of the well known zinc-dependent polymerization of insulin and proinsulin, this is the first report of selective, high affinity binding of metal ions to a prohormone.

  17. Redox-active cellulose Langmuir-Blodgett films containing beta-carotene as a molecular wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Keita; Kamitakahara, Hiroshi; Takano, Toshiyuki; Nakatsubo, Fumiaki

    2007-05-01

    Redox-active Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films containing dihydrophytyl ferrocenoate (DFc) and beta-carotene (betaC) were fabricated by use of 6-O-dihydrophytylcellulose (DHPC) as a matrix. A mixture of DFc-DHPC formed a stable monolayer. Atomic force microscopy images revealed that the DFc molecules were dispersed uniformly throughout the surface in the ratio DFc:DHPC = 2:8 at 30 mN m-1. The DFc-DHPC monolayer was transferred successfully onto a substrate, yielding Y-type LB films. Cyclic voltammograms for the DFc-DHPC LB films on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode exhibited a well-defined surface wave. The voltammograms of the DFc-DHPC LB films exhibited 60-40% redox-active ferrocene moieties, whereas those of the DFc-DHPC-betaC LB films exhibited 90-70%. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the distance between layers was independent of betaC molecules incorporated into the LB films. Consequently, these results suggested that betaC can function as a molecular wire.

  18. Calcium phosphate coating containing silver shows high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity and inhibits bacterial adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Yoshiki, E-mail: andoy@jmmc.jp [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Miyamoto, Hiroshi [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Noda, Iwao; Sakurai, Nobuko [Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Akiyama, Tomonori [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Yonekura, Yutaka; Shimazaki, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Masaki; Mawatari, Masaaki; Hotokebuchi, Takao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications of orthopedic implants. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, we developed a novel coating technology of calcium phosphate (CP) containing silver (Ag), designated Ag-CP coating, using a thermal spraying technique. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy and biological safety of this coating. In vitro antibacterial activity tests showed that the growths of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are completely suppressed on Ag-CP coating. In vitro bacterial adherence tests revealed that the number of adherent bacteria on the surface of this coating is significantly less (p < 0.02) than that on the surface of the CP coating. Moreover, the Ag-CP coating completely inhibits MRSA adhesion [<10 colony-forming units (CFU)] when 10{sup 2} CFU MRSA is inoculated. On the other hand, V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were found to grow on the Ag-CP coating as well as on the CP coating in a cytotoxicity test. These results indicate that the Ag-CP coating on the surface of orthopedic implants exhibits antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial adhesion without cytotoxicity.

  19. Development of an active biodegradable film containing tocopherol and avocado peel extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Fidelis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic starch (TPS films and poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT (60/40 m/m containing TOCO-70 (tocopherol/soybean oil 70/30 m/m and avocado peel extract (ExA were produced using blown film extrusion. The formulations of the 5 films (FC/F1/F2/F3 and F4 were established through mixture design with constraints maintaining constant PBAT and TPS proportion, and varying the antioxidant concentrations. Adding antioxidants reduced the water vapour permeability (Kw of the films, with formulation F2 presenting higher decrease in relationto FC, 77.8%. The presence of ExA improved the mechanical properties of the films. The production of the films was determined to be viable after they presented good processability in a pilotextruder, as well as mechanical properties appropriate to production and utilization in industry.The presence of ExA and TOCO 70 provided the films with antioxidant activity; their application as active packaging requires further studies.

  20. Study of the activity of DNA polymerases β and λ using 5-formyluridine containing DNA substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrik O. I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the TLS-activity of human DNA polymerases β and λ (pols β and λ using 5-formyluridine (5-foU containing DNA duplexes which are imitating the intermediates during replication of the leading DNA strand, and to study the influence of replication factors hRPA and hPCNA on this activity. Methods. The EMSA and the methods of enzyme’s kinetics were used. Results. The capability of pols β and λ to catalyze DNA synthesis across 5-foU was investigated and the kinetic characteristics of this process in the presence and in the absence of protein factors hRPA and hPCNA were evaluated. Conclusions. It was shown that: (i both proteins are able to catalyze TLS on used DNA substrates regardless of the reaction conditions, however, pol λ was more accurate enzyme; (ii hRPA can stimulate the efficacy of the nonmutagenic TLS catalyzed by pol at the nucleotide incorporation directly opposite of 5-foU, at the same time it doesn’t influence the incorporation efficacy if the damage displaced into the duplex; (iii hPCNA doesn’t influence the efficacy of TLS catalyzed by both enzymes.

  1. Stereoselective Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Optically Active Aryl-Substituted Oxygen-Containing Heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vitale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-step stereoselective chemoenzymatic synthesis of optically active α-aryl-substituted oxygen heterocycles was developed, exploiting a whole-cell mediated asymmetric reduction of α-, β-, and γ-chloroalkyl arylketones followed by a stereospecific cyclization of the corresponding chlorohydrins into the target heterocycles. Among the various whole cells screened (baker’s yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 6556, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 7336, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016, baker’s yeast was the one providing the best yields and the highest enantiomeric ratios (up to 95:5 er in the bioreduction of the above ketones. The obtained optically active chlorohydrins could be almost quantitatively cyclized in a basic medium into the corresponding α-aryl-substituted cyclic ethers without any erosion of their enantiomeric integrity. In this respect, valuable, chiral non-racemic functionalized oxygen containing heterocycles (e.g., (S-styrene oxide, (S-2-phenyloxetane, (S-2-phenyltetrahydrofuran, amenable to be further elaborated on, can be smoothly and successfully generated from their prochiral precursors.

  2. Preparation of silver nanoparticle containing silica micro beads and investigation of their antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Dang Viet; Sarawade, Pradip B.; Hilonga, Askwar; Kim, Jong-Kil; Chai, Young Gyu; Kim, Sang Hoon; Ryu, Jae-Yong; Kim, Hee Taik

    2011-05-01

    Silver nanoparticle containing silica micro beads (Ag-NPBs) were successfully prepared by using sodium silicate, a cheap precursor, involving chemical reductive method. First, silica gel was synthesized and crushed into micro beads which have sizes ranging from 0.5 to 1 mm. Silica micro beads were then modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to graft amino functional groups onto their surface. Silver ions were loaded onto the surface of the modified silica and reduced to silver crystal by adding NaBH 4. The presence of silver nanoparticles as well as structure of materials was characterized with FT-IR, XRD, BET, FE-SEM, TEM, UV-vis spectrophotometer, and optical microscope. Silver nanoparticles with an average size about 5 nm were found in the pore and on the surface of amino functionalized silica beads. Ag-NPBs samples were tested for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ( E. coli). The antibacterial activity was examined by both zone inhibition and test tube test method. Biological results indicated that the synthesized materials have an excellent antibacterial performance against E. coli which was completely inhibited after 5 min contact with Ag-NPBs.

  3. Ciprofloxacin containing Mannich base and its copper complex induce antitumor activity via different mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yun; Yang, Yingli; Zhou, Sufeng; Liu, Youxun; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2014-11-01

    The Mannich base containing ciprofloxacin and kojic acid structural units was prepared and evaluated in antitumor activity. The enhancement in antitumor activity was observed both from the Mannich base (IC(50): 103.3±5.0 µM for HepG2, 87.9±8.0 µM for HCT-116 cell) and its copper complex (IC(50): 11.5±1.8 µM for HepG2, 44.4±2.5 µM for HCT-116 cell) compared to the ciprofloxacin and kojic acid. The mechanistic studies via RT-PCR, cell cycle analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential measurement, inhibition of topoisomerase and molecular docking indicated that there is a different molecular mechanism between the Mannich base and its copper complex. The cytotoxicity of the Mannich base was involved in apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane and weaker topoisomerase II inhibition, but the copper complex exerted its cytotoxicity mainly through dual topoisomerase inhibition, especially stabilizing the intermediate of cleavage DNA-topoisomerase complex.

  4. Preliminary CFD Analysis for HVAC System Design of a Containment Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Sung Man; Choi, Choengryul [ELSOLTEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Jae Ho; Hong, Moonpyo; Kim, Hyungseok [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) system has been mainly designed based on overall heat balance and averaging concepts, which is simple and useful for designing overall system. However, such a method has the disadvantage that cannot predict the local flow and temperature distributions in a containment building. In this study, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) preliminary analysis is carried out to obtain detailed flow and temperature distributions in a containment building and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. This approach can be useful for hydrogen analysis in an accident related to hydrogen released into a containment building. In this study, CFD preliminary analysis has been performed to obtain the detailed information of the reactor containment building by using the CFD analysis techniques and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. We confirmed that CFD analysis can offer enough detailed information about flow patterns and temperature field and that CFD technique is a useful tool for HVAC design of nuclear power plants.

  5. Design Status of the Capillary Brine Residual in Containment Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the AES Life Support System (LSS) Project is to achieve 98% water loop closure for long duration human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. To meet this objective, the AES LSS Project is developing technologies to recover water from wastewater brine; highly concentrated waste products generated from a primary water recovery system. The state of the art system used aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to recover up to 85% water from unine wastewater, leaving a significant amounts of water in the waste brine, the recovery of which is a critical technology gap that must be filled in order to enable long duration human exploration. Recovering water from the urine wastewater brine is complicated by the concentration of solids as water is removed from the brine, and the concentration of the corrosive, toxic chemicals used to stabilize the urine which fouls and degrades water processing hardware, and poses a hazard to operators and crew. Brine Residual in Containment (BRIC) is focused on solids management through a process of "in-place" drying - the drying of brines within the container used for final disposal. Application of in-place drying has the potential to improve the safety and reliability of the system by reducing the exposure to crew and hardware to the problematic brine residual. Through a collaboration between the NASA Johnson Space Center and Portland Status University, a novel water recovery system was developed that utilizes containment geometry to support passive capillary flow and static phase separation allowing free surface evaporation to take place in a microgravity environment. A notional design for an ISS demonstration system was developed. This paper describes the concept for the system level design.

  6. Containment control of multi-agent systems with unbounded communication delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Lam, James

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the containment control problem for multi-agent systems under heterogeneous unbounded communication delays with emphasis on the convergence rate analysis. Different from most works on multi-agent systems, we resort to a viewpoint from the area of positive delay systems. We first cast the containment control problem into the stability analysis of an associated error system. In order to capture the convergence rate, we introduce a nondecreasing positive function whose reciprocal represents the decay rate of the associated error system. Under the assumption that each follower has access to at least one leader and some mild hypotheses on the communication delays, an explicit condition is given to characterise the decay rate of the associated error system in terms of linear programming. In addition, we provide several special cases when the communication delays are restricted by linear, sublinear and logarithmic growth rates, respectively. Finally, through numerical examples, it is shown that the convergence rate is dominated by the delays being the highest order infinitely large quantity.

  7. Theoretical study on electron transfer in biological systems (Ⅲ)——Intramolecular electron transfer in metal-containing spiro π-electron system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟宇峰; 蒋华良; 朱维良; 顾健德; 陈建忠; 陈凯先; 嵇汝运

    1999-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer of metal-containing spiro π-electron system was studied by AM1 method in the MOPAC-ET program developed by the present group. The results indicated that with the increasing of the outer electric field F, the activation energy of the reaction decreased. When F reaches a certain threshold value, the activation energy barrier becomes zero and the rate of reaction achieves the largest value. The results also indicated that electron transfer matrix elements VAB and reorganization energy λ were not obviously affected by outer electric field while the exothermicity ΔE was directly proportional to it.

  8. Distributed Adaptive Containment Control for a Class of Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Input Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenliang; Wen, Changyun; Hu, Qinglei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuyu

    2017-05-05

    This paper is devoted to distributed adaptive containment control for a class of nonlinear multiagent systems with input quantization. By employing a matrix factorization and a novel matrix normalization technique, some assumptions involving control gain matrices in existing results are relaxed. By fusing the techniques of sliding mode control and backstepping control, a two-step design method is proposed to construct controllers and, with the aid of neural networks, all system nonlinearities are allowed to be unknown. Moreover, a linear time-varying model and a similarity transformation are introduced to circumvent the obstacle brought by quantization, and the controllers need no information about the quantizer parameters. The proposed scheme is able to ensure the boundedness of all closed-loop signals and steer the containment errors into an arbitrarily small residual set. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

  9. The ultrafast tunable saturable absorption of metal complexes containing redox-active 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-acenaphthequinol ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Wang, Yingwei; Li, Xiaohong; Lyu, Bosai; Xu, Yahui; Zhou, Jianliang; Yan, Jun; Li, Jianbo; Xiao, Si; He, Jun

    2017-04-01

    The extraordinary ultrafast tunable saturable absorption properties of metal complexes M(PAAL)2 (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) containing redox-active 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-acenaphthequinol ligands (PAAL) were investigated by Z-scan and pump-probe system. The obtained third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption and refraction coefficient of each metal complex reach ∼10-2 cm/GW and ∼10-6 cm2/GW at 510 nm wavelength, respectively. Meanwhile, an ultrafast carrier relaxation process of approximately (200 ± 50) fs is observed for all of them. Furthermore, we found that the third-order nonlinear absorption coefficient of M(PAAL)2 is proportional to the central metal proton number. All the NLO properties indicate that those metal complexes posses potential applications for fabricating photonic devices.

  10. Comparison between different types of glass and aluminum as containers for irradiation samples by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A.; El-Dine, N. Walley; El-Shershaby, A.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S

    2000-01-01

    Three different types of glass and four different kinds of aluminum sheet have been analyzed using neutron activation analysis. The irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1) and a hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for the analysis. Among the 34 identified elements, the isotopes {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 123m}Te, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 182}Ta are of special significance because of their long half-lives, providing a background interference for analyzed samples. A comparison between the different types of containers was made to select the preferred one for sample irradiation.

  11. Synthesis and antitumor activities of rare earth substituted phosphotungstates containing 5-fluorouracil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Changgen; GAN Qiang; LIU Xia; HE Hongyou

    2012-01-01

    Two novel rare earth substituted phosphotungstates containing 5-fluorouracil,K9(C4H4FN2O2)2Nd(PW11O39)2·25H2O (FNdPW)and K9(C4H4FN2O2)2Ce(PW11O39)2·23H2O (FCePW),were synthesized and characterized by elementary analysis,FT-IR spectra,X-ray powder diffraction and 1H NMR.The thermal analysis showed that FNdPW decomposed at 210 and 493℃,and FCePW decomposed at 223 and 471 ℃,both of which had good thermal stabilities.MTT tests were performed to study the antitumor activities against HeLa cells and HepG-2 cells of FNdPW,FCePW,5-fluorouracil,C4H4FN2O2H2PW12O40·8H2O and K11Ln(PW11O39)2·xH2O (Ln=Nd,Ce).and their cytotoxicities against HEK 293 cells.The results showed that FNdPW and FCePW possessed higher antitumor activities and lower cytotoxicities than those of 5- fluorouracil and C4H4FN2O2H2PW12O40·8H2O,of which FNdPW exhibited the highest antitumor activates against HeLa cells (EC50=3.41 × 10-6 mol/L) and HepG-2 cells (EC50=6.24× 10-6 mol/L).Thus the introduction of rare earth elements and 5-fluorouracil could significantly enhance antitumor effect of polyoxometalates.

  12. Sulfate- and sialic acid-containing glycolipids inhibit DNA polymerase alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbulan, C M; Taki, T; Tamiya-Koizumi, K; Suzuki, M; Savoysky, E; Shoji, M; Yoshida, S

    1994-03-16

    The effects of various glycolipids on the activity of immunoaffinity-purified calf thymus DNA polymerase alpha were studied in vitro. Preincubation with sialic acid-containing glycolipids, such as sialosylparagloboside (SPG), GM3, GM1, and GD1a, and sulfatide (cerebroside sulfate ester, CSE) dose-dependently inhibited the activity of DNA polymerase alpha, while other glycolipids, as well as free sphingosine and ceramide did not. About 50% inhibition was achieved by preincubating the enzyme with 2.5 microM of CSE, 50 microM of SPG or GM3, and 80 microM of GM1. Inhibition was noncompetitive with both the DNA template and the substrate dTTP, as well as with the other dNTPs. Since the inhibition was largely reversed by the addition of 0.05% Nonidet P40, these glycolipids may interact with the hydrophobic region of the enzyme protein. Apparently, the sulfate moiety in CSE and the sialic acid moiety in gangliosides were essential for the inhibition since neither neutral glycolipids (i.e., glucosylceramide, galactosylceramide, lactosylceramide) nor asialo-gangliosides (GA1 and GA2) showed any inhibitory effect. Furthermore, the ceramide backbone was also found to be necessary for maximal inhibition since the inhibition was largely abolished by substituting the lipid backbone with cholesterol. Increasing the number of sialic acid moieties per molecule further enhanced the inhibition, while elongating the sugar chain diminished it. It was clearly shown that the N-acetyl residue of the sialic acid moiety is particularly essential for inhibition by both SPG and GM3 because the loss of this residue or substitution with a glycolyl residue completely negated their inhibitory effect on DNA polymerase alpha activity.

  13. Water oxidation chemistry of a synthetic dinuclear ruthenium complex containing redox-active quinone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Koji; Shen, Jian-Ren; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    2014-04-21

    We investigated theoretically the catalytic mechanism of electrochemical water oxidation in aqueous solution by a dinuclear ruthenium complex containing redox-active quinone ligands, [Ru2(X)(Y)(3,6-tBu2Q)2(btpyan)](m+) [X, Y = H2O, OH, O, O2; 3,6-tBu2Q = 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone; btpyan =1,8-bis(2,2':6',2″-terpyrid-4'-yl)anthracene] (m = 2, 3, 4) (1). The reaction involves a series of electron and proton transfers to achieve redox leveling, with intervening chemical transformations in a mesh scheme, and the entire molecular structure and motion of the catalyst 1 work together to drive the catalytic cycle for water oxidation. Two substrate water molecules can bind to 1 with simultaneous loss of one or two proton(s), which allows pH-dependent variability in the proportion of substrate-bound structures and following pathways for oxidative activation of the aqua/hydroxo ligands at low thermodynamic and kinetic costs. The resulting bis-oxo intermediates then undergo endothermic O-O radical coupling between two Ru(III)-O(•) units in an anti-coplanar conformation leading to bridged μ-peroxo or μ-superoxo intermediates. The μ-superoxo species can liberate oxygen with the necessity for the preceding binding of a water molecule, which is possible only after four-electron oxidation is completed. The magnitude of catalytic current would be limited by the inherent sluggishness of the hinge-like bending motion of the bridged μ-superoxo complex that opens up the compact, hydrophobic active site of the catalyst and thereby allows water entry under dynamic conditions. On the basis of a newly proposed mechanism, we rationalize the experimentally observed behavior of electrode kinetics with respect to potential and discuss what causes a high overpotential for water oxidation by 1.

  14. PTS regulation domain-containing transcriptional activator CelR and sigma factor σ(54) control cellobiose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaoqun; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Gu, Yang; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong; Yang, Chen

    2016-04-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulation domain (PRD)-containing enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) are an important class of σ(54) -interacting transcriptional activators. Although PRD-containing EBPs are present in many Firmicutes, most of their regulatory functions remain unclear. In this study, the transcriptional regulons of about 50 PRD-containing EBPs in diverse Firmicutes species are reconstructed by using a comparative genomic approach, which contain the genes associated with utilization of β-glucosides, fructose/levan, mannose/glucose, pentitols, and glucosamine/fructosamine. We then present experimental evidence that the cel operon involved in cellobiose utilization is directly regulated by CelR and σ(54) (SigL) in Clostridium acetobutylicum. The predicted three CelR-binding sites and σ(54) promoter elements upstream of the cel operon are verified by in vitro binding assays. We show that CelR has an ATPase activity, which is strongly stimulated by the presence of DNA containing the CelR-binding sites. Moreover, mutations in any one of the three CelR-binding sites significantly decreased the cel promoter activity probably due to the need for all three DNA sites for maximal ATPase activity of CelR. It is suggested that CelR is regulated by PTS-mediated phosphorylation at His-551 and His-829, which exerts a positive effect and an inhibitory effect, respectively, on the CelR activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An Approach to Laboratory Cost Containment Using a Data Base Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, E.; Boeckmann, A.; Sheiner, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous articles have emphasized the need to develop effective cost containment strategies for laboratory utilization. This paper discusses the construction and use of a prototype data base system to detect and verify the existence of conditionally useless tests, or CUTs. For the purposes of this paper, a conditionally useless test is defined to be a test which, under certain conditions, does not provide sufficient new or relevant information to offset its associated cost.

  16. Lignin Peroxidase Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds in Systems Containing Organic Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Westlake, Donald W. S.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    1994-01-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hy...

  17. An integrated approach for modeling and solving the scheduling problem of container handling systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lu; XI Li-feng; CAI Jian-guo; BOSTEL Nathalie; DEJAX Pierre

    2006-01-01

    An integrated model is presented to schedule the container handling system. The objective is to improve the cooperation between different types of equipments, and to increase the productivity of the terminal. The problem is formulated as a Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling problem with precedence constraint, setup times and blocking (HFSS-B). A tabu search algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. The quality and efficiency of the proposed algorithm is analyzed from the computational point of view.

  18. Structural analysis and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kobzi, Balázs; Sinkó, Katalin; Homonnay, Zoltán [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Kuzmann, Ernő [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1512 (Hungary); Ristić, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko [Division of Materials Chemistry, RuđerBošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 11-6 Kayanomori, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan); Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Hematite was precipitated by heat treatment of iron aluminosilicate glass. • The hematite phase shows visible light photocatalytic activity. • We could prepare an effective photocatalyst from ‘ubiquitous elements’. - Abstract: A relationship between structure and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate (15Na{sub 2}O⋅15CaO⋅40Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅(30−x)SiO{sub 2}) glass (xNCFAS) was investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and UV–visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV–VIS). The {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectrum of 11NCFAS glass measured after heat-treatment at 1000 °C for 100 min was composed of a paramagnetic doublet due to Fe{sup III}(T{sub d}) and two magnetic sextets due to regular hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and hematite with larger internal magnetic field. X-ray diffraction patterns of heat-treated xNCFAS samples resulted in decrease of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increase of Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 22}O{sub 33} or CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with alumina content. A quick decrease in methylene blue (MB) concentration from 15.6 to 4.7 μmol L{sup −1} was observed in the photocatalytic reaction test with 40 mg of heat-treated 11NCFAS glass under visible light-exposure. The largest first-order rate constant of MB decomposition (k) was estimated to be 9.26 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}. Tauc’s plot yielded a band gap energy (E{sub g}) of 1.88 eV for heat-treated 11NCFAS glass, which is smaller than previously reported E{sub g} of 2.2 eV for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These results prove that addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into iron-containing soda lime silicate glass is favorable for the preparation of improved visible light-photocatalyst with ‘ubiquitous’ elements.

  19. Cariostatic effect of fluoride-containing restorative systems associated with dentifrices on root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Anderson Takeo; Magalhães, Cláudia Silami de; Serra, Mônica Campos; Rodrigues, Antonio Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the interaction between two sources of fluoride (restorative systems and dentifrices) in inhibiting artificial root caries development. One hundred and eighty tooth segments were embedded in polyester resin, and sanded flat. Cylindrical cavities 1.0mm-deep and 1.5mm-diameter were prepared in root dentin and randomly restored by fluoride-containing restorative systems: Ketac-fil/Espe (Ke), Fuji II LC/GC Corp (Fj), F2000/3M (F2), Surefil/Dentsply (Su) or a control: Filtek Z250/3M (Z2). Ten experimental groups were made to test the association among the five restorative systems and two dentifrices: with F(-) (Sensodyne Baking Soda) or without F(-) (Sensodyne Original) (n=18). After surface polishing, a 1mm-wide margin around the restorations was demarcated and initial dentin surface Knoop microhardness values (KHN(i)) were obtained. The specimens were submitted to a pH-cycling model, and to applications of slurries of dentifrice. Afterwards the final dentin surface Knoop microhardness values (KHN(f)) were measured. The differences between KHN(i) and KHN(f), and the covariate KHN(i) were considered by the ANCOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The interaction between restorative system and dentifrice was statistically significant (p=0.0026). All restorative systems provided some protection against artificial caries challenge when associated with the fluoride-containing dentifrice treatment. The means (standard deviation) of reductions in Knoop hardness values for systems associated with the fluoride-containing dentifrice were: Ke: 40.0(1.02)(a), Fj: 41.9(1.02)(b), F2: 43.3(1.04)(c), Su: 43.5(1.00)(c), Z2: 44.0(1.02)(c); and with the non-fluoride-containing dentifrice were: Ke: 42.9(1.02)(a), Fj: 44.7(1.01)(b), F2: 45.2(1.09)(bc), Su: 46.0(0.99)(c), Z2: 46.6(0.99)(c) (statistical differences were expressed by different letters). The cariostatic effect shown by the fluoride-containing dentifrice could enhance that shown by

  20. 77 FR 21579 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station... forms of information. Title: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096....

  1. 76 FR 72715 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    .../ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border..., Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. This request for comment is being made pursuant to.../Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. OMB Number: 1651-0001....

  2. 77 FR 6135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    .../ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages...

  3. Frozen steady states in active systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Volker; Hammerich, Benjamin; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R

    2011-01-01

    Even simple active systems can show a plethora of intriguing phenomena and often we find complexity were we would have expected simplicity. One striking example is the occurrence of a quiescent or absorbing state with frozen fluctuations that at first sight seems to be impossible for active matter driven by the incessant input of energy. While such states were reported for externally driven systems through macroscopic shear or agitation, the investigation of frozen active states in inherently active systems like cytoskeletal suspensions or active gels is still at large. Using high density motility assay experiments, we demonstrate that frozen steady states can arise in active systems if active transport is coupled to growth processes. The experiments are complemented by agent-based simulations which identify the coupling between self-organization, growth and mechanical properties to be responsible for the pattern formation process.

  4. Valosin-containing protein/p97 interacts with sperm-activating and sperm-attracting factor (SAAF) in the ascidian egg and modulates sperm-attracting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Eri; Konno, Aru; Inaba, Kazuo; Oishi, Tohru; Murata, Michio; Yoshida, Manabu

    2008-10-01

    Sperm chemotaxis toward an egg is observed in many animals, and the control of sperm-attracting activity is thought to play an important role in ensuring fertilization. However, the mechanism underlying the release of a sperm attractant from an egg is still obscure. In this study, we examined the systems involved in the release of sperm-activating and sperm-attracting factor (SAAF), which is the sperm attractant of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Here, we show that the egg acquires sperm-attracting activity after germinal vesicle breakdown. Further, since the cytoplasmic extracts of immature oocytes exhibit no sperm-attracting activity, the SAAF in oocytes may be activated after germinal vesicle breakdown. We found 13 SAAF-binding proteins in an egg plasma membrane extract and identified five proteins by proteomic analysis: valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97, proteasome alpha 2 subunit, MGC97756 protein, proteasome subunit Y, and beta-tubulin. In particular, the interaction between VCP/p97 and SAAF was confirmed by a pull-down assay. VCP/p97 is initially localized in the germinal vesicle, and during oocyte maturation, it shifts to the endoplasmic reticulum in the cortical regions. Thus, VCP/p97 is a potential modulator of SAAF release from the egg.

  5. Kinetics of Methane Hydrate Formation in Pure Water and Inhibitor Containing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIUJunhong; GUOTianmin

    2002-01-01

    Kinetic data of methane hydrate formation in the presence of pure water,brines with single salt and mixed salts,and aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol(EG) and salt+EG were measured.A new kinetic model of hydrate formation for the methane+water systems was developed based on a four-step formation mechanism and reaction kinetic approach.The proposed kinetic model predicts the kinetic behavior of methane hydrate formation in pure water with good accuracy.The feasibility of extending the kenetic model of salt(s) and EG containing systems was explored.

  6. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene system as containment control in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, P.; Jensen, G. B.; Gerdes, K.;

    2000-01-01

    The potential of a bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene system for use in containment control in eukaryotes was explored. The Escherichia coli relE and relB genes were expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Expression of the relE gene was highly toxic to yeast cells. However, expression...... of the relB gene counteracted the effect of relE to some extent, suggesting that toxin-antitoxin interaction also occurs in S. cerevisiae, Thus, bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene systems also have potential applications in the control of cell proliferation in eukaryotic cells, especially in those industrial...

  7. STUDIES ON THE POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE INITIATED BY METAVANADATE- CONTAINING ANION EXCHANGER-THIOUREA REDOX SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chaoxiong; WU Jinyuan; WU Yuxian

    1991-01-01

    The polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) in aqueous nitric acid initiated by metavanadate-containing anion exchange resin (PV)-thiourea (TU) redox system at 20- 40 ℃. has been investigated. The overall rate of polymerization (Rp) is given by Rp= 1.92 × 104 e -6,860/RT [AN]1.2[PV]0.44[TU]1.0[HNO3]1.0 The kinetic parameters differed from those of V5+-TU system indicated that the generation of the primary radicals is mainly a difffusion-controlled reaction . The effect of macromolecular field arisen from the polymer matrix exerts a great influence on the polymerization process.

  8. The Origin and Activities of IgA1-Containing Immune Complexes in IgA Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppova, Barbora; Reily, Colin; Maillard, Nicolas; Rizk, Dana V.; Moldoveanu, Zina; Mestecky, Jiri; Raska, Milan; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan

    2016-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis, frequently leading to end-stage renal disease, as there is no disease-specific therapy. IgAN is diagnosed from pathological assessment of a renal biopsy specimen based on predominant or codominant IgA-containing immunodeposits, usually with complement C3 co-deposits and with variable presence of IgG and/or IgM. The IgA in these renal deposits is galactose-deficient IgA1, with less than a full complement of galactose residues on the O-glycans in the hinge region of the heavy chains. Research from the past decade led to the definition of IgAN as an autoimmune disease with a multi-hit pathogenetic process with contributing genetic and environmental components. In this process, circulating galactose-deficient IgA1 (autoantigen) is bound by antiglycan IgG or IgA (autoantibodies) to form immune complexes. Some of these circulating complexes deposit in glomeruli, and thereby activate mesangial cells and induce renal injury through cellular proliferation and overproduction of extracellular matrix components and cytokines/chemokines. Glycosylation pathways associated with production of the autoantigen and the unique characteristics of the corresponding autoantibodies in patients with IgAN have been uncovered. Complement likely plays a significant role in the formation and the nephritogenic activities of these complexes. Complement activation is mediated through the alternative and lectin pathways and probably occurs systemically on IgA1-containing circulating immune complexes as well as locally in glomeruli. Incidence of IgAN varies greatly by geographical location; the disease is rare in central Africa but accounts for up to 40% of native-kidney biopsies in eastern Asia. Some of this variation may be explained by genetically determined influences on the pathogenesis of the disease. Genome-wide association studies to date have identified several loci associated with IgAN. Some of these loci are associated

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Layered Double Hydroxides Containing Optically Active Transition Metal Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, S. B.; Kharkwal, Aneeta; Nitu; Kharkwal, Mamta; Sharma, Raghunandan

    2017-01-01

    The acetate intercalated layered double hydroxides of Zn and Mn, have been synthesized by chimie douce method. The materials were characterized by XRD, TGA, CHN, IR, XPS, SEM-EDX and UV-visible spectroscopy. The photoluminescence properties was also studied. The optical properties of layered hydroxides are active transition metal ion dependent, particularly d1-10 system plays an important role. Simultaneously the role of host - guest orientation has been considered the basis of photoluminescence. Acetate ion can be exchanged with iodide and sulphate ions. The decomposed product resulted the pure phase Mn doped zinc oxide are also reported.

  10. ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT MORTARS CONTAINING RECYCLED CLAY-BASED CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Puertas, F.; Santos, R.; Alonso M. M.; Del Rio M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of clay-based waste as an aggregate for concrete production is an amply studied procedure. Nonetheless, research on the use of this recycled aggregate to prepare alkaline cement mortars and concretes has yet to be forthcoming. The present study aimed to determine: the behaviour of this waste as a pozzolan in OPC systems, the mechanical strength in OPC, alkali-activated slag (AAS) and fly ash (AAFA) mortars and the effect of partial replacement of the slag and ash themselves with groun...

  11. Modeling Cytoskeletal Active Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Robert

    Active networks of filamentous proteins and crosslinking motor proteins play a critical role in many important cellular processes. One of the most important microtubule-motor protein assemblies is the mitotic spindle, a self-organized active liquid-crystalline structure that forms during cell division and that ultimately separates chromosomes into two daughter cells. Although the spindle has been intensively studied for decades, the physical principles that govern its self-organization and function remain mysterious. To evolve a better understanding of spindle formation, structure, and dynamics, I investigate course-grained models of active liquid-crystalline networks composed of microtubules, modeled as hard spherocylinders, in diffusive equilibrium with a reservoir of active crosslinks, modeled as hookean springs that can adsorb to microtubules and and translocate at finite velocity along the microtubule axis. This model is investigated using a combination of brownian dynamics and kinetic monte carlo simulation. I have further refined this model to simulate spindle formation and kinetochore capture in the fission yeast S. pombe. I then make predictions for experimentally realizable perturbations in motor protein presence and function in S. pombe.

  12. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    of recovering some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas. This heat is converted into electrical energy used on-board instead of using auxiliary engines. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems, are recirculating a part of the exhaust gas through the engine combustion chamber to reduce emissions. WHRS combined......Concerned to push ships to have a lower impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization are implementing stricter regulation of NOx and SOx emissions, called Tier III, within emission control areas (ECAs). Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) on container ships consist...... with EGR is a potential way to improve system efficiency while reducing emissions. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining the two systems. EGR dilutes the fuel, lowering the combustion temperature and thereby the formation of NOx, to reach Tier III limitation. A double stage WHRS is set up...

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS FOR PASSIVE AFTERHEAT REMOVAL FROM REACTOR CONTAINMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WITH WATER-COOLED POWER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A classification on systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment has been developed in the paper.  The classification permits to make a detailed analysis of various concepts pertaining to systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment of new generation. The paper considers main classification features of the given systems.

  14. Active ingredient-containing chitosan/polycaprolactone nonwoven mats: Characterizations and their functional assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Meng-Yi, E-mail: mybai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China); Adjunct appointment to the Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Tz-Chong, E-mail: tcchou@ms5.hinet.net [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jie-Chang; Yang, Hui-Ching [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a facile method developed to generate a chitosan/polycaprolactone (CS/PCL) nonwoven mat. All nonwoven mats are composed of microfibers with an average diameter of 2.51 {+-} 0.69 {mu}m. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that positively charged nitrogen was generated on the surface of the mats after undergoing CS coating. By using a non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter, we determined that the nonwoven mats exhibited a positive potential and the charge density of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat was in proportion to the thickness of the CS overlayer. Moreover, platelet aggregation and anti-bacterial ability were enhanced by the CS/PCL nonwoven mat as compared to that of PCL nonwoven mat alone. The enhancements of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat on platelet aggregation are further promoted by incorporating a 1 mM calcium ion in its CS overlayer. We also find that the addition of tea tree oil in the CS overlayer significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitrite formation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, our CS/PCL nonwoven mat possesses pharmacological effects including an increase of platelet aggregation, anti-bacterial, anti-adhesive, and anti-inflammatory activities. The performance of this CS/PCL nonwoven mat can be further promoted by incorporating active compounds to exert therapeutic effects in wound healing. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a facile method to generate active ingredient-containing CS/PCLNM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our CS/PCLNM possesses superior mechanical strength, compared to CS-blended PCL nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prove that our prepared CS/PCLNM possesses several pharmacological properties Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The functional performances of CS/PCLNM are enhanced by incorporation of active compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of 1 mM of calcium ions or 100 {mu}L of TTO into the CS overlayer of CS/PCLNM is the optimum dose.

  15. Implementation of a Dual Containment/Surveillance System utilizing scene-change detection and radio frequency technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FITZGERALD, ERIC; KOENIG, RICHARD

    2005-06-27

    This paper will examine the implementation of scene-change detection and radio frequency technology within a Dual Containment/Surveillance (C/S) System. Additionally, this paper will examine the human performance factors in the operation of these systems. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company utilizes the Continuous Item Monitoring and Surveillance System (CIMS) in the performance of Dual C/S to monitor special nuclear materials within International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards and Domestic Safeguards. CIMS is comprised of the Material Monitoring System (MMS) (R), a multi-media electronic surveillance system developed by Sandia National Laboratory which incorporates the use of active seals commonly called Radio Frequency Tamper Indicating Devices (RFTIDs), NT Vision (R) as developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, a Microsoft Windows NT (R) based operating system providing for domestic scene-change detection and the Digital Multi-Camera Optical Surveillance System (DMOS) (R) which provides scene-change detection for IAEA. Although this paper will focus on the implementation of Dual C/S utilizing the Continuous Item Monitoring and Surveillance System, the necessity for a thorough review of Safeguards and Security requirements with organizations and personnel having minimal to no prior MPC&A training will also be covered. Successful Dual C/S implementation plans must consider not only system design and failure modes, but must also be accompanied with the appropriate ''mind shift'' within operations and technical personnel. This is required to ensure completion of both physical and electronic activities, and system design changes are performed conscientiously and with full awareness of MPC&A requirements.

  16. Effect of shoes containing nanosilica particles on knee valgus in active females during landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bassiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The effect of silica nanoparticles (SNPs in sport shoes outsoles on the  parameters related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL Injury has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes outsole containing a composite of thermoplastic elastomer based on styrene-butadiene and silica nanoparticles (TPEN shoe on Knee Valgus Angle (KVA as a risk factor of ACL injuries during landing Materials and Methods: Fourteen active healthy women without knee injuries and disorders performed bilateral drop jump (DJ and single leg drop landing (SLL tasks in barefoot, wearing shoes fabricated with polyvinyl chloride outsole (PVC shoe and TPEN shoes conditions , randomly. The knee valgus angle values of right and left legs were calculated in the landing conditions. Two factors repeated measures ANOVA were used to investigate the effect of landing and footwear conditions on KVA of right and left legs.  Results: For both left and right limbs, the KVA was at maximum and minimum values during landing with barefoot and TPEN shoes, respectively. PVC shoe significantly reduced the knee valgus by 3.84% in left and 4.18% in right knee (P

  17. Protein kinase A inhibition facilitates the antitumor activity of xanthohumol, a valosin-containing protein inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Yuki; Yoshimaru, Tetsuro; Komatsu, Masato; Katoh, Hiroto; Sato, Reiko; Kanagaki, Shuhei; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Toyokuni, Shinya; Tashiro, Etsu; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Katagiri, Toyomasa; Imoto, Masaya

    2017-01-25

    Xanthohumol (XN), a simple prenylated chalcone, can be isolated from hops and has the potential to be a cancer chemopreventive agent against several human tumor cell lines. We previously identified valosin-containing protein (VCP) as a target of XN; VCP can also play crucial roles in cancer progression and prognosis. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms governing the contribution of VCP to the antitumor activity of XN. Several human tumor cell lines were treated with XN to investigate which human tumor cell lines are sensitive to XN. Several cell lines exhibited high sensitivity to XN both in vitro and in vivo. shRNA screening and bioinformatics analysis identified that the inhibition of the adenylate cyclase (AC) pathway synergistically facilitated apoptosis induced by VCP inhibition. These results suggest there is crosstalk between the AC pathway and VCP function, and targeting both VCP and the AC pathway is a potential chemotherapeutic strategy for a subset of tumor cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N‧-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

  19. In vitro antimicrobial activity of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine and Tris-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Damborg, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA (Otodine) were determined by broth microdilution for 150 isolates representing the most common pathogens associated with canine otitis. The microorganisms were classified into three groups according to their levels of susceptibility. The most susceptible group included Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Malassezia pachydermatis, Streptococcus canis and Corynebacterium auriscanis, which were generally killed by 1 : 64 dilution of the antiseptic product (MBC = 23/0.8 microg/mL of chlorhexidine/Tris-EDTA). The most resistant organism was Proteus mirabilis, which survived up to 1 : 8 dilution of the product (MBC = 375/12 microg/mL). Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus displayed intermediate MBCs ranging between 188/6 and 47/1.5 microg/mL. Interestingly, S. pseudintermedius was more susceptible than S. aureus, and no significant difference was observed between meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible isolates within each species, indicating that antiseptic use is unlikely to co-select for meticillin resistance. Although the concentrations required for killing (MBCs) varied considerably with microorganism type, the combination of chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA was active against all the pathogens most commonly involved in canine otitis.

  20. Mercury adsorption on granular activated carbon in aqueous solutions containing nitrates and chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, F; Erto, A; Lancia, A; Musmarra, D

    2011-09-15

    Adsorption is an effective process to remove mercury from polluted waters. In spite of the great number of experiments on this subject, the assessment of the optimal working conditions for industrial processes is suffering the lack of reliable models to describe the main adsorption mechanisms. This paper presents a critical analysis of mercury adsorption on an activated carbon, based on the use of chemical speciation analysis to find out correlations between mercury adsorption and concentration of dissolved species. To support this analysis, a comprehensive experimental study on mercury adsorption at different mercury concentrations, temperatures and pH was carried out in model aqueous solutions. This study pointed out that mercury capture occurs mainly through adsorption of cationic species, the adsorption of anions being significant only for basic pH. Furthermore, it was shown that HgOH(+) and Hg(2+) are captured to a higher extent than HgCl(+), but their adsorption is more sensitive to solution pH. Tests on the effect of temperature in a range from 10 to 55 °C showed a peculiar non-monotonic trend for mercury solution containing chlorides. The chemical speciation and the assumption of adsorption exothermicity allow describing this experimental finding without considering the occurrence of different adsorption mechanisms at different temperature.

  1. Anti-amyloidogenic Activity of IgGs Contained in Normal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Schwarz, Hans P.; Solomon, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We have previously shown that a subpopulation of naturally occurring human IgGs has therapeutic potential for the amyloid-associated disorders. These molecules cross-react with conformational epitopes on amyloidogenic assemblies, including amyloid beta (Aβ) protein fibrils that are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Materials and Methods Using our europium-linked immunosorbant assay, we established that ∼95% of 260 screened donor plasma samples had amyloid fibril-reactive IgGs and Aβ conformer-reactive IgGs with minimal binding to Aβ monomers. Anti-amyloidogenic reactivity was diverse and attributed to Aβ targeting multiple fibril-related binding sites and/or variations in multidentate binding. Results and Discussion There was no correlation between anti-fibril and anti-oligomer reactivity and donor age (19 to 60 years old) or gender. These findings demonstrate the inherent but diverse anti-amyloidogenic activity of natural IgGs contained in normal plasma. Conclusion Our studies provide support for investigating the clinical significance and physiological function of this novel class of antibodies. PMID:20405179

  2. Hydrothermal Characteristics of Blended Cement Pastes Containing Silica Sand Using Cement Kiln Dust as an Activator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The hydrothermal reactivity of silica sand was studied using cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator in addition to the Portlandcement fraction of El-Karnak cement (a blend of ordinary Portland cement and ground sand). Autoclaved El-Karnak cementpastes were studied at pressures of 0.507, 1.013 and 1.520 MPa of saturated steam with respect to their compressive strength,kinetics of hydrothermal reaction and the phase composition of the formed hydrates. The role of CKD in affecting thephysicochemical and mechanical properties of El-Karnak cement pastes was studied by autoclaving of several pastes containing5, 7.5, 10 and 20% CKD at a pressure of 1.013 MPa of saturated steam. CKD was added either as a raw CKD (unwashed) orafter washing with water (washed CKD). The results of these physicochemical studies obtained could be related as much aspossible to the role of CKD (raw or washed) in affecting the hydrothermal reactivity of silica sand in El-Karnak cement pastes.

  3. Intraoral film containing insulin-phospholipid microemulsion: formulation and in vivo hypoglycemic activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Heni; Haryadi, Bernard Manuel; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Suendo, Veinardi

    2015-06-01

    Non-invasive administration of insulin is expected for better diabetes mellitus therapy. In this report, we developed intraoral preparation for insulin. Insulin was encapsulated into nanocarrier using self-assembly emulsification process. To increase lipophilicity of insulin, it was dispersed in phospholipid resulted in insulin-phospholipid solid dispersion. The microemulsion formula was established from our previous work which contained glyceryl monooleate (GMO), Tween 20, and polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) in a ratio of 1:8:1. To confirm the formation of insulin-phospholipid solid dispersion, PXRD, FTIR spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed. Then, the microemulsion was evaluated for droplet size and distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, physical stability, and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, microemulsion with expected characteristic was evaluated for in vitro release, in vitro permeation, and in vivo activity. The droplets size of ∼100 nm with narrow distribution and positive charge of +0.56 mV were formed. The insulin encapsulated in the oil droplet was accounted of >90%. Water-soluble chitosan seems to be a promising film matrix polymer which also functioned as insulin release controller. Oral administration of insulin microemulsion to healthy Swiss-Webster mice showed hypoglycemic effect indicating the success of this protein against a harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract. This effectiveness significantly increased by fourfold as compared to free insulin. Taken together, microemulsion seems to be a promising carrier for oral delivery of insulin.

  4. Reliability and cost evaluation of small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Rajesh

    Renewable energy application in electric power systems is growing rapidly worldwide due to enhanced public concerns for adverse environmental impacts and escalation in energy costs associated with the use of conventional energy sources. Photovoltaics and wind energy sources are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and cost is required to analyze the actual benefits of utilizing these energy sources. The reliability aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources have largely been ignored in the past due the relatively insignificant contribution of these sources in major power systems, and consequently due to the lack of appropriate techniques. Renewable energy sources have the potential to play a significant role in the electrical energy requirements of small isolated power systems which are primarily supplied by costly diesel fuel. A relatively high renewable energy penetration can significantly reduce the system fuel costs but can also have considerable impact on the system reliability. Small isolated systems routinely plan their generating facilities using deterministic adequacy methods that cannot incorporate the highly erratic behavior of renewable energy sources. The utilization of a single probabilistic risk index has not been generally accepted in small isolated system evaluation despite its utilization in most large power utilities. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy. This thesis presents an evaluation model for small isolated systems containing renewable energy sources by integrating simulation models that generate appropriate atmospheric data, evaluate chronological renewable power outputs and combine total available energy and load to provide useful system indices. A software tool SIPSREL+ has been developed which generates

  5. SPES3 Facility RELAP5 Sensitivity Analyses on the Containment System for Design Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Achilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An Italian MSE R&D programme on Nuclear Fission is funding, through ENEA, the design and testing of SPES3 facility at SIET, for IRIS reactor simulation. IRIS is a modular, medium size, advanced, integral PWR, developed by an international consortium of utilities, industries, research centres and universities. SPES3 simulates the primary, secondary and containment systems of IRIS, with 1:100 volume scale, full elevation and prototypical thermal-hydraulic conditions. The RELAP5 code was extensively used in support to the design of the facility to identify criticalities and weak points in the reactor simulation. FER, at Zagreb University, performed the IRIS reactor analyses with the RELAP5 and GOTHIC coupled codes. The comparison between IRIS and SPES3 simulation results led to a simulation-design feedback process with step-by-step modifications of the facility design, up to the final configuration. For this, a series of sensitivity cases was run to investigate specific aspects affecting the trend of the main parameters of the plant, as the containment pressure and EHRS removed power, to limit fuel clad temperature excursions during accidental transients. This paper summarizes the sensitivity analyses on the containment system that allowed to review the SPES3 facility design and confirm its capability to appropriately simulate the IRIS plant.

  6. Output Containment Control of Linear Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems Using Internal Model Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shan; Song, Yongduan; Lewis, Frank L; Davoudi, Ali

    2017-01-04

    This paper studies the output containment control of linear heterogeneous multi-agent systems, where the system dynamics and even the state dimensions can generally be different. Since the states can have different dimensions, standard results from state containment control do not apply. Therefore, the control objective is to guarantee the convergence of the output of each follower to the dynamic convex hull spanned by the outputs of leaders. This can be achieved by making certain output containment errors go to zero asymptotically. Based on this formulation, two different control protocols, namely, full-state feedback and static output-feedback, are designed based on internal model principles. Sufficient local conditions for the existence of the proposed control protocols are developed in terms of stabilizing the local followers' dynamics and satisfying a certain H∞ criterion. Unified design procedures to solve the proposed two control protocols are presented by formulation and solution of certain local state-feedback and static output-feedback problems, respectively. Numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed control protocols.

  7. Freeze-drying in novel container system: Characterization of heat and mass transfer in glass syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sajal M; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing and understanding different modes of heat and mass transfer in glass syringes to develop a robust freeze-drying process. Two different holder systems were used to freeze-dry in syringes: an aluminum (Al) block and a plexiglass holder. The syringe heat transfer coefficient was characterized by a sublimation test using pure water. Mannitol and sucrose (5% w/v) were also freeze-dried, as model systems, in both the assemblies. Dry layer resistance was determined from manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and product temperature was measured using thermocouples, and was also determined from MTM. Further, freeze-drying process was also designed using Smart freeze-dryer to assess its application for freeze-drying in novel container systems. Heat and mass transfer in syringes were compared against the traditional container system (i.e., glass tubing vial). In the Al block, the heat transfer was via three modes: contact conduction, gas conduction, and radiation with gas conduction being the dominant mode of heat transfer. In the plexiglass holder, the heat transfer was mostly via radiation; convection was not involved. Also, MTM/Smart freeze-drying did work reasonably well for freeze-drying in syringes. When compared to tubing vials, product temperature decreases and hence drying time increases in syringes. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  8. Rutin increases critical wavelength of systems containing a single UV filter and with good skin compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, D A; de Oliveira, C A; da Costa, M S; Tokunaga, V K; Mota, J P; Rosado, C; Consiglieri, V O; Kaneko, T M; Velasco, M V R; Baby, A R

    2016-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for sunburns, skin cancer, photoaging, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The awareness on preventing these deleterious effects made the use of anti-UVB formulations an important part of population habits; however, despite the availability of several antioxidants capable of ROS scavenging, the pharmaceutical market lacks products associating UV filters with natural compounds of proven efficacy. Here, we investigated the effect of rutin, a flavonoid with antioxidant activity, associated with UVB filters in dermocosmetic preparations. Formulations were assessed through its antioxidant activity, in vitro photoprotective effectiveness, photostability, and in vivo skin tolerance (hydration, transepidermal water loss, and erythema). Samples containing rutin were compatible with the human skin and presented a pronounced antioxidant potential, with scavenging activity values 75% higher than the ones containing only UVB filters. Although rutin could not prevent the sunscreens photodegradation post-irradiation, the bioactive compound significantly increased the formulations critical wavelengths, showing a photoprotective gain, especially in the UVA range. In conclusion, the absorption in the UVA range, coupled with ROS scavenging potential, proved the positive effect of rutin applied to anti-UVB formulations, making this bioactive compound a promising candidate for photoprotection improvement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Performance of Active Wave Absorption Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter

    A comparison of wave gauge based on velocity meter based active absorption systems is presented discussing advantages and disadvantages of the systems. In detail one system based on two surface elevations, one system based on a surface elevation and a horisontal velocity and one system based...... on a horisontal and vertical velocity are treated. All three systems are based on digital FIR-filters. For numerical comparison a performance function combining the frequency response of the set of filters for each system is derived enabling discussion on optimal filter design and system setup. Irregular wave...

  10. An active tactile perception system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriu, E.; Greenspan, M.; Gelinas, F.; McMath, W. S.; Yeung, S. K.

    System development and application aspects are described for an experimental robotic system for the tactile perception of the global geometric profile of object surfaces which are larger than the dimensions of the tactile sensor. Local cutaneous information provided by a tactile sensor is integrated with the kinesthetic position parameters of a robot arm, resulting in a 3D geometric model of the tactile sensor pose on the explored object surface. Currently available tactile sensors provide poor information on the geometric profile of 3D object surfaces. In order to maximize the information available for 3D analysis, an instrumented passive compliant wrist was used to attach a pressure measuring tactile probe to the robot arm carrier. Data was collected by a noncompliant planar sensing array in direct contact with an object surface. Information recorded includes the following: positional and orientation data on the robot arm manipulator, passive compliance kinesthetic data as measured by the kinematics of the wrist, and cutaneous tactile data represented by the binary image of the sensors pose on the object. The dimensions of the sensor array were found to be a critical factor in system performance. Use of a large array results in fewer touch poses being required to explore an object's surface, on the other hand a large planar array will touch fewer and higher peaks thus missing surface detail. To improve performance, there is a need to design tactile sensors specifically for geometric profile measuring.

  11. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  12. Analysis of Wetting Characteristics on Microstructured Hydrophobic Surfaces for the Passive Containment Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the heat transfer surface in the passive containment cooling system, the anticorrosion coating (AC of steel containment vessel (CV must meet the requirements on heat transfer performance. One of the wall surface ACs with simple structure, high mechanical strength, and well hydrophobic characteristics, which is conductive to form dropwise condensation, is significant for the heat removal of the CV. In this paper, the grooved structures on silicon wafers by lithographic methods are systematically prepared to investigate the effects of microstructures on the hydrophobic property of the surfaces. The results show that the hydrophobicity is dramatically improved in comparison with the conventional Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter model. In addition, the experimental results are successfully explained by the interface state effect. As a consequence, it is indicated that favorable hydrophobicity can be obtained even if the surface is with lower roughness and without any chemical modifications, which provides feasible solutions for improving the heat transfer performance of CV.

  13. Development of damage detection methods in containment building using system identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil

    2001-05-01

    This study presents an SI-based damage detection schemes using minimization of an error function. The singular value decomposition is utilized to investigate the instability of the SI. The Tikhonov regularization scheme is introduced to alleviate oscillations in the solutions of the SI. The optimal regularization factor is determined by the GMS and the GGMS. The characteristics of measurement error are investigated. The regularization effect is estimated by the concept of the error level and the resolution limit. The statistical approach is employed for reliable damage detection. The Monte-Carlo simulation is performed by the artificially perturbed data. The statistical distribution of system parameters obtained by the Monte-Carlo simulation is utilized in the hypothesis test for the damage detection. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through three types of numerical examples identification of an inclusion in a plate, determination of prestress losses in a containment building and damage detection in a containment building.

  14. Development of a multiparticulate system containing enteric-release mini-tablets of omeprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Jose Tondo Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to develop a multiparticulate system containing mini-tablets of omeprazole formulated with an enteric polymer with pH-dependent solubility. Pre-formulation studies showed good flow and compaction capacity, leading to the production ofhigh quality mini-tablets. The mini-tablets were coated in a fluidized bed with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose /Eudragit(r L30D55 and packed into hard gelatin capsules. The dissolution profile showed gastro-resistance and zero-order kinetics. The dissolution profile for the formulation containing lactose as the diluent and coated with 12% (tablet weight gain of polymer was similar to that ofthe reference drug.

  15. Development and evaluation of a hydrophilic matrix as a buccoadhesive system containing diclofenac sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiz Cristina Wypych

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the development and evaluation of a hydrolphilic matrix as a buccoadhesive system containing diclofenac sodium. Eleven formulations were prepared containing the following bioadhesive polymers: hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, polycarbophil, guar gum and xanthan gum individually and in combination. All the formulations were evaluated for the swelling index, adhesive index, and the time of adhesive and drug release profile (%. The results showed that the formulations that presented the most swelling index were the F3 (PAA/GX and F6 (GG/GX. The smaller index swelling was for F1 (PAA/CM and F10 (HPCMC/CM. The F4 (PAA/HPMC formulation presented the best adhesive index and F10 (HPMC/CM the worst. F1 (PAA/CM was the best matrix hydrophilic adhesive for controlled release. The hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, guar and xanthan gum when used individually presented low adhesiveness.

  16. Integrated scheduling of a container handling system with simultaneous loading and discharging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Lu, Zhiqiang; Han, Xiaole; Zhang, Yuejun; Wang, Li

    2016-03-01

    The integrated scheduling of container handling systems aims to optimize the coordination and overall utilization of all handling equipment, so as to minimize the makespan of a given set of container tasks. A modified disjunctive graph is proposed and a mixed 0-1 programming model is formulated. A heuristic algorithm is presented, in which the original problem is divided into two subproblems. In the first subproblem, contiguous bay crane operations are applied to obtain a good quay crane schedule. In the second subproblem, proper internal truck and yard crane schedules are generated to match the given quay crane schedule. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm based on the heuristic algorithm is developed to search for better solutions. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently find high-quality solutions. They also indicate the effectiveness of simultaneous loading and discharging operations compared with separate ones.

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of hydrazino-containing polyamine skeletons as drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Hong Wang; Jun Jun Zhou; Song Qing Xie; Qian Li; Jin Zhao; Chao Jie Wang

    2011-01-01

    A new series of polyamine-toxic cargo conjugates was synthesized with aryl aldehydes conjugating to hydrazino-containing triamine skeletons.The in vitro cytotoxicity of target compounds was evaluated in several cancer cell lines (e.g.,L1210,HeLa and B16) and the cellular entry of these polyamine conjugates via polyamine transporter was investigated on SPD- or DFMO-treated B16 cell line.Of these compounds,6c show significant cytotoxicity on L1210,HeLa and B 16 cell lines (ICs0 value,3.74 μmol/L,5.66 μmol/L and 4.04 μmol/L,respectively).The polyamine transporter assay demonstrated the suitability of hydrazino-containing polyamine backbones for application as vectors in drug delivery systems.

  18. Modeling of Spray System Operation under Hydrogen and Steam Emissions in NPP Containment during Severe Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Seleznev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes one of the variants of mathematical models of a fluid dynamics process inside the containment, which occurs in the conditions of operation of spray systems in severe accidents at nuclear power plant. The source of emergency emissions in this case is the leak of the coolant or rupture at full cross-section of the main circulating pipeline in a reactor building. Leak or rupture characteristics define the localization and the temporal law of functioning of a source of emergency emission (or accrued operating of warmed up hydrogen and steam in the containment. Operation of this source at the course of analyzed accident models should be described by the assignment of the relevant Dirichlet boundary conditions. Functioning of the passive autocatalytic recombiners of hydrogen is described in the form of the complex Newton boundary conditions.

  19. Containment Control of Multiagent Systems With Dynamic Leaders Based on a $PI^{n}$ -Type Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Wang, Yunpeng; Ren, Wei; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Tan, Min

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the containment control of multiagent systems (MASs) with multiple dynamic leaders in both continuous-time domain and discrete-time domain. The leaders' motions are described by the n th-order polynomial trajectories. This setting makes practical sense because given some critical points, the leaders' trajectories are usually planned by the polynomial interpolations. In order to drive all followers into the convex hull spanned by the leaders, a PI (n) -type containment algorithm is proposed ( P and I are short for proportional and integral, respectively; I (n) implies that the algorithm includes up to the n th-order integral terms). It is theoretically proved that the PI (n) -type containment algorithm is able to solve the containment problem of MASs where the followers are described by any order integral dynamics. Compared to the previous results on the MASs with dynamic leaders, the distinguished features of this paper are that: 1) the containment problem is studied not only in the continuous-time domain but also in the discrete-time domain while most existing results only work in the continuous-time domain; 2) to deal with the leaders with the n th-order polynomial trajectories, existing results require the follower's dynamics to be the ( n+ 1)th-order integral while the followers considered in this paper can be described by any-order integral dynamics; 3) the "sign" function is not employed in the proposed algorithm, which avoids the chattering phenomenon; and 4) both disturbance and measurement noise are taken into account. Finally, some simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of gel containing novel elastic niosomes entrapped with diclofenac diethylammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, A; Jantrawut, P; Manosroi, J

    2008-08-06

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel elastic bilayer vesicle entrapped with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac diethylammonium (DCFD) for topical use. Eighteen bilayer vesicular formulations composing of DPPC or Tween 61 or Span 60 mixed with cholesterol (at 1:1, 3:7 and 1:1 molar ratios, respectively) and ethanol at 0-25% (v/v), by chloroform film method with sonication were developed. The elastic Tween 61 niosomes which gave no sedimentation, no layer separation, unchanged particle sizes (about 200 nm) were selected to entrap DCFD. The entrapment efficiency of the drug in the conventional and elastic Tween 61 niosomes was 65 and 93%, respectively. At least 87% of DCFD determined by HPLC remained in elastic Tween 61 niosomes when kept at 4, 27 and 45 degrees C for 3 months. The deformability index values of the elastic niosomes were 13.76 and 3.44 times higher than the conventional niosomes entrapped and not entrapped with the drug, respectively, indicating the higher flexibility of the elastic vesicle especially, when entrapped with the drug. Transdermal absorption through excised rat skin was performed by vertical Franz diffusion cell at 32+/-2 degrees C for 6h. Gel containing elastic niosomes exhibited fluxes of DCFD in the stratum corneum (SC), deeper skin layer (viable epidermis and dermis, VED) and receiver chamber at 191.27+/-9.52, 16.97+/-2.77 and 3.76+/-0.54 microg/(cm2 h), whereas the commercial emulgel, containing an equivalent DCFD, gave 60.84+/-13.63, 7.33+/-1.70 and 0.14+/-0.01 microg/(cm2 h), respectively. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP)-induced rat ear edema (n=3). DCFD entrapped in the developed elastic niosomes and incorporated in gel gave the same ear edema inhibition percentages of 23.81% at 30 min, but 2 and 9 times more inhibition percentages at 45 and 60 min than the commercial emulgel, respectively. This result has not only demonstrated the

  1. Delivery of the all-inverter container crane system for Harbor Construction division of Kobe city; Kobeshi kowan seibikyoku muke all inverter ka container crane no nonyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Although DC driving is in wide use for controllers of container cranes, Toshiba first delivered the full-AC driving system for container cranes for Harbor Construction division of Kobe city. This system adopts PROSEC{sub TM}-T3 as main controller, and IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) inverter TOSVERT{sub TM}-{mu}/S250W and PWM (pulse width modulation) converter TOSVERT{sub TM}-PS20W as driving equipment which are connected with each other through optical communication LAN for control TOSLINE{sub TM}-S20(optical) for integration for system control. AC driving is contributing to improve a maintainability and power factor, and satisfy harmonics regulation. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Dynamic Efficiency of a Container Crane’s Hoisting Transmission System under Hoisting Dynamic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic efficiency of hoisting transmission system on a container crane is fundamental for accurate efficiency prediction, while the dynamic efficiency of hoisting transmission system has not been investigated sufficiently. This paper will focus on dynamic efficiency of hoisting transmission system under hoisting dynamic load. A power loss model of gearbox was built. Then the dynamic model of gear transmission was developed including time-varying mesh stiffness and hoisting dynamic load was studied. Power loss, dynamic efficiency, and equivalent static efficiency were conducted in hoisting and lowering working conditions. The result shows that dynamic efficiency which consists of the significant lower frequency component coincided with hoisting load torque of the higher frequency component which is directly related to dynamic mesh and bearing force. And in two processes, the equivalent static efficiency in constant speed stage is min, whereas maximum value occurs in different stage. The research results lay a foundation for hoisting gear transmission dynamic efficiency analysis.

  3. Output Feedback Distributed Containment Control for High-Order Nonlinear Multiagent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafeng; Hua, Changchun; Wu, Shuangshuang; Guan, Xinping

    2017-01-31

    In this paper, we study the problem of output feedback distributed containment control for a class of high-order nonlinear multiagent systems under a fixed undirected graph and a fixed directed graph, respectively. Only the output signals of the systems can be measured. The novel reduced order dynamic gain observer is constructed to estimate the unmeasured state variables of the system with the less conservative condition on nonlinear terms than traditional Lipschitz one. Via the backstepping method, output feedback distributed nonlinear controllers for the followers are designed. By means of the novel first virtual controllers, we separate the estimated state variables of different agents from each other. Consequently, the designed controllers show independence on the estimated state variables of neighbors except outputs information, and the dynamics of each agent can be greatly different, which make the design method have a wider class of applications. Finally, a numerical simulation is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Experimental investigation of iodine removal and containment depressurization in containment spray system test facility of 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Manish [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Kandar, T.K.; Vhora, S.F.; Mohan, Nalini [Directorate of Technology Development, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Mumbai (India); Iyer, K.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Prabhu, S.V., E-mail: svprabhu@iitb.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Depressurization rate in a scaled down vessel filled with air and steam is studied. • Iodine removal rate in a scaled down vessel filled with steam/air is investigated. • Effect of SMD and vessel pressure on depressurization rate is studied. • Depressurization rate decreases with the increase in the droplet size (590 μm – 1 mm) • Decrease in pressure and iodine concentration with time follow exponential trend. - Abstract: As an additional safety measure in the new 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactors, the first of a kind system called containment Spray System is introduced. The system is designed to cater/mitigate the conditions after design basis accidents i.e., loss of coolant accident and main steam line break. As a contribution to the safety analysis of condition following loss-of-coolant accidents, experiments are carried out to establish the performance of the system. The loss of coolant is simulated by injecting saturated steam and iodine vapors into the containment vessel in which air is enclosed at atmospheric and room temperature, and then the steam-air mixture is cooled by sprays of water. The effect of water spray on the containment vessel pressure and the iodine scrubbing in a scaled down facility is investigated for the containment spray system of Indian pressurized heavy water reactors. The experiments are carried out in the scaled down vessel of the diameter of 2.0 m and height of 3.5 m respectively. Experiments are conducted with water at room temperature as the spray medium. Two different initial vessel pressure i.e. 0.7 bar and 1.0 bar are chosen for the studies as they are nearing the loss of coolant accident & main steam line break pressures in Indian pressurized heavy water reactors. These pressures are chosen based on the containment resultant pressures after a design basis accident. The transient temperature and pressure distribution of the steam in the vessel are measured during the depressurization

  5. Installing a HDPE vertical containment and collection system in one pass utilizing a deep trencher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocchino, W.M. [Groundwater Control Inc., Jacksonville, FL (United States); Burson, B. [Groundwater Control, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A unique method has been developed to install high density polyethylene (HDPE) vertical containment panels and a horizontal collection system for the containment and collection of contaminated groundwater. Unlike other means of creating this type of system, this barrier wall and collection system is installed in one step and in one narrow trench, utilizing a one-pass deep trencher. Originally HDPE vertical barriers were installed using conventional slurry trenching techniques. Use of this method raised questions of trench stability and disposal costs for the trench spoils. In addition, if a collection system was desired, a separate trench or vertical wells were required. In response to these concerns, a trenchless vibratory installation method was developed. Although this method addressed the concerns of trench stability and disposal costs, it raised a whole new set of concerns dealing with drivable soil conditions, buried debris and obstructions. Again, if a collection system was desired, a separate trench or vertical wells had to be installed. The latest development, the one-pass, deep trencher, has eliminated or significantly reduced the previously discussed construction concerns. The trencher methods reduce the amount of spoils generated because a trench width of 61 cm (24 inches) is constantly maintained by the machine. Additionally, soil classification and density are not as critical as with a vibratory installation. This is due to the trencher`s ability to trench in all but the hardest of materials (blow counts exceeding 35 blows/ft). Finally, the cost to add a collection system adjacent to the cutoff wall is substantially reduced and is limited only to the cost of the additional hydraulic fill and 4 inches HDPE collection piping. The trench itself is already constructed with the installation of the wall.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Visan, A.; Socol, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Surdu, A.V.; Oprea, A.E.; Grumezescu, A.M. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, Bucharest, 011061 Romania (Romania); Chifiriuc, M.C. [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest - ICUB, Bucharest, 77206 (Romania); Boehm, R.D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R.J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chrisey, D.B. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • We successfully deposited composite quercetin dehydrate-, resveratrol- and silver nanoparticle-polyvinylpyrrolidone thin coatings with chemical structure close to that of the starting materials by MAPLE. • Thin film morphology studies revealed a uniform surface without aggregates or grains on the top of the surface. • MAPLE-deposited thin films exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. • We demonstrated the potential use of these hybrid systems and MAPLE deposition method for the development of new harmless, ecological antimicrobial strategies. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF{sup *} excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  7. Design and implementation of a visual monitoring system to ensure safety in the water surrounding a container vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-xing; WANG Ze-sheng; CHEN Jin-biao; BUPing

    2008-01-01

    Container vessels navigate among the world's ports, frequently passing through narrow and congested waters. Due to the many layers of containers on a container vessel's decks, it is difficult for the crew to be aware of all fishing vessels and other obstacles in a container vessel's radar observation blind zone. This greatly increases the risk of collisions and other accidents. Given such great challenges to safe navigation and safety management with container vessels, their security risks are severe. An effective visual monitoring system can improve the safety of the water area surrounding container vessel by eliminating a vessel's observation blind zone, providing an effective safety measure for vessels navigating fishing zones and other troublesome areas. The system has other functions, such as accident recording, ship security, and monitoring of loading and unloading operations, thus ensuring the ship operates safely. Six months' trial operation showed that the system facilitates safe navigation of container vessels.

  8. Design, Characterization, and Optimization of Controlled Drug Delivery System Containing Antibiotic Drug/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelate, Pragna; Dave, Divyang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was design, characterization, and optimization of controlled drug delivery system containing antibiotic drug/s. Osmotic drug delivery system was chosen as controlled drug delivery system. The porous osmotic pump tablets were designed using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken factorial design to find out the best formulation. For screening of three categories of polymers, six independent variables were chosen for Plackett-Burman design. Osmotic agent sodium chloride and microcrystalline cellulose, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate and sucrose, and coating agent ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. Optimization of osmotic tablets was done by Box-Behnken design by selecting three independent variables. Osmotic agent sodium chloride, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate, and coating agent cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. The result of Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken design and ANOVA studies revealed that osmotic agent and pore former had significant effect on the drug release up to 12 hr. The observed independent variables were found to be very close to predicted values of most satisfactory formulation which demonstrates the feasibility of the optimization procedure in successful development of porous osmotic pump tablets containing antibiotic drug/s by using sodium chloride, sodium lauryl sulphate, and cellulose acetate as key excipients. PMID:27610247

  9. The mutation detection system of repackaged lambda phage containing LacZ gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuY; CaoJ

    2002-01-01

    The mutation detection system of repackaged lambda phage has been constructed.the mutagen-treated lambda DNA with LacZ gene was repackaged in vitro and the packaged lambda phages were then grown in e.coli Y1090 on a selective plate containing x-gal and isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside.the survival and mutation frequency was determined by counting the clearplaque mutants,the molecular mutation mechanisms of 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea(ENU) and 9-aminoacridine(9-AA) were further studied by extracting and sequencing the LacZ gene of the mutants.The results demonstrated that the mutation detection system of repackaged lambda gtll DNA containing LacZ gene was not only simple,cheap and timesaving,but also was high specific and high sensitive.Then it is possible for this system to be used as a preliminary mutation screening for chemicals by analyzing the survival of the packaged phages and the mutation frequency,and it's also possible used to analyze the molecular mutation mechanism be sequencing the partial or entire LacZ gene.

  10. Communication Systems and Study Method for Active Distribution Power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    Due to the involvement and evolvement of communication technologies in contemporary power systems, the applications of modern communication technologies in distribution power system are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO....... The suitability of the communication technology to the distribution power system with active renewable energy based generation units is discussed. Subsequently the typical possible communication systems are studied by simulation. In this paper, a novel method of integrating communication system impact into power...... system simulation is presented to address the problem of lack of off-shelf research tools on the power system communication. The communication system is configured and studied by the OPNET, and the performance of an active distribution power system integrated with the communication system is simulated...

  11. Activation of α7-containing nicotinic receptors on astrocytes triggers AMPA receptor recruitment to glutamatergic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xulong; Lippi, Giordano; Carlson, David M; Berg, Darwin K

    2013-12-01

    Astrocytes, an abundant form of glia, are known to promote and modulate synaptic signaling between neurons. They also express α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs), but the functional relevance of these receptors is unknown. We show here that stimulation of α7-nAChRs on astrocytes releases components that induce hippocampal neurons to acquire more α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors post-synaptically at glutamatergic synapses. The increase is specific in that no change is seen in synaptic NMDA receptor clusters or other markers for glutamatergic synapses, or in markers for GABAergic synapses. Moreover, the increases in AMPA receptors on the neuron surface are accompanied by increases in the frequency of spontaneous miniature synaptic currents mediated by the receptors and increases in the ratio of evoked synaptic currents mediated by AMPA versus NMDA receptors. This suggests that stimulating α7-nAChRs on astrocytes can convert 'silent' glutamatergic synapses to functional status. Astrocyte-derived thrombospondin is necessary but not sufficient for the effect, while tumor necrosis factor-α is sufficient but not necessary. The results identify astrocyte α7-nAChRs as a novel pathway through which nicotinic cholinergic signaling can promote the development of glutamatergic networks, recruiting AMPA receptors to post-synaptic sites and rendering the synapses more functional. We find that activation of nicotinic receptors on astrocytes releases a component that specifically recruits AMPA receptors to glutamatergic synapses. The recruitment appears to occur preferentially at what may be 'silent synapses', that is, synapses that have all the components required for glutamatergic transmission (including NMDA receptors) but lack sufficient AMPA receptors to generate a response. The results are unexpected and open up new possibilities for mechanisms underlying network formation and synaptic plasticity.

  12. Preliminary investigations on inducing salt tolerance in maize through inoculation with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad

    2007-10-01

    Twenty rhizobacterial strains containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase were isolated from the rhizosphere of salt-affected maize fields. They were screened for their growth-promoting activities under axenic conditions at 1, 4, 8, and 12 dS x m-1 salinity levels. Based upon the data of the axenic study, the 6 most effective strains were selected to conduct pot trials in the wire house. Besides one original salinity level (1.6 dS x m-1), 3 other salinity levels (4, 8, and 12 dS x m-1) were maintained in pots and maize seeds inoculated with selected strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, as well as uninoculated controls were sown. Results showed that the increase in salinity level decreased the growth of maize seedlings. However, inoculation with rhizobacterial strains reduced this depression effect and improved the growth and yield at all the salinity levels tested. Selected strains significantly increased plant height, root length, total biomass, cob mass, and grain yield up to 82%, 93%, 51%, 40%, and 50%, respectively, over respective uninoculated controls at the electrical conductivity of 12 dS x m-1. Among various plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strains, S5 (Pseudomonas syringae), S14 (Enterobacter aerogenes), and S20 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) were the most effective strains for promoting the growth and yield of maize, even at high salt stress. The relatively better salt tolerance of inoculated plants was associated with a high K+/Na+ ratio as well as high relative water and chlorophyll and low proline contents.

  13. Implementation of Business Game Activity Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANABU Motonari

    2004-01-01

    Business game can be used not only as an educational tool for the development of decision making ability, but also can be used for supporting the knowledge creation activity in organizations. In this paper, some conceptual considerations to meanings of the business game in the knowledge creation activity by using the knowledge creation theory and other related theories are given,and business game activity concept which refers to game play and development is proposed. Then focusing on the business game activity as an instantiation of the knowledge creation activity, and a Web based gaming activity support system based on the former system called YBG that enables us to play and develop many business games through the standard web browser is proposed. This system also provides us a lot of opportunities to play and develop the business games over business game communities.

  14. Corrosion-Activated Micro-Containers for Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, J. W.; Zhang, X.; Johnsey, M. N.; Pearman, B. P.; Jolley, S. T.; Calle, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry. The NASA Kennedy Space Centers Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion

  15. Automobile active suspension system with fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 黄中华; 陈毅章

    2004-01-01

    A quarter-automobile active suspension model was proposed. High speed on/off solenoid valves were used as control valves and fuzzy control was chosen as control method . Based on force analyses of system parts, a mathematical model of the active suspension system was established and simplified by linearization method. Simulation study was conducted with Matlab and three scale coefficients of fuzzy controller (ke, kec, ku) were acquired. And an experimental device was designed and produced. The results indicate that the active suspension system can achieve better vibration isolation performance than passive suspension system, the displacement amplitude of automobile body can be reduced to 55%. Fuzzy control is an effective control method for active suspension system.

  16. LOCA steam condensation loads in BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukita, Y.; Namatame, K.; Takeshita, I.; Shiba, M.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrodynamic loads induced in the BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment system during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) were investigated using a large scale test facility. The maximum-bounding loading conditions on the pressure suppression pool-boundary structures were defined by conducting experiments for a wide range of parameters. The maximum-bounding loads occurred when steam, with air concentration less than 1% in weight, was injected at moderate rates (approx. = 30 kg/m/sup 2/.s) into a low-temperature (below 310 K) pool. Such conditions are most likely to be encountered during LOCAs with intermediate break sizes.

  17. Liquid-Liquid Extraction-Chromogenic Systems Containing Iron(III), 4-Nitrocatechol and Tetrazolium Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Galya K. Toncheva; Teodora S. Stefanova; Gavazov, Kiril B.

    2015-01-01

    Complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction were studied in systems containing iron(III), 4-nitrocatechol (4NC),tetrazolium salt (TZS), water and organic solvent. Three different TZS were used: 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), 3-(2-naphtyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (Tetrazolium violet, TV) and 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (INT).The cations of the first two TZSs (TZ+: MTT+ and TV+) form intensively color...

  18. Analysis of railcar-shipping container system response to impact conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, R.J.; Butler, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    An existing mathematical model for simulating railcar-container system response to coupling impacts was revised to simulate configurations that were tested in full-scale experiments. The structural model is represented with the lumped-parameter technique. The resulting equations are linear except for those for the coupler forces experienced during the impact. Results from the mathematical model are compared with load and acceleration data obtained during the full-scale tests. The model predicts actual response accurately enough to make it useful as a design and safety analysis tool.

  19. An effect of containment filtered venting system on scale of contamination under severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ju young; Lee, Jai-ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Some countries are expected to expand the scope of the Emergency Planning Zone(EPZ) by the influence of Fukushima accident. However, if the equipment, which is able to mitigate the severe accident consequences, is installed, unnecessary costs for an expansion of emergency planning zone will be reduced. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAC) has suggested to mitigate severe accidents by installing The Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS). The probabilistic assessment code MACCS2 was used to calculate the effective radiation dose with and without FCVS to determine the effective reduction by the installation of a FCVS.

  20. Iron-containing phases in fly ashes from different combustion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szumiata Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigations of iron-containing phases existing in fly ashes were performed using transmission Mössbauer spectrometry. The examined samples of fly ashes were collected from different coal combustion systems, that is, stoker-fired boiler in municipal heating plant and pulverized coal boiler in power plant. Several phases are identified in the samples: iron oxides, paramagnetic aluminosilicate glass with Fe3+ ions and Al2O4-type spinel with Fe2+ ions. It was pointed out that proportions of contents of phases strongly depend not only on the combustion temperature but also on the way of ash collection.

  1. Extraction of Phenylalanine Phase Systems Containing Enantiomers by Aqueous Two Combinatorial Chiral Selector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓青; 刘莉; 焦飞鹏; 王珍

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a better enantioselectivity of phenylalanine enantiomers and establish the optimal chiral ex- traction conditions, the distribution behavior was investigated in aqueous two-phase systems which were composed of polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate containing combinatorial chiral selector: β-cyclodextrin and HP-β-cyclodextrin. The influence of the molar concentration ratio of combinatorial chiral selectors, the total molar concentration of combinatorial chiral selectors, pH value, buffer type and its concentration were thoroughly studied, respectively. The results show that the enantioselectivity reaches 1.53 under the optimal chiral extraction conditions This extraction is a potential economical and effective way for chiral resolution.

  2. Development and characterization of phosphatidylcholine nanovesicles, containing garlic extract, with antilisterial activity in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Cristian Mauricio Barreto; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata; Brandelli, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    Phospholipid nanovesicles were developed to improve the stability of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract. Electron microscopy of liposomes revealed nanometric and spherical-shaped vesicles with a mean particle size of 174.6±17.3nm and polydispersity index of 0.26±0.02. The entrapment efficiency was 47.5±7.3% and the nanoliposomes had a zeta potential of -16.2±5.5mV. The antimicrobial activity of free and encapsulated garlic extract was evaluated against different strains of Listeria spp. in milk at 37°C for 24h. For free and encapsulated garlic extracts at 5% concentration, a decrease of 4log cycles in viable cell counts was observed at 10h, against four of the five strains of Listeria spp. tested. The results indicate that liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of unstable garlic active compounds and the encapsulation of garlic extract proves to be a promising technology for multiple applications, including antimicrobial agents.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of hybrid hydrogels based on poly(vinylpyrrolidone containing silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Jovana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work new hybrid hydrogels were prepared by radical copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, itaconic acid, poly(vinylpyrrolidone and silver particles. FTIR spectroscopy has confirmed binding of silver particels in hydrogels. Swelling studies performed in in vitro conditions showed dependence on PVP content and temperature. It can be seen that the antimicrobial activity of the Ag/P(HEMA/IAPVP hybrid hydrogels depends on the PVP moiety and with the increase of PVP content the microbial contamination is more efficiently reduced. The best sensitivity was obtained for the polymers tested for antimicrobial activity against the yeast C. albicans, one of the most commonly encountered human pathogens, causing a wide variety of infections ranging from mucosal infections in generally healthy persons to life-threatening systemic infections in individuals with impaired immunity. A slightly less susceptible to antimicrobial effect of hydrogels was obtained for the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus, where the reduction of cells was about 70 % after two hours of exposure, for the sample with the highest PVP content. The least susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of hydrogels examined was the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, where the percent of cell reduction was below 20 %. Bearing in mind the influence of the time of exposure of microbes to the Ag/P(HEMA/IA/PVP hybrid hydrogels, it was observed that the reduction of the number of cells depends on time, microbial culture and type of hybrid hydrogel sample. Due to their swelling and antimicrobial properties, silver/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/itaconic acid/poly(vinylpyrrolidone hybrid hydrogles show potential to use in the field of biomedicine, especially for treatment of skin and burns in dermocosmetics.

  4. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the active sites of nickel- and copper-containing metalloproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Grace O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for obtaining structural and chemical information about the active sites of metalloproteins and metalloenzymes. Information may be obtained from both the edge region and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or post-edge region of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of a metal center in a compound. The edge contains information about the valence electronic structure of the atom that absorbs the X-rays. It is possible in some systems to infer the redox state of the metal atom in question, as well as the geometry and nature of ligands connected to it, from the features in the edge in a straightforward manner. The EXAFS modulations, being produced by the backscattering of the ejected photoelectron from the atoms surrounding the metal atom, provide, when analyzed, information about the number and type of neighbouring atoms, and the distances at which they occur. In this thesis, analysis of both the edge and EXAFS regions has been used to gain information about the active sites of various metalloproteins. The metalloproteins studied were plastocyanin (Pc), laccase and nickel carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (Ni CODH). Studies of Cu(I)-imidazole compounds, related to the protein hemocyanin, are also reported here.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, R.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Surdu, A. V.; Oprea, A. E.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  6. THERMAL HYDRAULIC ISSUES OF CONTAINMENT FILTERED VENTING SYSTEM FOR A LONG OPERATING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUNG SU NA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the thermal hydraulic issues in the Containment Filtered Venting System (CFVS for a long operating time using the MELCOR computer code. The modeling of the CFVS, including the models for pool scrubbing and the filter, was added to the input file for the OPR-1000, and a Station Blackout (SBO was chosen as an accident scenario. Although depressurization in the containment building as a primary objective of the CFVS was successful, the decontamination feature by scrubbing and filtering in the CFVS for a long operating time could fail by the continuous evaporation of the scrubbing solution. After the operation of the CFVS, the atmosphere temperature in the CFVS became slightly above the water saturation temperature owing to the release of an amount of steam with high temperature from the containment building to the scrubbing solution. Reduced pipe diameters at the inlet and outlet of the CFVS vessel mitigated the evaporation of scrubbing water by controlling the amount of high-temperature steam and the water saturation temperature.

  7. Design and synthesis of benzoxazole containing indole analogs as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ/δ dual agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Hyo Jin; Cheon, Ye-Jin; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeon, Raok

    2011-05-15

    A series of benzoxazole or benzothiazole containing indole analogs, 6-alkoxyindole-2-carboxylic acids and 5-alkoxy-3-indolylacetic acids, were synthesized as novel candidates of PPARγ/δ dual agonists and their ligand activities for PPAR subtypes (α, γ, and δ) were investigated. In transient transactivation assay, several compounds activated PPARγ and δ with little activity of PPARα. Putative binding mode of the compounds 1a and 2a in the active site of PPARγ was similar with that of rosiglitazone and the molecular modeling provides molecular insight to the observed activity.

  8. Correlating nanoscale structural changes to macromolecular gel formation in Laponite containing Pluronic F127 photogeling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juggernauth, K. Anne; Love, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Polymer nanocomposites has been a growing scientific field over the last 20 years. Recently, there has been increasing interest on nanocomposite systems with active responses to external stimuli such as heat, magnetic fields and light. The focus of this work is on a reversible thermoresponsive system, Pluronic F127 with added inorganic disk-shaped nanoparticles of Laponite. We further modify this system with the addition of a photoacid generator to enable photogelation. However, the nanoscale particle-particle and polymer-particle interactions within this Laponite/ block copolymer system are not well understood. We report on the photogelation kinetics of this system and further probe the interactions and rearrangement kinetics with heat and light exposure using in-situ synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering.

  9. Are surveillance response systems enough to effectively combat and contain the Ebola outbreak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Ngogang, Jeane Yonkeu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic of the Ebola virus infection in West Africa in 2014 has become a worldwide concern. Due to the nature of the disease, which has an extremely high mortality potential, this outbreak has received much attention from researchers and public health workers. An article entitled "Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries," published in the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty in August 2014, concluded that a good surveillance system to monitor disease transmission dynamics is essential and needs to be implemented to combat the outbreak. Issues regarding the limitation of the passive surveillance system have been raised by Professor Viroj Wiwanitkit, who emphasizes the need for an active disease detection system such as mass screening in this letter to editor. The different function between passive and active surveillance system in combating the disease outbreak has been agreed upon by Ernest Tambo et al. There have also been discussions between Wiwanitkit and Tambo et al. on the following issues: (i) the extreme resource limitations in outbreak areas, (ii) new technology to improve the available systems. Further recommendations echoed in this letter to editor by Wiwanitkit, who outlined the research priorities on the development of appropriate combined disease monitoring systems and good policy to allocate available tools and technology in resource-limited settings for epidemic scenarios. The journal's editor, Professor Xiao-Nong Zhou, has therefore collated all parts of these discussions between authors in this letter to editor paper, in order to further promote research on a combined active and passive system to combat the present extending Ebola outbreak.

  10. Influence of Different Container Closure Systems and Capping Process Parameters on Product Quality and Container Closure Integrity (CCI) in GMP Drug Product Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roggo, Yves; Huwyler, Joerg; Eder, Juergen; Fritsch, Kamila; Posset, Tobias; Mohl, Silke; Streubel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Capping equipment used in good manufacturing practice manufacturing features different designs and a variety of adjustable process parameters. The overall capping result is a complex interplay of the different capping process parameters and is insufficiently described in literature. It remains poorly studied how the different capping equipment designs and capping equipment process parameters (e.g., pre-compression force, capping plate height, turntable rotating speed) contribute to the final residual seal force of a sealed container closure system and its relation to container closure integrity and other drug product quality parameters. Stopper compression measured by computer tomography correlated to residual seal force measurements.In our studies, we used different container closure system configurations from different good manufacturing practice drug product fill & finish facilities to investigate the influence of differences in primary packaging, that is, vial size and rubber stopper design on the capping process and the capped drug product. In addition, we compared two large-scale good manufacturing practice manufacturing capping equipment and different capping equipment settings and their impact on product quality and integrity, as determined by residual seal force.The capping plate to plunger distance had a major influence on the obtained residual seal force values of a sealed vial, whereas the capping pre-compression force and the turntable rotation speed showed only a minor influence on the residual seal force of a sealed vial. Capping process parameters could not easily be transferred from capping equipment of different manufacturers. However, the residual seal force tester did provide a valuable tool to compare capping performance of different capping equipment. No vial showed any leakage greater than 10(-8)mbar L/s as measured by a helium mass spectrometry system, suggesting that container closure integrity was warranted in the residual seal force range

  11. DEMONSTRATiON OF A SUBSURFACE CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR INSTALLATION AT DOE WASTE SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Crocker; Verna M. Carpenter

    2003-05-21

    Between 1952 and 1970, DOE buried mixed waste in pits and trenches that now have special cleanup needs. The disposal practices used decades ago left these landfills and other trenches, pits, and disposal sites filled with three million cubic meters of buried waste. This waste is becoming harmful to human safety and health. Today's cleanup and waste removal is time-consuming and expensive with some sites scheduled to complete cleanup by 2006 or later. An interim solution to the DOE buried waste problem is to encapsulate and hydraulically isolate the waste with a geomembrane barrier and monitor the performance of the barrier over its 50-yr lifetime. The installed containment barriers would isolate the buried waste and protect groundwater from pollutants until final remediations are completed. The DOE has awarded a contract to RAHCO International, Inc.; of Spokane, Washington; to design, develop, and test a novel subsurface barrier installation system, referred to as a Subsurface Containment System (SCS). The installed containment barrier consists of commercially available geomembrane materials that isolates the underground waste, similar to the way a swimming pools hold water, without disrupting hazardous material that was buried decades ago. The barrier protects soil and groundwater from contamination and effectively meets environmental cleanup standards while reducing risks, schedules, and costs. Constructing the subsurface containment barrier uses a combination of conventional and specialized equipment and a unique continuous construction process. This innovative equipment and construction method can construct a 1000-ft-long X 34-ft-wide X 30-ft-deep barrier at construction rates to 12 Wday (8 hr/day operation). Life cycle costs including RCRA cover and long-term monitoring range from approximately $380 to $590/cu yd of waste contained or $100 to $160/sq ft of placed barrier based upon the subsurface geology surrounding the waste. Project objectives for Phase

  12. System for performing site characterization for test ranges containing unexploded ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Edward; Crane, Carl D., III

    1996-05-01

    Wright Laboratory has been tasked by the Naval Explosive Ordnance Technical Division to develop robotic platforms to perform characterization of areas set aside for ordnance testing. These areas require the identification and removal of the unexploded ordnance before they can be utilized for safe, productive use. The characterization task is performed by autonomously sweeping a designated area with the autonomous tow vehicle (ATV). The ATV tows the multiple sensor platform containing a magnetometer array and a ground penetrating radar. The ATV provides the time and position stamp for sensor data. Analysts then review the post survey sensor data to determine ordnance position. The ATV makes use of several advanced technologies. A hybrid navigation and guidance system using an external Kalman filter delivers vehicle position based on information from a real time centimeter level differential global positioning system and a strapped down laser gyro inertial navigation system. A vision-based obstacle avoidance system helps to account for unknown obstacles during survey. Sophisticated path planning algorithms, and an intelligent software architecture for planning and behavior provide a measure of autonomy. A data collection system controls the functions of the various sensors used for the characterization process and manipulates the data stream to conform to an open ASCII data format and stores it to rugged removable hard disks for later analysis.

  13. Dynamical tides in exoplanetary systems containing hot Jupiters: confronting theory and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, S. V.; Ivanov, P. B.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2017-09-01

    We study the effect of dynamical tides associated with the excitation of gravity waves in an interior radiative region of the central star on orbital evolution in observed systems containing hot Jupiters. We consider WASP-43, OGLE-TR-113, WASP-12 and WASP-18 that contain stars on the main sequence (MS). For these systems there are observational estimates regarding the rate of change of the orbital period. We also investigate Kepler-91 that contains an evolved giant star. We adopt the formalism of Ivanov et al. for calculating the orbital evolution. For the MS stars we determine expected rates of orbital evolution under different assumptions about the amount of dissipation acting on the tides, estimate the effect of stellar rotation for the two most rapidly rotating stars and compare results with observations. All cases apart from possibly WASP-43 are consistent with a regime in which gravity waves are damped during their propagation over the star. However, at present this is not definitive as observational errors are large. We find that although it is expected to apply to Kepler-91, linear radiative damping cannot explain this dissipation regime applying to MS stars. Thus, a non-linear mechanism may be needed. Kepler-91 is found to be such that the time-scale for evolution of the star is comparable to that for the orbit. This implies that significant orbital circularization may have occurred through tides acting on the star. Quasi-static tides, stellar winds, hydrodynamic drag and tides acting on the planet have likely played a minor role.

  14. An Estimation of Human Error Probability of Filtered Containment Venting System Using Dynamic HRA Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seunghyun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The human failure events (HFEs) are considered in the development of system fault trees as well as accident sequence event trees in part of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). As a method for analyzing the human error, several methods, such as Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP), Human Cognitive Reliability (HCR), and Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) are used and new methods for human reliability analysis (HRA) are under developing at this time. This paper presents a dynamic HRA method for assessing the human failure events and estimation of human error probability for filtered containment venting system (FCVS) is performed. The action associated with implementation of the containment venting during a station blackout sequence is used as an example. In this report, dynamic HRA method was used to analyze FCVS-related operator action. The distributions of the required time and the available time were developed by MAAP code and LHS sampling. Though the numerical calculations given here are only for illustrative purpose, the dynamic HRA method can be useful tools to estimate the human error estimation and it can be applied to any kind of the operator actions, including the severe accident management strategy.

  15. Adapting to Biology: Maintaining Container-Closure System Compatibility with the Therapeutic Biologic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrazio, Dominick

    Many pharmaceutical companies are transitioning their research and development drug product pipeline from traditional small-molecule injectables to the dimension of evolving therapeutic biologics. Important concerns associated with this changeover are becoming forefront, as challenges develop of varying complexity uncommon with the synthesis and production of traditional drugs. Therefore, alternative measures must be established that aim to preserve the efficacy and functionality of a biologic that might not be implemented for small molecules. Conserving protein stability is relative to perpetuating a net equilibrium of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Key to sustaining this balance is the ability of container-closure systems to maintain their compatibility with the ever-changing dynamics of therapeutic biologics. Failure to recognize and adjust the material properties of packaging components to support compatibility with therapeutic biologics can compromise patient safety, drug productivity, and biological stability. This review will examine the differences between small-molecule drugs and therapeutic biologics, lay a basic foundation for understanding the stability of therapeutic biologics, and demonstrate potential sources of container-closure systems' incompatibilities with therapeutic biologics at a mechanistic level.

  16. Effects of a lactoperoxidase system-containing toothpaste on levels of hypothiocyanite and bacteria in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenander-Lumikari, M; Tenovuo, J; Mikola, H

    1993-01-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO)/H2O2/SCN(-)-system-generated hypothiocyanite ions (OSCN-) and hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) are inhibitory against a number of oral bacteria, including mutans streptococci. A commercially available toothpaste (Biotene) comprises the complete LPO system. Generation of HOSCN/OSCN- by Biotene was studied in vitro both in sterilized and nonsterilized saliva of 10 healthy subjects. The HOSCN/OSCN- yield ranged from 100 to 300 microM with Biotene, while the salivary levels of HOSCN/OSCN- before the addition of Biotene were 30.1 +/- 25.1 microM. Two in vivo trials were carried out. In the first study, resting saliva was collected from 12 individuals before, immediately after, and 2, 5, 10 and 20 min after brushing with Biotene to evaluate the in vivo generation and decomposition of HOSCN/OSCN-. In the second study, 26 healthy individuals attended a 1-month crossover trial with Biotene and a control toothpaste, Vademecum (no LPO system), both containing F- and xylitol. The salivary counts of total streptococci, mutans streptococci (MS), lactobacilli and the total flora (TF), as well as the peroxidase, thiocyanate ion and HOSCN/OSCN- levels were determined before and after 2 and 4 weeks daily use of the toothpastes. Twice-a-day use of Biotene for 1 month resulted in an elevation of 'resting levels' of HOSCN/OSCN-. No such effect was found with the control toothpaste. No significant changes were found in the salivary levels of total streptococci, MS, lactobacilli or TF after 1-month use of either toothpaste. The results show the capability of the LPO-system-containing toothpaste to elevate the salivary levels of HOSCN/OSCN-, although no bactericidal effect was observed.

  17. New mutation detection system of repackaged λ gt11 DNA containing LacZ gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; CAO Jia; WU Tao; YANG Lu-jun; SUN Hua-ming; YANG Ming-jie; QIAN Ping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish a reformative detection system which has sound ability of providing information on molecular mutagenesis spectrum and the specificity of detection system of repackaged λ phage.Methods: LacZ gene, as mutational target gene and reporter gene, was applied into the detection system.The λ gt11 DNA treated with ENU (1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea) and 9-AA (9-aminoacridine) was repackaged in vitro. The packaged λ phage was then grown in E. coli Y1090 on a selective plate containing X-gel and IPTG. The survival and mutation frequencies were determined by counting the clear-plaque and blue-plaque,and the molecular mutation mechanism was studied by extracting and sequencing the LacZ gene of mutants.Results: The survival of repackaged λ phages treated with 9-AA and ENU apparently decreased in consistent dose-dependence. The mutation frequency of clear-plaque mutants showed a linear dose-related increase. The predominant mutations induced by 9-AA were ±1 frameshift mutation, and 9-AA induced -1 frameshift was much more effective than induced + 1 frameshift. 9-AA also induced substitutions with transversions more common. ENU-induced mutations were chiefly occurred at G: C sites. Substitutions induced by ENU were mainly G: C→A: T, G: C→C: G and A: T→T: A transversion. Conclusion: Mutation detection system of λgt11 DNA containing LacZ gene is proven better than that of λDNA without LacZ gene. The combination of survival, mutant frequency and sequence spectrum can not only increase the sensitivity and specificity of the new method, but also provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of mutation for ultimate extrapolation to risk assessment.

  18. Synthesis and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Sponges Containing Dibrominated Indolic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Stefanucci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges. (e.g., Hyrtios sp., Dragmacidin sp., Aglophenia pleuma, Aplidium cyaneum, Aplidium meridianum. produce bioactive secondary metabolites involved in their defence mechanisms. Recently it was demonstrated that several of those compounds show a large variety of biological activities against different human diseases with possible applications in medicinal chemistry and in pharmaceutical fields, especially related to the new drug development process. Researchers have focused their attention principally on secondary metabolites with anti-cancer and cytotoxic activities. A common target for these molecules is the cytoskeleton, which has a central role in cellular proliferation, motility, and profusion involved in the metastatic process associate with tumors. In particular, many substances containing brominated indolic rings such as 5,6-dibromotryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptophan (dibromoabrine, 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5,6-dibromo-L-hypaphorine isolated from different marine sources, have shown anti-cancer activity, as well as antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Considering the structural correlation between endogenous monoamine serotonin with marine indolic alkaloids 5,6-dibromoabrine and 5,6-dibromotryptamine, a potential use of some dibrominated indolic metabolites in the treatment of depression-related pathologies has also been hypothesized. Due to the potential applications in the treatment of various diseases and the increasing demand of these compounds for biological assays and the difficult of their isolation from marine sources, we report in this review a series of recent syntheses of marine dibrominated indole-containing products.

  19. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  20. Improved Oral Bioavailability Using a Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing a Multicomponent Mixture Extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Bi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The active ingredients of salvia (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza include both lipophilic (e.g., tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I and hydrophilic (e.g., danshensu and salvianolic acid B constituents. The low oral bioavailability of these constituents may limit their efficacy. A solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS was developed to load the various active constituents of salvia into a single drug delivery system and improve their oral bioavailability. A prototype SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction, and characterized by self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Furthermore, the S-SMEDDS was prepared by dispersing liquid SMEDDS containing liposoluble extract into a solution containing aqueous extract and hydrophilic polymer, and then freeze-drying. In vitro release of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone and danshensu from the S-SMEDDS was examined, showing approximately 60%–80% of each active component was released from the S-SMEDDS in vitro within 20 min. In vivo bioavailability of these four constituents indicated that the S-SMEDDS showed superior in vivo oral absorption to a drug suspension after oral administration in rats. It can be concluded that the novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of both lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents of salvia. Thus, the S-SMEDDS can be regarded as a promising new method by which to deliver salvia extract, and potentially other multicomponent drugs, by the oral route.

  1. Improved Oral Bioavailability Using a Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing a Multicomponent Mixture Extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolin; Liu, Xuan; Di, Liuqing; Zu, Qiang

    2016-04-08

    The active ingredients of salvia (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza) include both lipophilic (e.g., tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I) and hydrophilic (e.g., danshensu and salvianolic acid B) constituents. The low oral bioavailability of these constituents may limit their efficacy. A solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS) was developed to load the various active constituents of salvia into a single drug delivery system and improve their oral bioavailability. A prototype SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction, and characterized by self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Furthermore, the S-SMEDDS was prepared by dispersing liquid SMEDDS containing liposoluble extract into a solution containing aqueous extract and hydrophilic polymer, and then freeze-drying. In vitro release of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone and danshensu from the S-SMEDDS was examined, showing approximately 60%-80% of each active component was released from the S-SMEDDS in vitro within 20 min. In vivo bioavailability of these four constituents indicated that the S-SMEDDS showed superior in vivo oral absorption to a drug suspension after oral administration in rats. It can be concluded that the novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of both lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents of salvia. Thus, the S-SMEDDS can be regarded as a promising new method by which to deliver salvia extract, and potentially other multicomponent drugs, by the oral route.

  2. Anti-influenza activity of marchantins, macrocyclic bisbibenzyls contained in liverworts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Iwai

    Full Text Available The H1N1 influenza A virus of swine-origin caused pandemics throughout the world in 2009 and the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus has also caused epidemics in Southeast Asia in recent years. The threat of influenza A thus remains a serious global health issue and novel drugs that target these viruses are highly desirable. Influenza A possesses an endonuclease within its RNA polymerase which comprises PA, PB1 and PB2 subunits. To identify potential new anti-influenza compounds in our current study, we screened 33 different types of phytochemicals using a PA endonuclease inhibition assay in vitro and an anti-influenza A virus assay. The marchantins are macrocyclic bisbibenzyls found in liverworts, and plagiochin A and perrottetin F are marchantin-related phytochemicals. We found from our screen that marchantin A, B, E, plagiochin A and perrottetin F inhibit influenza PA endonuclease activity in vitro. These compounds have a 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl group in common, indicating the importance of this moiety for the inhibition of PA endonuclease. Docking simulations of marchantin E with PA endonuclease suggest a putative "fitting and chelating model" as the mechanism underlying PA endonuclease inhibition. The docking amino acids are well conserved between influenza A and B. In a cultured cell system, marchantin E was further found to inhibit the growth of both H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A viruses, and marchantin A, E and perrotein F showed inhibitory properties towards the growth of influenza B. These marchantins also decreased the viral infectivity titer, with marchantin E showing the strongest activity in this assay. We additionally identified a chemical group that is conserved among different anti-influenza chemicals including marchantins, green tea catechins and dihydroxy phenethylphenylphthalimides. Our present results indicate that marchantins are candidate anti-influenza drugs and demonstrate the utility of the PA endonuclease assay in

  3. Conserved Active Site Residues Limit Inhibition of a Copper-Containing Nitrite By Small Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocheva, E.I.; Eltis, L.D.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-05-26

    The interaction of copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 ( AfNiR) with each of five small molecules was studied using crystallography and steady-state kinetics. Structural studies revealed that each small molecule interacted with the oxidized catalytic type 2 copper of AfNiR. Three small molecules (formate, acetate and nitrate) mimic the substrate by having at least two oxygen atoms for bidentate coordination to the type 2 copper atom. These three anions bound to the copper ion in the same asymmetric, bidentate manner as nitrite. Consistent with their weak inhibition of the enzyme ( K i >50 mM), the Cu-O distances in these AfNiR-inhibitor complexes were approximately 0.15 A longer than that observed in the AfNiR-nitrite complex. The binding mode of each inhibitor is determined in part by steric interactions with the side chain of active site residue Ile257. Moreover, the side chain of Asp98, a conserved residue that hydrogen bonds to type 2 copper-bound nitrite and nitric oxide, was either disordered or pointed away from the inhibitors. Acetate and formate inhibited AfNiR in a mixed fashion, consistent with the occurrence of second acetate binding site in the AfNiR-acetate complex that occludes access to the type 2 copper. A fourth small molecule, nitrous oxide, bound to the oxidized metal in a side-on fashion reminiscent of nitric oxide to the reduced copper. Nevertheless, nitrous oxide bound at a farther distance from the metal. The fifth small molecule, azide, inhibited the reduction of nitrite by AfNiR most strongly ( K ic = 2.0 +/- 0.1 mM). This ligand bound to the type 2 copper center end-on with a Cu-N c distance of approximately 2 A, and was the only inhibitor to form a hydrogen bond with Asp98. Overall, the data substantiate the roles of Asp98 and Ile257 in discriminating substrate from other small anions.

  4. Effects of the Drug(BSZGC)--containing Serum on Proliferation of Rat's Osteoclasts and TRACP Activity in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jingli; Zhao Yonghua; Wu Weikang

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To observe effects of the drug-containing serum of Bu Shen Zhuang Gu Capsule(BSZGC 补肾壮骨胶囊 Capsule for Tonilying the Kidney to Strengthen the Bones)on proliferation of the rat's osteoclasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP)activity in vitro SO as to delve into the mechanisms of its preventive and therapeutic actions on osteoporosis.Methods:Forty female Sprague.Dawley rats aged three months were randomly divided into high dosage BSZGC group,medium dosage BSZGC group,low dosage BSZGC group,and the control group.BSZGC was orally administered into the rats of high,medium,and low dosage groups at difierent dosages for 12 days.and isometric normal saline was orally administered to the rats of the Control group.The drug-containing serum and control serum were prepared.Osteoclasts isolated mechanically from the femur and tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats aged one week were cultured wim medium added with different drug-containing sera and control serum.The growth of osteoclasts was observed under an inverted phase-contrast microscope,and optic density(OD)value of osteoclasts was determined by MTT colorimetric assay.TRACP activity was measured by the diazol method.Results:OD value of osteoclasts in the high dosage drug-containing serum group,medium dosage drug-containing serum group,and low dosage drug-containing serum group was significantly lower than that in the control serum group(P<0.05)with a dose-effect correlation.TRACP activity in high dosage drug-containing serum group,medium dosage drug-containing serum group,low dosage drug-containing serum group was significantly lower than that of the control serum group(P<0.01),and no significant differences in TRACP activity were not found among the difierent dosages drug-containing serum groups.Conclusions:BSZGC can inhibit the proliferation of the osteoclasts and reduce TRACP activity,which may be one of the mechanisms of its preventive and therapeutic actions on osteoporosis.

  5. Density functional calculations of large systems containing heavy elements by means of the regionalization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiangqian; LI Lemin

    2004-01-01

    The regionalized computational method is extended to the non-relativistic, scalar and 2-component relativistic density functional calculation of large systems containing transition series or heavy main-group metal elements. A large system is divided into several regions which can be considered as relatively independent quantum mechanical subsystems. Taking into account the Coulomb and exchange-correlation potentials as well as the Pauli repulsion exerted by the other subsystems, the Kohn-Sham equation related to subsystem K can be written as: (FK+FKP)CK =SKCKεK K=A,B,C,…,where FK,CK,SK,εK are the Fock matrix, the matrix of combination coefficients of orbitals, the overlap matrix of basis sets and the energy eigenvalue matrix, respectively. The matrix FKP reflects the Pauli repulsion from the other subsystems.FK may be non-relativistic, scalar or 2-component relativistic Fock matrix determined by the theoretical method related to the density functional calculations. The other matrices are mated with FK. Solving the Kohn-Sham equation for every subsystem and combining the results from the subsystem calculations, the electronic structural information of the whole system is derived. The density functional calculation of several molecules containing transition metal Ni or heavy main-group metal Tl or Bi is performed by the afore-mentioned regionalization algorithm. The obtained results for each molecule are compared with those from the density functional calculation of that molecule in its entirety in order to check the feasibility of the regionalization algorithm. It is found that with sufficiently large regional basis set in the subsystem calculation the accuracy of the results calculated by the regionalization algorithm is essentially the same as that from the calculation of the molecule in its entirety. With proper smaller regional basis sets the accuracy of the results calculated with the regionalization algorithm can still match the actual accuracy of the

  6. Serum biochemical profile, enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation in organs of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, N M; Freitas, E R; Trevisan, M T S; do Nascimento, G A J; Salles, R P R; Cruz, C E B; Farias, N N P; da Silva, I N G; Watanabe, P H

    2017-03-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding laying hens diets containing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a source of anacardic acid on the blood biochemical parameters as well as the enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation of liver and tissues of the reproductive system (ovary, magnum, and uterus). A total of 216 Hisex White commercial laying hens were distributed randomly into six treatments, with six replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a diet without growth promoter (GP); a diet with GP; and diets without GP, with addition of increasing levels of CNSL (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0%). Addition of CNSL to the diet did not affect the blood biochemical parameters (uric acid, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides), the enzymatic activity (superoxide dismutase and nonprotein sulphydryl groups) in the organs (liver, ovary, magnum and uterus) or the peroxidation of lipids from the blood serum, liver, magnum and uterus (p > 0.05). However, the addition of 0.75% and 1.00% CNSL provided a lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content in the birds' ovary (p < 0.001) compared to birds of other treatments, whereas the treatment without the GP provided a higher value. Addition of up to 1% of the CNSL as a source of anacardic acid in the laying hens' diets does not influence blood biochemical parameters or the endogenous enzymatic activity in the liver, ovary, magnum and uterus, but affects the lipid peroxidation in the ovary, although the problem is reduced from the inclusion of 0.75% CNSL. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  8. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  9. A self contained Linux based data acquisition system for 2D detectors with delay line readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, D.; Toledo, J.; Klora, A. C.; Ramos-Lerate, I.; Martínez, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a fast and self-contained data acquisition system for 2D gas-filled detectors with delay line readout. It allows the realization of time resolved experiments in the millisecond scale. The acquisition system comprises of an industrial PC running Linux, a commercial time-to-digital converter and an in-house developed histogramming PCI card. The PC provides a mass storage for images and a graphical user interface for system monitoring and control. The histogramming card builds images with a maximum count rate of 5 MHz limited by the time-to-digital converter. Histograms are transferred to the PC at 85 MB/s. This card also includes a time frame generator, a calibration channel unit and eight digital outputs for experiment control. The control software was developed for easy integration into a beamline, including scans. The system is fully operational at the Spanish beamline BM16 at the ESRF in France, the neutron beamlines Adam and Eva at the ILL in France, the Max Plank Institute in Stuttgart in Germany, the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and at the future ALBA synchrotron in Spain. Some representative collected images from synchrotron and neutron beamlines are presented.

  10. Composition and antioxidant capacity of low-salt meat emulsion model systems containing edible seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, I; Bastida, S; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Bravo, L; Larrea, M T; Sánchez-Muniz, F; Cofrades, S; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2009-11-01

    The study was designed to determine the influence of the addition of edible seaweeds, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), and Nori (Porphyra umbilicalis), on fatty acid composition, amino acid profile, protein score, mineral content and antioxidant capacity in low-salt meat emulsion model systems. The addition of seaweeds caused an increase (P<0.05) in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a decrease (P<0.05) in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. The thrombogenic index significantly decreased (P<0.05) in Nori and Wakame meat samples. Meat systems made with added seaweeds had lower (P<0.05) sodium contents than control samples. In general, addition of seaweeds to products increased (P<0.05) the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg and Mn. The presence of Nori caused an increase (P<0.05) in levels of serine, glycine, alanine, valine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and arginine, whereas Wakame and Sea Spaghetti produced no significant changes in amino acid profiles in the model systems. The inclusion of Sea Spaghetti increased the sulphur amino acid score by 20%. The added seaweeds supplied the meat samples with soluble polyphenolic compounds, which increased the antioxidant capacity of the systems. The polyphenol supply and antioxidant increase were greatest (P<0.05) in the samples containing Sea Spaghetti.

  11. A Review of the Maritime Container Shipping Industry as a Complex Adaptive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Caschili

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available If we consider the worldwide maritime shipping industry as a system, we observe that a large number of independent rational agents such as port authorities, shipping service providers, shipping companies, and commodity producers play a role in achieving predominant positions and in increasing market share. The maritime shipping industry can, from this perspective, be defined as a Complex System composed of relatively independent parts that constantly search, learn and adapt to their environment, while their mutual interactions shape obscure but recognizable patterns. In this work we examine the maritime shipping industry through the Complex Adaptive System (CAS. Although CAS has been applied widely to the study of biological and social systems, its application in maritime shipping is scant. Therefore, our objective in the present paper is to provide a literature review that examines the international maritime industry through the lens of CAS. We also present some of the goals that may be achieved by applying the CAS approach to the container shipping industry in particular. The construction of a tenable ontological framework will give scholars a comprehensive view of the maritime industry and allow them to test the stability and efficiency of the framework to endogenous and exogenous shocks.

  12. Phase II test plan for the evaluation of the performance of container filling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-09-28

    The PHMC will provide tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from Hanford's waste tanks. Concerns about the ability for ''grab'' sampling to provide large volumes of representative waste samples has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. Preferred concepts for filling sample containers that meet RCRA organic sample criteria were identified by a PHMC Decision Board. These systems will replace the needle based sampling ''T'' that is currently on the sampling system. This test plan document identifies cold tests with simulants that will demonstrate the preferred bottle filling concepts abilities to provide representative waste samples and will meet RCRA criteria. Additional tests are identified that evaluate the potential for cross-contamination between samples and the ability for the system to decontaminate surfaces which have contacted tank wastes. These tests will be performed with kaolid/water and sand/water slurry simulants in the test rig that was used by AEAT to complete Phase 1 tests in FY 1999.

  13. Catalytic Systems Containing p-Toluenesulfonic Acid for the Coupling Reaction of Formaldehyde and Methyl Formate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kebing Wang; Jie Yao; Yue Wang; Gongying Wang

    2007-01-01

    The coupling reaction of formaldehyde (FA) and methyl formate (MF) to form methyl glycolate (MG) and methyl methoxy acetate(MMAc),catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid(p-TsOH) as well as assisted by different kinds of solvents or Ni-containing compounds.had been investigated.The results showed that when the reaction was carried out at 140℃ with a molar ratio of FA to MF of 0.65:1,molar fraction of p-TsOH to total feedstock of 11.0%,and reaction time of 3 h,the yield of MG and MMAc Was 31.1% and 17.1%.respectively.p-TsOH catalyzed the coupling reaction by means of the synergistic catalysis of protonic acidity and soft basicity.Adding extra solvents to the reaction system Was unfavorable for the reaction.The composite catalytic system consisting of p-TsOH and NiX2(X=Cl,Br,I)exhibited a high catalytic performance for the coupling reaction,and NiX2 acted as a promoter in the reaction,whose promotion for the catalysis increased in the following order:NiCl2<NiBr2<NiI2.The present system is less corrosive when compared with the previous system,in which strong inorganic liquid acids were used as catalysts.

  14. Erosion protection comparison of stabilised SnF2 , mixed fluoride active and SMFP/arginine-containing dentifrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversole, Sandra L; Saunders-Burkhardt, Kymberly; Faller, Robert V

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the relative erosion protection potential of marketed dentifrices formulated with either stabilised stannous fluoride (SnF2 ), sodium fluoride (NaF) and/or sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP) using an established laboratory erosion cycling model. Sound enamel cores from extracted, human enamel were cleaned, ground and polished, soaked in pooled saliva (pellicle formation) and treated with a 1:3 slurry of dentifrice and saliva. Specimens were subjected to daily challenges with 1% citric acid, a potentially damaging acid found in common food and drinks. Marketed dentifrices compared were: (1) a stabilised stannous fluoride product formulated with 1,100 ppm F as SnF2 ; (2) a cavity protection product containing 1,100 ppm F as NaF; (3) a cavity protection product comprising a mixed active fluoride system with 1,000 ppm F as SMFP + 450 ppm F as NaF; and (4) a sensitivity product containing 1,450 ppm F as SMFP + 8% arginine bicarbonate. Specimens from Group 1 demonstrated an average loss of 5.5 (±1.2) μm of tooth surface enamel; Groups 2, 3 and 4 lost an average of 18.3 (±0.9) μm, 16.0 (±2.0) μm and 17.1 (±1.1) μm, respectively, of tooth surface enamel. Group 1 provided a statistically significant difference in protection compared with the other products. These results suggest that the marketed dentifrice formulated with stabilised SnF2 may provide enhanced protection of exposed tooth surfaces against dietary acid attack compared with the other products tested. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  15. Copper—Induced Changes in the Urea Uptake and Urease Activity in the Cyanobacteria Anabaena doliolum and Anacystis Nidulans:Interaction With Sulphur Containing Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.SINGH; B.B.SINGH; 等

    1995-01-01

    Copper-induced changes in the urea uptake and urease activity have been investigated in the cyanobacteria Anabaena doliolum and Anacystis nidulans.Copper,at and above 5μmol/L concentration,inhibited urea uptake and urease activity systems in both the cyanobacteria in a concentration dependent manner,However,the urea uptake and urease activity systems in A.nidulans apeared slightly more tolerant to copper than that of A.doliolum.The inhibitory effect of copeer on urea uptake and urease activity was mitigated by sulphur containing amino acids(cystine and cysteine),however,methionine could not do so,indicating the involvement of sulfhydryl(-SH) groups in the assimilation of urea in cyanobacteria.

  16. DEM/CFD modelling of the deposition of dilute granular systems in a vertical container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shen; GUO Yu; WU ChuanYu

    2009-01-01

    Deposition of granular materials into a container is a general industrial packing process. In this study, the deposition behaviour of dilute granular mixtures consisting of two types of particles that were of the same particle size but different particle densities in the presence of air was numerically analyzed using a coupled discrete element method (DEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Bilayer gra-nular mixtures with light particles at bottom and heavy particles at top were first simulated. It was found that the presence of air significantly affected the flow behaviour of the bilayer mixtures. For the system with a relatively low initial void fraction, the air entrapped inside the container escaped through the dilated zones induced due to the friction between the powder bed and wall surfaces. The escaping air streams entrained light particles that were originally located at the bottom of the granular system. Consequently, these light particles were migrated to the top of the granular bed at the end of deposition process. More light particles were migrated when the deposition distance was increased. For the sys-tem with a high initial void fraction, some light particles penetrated into the top layer of heavy particles and created a mixing zone. Deposition of random mixtures with different initial void fractions was also investigated and the influence of initial void fraction on the segregation behaviour was explored as well. It was found that the increase of void fraction promoted segregation during the deposition in air. It was demonstrated that, for granular mixtures consisting of particles of different air sensitivities, the pres-ence of air had a significant impact on the mixing and segregation behaviour during the deposition.

  17. Synthesis, Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing N,N-Dialkyldithiocarbamate Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU,Liang-Zhong(许良忠); JIAN,Fang-Fang(建方方); SHI,Jian-Gang(时建刚); SUN,Ping-Ping(孙萍萍); JIAO,Kui(焦奎)

    2004-01-01

    The two compounds, 2,2-dimethyl-4-S-(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato)-5-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-propione (1) and 2,2-dimethyl-4-S-(N,N-diethyldithiocarbamato)-5-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-3-propione (2), were prepared by reacting N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamate sodium with 2,2-dimethyl-4-bromo-5-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-propione. Their structures were identified by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray single crystal structure analysis. It crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/c, a= 1.2315(3)nm, b =1.2057(2) nm, c=1.2532(3) nm, β=118.55(3)° Z=4, V= 1.6345(6) nm3, Dc= 1.221 g/cm3, μ=0.324 mm -1, F(000)=640, final R1 =0.0449. There is obvious potentially weak C-H…N intermolecular interaction in the crystal, which stabilizes the crystal structure. The result of the biological test showed that the two compounds have fungistasis and plant growth regulating activities.

  18. Synthesis, Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing Thioamide Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘法谦; 秦永其; 许良忠; 陆路德; 杨绪杰; 汪信

    2005-01-01

    Two compounds 2-benzoyl-N-phenyl-2-( 1,2,4-triazol- 1-yl)thioacetamide (1) and 2-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-N-phenyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)thioacetamide (2) were synthesized from substituted acetophenone, triazole and phenyl isothiocyanate by several step reactions. The structure of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/c, a =0.8806(2) nm, b= 1.2097(2) nm, c= 1.4809(3) nm, β=105.88°, Z=4, V=1.5173(6) nm3, Dc= 1.411 Mg/m3, μ=0.22 mm-1, F(000)=672, final R1=0.040 and Rw=0.103. There is obvious potentially weak C—H…N intermolecular interaction in the crystal, which stabilizes the structure. The results of biological test show that the two compounds have antifungal and plant growth regulating activities.

  19. ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT MORTARS CONTAINING RECYCLED CLAY-BASED CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Puertas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of clay-based waste as an aggregate for concrete production is an amply studied procedure. Nonetheless, research on the use of this recycled aggregate to prepare alkaline cement mortars and concretes has yet to be forthcoming. The present study aimed to determine: the behaviour of this waste as a pozzolan in OPC systems, the mechanical strength in OPC, alkali-activated slag (AAS and fly ash (AAFA mortars and the effect of partial replacement of the slag and ash themselves with ground fractions of the waste. The pozzolanic behaviour of clay-based waste was confirmed. Replacing up to 20 % of siliceous aggregate with waste aggregate in OPC mortars induced a decline in 7 day strength (around 23 wt. %. The behaviour of waste aggregate in AAMs mortars, in turn, was observed to depend on the nature of the aluminosilicate and the replacement ratio used. When 20 % of siliceous aggregate was replaced by waste aggregate in AAS mortars, the 7 day strength values remained the same (40 MPa. In AAFA mortars, waste was found to effectively replace both the fly ash and the aggregate. The highest strength for AAFA mortars was observed when they were prepared with both a 50 % replacement ratio for the ash and a 20 % ratio for the aggregate.

  20. Active system monitoring applied on wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Parbo, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A concept for active system monitoring (ASM) applied on wind turbines is presented in this paper. The concept is based on an injection of a small periodic auxiliary signal in the system. An investigation of the signature from the auxiliary input in residual (error) signals can then be applied...